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Sample records for como marcador tumoral

  1. Bone tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  2. Pituitary Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... functioning tumors, and they can cause a wide array of symptoms depending upon the hormone affected. Tumors ... functioning tumor can cause problems if it grows large enough to press on the optic nerves, the ...

  3. Wilms Tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    Wilms tumor is a rare type of kidney cancer. It causes a tumor on one or both kidneys. It usually affects ... are at risk should be screened for Wilms tumor every three months until they turn eight. Symptoms ...

  4. Spinal tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    Tumor - spinal cord ... spinal tumors occur in the nerves of the spinal cord itself. Most often these are ependymomas and other ... gene mutations. Spinal tumors can occur: Inside the spinal cord (intramedullary) In the membranes (meninges) covering the spinal ...

  5. Wilms tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    Nephroblastoma; Kidney tumor ... tumor is the most common form of childhood kidney cancer. The exact cause of this tumor in ... Other birth defects linked to this type of kidney cancer include certain urinary tract problems and swelling ...

  6. TUBERCULOSIS COMO ENFERMEDAD OCUPACIONAL

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Ticona, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Existe evidencia suficiente para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en diversos profesionales especialmente entre los trabajadores de salud. En el Perú están normados y reglamentados los derechos laborales inherentes a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional, como la cobertura por discapacidad temporal o permanente. Sin embargo, estos derechos aún no han sido suficientemente socializados. En este trabajo se presenta información sobre el riesgo de adquirir tuberculosis en el lugar de trabajo, se revisan las evidencias para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en trabajadores de salud y se presenta la legislación peruana vigente al respecto. PMID:22858771

  7. Pituitary Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Problems caused by the production of too many hormones Pituitary tumors are usually curable. Treatment is often surgery to remove the tumor. Other options include medicines, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.

  8. Pituitary tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... especially if the tumor is pressing on the optic nerves (nerves that control vision). Most of the ... complication is blindness. This can occur if the optic nerve is seriously damaged. The tumor or its ...

  9. Vaginal tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    Vaginal cancer; Cancer - vagina; Tumor - vaginal ... Most cancerous vaginal tumors occur when another cancer, such as cervical or endometrial cancer , spreads. This is called secondary vaginal cancer. Primary vaginal cancer is rare. Most primary vaginal cancers start ...

  10. Mammary tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1988-10-01

    Mammary neoplasia is one of the more common malignancies affecting domestic species. Despite their importance, they are often over- diagnosed, undertreated and subject to several misconceptions propagated by veterinarians and pet owners alike. Mammary neoplasia is the most frequent tumor type encountered in the female accounting for almost half of all malignancies reported. The canine has the highest incidence of mammary tumors of all domestic species. In the dog, about 65 percent of mammary tumors are benign mixed tumors, and 25 percent are carcinomas. The rest are adenomas, myoepitheliomas, and malignant mixed tumors. The age distribution of mammary tumors closely follows the age distribution of most tumors in the dog. Mammary tumors are rare in dogs 2 years old, but incidence begins to increase sharply at approximately 6 years of age. Median age at diagnosis is about 10 years. No breed predilection has been consistently reported.

  11. Urogenital tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    An overview is provided for veterinary care of urogenital tumors in companion animals, especially the dog. Neoplasms discussed include tumors of the kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, testis, ovary, vagina, vulva and the canine transmissible venereal tumor. Topics addressed include description, diagnosis and treatment.

  12. Benign Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Benign tumors grow only in one place. They cannot spread ... as your brain. Treatment often involves surgery. Benign tumors usually don't grow back. NIH: National Cancer Institute

  13. Kidney Tumors

    Cancer.gov

    Kidney tumors are rare and generally curable in children. However, there are subsets of patients afflicted with these diseases that do not respond to treatment or eventually relapse. These patients usually have poor clinical outcomes as compared with the majority of children diagnosed with kidney tumors. All patients undergo therapy regimens that can be detrimental later in life. Through genome-wide characterization, TARGET investigators are identifying critical molecular alterations in these tumors, mostly from relapsed patients.

  14. Brain Tumor Risk Factors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Donate Now Menu Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Tumor Grade Risk Factors Brain Tumor ... Financials News Careers Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Tumor Grade Risk Factors Brain Tumor ...

  15. [Brain tumors].

    PubMed

    Hatano, Manabu; Mizuno, Masaaki; Yoshida, Jun

    2003-04-01

    Brain tumors generally arise as the culmination of a multistep process that involves a variety of genetic abnormalities. Theoretically, replacement of abnormal genes with normal genes is essential to brain tumor treatment. However, it is very difficult to replace all damaged genes. Currently, most clinical protocols for gene therapy in brain tumors include transfer of a gene which can induce tumor cells to die or which can enhance the environment to generate a systemic immune response against the tumor. The former strategy includes suicide gene therapies, tumor suppressor gene therapy and oncolytic virus therapy. The latter adopts immunogene therapy. In this report, we also focus on other gene therapies, such as therapies to control the cell cycle or apoptosis, and promote antiangiogenesis. Gene therapy is generally accepted to be rather safe in recent years. In fact, the current single-gene therapies for brain tumor are limited and probably restricted to a few tumors. Several agents with different mechanisms of action would be necessary to kill heterogenously mixed tumor cells. Further molecular techniques and basic studies may overcome the malignancy of cancers. PMID:12722674

  16. Hypothalamic tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lack of normal growth in children) Headache Hyperactivity Loss of body fat and appetite (cachexia) These symptoms are most often seen in children whose tumors affect the front part of the ... may cause vision loss. If the tumors block the flow of spinal ...

  17. Carcinoid Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    Carcinoid tumors are rare, slow-growing cancers. They usually start in the lining of the digestive tract or in the lungs. They grow ... trouble breathing. Surgery is the main treatment for carcinoid tumors. If they haven't spread to other parts of the body, surgery can cure the cancer.

  18. Carcinoid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Pinchot, Scott N.; Holen, Kyle; Sippel, Rebecca S.; Chen, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    Carcinoid tumors are rare, slow-growing neuroendocrine tumors arising from the enterochromaffin cells disseminated throughout the gastrointestinal and bronchopulmonary systems. Though they have been traditionally classified based upon the embryologic site of origin, morphologic pattern, and silver affinity, newer classification systems have been developed to emphasize the considerable clinical and histopathologic variability of carcinoid tumors found within each embryologic site of origin. These neoplasms pose a diagnostic challenge because they are often innocuous at the time of presentation, emphasizing the need for a multidisciplinary diagnostic approach utilizing biochemical analysis, standard cross-sectional imaging, and newer advances in nuclear medicine. Similarly, treatment of both primary and disseminated carcinoid disease reflects the need for a multidisciplinary approach, with surgery remaining the only curative modality. The prognosis for patients with these tumors is generally favorable, however can be quite variable and is related to the location of the primary tumor, extent of metastatic disease at initial presentation, and the time of diagnosis. PMID:19091780

  19. Vascular Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sepulveda, Abel; Buchanan, Edward P.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular anomalies are divided into two main groups: tumors and malformations. Vascular tumors are a large and complex group of lesions, especially for clinicians with none or little experience in this field. In the past, these lesions caused a great deal of confusion because many appear analogous to the naked eye. Thankfully, recent advances in diagnostic techniques have helped the medical community to enhance our comprehension, accurately label, diagnose, and treat these lesions. In this article, we will review the most frequent vascular tumors and provide the reader with the tools to properly label, diagnose, and manage these complex lesions. PMID:25045329

  20. Ear Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... surgical removal. Cancerous tumors Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are common skin cancers that can develop on ... infections may have an increased risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma. When these cancers first appear, they can be ...

  1. Wilms Tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... resonance imaging (MRI) uses radio waves and strong magnets to produce detailed pictures of the internal parts ... a defect of the genitalia) are at risk. Kids with risk factors for Wilms tumor should be ...

  2. Sinus Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of the nose and paranasal sinuses are rare, accounting for fewer than 1% of all tumors. These ... change from before (especially in an elderly patient). Evaluation and diagnosis Evaluation of patients with nasal symptoms ...

  3. Mediastinal tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    Mediastinal tumors are growths that form in the mediastinum. This is an area in the middle of ... The mediastinum is the part of the chest that lies between the sternum and the spinal column, and between ...

  4. Brain Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, or malignant, with cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain ... targeted therapy. Targeted therapy uses substances that attack cancer cells without harming normal cells. Many people get ...

  5. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and do not increase the risk. SPECIFIC TUMOR TYPES Brain tumors are classified depending on: Location of the ... brain tumor. Meningiomas and schwannomas are two other types of brain tumors. These tumors: Occur most often between ages ...

  6. Retrorectal Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Neale, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    Tumors that arise in the retrorectal (presacral) space are uncommon lesions that present with nonspecific signs and symptoms, which lead to difficult diagnoses. For complete evaluation of the lesion, cross-sectional imaging is required to determine the extent of resection and the appropriate surgical approach. Surgical removal leads to favorable outcomes for patients with benign purely cystic retrorectal tumors. Preoperative tissue diagnosis with transperineal and transsacral biopsies of solid or heterogeneous cystic lesions, are essential to determine the necessity of neoadjuvant therapy, which may decrease local recurrence after surgery and avoid an unnecessary delay in systemic therapy. PMID:22942797

  7. [Hepatic tumors].

    PubMed

    Moser, K; Dittrich, C; Pirich, P; Schneeweiss, B

    1983-01-01

    In this paper aspects concerning epidemiology, pathophysiology, laboratory diagnosis and treatment modalities of primary hepatomas and secondary tumors of the liver are discussed. As results obtained with conventional chemotherapy are unsatisfying special emphasis is put on the new therapeutic methods of intraarterial and intravenous cytostatic perfusion via hepatic artery and portal vein respectively. Additionally our own clinical and laboratory datas are presented. PMID:6195884

  8. Tumor Grade

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and dividing Each of the categories gets a score between 1 and 3; a score of “1” means the cells and tumor tissue ... most like normal cells and tissue, and a score of “3” means the cells and tissue look ...

  9. Brain Tumor Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Headaches Seizures Memory Depression Mood Swings & Cognitive Changes Fatigue Other Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Risk Factors Brain Tumor Statistics Brain ...

  10. Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Herholz, Karl; Langen, Karl-Josef; Schiepers, Christiaan; Mountz, James M.

    2014-01-01

    This review addresses the specific contributions of nuclear medicine techniques, and especially positron emission tomography (PET), for diagnosis and management of brain tumors. 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose PET has particular strengths in predicting prognosis and differentiating cerebral lymphoma from nonmalignant lesions. Amino acid tracers including 11C-methionine, 18F-fluoroethyltyrosine, and 18F-l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine provide high sensitivity, which is most useful for detecting recurrent or residual gliomas, including most low-grade gliomas. They also play an increasing role for planning and monitoring of therapy. 18F-fluorothymidine can only be used in tumors with absent or broken bloodbrain barrier and has potential for tumor grading and monitoring of therapy. Ligands for somatostatin receptors are of particular interest in pituitary adenomas and meningiomas. Tracers to image neovascularization, hypoxia, and phospholipid synthesis are under investigation for potential clinical use. All methods provide the maximum of information when used with image registration and fusion display with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging scans. Integration of PET and magnetic resonance imaging with stereotactic neuronavigation systems allows the targeting of stereotactic biopsies to obtain a more accurate histologic diagnosis and better planning of conformal and stereotactic radiotherapy. PMID:23026359

  11. Understanding Brain Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to Know About Brain Tumors . What is a Brain Tumor? A brain tumor is an abnormal growth
 ... Tumors” from Frankly Speaking Frankly Speaking About Cancer: Brain Tumors Download the full book Questions to ask ...

  12. What Is Wilms Tumor?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... they look under a microscope (their histology): Favorable histology: Although the cancer cells in these tumors don’ ... children with these tumors is very good. Unfavorable histology (anaplastic Wilms tumor): In these tumors, the look ...

  13. Brain tumor (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Brain tumors are classified depending on the exact site of the tumor, the type of tissue involved, benign ... tendencies of the tumor, and other factors. Primary brain tumors can arise from the brain cells, the meninges ( ...

  14. Brain Tumor Diagnosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Financials News Careers Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Tumor Grade Risk Factors Brain Tumor ... Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Newly Diagnosed Neurological Exam Types of Brain Scans X-rays Laboratory Tests DNA Profiling Biopsy ...

  15. Renal Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Puay Hoon; Cheng, Liang; Rioux-Leclercq, Nathalie; Merino, Maria J.; Netto, George; Reuter, Victor E.; Shen, Steven S.; Grignon, David J.; Montironi, Rodolfo; Egevad, Lars; Srigley, John R.; Delahunt, Brett; Moch, Holger

    2016-01-01

    The International Society of Urological Pathology convened a consensus conference on renal cancer, preceded by an online survey, to address issues relating to the diagnosis and reporting of renal neoplasia. In this report, the role of biomarkers in the diagnosis and assessment of prognosis of renal tumors is addressed. In particular we focused upon the use of immunohistochemical markers and the approach to specific differential diagnostic scenarios. We enquired whether cytogenetic and molecular tools were applied in practice and asked for views on the perceived prognostic role of biomarkers. Both the survey and conference voting results demonstrated a high degree of consensus in participants responses regarding prognostic/predictive markers and molecular techniques, whereas it was apparent that biomarkers for these purposes remained outside the diagnostic realm pending clinical validation. Although no individual antibody or panel of antibodies reached consensus for classifying renal tumors, or for confirming renal metastatic disease, it was noted from the online survey that 87% of respondents used immunohistochemistry to subtype renal tumors sometimes or occasionally, and a majority (87%) used immunohistochemical markers (Pax 2 or Pax 8, renal cell carcinoma [RCC] marker, panel of pan-CK, CK7, vimentin, and CD10) in confirming the diagnosis of metastatic RCC. There was consensus that immunohistochemistry should be used for histologic subtyping and applied before reaching a diagnosis of unclassified RCC. At the conference, there was consensus that TFE3 and TFEB analysis ought to be requested when RCC was diagnosed in a young patient or when histologic appearances were suggestive of the translocation subtype; whereas Pax 2 and/or Pax 8 were considered to be the most useful markers in the diagnosis of a renal primary. PMID:24025522

  16. ADRENOCORTICAL TUMORS

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, E. Kost

    1950-01-01

    Hormonally active tumors of the adrenal cortex are either benign adenomas or adenocarcinomas. They may be located within the adrenal gland or as adrenal rests along the Wolffian tract. Hyperplastic cortical tissue without actual neoplastic formation is also capable of elaborating excessive cortical secretions. At the present state of knowledge, any one or a combination of the following compounds may be elaborated in a given case: the electrolytic, glucogenic, androgenic, or estrogenic corticosteroids. Whether or not Cushing's syndrome is primarily pituitary or adrenal in origin is still a matter of conjecture. PMID:15426994

  17. Teratoid Wilms tumor A rare renal tumor

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Biswanath; Shukla, Ram Mohan; Mukhopadhyay, Madhumita; Mandi, Sabitri; Roy, Dipankar; Bhattacharya, Malay K.

    2011-01-01

    Teratoid Wilms tumor is an extremely rare renal tumor. We report a case of unilateral teratoid Wilms tumor in a 4-year-old girl. The patient was admitted with a right-sided abdominal mass. The mass was arising from the right kidney. Radical nephrectomy was done and the patient had an uneventful recovery. Histopathology report showed teratoid Wilms tumor. PMID:21976930

  18. Overview of Heart Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the heart. Most heart tumors are metastatic cancer. Did You Know... Noncancerous tumors can be as deadly ... slow the tumor's growth. Resources In This Article Did You Know 1 Did You Know... Table 2 ...

  19. Pancreatic islet cell tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    Islet cell tumors; Islet of Langerhans tumor; Neuroendocrine tumors ... In the healthy pancreas, cells called islet cells produce hormones that regulate a several bodily functions. These include blood sugar level and the production of ...

  20. Childhood Brain Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  1. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Allergy Emergency Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child Brain Tumors KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain Tumors Print A ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  2. Tumors and Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    Tumors during pregnancy are rare, but they can happen. Tumors can be either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. The most common cancers in pregnancy are breast cancer, cervical cancer, lymphoma, and melanoma. ...

  3. [Mesenchymal orbital tumors].

    PubMed

    Civit, T; Klein, O; Freppel, S; Baylac, F

    2010-01-01

    Mesenchymal tumors grow from pluripotent mesenchymal cells that form the soft orbital tissue. Primary tumors of the orbital walls are discussed in another section. Tumors from muscle and adipose tissue are rare or exceptional, except rhabdomyosarcoma, described in the section dedicated to pediatric tumors. Most frequent tumors are fibrous histiocytomas and solitary fibrous tumors, which often have a retrobulbar location. Fibrous histiocytoma is benign in only 65 % of cases. Fibrous solitary tumor is now better known (Ag CD34): this tumor is generally benign but frequently recurs. PMID:20227093

  4. Wilms tumor with intravascular tumor thrombus.

    PubMed

    Emir, Suna

    2014-01-01

    Wilms tumor (WT) is one of the most common solid tumors in children. It is the second most common extracranial solid tumor after neuroblastoma. WT has a strong tendency to invade blood vessels in the form of tumor thrombus, into the renal veins, and inferior vena cava and even into the right atrium. Extension of tumor thrombus along to the renal vein into the inferior vena cava occurs in 4-10% of all patients. Tumor thrombus extending to the right atrium is less reported as 0.7-1%. WT with renal vein thrombus has been reported to be more common in the right kidney because of the shorter right renal vein. Most patients with tumor thrombus are asymptomatic and diagnosis is only made on imaging investigations. Several imaging modalities including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Doppler ultrasonography (USG) can demonstrate intravascular tumor thrombus before surgery. In addition to CT and MRI, Doppler USG is reliable in demonstrating the presence and extent of inferior vena cava tumor thrombus. The management of WT with tumor thrombus is determined by multiple factors such as extent of tumor thrombus, chemotherapy response of the tumor. Now, it is generally recommended to use preoperative chemotherapy to a patient presenting with intravascular tumor thrombus. This approach is helpful to decrease the extent of the vascular thrombus which facilitates surgical excision. Most intracaval and intraatrial thrombi in WT show a response to chemotherapy. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy causes tumor regression in nearly half of the patients. Most of them can be managed without the need for cardiac bypass surgery. The decision of initial surgery or preoperative chemotherapy should be carefully determined on every case. Primary surgery would only be indicated in a patient who is unstable because of thrombus that might dislodge and cause acute symptoms. Presence of tumor thrombus in WT needs for multidisciplinary care including pediatric oncologists, pediatric surgeons, and pediatric cardiac surgeons. PMID:26835320

  5. Wilms tumor with intravascular tumor thrombus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Wilms tumor (WT) is one of the most common solid tumors in children. It is the second most common extracranial solid tumor after neuroblastoma. WT has a strong tendency to invade blood vessels in the form of tumor thrombus, into the renal veins, and inferior vena cava and even into the right atrium. Extension of tumor thrombus along to the renal vein into the inferior vena cava occurs in 4-10% of all patients. Tumor thrombus extending to the right atrium is less reported as 0.7-1%. WT with renal vein thrombus has been reported to be more common in the right kidney because of the shorter right renal vein. Most patients with tumor thrombus are asymptomatic and diagnosis is only made on imaging investigations. Several imaging modalities including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Doppler ultrasonography (USG) can demonstrate intravascular tumor thrombus before surgery. In addition to CT and MRI, Doppler USG is reliable in demonstrating the presence and extent of inferior vena cava tumor thrombus. The management of WT with tumor thrombus is determined by multiple factors such as extent of tumor thrombus, chemotherapy response of the tumor. Now, it is generally recommended to use preoperative chemotherapy to a patient presenting with intravascular tumor thrombus. This approach is helpful to decrease the extent of the vascular thrombus which facilitates surgical excision. Most intracaval and intraatrial thrombi in WT show a response to chemotherapy. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy causes tumor regression in nearly half of the patients. Most of them can be managed without the need for cardiac bypass surgery. The decision of initial surgery or preoperative chemotherapy should be carefully determined on every case. Primary surgery would only be indicated in a patient who is unstable because of thrombus that might dislodge and cause acute symptoms. Presence of tumor thrombus in WT needs for multidisciplinary care including pediatric oncologists, pediatric surgeons, and pediatric cardiac surgeons. PMID:26835320

  6. Treatment Option Overview (Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Kidney Cancer Research Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors Treatment–Patient Version (PDQ®) General Information About Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors Key Points Childhood kidney tumors are diseases ...

  7. General Information about Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Kidney Cancer Research Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors Treatment–Patient Version (PDQ®) General Information About Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors Key Points Childhood kidney tumors are diseases ...

  8. Pediatric Odontogenic Tumors.

    PubMed

    Abrahams, Joshua M; McClure, Shawn A

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric odontogenic tumors are rare, and are often associated with impacted teeth. Although they can develop anywhere in the jaws, odontogenic tumors mainly occur in the posterior mandible. This article discusses the diagnosis and treatment of the most common pediatric odontogenic tumors, such as ameloblastoma, keratocystic odontogenic tumor, odontoma, and cementoblastoma. PMID:26614700

  9. Tumor heterogeneity and circulating tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chufeng; Guan, Yan; Sun, Yulan; Ai, Dan; Guo, Qisen

    2016-05-01

    In patients with cancer, individualized treatment strategies are generally guided by an analysis of molecular biomarkers. However, genetic instability allows tumor cells to lose monoclonality and acquire genetic heterogeneity, an important characteristic of tumors, during disease progression. Researchers have found that there is tumor heterogeneity between the primary tumor and metastatic lesions, between different metastatic lesions, and even within a single tumor (either primary or metastatic). Tumor heterogeneity is associated with heterogeneous protein functions, which lowers diagnostic precision and consequently becomes an obstacle to determining the appropriate therapeutic strategies for individual cancer patients. With the development of novel testing technologies, an increasing number of studies have attempted to explore tumor heterogeneity by examining circulating tumor cells (CTCs), with the expectation that CTCs may comprehensively represent the full spectrum of mutations and/or protein expression alterations present in the cancer. In addition, this strategy represents a minimally invasive approach compared to traditional tissue biopsies that can be used to dynamically monitor tumor evolution. The present article reviews the potential efficacy of using CTCs to identify both spatial and temporal tumor heterogeneity. This review also highlights current issues in this field and provides an outlook toward future applications of CTCs. PMID:26902424

  10. Hypoxia in Microscopic Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Feng; ODonoghue, Joseph A

    2008-01-01

    Tumor hypoxia has been commonly observed in a broad spectrum of primary solid malignancies. Hypoxia is associated with tumor progression, increased aggressiveness, enhanced metastatic potential and poor prognosis. Hypoxic tumor cells are resistant to radiotherapy and some forms of chemotherapy. Using an animal model, we recently showed that microscopic tumors less than 1 mm diameter were severely hypoxic. In this review, models and techniques for the study of hypoxia in microscopic tumors are discussed. PMID:18384940

  11. Tumor microenvironment and nanotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Upreti, Meenakshi; Jyoti, Amar; Sethi, Pallavi

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies delineate a predominant role for the tumor microenvironment in tumor growth and progression. Improved knowledge of cancer biology and investigation of the complex functional interrelation between the cellular and noncellular compartments of the tumor microenvironment have provided an ideal platform for the evolution of novel cancer nanotherapies. In addition, multifunctional smart nanoparticles carrying imaging agents and delivering multiple drugs targeted preferentially to the tumor/tumor microenvironment will lead to early diagnosis and better treatment for patients with cancer. The emerging knowledge of the tumor microenvironment has enabled rational designing of nanoparticles for combinatorial treatment strategies that include radiotherapy, antiangiogenesis and chemotherapy. This multimodality approach is thus expected to achieve therapeutic efficacy and enhance the quality of life of cancer patients. This review highlights the unique characteristics of the tumor microenvironment that are exploited by nanotechnology to develop novel drug delivery systems aimed to target the tumor/tumor microenvironment. PMID:24634853

  12. Whole Tumor Antigen Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Cheryl Lai-Lai; Benencia, Fabian; Coukos, George

    2011-01-01

    Although cancer vaccines with defined antigens are commonly used, the use of whole tumor cell preparations in tumor immunotherapy is a very promising approach and can obviate some important limitations in vaccine development. Whole tumor cells are a good source of TAAs and can induce simultaneous CTLs and CD4+ T helper cell activation. We review current approaches to prepare whole tumor cell vaccines, including traditional methods of freeze-thaw lysates, tumor cells treated with ultraviolet irradiation, and RNA electroporation, along with more recent methods to increase tumor cell immunogenicity with HOCl oxidation or infection with replication-incompetent herpes simplex virus. PMID:20356763

  13. Metastatic brain tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on the location of the tumor in the brain, the type of tissue involved, the original location of the ... symptoms vary. The symptoms commonly seen with most types of metastatic brain tumor are those caused by increased pressure in ...

  14. Children's Brain Tumor Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... CBTF Justin's Hope Fund Grant Recipients Grants Children’s Brain Tumor Foundation, A non-profit organization, was founded ... and the long term outlook for children with brain and spinal cord tumors through research, support, education, ...

  15. Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... child's treatment. LEARN MORE More children die of brain tumors than any other cancer, so more research ... it up with Trey Canard Read more >> Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation 302 Ridgefield Court, Asheville, NC 28806 ...

  16. Lung Carcinoid Tumor: Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for lung carcinoid tumor symptoms Surgery to treat lung carcinoid tumors Surgery is the main treatment for ... often be cured by surgery alone. Types of lung surgery Different operations can be used to treat ( ...

  17. Posterior fossa tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    Posterior fossa tumor is a type of brain tumor located in or near the bottom of the skull. ... The posterior fossa is a small space in the skull, found near the brainstem and cerebellum. The cerebellum is the part ...

  18. Overview of Heart Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pain and heart failure may develop. Noncancerous primary heart tumors In adults, about half of noncancerous primary ... are cancerous and some benign. Types of Noncancerous Heart Tumors Where Found in the Heart Examples Lining ...

  19. Stages of Wilms Tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the stages, Wilms tumors are described by their histology. The histology (how the cells look under a ... The following stages are used for both favorable histology and anaplastic Wilms tumors: Stage I In stage ...

  20. American Brain Tumor Association

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 5, phase 2/3 clinical trial for recurrent brain cancer to Canada Rindopepimut Misses OS Endpoint in Phase ... tumors Enhancing immune system may boost survival for brain cancer patients Read More ABTA News American Brain Tumor ...

  1. Brain Tumor Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Our Founders Board of Directors Staff Leadership Strategic Plan Financials News Careers Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms ... Our Founders Board of Directors Staff Leadership Strategic ... Contacts Careers Donate to the ABTA Help advance the understanding ...

  2. Brain Tumor Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or chemotherapy. Enable direct access for chemotherapy, radiation implants, or genetic treatment of malignant tumors. Relieve seizures (due to a brain tumor) that are hard to control. Types The ...

  3. [Intrapulmonary Solitary Fibrous Tumor].

    PubMed

    Komori, Kazuyuki; Tabata, Toshiharu; Katsumata, Hiroshi; Minowa, Muneo; Fujimura, Shigefumi

    2015-08-01

    We report a case of intrapulmonary solitary fibrous tumor( SFT). A 34-year-old woman was referred to our hospital due to an abnormal shadow on a chest roentgenogram without symptom. Computed tomography showed a circumscribed intrapulmonary tumor with mild uptake on fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography( PET) in the left lower lobe( S6). Frozen examination revealed a mesenchymal tumor. Based on the pathological and immunohistochemical findings, the tumor was diagnosed as intrapulmonary SFT. PMID:26329708

  4. Brain and Spinal Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Brain and Spinal Tumors Information Page Synonym(s): Spinal Cord ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What are Brain and Spinal Tumors? Tumors of the brain and ...

  5. Tumor cell heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Chekhun, V F; Sherban, S D; Savtsova, Z D

    2013-09-01

    The paper deals with the analysis of literary data on the tumor cell heterogeneity. Phenotypic, genetic and epigenetic mechanisms of heterogeneity are considered. The heterogeneity of metastasis is considered too. The importance for the biology of populations of tumor cells and the sensitivity of tumors to therapeutic treatment are discussed. PMID:24084451

  6. NCI Rare Tumor Initiative

    Cancer.gov

    The mission of the Rare Tumors Initiative is to better leverage existing NCI expertise in basic and clinical science studies of rare tumors to identify and more effectively translate potential new therapies. The NCI Rare Tumor Initiative was launched in 2

  7. Tumor Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, Andrew C.

    2012-01-01

    The vascular endothelium is a dynamic cellular “organ” that controls passage of nutrients into tissues, maintains the flow of blood, and regulates the trafficking of leukocytes. In tumors, factors such as hypoxia and chronic growth factor stimulation result in endothelial dysfunction. For example, tumor blood vessels have irregular diameters; they are fragile, leaky, and blood flow is abnormal. There is now good evidence that these abnormalities in the tumor endothelium contribute to tumor growth and metastasis. Thus, determining the biological basis underlying these abnormalities is critical for understanding the pathophysiology of tumor progression and facilitating the design and delivery of effective antiangiogenic therapies. PMID:22393533

  8. Tumor-Penetrating Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Teesalu, Tambet; Sugahara, Kazuki N.; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2013-01-01

    Tumor-homing peptides can be used to deliver drugs into tumors. Phage library screening in live mice has recently identified homing peptides that specifically recognize the endothelium of tumor vessels, extravasate, and penetrate deep into the extravascular tumor tissue. The prototypic peptide of this class, iRGD (CRGDKGPDC), contains the integrin-binding RGD motif. RGD mediates tumor-homing through binding to αv integrins, which are selectively expressed on various cells in tumors, including tumor endothelial cells. The tumor-penetrating properties of iRGD are mediated by a second sequence motif, R/KXXR/K. This C-end Rule (or CendR) motif is active only when the second basic residue is exposed at the C-terminus of the peptide. Proteolytic processing of iRGD in tumors activates the cryptic CendR motif, which then binds to neuropilin-1 activating an endocytic bulk transport pathway through tumor tissue. Phage screening has also yielded tumor-penetrating peptides that function like iRGD in activating the CendR pathway, but bind to a different primary receptor. Moreover, novel tumor-homing peptides can be constructed from tumor-homing motifs, CendR elements and protease cleavage sites. Pathologies other than tumors can be targeted with tissue-penetrating peptides, and the primary receptor can also be a vascular “zip code” of a normal tissue. The CendR technology provides a solution to a major problem in tumor therapy, poor penetration of drugs into tumors. The tumor-penetrating peptides are capable of taking a payload deep into tumor tissue in mice, and they also penetrate into human tumors ex vivo. Targeting with these peptides specifically increases the accumulation in tumors of a variety of drugs and contrast agents, such as doxorubicin, antibodies, and nanoparticle-based compounds. Remarkably the drug to be targeted does not have to be coupled to the peptide; the bulk transport system activated by the peptide sweeps along any compound that is present in the blood. PMID:23986882

  9. Tumor-penetrating peptides.

    PubMed

    Teesalu, Tambet; Sugahara, Kazuki N; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2013-01-01

    Tumor-homing peptides can be used to deliver drugs into tumors. Phage library screening in live mice has recently identified homing peptides that specifically recognize the endothelium of tumor vessels, extravasate, and penetrate deep into the extravascular tumor tissue. The prototypic peptide of this class, iRGD (CRGDKGPDC), contains the integrin-binding RGD motif. RGD mediates tumor-homing through binding to ?v integrins, which are selectively expressed on various cells in tumors, including tumor endothelial cells. The tumor-penetrating properties of iRGD are mediated by a second sequence motif, R/KXXR/K. This C-end Rule (or CendR) motif is active only when the second basic residue is exposed at the C-terminus of the peptide. Proteolytic processing of iRGD in tumors activates the cryptic CendR motif, which then binds to neuropilin-1 activating an endocytic bulk transport pathway through tumor tissue. Phage screening has also yielded tumor-penetrating peptides that function like iRGD in activating the CendR pathway, but bind to a different primary receptor. Moreover, novel tumor-homing peptides can be constructed from tumor-homing motifs, CendR elements and protease cleavage sites. Pathologies other than tumors can be targeted with tissue-penetrating peptides, and the primary receptor can also be a vascular "zip code" of a normal tissue. The CendR technology provides a solution to a major problem in tumor therapy, poor penetration of drugs into tumors. The tumor-penetrating peptides are capable of taking a payload deep into tumor tissue in mice, and they also penetrate into human tumors ex vivo. Targeting with these peptides specifically increases the accumulation in tumors of a variety of drugs and contrast agents, such as doxorubicin, antibodies, and nanoparticle-based compounds. Remarkably the drug to be targeted does not have to be coupled to the peptide; the bulk transport system activated by the peptide sweeps along any compound that is present in the blood. PMID:23986882

  10. Tumors of the spine.

    PubMed

    Ciftdemir, Mert; Kaya, Murat; Selcuk, Esref; Yalniz, Erol

    2016-02-18

    Spine tumors comprise a small percentage of reasons for back pain and other symptoms originating in the spine. The majority of the tumors involving the spinal column are metastases of visceral organ cancers which are mostly seen in older patients. Primary musculoskeletal system sarcomas involving the spinal column are rare. Benign tumors and tumor-like lesions of the musculoskeletal system are mostly seen in young patients and often cause instability and canal compromise. Optimal diagnosis and treatment of spine tumors require a multidisciplinary approach and thorough knowledge of both spine surgery and musculoskeletal tumor surgery. Either primary or metastatic tumors involving the spine are demanding problems in terms of diagnosis and treatment. Spinal instability and neurological compromise are the main and critical problems in patients with tumors of the spinal column. In the past, only a few treatment options aiming short-term control were available for treatment of primary and metastatic spine tumors. Spine surgeons adapted their approach for spine tumors according to orthopaedic oncologic principles in the last 20 years. Advances in imaging, surgical techniques and implant technology resulted in better diagnosis and surgical treatment options, especially for primary tumors. Also, modern chemotherapy drugs and regimens with new radiotherapy and radiosurgery options caused moderate to long-term local and systemic control for even primary sarcomas involving the spinal column. PMID:26925382

  11. Tumors of the spine

    PubMed Central

    Ciftdemir, Mert; Kaya, Murat; Selcuk, Esref; Yalniz, Erol

    2016-01-01

    Spine tumors comprise a small percentage of reasons for back pain and other symptoms originating in the spine. The majority of the tumors involving the spinal column are metastases of visceral organ cancers which are mostly seen in older patients. Primary musculoskeletal system sarcomas involving the spinal column are rare. Benign tumors and tumor-like lesions of the musculoskeletal system are mostly seen in young patients and often cause instability and canal compromise. Optimal diagnosis and treatment of spine tumors require a multidisciplinary approach and thorough knowledge of both spine surgery and musculoskeletal tumor surgery. Either primary or metastatic tumors involving the spine are demanding problems in terms of diagnosis and treatment. Spinal instability and neurological compromise are the main and critical problems in patients with tumors of the spinal column. In the past, only a few treatment options aiming short-term control were available for treatment of primary and metastatic spine tumors. Spine surgeons adapted their approach for spine tumors according to orthopaedic oncologic principles in the last 20 years. Advances in imaging, surgical techniques and implant technology resulted in better diagnosis and surgical treatment options, especially for primary tumors. Also, modern chemotherapy drugs and regimens with new radiotherapy and radiosurgery options caused moderate to long-term local and systemic control for even primary sarcomas involving the spinal column. PMID:26925382

  12. Como Lo Hago Yo: Myelomeningocele

    PubMed Central

    Lazareff, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Fortificación con ádico fólico es efectiva, pero aún falta conciencia en los jóvenes. La legalidad del aborto aumenta la importancia de la consulta prenatal. Realizo la cirugía bajo microcoscopio por razones didácticas. Irrigación continua para reducir la temperatura del tejido. Trato a la plaqueta como tejido viable. No suturo la plaqueta. No cierro músculo. ATB por una semana después de cirugía. Hidrocefalia: Válvula en todos los casos de ventriculomegalia. Médula anclada: Desanclar una sola vez. Chiari II: Revisar la válvula. Incluir en el seguimiento rendimiento escolar, puede indicar obstrucción de la válvula o médula anclada. PMID:24791217

  13. Tumor detection with radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Packer, S.

    1984-01-01

    The most common primary ocular tumor in adults is malignant melanoma of the choroid. Metastatic tumors to the choroid occur with the same frequency. The radioactive phosphorous uptake test is used most often as a nuclear diagnostic test. The test does not differentiate melanomas from metastases, and it is necessary to perform surgery for proper placement of a detection device within a distance of 1-2 mm of the tumor. These deficiencies leave ophthalmologists with a pressing need for a gamma-emitting radiopharmaceutical that would facilitate noninvasive identification of choroidal melanoma. This need is made more urgent by the fact that recently, radiation therapy has been used to treat these tumors rather than enucleation. Eyes then harbor irradiated melanoma whose status is unknown. The tumor rarely decreases in size more than 25% to 50%. There is thus a need for a specific diagnostic test to assess the nature of the tumor and the effectiveness of therapy.

  14. Brain tumor - children

    MedlinePLUS

    Glioblastoma multiforme - children; Ependymoma - children; Glioma - children; Brain stem glioma - children; Astrocytoma - children; Medulloblastoma - children; Germ cell tumors; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - ...

  15. Canine mammary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Sorenmo, Karin

    2003-05-01

    The National Consensus Group recommends that all women with tumors larger than 1 cm be offered chemotherapy regardless of tumor histology of lymph node status. This recommendation is to ensure that everyone at risk for failing, even though the risk may be low in women with relatively small tumors and favorable histology, has a choice and receives the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy. This type of treatment recommendation may also be made in dogs based on recognized, well-accepted prognostic factors such as tumor size, stage, type, and histologic differentiation. Based on the limited clinical information available in veterinary medicine, the drugs that are effective in human breast cancer, such as cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil, and doxorubicin, may also have a role in the treatment of malignant mammary gland tumors in dogs. Randomized prospective studies are needed, however, to evaluate the efficacy of chemotherapy in dogs with high-risk mammary gland tumors and to determine which drugs and protocols are the most efficacious. Until such studies are performed, the treatment of canine mammary gland tumors will be based on the individual oncologist's understanding of tumor biology, experience, interpretation of the available studies, and a little bit of gut-feeling. Table 2 is a proposal for treatment guidelines for malignant canine mammary gland tumors according to established prognostic factors, results from published veterinary studies, and current recommendations for breast cancer treatment in women. PMID:12852237

  16. Tumor Ablation and Nanotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Manthe, Rachel L.; Foy, Susan P.; Krishnamurthy, Nishanth; Sharma, Blanka; Labhasetwar, Vinod

    2010-01-01

    Next to surgical resection, tumor ablation is a commonly used intervention in the treatment of solid tumors. Tumor ablation methods include thermal therapies, photodynamic therapy, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) producing agents. Thermal therapies induce tumor cell death via thermal energy and include radiofrequency, microwave, high intensity focused ultrasound, and cryoablation. Photodynamic therapy and ROS producing agents cause increased oxidative stress in tumor cells leading to apoptosis. While these therapies are safe and viable alternatives when resection of malignancies is not feasible, they do have associated limitations that prevent their widespread use in clinical applications. To improve the efficacy of these treatments, nanoparticles are being studied in combination with nonsurgical ablation regimens. In addition to better thermal effect on tumor ablation, nanoparticles can deliver anticancer therapeutics that show synergistic anti-tumor effect in the presence of heat and can also be imaged to achieve precision in therapy. Understanding the molecular mechanism of nanoparticle-mediated tumor ablation could further help engineer nanoparticles of appropriate composition and properties to synergize the ablation effect. This review aims to explore the various types of nonsurgical tumor ablation methods currently used in cancer treatment and potential improvements by nanotechnology applications. PMID:20866097

  17. Adenomatoid Tumor of Testis

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Waqas; Parwani, Anil V.

    2009-01-01

    Adenomatoid tumors are responsible for 30% of all paratesticular masses. These are usually asymptomatic, slow growing masses. They are benign tumors comprising of cords and tubules of cuboidal to columnar cells with vacuolated cytoplasm and fibrous stroma. They are considered to be of mesothelial origin supported by histochemical studies and genetic analysis of Wilms tumor 1 gene expression. Excision biopsy is both diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. The main clinical consideration is accurate diagnosis preventing unnecessary orchiectomy. Diagnostic studies include serum tumor markers (negative alpha fetoprotein, beta HCG, LDH) ultrasonography (hypoechoic and homogenous appearance) and frozen section. PMID:21151545

  18. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor, an uncommon tumor.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, K; Kumar, Senthil; Vijayasamundeeswari; Vigneswari, Srivel

    2012-04-01

    Here we report a case of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) in the maxilla in a young girl aged 14 years and its surgical management. We also review the literature and variations in the nomenclature and classifications of this interesting tumor. The review of literature gives an interesting picture regarding terminologies in the past and dilemma in classifying this tumor. The introduction of the name adenomatoid odontogenic tumour has resulted in the simpler and fruitful surgical management like enucleation and curettage with no reports of recurrences. In the past, similar lesion with the terminology like adeno ameloblastoma has resulted in unnecessary mutilating surgery. The conflicting views whether the lesion is being neoplasm or an anomalous hamartomatous growth is also being discussed. PMID:22919236

  19. Carcinoma de tumor primario desconocido—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del carcinoma de tumor primario desconocido, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

  20. Tumores carcinoides gastrointestinales—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del tumor carcinoide gastrointestinal, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

  1. Skull Base Tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz-Ertner, Daniela

    In skull base tumors associated with a low radiosensitivity for conventional radiotherapy (RT), irradiation with proton or carbon ion beams facilitates a safe and accurate application of high tumor doses due to the favorable beam localization properties of these particle beams. Cranial nerves, the brain stem and normal brain tissue can at the same time be optimally spared.

  2. [Benign epithelial odontogenic tumors].

    PubMed

    Reichart, P A; Jundt, G

    2008-05-01

    The group of benign epithelial odontogenic tumors consists of the four member types of the ameloblastoma family (solid/multicystic, extraosseous/peripheral, desmoplastic, unicystic), squamous odontogenic tumors, calcifying odontogenic tumors, adenomatoid odontogenic tumors, and keratocystic odontogenic tumors, the former "keratocysts" that were recently reclassified by the World Health Organization and are now regarded as tumors. The latter are by far the most frequent tumors in this group, followed by solid/multicystic ameloblastoma. Although the etiology of these lesions is still unknown, a close relationship to normal tooth development is obvious, which is partially imitated by some tumors. Despite some similarities to each other, at least in part, the biological behavior of these lesions is quite different, as are treatment modalities. The diagnosis is essentially based on localization (intraosseous vs. extraosseous/peripheral) and histology, whereupon the correlation of histological findings with radiographic morphology may be of additional diagnostic value. Because of the range of variation, immunohistochemical investigations are not helpful in diagnosing a particular case. PMID:18389236

  3. Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Brenda L.

    2009-01-01

    The keratocystic odontogenic tumor is a benign developmental tumor with many distinguishing clinical and histologic features. These characteristics are reviewed in the setting of a typical presentation. The newly acknowledged neoplastic potential and its implications for treatment strategies are also discussed. PMID:20237995

  4. Pathophysiology of Tumor Neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Furuya, Mitsuko; Nishiyama, Mariko; Kasuya, Yoshitoshi; Kimura, Sadao; Ishikura, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    Neovascularization is essential to the process of development and differentiation of tissues in the vertebrate embryo, and is also involved in a wide variety of physiological and pathological conditions in adults, including wound repair, metabolic diseases, inflammation, cardiovascular disorders, and tumor progression. Thanks to cumulative studies on vasculature, new therapeutic approaches have been opened for us to some life-threatening diseases by controlling angiogenesis in the affected organs. In cancer therapy, for example, modulation of factors responsible for tumor angiogenesis may be beneficial in inhibiting of tumor progression. Several antiangiogenic approaches are currently under preclinical trial. However, the mechanisms of neovascularization in tumors are complicated and each tumor shows unique features in its vasculature, depending on tissue specificity, angiogenic micromilieu, grades and stages, host immunity, and so on. For better understanding and effective therapeutic approaches, it is important to clarify both the general mechanism of angiogenic events and the disease-specific mechanism of neovascularization. This review discusses the general features of angiogenesis under physiological and pathological conditions, mainly in tumor progression. In addition, recent topics such as contribution of the endothelial progenitor cells, tumor vasculogenic mimicry, markers for tumor-derived endothelial cells and pericytes, and angiogenic/angiostatic chemokines are summarized. PMID:17315600

  5. NCI Rare Tumor Initiative

    Cancer.gov

    Contact Information   For more information on the Rare Tumors Initiative or to become a member please contact:   Abby Sandler, Ph.D. Special Assistant to the Director, Rare Tumors Initiative, OD, CCR, NCI 301-496-9983 sandlera@mail.nih.gov Karlyne Reilly,

  6. Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 5 years after the cancer is found. Percent means how many out of 100. The 5-year survival rate of people with neuroendocrine tumors varies and ... with a neuroendocrine tumor. Also, experts measure the survival statistics every 5 years. This means that the estimate may not show the results ...

  7. Modern Brain Tumor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Barajas, Ramon F.; Cha, Soonmee

    2015-01-01

    The imaging and clinical management of patients with brain tumor continue to evolve over time and now heavily rely on physiologic imaging in addition to high-resolution structural imaging. Imaging remains a powerful noninvasive tool to positively impact the management of patients with brain tumor. This article provides an overview of the current state-of-the art clinical brain tumor imaging. In this review, we discuss general magnetic resonance (MR) imaging methods and their application to the diagnosis of, treatment planning and navigation, and disease monitoring in patients with brain tumor. We review the strengths, limitations, and pitfalls of structural imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging techniques, MR spectroscopy, perfusion imaging, positron emission tomography/MR, and functional imaging. Overall this review provides a basis for understudying the role of modern imaging in the care of brain tumor patients. PMID:25977902

  8. Ultrasonography of testis tumors.

    PubMed

    Nachtsheim, D A; Scheible, F W; Gosink, B

    1983-05-01

    Intratesticular masses can be identified with a high degree of accuracy using recently refined techniques of scrotal ultrasonography. In an attempt to correlate sonographic findings with histopathologic features the sonograms performed on 17 consecutive patients with testis tumors were reviewed. Two distinct categories were identified. Seminomas and lymphomas appeared hypoechoic and homogeneous, and had sharply demarcated intratesticular borders. Nonseminomatous germ cell tumors, although also of lower echogenicity than normal testis, appeared to have cystic spaces, acoustic shadowing and irregular margins extending into the testis parenchyma. Preoperative characterization of a scrotal mass with ultrasound can facilitate surgical excision of the tumor. Scrotal ultrasonography also is useful in the detection of tumor in a palpable normal testis and is a convenient method for the examination of patients who have had a testis tumor previously. PMID:6854774

  9. Method of treating tumors

    DOEpatents

    DeNardo, Sally J.; Burke, Patricia A.; DeNardo, Gerald L.; Goodman, Simon; Matzku, legal representative, Kerstin; Matzku, Siegfried

    2006-04-18

    A method of treating tumors, such as prostate tumors, breast tumors, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and the like, includes the sequential steps of administering to the patient at least one dose of an antiangiogenic cyclo-arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-containing pentapeptide (cRGD pentapeptide); administering to the patient an anti-tumor effective amount of a radioimmunotherapeutic agent (RIT); and then administering to the patient at least one additional dose of cRGD pentapeptide. The cRGD pentapeptide is preferably cyclo-(Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe-[N-Me]-Val), and the RIT is preferably a radionuclide-labeled chelating agent-ligand complex in which chelating agent is chemically bonded to a tumor-targeting molecule, such as a monoclonal antibody.

  10. Acetate Dependence of Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Comerford, Sarah A.; Huang, Zhiguang; Du, Xinlin; Wang, Yun; Cai, Ling; Witkiewicz, Agnes; Walters, Holly; Tantawy, Mohammed N.; Fu, Allie; Manning, H. Charles; Horton, Jay D.; Hammer, Robert E.; McKnight, Steven L.; Tu, Benjamin P.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Acetyl-CoA represents a central node of carbon metabolism that plays a key role in bioenergetics, cell proliferation and the regulation of gene expression. How highly glycolytic or hypoxic tumors are able to produce sufficient quantities of this metabolite to support cell growth and survival under nutrient-limiting conditions remains poorly understood. Here we show that the nucleocytosolic acetyl-CoA synthetase enzyme, ACSS2, supplies a key source of acetyl-CoA for tumors by capturing acetate as a carbon source. Despite exhibiting no gross deficits in growth or development, adult mice lacking ACSS2 exhibit a significant reduction in tumor burden in two different models of hepatocellular carcinoma. ACSS2 is expressed in a large proportion of human tumors and its activity is responsible for the majority of cellular acetate uptake into both lipids and histones. These observations may qualify ACSS2 as a targetable metabolic vulnerability of a wide spectrum of tumors. PMID:25525877

  11. Radiofrequency Ablation of Lung Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Site Index A-Z Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA) of Lung Tumors Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a treatment that ... of Lung Tumors? What is Radiofrequency Ablation of Lung Tumors? Radiofrequency ablation, sometimes referred to as RFA, ...

  12. What Are Lung Carcinoid Tumors?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... key statistics about lung carcinoid tumors? What are lung carcinoid tumors? Lung carcinoid tumors (also known as ... lungs, as well as the neuroendocrine system. The lungs The lungs are 2 sponge-like organs in ...

  13. How Are Wilms Tumors Diagnosed?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Survival rates for Wilms tumor, by stage and histology Previous Topic Signs and symptoms of Wilms tumor ... also look at the sample to determine the histology of the Wilms tumor (favorable or unfavorable), as ...

  14. [Hypophyseal dysfunction and tumors].

    PubMed

    Brgi, U; Seiler, R

    1992-03-01

    Some pituitary hormones secrete hormones while others do not. Nonsecreting tumors can interfere with normal pituitary hormone secretion and produce tumor symptoms and signs like headaches and visual field defects. The most frequent hormone-secreting tumors are prolactinomas. Growth hormone or ACTH or gonadotropin or gonadotropin-alpha and beta chain-producing tumors are less frequent, TSH producing tumors are extremely rare. The most important elements of the diagnostic work-up are clinical signs and symptoms, assessment of pituitary function (measurement of TSH, free T4, LH, FSH, oestradiol/free testosteron, growth hormone, IGF-1, prolactin, ACTH, Cortisol, serum and urine osmolality), CT and/or MRI and, in patients with large tumors, a visual field exam. The treatment of choice of pituitary tumors is often surgery. Alternative therapies are radiation treatment (in nonoperable patients or when hormone levels are persistently elevated after pituitary surgery) and drug treatment (dopamine agonists in hyperprolactinemia, somatostatin analogues in acromegaly). Pituitary hormone deficiencies are treated depending on the specific deficiency with thyroxine, cortisone, oestrogen/gestagen/testosterone gonadotropines or ADH analogues. PMID:1585268

  15. Benign follicular tumors.

    PubMed

    Tellechea, Oscar; Cardoso, Jos Carlos; Reis, Jos Pedro; Ramos, Leonor; Gameiro, Ana Rita; Coutinho, Ins; Baptista, Antnio Poiares

    2015-12-01

    Benign follicular tumors comprise a large and heterogeneous group of neoplasms that share a common histogenesis and display morphological features resembling one or several portions of the normal hair follicle, or recapitulate part of its embryological development. Most cases present it as clinically nondescript single lesions and essentially of dermatological relevance. Occasionally, however, these lesions be multiple and represent a cutaneous marker of complex syndromes associated with an increased risk of visceral neoplasms. In this article, the authors present the microscopic structure of the normal hair follicle as a basis to understand the type and level of differentiation of the various follicular tumors. The main clinicopathological features and differential diagnosis of benign follicular tumors are then discussed, including dilated pore of Winer, pilar sheath acanthoma, trichoadenoma, trichilemmoma, infundibuloma, proliferating trichilemmal cyst/tumor, trichoblastoma and its variants, pilomatricoma, trichodiscoma/fibrofolliculoma, neurofollicular hamartoma and trichofolliculoma. In addition, the main syndromes presenting with multiple follicular tumors are also discussed, namely Cowden, Birt-Hogg-Dub, Rombo and Bazex-Dupr-Christol syndromes, as well as multiple tumors of follicular infundibulum (infundibulomatosis) and multiple trichoepitheliomas. Although the diagnosis of follicular tumors relies on histological examination, we highlight the importance of their knowledge for the clinician, especially when in presence of patients with multiple lesions that may be the cutaneous marker of a cancer-prone syndrome. The dermatologist is therefore in a privileged position to recognize these lesions, which is extremely important to provide further propedeutic, appropriate referral and genetic counseling for these patients. PMID:26734858

  16. Benign follicular tumors*

    PubMed Central

    Tellechea, Oscar; Cardoso, Jos Carlos; Reis, Jos Pedro; Ramos, Leonor; Gameiro, Ana Rita; Coutinho, Ins; Baptista, Antnio Poiares

    2015-01-01

    Benign follicular tumors comprise a large and heterogeneous group of neoplasms that share a common histogenesis and display morphological features resembling one or several portions of the normal hair follicle, or recapitulate part of its embryological development. Most cases present it as clinically nondescript single lesions and essentially of dermatological relevance. Occasionally, however, these lesions be multiple and represent a cutaneous marker of complex syndromes associated with an increased risk of visceral neoplasms. In this article, the authors present the microscopic structure of the normal hair follicle as a basis to understand the type and level of differentiation of the various follicular tumors. The main clinicopathological features and differential diagnosis of benign follicular tumors are then discussed, including dilated pore of Winer, pilar sheath acanthoma, trichoadenoma, trichilemmoma, infundibuloma, proliferating trichilemmal cyst/tumor, trichoblastoma and its variants, pilomatricoma, trichodiscoma/fibrofolliculoma, neurofollicular hamartoma and trichofolliculoma. In addition, the main syndromes presenting with multiple follicular tumors are also discussed, namely Cowden, Birt-Hogg-Dub, Rombo and Bazex-Dupr-Christol syndromes, as well as multiple tumors of follicular infundibulum (infundibulomatosis) and multiple trichoepitheliomas. Although the diagnosis of follicular tumors relies on histological examination, we highlight the importance of their knowledge for the clinician, especially when in presence of patients with multiple lesions that may be the cutaneous marker of a cancer-prone syndrome. The dermatologist is therefore in a privileged position to recognize these lesions, which is extremely important to provide further propedeutic, appropriate referral and genetic counseling for these patients. PMID:26734858

  17. [Vascular tumors of the orbit].

    PubMed

    Cophignon, J; d'Hermies, F; Civit, T

    2010-01-01

    Vascular tumors of the orbit include capillary hemangioma, cavernous hemangioma, hemolymphangioma, hemangiopericytoma and a few rare tumors. Capillary hemangioma and hemolymphangioma, occurring mainly in children, are covered in the chapter devoted to childhood tumors. In this chapter, cavernous hemangioma and hemangiopericytoma are discussed as well as rare vascular tumors. Although orbital varix is not a tumor, it is also considered because of the diagnostic problems and the close correlation of orbital varix with a true tumor: hemolymphangioma. PMID:20303554

  18. Tumores cerebrales—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre el tratamiento de los tumores cerebrales, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con estos tipos de cáncer.

  19. Tumores cerebrales—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento de los tumores cerebrales, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con estos tipos de cáncer.

  20. Rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sredni, Simone T; Tomita, Tadanori

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdoid tumors (RT), or malignant rhabdoid tumors, are among the most aggressive and lethal forms of human cancer. They can arise in any location in the body but are most commonly observed in the brain, where they are called atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT), and in the kidneys, where they are called rhabdoid tumors of the kidney. The vast majority of rhabdoid tumors present with a loss of function in the SMARCB1 gene, also known as INI1, BAF47, and hSNF5, a core member of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex. Recently, mutations in a 2nd locus of the SWI/SNF complex, the SMARCA4 gene, also known as BRG1, were found in rhabdoid tumors with retention of SMARCB1 expression. Familial cases may occur in a condition known as rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome (RTPS). In RTPS, germline inactivation of 1 allele of a gene occurs. When the mutation occurs in the SMARCB1 gene, the syndrome is called RTPS1, and when the mutation occurs in the SMARCA4 gene it is called RTPS2. Children presenting with RTPS tend to develop tumors at a younger age, but the impact that germline mutation has on survival remains unclear. Adults who carry the mutation tend to develop multiple schwannomas. The diagnosis of RTPS should be considered in patients with RT, especially if they have multiple primary tumors, and/or in individuals with a family history of RT. Because germline mutations result in an increased risk of carriers developing RT, genetic counseling for families with this condition is recommended. PMID:25494491

  1. Targeting the tumor microenvironment

    SciTech Connect

    Kenny, P.A.; Lee, G.Y.; Bissell, M.J.

    2006-11-07

    Despite some notable successes cancer remains, for the most part, a seemingly intractable problem. There is, however, a growing appreciation that targeting the tumor epithelium in isolation is not sufficient as there is an intricate mutually sustaining synergy between the tumor epithelial cells and their surrounding stroma. As the details of this dialogue emerge, new therapeutic targets have been proposed. The FDA has already approved drugs targeting microenvironmental components such as VEGF and aromatase and many more agents are in the pipeline. In this article, we describe some of the 'druggable' targets and processes within the tumor microenvironment and review the approaches being taken to disrupt these interactions.

  2. Malignant liver tumors.

    PubMed

    Honeyman, Joshua N; La Quaglia, Michael P

    2012-08-01

    Malignant tumors of the liver comprise a relatively small fraction of the total number of pediatric malignancies. However, these tumors can be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, and there have been significant therapeutic gains during the past few decades through advances in systemic therapy and surgical treatment. Even in patients with advanced local disease, complete resection is now a possibility because of improvements in liver transplantation techniques. In this review, we will discuss the staging and treatment of common malignant tumors of the liver. PMID:22800977

  3. Canine mast cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Macy, D W

    1985-07-01

    Despite the fact that the mast cell tumor is a common neoplasm of the dog, we still have only a meager understanding of its etiology and biologic behavior. Many of the published recommendations for treatment are based on opinion rather than facts derived from careful studies and should be viewed with some skepticism. Because of the infrequent occurrence of this tumor in man, only a limited amount of help can be expected from human oncologists; therefore, burden of responsibility for progress in predicting behavior and developing treatment effective for canine mast cell tumors must fall on the shoulders of the veterinary profession. PMID:3929444

  4. Myoepithelial Tumors: An Update.

    PubMed

    Jo, Vickie Y

    2015-09-01

    Primary myoepithelial neoplasms of soft tissue are uncommon, and have been increasingly characterized by clinicopathologic and genetic means. Tumors are classified as mixed tumor/chondroid syringoma, myoepithelioma, and myoepithelial carcinoma, and they share morphologic, immunophenotypic, and genetic features with their salivary gland counterparts. However, soft tissue myoepithelial tumors are classified as malignant based on the presence of cytologic atypia, in contrast to the criterion of invasive growth in salivary gland sites. This review discusses the clinicopathologic and morphologic characteristics, distinct variants, and currently known genetic alterations of myoepithelial neoplasms of soft tissue, skin, and bone. PMID:26297065

  5. Tumor-Associated Macrophages and Neutrophils in Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jaehong; Bae, Jong-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Distinct tumor microenvironment forms in each progression step of cancer and has diverse capacities to induce both adverse and beneficial consequences for tumorigenesis. It is now known that immune cells can be activated to favor tumor growth and progression, most probably influenced by the tumor microenvironment. Tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils can exert protumoral functions, enhancing tumor cell invasion and metastasis, angiogenesis, and extracellular matrix remodeling, while inhibiting the antitumoral immune surveillance. Considering that neutrophils in inflammatory environments recruit macrophages and that recruited macrophages affect neutrophil functions, there may be various degrees of interaction between tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils. Platelets also play an important role in the recruitment and regulation of monocytic and granulocytic cells in the tumor tissues, suggesting that platelet function may be essential for generation of tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils. In this review, we will explore the biology of tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils and their possible interactions in the tumor microenvironment. Special attention will be given to the recruitment and activation of these tumor-associated cells and to the roles they play in maintenance of the tumor microenvironment and progression of tumors. PMID:26966341

  6. Pazopanib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Progressive Carcinoid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-31

    Atypical Carcinoid Tumor; Foregut Carcinoid Tumor; Hindgut Carcinoid Tumor; Lung Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Midgut Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Regional Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1

  7. Skin tumors on squirrels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Reilly, J.R.

    1955-01-01

    Skin tumors having the gross appearance of previously reported fibromas are reported on gray squirrels from N. Y., Md., Va., N. C., and W. Va. and from a fox squirrel from W. Va. and a porcupine from Pa.

  8. Tumor Microenvironment Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    Tumor Microenvironment Network (TMEN) Dinah Singer, Ph.D. Director Suresh Mohla, Ph.D. TMEN Program Director Division of Cancer Biology TMEN 2006-2011: Goals Generate a comprehensive understanding of the composition of the normal stroma

  9. What Are Pituitary Tumors?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What are the key statistics about pituitary tumors? Next Topic What are the key statistics about pituitary ... grow very large, but they can have a big impact on a person’s health. There is very ...

  10. Allogeneic tumor cell vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Srivatsan, Sanjay; Patel, Jaina M; Bozeman, Erica N; Imasuen, Imade E; He, Sara; Daniels, Danielle; Selvaraj, Periasamy

    2014-01-01

    The high mortality rate associated with cancer and its resistance to conventional treatments such as radiation and chemotherapy has led to the investigation of a variety of anti-cancer immunotherapies. The development of novel immunotherapies has been bolstered by the discovery of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), through gene sequencing and proteomics. One such immunotherapy employs established allogeneic human cancer cell lines to induce antitumor immunity in patients through TAA presentation. Allogeneic cancer immunotherapies are desirable in a clinical setting due to their ease of production and availability. This review aims to summarize clinical trials of allogeneic tumor immunotherapies in various cancer types. To date, clinical trials have shown limited success due potentially to extensive degrees of inter- and intra-tumoral heterogeneity found among cancer patients. However, these clinical results provide guidance for the rational design and creation of more effective allogeneic tumor immunotherapies for use as monotherapies or in combination with other therapies. PMID:24064957

  11. Children's Tumor Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Directors National Office Staff Foundation Videos Blog Strategic Planning and Oversight Newsletter Living with NF Recently Diagnosed ... date articles about the Foundation and NF advances. Strategic Planning and Research Oversight Discover the Children's Tumor Foundation's ...

  12. Metastatic pleural tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pleural fluid analysis Pleural needle biopsy Removal of fluid from around the lungs ( thoracentesis ) ... tumors usually cannot be removed with surgery. The original ... lot of fluid collecting around your lungs and you have shortness ...

  13. Adrenal Gland Tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medical, surgical, radiation, gynecologic, and pediatric oncologists, oncology nurses, physician assistants, social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Adrenal Gland Tumor ... with Side Effects After Treatment Questions to Ask ...

  14. The Gastrointestinal Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Quante, Michael; Varga, Julia; Wang, Timothy C.; Greten, Florian R.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, the microenvironment of gastrointestinal tumors has gained increasing attention because it is required for tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis. The tumor microenvironment has many components and has been recognized as one of the major hallmarks of epithelial cancers. Although therapeutic strategies for gastrointestinal cancer have previously focused on the epithelial cell compartment, there is increasing interest in reagents that alter the microenvironment, based on reported interactions among gastrointestinal epithelial, stromal, and immune cells during gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. We review the different cellular components of the gastrointestinal tumor microenvironment and their functions in carcinogenesis, and discuss how improving our understanding of the complex stromal network could lead to new therapeutic strategies. PMID:23583733

  15. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with brain tumors. This is partly because of new technologies in the operating room and partly because an ... have changed significantly over the last several decades. New computer-assisted technologies allow doctors to construct 3D radiation fields that ...

  16. Antibody tumor penetration

    PubMed Central

    Thurber, Greg M.; Schmidt, Michael M.; Wittrup, K. Dane

    2009-01-01

    Antibodies have proven to be effective agents in cancer imaging and therapy. One of the major challenges still facing the field is the heterogeneous distribution of these agents in tumors when administered systemically. Large regions of untargeted cells can therefore escape therapy and potentially select for more resistant cells. We present here a summary of theoretical and experimental approaches to analyze and improve antibody penetration in tumor tissue. PMID:18541331

  17. [Endocrine tumors: clinical overview].

    PubMed

    Leidig-Bruckner, G

    2014-10-01

    The term endocrine tumor incorporates all neoplasms which originate from the various endocrine organs. Endocrine tumors can be characterized by different criteria: localization, endocrine function, dignity (i.e. tumorigenesis, sporadic or hereditary). These characteristics also determine the clinical outcome. The clinical history, symptoms and physical examination findings (e.g. amenorrhea, skin alterations, striae, virilization, increased blood pressure and flush) direct the diagnostic process of functioning endocrine tumors. Laboratory findings (endocrine parameters) are needed to establish a diagnosis supplemented by imaging for localization and special investigations (ophthalmological examination). In hereditary tumor syndromes, the familial history and molecular genetic testing and screening of family members are essential for establishing the diagnosis and achieve optimal and early treatment. Ideally, affected family members can be treated before clinical symptoms or metastatic disease occurs, improving outcome and prognosis. Incidentalomas are increasingly found due to widespread use of imaging techniques, especially in the thyroid, adrenal glands, pancreas and pituitary gland. In incidentalomas the functional status and risk of malignancy has to be evaluated as both parameters determine therapy decisions. The aim of this introductory article is to give an overview about particular features of endocrine tumors, clinical and related aspects for the diagnostic and therapeutic approach. The clinical features of tumors of the pituitary, parathyroid and adrenal glands and the gastroenteropancreatic system are summarized according to localization. PMID:25269723

  18. Tumoral and Choroidal Vascularization

    PubMed Central

    Jost, Maud; Maillard, Catherine; Lecomte, Julie; Lambert, Vincent; Tjwa, Marc; Blaise, Pierre; Alvarez Gonzalez, Maria-Luz; Bajou, Khalid; Blacher, Silvia; Motte, Patrick; Humblet, Chantal; Defresne, Marie Paule; Thiry, Marc; Frankenne, Francis; Gothot, Andr; Carmeliet, Peter; Rakic, Jean-Marie; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Nol, Agns

    2007-01-01

    An adequate balance between serine proteases and their plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is critical for pathological angiogenesis. PAI-1 deficiency in mice is associated with impaired choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and tumoral angiogenesis. In the present work, we demonstrate unexpected differences in the contribution of bone marrow (BM)-derived cells in these two processes regulated by PAI-1. PAI-1?/? mice grafted with BM-derived from wild-type mice were able to support laser-induced CNV formation but not skin carcinoma vascularization. Engraftment of irradiated wild-type mice with PAI-1?/? BM prevented CNV formation, demonstrating the crucial role of PAI-1 delivered by BM-derived cells. In contrast, the transient infiltration of tumor transplants by local PAI-1-producing host cells rather than by BM cells was sufficient to rescue tumor growth and angiogenesis in PAI-1-deficient mice. These data identify PAI-1 as a molecular determinant of a local permissive soil for tumor angiogenesis. Altogether, the present study demonstrates that different cellular mechanisms contribute to PAI-1-regulated tumoral and CNV. PAI-1 contributes to BM-dependent choroidal vascularization and to BM-independent tumor growth and angiogenesis. PMID:17717143

  19. Pancreatic cystic tumors.

    PubMed

    Salvia, R; Festa, L; Butturini, G; Tonsi, A; Sartori, N; Biasutti, C; Capelli, P; Pederzoli, P

    2004-04-01

    Cystic tumors of the pancreas are less frequent than other tumors in neoplastic pancreatic pathology, but in recent years the literature has reported an increasing number. After the first report by Becourt in 1830, cystic tumors were classified into 2 different types by Compagno and Oertel in 1978: benign tumors with glycogen-rich cells and mucinous cystic neoplasms with overt and latent malignancy. The WHO classification of exocrine tumors of the pancreas, published in 1996, is based on the histopathological features of the epithelial wall, which are the main factor in differential diagnosis with cystic lesions of the pancreas. Thanks to the knowledge acquired up to now, a surgical procedure is not always required because the therapeutic choice is conditioned by the correct classification of this heterogeneous group of tumors. Clinical signs are not really useful in the clinical work up, most patients have no symptoms and when clinical signs are present, they may help us to pinpoint the organ of origin but never to identify the type of pathology. In the last few years, the great improvement in imaging has enabled us not only to discriminate cystic from solid lesions, but also to identify the features of the lesions and label them preoperatively. More invasive diagnostic procedures such as fine needle aspiration and intracystic fluid tumor marker level are not really useful because they are not sensitive and the cystic wall can show different degrees of dysplasia and de-epithelialization. These are the reasons for sending the entire specimen to pathology. Good cooperation between surgeons, pathologists, radiologists and gastroenterologists is mandatory to increase the chances of making a proper diagnosis. Therefore, we must analyze all the information we have, such as age, sex, clinical history, location of the tumor and radiological features, in order to avoid the mistake of treating a cystic neoplasm as a benign lesion or as a pseudocyst, as described in the literature. Except for inoperable cases due to the critical condition of the patient or non-resectable lesions, surgical treatment differs with the diagnosis. Cystic tumors of the pancreas, therefore, are a heterogeneous group of tumors, with a real problem regarding differential diagnosis between neoplastic and inflammatory lesions. Even with a proper work up, some perplexity may remain about the nature of the lesion and in these cases the surgical procedure has a therapeutic value as well as playing a diagnostic role. The role of surgery is central in the treatment of these tumors because it could be curative when complete resection is possible. In this way, the lack of good therapeutic results with chemotherapy and radiotherapy force the surgeon to go ahead with the procedure. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms represent a new and, from the epidemiological point of view, important chapter in the world of cystic tumors. The margin of resection is important and the surgeon has to be aware that in order to have a curative resection, total pancreatectomy is sometimes required. In the last few years the therapeutic approach has changed thanks to new knowledge of the biological behavior of these tumors. In fact, from a surgical approach in all cases, we are now discussing the possibility of a follow-up not only for asymptomatic serous cystadenomas but also for the little branch side intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) in critical patients. A follow-up could be planned even for solid pseudopapillary tumors but it seems risky to leave untreated big tumors in young patients without a certain diagnosis and with so few studies reported in the literature. PMID:15238892

  20. Brain tumors in infants

    PubMed Central

    Ghodsi, Seyyed Mohammad; Habibi, Zohreh; Hanaei, Sara; Moradi, Ehsan; Nejat, Farideh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Brain tumors in infants have different clinical presentations, anatomical distribution, histopathological diagnosis, and clinical prognosis compared with older children. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was done in patients <12 months old who were operated on for primary brain tumor in Children's Hospital Medical Center since 2008 to 2014. Results: Thirty-one infants, 20 males and 11 females, with the mean age of 7.13 months (0.5–12) were enrolled. There were 16 supratentorial and 15 infratentorial tumors. The presenting symptoms included increased head circumference (16); bulge fontanel (15); vomiting (15); developmental regression (11); sunset eye (7); seizure (4); loss of consciousness (4); irritability (3); nystagmus (2); visual loss (2); hemiparesis (2); torticollis (2); VI palsy (3); VII, IX, X nerve palsy (each 2); and ptosis (1). Gross total and subtotal resection were performed in 19 and 11 cases, respectively. Fourteen patients needed external ventricular drainage in the perioperative period, from whom four infants required a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. One patient underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunting without tumor resection. The most common histological diagnoses were primitive neuroectodermal tumor (7), followed by anaplastic ependymoma (6) and grade II ependymoma. The rate of 30-day mortality was 19.3%. Eighteen patients are now well-controlled with or without adjuvant therapy (overall survival; 58%), from whom 13 cases are tumor free (disease free survival; 41.9%), 3 cases have residual masses with fixed or decreased size (progression-free survival; 9.6%), and 2 cases are still on chemotherapy. Conclusion: Brain tumors in infants should be treated with surgical resection, followed by chemotherapy when necessary.

  1. Chemoimmunotherapy: reengineering tumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gang

    2013-01-01

    Cancer chemotherapy drugs have long been considered immune suppressive. However, more recent data indicate that some cytotoxic drugs effectively treat cancer in part by facilitating an immune response to the tumor when given at the standard dose and schedule. These drugs induce a form of tumor cell death that is immunologically active, thereby inducing an adaptive immune response specific for the tumor. In addition, cancer chemotherapy drugs can promote tumor immunity through ancillary and largely unappreciated immunologic effects on both the malignant and normal host cells present within the tumor microenvironment. These more subtle immunomodulatory effects are dependent on the drug itself, its dose, and its schedule in relation to an immune-based intervention. The recent approvals of two new immune-based therapies for prostate cancer and melanoma herald a new era in cancer treatment and have led to heightened interest in immunotherapy as a valid approach to cancer treatment. A detailed understanding of the cellular and molecular basis of interactions between chemotherapy drugs and the immune system is essential for devising the optimal strategy for integrating new immune-based therapies into the standard of care for various cancers, resulting in the greatest long-term clinical benefit for cancer patients. PMID:23389507

  2. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Changjun

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumor has received a lot of attention over the last 10 years due to its unique biologic behavior, clinicopathological features, molecular mechanisms, and treatment implications. GIST is the most common mesenchymal neoplasm in the gastrointestinal tract and has emerged from a poorly understood and treatment resistant neoplasm to a well-defined tumor entity since the discovery of particular molecular abnormalities, KIT and PDGFRA gene mutations. The understanding of GIST biology at the molecular level promised the development of novel treatment modalities. Diagnosis of GIST depends on the integrity of histology, immunohistochemistry and molecular analysis. The risk assessment of the tumor behavior relies heavily on pathological evaluation and significantly impacts clinical management. In this review, historic review, epidemiology, pathogenesis and genetics, diagnosis, role of molecular analysis, prognostic factor and treatment strategies have been discussed. PMID:22943011

  3. COMO - A Program For Optical Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollrath, Wolfgang

    1986-10-01

    COMO is an optical design program of a special orthogonalization type, developed by Prof. H.Marx at Ernst Leitz Wetzlar Company. Not using a merit function, COMO corrects aberrations under equality and inequality constraints not simultaneously but sequentially, the order is chosen by the optical designer. The optimization procedure shows distinctive features compared to other programs. COMO is in use at Leitz since the early 1970's and is now running on HP-1000F and HP-A900 computer systems. In 1974, when it was implemented on a HP-2100, it was probably one of the very first "mainfrawe" optical design programs running on a minicomputer. H.Marx named this program COMO.

  4. Poorly Differentiated Neuroendocrine Tumors.

    PubMed

    Eads, Jennifer R

    2016-02-01

    Poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract are rare and limited data are available to guide treatment. These tumors have been treated akin to small cell lung cancer given the histologic similarities. Their pathology is complex. Over the last decade, these tumors are shown as likely a distinct disease entity that is more heterogeneous than accounted for by the current classification system. This article discusses the epidemiology, prognosis, clinical presentation and pathologic nuances and provides a review of the existing clinical data in poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas and small cell lung cancers. PMID:26614374

  5. Radioembolization of hepatic tumors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Unresectable primary and metastatic liver tumors are a leading cause of cancer mortality and morbidity. This remains a challenging and key task for every oncologist despite significant advances that have been made with selective targeted systemic agents and in technology advances with radiotherapy delivery. Radioembolization (RE) is a technique of permanently implanting microspheres containing Yttrium-90 (90Y), a beta-emitting isotope with a treatment range of 2 mm, into hepatic tumors. This form of brachytherapy utilizes the unique dual vascular anatomy of the liver to preferentially deliver radioactive particles via the hepatic artery to tumor, sparing normal liver parenchyma. The main treatment inclusion criteria are patients with solid tumors, compensated liver functions, life expectancy of at least three months, and ECOG performance status 0-2. Benefit of RE has been proven in patients that have low-to-moderate extrahepatic disease burden, prior liver radiotherapy, heavy prior chemotherapy and biologic agent exposure, and history of hepatic surgery or ablation. Most of the clinical evidence is reported in metastatic colorectal, and neuroendocrine tumors (NET), and primary hepatocellular cancer. A growing body of data supports the use of RE in hepatic metastatic breast cancer, intrahepatic cholangiocarinoma, and many other metastatic tumor types. Side effects are typically mild constitutional and GI issues limited to the first 7-14 days post treatment, with only 6% grade 3 toxicity reported in large series. Potentially serious or fatal radiation induced liver disease is extremely rare, reported in only 1% or fewer in major series of both metastatic and primary tumors treated with RE. Currently, high priority prospective clinical trials are testing RE combined with chemotherapy in first line therapy for colorectal hepatic metastases, and combined with sorafenib for hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Fortunately, this beneficial and now widely available therapy is being increasingly incorporated into the standard therapy algorithms of multidisciplinary GI cancer teams worldwide. This form of radiotherapy differs significantly from daily external beam radiotherapy in many ways, particularly in dose rate, dosimetric coverage and duration of radiation delivery, side effects, and patient selection factors. A wealth of experience using RE in solid tumors exists and ongoing major prospective clinical trials will soon clarify the role of RE in the management of metastatic colorectal liver metastases. PMID:24982766

  6. Imaging the Tumor Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    LeBleu, Valerie S

    2015-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment (TME) is a complex, heterogeneous, and dominant component of solid tumors. Cancer imaging strategies of a subset of characteristics of the TME are under active development, and currently used modalities and novel approaches are summarized in this article. Understanding the dynamic and evolving functions of the TME is critical to accurately inform imaging and clinical care of cancer. Novel insights into distinct roles of the TME in cancer progression urge careful interpretation of imaging data and impel the development of novel modalities. PMID:26049696

  7. Gluteal tumoral calcinosis.

    PubMed

    Del Bravo, Valentina; Liuzza, Francesco; Perisano, Carlo; Chalidis, Byron; Marzetti, Emanuele; Colelli, Pamela; Maccauro, Giulio

    2012-01-01

    Tumoral calcinosis is an extremely rare benign condition that is characterised by deposits of calcium hydroxyapatite crystals in periarticular soft tissues. Although it is mainly located around large joints such as the hips, shoulders and elbows, it may also involve the small joints of hand and wrist. There are multiple types of tumoral calcinosis with divergent clinical characteristics but the exact cause is still unknown. We present a literature review to evaluate the location, clinical features, treatment options and results of surgical excision in this condition. Wide resection appears to lead to a good clinical outcome and a low incidence of local relapse. PMID:23233180

  8. Innovations in Intraoperative Tumor Visualization.

    PubMed

    Visgauss, Julia D; Eward, William C; Brigman, Brian E

    2016-01-01

    In the surgical management of solid tumors, adequacy of tumor resection has implications for local recurrence and survival. The standard method of intraoperative identification of tumor margin is frozen section pathologic analysis, which is time-consuming with potential for sampling error. Intraoperative tumor visualization has the potential to significantly improve surgical cancer care across disciplines, by guiding accuracy of biopsies, increasing adequacy of resections, directing adjuvant therapy, and even providing diagnostic information. We provide an outline of various methods of intraoperative tumor visualization developed to aid in the real-time assessment of tumor extent and adequacy of resection. PMID:26614939

  9. Immunoreactive somatostatin in Warthin's tumor.

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Y.; Saito, H.; Saito, S.; Yanagawa, T.; Yoshida, H.; Yura, Y.; Sato, M.

    1986-01-01

    The presence of somatostatin (SRIF) in the neoplastic epithelial cells of certain Warthin's tumors arising in the human parotid gland was found immunohistochemically, whereas the other parotid gland tumors, such as pleomorphic adenoma, oxyphilic adenoma, mucoepidermoid tumor, adenocarcinoma, and adenoid cystic carcinoma, did not show positive immunoreactivity for SRIF. The SRIF-positive Warthin's tumor had dense core granules immunoreactive with anti-SRIF serum. Moreover, a comparatively high concentration of immunoreactive SRIF was detected by radioimmunoassay in an SRIF-positive Warthin's tumor, although the other tumors also contained low levels of immunoreactive SRIF. Images Figure 2 Figure 1 PMID:2871759

  10. Management of orbital tumors.

    PubMed

    Char, D H

    1993-11-01

    Orbital tumors are uncommon. In children, both malignant and benign causes of orbital proptosis necessitate urgent assessment; in many cases, emergent intervention is necessary to avoid blindness. In adults, proptosis is most commonly associated with thyroid orbitopathy. Orbital tumors in adults rarely are characterized by the explosive growth and damage that can occur with childhood lesions. In both age-groups, the evolution of better scanning modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging with fat saturation and gadolinium enhancement, has improved diagnostic accuracy, especially in patients with loss of vision. In more than 95% of cases, noninvasive techniques yield a correct diagnosis. In patients who require nonsurgical intervention, especially if the diagnosis is uncertain, fine-needle aspiration biopsy has an accuracy that exceeds 95%. Combined-modality therapy has improved the control of and decreased the morbidity associated with several orbital tumors. Surgical advances, such as the ancillary use of the CO2 laser, have enhanced the management of some orbital tumors. PMID:8231272

  11. Salivary gland tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    Salivary gland tumors are abnormal cells growing in the tubes (ducts) that drain the salivary glands or the gland itself. ... The salivary glands are located around the mouth. They produce saliva, which moistens food to help with chewing and swallowing. There ...

  12. Tumor-induced osteomalacia

    PubMed Central

    Chong, William H; Molinolo, Alfredo A; Chen, Clara C; Collins, Michael T

    2012-01-01

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare and fascinating paraneoplastic syndrome in which patients present with bone pain, fractures, and muscle weakness. The cause is high blood levels of the recently identified phosphate and vitamin D-regulating hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). In TIO, FGF23 is secreted by mesenchymal tumors that are usually benign, but are typically very small and difficult to locate. FGF23 acts primarily at the renal tubule and impairs phosphate reabsorption and 1?-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, leading to hypophosphatemia and low levels of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D. A step-wise approach utilizing functional imaging (F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and octreotide scintigraphy) followed by anatomical imaging (computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging), and, if needed, selective venous sampling with measurement of FGF23 is usually successful in locating the tumors. For tumors that cannot be located, medical treatment with phosphate supplements and active vitamin D (calcitriol or alphacalcidiol) is usually successful; however, the medical regimen can be cumbersome and associated with complications. This review summarizes the current understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease and provides guidance in evaluating and treating these patients. Novel imaging modalities and medical treatments, which hold promise for the future, are also reviewed. PMID:21490240

  13. Tumor Blood Vessel Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munn, Lance

    2009-11-01

    ``Normalization'' of tumor blood vessels has shown promise to improve the efficacy of chemotherapeutics. In theory, anti-angiogenic drugs targeting endothelial VEGF signaling can improve vessel network structure and function, enhancing the transport of subsequent cytotoxic drugs to cancer cells. In practice, the effects are unpredictable, with varying levels of success. The predominant effects of anti-VEGF therapies are decreased vessel leakiness (hydraulic conductivity), decreased vessel diameters and pruning of the immature vessel network. It is thought that each of these can influence perfusion of the vessel network, inducing flow in regions that were previously sluggish or stagnant. Unfortunately, when anti-VEGF therapies affect vessel structure and function, the changes are dynamic and overlapping in time, and it has been difficult to identify a consistent and predictable normalization ``window'' during which perfusion and subsequent drug delivery is optimal. This is largely due to the non-linearity in the system, and the inability to distinguish the effects of decreased vessel leakiness from those due to network structural changes in clinical trials or animal studies. We have developed a mathematical model to calculate blood flow in complex tumor networks imaged by two-photon microscopy. The model incorporates the necessary and sufficient components for addressing the problem of normalization of tumor vasculature: i) lattice-Boltzmann calculations of the full flow field within the vasculature and within the tissue, ii) diffusion and convection of soluble species such as oxygen or drugs within vessels and the tissue domain, iii) distinct and spatially-resolved vessel hydraulic conductivities and permeabilities for each species, iv) erythrocyte particles advecting in the flow and delivering oxygen with real oxygen release kinetics, v) shear stress-mediated vascular remodeling. This model, guided by multi-parameter intravital imaging of tumor vessel structure and function, provides a tool for identifying the structural and functional determinants of tumor vessel normalization.

  14. Circulating tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Raimondi, Cristina; Nicolazzo, Chiara; Gradilone, Angela; Giannini, Giuseppe; De Falco, Elena; Chimenti, Isotta; Varriale, Elisa; Hauch, Siegfried; Plappert, Linda; Cortesi, Enrico; Gazzaniga, Paola

    2014-01-01

    The hypothesis of the liquid biopsy using circulating tumor cells (CTCs) emerged as a minimally invasive alternative to traditional tissue biopsy to determine cancer therapy. Discordance for biomarkers expression between primary tumor tissue and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has been widely reported, thus rendering the biological characterization of CTCs an attractive tool for biomarkers assessment and treatment selection. Studies performed in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients using CellSearch, the only FDA-cleared test for CTCs assessment, demonstrated a much lower yield of CTCs in this tumor type compared with breast and prostate cancer, both at baseline and during the course of treatment. Thus, although attractive, the possibility to use CTCs as therapy-related biomarker for colorectal cancer patients is still limited by a number of technical issues mainly due to the low sensitivity of the CellSearch method. In the present study we found a significant discordance between CellSearch and AdnaTest in the detection of CTCs from mCRC patients. We then investigated KRAS pathway activating mutations in CTCs and determined the degree of heterogeneity for KRAS oncogenic mutations between CTCs and tumor tissues. Whether KRAS gene amplification may represent an alternative pathway responsible for KRAS activation was further explored. KRAS gene amplification emerged as a functionally equivalent and mutually exclusive mechanism of KRAS pathway activation in CTCs, possibly related to transcriptional activation. The serial assessment of CTCs may represent an early biomarker of treatment response, able to overcome the intrinsic limit of current molecular biomarkers represented by intratumor heterogeneity. PMID:24521660

  15. Primary brain tumors in adults.

    PubMed

    Chandana, Sreenivasa R; Movva, Sujana; Arora, Madan; Singh, Trevor

    2008-05-15

    Primary malignant brain tumors account for 2 percent of all cancers in U.S. adults. The most common malignant brain tumor is glioblastoma multiforme, and patients with this type of tumor have a poor prognosis. Previous exposure to high-dose ionizing radiation is the only proven environmental risk factor for a brain tumor. Primary brain tumors are classified based on their cellular origin and histologic appearance. Typical symptoms include persistent headache, seizures, nausea, vomiting, neurocognitive symptoms, and personality changes. A tumor can be identified using brain imaging, and the diagnosis is confirmed with histopathology. Any patient with chronic, persistent headache in association with protracted nausea, vomiting, seizures, change in headache pattern, neurologic symptoms, or positional worsening should be evaluated for a brain tumor. Magnetic resonance imaging is the preferred initial imaging study. A comprehensive neurosurgical evaluation is necessary to obtain tissue for diagnosis and for possible resection of the tumor. Primary brain tumors rarely metastasize outside the central nervous system, and there is no standard staging method. Surgical resection of the tumor is the mainstay of therapy. Postoperative radiation and chemotherapy have improved survival in patients with high-grade brain tumors. Recent developments in targeted chemotherapy provide novel treatment options for patients with tumor recurrence. Primary care physicians play an important role in the perioperative and supportive treatment of patients with primary brain tumors, including palliative care and symptom control. PMID:18533376

  16. Tumor heterogeneity: causes and consequences

    PubMed Central

    Marusyk, Andriy; Polyak, Kornelia

    2009-01-01

    With rare exceptions, spontaneous tumors originate from a single cell. Yet, at the time of clinical diagnosis, the majority of human tumors display startling heterogeneity in many morphological and physiological features, such as expression of cell surface receptors, proliferative and angiogenic potential. To a substantial extent, this heterogeneity might be attributed to morphological and epigenetic plasticity, but there is also strong evidence for the co-existence of genetically divergent tumor cell clones within tumors. In this perspective, we summarize the sources of intra-tumor phenotypic heterogeneity with emphasis on genetic heterogeneity. We review experimental evidence for the existence of both intra-tumor clonal heterogeneity as well as frequent evolutionary divergence between primary tumors and metastatic outgrowths. Furthermore, we discuss potential biological and clinical implications of intra-tumor clonal heterogeneity. PMID:19931353

  17. Drugs Approved for Brain Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Brain Tumors This page lists cancer drugs approved by ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Brain Tumors Afinitor (Everolimus) Afinitor Disperz (Everolimus) Avastin (Bevacizumab) ...

  18. What Are Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... key statistics about gastrointestinal stromal tumors? What are gastrointestinal stromal tumors? Cancer starts when cells in the ... system, also known as the digestive system. The gastrointestinal system The gastrointestinal (GI) system (or digestive system) ...

  19. How Are Pituitary Tumors Diagnosed?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pituitary tumors are usually found when a person goes to the doctor because of symptoms they are ... you might have a pituitary tumor, the first step is take a complete medical history to check ...

  20. Synchronous multicentric giant cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Ranjana; Biswas, Saumitra; Bandyopadhyay, Sanjay K; Ray, M M

    2010-01-01

    Multicentric giant cell tumors represent less than 1% of all giant cell tumors of bones. We report a case of multicentric giant cell tumors around both the knee joints in a mentally and physically challenged adult male that resulted in rapidly progressive painful swelling, restricted mobility and, ultimately, fixed deformity. These tumors had typical radiological appearance and the diagnosis was confirmed on histopathology. PMID:20479561

  1. Strategy for management of retroperitoneal tumors with caval tumor thrombus.

    PubMed

    Khozeimeh, Nini; Sinha, Pranava; Dome, Jeffrey S; Guzzetta, Philip C

    2011-11-01

    The surgical management of retroperitoneal tumors extending into the inferior vena cava (IVC) can be challenging. Although Wilms' tumor is the most common retroperitoneal tumor extending into the IVC, one must approach these tumors systematically as other diagnoses are possible. We present 4 consecutive cases of retroperitoneal tumors with IVC extension as a basis for a management strategy in approaching these patients. Despite similar presentations, these cases illustrate the nuances in surgical management and need for multidisciplinary care with the pediatric oncologists, pediatric surgeons, and pediatric cardiac surgeons. PMID:22075334

  2. Rechenverfahren des optischen Korrektionsprogrammms "COMO". Teil 1.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, H.

    1989-03-01

    COMO is a program of an orthogonalization type that was developed in order to achieve that each elementary correction step makes immediate use of the shortest possible step in the system data space even if many rigid boundary conditions are to be taken into account (optimization under constraints). COMO usually does not correct aberrations simultaneously (by minimization), but one after the other. The order is given by the optical designer. For each aberration (paraxial data included) one can either specify a target value or a bandwidth between a lower and an upper limit.

  3. Monoclonal Antibodies Targeting Tumor Growth

    Cancer.gov

    The type 1 insulin-like growth factor (IGF) receptor (IGF1R) is over-expressed by many tumors and mediates proliferation, motility, and protection from apoptosis. Agents that inhibit IGF1R expression or function can potentially block tumor growth and metastasis. Its major ligands, IGF-I, and IGF-II are over-expressed by multiple tumor types.

  4. Wnt Down, Tumors Wind Up?

    PubMed

    Krimpenfort, Paul; Berns, Anton

    2015-06-18

    In mouse intestinal tumors induced by the inhibition of APC, the restoration of APC function causes complete tumor regression with normal differentiation and return of stem cell function irrespective of whether tumors also carried mutations in Kras and p53. These findings by Dow et al. validate the Wnt pathway as an exquisite target for intervention. PMID:26091030

  5. Nonodontogenic Tumors of the Jaws.

    PubMed

    Dyalram, Donita; Aslam-Pervez, Nawaf; Lubek, Joshua E

    2016-02-01

    Nonodontogenic tumors of the jaws are common in the pediatric population, accounting for approximately 70% of pediatric jaw tumors. This article focuses on the clinical characteristics and management of the benign nonodontogenic tumors (nonaggressive and aggressive) of the jaws most commonly encountered in children. PMID:26614701

  6. Tumor uptake of radioruthenium compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, S C; Richards, P; Meinken, G E; Larson, S M; Grunbaum, Z

    1980-01-01

    The use of ruthenium-97 as a scintigraphic agent, particularly for tumor localization, is investigated. The tumor uptake of ruthenium chloride and ruthenium-labelled transferrin is evaluated and their application as tumor-imagine agents is compared to gallium-67 citrate. (ACR)

  7. Tumor endothelial marker 1specific DNA vaccination targets tumor vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Facciponte, John G.; Ugel, Stefano; De Sanctis, Francesco; Li, Chunsheng; Wang, Liping; Nair, Gautham; Sehgal, Sandy; Raj, Arjun; Matthaiou, Efthymia; Coukos, George; Facciabene, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Tumor endothelial marker 1 (TEM1; also known as endosialin or CD248) is a protein found on tumor vasculature and in tumor stroma. Here, we tested whether TEM1 has potential as a therapeutic target for cancer immunotherapy by immunizing immunocompetent mice with Tem1 cDNA fused to the minimal domain of the C fragment of tetanus toxoid (referred to herein as Tem1-TT vaccine). Tem1-TT vaccination elicited CD8+ and/or CD4+ T cell responses against immunodominant TEM1 protein sequences. Prophylactic immunization of animals with Tem1-TT prevented or delayed tumor formation in several murine tumor models. Therapeutic vaccination of tumor-bearing mice reduced tumor vascularity, increased infiltration of CD3+ T cells into the tumor, and controlled progression of established tumors. Tem1-TT vaccination also elicited CD8+ cytotoxic T cell responses against murine tumor-specific antigens. Effective Tem1-TT vaccination did not affect angiogenesis-dependent physiological processes, including wound healing and reproduction. Based on these data and the widespread expression of TEM1 on the vasculature of different tumor types, we conclude that targeting TEM1 has therapeutic potential in cancer immunotherapy. PMID:24642465

  8. Immunotherapy and tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Tang, Haidong; Qiao, Jian; Fu, Yang-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Recent exciting progress in cancer immunotherapy has ushered in a new era of cancer treatment. Immunotherapy can elicit unprecedented durable responses in advanced cancer patients that are much greater than conventional chemotherapy. However, such responses only occur in a relatively small fraction of patients. A positive response to immunotherapy usually relies on dynamic interactions between tumor cells and immunomodulators inside the tumor microenvironment (TME). Depending on the context of these interactions, the TME may play important roles to either dampen or enhance immune responses. Understanding the interactions between immunotherapy and the TME is not only critical to dissect the mechanisms of action but also important to provide new approaches in improving the efficiency of current immunotherapies. In this review, we will highlight recent work on how the TME can influence the efficacy of immunotherapy as well as how manipulating the TME can improve current immunotherapy regimens in some cases. PMID:26477683

  9. [Brain tumor stem cells].

    PubMed

    Hide, Takuichiro; Makino, Keishi; Nakamura, Hideo; Yano, Shigetoshi; Kuratsu, Jun-ichi

    2015-05-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most frequent and aggressive brain tumor, and which harbors not only rapidly dividing cells but also small populations of slowly dividing and dormant cells with tumorigenesity-, self-renewal-, and multi-lineage differentiation capabilities. GBM stem cells (GSCs), which are resistant to conventional chemo -radiotherapy and may be a cause of local recurrence and dissemination. Additionally, heterogeneity of GSCs in the same tumor had been shown by the innovation of microarray and sequencing technology. However, outcome in patients with GBM remains unsatisfactory. Accumulation of the clinical evidence and basic research findings targeting for GSCs and their specific microenvironments (GSC niches) raise the possibility of new treatments to overcome GBM. PMID:25985640

  10. Treatment of Bone Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Rajani, Rajiv; Gibbs, C. Parker

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis In this article, the authors summarize the state of the art and future potential in the management of Osteosarcoma, Ewings sarcoma, and Chondrosarcoma. They cover systemic therapy, surgical therapy, and radiotherapy, along with targeted therapies to inhibit signal transduction pathways. They discuss staging and the role of imaging evaluation to provide an overview of bone tumor treatment. Images presenting pathologic-radiologic correlations are included. PMID:22328909

  11. [Biomarkers in solid tumors].

    PubMed

    Nagy, Zsuzsanna

    2013-03-01

    In the past decade the revolutionary development of molecular technology contributed a lot to the increase of our knowledge on cancer. These informations led to the discovery and understanding of those key regulatory changes in the genesis and progression of malignancies that can serve as targets in tumor diagnostics and therapy. One of the main challenges in the research field is to identify the most important molecular networks, the molecular targets, the markers (biomarkers) which can predict therapeutic responsiveness in order to select the appropriate patients, as well as markers to judge the prognosis of the disease. The aims of our study approached some details of the biomarker area and reached certain conclusions: (1) The anti-EGFR therapy, used in the second line or even further, proved to be effective, providing clinical advantage (operability, regression) in 36% of patients carrying wild-type KRAS. G13D mutations were the most frequent among the KRAS-mutants, which, according to current data, could react to anti-EGFR therapy. (2) Extended immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis on colorectal cancer samples (using tissue microarray) found rather few correlations between the IHC estimation and the clinical characteristics related mainly to survival. According to the results with anti-EGFR antibodies in the diagnostic histological samples, the regulatory pathway which rules the proliferation of normal colonic mucosa is also present in colonic cancer cells. This finding is supported by the increased ativity of the downstream members (as RAS, RAF, ERK) of the EGFR signalling. (3) The level of D-dimer increased at least as much as the level of classical tumor markers in the early stages of tumor growth. D-dimer can be considered as a prognostic factor in tumor types studied (breast-, colorectal-, ovarian cancers) and its measurement is advised besides the classical markers. We hope that these results may contribute to the design of a more individual-based and more effective antitumor strategy. PMID:23573523

  12. Targeting tumor acidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshetnyak, Yana K.; Engelman, Donald M.; Andreev, Oleg A.

    2012-02-01

    One of the main features of solid tumors is extracellular acidity, which correlates with tumor aggressiveness and metastatic potential. We introduced novel approach in targeting of acidic tumors, and translocation of cell-impermeable cargo molecules across cellular membrane. Our approach is based on main principle of insertion and folding of a polypeptide in lipid bilayer of membrane. We have identified family of pH Low Insertion Peptides (pHLIPs), which are capable spontaneous insertion and folding in membrane at mild acidic conditions. The affinity of peptides of pHLIP family to membrane at low pH is several times higher than at neutral pH. The process of peptides folding occurs within milliseconds. The energy released in a result of folding (about 2 kcal/mol) could be used to move polar cargo across a membrane, which is a novel concept in drug delivery. pHLIP peptides could be considered as a pH-sensitive single peptide molecular transporters and conjugated with imaging probes for fluorescence, MR, PET and SPECT imaging, they represent a novel in vivo marker of acidity. The work is supported by NIH grants CA133890 and GM073857 to OAA, DME, YRK.

  13. Testis tumor associated to microlithiasis

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus, Lisieux Eyer; Maciel, Felipe; Monnerat, Andrea Lima C.; Fernandes, Marcia Antunes; Dekermache, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To discuss the relationship between testicular microlithiasis and testis tumors in children and to consider the chances of testis preserving surgery in specific cases. CASE DESCRIPTION: Pre-adolescent presenting testicular microlithiasis and a larger left testis, corresponding to a cystic testicular tumor. The tumor was excised, with ipsilateral testis preservation. Histology diagnosed a testis dermoid tumor. COMMENTS: The relationship between testis tumors and testicular microlithiasis is ill defined in children. Pediatric urologists need to develop specific follow-up protocols for pre-pubertal children. PMID:24473964

  14. Diagnostically Challenging Epithelioid Vascular Tumors.

    PubMed

    Ko, Jennifer S; Billings, Steven D

    2015-09-01

    The diagnosis of vascular tumors is a challenging area in soft tissue pathology. Epithelioid vascular tumors pose a particular challenge. Due to the epithelioid morphology of the tumor cells, they can be misdiagnosed as a variety of other entities, including metastatic carcinoma or epithelioid sarcoma. Furthermore, it can be difficult to distinguish between different epithelioid vascular tumors. This review focuses on vascular tumors characterized by epithelioid endothelial cells, including epithelioid hemangioma, cutaneous epithelioid angiomatous nodule, epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, epithelioid sarcomalike hemangioendothelioma/pseudomyogenic hemangioendothelioma, and epithelioid angiosarcoma. PMID:26297060

  15. Stages of Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors Treatment Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors Treatment–Patient Version (PDQ®) General Information About Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors Key Points Childhood extracranial germ cell tumors ...

  16. Treatment Option Overview (Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Professional Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors Treatment Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors Treatment–Patient Version (PDQ®) General Information About Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors Key Points Extragonadal germ cell tumors form ...

  17. General Information about Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Professional Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors Treatment Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors Treatment–Patient Version (PDQ®) General Information About Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors Key Points Extragonadal germ cell tumors form ...

  18. Odontogenic Tumor Markers - An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Premalatha, B R; Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S; Reddy, Narendranatha P; Indu, M

    2013-01-01

    The practice of pathology is currently undergoing significant change, due to advances in the field of molecular pathology. Tumor markers are molecules that help the pathologists for confirmatory diagnosis of histopathologically confounding lesions. Odontogenic tumors are relatively rare with estimated incidence of less than 0.5 cases/ 100,000 population per year. Odontogenic tumors can pose diagnostic challenges because of overlapping histology. But, appropriate diagnosis is crucial as their treatment modality and prognosis differ; in these situations tumor markers can be helpful. But lack of comprehensive literature on specific markers for odontogenic tumors imposes pathologists to think aimlessly about various markers to arrive at an appropriate diagnosis. With this background, it is our attempt at compiling diagnostically important odontogenic tumor markers. Also, a note is added on tumor behaviour studies in common clinically important odontogenic tumors: Ameloblastoma and Keratocystic odontogenic tumor. How to cite this article: Premalatha B R, Patil S, Rao R S, Reddy N P, Indu M. Odontogenic Tumor Markers - An Overview. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(2):65-75. How to cite this article: Premalatha B R, Patil S, Rao R S, Reddy N P, Indu M. Odontogenic Tumor Markers - An Overview. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(2):65-75 PMID:24155593

  19. Laser therapy in intraocular tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carstocea, Benone D.; Gafencu, Otilia L.; Apostol, Silvia

    1995-01-01

    Intraocular tumors present special problems of diagnosis and treatment. Diagnostic methods include, in addition to systemic and ophthalmological examinations, ancillary examinations such as transillumination, fluorescein angiography, ultrasonography, radioactive phosphorus uptake test, radiology, computerized tomography, and fine-needle aspiration biopsy with cytological analyses. Previously, enucleation of the involved eye was generally accepted as management of malignant tumors. Improved therapeutic methods such as photocoagulation and better surgical techniques now provide a variety of therapeutical alternatives. This study consists of 21 cases of intraocular tumors that were managed by Argon laser photocoagulation. Four cases were intraocular metastasis and 17 cases were primitive intraocular tumors. Argon laser therapy proved to be totally ineffective for the intraocular metastasis and a very adequate therapy for the primitive tumors. Tumor extirpations (choroidal, cillary body, or iris tumors) using laser lancet proved to be more suitable than classic surgery.

  20. [Chromogranin A and neuroendocrine tumors].

    PubMed

    Daz Prez, Jos ngel; Currs Freixes, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Chromogranin A (CgA) is the most abundant granin in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs). As a tumor marker is moderately sensitive and nonspecific. Despite the limitations of testing methods, which require careful interpretation, especially in the case of gastrinomas, patients treated with somatostatin analogues, and poorly differentiated tumors, it is the best tumor marker in GEP-NETs and may be of value in other tumors with neuroendocrine differentiation. CgA may be used as a marker in blood or tissue samples through immunohistochemical techniques. CgA levels correlate with tumor burden and extension and may be used for diagnosis and monitoring of GEP-NETs, especially midgut carcinoids and endocrine pancreatic tumors. It is also useful as a prognostic marker for detection of recurrence and monitoring of response to different treatments. PMID:23271036

  1. Mesenchymal tumors of adult kidney.

    PubMed

    Samaratunga, Hemamali; Delahunt, Brett

    2015-03-01

    Mesenchymal tumors of the kidney, although infrequently encountered, constitute a wide spectrum of lesions. The relative rarity of these tumors means that in some instances criteria to differentiate between benign and malignancy are currently incompletely defined. More recently a variety of novel stromal tumors have been characterized, with hemangioblastoma and myopericytoma being notable examples. The identification of a subset of spindle cell tumors as synovial sarcoma, on the basis of the presence of a characteristic genetic translocation, has facilitated the correct classification of a number of tumors previously labeled as fibrosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, or more recently cystic embryonal sarcoma. In this review, we have detailed the spectrum of both benign and malignant stromal tumors of the adult kidney, described the gross and microscopic features, with an emphasis on immunoexpression and the differential diagnosis of each tumor type. PMID:25773128

  2. Tumor size: effect on monoclonal antibody uptake in tumor models

    SciTech Connect

    Hagan, P.L.; Halpern, S.E.; Dillman, R.O.; Shawler, D.L.; Johnson, D.E.; Chen, A.; Krishnan, L.; Frincke, J.; Bartholomew, R.M.; David, G.S.

    1986-03-01

    Studies were performed to determine the effect of tumor size on the incorporation of radiolabeled monoclonal antitumor antibodies (MoAbs) into human tumors growing in nude mice. The colon tumors ranged in size from 0.03-1.6 g, the melanoma from 0.1 to 6.7 g, and the lymphoma from 0.06 to 10.2 g. Indium-111 was primarily used as the radiolabel, however, both 125I and 111In were used as tracers for the MoAb in one experiment. The per g radiopharmaceutical uptake by tumors was inversely proportional to tumor size when tumor specific MoAb was administered. This finding was independent of the radiolabel and was demonstrable when the mice bore two tumors of differing size. When the MoAb was not specific for the tumor, the data were less well defined and a statistically significant correlation with size did not occur. These data are strong evidence for a decrease in per g uptake of labeled tumor specific antibodies as tumors increase in size.

  3. Wnt5a Suppresses Tumor Formation and Redirects Tumor Phenotype in MMTV-Wnt1 Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Easter, Stephanie L.; Mitchell, Elizabeth H.; Baxley, Sarah E.; Desmond, Renee; Frost, Andra R.; Serra, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Wnt5a is a non-canonical signaling Wnt that has been implicated in tumor suppression. We previously showed that loss of Wnt5a in MMTV-PyVmT tumors resulted in a switch in tumor phenotype resulting in tumors with increased basal phenotype and high Wnt/β-catenin signaling. The object of this study was to test the hypothesis that Wnt5a can act to inhibit tumors formed by activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. To this end, we characterized tumor and non-tumor mammary tissue from MMTV-Wnt1 and double transgenic MMTV-Wnt1;MMTV-Wnt5a mice. Wnt5a containing mice demonstrated fewer tumors with increased latency when compared to MMTV-Wnt1 controls. Expression of markers for basal-like tumors was down-regulated in the tumors that formed in the presence of Wnt5a indicating a phenotypic switch. Reduced canonical Wnt signaling was detected in double transgenic tumors as a decrease in active β-catenin protein and a decrease in Axin2 mRNA transcript levels. In non-tumor tissues, over-expression of Wnt5a in MMTV-Wnt1 mammary glands resulted in attenuation of phenotypes normally observed in MMTV-Wnt1 glands including hyperbranching and increased progenitor and basal cell populations. Even though Wnt5a could antagonize Wnt/β-catenin signaling in primary mammary epithelial cells in culture, reduced Wnt/β-catenin signaling was not detected in non-tumor MMTV-Wnt1;Wnt5a tissue in vivo. The data demonstrate that Wnt5a suppresses tumor formation and promotes a phenotypic shift in MMTV-Wnt1 tumors. PMID:25401739

  4. Study of Kidney Tumors in Younger Patients

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-16

    Clear Cell Sarcoma of the Kidney; Congenital Mesoblastic Nephroma; Diffuse Hyperplastic Perilobar Nephroblastomatosis; Rhabdoid Tumor of the Kidney; Stage I Renal Cell Cancer; Stage I Wilms Tumor; Stage II Renal Cell Cancer; Stage II Wilms Tumor; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage III Wilms Tumor; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IV Wilms Tumor; Stage V Wilms Tumor

  5. Primary Neuroendocrine Tumor of Liver (Rare Tumor of Liver)

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Seyed Reza; Ahadi, Mahsa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: A neuroendocrine tumor has known as a neuroendocrine system tumor. Rarely, neuroendocrines have found in other areas, like the liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, kidneys, ovaries or testicles. Case Presentation: We have a 41-year-old woman has referred to our medical center, complaining of fullness and vague pain on her right upper quadrant. The liver scan, sonography, MRI demonstrated multi lobular cysts in 6th and 7 th seg-ments of her liver and chest imaging was normal, oc-terotid scan has not shwon metastatic neuroendocrine tour of liver. Conclusions: Liver could be the location of metastatic neuroendo-crine tumors, for example metastatic carcinoid tumor. Therefore, it was so important to diffrentatiate pri-mary neuroendocrine tumor from metastatic neuro-endocrine tumors. PMID:26855717

  6. Pregnancy and glial brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Yust-Katz, Shlomit; de Groot, John F.; Liu, Diane; Wu, Jimin; Yuan, Ying; Anderson, Mark D.; Conrad, Charles A.; Milbourne, Andrea; Gilbert, Mark R.; Armstrong, Terri S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Improvements in brain tumor treatments have led to an increase in the number of young women with brain tumors who are now considering pregnancy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of pregnancy on brain tumor biology. Methods In this institutional review board-approved retrospective study, we searched the institution's database for patients with glial brain tumors who were pregnant at the time of diagnosis or became pregnant during the course of their illness. We identified 34 such patients and reviewed their charts to determine each patient's clinical course and pregnancy outcome. Results Fifteen patients were diagnosed with a primary brain tumor during pregnancy: 3 with glioblastomas, 6 with grade III gliomas, and 6 with grade II gliomas. Pregnancy was terminated in only 2 of these patients, and the remainder delivered healthy babies. Twenty-three patients became pregnant after diagnosis (4 patients were pregnant at diagnosis and again after diagnosis). Of the patients who became pregnant after diagnosis, the 5 with grade I tumors had stable disease during and after pregnancy. However, of the 18 patients with grade II or III gliomas, 8 (44%) had confirmed tumor progression during pregnancy or within 8 weeks of delivery. Conclusions In contrast to grade I gliomas, the tumor biology of grades II and III gliomas may be altered during pregnancy, leading to an increased risk of tumor progression. These findings support the need for increased tumor surveillance and patient counseling and for additional data collection to further refine these results. PMID:24615863

  7. Cystic tumors of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Morana, Giovanni; Guarise, Alessandro

    2006-01-01

    Cystic tumors of the pancreas are less frequent than solid lesions and are often detected incidentally, as many of these lesions are small and asymptomatic. However, they may be associated with pancreatitis or have malignant potential. With advancements in diagnostic imaging, cystic lesions of the pancreas are being detected with increasing frequency. Many lesions can cause a pancreatic cyst, most being non-neoplastic while approximately 10% are cystic tumors, ranging from benign to highly malignant tumors. With increasing experience it is becoming clear that the prevalence of pseudocyst among cystic lesions of the pancreas is lower than usually presumed. A presumptive diagnosis of pseudocyst based on imaging appearance alone can cause a diagnostic error, and neoplastic cysts of the pancreas are particularly susceptible to this misdiagnosis, which can result in inappropriate treatment. Cystic tumors of the pancreas are formed by serous or mucinous structures showing all stages of cellular differentiation. According to the WHO classification, they can be subdivided on the basis of their histological type and biological behavior into benign tumors, borderline tumors, and malignant tumors. Cystic pancreatic tumors can be subdivided into peripheral (serous cystadenomas, mucinous cystic tumors, solid and papillary epithelial neoplasms, cystic islet cell tumors), which do not communicate with the main pancreatic duct, and ductal tumors (mucinous tumor), according to their site of origin. On the basis of imaging criteria alone, it can be very difficult to differentiate non-tumoral cystic lesions from neoplastic ones. The management of these patients is complex, and it is important to correlate imaging findings with knowledge of the patients symptoms and of the natural history and predictors of malignancy in pancreatic cysts. PMID:16861136

  8. Targeting thapsigargin towards tumors

    PubMed Central

    Doan, Nhu Thi Quynh; Paulsen, Eleonora Sandholdt; Sehgal, Pankaj; Møller, Jesper Vuust; Nissen, Poul; Denmeade, Samuel R.; Isaacs, John T.; Dionne, Craig A.; Christensen, Søren Brøgger

    2015-01-01

    The skin irritating principle from Thapsia garganica was isolated, named thapsigargin and the structure elucidated. By inhibiting the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) thapsigargin provokes apoptosis in almost all cells. By conjugating thapsigargin to peptides, which are only substrates for either prostate specific antigen (PSA) or prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) prodrugs were created, which selectively affect prostate cancer cells or neovascular tissue in tumors. One of the prodrug is currently tested in clinical phase II. The prodrug under clinical trial has been named mipsagargin. PMID:25065587

  9. Role of tumor associated macrophages in tumor angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Riabov, Vladimir; Gudima, Alexandru; Wang, Nan; Mickley, Amanda; Orekhov, Alexander; Kzhyshkowska, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Tumor angiogenesis is an essential process for supplying rapidly growing malignant tissues with essential nutrients and oxygen. An angiogenic switch allows tumor cells to survive and grow, and provides them access to vasculature resulting in metastatic disease. Monocyte-derived macrophages recruited and reprogrammed by tumor cells serve as a major source of angiogenic factors boosting the angiogenic switch. Tumor endothelium releases angiopoietin-2 and further facilitates recruitment of TIE2 receptor expressing monocytes (TEM) into tumor sites. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) sense hypoxia in avascular areas of tumors, and react by production of angiogenic factors such as VEGFA. VEGFA stimulates chemotaxis of endothelial cells (EC) and macrophages. In some tumors, TAM appeared to be a major source of MMP9. Elevated expression of MMP9 by TAM mediates extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and the release of bioactive VEGFA. Other angiogenic factors released by TAM include basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), thymidine phosphorylase (TP), urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), and adrenomedullin (ADM). The same factors used by macrophages for the induction of angiogenesis [like vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and MMP9] support lymphangiogenesis. TAM can express LYVE-1, one of the established markers of lymphatic endothelium. TAM support tumor lymphangiogenesis not only by secretion of pro-lymphangiogenic factors but also by trans-differentiation into lymphatic EC. New pro-angiogenic factor YKL-40 belongs to a family of mammalian chitinase-like proteins (CLP) that act as cytokines or growth factors. Human CLP family comprises YKL-40, YKL-39, and SI-CLP. Production of all three CLP in macrophages is antagonistically regulated by cytokines. It was recently established that YKL-40 induces angiogenesis in vitro and in animal tumor models. YKL-40-neutralizing monoclonal antibody blocks tumor angiogenesis and progression. The role of YKL-39 and SI-CLP in tumor angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis remains to be investigated. PMID:24634660

  10. Modeling Tumor Invasion: Effects of Native Vascularity and Tumor Metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawlinski, Edward

    2001-03-01

    A hybrid cellular automaton model is described and used to simulate early tumor growth and examine the roles of host tissue vascular density and tumor metabolism in the ability of a small number of monoclonal transformed cells to develop into an invasive tumor. The model incorporates normal cells, tumor cells, necrotic or empty space, and a random network of native microvessels as components of a cellular automaton state vector. Diffusion of glucose and lactic acid (the latter resulting from the tumor's excessive reliance on anaerobic metabolism) to and from the microvessels, and their utilization or production by cells, is modeled through the solution of differential equations. In this way, the cells and microvessels affect the extracellular concentrations of glucose and acid which, in turn, affect the rules governing the evolution of the automaton's state vector. Simulations of the model demonstrate that: (i) high tumor acid production is favorable for tumor growth and invasion, however for every acid production rate, there exists a range of optimal microvessel densities (leading to a local pH favorable to tumor but not to normal cells) for which growth and invasion is most effective, (ii) at vascular densities below this range, both tumor and normal cells die due to excessively low pH, (iii) for vascular densities above the optimal range the microvessel network is highly efficient at removing acid and therefore the tumor cells lose their advantage over normal cells gained by high local acid concentration. While significant spatial gradients of glucose formed, no regions of detrimentally poor glucose perfusion (for either cell type) were observed, regardless of microvessel density. Depending on metabolic phenotype, a variety of tumor morphologies similar to those clinically observed were realized in the simulations. Lastly, a sharp transition (analogous to that of the adenoma-carcinoma sequence) between states of initial tumor confinement and efficient invasiveness was observed when acid production reached a critical value.

  11. Multiparametric Classification Links Tumor Microenvironments with Tumor Cell Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Gligorijevic, Bojana; Bergman, Aviv; Condeelis, John

    2014-01-01

    While it has been established that a number of microenvironment components can affect the likelihood of metastasis, the link between microenvironment and tumor cell phenotypes is poorly understood. Here we have examined microenvironment control over two different tumor cell motility phenotypes required for metastasis. By high-resolution multiphoton microscopy of mammary carcinoma in mice, we detected two phenotypes of motile tumor cells, different in locomotion speed. Only slower tumor cells exhibited protrusions with molecular, morphological, and functional characteristics associated with invadopodia. Each region in the primary tumor exhibited either fast- or slow-locomotion. To understand how the tumor microenvironment controls invadopodium formation and tumor cell locomotion, we systematically analyzed components of the microenvironment previously associated with cell invasion and migration. No single microenvironmental property was able to predict the locations of tumor cell phenotypes in the tumor if used in isolation or combined linearly. To solve this, we utilized the support vector machine (SVM) algorithm to classify phenotypes in a nonlinear fashion. This approach identified conditions that promoted either motility phenotype. We then demonstrated that varying one of the conditions may change tumor cell behavior only in a context-dependent manner. In addition, to establish the link between phenotypes and cell fates, we photoconverted and monitored the fate of tumor cells in different microenvironments, finding that only tumor cells in the invadopodium-rich microenvironments degraded extracellular matrix (ECM) and disseminated. The number of invadopodia positively correlated with degradation, while the inhibiting metalloproteases eliminated degradation and lung metastasis, consistent with a direct link among invadopodia, ECM degradation, and metastasis. We have detected and characterized two phenotypes of motile tumor cells in vivo, which occurred in spatially distinct microenvironments of primary tumors. We show how machine-learning analysis can classify heterogeneous microenvironments in vivo to enable prediction of motility phenotypes and tumor cell fate. The ability to predict the locations of tumor cell behavior leading to metastasis in breast cancer models may lead towards understanding the heterogeneity of response to treatment. PMID:25386698

  12. Hypoxia imaging in brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Yetkin, F Zerrin; Mendelsohn, Dianne

    2002-11-01

    Assessment of the oxygenation status of brain tumors has been studied increasingly with imaging techniques in light of recent advances in oncology. Tumor oxygen tension is a critical factor influencing the effectiveness of radiation and chemotherapy and malignant progression. Hypoxic tumors are resistant to treatment, and prognostic value of tumor oxygen status is shown in head and neck tumors. Strategies increasing the tumor oxygenation are being investigated to overcome the compromising [figure: see text] effect of hypoxia on tumor treatment. Administration of nicotinamide and inhalation of various high oxygen concentrations have been implemented. Existing methods for assessment of tissue oxygen level are either invasive or insufficient. Accurate and noninvasive means to measure tumor oxygenation are needed for treatment planning, identification of patients who might benefit from oxygenation strategies, and assessing the efficacy of interventions aimed to increase the radiosensitivity of tumors. Of the various imaging techniques used to assess tissue oxygenation, MR spectroscopy and MR imaging are widely available, noninvasive, and clinically applicable techniques. Tumor hypoxia is related closely to insufficient blood flow through chaotic and partially nonfunctional tumor vasculature and the distance between the capillaries and the tumor cells. Information on characteristics of tumor vasculature such as blood volume, perfusion, and increased capillary permeability can be provided with MR imaging. MR imaging techniques can provide a measure of capillary permeability based on contrast enhancement and relative cerebral blood volume estimates using dynamic susceptibility MR imaging. Blood oxygen level dependent contrast MR imaging using gradient echo sequence is intrinsically sensitive to changes in blood oxygen level. Animal models using blood oxygen level-dependent contrast imaging reveal the different responses of normal and tumor vasculature under hyperoxia. Normobaric hyperoxia is used in MR studies as a method to produce MR contrast in tissues. Increased T2* signal intensity of brain tissue has been observed using blood oxygen level-dependent contrast MR imaging. Dynamic blood oxygen level-dependent contrast MR imaging during hyperoxia is suggested to image tumor oxygenation. Quantification of cerebral oxygen saturation using blood oxygen level-dependent MR imaging also has been reported. Quantification of cerebral blood oxygen saturation using MR imaging has promising clinical applications; however, technical difficulties have to be resolved. Blood oxygen level dependent MR imaging is an emerging technique to evaluate the cerebral blood oxygen saturation, and it has the potential and versatility to assess oxygenation status of brain tumors. Upon improvement and validation of current MR techniques, better diagnostic, prognostic, and treatment monitoring capabilities can be provided for patients with brain tumors. PMID:12687910

  13. Imaging Tumor Necrosis with Ferumoxytol

    PubMed Central

    Aghighi, Maryam; Golovko, Daniel; Ansari, Celina; Marina, Neyssa M.; Pisani, Laura; Kurlander, Lonnie; Klenk, Christopher; Bhaumik, Srabani; Wendland, Michael; Daldrup-Link, Heike E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIO) are promising contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). USPIO mediated proton relaxation rate enhancement is strongly dependent on compartmentalization of the agent and can vary depending on their intracellular or extracellular location in the tumor microenvironment. We compared the T1- and T2-enhancement pattern of intracellular and extracellular USPIO in mouse models of cancer and pilot data from patients. A better understanding of these MR signal effects will enable non-invasive characterizations of the composition of the tumor microenvironment. Materials and Methods Six 4T1 and six MMTV-PyMT mammary tumors were grown in mice and imaged with ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI. R1 relaxation rates were calculated for different tumor types and different tumor areas and compared with histology. The transendothelial leakage rate of ferumoxytol was obtained by our measured relaxivity of ferumoxytol and compared between different tumor types, using a t-test. Additionally, 3 patients with malignant sarcomas were imaged with ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI. T1- and T2-enhancement patterns were compared with histopathology in a descriptive manner as a proof of concept for clinical translation of our observations. Results 4T1 tumors showed central areas of high signal on T1 and low signal on T2 weighted MR images, which corresponded to extracellular nanoparticles in a necrotic core on histopathology. MMTV-PyMT tumors showed little change on T1 but decreased signal on T2 weighted images, which correlated to compartmentalized nanoparticles in tumor associated macrophages. Only 4T1 tumors demonstrated significantly increased R1 relaxation rates of the tumor core compared to the tumor periphery (p<0.001). Transendothelial USPIO leakage was significantly higher for 4T1 tumors (3.40.9x10-3 mL/min/100cm3) compared to MMTV-PyMT tumors (1.00.9x10-3 mL/min/100 cm3). Likewise, ferumoxytol imaging in patients showed similar findings with high T1 signal in areas of tumor necrosis and low signal in areas of intracellularly compartmentalized iron. Conclusion Differential T1- and T2-enhancement patterns of USPIO in tumors enable conclusions about their intracellular and extracellular location. This information can be used to characterize the composition of the tumor microenvironment. PMID:26569397

  14. Ghrelin and tumors.

    PubMed

    Papotti, Mauro; Duregon, Eleonora; Volante, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Since the original discovery of ghrelin and, subsequently, obestatin (the alternative product of the ghrelin gene), a major interest has been devoted to the investigation of their central and peripheral activities in physiological conditions as well as on their role in metabolic diseases. However, several studies with different methodological approaches variably identified ghrelin and obestatin synthesis and secretion in several neoplastic conditions, including neuroendocrine and non-neuroendocrine cancers of various sites. Moreover, in vitro studies showed the capability of ghrelin to modulate tumor cell functions such as cell proliferation, apoptosis and invasiveness, although with variable and even paradoxical effects in different cell models. Interestingly, in most studies, it was demonstrated that ghrelin exerts its pro- or antineoplastic properties by means of receptors other than GHSR1a, that still need to be identified. However, the possible usefulness of the modulation of the ghrelin/obestatin axis in neoplastic conditions using either synthetic agonists or antagonists, though interesting in perspective, is still far from clinical applicability, and probably more related to the regulation of specific metabolic pathways in tumor cells, including lipid and carbohydrate use, than to the specific modulation of cell proliferation. PMID:23652398

  15. Genetics of Primary Intraocular Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Nagarkatti-Gude, Nisha; Wang, Yujuan; Ali, Mohammad Javed; Honavar, Santosh G.; Jager, Martine J.; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2012-01-01

    Primary intraocular neoplasms are tumors that originate within the eye. The most common malignant primary intraocular tumor in adults is uveal melanoma and the second is primary intraocular lymphoma or vitreoretinal (intraocular) lymphoma. The most common malignant intraocular tumor in children is retinoblastoma. Genetics plays a vital role in the diagnosis and detection of ocular tumors. In uveal melanoma, monosomy 3 is the most common genetic alteration and somatic mutations of BAP1, a tumor suppressor gene, have been reported in nearly 50% of primary uveal melanomas. The retinoblastoma gene RB1 is the prototype tumor suppressor genemutations in RB1 alleles lead to inactivated RB protein and the development of retinoblastoma. Immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) or T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement is observed in B-cell or T-cell primary vitreoretinal lymphoma, respectively. Other factors related to the genetics of these three common malignancies in the eye are discussed and reviewed. PMID:22834783

  16. Proton Therapy for Thoracoabdominal Tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Hideyuki; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Sugahara, Shinji; Nakayama, Hidetsugu; Tokuuye, Koichi

    In advanced-stage disease of certain thoracoabdominal tumors, proton therapy (PT) with concurrent chemotherapy may be an option to reduce side effects. Several technological developments, including a respiratory gating system and implantation of fiducial markers for image guided radiation therapy (IGRT), are necessary for the treatment in thoracoabdominal tumors. In this chapter, the role of PT for tumors of the lung, the esophagus, and liver are discussed.

  17. Current management of wilms' tumor.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Leah; Ritchey, Michael

    2010-02-01

    Wilms' tumor is the most common malignant renal tumor in children. Survival has improved dramatically over time as a result of prospective randomized clinical trials conducted by the pediatric cooperative cancer groups. Current research is directed toward identifying low-risk patients for whom a reduction in treatment intensity would decrease long-term morbidity. This article reviews the most recent advances in the biology and treatment of children with Wilms' tumor. PMID:20425639

  18. Growth factors in tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuejing; Nie, Daotai; Chakrabarty, Subhas

    2012-01-01

    Tumor microenvironment plays a critical role in tumor initiation and progression. Components in the microenvironment can modulate the growth of tumor cells, their ability to progress and metastasize. A major venue of communication between tumor cells and their microenvironment is through polypeptide growth factors and receptors for these growth factors. This article discusses three major classes of growth-stimulatory polypeptide growth factors and receptors for these growth factors. It also discusses how deregulation of these growth factors or their receptors can drive malignant transformation and progression. PMID:20036812

  19. Treatment of Pediatric Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Karajannis, Matthias; Allen, Jeffrey C.; Newcomb, Elizabeth W.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decades considerable advances have been made in neurosurgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy resulting in improved survival and cure rates for children with brain tumors. Here we review four of the most common subtypes of pediatric brain tumors, low-grade and high-grade astrocytomas, medulloblastomas and ependymomas, highlighting their molecular features regarding their tumor biology and promising potential therapeutic targets that may hold promise for finding new molecularly targeted drugs. Importantly, appropriate clinical trial design will play a critical role in the evaluation of new and novel treatment approaches for pediatric brain tumors. PMID:18651562

  20. Radiosurgery for Pediatric Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Erin S; Chao, Samuel T; Angelov, Lilyana; Vogelbaum, Michael A; Barnett, Gene; Jung, Edward; Recinos, Violette R; Mohammadi, Alireza; Suh, John H

    2016-03-01

    The utility of radiosurgery for pediatric brain tumors is not well known. For children, radiosurgery may have an important role for treating unresectable tumors, residual disease, or tumors in the recurrent setting that have received prior radiotherapy. The available evidence demonstrates utility for some children with primary brain tumors resulting in good local control. Radiosurgery can be considered for limited residual disease or focal recurrences. However, the potential toxicities are unique and not insignificant. Therefore, prospective studies need to be performed to develop guidelines for indications and treatment for children and reduce toxicity in this population. PMID:26536284

  1. Tumor suppressor and hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Juliette; Dufour, Jean-Franois

    2008-01-01

    A few signaling pathways are driving the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma. Each of these pathways possesses negative regulators. These enzymes, which normally suppress unchecked cell proliferation, are circumvented in the oncogenic process, either the over-activity of oncogenes is sufficient to annihilate the activity of tumor suppressors or tumor suppressors have been rendered ineffective. The loss of several key tumor suppressors has been described in hepatocellular carcinoma. Here, we systematically review the evidence implicating tumor suppressors in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:18350603

  2. Vasculogenic Mimicry and Tumor Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Folberg, Robert; Hendrix, Mary J. C.; Maniotis, Andrew J.

    2000-01-01

    Tumors require a blood supply for growth and hematogenous dissemination. Much attention has been focused on the role of angiogenesisthe recruitment of new vessels into a tumor from pre-existing vessels. However, angiogenesis may not be the only mechanism by which tumors acquire a microcirculation. Highly aggressive and metastatic melanoma cells are capable of forming highly patterned vascular channels in vitro that are composed of a basement membrane that stains positive with the periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) reagent in the absence of endothelial cells and fibroblasts. These channels formed in vitro are identical morphologically to PAS-positive channels in histological preparations from highly aggressive primary uveal melanomas, in the vertical growth phase of cutaneous melanomas, and in metastatic uveal and cutaneous melanoma. The generation of microvascular channels by genetically deregulated, aggressive tumor cells was termed vasculogenic mimicry to emphasize their de novo generation without participation by endothelial cells and independent of angiogenesis. Techniques designed to identify the tumor microcirculation by the staining of endothelial cells may not be applicable to tumors that express vasculogenic mimicry. Although it is not known if therapeutic strategies targeting endothelial cells will be effective in tumors whose blood supply is formed by tumor cells in the absence of angiogenesis, the biomechanical and molecular events that regulate vasculogenic mimicry provide opportunities for the development of novel forms of tumor-targeted treatments. The unique patterning characteristic of vasculogenic mimicry provides an opportunity to design noninvasive imaging techniques to detect highly aggressive neoplasms and their metastases. PMID:10666364

  3. Therapeutic Trial for Patients With Ewing Sarcoma Family of Tumor and Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-01

    Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor; Ewing Sarcoma of Bone or Soft Tissue; Localized Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  4. Putting Tumors in Context

    SciTech Connect

    Bissell, Mina; Radisky, Derek

    2001-10-01

    The interactions between cancer cells and their micro- and macroenvironment create a context that promotes tumor growth and protects it from immune attack. The functional association of cancer cells with their surrounding tissues forms a new 'organ' that changes as malignancy progresses. Investigation of this process might provide new insights into the mechanisms of tumorigenesis and could also lead to new therapeutic targets. Under normal conditions, ORGANS are made up of TISSUES that exchange information with other cell types via cell-cell contact, cytokines and the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM). The ECM, which is produced by collaboration between STROMAL fibroblasts and EPITHELIAL cells, provides structural scaffolding for cells, as well as contextual information. The endothelial vasculature provides nutrients and oxygen, and cells of the immune system combat pathogens and remove apoptotic cells. Epithelial cells associate into intact, polarized sheets. These tissues communicate through a complex network of interactions: physically, through direct contact or through the intervening ECM, and biochemically, through both soluble and insoluble signalling molecules. In combination, these interactions provide the information that is necessary to maintain cellular differentiation and to create complex tissue structures. Occasionally, the intercellular signals that define the normal context become disrupted. Alterations in epithelial tissues can lead to movement of epithelial sheets and proliferation - for example, after activation of mesenchymal fibroblasts due to wounding.Normally, these conditions are temporary and reversible, but when inflammation is sustained, an escalating feedback loop ensues.Under persistent inflammatory conditions, continual upregulation of enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by stromal fibroblasts can disrupt the ECM, and invading immune cells can overproduce factors that promote abnormal proliferation. As this process progresses, the normal organization of the organ is replaced by a functional disorder. If there are pre-existing epithelial cells within this changing context that possess tumorigenic potential, they can start to proliferate. Alternatively, the abnormal interactions might lead to genomic instability within the epithelial cells and the acquisition of tumorigenic potential. The proliferating cancer cells can then interact with their microenvironment and enhance the abnormal interactions. At this point, the tumor has become its own organ, with a distinct context that now defines all its cellular responses. Here, we will examine how the mechanisms that contribute to the normal context also act to suppress developing tumors, how disruption of this context initiates and supports the process of tumorigenicity, and how some cells with a tumorigenic genotype can become phenotypically normal if the context is appropriately manipulated.

  5. Childhood brain tumor epidemiology: a brain tumor epidemiology consortium review.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kimberly J; Cullen, Jennifer; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Ostrom, Quinn T; Langer, Chelsea E; Turner, Michelle C; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Fisher, James L; Lupo, Philip J; Partap, Sonia; Schwartzbaum, Judith A; Scheurer, Michael E

    2014-12-01

    Childhood brain tumors are the most common pediatric solid tumor and include several histologic subtypes. Although progress has been made in improving survival rates for some subtypes, understanding of risk factors for childhood brain tumors remains limited to a few genetic syndromes and ionizing radiation to the head and neck. In this report, we review descriptive and analytical epidemiology childhood brain tumor studies from the past decade and highlight priority areas for future epidemiology investigations and methodological work that is needed to advance our understanding of childhood brain tumor causes. Specifically, we summarize the results of a review of studies published since 2004 that have analyzed incidence and survival in different international regions and that have examined potential genetic, immune system, developmental and birth characteristics, and environmental risk factors. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 23(12); 2716-36. 2014 AACR. PMID:25192704

  6. Intraoperative tumor lysis syndrome in a child with Wilms' tumor

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Mridul; Prakash, Shashi; Pandey, Vaibhav; Pai, Vishal Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Tumor lysis syndrome in an onco-metabolic emergency resulting from massive lysis of rapidly proliferating malignant cells seen commonly in patients with hematological malignancies such as acute lymphocytic leukemia and Burkitt's lymphoma and is quite rare in solid tumors. Spontaneous development of tumor lysis has been described among other trigger factors such as corticosteroid therapy, anesthesia, tumor manipulation during surgery and pyrexia. We describe such a case in a 5-year-old boy posted for excision and staging of a massive Wilms' tumor who developed a hyperkalemic cardiac arrest during the procedure and its subsequent intraoperative and postoperative management. Intraoperative cardiac arrest is a stressful situation for both the anesthesiologist and the surgeon, more so when it involves a child. The aim of this report is to make the anesthesiologist aware of the possibility and occurrence of such a phenomenon in children and be adequately prepared for such an emergency.

  7. Childhood Brain Tumor Epidemiology: A Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium Review

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kimberly J.; Cullen, Jennifer; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.; Ostrom, Quinn T.; Langer, Chelsea E.; Turner, Michelle C.; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Fisher, James L.; Lupo, Philip J.; Partap, Sonia; Schwartzbaum, Judith A.; Scheurer, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood brain tumors are the most common pediatric solid tumor and include several histological subtypes. Although progress has been made in improving survival rates for some subtypes, understanding of risk factors for childhood brain tumors remains limited to a few genetic syndromes and ionizing radiation to the head and neck. In this report, we review descriptive and analytical epidemiology childhood brain tumor studies from the past decade and highlight priority areas for future epidemiology investigations and methodological work that is needed to advance our understanding of childhood brain tumor causes. Specifically, we summarize the results of a review of studies published since 2004 that have analyzed incidence and survival in different international regions and that have examined potential genetic, immune system, developmental and birth characteristics, and environmental risk factors. PMID:25192704

  8. Cystic Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sonal; Rahim, Ahmed Mujib Bangalore; Parakkat, Nithin Kavassery; Kapoor, Shekhar; Mittal, Kumud; Sharma, Bhushan; Shivappa, Anil Bangalore

    2015-01-01

    Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor (AOT) is a well-established benign epithelial lesion of odontogenic origin. Rightfully called the master of disguise, this lesion has been known for its varied clinical and histoarchitectural patterns. Not only does AOT predominantly present radiologically as a unilocular cystic lesion enclosing the unerupted tooth (which is commonly mistaken as a dentigerous cyst) but the lesion also presents rarely with a cystic component histopathologically. We present one such unusual case of cystic AOT associated with an impacted canine, mimicking a dentigerous cyst. The present case aims to highlight the difference between cystic AOT and dentigerous cyst radiographically. The exact histogenesis of AOT and its variants still remains obscure. An attempt has been made to hypothesize the new school of thought regarding the origin of AOT. PMID:26579317

  9. Cathepsins mediate tumor metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Gong-Jun; Peng, Zheng-Ke; Lu, Jin-Ping; Tang, Fa-Qing

    2013-01-01

    Cathepsins are highly expressed in various human cancers, associated with tumor metastasis. It is superfamily, concluding A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, L, K, O, S, V, and W family members. As a group of lysosomal proteinases or endopeptidases, each member has a different function, playing different roles in distinct tumorigenic processes such as proliferation, angiogenesis, metastasis, and invasion. Cathepsins belong to a diverse number of enzyme subtypes, including cysteine proteases, serine proteases and aspartic proteases. The contribution of cathepsins to invasion in human cancers is well documented, although the precise mechanisms by which cathepsins exert their effects are still not clear. In the present review, the role of cathepsin family members in cancer is discussed. PMID:24340132

  10. Hyperphosphatemic tumoral calcinosis.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Saumyaranjan; Ahmad, Zohra; Gupta, Arun K; Mathur, Sandeep R

    2013-01-01

    Tumoral calcinosis (TC) is a rare locally aggressive lesion characterised by extra-articular soft tissue deposition of the calcium phosphate around large joints. The exact aetiology is not known. A 19-year-old boy presented with a painful progressive swelling around the bilateral elbow and left hip joints over a 6-month duration. Routine laboratory results showed a normal haemogram, and normal calcium and high phosphate levels. Imaging showed a soft tissue calcified mass around these joints. The cut surface of the excised mass showed myxoid material with areas of calcification. On microscopy, there were typical features of TC. Our case is being presented due to the rarity of the entity and the peculiar dual energy CT (DECT) finding which are being described for the first time in this pathology. PMID:23645700

  11. Tumor-associated macrophages in cancers.

    PubMed

    Hu, W; Li, X; Zhang, C; Yang, Y; Jiang, J; Wu, C

    2016-03-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are major component of leukocytic infiltrate of tumors and play important roles in progression and regression of tumors. Tumor microenvironment determines the mutual conversion between M1 and M2 macrophages. In many kinds of tumors, M2 type macrophages are of the majority in TAMs and promote tumor progression and metastasis. The dynamic balance and interaction between TAMs and tumor cells have important effects on the occurrence and development of tumor. TAMs in malignant tumors are useful for clinical diagnosis and may provide a novel target for cancer treatment. PMID:26264497

  12. Compensatory angiogenesis and tumor refractoriness

    PubMed Central

    Gacche, R N

    2015-01-01

    Since the establishment of tumor angiogenesis as a therapeutic target, an excitement in developing the anti-angiogenic agents was resulted in tailoring a humanized monoclonal antibody (Bevacizumab) against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF): a key factor in recruiting angiogenesis. The past three decades' research in the area of angiogenesis also invented a series of novel and effective anti-angiogenic agents targeting the VEGF signaling axis. Despite the demonstrable clinical benefits of anti-angiogenic therapy, the preclinical and clinical data of the current therapeutic settings clearly indicate the transient efficacy, restoration of tumor progression and aggressive recurrence of tumor invasion after the withdrawal of anti-angiogenic therapy. Therefore, the impact of this therapeutic regime on improving overall survival of patients has been disappointing in clinic. The recent advances in pathophysiology of tumor angiogenesis and related molecular and cellular underpinnings attributed the conspiracy of compensatory angiogenic pathways in conferring evasive and intrinsic tumor resistance to anti-angiogenic agents. The understandings of how these pathways functionally cross-talk for sustaining tumor angiogenesis during VEGF blockade is essential and perhaps may act as a basic prerequisite for designing novel therapeutic strategies to combat the growing arrogance of tumors toward anti-angiogenic agents. The present review offers a discourse on major compensatory angiogenic pathways operating at cellular and molecular levels and their attributes with resistance to anti-angiogenic agents along with strategic opinions on future setting in targeting tumor angiogenesis. PMID:26029827

  13. Carcinoid tumors and morbid obesity.

    PubMed

    Mottin, Cludio Cor; Cruz, Ricardo Pedrini; Gomes Thom, Gustavo; Padoin, Alexandre Vontobel

    2009-02-01

    Carcinoid is a rare gastrointestinal tumor, with an incidence varying from 1 to 2.5 per 100,000 in the general population. In this article, we report an elevated incidence of carcinoid tumor in an obese population, showing the importance of performing an endoscopic procedure before bariatric surgery. PMID:18506551

  14. Feminizing adrenocortical tumors: Literature review

    PubMed Central

    Chentli, Farida; Bekkaye, Ilyes; Azzoug, Said

    2015-01-01

    Feminizing adrenal tumors (FAT) are extremely rare tumors prevailing in males. Clinical manifestations are gynecomastia and/or other hypogonadism features in adults. They are rarer in pediatric population and their main manifestation is peripheral sexual precocity. In women genital bleeding, uterus hypertrophy, high blood pressure and/or abdomen mass may be the only manifestations. On the biological point, estrogen overproduction with or without increase in other adrenal hormones are the main abnormalities. Radiological examination usually shows the tumor, describes its limits and its eventual metastases. Adrenal and endocrine origins are confirmed by biochemical assessments and histology, but that one is unable to distinguish between benign and malignant tumors, except if metastases are already present. Immunostaining using anti-aromatase antibodies is the only tool that distinguishes FAT from other adrenocortical tumors. Abdominal surgery is the best and the first line treatment. For large tumors (≥10 cm), an open access is preferred to coeliosurgery, but for the small ones, or when the surgeon is experienced, endoscopic surgery seems to give excellent results. Surgery can be preceded by adrenolytic agents such as ortho paraprime dichloro diphenyl dichloroethane (Mitotane), ketoconazole or by aromatase inhibitors, but till now there is not any controlled study to compare the benefit of different drugs. New anti-estrogens can be used too, but their results need to be confirmed in malignant tumors resistant to classical chemotherapy and to conventional radiotherapy. Targeted therapy can be used too, as in other adrenocortical tumors, but the results need to be confirmed. PMID:25932386

  15. Imaging probe for tumor malignancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Shotaro; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae; Hiraoka, Hasahiro

    2009-02-01

    Solid tumors possess unique microenvironments that are exposed to chronic hypoxic conditions ("tumor hypoxia"). Although more than half a century has passed since it was suggested that tumor hypoxia correlated with poor treatment outcomes and contributed to cancer recurrence, a fundamental solution to this problem has yet to be found. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) is the main transcription factor that regulates the cellular response to hypoxia. It induces various genes whose functions are strongly associated with malignant alteration of the entire tumor. The cellular changes induced by HIF-1 are extremely important targets of cancer therapy, particularly in therapy against refractory cancers. Imaging of the HIF-1-active microenvironment is therefore important for cancer therapy. To image HIF-1activity in vivo, we developed a PTD-ODD fusion protein, POHA, which was uniquely labeled with near-infrared fluorescent dye at the C-terminal. POHA has two functional domains: protein transduction domain (PTD) and VHL-mediated protein destruction motif in oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domain of the alpha subunit of HIF-1 (HIF-1?). It can therefore be delivered to the entire body and remain stabilized in the HIF-1-active cells. When it was intravenously injected into tumor-bearing mice, a tumor-specific fluorescence signal was detected in the tumor 6 h after the injection. These results suggest that POHA can be used an imaging probe for tumor malignancy.

  16. Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC)

    Cancer.gov

    The Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium is an open scientific forum organized to foster the development of multi-center, international and inter-disciplinary collaborations that will lead to a better understanding of the etiology, outcomes, and prevention of brain tumors.

  17. [Differential diagnosis of pigmented tumors].

    PubMed

    Hundeiker, M

    1979-05-10

    Some frequent diagnostic problems and the most important clinical and histologic criteria in differential diagnosis of malignant melanomas, benign pigment cell nevi, melanotic epithelial neoplastic lesions and frequent haemosiderotic tumors are delineated in a condensed survey. Considering the variety of diagnostic errors, one should never treat respectively destroy pigmented tumors of the skin without histologic investigation. PMID:218872

  18. Compensatory angiogenesis and tumor refractoriness.

    PubMed

    Gacche, R N

    2015-01-01

    Since the establishment of tumor angiogenesis as a therapeutic target, an excitement in developing the anti-angiogenic agents was resulted in tailoring a humanized monoclonal antibody (Bevacizumab) against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF): a key factor in recruiting angiogenesis. The past three decades' research in the area of angiogenesis also invented a series of novel and effective anti-angiogenic agents targeting the VEGF signaling axis. Despite the demonstrable clinical benefits of anti-angiogenic therapy, the preclinical and clinical data of the current therapeutic settings clearly indicate the transient efficacy, restoration of tumor progression and aggressive recurrence of tumor invasion after the withdrawal of anti-angiogenic therapy. Therefore, the impact of this therapeutic regime on improving overall survival of patients has been disappointing in clinic. The recent advances in pathophysiology of tumor angiogenesis and related molecular and cellular underpinnings attributed the conspiracy of compensatory angiogenic pathways in conferring evasive and intrinsic tumor resistance to anti-angiogenic agents. The understandings of how these pathways functionally cross-talk for sustaining tumor angiogenesis during VEGF blockade is essential and perhaps may act as a basic prerequisite for designing novel therapeutic strategies to combat the growing arrogance of tumors toward anti-angiogenic agents. The present review offers a discourse on major compensatory angiogenic pathways operating at cellular and molecular levels and their attributes with resistance to anti-angiogenic agents along with strategic opinions on future setting in targeting tumor angiogenesis. PMID:26029827

  19. Feminizing adrenocortical tumors: Literature review.

    PubMed

    Chentli, Farida; Bekkaye, Ilyes; Azzoug, Said

    2015-01-01

    Feminizing adrenal tumors (FAT) are extremely rare tumors prevailing in males. Clinical manifestations are gynecomastia and/or other hypogonadism features in adults. They are rarer in pediatric population and their main manifestation is peripheral sexual precocity. In women genital bleeding, uterus hypertrophy, high blood pressure and/or abdomen mass may be the only manifestations. On the biological point, estrogen overproduction with or without increase in other adrenal hormones are the main abnormalities. Radiological examination usually shows the tumor, describes its limits and its eventual metastases. Adrenal and endocrine origins are confirmed by biochemical assessments and histology, but that one is unable to distinguish between benign and malignant tumors, except if metastases are already present. Immunostaining using anti-aromatase antibodies is the only tool that distinguishes FAT from other adrenocortical tumors. Abdominal surgery is the best and the first line treatment. For large tumors (?10 cm), an open access is preferred to coeliosurgery, but for the small ones, or when the surgeon is experienced, endoscopic surgery seems to give excellent results. Surgery can be preceded by adrenolytic agents such as ortho paraprime dichloro diphenyl dichloroethane (Mitotane), ketoconazole or by aromatase inhibitors, but till now there is not any controlled study to compare the benefit of different drugs. New anti-estrogens can be used too, but their results need to be confirmed in malignant tumors resistant to classical chemotherapy and to conventional radiotherapy. Targeted therapy can be used too, as in other adrenocortical tumors, but the results need to be confirmed. PMID:25932386

  20. TUMOR PROMOTION IN RAT LIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    An initiation promotion bioassay for chemical carcinogens and tumor promoters has been developed in rat liver using presumed preneoplastic lesions, foci of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGTase)-positive hepatocytes, as the endpoint. To evaluate the tumor-promoting activity of phe...

  1. [Recent advances in transmissible tumors].

    PubMed

    Tingting, Yin; Lu, Wang; Guodong, Wang

    2015-11-01

    Transmissible tumors are a class of tumor that can be transmitted between individuals through living cells. So far, four types of transmissible tumors including canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT),Tasmanian devil facial tumor disease (DFTD), soft-shell clams leukemia (SSCL), and hamsters reticulum cell sarcoma (HRCS)have been discovered and identified. In the last decades, these transmissible tumors have been proved to be transmitted through living cells by cytological, histological and genetic studies. CTVT, the oldest mammalian somatic cell line, and DFTD originated from Schwann cell have been reported to avoid immunological recognition by down-regulating MHC expression, while a high copy number of Steamer retrotransposon is commonly exist in SSCL. In recent years, the whole-genome sequencing of CTVT and DFTD have been completed which facilitates studies on the mechanisms of tumorigenesis, transmission and evolution of transmissible tumors at the whole-genome level. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in transmissible tumors and discuss the research focus in next decade. PMID:26582522

  2. Chemotherapy for Malignant Intraocular Tumors.

    PubMed

    Shah, Chirag P; Shields, Carol L; Shields, Jerry A

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapeutic approaches, including chemoreduction (CRD), chemothermotherapy, as well as periocular, intravitreal, and intra-arterial chemotherapy, are effective tools in managing different types of ocular tumors. Treatments are often individualized to patient and tumor types to yield best possible outcomes. Due to space limitations, this chapter will focus on CRD and intra-arterial chemotherapy for retinoblastoma. PMID:26501748

  3. [Resection of chest wall tumors].

    PubMed

    Togashi, Ken-ichi; Yamato, Yasushi; Kitahara, Tetsuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Forty-six consecutive patients with chest wall tumors undergoing resection between 1981 and 2012 were analyzed. There were 29 male and 17 female patients, with ages ranging from 15 to 77 years. Seventeen patients had primary malignant neoplasms, 22 had benign tumors, and 7 metastases. The primary malignant tumors were located in the ribs in 16 patients and sternum in one. They were resected en bloc in all patients. Reconstruction was with Gore-Tex( expanded polytetrafluoroethylene:ePTFE) in 13 patients. There was no operative death and 1 hospital death. All patients with benign tumors survived. All patients with metastases died within 3 years. Seven patients with primary malignant neoplasms without reconstruction survived, while 5 of 10 patients undergoing reconstruction died between 5 and 99 months. Aggressive resection for a chest wall tumor with reliable reconstruction can be accomplished safely, and wide resection is a potentially curative treatment. PMID:24743409

  4. Developmental origins of brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chong; Zong, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Brain tumors are devastating due to the high fatality rate and the devastating impact on life qualities of patients. Recent advancement of comparative transcriptome profiling tools and mouse genetic models has greatly deepened our understanding of the developmental origins of these tumors, which could lead to effective therapeutic strategies. We review recent progresses in three types of brain tumors: ependymoma, medulloblastoma, and malignant glioma. The conceptual framework established by these studies converged on three important aspects. First, subtypes in each tumor group originate from distinct cell types. Second, each cell-of-origin is uniquely sensitive to some but not other genetic mutations. Lastly, mutant stem cells may not transform until they differentiate into more restricted progenitor cell type. Overall, these findings indicate the existence of intricate interactions between gene mutations and developmental context for the formation of brain tumors. PMID:22560511

  5. [Radiological evaluation of congenital tumors].

    PubMed

    Aguado del Hoyo, A; Ruiz Martn, Y; Lancharro Zapata, ; Marn Rodrguez, C; Gordillo Gutirrez, I

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we consider tumors that are diagnosed during pregnancy or in the first three months of life. This is a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with special biological and epidemiological characteristics that differentiate them from tumors arising in children or adults. In the last two decades, the prenatal detection of congenital tumors has increased due to the generalized use of prenatal sonographic screening. Advances in imaging techniques, especially in fetal magnetic resonance imaging, have enabled improvements in the diagnosis, follow-up, clinical management, and perinatal treatment of these tumors. This image-based review of the most common congenital tumors describes their histologic types, locations, and characteristics on the different imaging techniques used. PMID:26115799

  6. Advances in understanding pituitary tumors

    PubMed Central

    Renner, Ulrich; Karl Stalla, Gnter

    2014-01-01

    Pituitary tumors are common in the general population. Since neuroimaging techniques have improved, pituitary tumors are more often diagnosed incidentally. About 16.7% of the general population show changes in the pituitary gland. Predominantly, pituitary tumors are benign pituitary adenomas. Pituitary carcinomas or aggressive pituitary tumors are extremely rare. They might develop from benign adenomas. New genetic and epigenetic abnormalities help us to understand pituitary tumorigenesis and might lead to therapeutical targeting drugs in the future. Macroadenomas (>1 cm) can lead to visual field disturbances, compression of cranial nerves, hypopituitarism, and infiltration of the cavernous sinuses. The functional status of the pituitary tumor is important. About half to one third of all pituitary tumors are non-functioning pituitary adenomas. The other pituitary tumors show a specific pattern of hormone secretion. About 25% to 41% of all pituitary tumors are prolactinomas, acromegaly with production of growth hormone represents 10% to 15% of adenomas, Cushing's disease with production of adrenocorticotropic hormone accounts for 10%, and other hormonal characteristics are less common. Transsphenoidal resection and total adenomectomy are desirable. Radiosurgery has enriched the surgical treatment options. Surgical treatment is the intervention of choice except for prolactinomas, where pharmaceutical treatment is recommended. Pharmaceutical treatment consists of dopamine agonists such as cabergoline and somatostatin analogues that include octreotide and pasireotide; retinoic acid is of theoretical interest while peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma-ligands are not clinically useful. In acromegaly, pegvisomant is a further treatment option. Temozolomide should be considered in aggressive pituitary tumors. In general, pharmaceutical options developed recently have extended the repertoire of treatment possibilities of pituitary tumors. PMID:24592317

  7. Two-compartment tumor metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Ahmed F.; Whitaker-Menezes, Diana; Lin, Zhao; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E.; Tanowitz, Herbert B.; Al-Zoubi, Mazhar Salim; Howell, Anthony; Pestell, Richard G.; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Previously, we proposed a new paradigm to explain the compartment-specific role of autophagy in tumor metabolism. In this model, autophagy and mitochondrial dysfunction in the tumor stroma promotes cellular catabolism, which results in the production of recycled nutrients. These chemical building blocks and high-energy fuels would then drive the anabolic growth of tumors, via autophagy resistance and oxidative mitochondrial metabolism in cancer cells. We have termed this new form of stromal-epithelial metabolic coupling: two-compartment tumor metabolism. Here, we stringently tested this energy-transfer hypothesis, by genetically creating (1) constitutively autophagic fibroblasts, with mitochondrial dysfunction or (2) autophagy-resistant cancer cells, with increased mitochondrial function. Autophagic fibroblasts were generated by stably overexpressing key target genes that lead to AMP-kinase activation, such as DRAM and LKB1. Autophagy-resistant cancer cells were derived by overexpressing GOLPH3, which functionally promotes mitochondrial biogenesis. As predicted, DRAM and LKB1 overexpressing fibroblasts were constitutively autophagic and effectively promoted tumor growth. We validated that autophagic fibroblasts showed mitochondrial dysfunction, with increased production of mitochondrial fuels (L-lactate and ketone body accumulation). Conversely, GOLPH3 overexpressing breast cancer cells were autophagy-resistant, and showed signs of increased mitochondrial biogenesis and function, which resulted in increased tumor growth. Thus, autophagy in the tumor stroma and oxidative mitochondrial metabolism (OXPHOS) in cancer cells can both dramatically promote tumor growth, independently of tumor angiogenesis. For the first time, our current studies also link the DNA damage response in the tumor microenvironment with Warburg-like cancer metabolism, as DRAM is a DNA damage/repair target gene. PMID:22722266

  8. Tumor significant dose

    SciTech Connect

    Supe, S.J.; Nagalaxmi, K.V.; Meenakshi, L.

    1983-01-01

    In the practice of radiotherapy, various concepts like NSD, CRE, TDF, and BIR are being used to evaluate the biological effectiveness of the treatment schedules on the normal tissues. This has been accepted as the tolerance of the normal tissue is the limiting factor in the treatment of cancers. At present when various schedules are tried, attention is therefore paid to the biological damage of the normal tissues only and it is expected that the damage to the cancerous tissues would be extensive enough to control the cancer. Attempt is made in the present work to evaluate the concent of tumor significant dose (TSD) which will represent the damage to the cancerous tissue. Strandquist in the analysis of a large number of cases of squamous cell carcinoma found that for the 5 fraction/week treatment, the total dose required to bring about the same damage for the cancerous tissue is proportional to T/sup -0.22/, where T is the overall time over which the dose is delivered. Using this finding the TSD was defined as DxN/sup -p/xT/sup -q/, where D is the total dose, N the number of fractions, T the overall time p and q are the exponents to be suitably chosen. The values of p and q are adjusted such that p+q< or =0.24, and p varies from 0.0 to 0.24 and q varies from 0.0 to 0.22. Cases of cancer of cervix uteri treated between 1978 and 1980 in the V. N. Cancer Centre, Kuppuswamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore, India were analyzed on the basis of these formulations. These data, coupled with the clinical experience, were used for choice of a formula for the TSD. Further, the dose schedules used in the British Institute of Radiology fraction- ation studies were also used to propose that the tumor significant dose is represented by DxN/sup -0.18/xT/sup -0.06/.

  9. Precision radiotherapy for brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Ying; Guo, Zhanwen; Zhang, Haibo; Wang, Ning; Xu, Ying

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Precision radiotherapy plays an important role in the management of brain tumors. This study aimed to identify global research trends in precision radiotherapy for brain tumors using a bibliometric analysis of the Web of Science. DATA RETRIEVAL: We performed a bibliometric analysis of data retrievals for precision radiotherapy for brain tumors containing the key words cerebral tumor, brain tumor, intensity-modulated radiotherapy, stereotactic body radiation therapy, stereotactic ablative radiotherapy, imaging-guided radiotherapy, dose-guided radiotherapy, stereotactic brachytherapy, and stereotactic radiotherapy using the Web of Science. SELECTION CRITERIA: Inclusion criteria: (a) peer-reviewed articles on precision radiotherapy for brain tumors which were published and indexed in the Web of Science; (b) type of articles: original research articles and reviews; (c) year of publication: 2002-2011. Exclusion criteria: (a) articles that required manual searching or telephone access; (b) Corrected papers or book chapters. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: (1) Annual publication output; (2) distribution according to country; (3) distribution according to institution; (4) top cited publications; (5) distribution according to journals; and (6) comparison of study results on precision radiotherapy for brain tumors. RESULTS: The stereotactic radiotherapy, intensity-modulated radiotherapy, and imaging-guided radiotherapy are three major methods of precision radiotherapy for brain tumors. There were 260 research articles addressing precision radiotherapy for brain tumors found within the Web of Science. The USA published the most papers on precision radiotherapy for brain tumors, followed by Germany and France. European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, German Cancer Research Center and Heidelberg University were the most prolific research institutes for publications on precision radiotherapy for brain tumors. Among the top 13 research institutes publishing in this field, seven are in the USA, three are in Germany, two are in France, and there is one institute in India. Research interests including urology and nephrology, clinical neurology, as well as rehabilitation are involved in precision radiotherapy for brain tumors studies. CONCLUSION: Precision radiotherapy for brain tumors remains a highly active area of research and development. PMID:25624798

  10. ABT-751 in Treating Young Patients With Refractory Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-03-14

    Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors; Childhood Germ Cell Tumor; Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Kidney Cancer; Liver Cancer; Neuroblastoma; Ovarian Cancer; Sarcoma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  11. Sorafenib Tosylate in Treating Patients With Progressive Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-11-14

    Gastrinoma; Glucagonoma; Insulinoma; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Neuroendocrine Tumor; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma; Somatostatinoma; WDHA Syndrome

  12. Regorafenib in Treating Patients With Advanced or Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-29

    Gastrinoma; Glucagonoma; Insulinoma; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Pulmonary Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma; Somatostatinoma

  13. Tumor-associated macrophages (not tumor cells) are the determinants of photosensitizer tumor localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korbelik, Mladen; Krosl, Gorazd

    1995-03-01

    The distribution of Photofrin and several other photosensitizers among major cellular populations contained in solid mouse tumors was examined using flow cytometry. Seven tumor models were included in the analysis: sarcomas EMT6, KHT, RIF, FsaR and FsaN, Lewis lung carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma SCCVII. In all these tumors, the highest photosensitizer levels were found in a subpopulation of tumor associated macrophages consisting of activated cells (as suggested by their increased size, granularity, and the number of interleukin 2 receptors). There was no evidence of selective photosensitizer accumulation in malignant tumor cells. Results consistent with these observations were also obtained with the carcinogen induced squamous cell carcinoma growing in hamster cheek pouch.

  14. Studies on the tumor initiating, tumor promoting, and tumor co-initiating properties of respiratory carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Nesnow, S.; Triplett, L.L.; Slaga, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    With mouse skin as the bioassay model, the multifaceted behavior of chemicals and mixtures can be elucidated using the protocols of tumor initiation, tumor promotion, tumor co-initiation, and complete carcinogenesis. In addition to studies with individual respiratory carcinogens, we report the tumorigenic and carcinogenic effects of complex environmental mixtures. We sought to compare the potency of human respiratory carcinogens, based on epidemiological data, with the bioassay potency data obtained from mouse skin tumor initiation and mouse skin complete carcinogenesis experiments as well as the bioassay potency data obtained from short-term genetic toxicology bioassays. Three human respiratory carcinogens were used: emissions from coke ovens, emissions from roofing tar pots, and cigarette smoke. When the potency obtained from mouse skin tumor initiation experiments of these materials was compared with the potency based on human respiratory cancer, a surprisingly close correlation was observed. 10 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs. (DT)

  15. Spontaneous Tumor Lysis Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kimple, Michelle E.

    2015-01-01

    Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a known complication of malignancy and its treatment. The incidence varies on malignancy type, but is most common with hematologic neoplasms during cytotoxic treatment. Spontaneous TLS is thought to be rare. This case study is of a 62-year-old female admitted with multisystem organ failure, with subsequent diagnosis of aggressive B cell lymphoma. On admission, laboratory abnormalities included renal failure, elevated uric acid (20.7 mg/dL), and 3+ amorphous urates on urinalysis. Oliguric renal failure persisted despite aggressive hydration and diuretic use, requiring initiation of hemodialysis prior to chemotherapy. Antihyperuricemic therapy and hemodialysis were used to resolve hyperuricemia. However, due to multisystem organ dysfunction syndrome with extremely poor prognosis, the patient ultimately expired in the setting of a terminal ventilator wean. Although our patient did not meet current TLS criteria, she required hemodialysis due to uric acid nephropathy, a complication of TLS. This poses the clinical question of whether adequate diagnostic criteria exist for spontaneous TLS and if the lack of currently accepted guidelines has resulted in the underestimation of its incidence. Allopurinol and rasburicase are commonly used for prevention and treatment of TLS. Although both drugs decrease uric acid levels, allopurinol mechanistically prevents formation of the substrate rasburicase acts to solubilize. These drugs were administered together in our patient, although no established guidelines recommend combined use. This raises the clinical question of whether combined therapy is truly beneficial or, conversely, detrimental to patient outcomes.

  16. Laser therapy in ocular tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carstocea, Benone D.; Gafencu, Otilia L.; Apostol, Silvia; Ionita, Marcel A.; Moroseanu, A.; Dascalu, Traian; Lupei, Voicu; Ionita-Manzatu, V.

    1998-07-01

    The medical laser equipments made at NILPRP have been exploited intensively for more than 10 years at CMH. The availability and reliability of the first like-on equipment have increased, following improvements in optical delivery system and cooling circuit. This paper shows the impact of technical advances on the development of ophthalmologic laser therapy. Intraocular tumors pose special problems of diagnosis and treatment. Diagnostic methods include addition to systemic and ophthalmologic examinations, ancillary examinations, such as transillumination, fluorescence angiography, ultrasonography, radioactive phosphorus uptake tests, radiology, computerized tomography and fine-needle aspiration biopsy with cytological analyses. The enucleation of the involved eye used to be a generally accepted management of malignant tumors. Improved therapeutic methods such as photocoagulation and better surgical techniques now provide a variety of therapeutic alternatives. This study covers 31 cases of intraocular tumors that were managed either by Argon Laser photocoagulation and/or by Nd:YAG laser surgical treatment. Four cases were intraocular metastasse and 17 cases were primitive intraocular tumors. Argon laser therapy proved to be totally ineffective for intraocular metastasse but very adequate therapy for primitive tumors. Tumor extirpations (choroidal, cillary body or iris tumors) using Nd:YAG laser lancet proved to be more suitable than classic surgery.

  17. Tumor Targeting via Integrin Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Marelli, Udaya Kiran; Rechenmacher, Florian; Sobahi, Tariq Rashad Ali; Mas-Moruno, Carlos; Kessler, Horst

    2013-01-01

    Selective and targeted delivery of drugs to tumors is a major challenge for an effective cancer therapy and also to overcome the side-effects associated with current treatments. Overexpression of various receptors on tumor cells is a characteristic structural and biochemical aspect of tumors and distinguishes them from physiologically normal cells. This abnormal feature is therefore suitable for selectively directing anticancer molecules to tumors by using ligands that can preferentially recognize such receptors. Several subtypes of integrin receptors that are crucial for cell adhesion, cell signaling, cell viability, and motility have been shown to have an upregulated expression on cancer cells. Thus, ligands that recognize specific integrin subtypes represent excellent candidates to be conjugated to drugs or drug carrier systems and be targeted to tumors. In this regard, integrins recognizing the RGD cell adhesive sequence have been extensively targeted for tumor-specific drug delivery. Here we review key recent examples on the presentation of RGD-based integrin ligands by means of distinct drug-delivery systems, and discuss the prospects of such therapies to specifically target tumor cells. PMID:24010121

  18. Ovarian tumors of the hen.

    PubMed Central

    Fredrickson, T N

    1987-01-01

    Present available information regarding ovarian tumors in hens is incomplete in most aspects, and this lack of knowledge hampers use of hens as models for study of ovarian cancer. A study of 466 hens ranging from 2 to 7 years of age and covering a period of more than 3 years has provided much needed information relative to reproductive tract neoplasia. On the basis of this study, it is apparent that hens have a high rate of ovarian tumors, but that such tumors are uncommon in hens less than 2 years of age. Adenocarcinomas with a high degree of morphologic variability are the most common ovarian tumors in hens. Hormonal imbalance does not appear to be a factor in the development of these adenocarcinomas. Steroidogenic and morphologically distinctive granulosa cell tumors originating from follicles in atrophic ovaries represent another common ovarian tumor type. Unique to the hen are oviductal adenocarcinomas. These tumors arise from the albumin-secreting glands of the oviduct, occur with relatively high frequency, and must be differentiated from ovarian adenocarcinomas. Images PLATE 1. PLATE 2. PLATE 3. PLATE 4. PLATE 5. PLATE 6. PLATE 7. PLATE 8. PLATE 9. PLATE 10. PLATE 11. PLATE 12. PLATE 13. PLATE 14. PLATE 15. PLATE 16. PLATE 17. PLATE 18. PLATE 19. PLATE 20. PLATE 21. PLATE 22. PLATE 23. PLATE 24. PLATE 25. PMID:3665870

  19. [Gastrointestinal stromal tumors: conceptual evolution].

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Ismael B; Spitale, Luis S; Gramtica, Luis; Cejas, Hugo; Piccinni, Daniel J; Ghirardi, Graciela

    2006-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) constitute the largest category of primary nonepithelial neoplasms of the stomach and small bowel. They represent about 1-2% from all neoplasms of the digestive tract. They occur most commonly in the stomach and small bowel, but small series of comparable tumors have also been reported in all the other parts of the tubular gastrointestinal tract, including esophagus, colon, rectum and anus. They can also involve omentum, mesentery, uterus, retroperitoneum, mesocolon and soft tissues. Originally recognized in 1960 by Martin et. al. as a distinctive type of stromal neoplasm of the bowel, they were subsequently reported by Stout, who introduced the term leiomyoblastoma. Because of difficulties in accurately predicting the biologic behavior of these tumors, the term "smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential" (SMTUMP) has been introduced for borderline tumors. In 1983, Mazur and Clark coined the term gastrointestinal stromal tumor and suggested that these neoplasms might arise from the myenteric nervous system. Some studies have reported evidence of neuronal cell differentiation in a proportion of GISTs and the term "gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumor (GANT) has been introduced. Kindblom et al are providing cogent arguments to suggest that GISTs show differentiation toward interstitial Cajal cells (pacemaker cells of the gastrointestinal tract). Inmunohistochemically the GISTs often reveal inmunoreactivity for vimentin. CD34 and CD 117. The aim of this paper is to perform and analysis of the historic evolution and conceptual of the GISTs. PMID:17639807

  20. Tumor immunity following cryosurgery or electrocauterization.

    PubMed

    Bagley, D H; Faraci, R P

    1978-12-01

    Cryosurgery of MCA-10 in C57BL mice resulted in significantly greater humoral and lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity to MCA-10 target cells than in untreated, tumor-bearing mice or animals which had undergone tumor amputation. This result was tumor specific and could be reproduced by treatment of the tumor-bearing and amputated mice with frozen exogenous tumor antigen. A similar response was produced by electrocauterization of tumor. PMID:748796

  1. Diagnostically Challenging Epithelioid Soft Tissue Tumors.

    PubMed

    James, Aaron W; Dry, Sarah M

    2015-09-01

    In this article, we focus on the histologic features, differential diagnosis, and potential pitfalls in the diagnosis of epithelioid sarcoma, alveolar soft part sarcoma, clear-cell sarcoma, ossifying fibromyxoid tumor, and malignant extrarenal rhabdoid tumor. Numerous other soft tissue tumors also may have epithelioid variants or epithelioid features. Examples include epithelioid angiosarcoma, epithelioid malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, epithelioid gastrointestinal stromal tumor, and perivascular epithelioid cell tumor, among others. PMID:26297059

  2. Tumores de hipófisis—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del tumor de hipófisis, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados.

  3. Tumores extracraneales de células germinativas—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del tumor extracraneal de células germinativas en los niños, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

  4. Tumores extracraneales de células germinativas—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre el tratamiento del tumor extracraneal de células germinativas en los niños, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

  5. Therapeutic modalities for Pancoast tumors

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaos, Panagopoulos; Vasilios, Livaditis; Efstratios, Koletsis; Panagiotis, Alexopoulos; Christos, Prokakis; Nikolaos, Baltayiannis; Antonios, Hatzimichalis; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Tsiouda, Theodora; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Madesis, Athanasios; Vretzakis, Georgios; Kolettas, Alexandros; Dimitrios, Dougenis

    2014-01-01

    A Pancoast tumor, also called a pulmonary sulcus tumor or superior sulcus tumor, is a tumor of the pulmonary apex. It is a type of lung cancer defined primarily by its location situated at the top end of either the right or left lung. It typically spreads to nearby tissues such as the ribs and vertebrae. Most Pancoast tumors are non-small cell cancers. The growing tumor can cause compression of a brachiocephalic vein, subclavian artery, phrenic nerve, recurrent laryngeal nerve, vagus nerve, or, characteristically, compression of a sympathetic ganglion resulting in a range of symptoms known as Horner’s syndrome. Pancoast tumors are named for Henry Pancoast, a US radiologist, who described them in 1924 and 1932.The treatment of a Pancoast lung cancer may differ from that of other types of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Its position and close proximity to vital structures may make surgery difficult. As a result, and depending on the stage of the cancer, treatment may involve radiation and chemotherapy given prior to surgery. Surgery may consist of the removal of the upper lobe of a lung together with its associated structures as well as mediastinal lymphadenectomy. Surgical access may be via thoracotomy from the back or the front of the chest and modification. Careful patient selection, improvements in imaging such as the role of PET-CT in restaging of tumors, radiotherapy and surgical advances, the management of previously inoperable lesions by a combined experienced thoracic-neurosurgical team and prompt recognition and therapy of postoperative complications has greatly increased local control and overall survival for patients with these tumors. PMID:24672693

  6. Tumor growth modeling based on cell and tumor lifespans.

    PubMed

    Keinj, R; Bastogne, T; Vallois, P

    2012-11-01

    This paper deals with the lifespan modeling of heterogenous tumors treated by radiotherapy. A bi-scale model describing the cell and tumor lifespans by random variables is proposed. First- and second-order moments as well as the cumulative distribution functions and confidence intervals are expressed for the two lifespans with respect to the model parameters. One interesting result is that the mean value of the tumor lifespan can be approached by a logarithmic function of the initial cancer cell number. Moreover, we show that TCP and NTCP, used in radiotherapy to evaluate, optimize and compare treatment plans, can be derived from the tumor lifespan and the surrounding healthy tissue, respectively. Finally, we propose a ROC curve, entitled ECT (Efficiency-Complication Trade-off), suited to the selection by clinicians of the appropriate treatment planning. PMID:22820494

  7. A collision tumor of esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Bin; Guan, Shanghui; Huang, Xiaochen; Su, Peng; Song, Qingxu; Cheng, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    The collision tumor is defined by Meyer as that arisen from the accidental meeting and eventual intermingling of two independent neoplasms, which is quite rare. Most of them occur in the junction of different epithelial types of tissue such as oral cavity, esophagogastric junction, anorectaljunction and cervix, while collision tumors occurring in the liver, gallbladder, pancreatic, urinary bladder also have been reported. Here we present a case of 55-year-old Chinese man diagnosed as a collision tumor composed of leiomyosarcoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) in the lower third part of esophagus with 6 years survival after surgery and radiotherapy. PMID:26823858

  8. Perinatal Management of Fetal Tumors.

    PubMed

    Peiro, Jose L; Sbragia, Lourenco; Scorletti, Federico; Lim, Foong Y

    2015-01-01

    Progress in the last three decades in prenatal genetic diagnosis and advancement in prenatal imaging and characterization of fetal anomalies have allowed better preparation in family counseling and afforded the opportunity to consider prenatal treatment for congenital defects that would have fatal outcomes, among them the fetal tumors. Advances in fetal therapy and surgical approaches including minimally invasive procedures, have permitted not just the survival of rare tumor cases but improved long-term outcomes. In this review, we described some of the most common fetal tumors and their recommended management with emphasis on in utero treatment options. PMID:26168946

  9. Adult Pleomorphic Juxtaglomerular Cell Tumor.

    PubMed

    Soni, Abha; Gordetsky, Jennifer B

    2016-01-01

    A 40-year-old male with chronic hypertension since his teens presented to the emergency department following a motor vehicle collision. Computed tomography scan demonstrated an incidental 1.8-cm renal mass. Partial nephrectomy revealed a vascular tumor with predominantly monomorphic epithelioid cells arranged in sheets and trabeculae with foci of nuclear pleomorphism. Tumor cells were positive for vimentin, CD34, and c-KIT. Juxtaglomerular cell tumor is a rare, benign neoplasm typically found in young adults. Pleomorphism is uncommon and, in combination with older age at diagnosis, can lead to an inaccurate malignant diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry and clinical history helps in correctly diagnosing this benign entity. PMID:26435458

  10. The genetics of adrenocortical tumors.

    PubMed

    Espiard, Stphanie; Bertherat, Jrme

    2015-06-01

    Advances in genomics accelerated greatly progress in the study of the genetics adrenocortical tumors. Bilateral nodular hyperplasias causing Cushing's syndrome are frequently caused by germline alterations leading to cAMP/PKA pathway activation (micronodular) and ARMC5 inactivation (macronodular). Somatic mutations of ?-catenin and PRKACA are observed in non secreting or cortisol producing adenomas, respectively. Alterations of the ?-catenin (CTNN1B, ZNFR3) or TP53 pathways are found in carcinomas. Mutations in cancers are more common in aggressive tumors and correlate with transcriptome or methylation profiles. Identification of these alterations helps to refine the molecular classification of these tumors and to develop molecular diagnostic tools. PMID:26038203

  11. Crown Gall Tumor Disc Bioassay

    PubMed Central

    Galsky, Alan G.; Wilsey, James P.; Powell, Richard G.

    1980-01-01

    Seventeen samples consisting of purified compounds and various ethanol extracts from plant sources were tested for activity on the initiation of crown gall tumors on potato discs. The results demonstrated definite correlation between the ability of these samples to inhibit the formation of crown gall tumors and their activity on the P388 leukemia system in mice. Samples showing only cytotoxic effects in KB cell cultures did not affect tumor initiation in our system. The active materials had no effects on bacterial viability or on the ability of the bacteria to attach to a tumorbinding site. PMID:16661157

  12. Brain tumors in irradiated monkeys.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haymaker, W.; Miquel, J.; Rubinstein, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    A study was made of 32 monkeys which survived one to seven years after total body exposure to protons or to high-energy X rays. Among these 32 monkeys there were 21 which survived two years or longer after exposure to 200 to 800 rad. Glioblastoma multiforme developed in 3 of the 10 monkeys surviving three to five years after receiving 600 or 800 rad 55-MeV protons. Thus, the incidence of tumor development in the present series was far higher than the incidence of spontaneously developing brain tumors in monkeys cited in the literature. This suggests that the tumors in the present series may have been radiation-induced.

  13. Translationally controlled tumor protein is a target of tumor reversion.

    PubMed

    Tuynder, Marcel; Fiucci, Giusy; Prieur, Sylvie; Lespagnol, Alexandra; Gant, Anne; Beaucourt, Sverine; Duflaut, Dominique; Besse, Stphanie; Susini, Laurent; Cavarelli, Jean; Moras, Dino; Amson, Robert; Telerman, Adam

    2004-10-26

    By analyzing the gene expression profile between tumor cells and revertant counterparts that have a suppressed malignant phenotype, we previously reported a significant down-regulation of translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) in the revertants. In the present study, we derived, by using the H1 parvovirus as a selective agent, revertants from three major solid cancers: colon, lung, and melanoma cell lines. These cells have a strongly suppressed malignant phenotype both in vitro and in vivo. The level of TCTP is decreased in most of the revertants. To verify whether inhibition of TCTP expression induces changes in the malignant phenotype, in the classical, well established model of "flat reversion," v-src-transformed NIH3T3 cells were transfected with antisense TCTP. By inhibiting the expression of TCTP, the number of revertant cells was raised to 30%, instead of the reported rate for spontaneous flat revertants of 10(-6). Because TCTP encodes for a histamine-releasing factor, we tested the hypothesis that inhibitors of the histaminic pathway could be effective against tumor cells. We show that some antihistaminic compounds (hydroxyzine and promethazine) and other pharmacological compounds with a related structure (including thioridazine and sertraline) kill tumor cells and significantly decrease the level of TCTP. All together, these data suggest that, with tumor reversion used as a working model, TCTP was identified as a target and drugs were selected that decrease its expression and kill tumor cells. PMID:15489264

  14. BCCIP Suppresses Tumor Initiation but is Required for Tumor Progression

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yi-Yuan; Dai, Li; Gaines, Dakim; Droz-Rosario, Roberto; Lu, Huimei; Liu, Jingmei; Shen, Zhiyuan

    2013-01-01

    Dysfunctions of genome caretaker genes contribute to genomic instability and tumor initiation. Because many of the caretaker genes are also essential for cell viability, permanent loss of function of these genes would prohibit further tumor progression. How essential caretaker genes contribute to tumorigenesis is not fully understood. Here, we report a hit-and-run mode of action for an essential caretaker gene in tumorigenesis. Using a BRCA2-interacting protein BCCIP as a platform, we found that a conditional BCCIP knockdown and concomitant p53 deletion caused rapid development of medulloblastomas, which bear a wide spectrum of alternations involving the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway, consistent with a caretaker responsibility of BCCIP on genomic integrity. Surprisingly, the progressed tumors have spontaneously lost the transgenic BCCIP knockdown cassette and restored BCCIP expression. Thus, a transient down-regulation of BCCIP, but not necessarily a permanent mutation, is sufficient to initiate tumorigenesis. Once the malignant transformation has been accomplished and autonomous cancer growth has been established, BCCIP reverses its role from a tumor initiation suppressor to become a requisite for progression. This exemplifies a new type of tumor suppressor, which is distinct from the classical tumor suppressors that are often permanently abrogated during tumorigenesis. It has major implications on how a non-mutagenic or transient regulation of essential caretaker gene contributes to tumorigenesis. We further suggest that BCCIP represents a paradoxical class of modulators for tumorigenesis, as a Suppressor for Initiation but a Requisite for Progression (SIRP). PMID:24145349

  15. Peri-tumoral leakage during intra-tumoral convection-enhanced delivery has implications for efficacy of peri-tumoral infusion before removal of tumor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoliang; Saito, Ryuta; Nakamura, Taigen; Zhang, Rong; Sonoda, Yukihiko; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Forsayeth, John; Bankiewicz, Krystof; Tominaga, Teiji

    2016-03-01

    In cases of malignant brain tumors, infiltrating tumor cells that exist at the tumor-surrounding brain tissue always escape from cytoreductive surgery and, protected by blood-brain barrier (BBB), survive the adjuvant chemoradiotherapy, eventually leading to tumor recurrence. Local interstitial delivery of chemotherapeutic agents is a promising strategy to target these cells. During our effort to develop effective drug delivery methods by intra-tumoral infusion of chemotherapeutic agents, we found consistent pattern of leakage from the tumor. Here we describe our findings and propose promising strategy to cover the brain tissue surrounding the tumor with therapeutic agents by means of convection-enhanced delivery. First, the intracranial tumor isograft model was used to define patterns of leakage from tumor mass after intra-tumoral infusion of the chemotherapeutic agents. Liposomal doxorubicin, although first distributed inside the tumor, distributed diffusely into the surrounding normal brain once the leakage happen. Trypan blue dye was used to evaluate the distribution pattern of peri-tumoral infusions. When infused intra- or peri-tumorally, infusates distributed robustly into the tumor border. Subsequently, volume of distributions with different infusion scheduling; including intra-tumoral infusion, peri-tumoral infusion after tumor resection, peri-tumoral infusion without tumor removal with or without systemic infusion of steroids, were compared with Evans-blue dye. Peri-tumoral infusion without tumor removal resulted in maximum volume of distribution. Prior use of steroids further increased the volume of distribution. Local interstitial drug delivery targeting tumor surrounding brain tissue before tumor removal should be more effective when targeting the invading cells. PMID:24865286

  16. Genetics Home Reference: Desmoid tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Foundation: About Desmoid Tumors Genetic Testing Registry: Desmoid disease, hereditary You might also find information on the diagnosis ... fibromatosis deep fibromatosis desmoid fibromatosis familial infiltrative ... fibromatosis For more information about naming genetic ...

  17. Benign ear cyst or tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... tumors of the sinonasal tract. In: Cummings CW, Flint PW, Haughey BH, et al, eds. Otolaryngology: Head & ... temporal bone and skull base. In: Cummings CW, Flint PW, Haughey BH, et al, eds. Otolaryngology: Head & ...

  18. Delivering nanomedicine to solid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Rakesh K.; Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in nanotechnology have offered new hope for cancer detection, prevention, and treatment. While the enhanced permeability and retention effect has served as a key rationale for using nanoparticles to treat solid tumors, it does not enable uniform delivery of these particles to all regions of tumors in sufficient quantities. This heterogeneous distribution of therapeutics is a result of physiological barriers presented by the abnormal tumor vasculature and interstitial matrix. These barriers are likely to be responsible for the modest survival benefit offered by many FDA-approved nanotherapeutics and must be overcome for the promise of nanomedicine in patients to be realized. Here, we review these barriers to the delivery of cancer therapeutics and summarize strategies that have been developed to overcome these barriers. Finally, we discuss design considerations for optimizing the delivery of nanoparticles to tumors. PMID:20838415

  19. Drugs Approved for Wilms Tumor

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for Wilms tumor and other childhood kidney cancers. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  20. Brain tumor survivors speak out.

    PubMed

    Carlson-Green, Bonnie

    2009-01-01

    Although progress has been made in the treatment of childhood brain tumors,work remains to understand the complexities of disease, treatment, and contextual factors that underlie individual differences in outcome. A combination of both an idiographic approach (incorporating observations made by adult survivors of childhood brain tumors) and a nomothetic approach (reviewing the literature for brain tumor survivors as well as childhood cancer survivors) is presented. Six areas of concern are reviewed from both an idiographic and nomothetic perspective, including social/emotional adjustment, insurance, neurocognitive late effects, sexuality and relationships, employment, and where survivors accessed information about their disease and treatment and possible late effects. Guidelines to assist health care professionals working with childhood brain tumor survivors are offered with the goal of improving psychosocial and neurocognitive outcomes in this population. PMID:19837957

  1. Mouse models of adrenocortical tumors.

    PubMed

    Basham, Kaitlin J; Hung, Holly A; Lerario, Antonio M; Hammer, Gary D

    2016-02-01

    The molecular basis of the organogenesis, homeostasis, and tumorigenesis of the adrenal cortex has been the subject of intense study for many decades. Specifically, characterization of tumor predisposition syndromes with adrenocortical manifestations and molecular profiling of sporadic adrenocortical tumors have led to the discovery of key molecular pathways that promote pathological adrenal growth. However, given the observational nature of such studies, several important questions regarding the molecular pathogenesis of adrenocortical tumors have remained. This review will summarize naturally occurring and genetically engineered mouse models that have provided novel tools to explore the molecular and cellular underpinnings of adrenocortical tumors. New paradigms of cancer initiation, maintenance, and progression that have emerged from this work will be discussed. PMID:26678830

  2. Beta-2 Microglobulin Tumor Marker

    MedlinePLUS

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Beta-2 Microglobulin Tumor Marker Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: B2M; B 2 M; β2-Microglobulin; Thymotaxin Formal name: Beta 2 ...

  3. Beet Tumor or Crown Wart

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beet tumor or crown wart has been reported from most beet growing areas, but is not considered an economic problem. This chapter describes the disease and the chytrid pathogen, Physoderma leproides....

  4. Gallium-positive tumor thrombus

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    A case is presented in which both a clear cell renal tumor and its accurate intravenous propagation were preoperatively depicted by combined information from tomographic gallium imaging and CT scanning.

  5. Markers of bile duct tumors

    PubMed Central

    Malaguarnera, Giulia; Giordano, Maria; Paladina, Isabella; Rando, Alessandra; Uccello, Mario; Basile, Francesco; Biondi, Antonio; Carnazzo, Santo; Alessandria, Innocenza; Mazzarino, Clorinda

    2011-01-01

    Biliary tract carcinomas are relatively rare, representing less than 1% of cancers. However, their incidence has increased in Japan and in industrialized countries like the USA. Biliary tract tumors have a poor prognosis and a high mortality rate because they are usually detected late in the course of the disease; therapeutic treatment options are often limited and of minimal utility. Recent studies have shown the importance of serum and molecular markers in the diagnosis and follow up of biliary tract tumors. This review aims to introduce the main features of the most important serum and molecular markers of biliary tree tumors. Some considerable tumor markers are cancer antigen 125, carbohydrate antigen 19-9, carcinoembryonic antigen, chromogranin A, mucin 1, mucin 5, alpha-fetoprotein, claudins and cytokeratins. PMID:21528090

  6. Radiation therapy for brain tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Wara, W.M.

    1985-05-01

    Results of radiation therapy obtained at the University of California, San Francisco over the last 25 years for various adult types of brain tumors are presented. Included are astrocytomas, ependymomas, pineal and suprasellar tumors, meningiomas, and malignant gliomas. For each tumor type considered, the disease-free survival rate appeared to be improved when subtotal resection was followed by irradiation. The lack of improvement in survival with malignant gliomas has prompted investigation into more aggressive multimodality therapies. These are discussed along with a new program using high-activity iodine 125 sources to deliver high-dose radiotherapy to malignant gliomas. It is possible that this new approach will lead to improved survival rates and be applicable to many tumors within the central nervous system.

  7. Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) is a comprehensive and coordinated effort to accelerate the understanding of the molecular basis of cancer through the application of robust, quantitative, proteomic technologies and workflows.

  8. Cytogenetics of human brain tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Finkernagel, S.W.; Kletz, T.; Day-Salvatore, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    Chromosome studies of 55 brain tumors, including meningiomas, gliomas, astrocyomas and pituatary adenomas, were performed. Primary and first passage cultures were successfully obtained in 75% of these samples with an average of 18 G-banded metaphases analyzed per tumor. 44% of all the brain tumors showed numerical and or structural abnormalities. 46% of the primary and 38% of the first passage cultures showed similar numerical gains/losses and complex karyotypic changes. The most frequent numerical abnormalities (n {ge} 5) included loss of chromosomes 10, 22, and Y. The structural abnormalities most often seen involved 1p, 2, 5, 7, 17q and 19. This is an ongoing study which will attempt to correlate tumor type with specific karyotypic changes and to see if any of the observed chromosomal abnormalities provide prognostic indicators.

  9. Living with a Brain Tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Dealing with changes to your appearance – such as losing your hair or losing weight is difficult for most of us. Keep ... and Beyond a Brain Tumor." Home Donor and Privacy Policies Find Resources Disclaimer Donate Subscribe Login American ...

  10. Percutaneous Ablation of Adrenal Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, Aradhana M.; Locklin, Julia; Dupuy, Damian E.; Wood, Bradford J.

    2010-01-01

    Adrenal tumors comprise a broad spectrum of benign and malignant neoplasms, and include functional adrenal adenomas, pheochromocytomas, primary adrenocortical carcinoma and adrenal metastases. Percutaneous ablative approaches that have been described and used in the treatment of adrenal tumors include percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA), cryoablation, microwave ablation and chemical ablation. Local tumor ablation in the adrenal gland presents unique challenges, secondary to the adrenal glands unique anatomic and physiologic features. The results of clinical series employing percutaneous ablative techniques in the treatment of adrenal tumors are reviewed in this article. Clinical and technical considerations unique to ablation in the adrenal gland are presented, including approaches commonly used in our practices, and risks and potential complications are discussed. PMID:20540918

  11. Benign tumors of the spine.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Nikhil A; Daniels, Alan H; Schiller, Jonathan; Valdes, Mauricio A; Czerwein, John K; Schiller, Alan; Esmende, Sean; Terek, Richard M

    2012-11-01

    Benign tumors in the spine include osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, aneurysmal bone cyst, osteochondroma, neurofibroma, giant cell tumor of bone, eosinophilic granuloma, and hemangioma. Although some are incidental findings, some cause local pain, radicular symptoms, neurologic compromise, spinal instability, and deformity. The evaluation of spinal tumors includes a thorough history and physical examination, imaging, sometimes laboratory evaluation, and biopsy when indicated. Appropriate treatment may be observational (eg, eosinophilic granuloma) or ablative (eg, osteoid osteoma, neurofibroma, hemangioma), but generally is surgical, depending on the level of pain, instability, neurologic compromise, and natural history of the lesion. Knowledge of the epidemiology, common presentation, imaging, and treatment of benign bone tumors is essential for successful management of these lesions. PMID:23118137

  12. Comprehensive management of head and neck tumors, volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Thawley, S.E.; Panje, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    This book consists of 14 parts, each containing several papers. The parts are: General Considerations in the Management of Patients with Head and Neck Tumors, Tumors of the Ear, Tumors of the Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinuses, Tumors of the Oral Cavity, Tumors of the Pharynx, Tumors of the Larynx, Tumors of the Skin, Dental and Jaw Tumors, Tumors of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands, Tumors of the Trachea, Tumors of the Eye, Orbit, and Lacrimal Apparatus, and Special Topics.

  13. Brain tumor-targeted drug delivery strategies

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaoli; Chen, Xishan; Ying, Man; Lu, Weiyue

    2014-01-01

    Despite the application of aggressive surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy in clinics, brain tumors are still a difficult health challenge due to their fast development and poor prognosis. Brain tumor-targeted drug delivery systems, which increase drug accumulation in the tumor region and reduce toxicity in normal brain and peripheral tissue, are a promising new approach to brain tumor treatments. Since brain tumors exhibit many distinctive characteristics relative to tumors growing in peripheral tissues, potential targets based on continuously changing vascular characteristics and the microenvironment can be utilized to facilitate effective brain tumor-targeted drug delivery. In this review, we briefly describe the physiological characteristics of brain tumors, including blood–brain/brain tumor barriers, the tumor microenvironment, and tumor stem cells. We also review targeted delivery strategies and introduce a systematic targeted drug delivery strategy to overcome the challenges. PMID:26579383

  14. Killian's polyp mimicking malignant tumor

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Jagdeep S.; Chaitanya, Avinash; Minhas, R. S.; Azad, R. K.; Sharma, D. R.; Mohindroo, N. K.

    2015-01-01

    Killian polyp is predominantly found in children and any sinonasal tumor in elderly presenting with epistaxis and pain usually indicates malignant growth until proved otherwise. We present an unusual case of Killian polyp in an elderly patient that behaved as a malignant tumor. This case report reminded us that paranasal sinuses are still dark hollow mysterious cavities, and we should take utmost clinical acumen in managing such cases.

  15. Radiologic management of musculoskeletal tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Pettersson, H.; Springfield, D.S.; Enneking, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    The present book is written by a radiologist and two orthopedic surgeons with long experience in musculoskeletal tumors. It is based on modern pathologic and surgical principles, and from those principles the radiologic approach is discussed. The main questions ask what information can be gained by the different modalities, and which combination of modalities is the most profitable to determine the local behaviour of the tumor, diagnosis and local extent.

  16. Translational progress on tumor biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hongwei; Zhou, Xiaolin; Lu, Yi; Xie, Liye; Chen, Qian; Keller, Evan T; Liu, Qian; Zhou, Qinghua; Zhang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need to apply basic research achievements to the clinic. In particular, mechanistic studies should be developed by bench researchers, depending upon clinical demands, in order to improve the survival and quality of life of cancer patients. To date, translational medicine has been addressed in cancer biology, particularly in the identification and characterization of novel tumor biomarkers. This review focuses on the recent achievements and clinical application prospects in tumor biomarkers based on translational medicine. PMID:26557902

  17. Translational progress on tumor biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hongwei; Zhou, Xiaolin; Lu, Yi; Xie, Liye; Chen, Qian; Keller, Evan T; Liu, Qian; Zhou, Qinghua; Zhang, Jian

    2015-11-01

    There is an urgent need to apply basic research achievements to the clinic. In particular, mechanistic studies should be developed by bench researchers, depending upon clinical demands, in order to improve the survival and quality of life of cancer patients. To date, translational medicine has been addressed in cancer biology, particularly in the identification and characterization of novel tumor biomarkers. This review focuses on the recent achievements and clinical application prospects in tumor biomarkers based on translational medicine. PMID:26557902

  18. Is PML a Tumor Suppressor?

    PubMed Central

    Mazza, Massimiliano; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The role of the promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein has been widely tested in many different contexts, as attested by the hundreds of papers present in the literature. In most of these studies, PML is regarded as a tumor suppressor, a notion on the whole accepted by the scientific community. In this review, we examine how the concept of tumor-suppressor gene has evolved until now and then systematically assess whether this assumption for PML is supported by unambiguous experimental evidence. PMID:23847764

  19. Diffusion Imaging of Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Stephan E.; Sun, Yanping; Mulkern, Robert V.

    2010-01-01

    MR imaging offers a tremendous armamentarium of different methods that can be employed in brain tumor characterization. MR diffusion imaging has become a widely accepted method for probing the presence of fluid pools and molecular tissue water mobility. For most clinical applications of diffusion imaging, it is assumed that the diffusion signal vs diffusion weighting factor b decays monoexponentially. Within this framework, measurement of a single diffusion coefficient in brain tumors permits an approximate categorization of tumor type and for some tumors definitive diagnosis. In most brain tumors, when compared to normal brain tissue, the diffusion coefficient is elevated. The presence of peritumoral edema, which also exhibits an elevated diffusion coefficient, often precludes delineation of the tumor based on diffusion information alone. Serially obtained diffusion data is useful to document and even predict cellular response to drug or radiation therapy. Diffusion measurements in tissues over an extended range of b-factors have clearly shown that the mono-parametric description of the MR diffusion signal decay is incomplete. Very high diffusion weighting on clinical systems requires substantial compromise in spatial resolution. But after suitable analysis, superior separation of malignant brain tumors, peritumoral edema, and normal brain tissue can be achieved. These findings are also discussed in light of tissue-specific differences in membrane structure and the restrictions membranes exert on diffusion. Finally, measurement of the directional dependence of diffusion permits assessment of white matter integrity and dislocation. Such information, particularly in conjunction with advanced post-processing, is considered immensely useful for therapy planning. Diffusion imaging, which permits monoexponential analysis and provides directional diffusion information, is performed routinely in brain tumor patients. More advanced methods require improvement in acquisition speed and spatial resolution to gain clinical acceptance. PMID:20886568

  20. About a challenging mediastinal tumor.

    PubMed

    Mlika, Mona; Braham, Emna; Hamrouni, Rim; Zribi, Hazem; El Mezni, Faouzi

    2015-11-01

    Mediastinal hemangiomas are rare, accounting for 0.5% of all mediastinal tumors. These tumors are challenging because of the lack of specific clinical and radiologic signs. We report a 10-year experience of 5 mediastinal hemangiomas in a single institution, with neurologic signs related to neuroforaminal extension in 2 cases. Surgical treatment was performed in all 5 patients, without complications after a follow-up period varying from 9 months to 2 years. PMID:26068935

  1. Lung Cancer With Tumor Emboli.

    PubMed

    Inra, Matthew L; Allen, Mark S

    2015-07-01

    We report a case of squamous cell lung carcinoma that invaded the left atrium through the left pulmonary vein. This patient had two episodes of systemic embolism before diagnosis. The second episode was treated with embolectomy, and the pathology analysis showed squamous cell carcinoma. The tumor was surgically resected, using cardiopulmonary bypass to resect the intracardiac portion. We discuss causes of tumor emboli in lung cancer and surgical treatment. PMID:26140769

  2. Glomus Tumor of the Hand

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won; Kwon, Soon Beom; Eo, Su Rak; Kwon, Chan

    2015-01-01

    Background Glomus tumors were first described by Wood in 1812 as painful subcutaneous tubercles. It is an uncommon benign neoplasm involving the glomus body, an apparatus that involves in thermoregulation of cutaneous microvasculature. Glomus tumor constitutes 1%-5% of all hand tumors. It usually occurs at the subungual region and more commonly in aged women. Its classical clinical triad consists of pain, tenderness and temperature intolerance, especially cold sensitivity. This study reviews 15 cases of glomus tumor which were analyzed according to its anatomic location, surgical approach and histologic findings. Methods Fifteen patients with subungual glomus tumors of the hand operated on between January 2006 and March 2013, were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were evaluated preoperatively with standard physical examination including ice cube test and Love's test. Diagnostic imaging consisted of ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. All procedures were performed with tourniquet control under local anesthesia. Eleven patients underwent excision using the transungual approach, 3 patients using the volar approach and 1 patient using the lateral subperiosteal approach. Results Total of 15 cases were reviewed. 11 tumors were located in the nail bed, 3 in the volar pulp and 1 in the radial aspect of the finger tip. After complete excision, patients remained asymptomatic in the immediate postoperative period. In the long term follow up, patients exhibited excellent cosmetic results with no recurrence. Conclusions Accurate diagnosis should be made by physical, radiologic and pathologic examinations. Preoperative localization and complete extirpation is essential in preventing recurrence and subsequent nail deformity. PMID:26015884

  3. Tumor formations in scleractinian corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loya, Y.; Bull, G.; Pichon, M.

    1984-03-01

    A highly localized incidence of skeletal malformations (tumors) in the scleractinian corals Platygyra pini and P. sinensis on an inshore fringing reef at Cockle Bay, Magnetic Island within the Great Barrier Reef province is reported. These tumors are typified by a localized area of increased growth rate resulting in roughly circular protuberances extending up to 4.5 cm above the colony's surface. In both species, similar proportions of their populations carried tumors (24.1 % in P. pini and 18.7 % in P. sinensis). Larger colonies (>80 cm in diameter) are at least 7 times more likely to possess tumors than smaller colonies (<40 cm in diameter). X-radiographs of the skeletal malformations indicate a point of origin, presumably from a single budded polyp with subsequent, localized, accelerated growth. The mean radial growth rate of the tumorous area was 29 % greater than that of the surrounding normal regions. In contrast to the normal tissue, the tumorous tissue exhibited proliferation of cells, atrophied gastrodermal cells and mesenterial filaments which were larger and disordered in structure. The environmental conditions at Cockle Bay are relatively extreme with high turbidity, periodic exposure of the reef flat, abrupt changes in salinity during the wet season and mechanical damage to corals caused by unpredictable cyclonic storms. It is suggested that a combination of environmental stresses coupled with an injury inflicted on the corals are possible stimuli that initiate the development of these abnormal growth through either bacterial attack or the development of an aberrant polyp during tissue repair.

  4. Immunotherapy of malignant brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Duane A.; Fecci, Peter E.; Sampson, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Despite aggressive multi-modality therapy including surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, the prognosis for patients with malignant primary brain tumors remains very poor. Moreover, the non-specific nature of conventional therapy for brain tumors often results in incapacitating damage to surrounding normal brain and systemic tissues. Thus, there is an urgent need for the development of therapeutic strategies that precisely target tumor cells while minimizing collateral damage to neighboring eloquent cerebral cortex. The rationale for using the immune system to target brain tumors is based on the premise that the inherent specificity of immunologic reactivity could meet the clear need for more specific and precise therapy. The success of this modality is dependent on our ability to understand the mechanisms of immune regulation within the central nervous system (CNS), as well as counter the broad defects in host cell-mediated immunity that malignant gliomas are known to elicit. Recent advances in our understanding of tumor-induced and host-mediated immunosuppressive mechanisms, the development of effective strategies to combat these suppressive effects, and a better understanding of how to deliver immunologic effector molecules more efficiently to CNS tumors have all facilitated significant progress toward the realization of true clinical benefit from immunotherapeutic treatment of malignant gliomas. PMID:18363995

  5. Immunotherapy of malignant brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Duane A; Fecci, Peter E; Sampson, John H

    2008-04-01

    Despite aggressive multi-modality therapy including surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, the prognosis for patients with malignant primary brain tumors remains very poor. Moreover, the non-specific nature of conventional therapy for brain tumors often results in incapacitating damage to surrounding normal brain and systemic tissues. Thus, there is an urgent need for the development of therapeutic strategies that precisely target tumor cells while minimizing collateral damage to neighboring eloquent cerebral cortex. The rationale for using the immune system to target brain tumors is based on the premise that the inherent specificity of immunologic reactivity could meet the clear need for more specific and precise therapy. The success of this modality is dependent on our ability to understand the mechanisms of immune regulation within the central nervous system (CNS), as well as counter the broad defects in host cell-mediated immunity that malignant gliomas are known to elicit. Recent advances in our understanding of tumor-induced and host-mediated immunosuppressive mechanisms, the development of effective strategies to combat these suppressive effects, and a better understanding of how to deliver immunologic effector molecules more efficiently to CNS tumors have all facilitated significant progress toward the realization of true clinical benefit from immunotherapeutic treatment of malignant gliomas. PMID:18363995

  6. Current standards of care and future directions for "high-risk" pediatric renal tumors: Anaplastic Wilms tumor and Rhabdoid tumor.

    PubMed

    Geller, James I

    2016-01-01

    'High risk' renal tumors of childhood generally includes anaplastic Wilms tumor, rhabdoid tumor, and metastatic renal sarcomas and carcinomas. In this review, the epidemiology, biology, treatment and prognosis of anaplastic Wilms tumor and rhabdoid tumor are presented. Future directions related to management of such cancers are discussed, with insights provided into possible clinical trials in development that consider integration of novel targeted therapies. PMID:26612481

  7. Como Lo Hago Yo: Mielomeningocele En Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Dabdoub, Carlos F.; Dabdoub, Carlos B.; Villavicencio, Ramiro; Quevedo, Germán

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: Las malformaciones del tubo neural (MTN) representan la segunda causa más frecuente de anomalías congénitas, luego de las cardiopatías. En este grupo se destaca el mielomeningocele (MMC) por su mayor incidencia, y por ser la más incapacitante y la más compleja entre todas las demás malformaciones del sistema nervioso c`entral (SNC). En Bolivia, como en muchos países de Sudamérica, los bajos niveles socio-culturales y la debilidad en el sistema sanitario, hacen que su incidencia y su morbilidad, sean mayores que en las naciones más desarrolladas. Material y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo y descriptivo de 70 casos de MMC, atendidos por un equipo multidisciplinario en el Hospital Universitario Japonés (HUJ) de Santa Cruz de la Sierra, entre 2008-2011. De ellos, 60 fueron intervenidos quirúrgicamente. Resultados: Se realizaron controles prenatales sólo en 27 mujeres (38.6%), diagnosticándose una disrafia espinal en apenas dos casos (7.4%). La edad de ingreso del MMC en su mayoría fue después de las 24 horas (65.6%), predominando su localización en la región lumbosacra (64.3%). De ellos, 67.2% eran abiertos, presentando un 32.9% un daño neurológico motor parcial mientras que 47.1% tenían paraplejia por debajo de la lesión. De los 70 casos, tres (4.3%) no fueron intervenidos, por presentar defectos congénitos severos o estado general grave. Las principales complicaciones posoperatorias inmediatas fueron: dehiscencia de sutura y/o infección de la herida (16.6%), fístula de líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) (10%) e infección del SNC (11.7%). La mortalidad general y postoperatoria fue de 7.1% y 3.3%, respectivamente. Al mes de vida presentaban hidrocefalia un 80% de los pacientes operados, colocándose una derivación ventriculoperitoneal (DVP) de presión media. De 9 pacientes que tuvieron un acompanamiento de dos o más años, seis presentaron una médula anclada, que fueron intervenidas quirúrgicamente. Conclusión: En esta serie, el diagnóstico prenatal del MMC fue ocasional y la derivación al HUJ de los recién nacidos con esta malformación fue generalmente tardía. No hubo predominio de género y la mayoría de los casos presentaron sus lesiones en la región lumbar y lumbosacra. La mortalidad general y postoperatoria fue similar a la reportada en la literatura. Pocos enfermos realizaron controles posteriores al alta hospitalaria. Igual que otros países de Sudamérica, las falencias en el sistema público de salud y el nivel sociocultural, son factores determinantes para un mal pronóstico en estos niños. Por sus múltiples complicaciones, el MMC requiere de una especial atención gubernamental, sobre todo de carácter preventivo mediante el uso de ácido fólico en mujeres fértiles, como también de un equipo profesional multidisciplinario, a fin de realizar un tratamiento adecuado y oportuno. Al mismo tiempo, trabajos multicéntricos en hospitales de América Latina, ayudarán al mejor manejo de estos pacientes. PMID:24791220

  8. CD44 enhances tumor aggressiveness by promoting tumor cell plasticity.

    PubMed

    Paulis, Yvette W J; Huijbers, Elisabeth J M; van der Schaft, Daisy W J; Soetekouw, Patricia M M B; Pauwels, Patrick; Tjan-Heijnen, Vivianne C G; Griffioen, Arjan W

    2015-08-14

    Aggressive tumor cells can obtain the ability to transdifferentiate into cells with endothelial features and thus form vasculogenic networks. This phenomenon, called vasculogenic mimicry (VM), is associated with increased tumor malignancy and poor clinical outcome. To identify novel key molecules implicated in the process of vasculogenic mimicry, microarray analysis was performed to compare gene expression profiles of aggressive (VM+) and non-aggressive (VM-) cells derived from Ewing sarcoma and breast carcinoma. We identified the CD44/c-Met signaling cascade as heavily relevant for vasculogenic mimicry. CD44 was at the center of this cascade, and highly overexpressed in aggressive tumors. Both CD44 standard isoform and its splice variant CD44v6 were linked to increased aggressiveness in VM. Since VM is most abundant in Ewing sarcoma tumors functional analyses were performed in EW7 cells. Overexpression of CD44 allowed enhanced adhesion to its extracellular matrix ligand hyaluronic acid. CD44 expression also facilitated the formation of vasculogenic structures in vitro, as CD44 knockdown experiments repressed migration and vascular network formation. From these results and the observation that CD44 expression is associated with vasculogenic structures and blood lakes in human Ewing sarcoma tissues, we conclude that CD44 increases aggressiveness in tumors through the process of vasculogenic mimicry. PMID:26189059

  9. Kidney Tumors | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Pediatric kidney tumors fall into four primary categories: Wilms tumors (~85% of all cases), clear cell sarcomas of the kidney (~5%), congenital mesoblastic nephromas (~4%), and rhabdoid tumors of the kidney (~3%). The TARGET initiative is investigating three of these tumor types.

  10. 9 CFR 381.87 - Tumors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tumors. 381.87 Section 381.87 Animals... 381.87 Tumors. Any organ or other part of a carcass which is affected by a tumor shall be condemned... by the size, position, or nature of the tumor, the whole carcass shall be condemned....

  11. Tumor suppressor molecules and methods of use

    DOEpatents

    Welch, Peter J.; Barber, Jack R.

    2004-09-07

    The invention provides substantially pure tumor suppressor nucleic acid molecules and tumor suppressor polypeptides. The invention also provides hairpin ribozymes and antibodies selective for these tumor suppressor molecules. Also provided are methods of detecting a neoplastic cell in a sample using detectable agents specific for the tumor suppressor nucleic acids and polypeptides.

  12. WWOX: a fragile tumor suppressor.

    PubMed

    Schrock, Morgan S; Huebner, Kay

    2015-03-01

    WWOX, the WW domain-containing oxidoreductase gene at chromosome region 16q23.3-q24.1, spanning chromosomal fragile site FRA16D, encodes the 46?kDa Wwox protein, a tumor suppressor that is lost or reduced in expression in a wide variety of cancers, including breast, prostate, ovarian, and lung. The function of Wwox as a tumor suppressor implies that it serves a function in the prevention of carcinogenesis. Indeed, in vitro studies show that Wwox protein interacts with many binding partners to regulate cellular apoptosis, proliferation, and/or maturation. It has been reported that newborn Wwox knockout mice exhibit nascent osteosarcomas while Wwox(+/-) mice exhibit increased incidence of spontaneous and induced tumors. Furthermore, absence or reduction of Wwox expression in mouse xenograft models results in increased tumorigenesis, which can be rescued by Wwox re-expression, though there is not universal agreement among investigators regarding the role of Wwox loss in these experimental models. Despite this proposed tumor suppressor function, the overlap of the human WWOX locus with FRA16D sensitizes the gene to protein-inactivating deletions caused by replication stress. The high frequency of deletions within the WWOX locus in cancers of various types, without the hallmark protein inactivation-associated mutations of "classical" tumor suppressors, has led to the proposal that WWOX deletions in cancers are passenger events that occur in early cancer progenitor cells due to fragility of the genetic locus, rather than driver events which provide the cancer cell a selective advantage. Recently, a proposed epigenetic cause of chromosomal fragility has suggested a novel mechanism for early fragile site instability and has implications regarding the involvement of tumor suppressor genes at chromosomal fragile sites in cancer. In this review, we provide an overview of the evidence for WWOX as a tumor suppressor gene and put this into the context of fragility associated with the FRA16D locus. PMID:25538133

  13. Phyllodes Tumor of the Breast

    SciTech Connect

    Belkacemi, Yazid Bousquet, Guilhem; Marsiglia, Hugo; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Magne, Nicolas; Malard, Yann; Lacroix, Magalie; Gutierrez, Cristina; Senkus, Elzbieta; Christie, David; Drumea, Karen; Lagneau, Edouard; Kadish, Sidney P.; Scandolaro, Luciano; Azria, David; Ozsahin, Mahmut

    2008-02-01

    Purpose: To better identify prognostic factors for local control and survival, as well as the role of different therapeutic options, for phyllodes tumors, a rare fibroepithelial neoplasm of the breast. Methods and Materials: Data from 443 women treated between 1971 and 2003 were collected from the Rare Cancer Network. The median age was 40 years (range, 12-87 years). Tumors were benign in 284 cases (64%), borderline in 80 cases (18%), and malignant in 79 cases (18%). Surgery consisted of breast-conserving surgery (BCS) in 377 cases (85%) and total mastectomy (TM) in 66 cases (15%). Thirty-nine patients (9%) received adjuvant radiotherapy (RT). Results: After a median follow-up of 106 months, local recurrence (LR) and distant metastases rates were 19% and 3.4%, respectively. In the malignant and borderline group (n = 159), RT significantly decreased LR (p = 0.02), and TM had better results than BCS (p = 0.0019). Multivariate analysis revealed benign histology, negative margins, and no residual disease (no RD) after initial treatment and RT delivery as independent favorable prognostic factors for local control; benign histology and low number of mitosis for disease-free survival; and pathologic tumor size tumor necrosis for overall survival. In the malignant and borderline subgroup multivariate analysis TM was the only favorable independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival. Conclusions: This study showed that phyllodes tumor patients with no RD after treatment have better local control. Benign tumors have a good prognosis after surgery alone. In borderline and malignant tumors, TM had better results than BCS. Thus, in these forms adjuvant RT should be considered according to histologic criteria.

  14. Status of gallium-67 in tumor detector

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffer, P.

    1980-04-01

    The efficacy of gallium-67 citrate in detecting specific tumors is discussed. Tumors in which gallium-67 imaging is useful as a diagnostic tool include Hodgkin's disease, histiocystic lymphoma, Burkitt's lymphoma, hepatoma melanoma, and leukemia. It has not been found to be effective in diagnosing head and neck tumors, gastrointestinal tumors, genitourinary tract tumors, breast tumors, and pediatric tumors. Gallium may be useful in the evaluation of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, testicular carcinoma, mesothelioma, and carcinoma of the lung. It may also be useful for determining response to treatment and prognosis in some neoplasms.

  15. Rare Primary Central Nervous System Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kubicky, Charlotte Dai; Sahgal, Arjun; Chang, Eric L.; Lo, Simon S.

    2014-01-01

    There are close to 70,000 new cases of primary central nervous system tumors diagnosed annually in the United States. Meningiomas, gliomas, nerve sheath tumors and pituitary tumors account for 85% of them. There is abundant literature on these commonly occurring tumors but data from the literature on infrequently encountered tumors such as atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, choroid plexus carcinoma, ganglioglioma, hemangiopericytoma, and pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma are limited. This review provides an overview of the clinicopathologic and therapeutic aspects of these rare primary central nervous system tumors. PMID:25276324

  16. Macroscopic stiffness of breast tumors predicts metastasis.

    PubMed

    Fenner, Joseph; Stacer, Amanda C; Winterroth, Frank; Johnson, Timothy D; Luker, Kathryn E; Luker, Gary D

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical properties of tumors differ substantially from normal cells and tissues. Changes in stiffness or elasticity regulate pro-metastatic behaviors of cancer cells, but effects have been documented predominantly in isolated cells or in vitro cell culture systems. To directly link relative stiffness of tumors to cancer progression, we combined a mouse model of metastatic breast cancer with ex vivo measurements of bulk moduli of freshly excised, intact tumors. We found a high, inverse correlation between bulk modulus of resected tumors and subsequent local recurrence and metastasis. More compliant tumors were associated with more frequent, larger local recurrences and more extensive metastases than mice with relatively stiff tumors. We found that collagen content of resected tumors correlated with bulk modulus values. These data establish that relative differences in tumor stiffness correspond with tumor progression and metastasis, supporting further testing and development of tumor compliance as a prognostic biomarker in breast cancer. PMID:24981707

  17. Macroscopic Stiffness of Breast Tumors Predicts Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Fenner, Joseph; Stacer, Amanda C.; Winterroth, Frank; Johnson, Timothy D.; Luker, Kathryn E.; Luker, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical properties of tumors differ substantially from normal cells and tissues. Changes in stiffness or elasticity regulate pro-metastatic behaviors of cancer cells, but effects have been documented predominantly in isolated cells or in vitro cell culture systems. To directly link relative stiffness of tumors to cancer progression, we combined a mouse model of metastatic breast cancer with ex vivo measurements of bulk moduli of freshly excised, intact tumors. We found a high, inverse correlation between bulk modulus of resected tumors and subsequent local recurrence and metastasis. More compliant tumors were associated with more frequent, larger local recurrences and more extensive metastases than mice with relatively stiff tumors. We found that collagen content of resected tumors correlated with bulk modulus values. These data establish that relative differences in tumor stiffness correspond with tumor progression and metastasis, supporting further testing and development of tumor compliance as a prognostic biomarker in breast cancer. PMID:24981707

  18. Angiogenesis in Spontaneous Tumors and Implications for Comparative Tumor Biology

    PubMed Central

    Benazzi, C.; Al-Dissi, A.; Chau, C. H.; Figg, W. D.; Sarli, G.; de Oliveira, J. T.; Gärtner, F.

    2014-01-01

    Blood supply is essential for development and growth of tumors and angiogenesis is the fundamental process of new blood vessel formation from preexisting ones. Angiogenesis is a prognostic indicator for a variety of tumors, and it coincides with increased shedding of neoplastic cells into the circulation and metastasis. Several molecules such as cell surface receptors, growth factors, and enzymes are involved in this process. While antiangiogenic therapy for cancer has been proposed over 20 years ago, it has garnered much controversy in recent years within the scientific community. The complex relationships between the angiogenic signaling cascade and antiangiogenic substances have indicated the angiogenic pathway as a valid target for anticancer drug development and VEGF has become the primary antiangiogenic drug target. This review discusses the basic and clinical perspectives of angiogenesis highlighting the importance of comparative biology in understanding tumor angiogenesis and the integration of these model systems for future drug development. PMID:24563633

  19. Targeting tumor-necrosis factor receptor pathways for tumor immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    With the success of ipilimumab and promise of programmed death-1 pathway-targeted agents, the field of tumor immunotherapy is expanding rapidly. Newer targets for clinical development include select members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family. Agonist antibodies to these co-stimulatory molecules target both T and B cells, modulating T-cell activation and enhancing immune responses. In vitro and in vivo preclinical data have provided the basis for continued development of 4-1BB, OX40, glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related gene, herpes virus entry mediator, and CD27 as potential therapies for patients with cancer. In this review, we summarize the immune response to tumors, consider preclinical and early clinical data on select TNFR family members, discuss potential translational challenges and suggest possible combination therapies with the aim of inducing durable antitumor responses. PMID:24855562

  20. Targeting tumor-necrosis factor receptor pathways for tumor immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Schaer, David A; Hirschhorn-Cymerman, Daniel; Wolchok, Jedd D

    2014-01-01

    With the success of ipilimumab and promise of programmed death-1 pathway-targeted agents, the field of tumor immunotherapy is expanding rapidly. Newer targets for clinical development include select members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family. Agonist antibodies to these co-stimulatory molecules target both T and B cells, modulating T-cell activation and enhancing immune responses. In vitro and in vivo preclinical data have provided the basis for continued development of 4-1BB, OX40, glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related gene, herpes virus entry mediator, and CD27 as potential therapies for patients with cancer. In this review, we summarize the immune response to tumors, consider preclinical and early clinical data on select TNFR family members, discuss potential translational challenges and suggest possible combination therapies with the aim of inducing durable antitumor responses. PMID:24855562

  1. Multiple Glomus Tumors of the Omentum

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Won Beom; Park, In Ja; Song, Joon Seon; Cho, Kyung-Ja

    2015-01-01

    A glomus tumor is a very rare neoplasm consisting of cells that resemble the modified smooth muscle cells of normal glomus bodies. Here, we report a case of a 39-year-old male with multiple omental glomus tumors. The patient underwent a complete resection of the glomus tumors. This is a rare case of omental glomus tumors, and to our knowledge, this patient is the first with multiple omental glomus tumors to be described. PMID:26361617

  2. Expression of Hyaluronan in human tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    Boregowda, Rajeev K; Appaiah, Hitesh N; Siddaiah, Manjunath; Kumarswamy, Sunil B; Sunila, Sunila; KN, Thimmaiah; Mortha, KarunaKumar; Toole, Bryan; Banerjee, Shib d

    2006-01-01

    Background The development and progression of human tumors is accompanied by various cellular, biochemical and genetic alterations. These events include tumor cells interaction with extracellular matrix molecules including hyaluronan (HA). Hyaluronan is a large polysaccharide associated with pericellular matrix of proliferating, migrating cells. Its implication in malignant transformation, tumor progression and with the degree of differentiation in various invasive tumors has well accepted. It has been well known the role HA receptors in tumor growth and metastasis in various cancer tissues. Previously we have observed the unified over expression of Hyaluronic Acid Binding Protein (HABP), H11B2C2 antigen by the tumor cells in various types progressing tumor tissues with different grades. However, the poor understanding of relation between HA and HA-binding protein expression on tumor cells during tumor progression as well as the asymmetric observations of the role of HA expression in tumor progression prompted us to examine the degree of HA expression on tumor cells vs. stroma in various types of human tumors with different grades. Methods In the present study clinically diagnosed tumor tissue samples of different grades were used to screen the histopathological expression of hyaluronan by using b-PG (biotinylated proteoglycan) as a probe and we compared the relative HA expression on tumor cells vs. stroma in well differentiated and poorly differentiated tumors. Specificity of the reaction was confirmed either by pre-digesting the tissue sections with hyaluronidase enzyme or by staining the sections with pre-absorbed complex of the probe and HA-oligomers. Results We show here the down regulation of HA expression in tumor cells is associated with progression of tumor from well differentiated through poorly differentiated stage, despite the constant HA expression in the tumor associated stroma. Conclusion The present finding enlighten the relative roles of HA expression on tumor vs. stroma during the progression of tumors. PMID:16401353

  3. Involvement of platelets in tumor cell metastasis.

    PubMed

    Tesfamariam, Belay

    2016-01-01

    Extensive experimental evidence indicates that platelets contribute to tumor cell proliferation and metastasis through direct interactions and secreted bioactive proteins. Activated platelets release secretory factors that promote growth factors, chemokines, proangiogenic regulatory proteins, proteolytic enzymes and microparticles within the microenvironment to promote tumor cell growth and invasion. Furthermore, the formation of platelet-tumor cell heteroaggregates by integrin ?IIb?3 (glycoprotein IIb/IIIa) bridging plays an important role in tumor survival by forming a physical shield around tumor cells, and thereby protecting circulating tumor cells from immune-mediated lysis by natural killer (NK) cells. Tumor cells directly activate platelets by enhancing expression of surface integrins, selectins and secretion of granules, which amplify platelet aggregation. In addition to the physical coating of tumor cells, platelets release transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) that induces phenotypic changes of epithelial to mesenchymal-like transition of tumor cells, thereby facilitating their extravasation and dissemination to distant sites during metastasis. Thus, there is a complex interplay between platelet-induced tumor growth and tumor cell-induced platelet activation, with the involvement of multiple components within the tumor microenvironment that enhance metastasis. This review describes the intimate reciprocal cross-talk between platelets and tumor cells, and the various signaling pathways involved in tumor amplification, which may be potential therapeutic targets to disrupt the platelet-tumor loop to reduce metastatic processes. PMID:26615781

  4. Cellular Potts Modeling of Tumor Growth, Tumor Invasion, and Tumor Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Szabó, András; Merks, Roeland M. H.

    2013-01-01

    Despite a growing wealth of available molecular data, the growth of tumors, invasion of tumors into healthy tissue, and response of tumors to therapies are still poorly understood. Although genetic mutations are in general the first step in the development of a cancer, for the mutated cell to persist in a tissue, it must compete against the other, healthy or diseased cells, for example by becoming more motile, adhesive, or multiplying faster. Thus, the cellular phenotype determines the success of a cancer cell in competition with its neighbors, irrespective of the genetic mutations or physiological alterations that gave rise to the altered phenotype. What phenotypes can make a cell “successful” in an environment of healthy and cancerous cells, and how? A widely used tool for getting more insight into that question is cell-based modeling. Cell-based models constitute a class of computational, agent-based models that mimic biophysical and molecular interactions between cells. One of the most widely used cell-based modeling formalisms is the cellular Potts model (CPM), a lattice-based, multi particle cell-based modeling approach. The CPM has become a popular and accessible method for modeling mechanisms of multicellular processes including cell sorting, gastrulation, or angiogenesis. The CPM accounts for biophysical cellular properties, including cell proliferation, cell motility, and cell adhesion, which play a key role in cancer. Multiscale models are constructed by extending the agents with intracellular processes including metabolism, growth, and signaling. Here we review the use of the CPM for modeling tumor growth, tumor invasion, and tumor progression. We argue that the accessibility and flexibility of the CPM, and its accurate, yet coarse-grained and computationally efficient representation of cell and tissue biophysics, make the CPM the method of choice for modeling cellular processes in tumor development. PMID:23596570

  5. Cellular potts modeling of tumor growth, tumor invasion, and tumor evolution.

    PubMed

    Szabó, András; Merks, Roeland M H

    2013-01-01

    Despite a growing wealth of available molecular data, the growth of tumors, invasion of tumors into healthy tissue, and response of tumors to therapies are still poorly understood. Although genetic mutations are in general the first step in the development of a cancer, for the mutated cell to persist in a tissue, it must compete against the other, healthy or diseased cells, for example by becoming more motile, adhesive, or multiplying faster. Thus, the cellular phenotype determines the success of a cancer cell in competition with its neighbors, irrespective of the genetic mutations or physiological alterations that gave rise to the altered phenotype. What phenotypes can make a cell "successful" in an environment of healthy and cancerous cells, and how? A widely used tool for getting more insight into that question is cell-based modeling. Cell-based models constitute a class of computational, agent-based models that mimic biophysical and molecular interactions between cells. One of the most widely used cell-based modeling formalisms is the cellular Potts model (CPM), a lattice-based, multi particle cell-based modeling approach. The CPM has become a popular and accessible method for modeling mechanisms of multicellular processes including cell sorting, gastrulation, or angiogenesis. The CPM accounts for biophysical cellular properties, including cell proliferation, cell motility, and cell adhesion, which play a key role in cancer. Multiscale models are constructed by extending the agents with intracellular processes including metabolism, growth, and signaling. Here we review the use of the CPM for modeling tumor growth, tumor invasion, and tumor progression. We argue that the accessibility and flexibility of the CPM, and its accurate, yet coarse-grained and computationally efficient representation of cell and tissue biophysics, make the CPM the method of choice for modeling cellular processes in tumor development. PMID:23596570

  6. Tumor targeting, trifunctional dendritic wedge.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Ramin; Kushal, Swati; Mollard, Alexis; Vojtovich, Lesya; Oh, Philip; Levin, Michael D; Schnitzer, Jan E; Zharov, Ilya; Olenyuk, Bogdan Z

    2015-01-21

    We report in vitro and in vivo evaluation of a newly designed trifunctional theranostic agent for targeting solid tumors. This agent combines a dendritic wedge with high boron content for boron neutron capture therapy or boron MRI, a monomethine cyanine dye for visible-light fluorescent imaging, and an integrin ligand for efficient tumor targeting. We report photophysical properties of the new agent, its cellular uptake and in vitro targeting properties. Using live animal imaging and intravital microscopy (IVM) techniques, we observed a rapid accumulation of the agent and its retention for a prolonged period of time (up to 7 days) in fully established animal models of human melanoma and murine mammary adenocarcinoma. This macromolecular theranostic agent can be used for targeted delivery of high boron load into solid tumors for future applications in boron neutron capture therapy. PMID:25350602

  7. [Tracheal tumor treated as asthma].

    PubMed

    Ayadi-Kaddour, A; Khadhar, A; Mlika, M; Ismail, O; Braham, E; Marghli, A; Zidi, A; El Mezni, F

    2014-12-01

    Primary tumors of the trachea are very rare. In adults, the majority of them are malignant. Schwannomas are exceedingly rare benign tumors in the tracheobronchial tree. We report a case of a 37-year-old man who was hospitalized for increasing dyspnea. He had been treated for bronchial asthma for the last 4 years with no benefit. The CT scan of the chest and bronchoscopy identified a tracheal mass that was prolapsed in the left stem bronchus. The patient did not remain free of disease after endoscopic laser resection. So, surgical resection was made. The tumor was excised at its base. A segment of the left stem bronchus was removed and primary anastomosis was performed. The histopathologic diagnosis was of a benign schwannoma without malignant elements. There was no recurrence during the follow-up period. This case demonstrates that intratracheal masses should be considered in patients with dyspnea or in patients with asthma refractory to conventional therapy. PMID:25131369

  8. Gyromitrin as a tumor inducer.

    PubMed

    Toth, B; Patil, K

    1981-01-01

    Acetaldehyde methylformylhydrazone (gyromitrin) was administered in propylene glycol as 12 weekly subcutaneous injections of 50 micrograms/g weight to randomly bred Swiss mice. The treatment induced lung and preputial gland tumors in incidences of 51 and 0% in females and 46 and 28% in males, respectively. In the propylene glycol injected control groups, the corresponding tumor incidences were 28 and 0% in females and 32 and 0% in males. Histopathologically, the tumors were classified as adenomas and adenocarcinomas of the lungs and squamous cell papillomas and carcinomas and adenocarcinomas of preputial glands. Gyromitrin is an ingredient of the wild edible false morel mushroom Gyromitrin esculenta. The environmental significance of the findings is discussed. PMID:7198186

  9. Tumoral calcinosis of the hand

    PubMed Central

    Amati, Carlo; Pesce, Vito; Armenio, Andrea; Solarino, Giuseppe; Moretti, Biagio

    2015-01-01

    Tumoral calcinosis is a rare condition described in literature as a deposition of calcium salts in soft tissues. We here report a rare case of Tumoral calcinosis in the index finger of a hand in a 22-year-old woman. Because of the absence of any trauma, normal serum phosphate and calcium levels and no symptoms but a cosmetic defect, our case is classified as a primary tumoral calcinosis. As well as described in literature, also in this case the surgical excision was the mainstay treatment for this benign pathology. For the particular area involved we performed a radical excision followed by an interesting reverse homodigital artery flap from the ulnar side of the index. PMID:25858267

  10. Tumoral calcinosis of the hand.

    PubMed

    Amati, Carlo; Pesce, Vito; Armenio, Andrea; Solarino, Giuseppe; Moretti, Biagio

    2015-01-01

    Tumoral calcinosis is a rare condition described in literature as a deposition of calcium salts in soft tissues. We here report a rare case of Tumoral calcinosis in the index finger of a hand in a 22-year-old woman. Because of the absence of any trauma, normal serum phosphate and calcium levels and no symptoms but a cosmetic defect, our case is classified as a primary tumoral calcinosis. As well as described in literature, also in this case the surgical excision was the mainstay treatment for this benign pathology. For the particular area involved we performed a radical excision followed by an interesting reverse homodigital artery flap from the ulnar side of the index. PMID:25858267

  11. Epilepsy associated tumors: Review article

    PubMed Central

    Giulioni, Marco; Marucci, Gianluca; Martinoni, Matteo; Marliani, Anna Federica; Toni, Francesco; Bartiromo, Fiorina; Volpi, Lilia; Riguzzi, Patrizia; Bisulli, Francesca; Naldi, Ilaria; Michelucci, Roberto; Baruzzi, Agostino; Tinuper, Paolo; Rubboli, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Long-term epilepsy associated tumors (LEAT) represent a well known cause of focal epilepsies. Glioneuronal tumors are the most frequent histological type consisting of a mixture of glial and neuronal elements and most commonly arising in the temporal lobe. Cortical dysplasia or other neuronal migration abnormalities often coexist. Epilepsy associated with LEAT is generally poorly controlled by antiepileptic drugs while, on the other hand, it is high responsive to surgical treatment. However the best management strategy of tumor-related focal epilepsies remains controversial representing a contemporary issues in epilepsy surgery. Temporo-mesial LEAT have a widespread epileptic network with complex epileptogenic mechanisms. By using an epilepsy surgery oriented strategy LEAT may have an excellent seizure outcome therefore surgical treatment should be offered early, irrespective of pharmacoresistance, avoiding both the consequences of uncontrolled seizures as well as the side effects of prolonged pharmacological therapy and the rare risk of malignant transformation. PMID:25405186

  12. Tumor Targeting, Trifunctional Dendritic Wedge

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report in vitro and in vivo evaluation of a newly designed trifunctional theranostic agent for targeting solid tumors. This agent combines a dendritic wedge with high boron content for boron neutron capture therapy or boron MRI, a monomethine cyanine dye for visible-light fluorescent imaging, and an integrin ligand for efficient tumor targeting. We report photophysical properties of the new agent, its cellular uptake and in vitro targeting properties. Using live animal imaging and intravital microscopy (IVM) techniques, we observed a rapid accumulation of the agent and its retention for a prolonged period of time (up to 7 days) in fully established animal models of human melanoma and murine mammary adenocarcinoma. This macromolecular theranostic agent can be used for targeted delivery of high boron load into solid tumors for future applications in boron neutron capture therapy. PMID:25350602

  13. Update on pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors

    PubMed Central

    McKenna, Logan R.

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) are relatively rare tumors comprising 1-2% of all pancreas neoplasms. In the last 10 years our understanding of this disease has increased dramatically allowing for advancements in the treatment of pNETs. Surgical excision remains the primary therapy for localized tumors and only potential for cure. New surgical techniques using laparoscopic approaches to complex pancreatic resections are a major advancement in surgical therapy and increasingly possible. With early detection being less common, most patients present with metastatic disease. Management of these patients requires multidisciplinary care combining the best of surgery, chemotherapy and other targeted therapies. In addition to surgical advances, recently, there have been significant advances in systemic therapy and targeted molecular therapy. PMID:25493258

  14. Villous tumors of the duodenum.

    PubMed Central

    Chappuis, C W; Divincenti, F C; Cohn, I

    1989-01-01

    Five cases of villous tumors of the duodenum are reported, all of which involve the ampulla of Vater. Three of the five lesions contained either infiltrating carcinoma or carcinoma in situ. Although preoperative endoscopic biopsy was performed on all tumors no malignancy was identified. Frozen sections done at the time of operation on the three patients with carcinoma also failed to identify malignancy. One patient underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy and four patients had local excision of the tumor. Three of the patients treated with local excision developed recurrence and two subsequently had pancreaticoduodenectomy. Because of the difficulty in making an accurate diagnosis and the chance of recurrence when local excision is employed, strong consideration should be given to pancreaticoduodenectomy as the initial form of treatment of these lesions. PMID:2650645

  15. Radiofrequency Ablation of Liver Tumors

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Shaunagh; Gervais, Debra A.

    2013-01-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is an alternative therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastases when resection cannot be performed or, in the case of hepatocellular carcinoma, when transplant cannot be performed in a timely enough manner to avoid the risk of dropping off the transplant list. RFA has the advantage of being a relatively low-risk minimally invasive procedure used in the treatment of focal liver tumors. This review article discusses the current evidence supporting RFA of liver tumors, as well as the indications, complications, and follow-up algorithms used after RFA. PMID:24436517

  16. Adult Wilms tumor: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Morabito, V.; Guglielmo, N.; Melandro, F.; Mazzesi, G.; Alesini, F.; Bosco, S.; Berloco, P.B.

    2014-01-01

    Wilms tumor (WT) occurs infrequently in adults. Even rarer is adult WT with extension by direct intravascular spread into the right side of the heart. The present report describes a WT with intracaval and intracardiac extension in a 38-year-young man. In addition, thrombus extension above the infrahepatic IVC represents a major technical topic for surgeons because of the possible occurrence of uncontrollable hemorrhages and tumor fragmentation. We report the results of a surgical approach to caval thrombosis including the isolation of the IVC from the liver as routinely performed during liver harvesting. The morphologic and immune-histochemical findings confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:25553532

  17. Biomarkers in Tissue Samples From Patients With High-Risk Wilms Tumor

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-05

    Clear Cell Sarcoma of the Kidney; Recurrent Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors; Rhabdoid Tumor of the Kidney; Stage I Wilms Tumor; Stage II Wilms Tumor; Stage III Wilms Tumor; Stage IV Wilms Tumor; Stage V Wilms Tumor

  18. An exceptional collision tumor: gastric calcified stromal tumor and pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Hicham; Elfahssi, Mohamed; Belhamidi, Mohamed Said; Elhjouji, Abderrahman; Bounaim, Ahmed; Ali, Abdelmounaim Ait; Sair, Khalid; Zentar, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    The authors report an exceptional case of collision tumor comprised of a gastric calcified stromal tumor and a pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The pancreatic tumor was detected fortuitously on the histological exam of resection specimen.

  19. An isolated tumor perfusion model in mice

    PubMed Central

    Duyverman, Annique M M J; Kohno, Mitsutomo; Roberge, Sylvie; Fukumura, Dai; Duda, Dan G; Jain, Rakesh K

    2012-01-01

    The role of stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment has been extensively characterized. We and others have shown that stromal cells may participate in several steps of the metastatic cascade. This protocol describes an isolated tumor perfusion model that enables studies of cancer and stromal cell shedding. It could also be used to study the effects of therapies interfering with the shedding of tumor cells or fragments, circulating (stem) cells or biomarkers. Primary tumors are grown in a microenvironment in which stromal cells express GFP ubiquitously. Tumors are implanted orthotopically or can be implanted ectopically. As a result, all tumor-associated stromal cells express GFP. This technique can be used to detect and study the role of stromal cells in tumor fragments within the circulation in mice. Studying the role of stromal cells in circulating tumor fragments using this model may take 210 weeks, depending on the growth rate of the primary tumor. PMID:22441293

  20. Pericyte Antigens in Perivascular Soft Tissue Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jia; Shrestha, Swati; Yen, Yu-Hsin; Asatrian, Greg; Mravic, Marco; Soo, Chia; Ting, Kang; Dry, Sarah M.; Peault, Bruno; James, Aaron W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Perivascular soft tissue tumors are relatively uncommon neoplasms of unclear line of differentiation, although most are presumed to originate from pericytes or modified perivascular cells. Among these, glomus tumor, myopericytoma, and angioleiomyoma share a spectrum of histologic findings and a perivascular growth pattern. In contrast, solitary fibrous tumor (previously termed hemangiopericytoma) was once hypothesized to have pericytic differentiation. Methods Here, we systematically examine pericyte immunohistochemical markers among glomus tumor (including malignant glomus tumor), myopericytoma, angioleiomyoma, and solitary fibrous tumor. Immunohistochemical staining and semiquantification was performed using well-defined pericyte antigens, including ?SMA, CD146, and PDGFR?. Results Glomus tumor and myopericytoma demonstrate diffuse staining for all pericyte markers, including immunohistochemical reactivity for ?SMA, CD146, and PDGFR?. Malignant glomus tumors all showed some degree of pericyte marker immunoreactivity, although it was significantly reduced. Angioleiomyoma shared a similar ?SMA + CD146 + PDGFR?+ immunophenotype; however, this was predominantly seen in the areas of perivascular tumor growth. Solitary fibrous tumors showed patchy PDGFR? immunoreactivity only. Discussion In summary, pericyte marker expression is a ubiquitous finding in glomus tumor, myopericytoma, and angioleiomyoma. Malignant glomus tumor shows a comparative reduction in pericyte marker expression, which may represent partial loss of pericytic differentiation. Pericyte markers are essentially not seen in solitary fibrous tumor. The combination of ?SMA, CD146, and PDGFR? immunohistochemical stainings may be of utility for the evaluation of pericytic differentiation in soft tissue tumors. PMID:26085647

  1. Targeting tumor microenvironment: crossing tumor interstitial fluid by multifunctional nanomedicines

    PubMed Central

    Omidi, Yadollah; Barar, Jaleh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The genesis of cancer appears to be a complex matter, which is not simply based upon few genetic abnormalities/alteration. In fact, irregular microvasculature and aberrant interstitium of solid tumors impose significant pathophysiologic barrier functions against cancer treatment modalities, hence novel strategies should holistically target bioelements of tumor microenvironment (TME). In this study, we provide some overview and insights on TME and important strategies used to control the impacts of such pathophysiologic barriers. Methods: We reviewed all relevant literature for the impacts of tumor interstitium and microvasculature within the TME as well as the significance of the implemented strategies. Results: While tumorigenesis initiation seems to be in close relation with an emergence of hypoxia and alterations in epigenetic/genetic materials, large panoplies of molecular events emerge as intricate networks during oncogenesis to form unique lenient TME in favor of tumor progression. Within such irregular interstitium, immune system displays defective surveillance functionalities against malignant cells. Solid tumors show multifacial traits with coadaptation and self-regulation potentials, which bestow profound resistance against the currently used conventional chemotherapy and immunotherapy agents that target solely one face of the disease. Conclusion: The cancerous cells attain unique abilities to form its permissive microenvironment, wherein (a) extracellular pH is dysregulated towards acidification, (b) extracellular matrix (ECM) is deformed, (c) stromal cells are cooperative with cancer cells, (d) immune system mechanisms are defective, (e) non-integrated irregular microvasculature with pores (120-1200 nm) are formed, and (h) interstitial fluid pressure is high. All these phenomena are against cancer treatment modalities. As a result, to control such abnormal pathophysiologic traits, novel cancer therapy strategies need to be devised using multifunctional nanomedicines and theranostics. PMID:25035848

  2. Ceramide Kinase Promotes Tumor Cell Survival and Mammary Tumor Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Ania W.; Pant, Dhruv K.; Pan, Tien-chi; Chodosh, Lewis A.

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent breast cancer is typically an incurable disease and, as such, is disproportionately responsible for deaths from this disease. Recurrent breast cancers arise from the pool of disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) that survive adjuvant or neoadjuvant therapy, and patients with detectable DTCs following therapy are at substantially increased risk for recurrence. Consequently, the identification of pathways that contribute to the survival of breast cancer cells following therapy could aid in the development of more effective therapies that decrease the burden of residual disease and thereby reduce the risk of breast cancer recurrence. We now report that Ceramide Kinase (Cerk) is required for mammary tumor recurrence following HER2/neu pathway inhibition and is spontaneously up-regulated during tumor recurrence in multiple genetically engineered mouse models for breast cancer. We find that Cerk is rapidly up-regulated in tumor cells following HER2/neu down-regulation or treatment with Adriamycin and that Cerk is required for tumor cell survival following HER2/neu down-regulation. Consistent with our observations in mouse models, analysis of gene expression profiles from over 2,200 patients revealed that elevated CERK expression is associated with an increased risk of recurrence in women with breast cancer. Additionally, although CERK expression is associated with aggressive subtypes of breast cancer, including those that are ER–, HER2+, basal-like, or high grade, its association with poor clinical outcome is independent of these clinicopathological variables. Together, our findings identify a functional role for Cerk in breast cancer recurrence and suggest the clinical utility of agents targeted against this pro-survival pathway. PMID:25164007

  3. Histological patterns of head and neck tumors: An insight to tumor histology

    PubMed Central

    Dive, Alka M; Bodhade, Ashish S; Mishra, Minal S; Upadhyaya, Neha

    2014-01-01

    This article emphasizes the basis for origin and importance of tumor patterns in diagnosis of oral and maxillofacial tumors. In this article, histological patterns and subpatterns of head and neck tumors are enlisted. Although, undifferentiated tumors remain a challenge to the histopathologist, by describing the histological patterns and the subpatterns of the tumors, an attempt has been made for the diagnosis of the tumors and subsequently for implementation of precise treatment plan for the same. PMID:24959039

  4. Adaptive (TINT) Changes in the Tumor Bearing Organ Are Related to Prostate Tumor Size and Aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Adamo, Hanibal Hani; Strmvall, Kerstin; Nilsson, Maria; Halin Bergstrm, Sofia; Bergh, Anders

    2015-01-01

    In order to grow, tumors need to induce supportive alterations in the tumor-bearing organ, by us named tumor instructed normal tissue (TINT) changes. We now examined if the nature and magnitude of these responses were related to tumor size and aggressiveness. Three different Dunning rat prostate tumor cells were implanted into the prostate of immune-competent rats; 1) fast growing and metastatic MatLyLu tumor cells 2) fast growing and poorly metastatic AT-1 tumor cells, and 3) slow growing and non-metastatic G tumor cells. All tumor types induced increases in macrophage, mast cell and vascular densities and in vascular cell-proliferation in the tumor-bearing prostate lobe compared to controls. These increases occurred in parallel with tumor growth. The most pronounced and rapid responses were seen in the prostate tissue surrounding MatLyLu tumors. They were, also when small, particularly effective in attracting macrophages and stimulating growth of not only micro-vessels but also small arteries and veins compared to the less aggressive AT-1 and G tumors. The nature and magnitude of tumor-induced changes in the tumor-bearing organ are related to tumor size but also to tumor aggressiveness. These findings, supported by previous observation in patient samples, suggest that one additional way to evaluate prostate tumor aggressiveness could be to monitor its effect on adjacent tissues. PMID:26536349

  5. Immunohistochemical features of the gastrointestinal tract tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Hannah H.

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal tract tumors include a wide variety of vastly different tumors and on a whole are one of the most common malignancies in western countries. These tumors often present at late stages as distant metastases which are then biopsied and may be difficult to differentiate without the aid of immunohistochemical stains. With the exception of pancreatic and biliary tumors where there are no distinct immunohistochemical patterns, most gastrointestinal tumors can be differentiated by their unique immunohistochemical profile. As the size of biopsies decrease, the role of immunohistochemical stains will become even more important in determining the origin and differentiation of gastrointestinal tract tumors. PMID:22943017

  6. Therapeutic Targeting of Tumor Suppressor Genes

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Luc G. T.; Chan, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    Carcinogenesis is a multistep process attributable to both gain-of-function mutations in oncogenes and loss-of-function mutations in tumor suppressor genes. Currently, most molecular targeted therapies are inhibitors of oncogenes, because inactivated tumor suppressor genes have proven harder to drug. Nevertheless, in cancers, tumor suppressor genes undergo alteration more frequently than do oncogenes. In recent years, several promising strategies directed at tumor suppressor genes, or the pathways controlled by these genes, have emerged. Here, we describe advances in a number of different methodologies aimed at therapeutically targeting tumors driven by inactivated tumor suppressor genes. PMID:25557041

  7. [Classification and natural history of bladder tumors].

    PubMed

    Allory, Yves

    2014-12-01

    Urinary bladder tumors are mainly of urothelial type. Classifications include stage and grade to provide with the required prognostic factors and help to select the most adequate treatment. Though somatic mutations in bladder tumors are known, their used for targeted therapy are restricted to clinical trials. Upper urinary tract tumors are classified as urinary bladder tumor at histological level, but tumor staging is specified according to calyx, renal pelvis or ureter location; in young patients with upper urinary tract tumor, a Lynch syndrome should be eliminated. PMID:25668829

  8. Evolution of Avian Tumor Viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virus-induced neoplastic diseases of poultry, namely Marek’s disease (MD), induced by a herpesvirus, and the avian leukosis and reticuloendotheliosis induced by retroviruses, can cause significant economic losses from tumor mortality as well as poor performance. Successful control of MD is and has ...

  9. Expanding Therapy for Neuroendocrine Tumors.

    PubMed

    2016-03-01

    Results from two phase III studies suggest that everolimus, an mTOR inhibitor, and (177)Lutetium-DOTATATE, a radiopharmaceutical, may be effective new options for patients with advanced neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. Both therapies were well tolerated and significantly prolonged progression-free survival. PMID:26826165

  10. Tumor Immunotargeting Using Innovative Radionuclides

    PubMed Central

    Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Rousseau, Caroline; Bodet-Milin, Caroline; Mathieu, Cédric; Guérard, François; Frampas, Eric; Carlier, Thomas; Chouin, Nicolas; Haddad, Ferid; Chatal, Jean-François; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Chérel, Michel; Barbet, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality. PMID:25679452

  11. Laser application in tracheobronchial tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, B. Krishna; Krishna, Sharon

    2004-09-01

    Ninety three patients with obstructing tracheobronchial tumors were treated with Neodymium: Yttrium - Aluminum - Garnet (Nd:YAG) laser photocoagulation over a period of six years. There were sixty seven Males and 26 Females with a mean age of 44.3 years (range 6- 79 years). 21 benign and 72 malignant lesions were treated with a total 212 sessions of laser photocoagulation (mean 2.4 sessions). The anatomical distribution of lesions were as follows; larynx 9 (three benign and 6 malignant) trachea 39 (27 benign and 12 malignant) left main bronchus 27 (14 malignant) right main bronchus 24 (14 malignant) and vocal cords - 9 (three malignant). There were 21 patients with squamous cell carcinoma, two adenocarcinomas, one adenoid cystic carcinoma, 7 cases of locally infiltrating tumors from thyroid and esophagus, 6 cases of carcinoid tumor and 16 benign lesions. Twenty one patients had a tracheostomy tube in place when treatment was started. Eighteen of the 21 patients with tracheostomy were weaned off the tube in a mean of 5.5 days from the start of treatment. Lumen was restored in 31 (79.4%) patients. In the other eight (20.6%), lumen was achieved, but not sustained. Complications included bleeding in three cases which were managed conservatively, two cases of pneumothorax, and four cases of bronchospasm. There were six deaths during the follow up but none attributable to the procedure. Laser photocoagulation offered effective treatment in the majority of patients with obstructing tracheobronchial tumors, with acceptable morbidity.

  12. Tumor immunotargeting using innovative radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Kraeber-Bodr, Franoise; Rousseau, Caroline; Bodet-Milin, Caroline; Mathieu, Cdric; Gurard, Franois; Frampas, Eric; Carlier, Thomas; Chouin, Nicolas; Haddad, Ferid; Chatal, Jean-Franois; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Chrel, Michel; Barbet, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality. PMID:25679452

  13. Primary Neuroendocrine Tumor in Brain

    PubMed Central

    Tamura, Ryota; Kuroshima, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of brain metastases for neuroendocrine tumor (NET) is reportedly 1.5~5%, and the origin is usually pulmonary. A 77-year-old man presented to our hospital with headache and disturbance of specific skilled motor activities. Computed tomography (CT) showed a massive neoplastic lesion originating in the left temporal and parietal lobes that caused a mass edematous effect. Grossly, total resection of the tumor was achieved. Histological examination revealed much nuclear atypia and mitotic figures. Staining for CD56, chromogranin A, and synaptophysin was positive, indicating NET. The MIB-1 index was 37%. Histopathologically, the tumor was diagnosed as NET. After surgery, gastroscopy and colonoscopy were performed, but the origin was not seen. After discharge, CT and FDG-PET (fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography) were performed every 3 months. Two years later we have not determined the origin of the tumor. It is possible that the brain is the primary site of this NET. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of this phenomenon. PMID:25506006

  14. Intraocular tumors. A cytopathologic study.

    PubMed

    Scroggs, M W; Johnston, W W; Klintworth, G K

    1990-01-01

    The cytologic characteristics and histopathologic correlates of common ocular tumors were examined using (1) cytologic and histologic specimens prepared from enucleated eyes with retinoblastoma and melanoma, (2) cytologic specimens prepared from clinically obtained intraocular fluids from eyes with lymphoma, metastatic adenocarcinoma and retinoblastoma and (3) cytologic specimens prepared from orbital aspirates and cerebrospinal fluids from a patient in whom retinoblastoma had spread to the orbit and central nervous system. Retinoblastoma cells occurred singly and in clusters and were associated with abundant necrotic debris and portions of capillaries with perivascular tumor infiltrates. Melanoma cells frequently had prominent nucleoli and variable amounts of fine cytoplasmic pigmentation and were found individually and in groups. Lymphoma cells were noncohesive, with scant cytoplasm. Metastatic intraocular adenocarcinoma cells had well-defined borders, multiple nucleoli and vacuolated cytoplasm. In general, the cellular morphology in the cytologic and tissue preparations of the intraocular tumors correlated well with each other. The findings suggest that common primary and metastatic intraocular tumors can be differentiated in cytologic preparations. PMID:2343699

  15. Radiologic Features of Sinonasal Tumors.

    PubMed

    Koeller, Kelly K

    2016-03-01

    Imaging evaluation of sinonasal tumors is most often conducted with computed tomography, which excels at identifying the effects of these masses on adjacent osseous structures, and magnetic resonance imaging that is ideal for distinguishing pathologic masses from mucosal thickening and fluid that are common in the sinonasal spaces and depicting extension into the surrounding soft tissues, orbits, and intracranial compartment. Accordingly, the two studies are complementary exams and both are commonly utilized in the assessment of these masses. Less commonly, positron emission tomography can provide additional metabolic evaluation of potential metastatic disease in patients with malignant disease. While these imaging modalities are excellent for the portrayal of an abnormality, there is considerable overlap in the imaging appearance of these tumors and specific imaging manifestations linked to a particular tumor are frequently lacking. Therefore, while the mass may be readily identified, narrowing the differential diagnosis to a single specific entity is rare. Nevertheless, cross-sectional imaging plays an essential role in patient management and valuable guidance for successful biopsy or surgical resection in virtually all cases. This review emphasizes essential imaging manifestations that correlate with sinonasal tumors in general and highlight certain features that may implicate a specific disease process. PMID:26830408

  16. Palifosfamide in Treating Patients With Recurrent Germ Cell Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-11

    Adult Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Adult Teratoma; Malignant Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Malignant Extragonadal Non-Seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor; Extragonadal Seminoma; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Extragonadal Non-Seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Extragonadal Seminoma; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor

  17. [Cytogenetics of oral solid tumors].

    PubMed

    Manor, E; Bodner, L

    2011-10-01

    The tumorigenesiss of oral solid tumors is still uncertain. The underlying mechanisms of epithelial or connective tissue proliferation are not yet fully understood. Also, the transformation of a benign tumor into malignant is obscure. Cytogenetics is the study of chromosome number and structure using a light microscope. Human chromosome nomenclature is based on An International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature (ISCN). The normal human somatic cells have 46 chromosomes, including 22 pairs of autosomes and two sex chromosomes, XX in female and XY in male. The chromosome abnormalities can be numerical and structural. Both types can occur concurrently. Numerical abnormalities involve the loss and/or gain of a whole chromosome and can include both autosomes and sex chromosomes. Cells which have lost a chromosome are categorized as a monosomy, while those with an extra chromosome are trisomy. Structural abnormalities include translocations, deletions, inversions and insertions. Cancer, in its various forms is a result of genetic changes. This concept comes from the finding of chromosomal abnormalities. These abnormalities may arise as a consequence of random replication errors; exposure to carcinogens; or damaged DNA repair process. In clinical oncology, the study of chromosome abnormalities in solid tumors provides valuable information for the diagnosis, evaluating treatment response of metastatic cancer, marker for prognosis and targeted therapy. In tumors which histologic features overlap, cytogenetics plays an important role for diagnosis. Cytogenetics has also been used to monitor the surgical margins of the resection in head and neck carcinoma, where the histology was not definitive. The present report will focus on the role of cytogenetics in the diagnosis and prognosis of benign and malignant oral solid tumors. PMID:22471156

  18. Pineal region tumors--neurosurgical review.

    PubMed

    Radovanovic, Ivan; Dizdarevic, Kemal; de Tribolet, Nicolas; Masic, Tarik; Muminagic, Sahib

    2009-01-01

    The treatment for the pineal region tumors depends on tumor histology. Nowadays, germinomas can be cured by radiotherapy and chemotherapy without surgical resection but the other pineal region tumors should be primary treated by surgery. Two microsurgical approaches, the infratentorial supracerebellar and the occipital transtentorial, are accepted as the main standard accesses to the pineal region. For benign pineal tumors (pineocytoma, meningioma, mature teratomas, symptomatic pineal cysts, etc.) radical surgical resection can be curative. For malignant tumors radical surgical resection is not an objective. Serum and CSF markers contribute to the diagnosis of pineal parenchymal tumors. b-HCG is mainly positive in choriocarcinomas, embryonal carcinomas and mixed germ cell tumors and AFP is expressed by yolk sac tumors, embryonic carcinomas, immature teratomas and mixed germ cell tumors, b-HCG is usually low in germinomas which are often positive for PLAP on immunohistochemistry. Fifty-one pineal region tumors were surgically treated by senior author (NdT). Only 17 of them were the neoplasms originating from pineal body (pineal tumors). In conclusion it can be stressed that management of pineal tumors requires a multidisciplinary cooperation. With the exception of germinoma where only a biopsy is needed, the role of the surgeons still remains prominent as resection of pineal tumors requires high technical skill and experience as well as precise clinical judgment. PMID:20088167

  19. Eradication of Large Solid Tumors in Mice with an Immunotoxin Directed Against Tumor Vasculature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrows, Francis J.; Thorpe, Philip E.

    1993-10-01

    Antibody-based therapy of solid tumors has met with limited success, chiefly because solid tumors are relatively impermeable to macromolecules. This problem could be circumvented by attacking the readily accessible endothelial cells of the tumor vascular bed. We have developed a model to test this "vascular targeting" approach in which cytokine gene transfection of the tumor cells causes them to induce an experimental marker selectively on tumor vascular endothelium. An anti-tumor endothelial cell immunotoxin caused complete occlusion of the tumor vasculature and dramatic regressions of large solid tumors. By contrast, a conventional anti-tumor cell immunotoxin of equivalent in vitro potency produced only minor, transient antitumor effects but, when combined, the two immunotoxins induced permanent complete remissions in over half of the animals. These experiments indicate that immunotoxins directed against recently described markers on vascular endothelial cells in human tumors could provide a general treatment for solid tumors in humans.

  20. 15. Como gatehouse (outlet tower) and access bridge, looking west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Como gatehouse (outlet tower) and access bridge, looking west from dam crest (Trash rack visible in reservoir pool behind and right of tower) - Bitter Root Irrigation Project, Como Dam, West of U.S. Highway 93, Darby, Ravalli County, MT

  1. Diagnostic Study of Tumor Characteristics in Patients With Ewing's Sarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-20

    Localized Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  2. Gefitinib in Treating Patients With Progressive Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    Gastrinoma; Glucagonoma; Insulinoma; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma; Somatostatinoma; WDHA Syndrome

  3. Biology and Treatment of Rhabdoid Tumor.

    PubMed

    Geller, James I; Roth, Jacquelyn J; Biegel, Jaclyn A

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdoid tumor is a rare, highly aggressive malignancy that primarily affects infants and young children. These tumors typically arise in the brain and kidney, although extrarenal, non-central nervous system tumors in almost all soft-tissue sites have been described. SMARCB1 is a member of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex and functions as a tumor suppressor in the vast majority of rhabdoid tumors. Patients with germline mutations or deletions affecting SMARCB1 are predisposed to the development of rhabdoid tumors, as well as the genetic disorder schwannomatosis. The current hypothesis is that rhabdoid tumors are driven by epigenetic dysregulation, as opposed to the alteration of a specific biologic pathway. The strategies for novel therapeutic approaches based on what is currently known about rhabdoid tumor biology are presented. PMID:26349416

  4. Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults Download Printable ... the topics below to get started. What Is Brain/CNS Tumors In Adults? What are adult brain ...

  5. Mesenteric fibromatosis mimicking a gastrointestinal stromal tumor.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Denise; Kesha, Kilak; Tittle, Shawn L; Saldinger, Pierre F

    2010-04-01

    Mesenteric fibromatosis is a locally aggressive tumor of the mesentery with a high propensity for bowel involvement. Mesenteric fibromatosis often mimics gastrointestinal stromal tumors in size, location and immunohistochemical features. We report the case of a 30-year-old male who underwent resection of a mesenteric tumor, initially diagnosed as gastrointestinal stromal tumor. The tumor was categorized as high-risk and the patient was treated with chemotherapy. Two years later the patient was found to have a mass in the mesentery and restarted on chemotherapy. The tumor did not respond to medical management. The patient underwent a second en bloc resection and pathology results were conclusive for mesenteric fibromatosis. This case highlights the significance of accurately differentiating mesenteric fibromatosis from gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Making a concrete diagnosis is often difficult because both gastrointestinal stromal tumors and mesenteric fibromatosis share a number of morphological and immunohistochemical features including CKIT expression. PMID:20440999

  6. Genetics Home Reference: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Patient support For patients and families Genetic Testing Registry Genetic testing ClinicalTrials.gov Research studies PubMed Recent ... Cancer.Net: Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor--Diagnosis Genetic Testing Registry: Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors You might also find information ...

  7. Key roles of aquaporins in tumor biology.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Marios C; Saadoun, Samira

    2015-10-01

    Aquaporins are protein channels that facilitate the flow of water across plasma cell membranes in response to osmotic gradients. This review summarizes the evidence that aquaporins play key roles in tumor biology including tumor-associated edema, tumor cell migration, tumor proliferation and tumor angiogenesis. Aquaporin inhibitors may thus be a novel class of anti-tumor agents. However, attempts to produce small molecule aquaporin inhibitors have been largely unsuccessful. Recently, monoclonal human IgG antibodies against extracellular aquaporin-4 domains have become available and could be engineered to kill aquaporin-4 over-expressing cells in the malignant brain tumor glioblastoma. We conclude this review by discussing future directions in aquaporin tumor research. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane channels and transporters in cancers. PMID:25204262

  8. Deregulated proliferation and differentiation in brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Swartling, Fredrik J; ?an?er, Matko; Frantz, Aaron; Weishaupt, Holger; Persson, Anders I

    2014-01-01

    Neurogenesis, the generation of new neurons, is deregulated in neural stem cell (NSC)- and progenitor-derived murine models of malignant medulloblastoma and glioma, the most common brain tumors of children and adults, respectively. Molecular characterization of human malignant brain tumors, and in particular brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs), has identified neurodevelopmental transcription factors, microRNAs, and epigenetic factors known to inhibit neuronal and glial differentiation. We are starting to understand how these factors are regulated by the major oncogenic drivers in malignant brain tumors. In this review, we will focus on the molecular switches that block normal neuronal differentiation and induce brain tumor formation. Genetic or pharmacological manipulation of these switches in BTSCs has been shown to restore the ability of tumor cells to differentiate. We will discuss potential brain tumor therapies that will promote differentiation in order to reduce treatment-resistance, suppress tumor growth, and prevent recurrence in patients. PMID:25416506

  9. Systemic tumor-specific gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Kullberg, Max; McCarthy, Ryan; Anchordoquy, Thomas J

    2013-12-28

    The objective of a systemically administered cancer gene therapy is to achieve gene expression that is isolated to the tumor tissue. Unfortunately, viral systems have strong affinity for the liver, and delivery from non-viral cationic systems often results in high expression in the lungs. Non-specific delivery to these organs must be overcome if tumors are to be aggressively treated with genes such as IL-12 which activates a tumor immune response, and TNF-alpha which can induce tumor cell apoptosis. Techniques which have led to specific expression in tumor tissue include receptor targeting through ligand conjugation, utilization of tumor specific promoters and viral mutation in order to take advantage of proteins overexpressed in tumor cells. This review analyzes these techniques applied to liposomal, PEI, dendrimer, stem cell and viral gene delivery systems in order to determine the techniques that are most effective in achieving tumor specific gene expression after systemic administration. PMID:24035974

  10. Deciphering and Reversing Tumor Immune Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Motz, Greg T.; Coukos, George

    2013-01-01

    Generating an anti-tumor immune response is a multi-step process that is executed by effector T cells that can recognize and kill tumor targets. However, tumors employ multiple strategies to attenuate the effectiveness of T cell-mediated attack. This is achieved by interfering with nearly every step required for effective immunity, from deregulation of antigen-presenting cells, to establishment of a physical barrier at the vasculature that prevents homing of effector tumor-rejecting cells, and through the suppression of effector lymphocytes through the recruitment and activation of immunosuppressive cells like myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), tolerogenic monocytes and T regulatory cells (Tregs). Here, we review the ways in which tumors exert immune suppression and highlight the new therapies that seek to reverse this phenomenon and promote anti-tumor immunity. Understanding anti-tumor immunity, and how it becomes disabled by tumors, will ultimately lead to improved immune therapies and prolonged survival of patients. PMID:23890064

  11. Analysis of tumor suppressor gene p53 in chicken lymphoblastoid tumor cell lines and field tumors.

    PubMed

    Takagi, M; Ohashi, K; Morimura, T; Sugimoto, C; Onuma, M

    1998-08-01

    To determine whether there is any abnormalities of the p53 gene in chicken lymphoblastoid tumor cell lines derived from Marek's disease (MD), lymphoid leukosis, reticuloendotheliosis, and field tumors, some portions of p53 cDNA corresponding to core and C-terminal domains (nucleotide positions 277-1104 in the p53 open reading frame (ORF)) were sequenced. Several mutations were identified in both cell lines and field tumors. However, none of these mutations is localized at the "hot spot", which has been reported as the site for transformation-activating mutations. Moreover, partial cDNA clones with a 122-bp deletion in the p53 ORF were identified in two cell lines, MSB1 and MTB1 derived from MD tumors. Southern blot analysis showed that no deletion occurred in the genome of p53 in MSB1, indicating that deletion occurred at the transcriptional level. This deletion could cause a frame shift of the encoding p53 protein, possibly resulting in the generation of a functionally different p53 protein. However, we confirmed that p53 mRNA without deletion is also present in each of these cell lines. These mutations of the p53 gene and deletion in the p53 transcript may be ones of molecular changes specific to the transformation induced by MD virus. PMID:9764405

  12. Tumor size and prognosis in patients with Wilms tumor

    PubMed Central

    Provenzi, Valentina Oliveira; Rosa, Rafael Fabiano Machado; Rosa, Rosana Cardoso Manique; Roehe, Adriana Vial; dos Santos, Pedro Paulo Albino; Faulhaber, Fabrízia Rennó Sodero; de Oliveira, Ceres Andréia Vieira; Zen, Paulo Ricardo Gazzola

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Investigate the relationship of the tumor volume after preoperative chemotherapy (TVAPQ) and before preoperative chemotherapy (TVBPQ) with overall survival at two and at five years, and lifetime. METHODS: Our sample consisted of consecutive patients evaluated in the period from 1989 to 2009 in an Onco-Hematology Service. Clinical, histological and volumetric data were collected from the medical records. For analysis, chi-square, Kaplan-Meier, log-rank and Cox regression tests were used. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 32 patients, 53.1% were male with a median age at diagnosis of 43 months. There was a significant association between TVAPQ>500mL and the difference between the TVBPQ and TVAPQ (p=0.015) and histologic types of risk (p=0.008). It was also verified an association between the difference between the TVBPQ and TVAPQ and the predominant stromal tumor (p=0.037). When assessing the TVAPQ of all patients, without a cutoff, there was an association of the variable with lifetime (p=0.013), i.e., for each increase of 10mL in TVAPQ there was an average increase of 2% in the risk of death. CONCLUSIONS: Although our results indicate that the TVAPQ could be considered alone as a predictor of poor prognosis regardless of the cutoff suggested in the literature, more studies are needed to replace the histology and staging by tumor size as best prognostic variable. PMID:25623730

  13. Tumors of the ocular surface: A review

    PubMed Central

    Honavar, Santosh G; Manjandavida, Fairooz P

    2015-01-01

    Tumors of the Ocular Surface clinically manifest with a very wide spectrum and include several forms of epithelial, stromal, caruncular, and secondary tumors. As a group, these tumors are seen commonly in the clinical practice of a comprehensive ophthalmologist, cornea specialist, and an ocular oncologist. This review is aimed to discuss the common tumors of the ocular surface and emphasize on their clinical diagnosis and appropriate management. PMID:25971163

  14. RECIST Applied to Realistic Tumor Models

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Zachary H.; Galloway, Benjamin R.; Peskin, Adele P.

    2011-01-01

    RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors) is a linear measure intended to predict tumor size in medical computed tomography (CT). In this work, using purely geometrical considerations, we estimate how well RECIST can predict the volume of randomly-oriented tumor models, each composed of the union of ellipsoids. The principal conclusion is that RECIST is likely to work less well for realistic tumors than for ellipsoids.

  15. [Tumor hypoxia: the role of HIF].

    PubMed

    Fraga, Avelino; Ribeiro, Ricardo; Medeiros, Rui

    2009-10-01

    Solid tumors usually occur and progress in a hypoxic environment, suggesting that tumor cells are resistant to apoptosis and are associated to an increased angiogenesis, which makes them more aggressive, with invasive capacity and resistant to treatment. The genetic and biological mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are still unclear, but many studies suggest a role of HIF in this process. Under hypoxic conditions, the alpha subunit is not destroyed, and will activate transcription of a set of genes contributing to tumor aggressiveness. Its expression is associated to an increased metastatic potential that has been shown in both animal studies and human tumors. Tumor hypoxia has emerged as a key factor in tumor progression and is associated to a poor prognosis, particularly in kidney and prostate tumors. The purpose of this study was to review the significance of hypoxia in carcinogenesis and tumor progression by reviewing the current knowledge on the subject and the mechanisms of action and activation of HIF-1a Tumor hypoxia has emerged as a key factor in tumor progression and is associated to a poor prognosis, particularly in kidney and prostate tumors. The purpose of this study was to review the significance of hypoxia in carcinogenesis and tumor progression by reviewing the current knowledge on the subject and the mechanisms of action and activation of HIF-1a. PMID:19925752

  16. Rare tumors of the rectum. Narrative review.

    PubMed

    Errasti Alustiza, Jos; Espn Basany, Eloy; Reina Duarte, Angel

    2014-11-01

    Most rectal neoplasms are adenocarcinomas, but there is a small percentage of tumors which are of other histological cell lines such as neuroendocrine tumors, sarcomas, lymphomas and squamous cell carcinomas, which have special characteristics and different treatments. We have reviewed these rare tumors of the rectum from a clinical and surgical point of view. PMID:24629769

  17. Multiple Brown Tumors Caused by a Parathyroid Adenoma Mimicking Metastatic Bone Disease from Giant Cell Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Phulsunga, Rohit Kumar; Parghane, Rahul Vithalrao; Kanojia, Rajendra K.; Gochhait, Debasis; Sood, Ashwani; Bhattacharya, Anish; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2016-01-01

    Brown tumor affects multiple bones in the body with variable clinical symptoms, which may be misdiagnosed as multiple bone metastases or primary bone tumor. In the present case report, we report the usefulness of 99mTc-MDP bone scan and 99mTc-MIBI whole body scan in differentiating brown tumor of hyperparathyroidism from giant cell tumor.

  18. Senescent cells in growing tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapperi, Stefano; La Porta, Caterina A. M.; Sethna, James P.

    2012-02-01

    Tumors are defined by their intense proliferation, but sometimes cancer cells turn senescent and stop replicating. In the stochastic cancer model in which all cells are tumorigenic, senescence is seen as the result of random mutatations, suggesting that it could represent a barrier to tumor growth. In the hierarchical cancer model a subset of the cells, the cancer stem cells, divide indefinitely while other cells eventually turn senescent. Here we formulate cancer growth in mathematical terms and obtain distinct predictions for the evolution of senescence in the two models. We perform experiments in human melanoma cells which confirm the predictions of the hierarchical model and show that senescence is a reversible process controlled by survivin. We conclude that enhancing senescence is unlikely to provide a useful therapeutic strategy to fight cancer, unless the cancer stem cells are specifically targeted.

  19. [Glomus tumor of the thumb].

    PubMed

    Zapotoczny, Stanis?aw; Marniok, Beata; Gradzik, Robert; Arendt, Jerzy; Zajecki, Wojciech

    2004-01-01

    The article presents a case of 42-year-old patient with Recklinghausen disease treated in the outpatient clinic for 5 years for hyperaesthesia of a thumb. On physical examination the thumb was painful but smooth, soft with no features of infection. Neuralgia and Raynaud syndrome were suspected. Additional investigations did not show significant abnormalities, however, successive forms of conservative treatment (including denervation of the thumb) were not successful. Instant, persistent pain caused by even a slight touch or thermal changes suggested glomus tumor of the thumb. Physical examination did not confirm a lump typical in this disease. Finally partial resection of the digital pulp was performed, which led to complete recovery. Histopathological examination confirmed glomus tumor of the thumb. PMID:15181759

  20. Endoscopic resection of subepithelial tumors

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Arthur; Bauder, Markus; Riecken, Bettina; Caca, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Management of subepithelial tumors (SETs) remains challenging. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has improved differential diagnosis of these tumors but a definitive diagnosis on EUS findings alone can be achieved in the minority of cases. Complete endoscopic resection may provide a reasonable approach for tissue acquisition and may also be therapeutic in case of malignant lesions. Small SET restricted to the submucosa can be removed with established basic resection techniques. However, resection of SET arising from deeper layers of the gastrointestinal wall requires advanced endoscopic methods and harbours the risk of perforation. Innovative techniques such as submucosal tunneling and full thickness resection have expanded the frontiers of endoscopic therapy in the past years. This review will give an overview about endoscopic resection techniques of SET with a focus on novel methods. PMID:25512768

  1. The Pathobiology of Glioma Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Gladson, Candece L.; Prayson, Richard A.; Liu, Wei (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    The ongoing characterization of the genetic and epigenetic alterations in the gliomas has already improved the classification of these heterogeneous tumors and enabled the development of rodent models for analysis of the molecular pathways underlying their proliferative and invasive behavior. Effective application of the targeted therapies that are now in development will depend on pathologists’ ability to provide accurate information regarding the genetic alterations and the expression of key receptors and ligands in the tumors. Here we review the mechanisms that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of the gliomas and provide examples of the cooperative nature of the pathways involved, which may influence the initial therapeutic response and the potential for development of resistance. PMID:19737106

  2. Ultrasound in pituitary tumor surgery.

    PubMed

    Ram, Z; Bruck, B; Hadani, M

    1999-08-01

    Transsphenoidal microsurgery for pituitary tumors is practiced routinely by neurosurgeons with satisfactory results. However, in many cases the surgeon encounters difficulties in assessing the extent of resection achieved in large macroadenomas or in the intraoperative localization of microadenomas. Ultrasound has been routinely used for preoperative and intraoperative diagnostic purposes in a variety of surgical procedures, including in neurosurgery. However, until recently, its use as a diagnostic tool during pituitary surgery has not been evaluated. We review two new imaging modalities that use ultrasound during transsphenoidal surgery; transcranial doppler ultrasonography for resection of large pituitary macroadenomas, and transsphenoidal intraoperative ultrasound for the localization and targeted resection of pituitary microadenomas. These ultrasound-based techniques may assist the surgeon in determining the extent of tumor resection in large adenomas, in localizing small adenomas that may not be visualized on preoperative MRI scans, and perhaps, in enhancing the safety of transsphenoidal exploration of the pituitary. PMID:11081164

  3. Duodenal involvement by seminomatous tumors.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Lopez, Mario; Velasco-López, Rosalía; Mambrilla-Herrero, Sara; Bailon-Cuadrado, Martin; Plua, Katherine T; Diez-González, Luis M; Blanco-Álvarez, Jose I; Asensio-Díaz, Enrique; Gonzalo-Martín, Marta; Pérez-Saborido, Baltasar; Marcos-Rodríguez, Jose L

    2015-10-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors, though rare (1%), represent the most common neoplasm among young men. Gastrointestinal involvement from these malignancies usually presents as bowel obstruction and digestive bleeding, but their frequency is low (5%). The patterns of this involvement are: infiltration from affected retroperitoneal lymph nodes or, less frequently, by peritoneal seeding and direct hematogenous spread. Particularly, infiltration of duodenum is also rare, though its real frequency is not well defined. Moreover, the affinity for GI tract differs among the histological types of GCT, being seminomatous tumors an exceedingly unfrequent cause of duodenal infiltration. We herein present a recent case in our institution of severe anemia due to gastrointestinal bleeding in the context of giant retroperitoneal bulky metastatic mass infiltrating duodenum as first manifestation of a testicular pure seminoma. PMID:26437983

  4. Hybrid Models of Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Rejniak, Katarzyna A.; Anderson, Alexander R. A.

    2010-01-01

    Cancer is a complex, multiscale process, in which genetic mutations occurring at a subcellular level manifest themselves as functional changes at the cellular and tissue scale. The multiscale nature of cancer requires mathematical modeling approaches that can handle multiple intra- and extracellular factors acting on different time and space scales. Hybrid models provide a way to integrate both discrete and continuous variables that are used to represent individual cells and concentration or density fields, respectively. Each discrete cell can also be equipped with sub-models that drive cell behavior in response to microenvironmental cues. Moreover, the individual cells can interact with one another to form and act as an integrated tissue. Hybrid models form part of a larger class of individual-based-models that can naturally connect with tumor cell biology and allow for the integration of multiple interacting variables both intrinsically and extrinsically and are therefore perfectly suited to a systems biology approach to tumor growth. PMID:21064037

  5. Cardiac Tumors: A Brief Commentary

    PubMed Central

    Roever, Leonardo; Casella-Filho, Antonio; Dourado, Paulo Magno Martins; Resende, Elmiro Santos; Chagas, Antnio Carlos Palandri

    2014-01-01

    Patients with cardiac tumors may present with cardiovascular related or constitutional symptoms, but more often than not a cardiac mass is discovered incidentally during an imaging examination performed for an unrelated indication. Cardiac myxoma is generally considered to be a surgical emergency. Echocardiography, including the transesophageal approach, is the most important means of diagnosis; computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The clinical presentation has changed, and the management of cardiac myxoma now needs to be reviewed. PMID:25538934

  6. The immunological identity of tumor

    PubMed Central

    Miska, Jason; Devarajan, Priyadharshini; Chen, Zhibin

    2013-01-01

    By means of well-characterized autoimmunity models, we comparatively probed the selfness of malignant cells and their normal counterparts. We found that tumors activate self-tolerance mechanisms much more efficiently than normal tissues, reflecting a status of immunoprivileged self. Our findings indicate that potent autoimmune responses can eradicate established malignancies, yet the collateral destruction of healthy tissues may prove difficult to circumvent. PMID:23734327

  7. A late recurring and easily forgotten tumor: ovarian granulosa cell tumor

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian granulosa cell tumor (GCT) is a malignant tumor with slow progression. The recurrence of granulosa cell tumor often happens after 5?years, leading to a forgotten tumor by the patient. We present the case of a 64-year-old woman with a presentation of left flank pain. An initial computed tomography scan revealed a single tumor with multiple adjacent organ invasions. Surgical intervention was prescribed and the pathological results revealed a metastatic granulosa cell tumor. We also review the literature for the follow-up and further management of this tumor. PMID:22591557

  8. Romidepsin in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    Gastrinoma; Glucagonoma; Insulinoma; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Pulmonary Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma; Regional Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Somatostatinoma

  9. Tumor pathology of the orbit.

    PubMed

    Héran, F; Bergès, O; Blustajn, J; Boucenna, M; Charbonneau, F; Koskas, P; Lafitte, F; Nau, E; Roux, P; Sadik, J C; Savatovsky, J; Williams, M

    2014-10-01

    The term orbital tumor covers a wide range of benign and malignant diseases affecting specific component of the orbit or developing in contact with them. They are found incidentally or may be investigated as part of the assessment of a systemic disorder or because of orbital signs (exophthalmos, pain, etc.). Computed tomography, MRI and Color Doppler Ultrasound (CDU), play a varying role depending on the clinical presentation and the disease being investigated. This article reflects long experience in a reference center but does not claim to be exhaustive. We have chosen to consider these tumors from the perspective of their usual presentation, emphasizing the most common causes and suggestive radiological and clinical presentations (progressive or sudden-onset exophthalmos, children or adults, lacrimal gland lesions, periorbital lesions and enophthalmos). We will describe in particular muscle involvement (thyrotoxicosis and tumors), vascular lesions (cavernous sinus hemangioma, orbital varix, cystic lymphangioma), childhood lesions and orbital hematomas. We offer straightforward useful protocols for simple investigation and differential diagnosis. Readers who wish to go further to extend their knowledge in this fascinating area can refer to the references in the bibliography. PMID:25195185

  10. Percutaneous Tumor Ablation with Radiofrequency

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Bradford J.; Ramkaransingh, Jeffrey R.; Fojo, Tito; Walther, McClellan M.; Libutti, Stephen K.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFA) is a new minimally invasive treatment for localized cancer. Minimally invasive surgical options require less resources, time, recovery, and cost, and often offer reduced morbidity and mortality, compared with more invasive methods. To be useful, image-guided, minimally invasive, local treatments will have to meet those expectations without sacrificing efficacy. METHODS Image-guided, local cancer treatment relies on the assumption that local disease control may improve survival. Recent developments in ablative techniques are being applied to patients with inoperable, small, or solitary liver tumors, recurrent metachronous hereditary renal cell carcinoma, and neoplasms in the bone, lung, breast, and adrenal gland. RESULTS Recent refinements in ablation technology enable large tumor volumes to be treated with image-guided needle placement, either percutaneously, laparoscopically, or with open surgery. Local disease control potentially could result in improved survival, or enhanced operability. CONCLUSIONS Consensus indications in oncology are ill-defined, despite widespread proliferation of the technology. A brief review is presented of the current status of image-guided tumor ablation therapy. More rigorous scientific review, long-term follow-up, and randomized prospective trials are needed to help define the role of RFA in oncology. PMID:11900230

  11. Endoscopic treatment of orbital tumors

    PubMed Central

    Signorelli, Francesco; Anile, Carmelo; Rigante, Mario; Paludetti, Gaetano; Pompucci, Angelo; Mangiola, Annunziato

    2015-01-01

    Different orbital and transcranial approaches are performed in order to manage orbital tumors, depending on the location and size of the lesion within the orbit. These approaches provide a satisfactory view of the superior and lateral aspects of the orbit and the optic canal but involve risks associated with their invasiveness because they require significant displacement of orbital structures. In addition, external approaches to intraconal lesions may also require deinsertion of extraocular muscles, with subsequent impact on extraocular mobility. Recently, minimally invasive techniques have been proposed as valid alternative to external approaches for selected orbital lesions. Among them, transnasal endoscopic approaches, pure or combined with external approaches, have been reported, especially for intraconal lesions located inferiorly and medially to the optic nerve. The avoidance of muscle detachment and the shortness of the surgical intraorbital trajectory makes endoscopic approach less invasive, thus minimizing tissue damage. Endoscopic surgery decreases the recovery time and improves the cosmetic outcome not requiring skin incisions. The purpose of this study is to review and discuss the current surgical techniques for orbital tumors removal, focusing on endoscopic approaches to the orbit and outlining the key anatomic principles to follow for safe tumor resection. PMID:25789299

  12. Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Ehehalt, Florian; Saeger, Hans D; Schmidt, C Max; Grtzmann, Robert

    2009-05-01

    This literature review briefly summarizes the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical management, and outcomes of patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) and highlights recent advances in PNET research. PNETs are rare neoplasms, compared with carcinomas arising from pancreatic exocrine tissue. They, like other neuroendocrine tumor types, display variable malignant potential, hormone-related syndromes (functionality), localization, and genetic background. Although tumor origin and molecular pathogenesis remain poorly understood, recently established grading and staging systems facilitate patient risk stratification, and thereby directly impact clinical decision making. Although the optimal clinical management of PNETs involves a multidisciplinary approach, surgery remains the only curative treatment for early-stage disease. Surgery may also have a role in patients with advanced-stage disease, including those with hepatic metastases. Alternative therapeutic approaches applied to PNETs, including chemotherapy, radiofrequency ablation, transarterial chemoembolization, biotherapy, polypeptide radionuclide receptor therapy, antiangiogenic therapy, and selective internal radiotherapy, have failed to demonstrate a long-term survival benefit. Surgery remains the primary therapeutic option for patients with PNETs. Research on PNETs is desperately needed to improve the therapeutic options for patients with this disease. PMID:19411317

  13. Current management of hepatic tumors.

    PubMed

    Shiu, M H; Fortner, J G

    1975-05-01

    Today, the presence of a hepatic tumor can be diagnosed with considerable accuracy by means of isotope scans, arteriogram and ultrasonic imaging. Its localization to one lobe or other lobes is also generally achievable but with less accuracy because it is not yet possible to visualize the interlobar fissure by a noninvasive technique. Exploratory laparotomy with a view to resection is the preferred approach if the patient is in good general condition. Percutaneous biopsy of a hepatic lesion should be avoided unless laparotomy is not contemplated. Resection is the mainstay of therapy for all forms of hepatic malignant tumors and is the only modality that gives some prospect of cure. The prohibitively high operative mortality rate of former years, mostly due to hemorrhage, has gradually decreased with improved understanding of hepatic anatomy and innovations in surgical technique. By means of adequate vascular control and, if necessary, parenchymal cold perfusion, major resections of difficult and bulky lesions can now be accomplished with safety. Systemic chemotherapy with single agents, intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy and hepatic dearterialization have each been found to be of modest therapeutic value in a variable proportion of patients with diffuse unresectable cancer of the liver. The results of current experience indicate that the response rate is not high and long term control of tumor is rare. Multiple drug combinations with or without infusion therapy or dearterialization are being tried in many centers. Therapeutic strategy and end results for the different forms of benign and malignant neoplasms of the liver are discussed. PMID:167462

  14. Microwave Therapy for Bone Tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takakuda, Kazuo; Inaoka, Shuken; Saito, Hirokazu; Hassan, Moinuddin; Koyama, Yoshikazu; Kuroda, Hiroshi; Kanaya, Tomohiro; Kosaka, Toshifumi; Tanaka, Shigeo; Miyairi, Hiroo; Shinomiya, Kenichi

    In vivo microwave treatments for bone tumor are designed, which enable us to conserve the activity and functionality of the matrix of living tissues. This treatment is composed of two steps. In the first step, the tumor was coagulated by the application of microwaves emitted from the antenna inserted into the tumor tissue, and then removed. In the second step, the surrounding tissue suspected to be invaded with transformed cells was covered with hydro gels and heated similarly. The tissue itself was heated by the conduction from the gels. The tissue temperature should be kept at 60°C for 30 minutes. This treatment should kill the whole cells within the tissues, but the mechanical strength and the biochemical activity of the matrix should be left intact. The matrix preserves the mechanical functions and ensures the maximum regeneration ability of the tissue. In this study, various hydro gels were examined and the most promising one was selected. Animal experiments were carried out and successful heating verified the applicability of the treatment.

  15. Tumor Mechanics and Metabolic Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Jason C.; Barnes, J. Matthew; Desai, Shraddha R.; Sistrunk, Christopher; Conklin, Matthew; Schedin, Pepper; Keely, Patricia J.; Seewaldt, Victoria L.; Weaver, Valerie M.

    2015-01-01

    Desmosplasia is a characteristic of most solid tumors and leads to fibrosis through abnormal extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition, remodeling and post translational modifications. The resulting stiff tumor stroma not only compromises vascular integrity to induce hypoxia and impede drug delivery, but also promotes aggressiveness by potentiating the activity of key growth, invasion, and survival pathways. Intriguingly, many of the pro-tumorigenic signaling pathways which are mechanically activated by ECM stiffness also promote glucose uptake and aerobic glycolysis, and an altered metabolism is a recognized hallmark of cancer. Indeed, emerging evidence suggests that metabolic alterations and an abnormal ECM may cooperatively drive cancer cell aggression and treatment resistance. Accordingly, improved methods to monitor tissue mechanics and metabolism promise to improve diagnostics and treatments to ameliorate ECM stiffening and elevated mechanosignaling may improve patient outcome. Here we discuss the interplay between ECM mechanics and metabolism in tumor biology and suggest that monitoring these processes and targeting their regulatory pathways may improve diagnostics, therapy, and the prevention of malignant transformation. PMID:25532934

  16. [Advances in the relationship between tumor cell metabolism and tumor metastasis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yalong; Fang, Nianzhen; You, Jiacong; Zhou, Qinghua

    2014-11-01

    Intracellular nutrients and the rate of energy flowing in tumor cells are often higher than that in normal cells due to the prolonged stress of tumor-specific microenvironment. In this context, the metabolism of tumor cells provides the fuel of bio-synthesis and energy required for tumor metastasis. Consistent with this, the abnormal metabolism such as extremely active glucose metabolism and excessive accumulating of fatty acid is also discovered in metastatic tumors. Previous Studies have confirmed that the regulation of tumor metabolism can affect the tumor metastasis, and some of these have been successfully applied in clinical effective, positive way. Thus, targeting metabolism of tumor cells might be an effectively positive way to prevent the metastasis of tumor. So, our review is focused on the research development of the relationship between tumor metabolism and metastasis as well as the underlying mechanism. PMID:25404272

  17. Tumor-Infiltrating Immune Cells Promoting Tumor Invasion and Metastasis: Existing Theories

    PubMed Central

    Man, Yan-gao; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Mason, Jeffrey; Avital, Itzhak; Bilchik, Anton; Bruecher, Bjoern; Protic, Mladjan; Nissan, Aviram; Izadjoo, Mina; Zhang, Xichen; Jewett, Anahid

    2013-01-01

    It is a commonly held belief that infiltration of immune cells into tumor tissues and direct physical contact between tumor cells and infiltrated immune cells is associated with physical destructions of the tumor cells, reduction of the tumor burden, and improved clinical prognosis. An increasing number of studies, however, have suggested that aberrant infiltration of immune cells into tumor or normal tissues may promote tumor progression, invasion, and metastasis. Neither the primary reason for these contradictory observations, nor the mechanism for the reported diverse impact of tumor-infiltrating immune cells has been elucidated, making it difficult to judge the clinical implications of infiltration of immune cells within tumor tissues. This mini-review presents several existing hypotheses and models that favor the promoting impact of tumor-infiltrating immune cells on tumor invasion and metastasis, and also analyzes their strength and weakness. PMID:23386907

  18. Islet Cell Tumors of the Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Amin, Sunil; Kim, Michelle Kang

    2016-03-01

    Islet cell tumors of the pancreas, also known as pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, constitute less than 5% of pancreatic tumors, and 7% of all neuroendocrine tumors. Most are non-functional, and patients often present with metastatic disease. Functional tumors present with distinct clinical syndromes. Accurate staging is critical as surgery is both the cornerstone of treatment, and the only hope for cure. Medical management involves treating the manifestations of hormonal excess, and using somatastatin analogues when appropriate. Systemic chemotherapy, targeted molecular therapy, and peptide receptor radiotherapy may be used for refractory disease in lieu of or as an adjunct to surgery. PMID:26895682

  19. Magnetohydrodynamic thermochemotherapy and MRI of mouse tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brusentsov, Nikolay A.; Brusentsova, Tatiana N.; Filinova, Elena Yu.; Jurchenko, Nikolay Y.; Kupriyanov, Dmitry A.; Pirogov, Yuri A.; Dubina, Andry I.; Shumskikh, Maxim N.; Shumakov, Leonid I.; Anashkina, Ekaterina N.; Shevelev, Alexandr A.; Uchevatkin, Andry A.

    2007-04-01

    A dextran-ferrite magnetic fluid was successfully tested as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent. The same magnetic fluid was then combined with Melphalan, a chemotherapeutic drug, and used for magnetohydrodynamic thermochemotherapy of different tumors. The placement of the tumors in an AC magnetic field led to hyperthermia at 46 C for 30 min. In combination with tumor slime aspiration, a 30% regression of 130 mm 3 non-metastatic P388 tumors in BDF 1 mice was reached, together with a life span increase of 290%. The same procedure associated with cyclophosphamide treatment of 500 mm 3 metastases tumor increased the animal's life span by 180%.

  20. Mesothelioma following Wilms' tumor in childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Antman, K.H.; Ruxer, R.L. Jr.; Aisner, J.; Vawter, G.

    1984-07-15

    A high percentage of children with Wilms' tumor are cured with multimodal treatment. A small percentage of these children will develop second tumors, perhaps related to a genetic predisposition to neoplasia or possibly secondary to the treatment utilized for Wilms' tumor. Malignant mesothelioma has been associated with contact with asbestos but has also been reported after radiation exposure. Two patients are reported who developed malignant mesothelioma of the pleura after treatment for Wilms' tumor in childhood. Both received orthovoltage radiation; one patient also received triethylenemelamine (TEM), an alkylating agent closely related to nitrogen mustard, for 5 years. Factors in the development of second tumors are discussed.

  1. General Information about Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors Treatment Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors Treatment–Patient Version (PDQ®) General Information About Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors Key Points Childhood extracranial germ cell tumors ...

  2. Treatment Options for Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors Treatment Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors Treatment–Patient Version (PDQ®) General Information About Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors Key Points Childhood extracranial germ cell tumors ...

  3. Aflac ST0901 CHOANOME - Sirolimus in Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-09

    Ewing's Sarcoma; Osteosarcoma; Astrocytoma; Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Ependymoma; Germ Cell Tumor; Glioma; Medulloblastoma; Rhabdoid Tumor; Retinoblastoma; Clear Cell Sarcoma; Renal Cell Carcinoma; Wilms Tumor; Hepatoblastoma; Neuroblastoma; Rhabdomyosarcoma

  4. A new ODE tumor growth modeling based on tumor population dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oroji, Amin; Omar, Mohd bin; Yarahmadian, Shantia

    2015-10-01

    In this paper a new mathematical model for the population of tumor growth treated by radiation is proposed. The cells dynamics population in each state and the dynamics of whole tumor population are studied. Furthermore, a new definition of tumor lifespan is presented. Finally, the effects of two main parameters, treatment parameter (q), and repair mechanism parameter (r) on tumor lifespan are probed, and it is showed that the change in treatment parameter (q) highly affects the tumor lifespan.

  5. Bayesian Inference of Tumor Hypoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawan, R.; Tenti, G.; Sivaloganathan, S.

    2009-12-01

    Tumor hypoxia is a state of oxygen deprivation in tumors. It has been associated with aggressive tumor phenotypes and with increased resistance to conventional cancer therapies. In this study, we report on the application of Bayesian sequential analysis in estimating the most probable value of tumor hypoxia quantification based on immunohistochemical assays of a biomarker. The `gold standard' of tumor hypoxia assessment is a direct measurement of pO2 in vivo by the Eppendorf polarographic electrode, which is an invasive technique restricted to accessible sites and living tissues. An attractive alternative is immunohistochemical staining to detect proteins expressed by cells during hypoxia. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is an enzyme expressed on the cell membrane during hypoxia to balance the immediate extracellular microenvironment. CAIX is widely regarded as a surrogate marker of chronic hypoxia in various cancers. The study was conducted with two different experimental procedures. The first data set was a group of three patients with invasive cervical carcinomas, from which five biopsies were obtained. Each of the biopsies was fully sectioned and from each section, the proportion of CAIX-positive cells was estimated. Measurements were made by image analysis of multiple deep sections cut through these biopsies, labeled for CAIX using both immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical techniques [1]. The second data set was a group of 24 patients, also with invasive cervical carcinomas, from which two biopsies were obtained. Bayesian parameter estimation was applied to obtain a reliable inference about the proportion of CAIX-positive cells within the carcinomas, based on the available biopsies. From the first data set, two to three biopsies were found to be sufficient to infer the overall CAIX percentage in the simple form: best estimate±uncertainty. The second data-set led to a similar result in 70% of the cases. In the remaining cases Bayes' theorem warned us automatically that the inference from the data could not be summarized by just two numbers, but the full posterior probability density function (pdf) had to be used.

  6. Vaccines for tumor prevention: a pipe dream?

    PubMed

    Forni, Guido

    2015-06-01

    Whether or not a tumor expresses peculiar antigens that differentiate it from normal cells was intensively investigated in the 1950s. A conclusive answer was provided in 1960 when George Klein showed that a tumor can be rejected by the immune response elicited by a vaccine administered to the same mouse in which the tumor was induced. Whether immunogenicity was a feature restricted only to tumors artificially induced by viruses or by high doses of chemical carcinogens was then hotly debated until Terry Boon showed, in the 1980s, that almost any tumor can be recognized by a syngeneic immune system triggered by an appropriate cancer vaccine. However, the therapeutic efficacy of vaccine-induced immunity against an advanced tumor is marginal. The combination of an anti-tumor vaccine with new sophisticated maneuvers to contrast tumor-induced suppression may yield new and effective therapeutic strategies. Also, the exploitation of tumor vaccines to prevent tumors in cohorts of people with a specific risk of cancer may become a fresh strategy with great potential to control tumor onset. PMID:26142669

  7. Tumor antigens discovery: perspectives for cancer therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, R. F.

    1997-01-01

    The adoptive transfer of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) derived from tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) along with interleukin 2 (IL-2) into autologous patients with cancer resulted in the objective regression of tumor, indicating that these CTLs recognized cancer rejection antigens on tumor cells. To understand the molecular basis of T cell-mediated antitumor immunity, several groups started to search for such tumor antigens in melanoma as well as in other types of cancers. This led to the subject I will review in this article. A number of tumor antigens were isolated by the use of cDNA expression systems and biochemical approaches. These tumor antigens could be classified into several categories: tissue-specific differentiation antigens, tumor-specific shared antigens, and tumor-specific unique antigens. However, the majority of tumor antigens identified to date are nonmutated, self proteins. This raises important questions regarding the mechanism of antitumor activity and autoimmune disease. The identification of human tumor rejection antigens provides new opportunities for the development of therapeutic strategies against cancer. This review will summarize the current status and progress toward identifying human tumor antigens and their potential applications to cancer treatment. PMID:9407548

  8. MicroRNA regulons in tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, H I; Katsura, A; Matsuyama, H; Miyazono, K

    2015-01-01

    Cancer initiation and progression are defined by the behavior of cancer cells per se and the development of tumor tissues, both of which are modulated by crosstalk between cancer cells and the surrounding microenvironment. Advances in cancer research have highlighted the significance of constant evolution of the tumor microenvironment, leading to tumor formation, metastasis and refractoriness to therapy. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that function as major players of posttranscriptional gene regulation in diverse biological processes. They function as both tumor suppressors and promoters in many aspects of the autonomous behavior of cancer cells. Theoretically, dysfunction in the gene regulatory networks of cancer cells is one of the major driving forces for alterations of ostensibly normal surrounding cells. In this context, the core targets of miRNAs, termed miRNA regulons, are currently being expanded to include various modulators of the tumor microenvironment. Recent advances have highlighted two important roles played by miRNAs in the evolution of tumor microenvironments: miRNAs in tumor cells transform the microenvironment via non-cell-autonomous mechanisms, and miRNAs in neighboring cells stabilize cancer hallmark traits. These observations epitomize the distal and proximal functions of miRNAs in tumor microenvironments, respectively. Such regulation by miRNAs affects tumor angiogenesis, immune invasion and tumorstromal interactions. This review summarizes recent findings on the mechanisms of miRNA-mediated regulation of tumor microenvironments, with a perspective on the design of therapeutic interventions. PMID:25132266

  9. The retinoblastoma gene in human pituitary tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Cryns, V.L.; Arnold, A.; Alexander, J.M.; Klibanski, A. )

    1993-09-01

    Functional inactivation of the retinoblastoma (RB) tumor suppressor gene is important in the pathogenesis of many human tumors. Recently, the frequent occurrence of pituitary tumors was reported in mice genetically engineered to have one defective RB allele, a genetic background analogous to that of patients with familial retinoblastoma. The molecular pathogenesis of human pituitary tumors is largely unknown, and the potential role of RB gene inactivation in these neoplasms has not been examined. Consequently, the authors studied 20 human pituitary tumors (12 clinically nonfunctioning tumors, 4 somatotroph adenomas, 2 prolactinomas, and 2 corticotrophy adenomas) for tumor-specific allelic loss of the RB gene using a highly informative polymorphic locus within the gene. Control leukocyte DNA samples from 18 of these 20 patients were heterozygous at this locus, permitting genetic evaluation of their paired tumor specimens. In contrast to the pituitary tumors in the mouse model, none of these 18 human tumors exhibited RB allelic loss. These findings indicate that RB gene inactivation probably does not play an important role in the pathogenesis of common types of human pituitary tumors. 24 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... causes more deaths from cancer than any other environmental substance. Other risk factors for cancer include: Benzene ... other chemicals and toxins Drinking too much alcohol Environmental toxins, such as certain poisonous mushrooms and a ...

  11. Bioengineered human tumor within a bone niche

    PubMed Central

    Villasante, Aranzazu; Marturano, Alessandro; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2014-01-01

    Monolayer cultures of tumor cells and animal studies have tremendously advanced our understanding of cancer biology. However, we often lack animal models for human tumors, and cultured lines oif human cells quickly lose their cancer signatures. In recent years, simple 3D models for cancer research have emerged, including cell culture in spheroids and on biomaterial scaffolds. Here we describe a bioengineered model of human Ewings sarcoma that mimics the native bone tumor niche with high biological fidelity. In this model, cancer cells that have lost their transcriptional profiles after monolayer culture re-express genes related to focal adhesion and cancer pathways. The bioengineered model recovers the original hypoxic and glycolytic tumor phenotype, and enables re-expression of angiogenic and vasculogenic mimicry features that favor tumor adaptation. We propose that differentially expressed genes between the monolayer cell culture and native tumor environment are potential therapeutic targets that can be explored using the bioengineered tumor model. PMID:24746967

  12. Congenital tumors of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Severino, Mariasavina; Schwartz, Erin S; Thurnher, Majda M; Rydland, Jana; Nikas, Ioannis; Rossi, Andrea

    2010-06-01

    Congenital tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) are often arbitrarily divided into "definitely congenital" (present or producing symptoms at birth), "probably congenital" (present or producing symptoms within the first week of life), and "possibly congenital" (present or producing symptoms within the first 6 months of life). They represent less than 2% of all childhood brain tumors. The clinical features of newborns include an enlarged head circumference, associated hydrocephalus, and asymmetric skull growth. At birth, a large head or a tense fontanel is the presenting sign in up to 85% of patients. Neurological symptoms as initial symptoms are comparatively rare. The prenatal diagnosis of congenital CNS tumors, while based on ultrasonography, has significantly benefited from the introduction of prenatal magnetic resonance imaging studies. Teratomas constitute about one third to one half of these tumors and are the most common neonatal brain tumor. They are often immature because of primitive neural elements and, rarely, a component of mixed malignant germ cell tumors. Other tumors include astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors, and medulloblastomas. Less common histologies include craniopharyngiomas and ependymomas. There is a strong predilection for supratentorial locations, different from tumors of infants and children. Differential diagnoses include spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage that can occur in the presence of coagulation factor deficiency or underlying vascular malformations, and congenital brain malformations, especially giant heterotopia. The prognosis for patients with congenital tumors is generally poor, usually because of the massive size of the tumor. However, tumors can be resected successfully if they are small and favorably located. The most favorable outcomes are achieved with choroid plexus tumors, where aggressive surgical treatment leads to disease-free survival. PMID:20428859

  13. Bladder tumor markers: need, nature and application. 2. Tumor and tumor-associated antigens.

    PubMed

    Kirollos, M M; McDermott, S; Bradbrook, R A

    1998-01-01

    Despite the diversity of the available markers, none is truly specific to transitional epithelium, let alone its tumors. Some of the markers used, such as hCG and CEA, are far better known in other fields and seem to be expressed in only a minority of urothelial tumors. The majority of the available markers are tumor associated and should perhaps be considered as by-products of the process of malignancy in the urinary tract. Newer tests which are simple, rapid and easy to use have a practical advantage. These are currently the Bard BTA, BTA Stat and Aura-Tek FDP tests. So far, these markers have achieved only an arguable and marginal role in daily clinical practice, challenging the role of cytology and helping decide the type of cystoscopy. A more substantial role awaits a test with higher and more consistent sensitivity and specificity, together with the capability to provide independent diagnostic and/or prognostic information. In this part of the review we examine the literature view of the above-mentioned tests, as well as other new and some older tests such as blood group-related antigens, Lewis antigen, cytokeratins and others. PMID:9795829

  14. Evaluation of Tumor-infiltrating Leukocyte Subsets in a Subcutaneous Tumor Model.

    PubMed

    Pachynski, Russell K; Scholz, Alexander; Monnier, Justin; Butcher, Eugene C; Zabel, Brian A

    2015-01-01

    Specialized immune cells that infiltrate the tumor microenvironment regulate the growth and survival of neoplasia. Malignant cells must elude or subvert anti-tumor immune responses in order to survive and flourish. Tumors take advantage of a number of different mechanisms of immune "escape," including the recruitment of tolerogenic DC, immunosuppressive regulatory T cells (Tregs), and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) that inhibit cytotoxic anti-tumor responses. Conversely, anti-tumor effector immune cells can slow the growth and expansion of malignancies: immunostimulatory dendritic cells, natural killer cells which harbor innate anti-tumor immunity, and cytotoxic T cells all can participate in tumor suppression. The balance between pro- and anti-tumor leukocytes ultimately determines the behavior and fate of transformed cells; a multitude of human clinical studies have borne this out. Thus, detailed analysis of leukocyte subsets within the tumor microenvironment has become increasingly important. Here, we describe a method for analyzing infiltrating leukocyte subsets present in the tumor microenvironment in a mouse tumor model. Mouse B16 melanoma tumor cells were inoculated subcutaneously in C57BL/6 mice. At a specified time, tumors and surrounding skin were resected en bloc and processed into single cell suspensions, which were then stained for multi-color flow cytometry. Using a variety of leukocyte subset markers, we were able to compare the relative percentages of infiltrating leukocyte subsets between control and chemerin-expressing tumors. Investigators may use such a tool to study the immune presence in the tumor microenvironment and when combined with traditional caliper size measurements of tumor growth, will potentially allow them to elucidate the impact of changes in immune composition on tumor growth. Such a technique can be applied to any tumor model in which the tumor and its microenvironment can be resected and processed. PMID:25938949

  15. Study of the Glutaminase Inhibitor CB-839 in Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-27

    Solid Tumors; Triple-Negative Breast Cancer; Non Small Cell Lung Cancer; Renal Cell Carcinoma; Mesothelioma; Fumarate Hydratase (FH)-Deficient Tumors; Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH)-Deficient Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GIST); Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH)-Deficient Non-gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors; Tumors Harboring Isocitrate Dehydrogenase-1 (IDH1) and IDH2 Mutations; Tumors Harboring Amplifications in the cMyc Gene

  16. Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Young Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-05-01

    Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  17. Sunitinib in Treating Young Patients With Refractory Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-01-27

    Central Nervous System Metastases; Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  18. Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor with Glioblastoma Multiforme Components in an Adult: A Collision Tumor.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Victoria; Vredenburgh, James

    2016-01-01

    We report a rare case of a central nervous system collision tumor in a 40-year-old woman. Histopathological examination of her large temporal tumor revealed two different components making up the tumor tissue. The predominant component of the tumor was found to be a primitive neuroectodermal tumor. The other component was glioblastoma multiforme. Both of these tumors carry a poor prognosis, and primitive neuroectodermal tumors are extremely uncommon in adults. Central nervous system neoplasms with the combined features of both primitive neuroectodermal tumor and malignant glioma are very rare and represent a diagnostic and treatment predicament. The patient underwent surgical resection, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy targeting both the primitive neuroectodermal tumor and glioblastoma. Our patient has been fortunate in not showing any sign of recurrence and will celebrate the third anniversary since her diagnosis this January. PMID:26918224

  19. Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor with Glioblastoma Multiforme Components in an Adult: A Collision Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Vredenburgh, James

    2016-01-01

    We report a rare case of a central nervous system collision tumor in a 40-year-old woman. Histopathological examination of her large temporal tumor revealed two different components making up the tumor tissue. The predominant component of the tumor was found to be a primitive neuroectodermal tumor. The other component was glioblastoma multiforme. Both of these tumors carry a poor prognosis, and primitive neuroectodermal tumors are extremely uncommon in adults. Central nervous system neoplasms with the combined features of both primitive neuroectodermal tumor and malignant glioma are very rare and represent a diagnostic and treatment predicament. The patient underwent surgical resection, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy targeting both the primitive neuroectodermal tumor and glioblastoma. Our patient has been fortunate in not showing any sign of recurrence and will celebrate the third anniversary since her diagnosis this January.

  20. Maximizing Tumor Immunity With Fractionated Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Schaue, Dörthe; Ratikan, Josephine A.; Iwamoto, Keisuke S.; McBride, William H.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE Technological advances have led to increased clinical use of higher sized fractions of radiation dose and higher total doses. How these modify the pathways involved in tumor cell death, normal tissue response, and signaling to the immune system has been inadequately explored. Here we ask how radiation dose and fraction size affect anti-tumor immunity, the suppression thereof and how this might relate to tumor control. MATERIALS and METHODS Mice bearing B16-OVA murine melanoma were treated with up to 15Gy radiation given in various sized fractions and tumor growth followed. The tumor-specific immune response in the spleen was assessed by IFNγ-Enzyme-Linked Immuno-Spot (ELISPOT) assay with ovalbumin (OVA) as the surrogate tumor antigen and the contribution of regulatory T cells (Tregs) determined by the proportion of CD4+CD25hiFoxp3+ T cells. RESULTS After single doses, tumor control increased with the size of radiation dose, as did the number of tumor-reactive T cells. This was offset at the highest dose by an increase in Treg representation. Fractionated treatment with medium-size radiation doses of 7.5Gy/fraction gave the best tumor control and tumor immunity while maintaining low Treg numbers. CONCLUSIONS Radiation can be an immune adjuvant but the response varies with the size of dose per fraction. The ultimate challenge is to optimally integrate cancer immunotherapy into radiation therapy. PMID:22208977

  1. Imaging Tumor Hypoxia to Advance Radiation Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chen-Ting; Boss, Mary-Keara

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Most solid tumors contain regions of low oxygenation or hypoxia. Tumor hypoxia has been associated with a poor clinical outcome and plays a critical role in tumor radioresistance. Recent Advances: Two main types of hypoxia exist in the tumor microenvironment: chronic and cycling hypoxia. Chronic hypoxia results from the limited diffusion distance of oxygen, and cycling hypoxia primarily results from the variation in microvessel red blood cell flux and temporary disturbances in perfusion. Chronic hypoxia may cause either tumor progression or regressive effects depending on the tumor model. However, there is a general trend toward the development of a more aggressive phenotype after cycling hypoxia. With advanced hypoxia imaging techniques, spatiotemporal characteristics of tumor hypoxia and the changes to the tumor microenvironment can be analyzed. Critical Issues: In this review, we focus on the biological and clinical consequences of chronic and cycling hypoxia on radiation treatment. We also discuss the advanced non-invasive imaging techniques that have been developed to detect and monitor tumor hypoxia in preclinical and clinical studies. Future Directions: A better understanding of the mechanisms of tumor hypoxia with non-invasive imaging will provide a basis for improved radiation therapeutic practices. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 313–337. PMID:24329000

  2. Hyaluronan: A modulator of the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Chanmee, Theerawut; Ontong, Pawared; Itano, Naoki

    2016-05-28

    Tumors are cellular masses formed through dynamic interactions between tumor cells and a mixed population of stromal cells. Crosstalk between oncogenic and adjacent stromal cells contributes to the formation of a "tumor microenvironment" influencing the tumor cell behaviors of proliferation, invasion, and metastatic spread throughout cancer progression. The composition and structure of the tumor microenvironment vary among different types of tumors and are extensively remodeled in close association with tumor advancement. The tumor microenvironment is composed not only of cellular compartments, such as endothelial cells, fibroblasts, inflammatory cells, and immune cells, but also of bioactive substances, including growth factors and the extracellular matrix. Hyaluronan (HA) is a major component of the extracellular matrix, and the degree of HA accumulation is strongly correlated with a poor prognosis in advanced cancer patients. Emerging evidence has suggested that HA creates a specific microenvironment that is favorable for tumor angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. This review highlights the prominent roles of HA as a modulator of the tumor microenvironment and addresses the recent advances regarding HA function in cancer stem cell niches. PMID:26921785

  3. ROLE OF CHEMOKINES IN TUMOR GROWTH

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Dayanidhi; Baugher, Paige J.; Thu, Yee Mon; Richmond, Ann

    2007-01-01

    Chemokines play a paramount role in the tumor progression. Chronic inflammation promotes tumor formation. Both tumor cells and stromal cells elaborate chemokines and cytokines. These act either by autocrine or paracrine mechanisms to sustain tumor cell growth, induce angiogenesis and facilitate evasion of immune surveillance through immunoediting. The chemokine receptor CXCR2 and its ligands promote tumor angiogenesis and leukocyte infiltration into the tumor microenvironment. In harsh acidic and hypoxic microenvironmental conditions tumor cells up-regulate their expression of CXCR4, which equips them to migrate up a gradient of CXCL12 elaborated by carcinoma associated fibroblasts (CAFs) to a normoxic microenvironment. The CXCL12-CXCR4 axis facilitates metastasis to distant organs and the CCL21-CCR7 chemokine ligand-receptor pair favors metastasis to lymph nodes. These two chemokine ligand-receptor systems are common key mediators of tumor cell metastasis for several malignancies and as such provide key targets for chemotherapy. In this paper, the role of specific chemokines/chemokine receptor interactions in tumor progression, growth and metastasis and the role of chemokine/chemokine receptor interactions in the stromal compartment as related to angiogenesis, metastasis, and immune response to the tumor are reviewed. PMID:17629396

  4. NMR characteristics of rat mammary tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Osbakken, M.; Kreider, J.; Taczanowsky, P.

    1984-01-01

    12 rats were injected intradermally with 13762A rat mammary adenocarcinoma (1 x 10/sup 6/ cells). 3 rats died before completion of the study and 2 rat had tumor regression; the first 3 were excluded from data analysis. NMR imaging with a 1.5K gauss resistive magnet at 2, 3, 4, and 5 weeks after injection demonstrated increasing tumor mass. Saturation recovery (SR), inversion recovery (IR), and spin echo (SE) pulse sequence images and T/sub 1/ calculation were done for tumor characterization. (Tumor size was too small to identify at 2 weeks.) 3 rats were sacrificed after the last 3 imaging periods for histological studies, done to distinguish solid tumor mass from necrosis. Planimetry of tumor areas showed that as tumors grew in size, the ratio of necrotic area to area of solid tumor increased (week 3 = .3 +- .11; week 4 = .45 +- .07; week 5 = .51 +- 05); simultaneous calculated T/sub 1/ values also increased (week 3 = .35 +- .15; week 4 = .45 +- .06; week 5 = .42 +- 03). Qualitative NMR image T/sub 1/ values also increased as evidenced by progression of SR and IR tumor image intensity from very bright compared to the rest of the body at week 3 to less intense than other structures at week 5. These findings indicate that change in T/sub 1/ may be secondary to the pathophysiological change in the tumor (the increasing in necrosis, associated with increased free water). Thus, the range of T/sub 1/ values obtained in tumors in this study (and in previous studies) may be due to change in tumor physiology and anatomy. Careful correlation of histological with NMR data may allow ultimate use of NMR relaxation characteristics for determination of the physiological state of tumors.

  5. [Diagnostic problems in skin tumors].

    PubMed

    Hundeiker, M

    1979-09-15

    Several starting-points for improvement of diagnostic accuracy in skin tumors are illustrated by examples: Frequencies and direction of diagnostic errors, as well as the value of diagnostic criteria need further investigations. Frequent "customary" diseases need more attention in medical textbooks, compared with less frequent "interesting" syndromes. Erroneous denominations and historical false classifications which are handed down in the literature demand correction. The possibility continues, that apparently clearly defined entities may decay; they may be replaced by new entities in consequence of new perceptions. PMID:539026

  6. Genomics of brain tumor imaging.

    PubMed

    Pope, Whitney B

    2015-02-01

    Imaging genomics combines imaging-defined phenotypes with molecular determinants of disease. Recent studies have examined the relationship between MRI-derived feature sets and gene expression in gliomas, including glioblastoma (GBM). Several groups have identified correlations between the expression of particular molecularly defined oncogenic pathways in GBM and malignant phenotypes on MRI. The combination of clinical, genetic, and imaging data has improved prognostic modeling and has identified potential therapeutic targets. Many challenges remain in fully leveraging the associations between such large datasets, but even current methodology shows promise in helping to craft individually tailored treatments to patients with brain tumors and other diseases. PMID:25476516

  7. Tumors: too sweet to remember?

    PubMed

    Vollmers, H Peter; Brndlein, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    Immunity, based on a natural and an educated system, is responsible for recognition and elimination of infectious particles, cellular waste, modified self and transformed cells. This dual system guarantees that dangerous particles are removed immediately after appearance and that a memory with maturated weapons exists, if the organism is re-infected by the same particle. For malignant cells, however, the immune response seems to be restricted to innate immunity, because at least for the humoral response, all so far detected tumor-specific antibodies belong to the natural immunity. In this review we try to explain why malignant cells might be "too sweet" to induce a memory. PMID:18053197

  8. Ablative therapies for renal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Rajan; Leveillee, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    Owing to an increased use of diagnostic imaging for evaluating patients with other abdominal conditions, incidentally discovered kidney masses now account for a majority of renal tumors. Renal ablative therapy is assuming a more important role in patients with borderline renal impairment. Renal ablation uses heat or cold to bring about cell death. Radiofrequency ablation and cryoablation are two such procedures, and 5-year results are now emerging from both modalities. Renal biopsy at the time of ablation is extremely important in order to establish tissue diagnosis. Real-time temperature monitoring at the time of radiofrequency ablation is very useful to ensure adequacy of ablation. PMID:21789083

  9. Bronchial and Thymic Carcinoid Tumors.

    PubMed

    Litvak, Anya; Pietanza, M Catherine

    2016-02-01

    Bronchial and thymic carcinoids are rare. We present epidemiologic data and potential risk factors. The approach to bronchial and thymic carcinoid patients is discussed, from the initial diagnosis and evaluations to treatment. These malignancies follow staging systems of their site of origin. Because bronchial and thymic carcinoids are rare, we use many treatment strategies that have been demonstrated in gastrointestinal and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. The lack of information regarding efficacy in bronchial and thymic carcinoids, as well as the scarcity of therapeutic options available, demands the importance of clinical trials that include these patients. PMID:26614370

  10. Patient-Derived Tumor Xenografts Are Susceptible to Formation of Human Lymphocytic Tumors1

    PubMed Central

    Bondarenko, Gennadiy; Ugolkov, Andrey; Rohan, Stephen; Kulesza, Piotr; Dubrovskyi, Oleksii; Gursel, Demirkan; Mathews, Jeremy; O’Halloran, Thomas V.; Wei, Jian J.; Mazar, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) tumor models have emerged as a new approach to evaluate the effects of cancer drugs on patients’ personalized tumor grafts enabling to select the best treatment for the cancer patient and providing a new tool for oncology drug developers. Here, we report that human tumors engrafted in immunodeficient mice are susceptible to formation of B-and T-cell PDX tumors. We xenografted human primary and metastatic tumor samples into immunodeficient mice and found that a fraction of PDX tumors generated from patients’ samples of breast, colon, pancreatic, bladder and renal cancer were histologically similar to lymphocytic neoplasms. Moreover, we found that the first passage of breast and pancreatic cancer PDX tumors after initial transplantation of the tumor pieces from the same human tumor graft could grow as a lymphocytic tumor in one mouse and as an adenocarcinoma in another mouse. Whereas subcutaneous PDX tumors resembling human adenocarcinoma histology were slow growing and non-metastatic, we found that subcutaneous PDX lymphocytic tumors were fast growing and formed large metastatic lesions in mouse lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and spleen. PDX lymphocytic tumors were comprised of B-cells which were Epstein-Barr virus positive and expressed CD45 and CD20. Because B-cells are typically present in malignant solid tumors, formation of B-cell tumor may evolve in a wide range of PDX tumor models. Although PDX tumor models show great promise in the development of personalized therapy for cancer patients, our results suggest that confidence in any given PDX tumor model requires careful screening of lymphocytic markers. PMID:26476081

  11. Improving delivery and efficacy of nanomedicines in solid tumors: Role of tumor priming

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Lu, Ze; Gao, Yue; Wientjes, M. Guillaume; Au, Jessie L.-S.

    2013-01-01

    Effectiveness of nanomedicines in cancer therapy is limited in part by inadequate delivery and transport in tumor interstitium. This report reviews the experimental approaches to improve nanomedicines delivery and transport in solid tumors. These approaches include tumor vasculature normalization, interstitial fluid pressure modulation, enzymatic extracellular matrix degradation, and apoptosis-inducing tumor priming technology. We advocate the latter approach due to its ease and practicality (accomplished with standard-of-care chemotherapy such as paclitaxel) and tumor selectivity. Examples of applying tumor priming to deliver nanomedicines and to design drug/RNAi-loaded carriers are discussed. PMID:22077464

  12. Tumor-Associated Endothelial Cells Promote Tumor Metastasis by Chaperoning Circulating Tumor Cells and Protecting Them from Anoikis

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Arti; Kumar, Bhavna; Yu, Jun-Ge; Old, Matthew; Teknos, Theodoros N.; Kumar, Pawan

    2015-01-01

    Tumor metastasis is a highly inefficient biological process as millions of tumor cells are released in circulation each day and only a few of them are able to successfully form distal metastatic nodules. This could be due to the fact that most of the epithelial origin cancer cells are anchorage-dependent and undergo rapid anoikis in harsh circulating conditions. A number of studies have shown that in addition to tumor cells, activated endothelial cells are also released into the blood circulation from the primary tumors. However, the precise role of these activated circulating endothelial cells (CECs) in tumor metastasis process is not known. Therefore, we performed a series of experiments to examine if CECs promoted tumor metastasis by chaperoning the tumor cells to distal sites. Our results demonstrate that blood samples from head and neck cancer patients contain significantly higher Bcl-2-positive CECs as compared to healthy volunteers. Technically, it is challenging to know the origin of CECs in patient blood samples, therefore we used an orthotopic SCID mouse model and co-implanted GFP-labeled endothelial cells along with tumor cells. Our results suggest that activated CECs (Bcl-2-positive) were released from primary tumors and they co-migrated with tumor cells to distal sites. Bcl-2 overexpression in endothelial cells (EC-Bcl-2) significantly enhanced adhesion molecule expression and tumor cell binding that was predominantly mediated by E-selectin. In addition, tumor cells bound to EC-Bcl-2 showed a significantly higher anoikis resistance via the activation of Src-FAK pathway. In our in vivo experiments, we observed significantly higher lung metastasis when tumor cells were co-injected with EC-Bcl-2 as compared to EC-VC. E-selectin knockdown in EC-Bcl-2 cells or FAK/FUT3 knockdown in tumor cells significantly reversed EC-Bcl-2-mediated tumor metastasis. Taken together, our results suggest a novel role for CECs in protecting the tumor cells in circulation and chaperoning them to distal sites. PMID:26509633

  13. Epigenetic states of cells of origin and tumor evolution drive tumor initiating cell phenotype and tumor heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Kin-Hoe; Shin, Dong-Mi; Jenkins, Molly H.; Miller, Emily E.; Shih, David J.; Choi, Seungbum; Low, Benjamin E.; Philip, Vivek; Rybinski, Brad; Bronson, Roderick T.; Taylor, Michael D.; Yun, Kyuson

    2014-01-01

    A central confounding factor in the development of targeted therapies is tumor cell heterogeneity, including as it occurs in tumor-initiating cells (TIC) within clinically identical tumors. Here we show how activation of the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) pathway in neural stem and progenitor cells creates a foundation for tumor cell evolution to heterogeneous states that are histologically indistinguishable but molecularly distinct. In spontaneous medulloblastomas that arise in Patched (Ptch)+/− mice, we identified three distinct tumor subtypes. Through cell type-specific activation of the SHH pathway in vivo, we determined that different cells of origin evolved in unique ways to generate these subtypes. Moreover, TICs in each subtype had distinct molecular and cellular phenotypes. At the bulk tumor level, the three tumor subtypes could be distinguished by a 465-gene signature and by differential activation levels of the ERK and AKT pathways. Notably, TICs from different subtypes were differentially sensitive to SHH or AKT pathway inhibitors, highlighting new mechanisms of resistance to targeted therapies. In summary, our results show how evolutionary processes act on distinct cells of origin to contribute to tumoral heterogeneity, at both bulk tumor and TIC levels. PMID:25136069

  14. TUSC1, a putative tumor suppressor gene, reduces tumor cell growth in vitro and tumor growth in vivo.

    PubMed

    Shan, Zhihong; Shakoori, Abbas; Bodaghi, Sohrab; Goldsmith, Paul; Jin, Jen; Wiest, Jonathan S

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported the identification of TUSC1 (Tumor Suppressor Candidate 1), as a novel intronless gene isolated from a region of homozygous deletion at D9S126 on chromosome 9p in human lung cancer. In this study, we examine the differential expression of TUSC1 in human lung cancer cell lines by western blot and in a primary human lung cancer tissue microarray by immunohistochemical analysis. We also tested the functional activities and mechanisms of TUSC1 as a tumor suppressor gene through growth suppression in vitro and in vivo. The results showed no expression of TUSC1 in TUSC1 homozygously deleted cells and diminished expression in some tumor cell lines without TUSC1 deletion. Interestingly, the results from a primary human lung cancer tissue microarray suggested that higher expression of TUSC1 was correlated with increased survival times for lung cancer patients. Our data demonstrated that growth curves of tumor cell lines transfected with TUSC1 grew slower in vitro than those transfected with the empty vector. More importantly, xenograph tumors in nude mice grew significantly slower in vivo in cells stably transfected with TUSC1 than those transfected with empty vector. In addition, results from confocal microscopy and immunohistochemical analyses show distribution of TUSC1 in the cytoplasm and nucleus in tumor cell lines and in normal and tumor cells in the lung cancer tissue microarray. Taken together, our results support TUSC1 has tumor suppressor activity as a candidate tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome 9p. PMID:23776618

  15. Epigenetic states of cells of origin and tumor evolution drive tumor-initiating cell phenotype and tumor heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Chow, Kin-Hoe; Shin, Dong-Mi; Jenkins, Molly H; Miller, Emily E; Shih, David J; Choi, Seungbum; Low, Benjamin E; Philip, Vivek; Rybinski, Brad; Bronson, Roderick T; Taylor, Michael D; Yun, Kyuson

    2014-09-01

    A central confounding factor in the development of targeted therapies is tumor cell heterogeneity, particularly in tumor-initiating cells (TIC), within clinically identical tumors. Here, we show how activation of the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) pathway in neural stem and progenitor cells creates a foundation for tumor cell evolution to heterogeneous states that are histologically indistinguishable but molecularly distinct. In spontaneous medulloblastomas that arise in Patched (Ptch)(+/-) mice, we identified three distinct tumor subtypes. Through cell type-specific activation of the SHH pathway in vivo, we determined that different cells of origin evolved in unique ways to generate these subtypes. Moreover, TICs in each subtype had distinct molecular and cellular phenotypes. At the bulk tumor level, the three tumor subtypes could be distinguished by a 465-gene signature and by differential activation levels of the ERK and AKT pathways. Notably, TICs from different subtypes were differentially sensitive to SHH or AKT pathway inhibitors, highlighting new mechanisms of resistance to targeted therapies. In summary, our results show how evolutionary processes act on distinct cells of origin to contribute to tumoral heterogeneity, at both bulk tumor and TIC levels. PMID:25136069

  16. Malignant trigeminal nerve sheath tumor and anaplastic astrocytoma collision tumor with high proliferative activity and tumor suppressor p53 expression.

    PubMed

    Kurdi, Maher; Al-Ardati, Hosam; Baeesa, Saleh S

    2014-01-01

    Background. The synchronous development of two primary brain tumors of distinct cell of origin in close proximity or in contact with each other is extremely rare. We present the first case of collision tumor with two histological distinct tumors. Case Presentation. A 54-year-old woman presented with progressive atypical left facial pain and numbness for 8 months. MRI of the brain showed left middle cranial fossa heterogeneous mass extending into the infratemporal fossa. At surgery, a distinct but intermingled intra- and extradural tumor was demonstrated which was completely removed through left orbitozygomatic-temporal craniotomy. Histopathological examination showed that the tumor had two distinct components: malignant nerve sheath tumor of the trigeminal nerve and temporal lobe anaplastic astrocytoma. Proliferative activity and expressed tumor protein 53 (TP53) gene mutations were demonstrated in both tumors. Conclusions. We describe the first case of malignant trigeminal nerve sheath tumor (MTNST) and anaplastic astrocytoma in collision and discuss the possible hypothesis of this rare occurrence. We propose that MTNST, with TP53 mutation, have participated in the formation of anaplastic astrocytoma, or vice versa. PMID:25386378

  17. Malignant Trigeminal Nerve Sheath Tumor and Anaplastic Astrocytoma Collision Tumor with High Proliferative Activity and Tumor Suppressor P53 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ardati, Hosam; Baeesa, Saleh S.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The synchronous development of two primary brain tumors of distinct cell of origin in close proximity or in contact with each other is extremely rare. We present the first case of collision tumor with two histological distinct tumors. Case Presentation. A 54-year-old woman presented with progressive atypical left facial pain and numbness for 8 months. MRI of the brain showed left middle cranial fossa heterogeneous mass extending into the infratemporal fossa. At surgery, a distinct but intermingled intra- and extradural tumor was demonstrated which was completely removed through left orbitozygomatic-temporal craniotomy. Histopathological examination showed that the tumor had two distinct components: malignant nerve sheath tumor of the trigeminal nerve and temporal lobe anaplastic astrocytoma. Proliferative activity and expressed tumor protein 53 (TP53) gene mutations were demonstrated in both tumors. Conclusions. We describe the first case of malignant trigeminal nerve sheath tumor (MTNST) and anaplastic astrocytoma in collision and discuss the possible hypothesis of this rare occurrence. We propose that MTNST, with TP53 mutation, have participated in the formation of anaplastic astrocytoma, or vice versa. PMID:25386378

  18. Non-pancreatic cancer tumors in the pancreatic region

    PubMed Central

    Andrn-Sandberg, ke

    2011-01-01

    Most of tumors found in the pancreas are adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. A small number of tumors in the pancreas, such as islet cell tumors or neuroendocrine tumors, papillary cystic neoplasms, lymphoma, acinar cell tumors, metastatic tumors to the pancreas often, have a far better prognosis, and the majority of these tumors are non-malignant or benign. The author reviewed the recent literatures, and summarized where the tumor comes originally in the pancreas, what is the type of the tumor, and how to treat the tumor. PMID:22540066

  19. Diagnosing Common Benign Skin Tumors.

    PubMed

    Higgins, James C; Maher, Michael H; Douglas, Mark S

    2015-10-01

    Patients will experience a wide range of skin growths and changes over their lifetime. Family physicians should be able to distinguish potentially malignant from benign skin tumors. Most lesions can be diagnosed on the basis of history and clinical examination. Lesions that are suspicious for malignancy, those with changing characteristics, symptomatic lesions, and those that cause cosmetic problems may warrant medical therapy, a simple office procedure (e.g., excision, cryosurgery, laser ablation), or referral. Acrochordons are extremely common, small, and typically pedunculated benign neoplasms. Simple scissor or shave excision, electrodesiccation, or cryosurgery can be used for treatment. Sebaceous hyperplasia presents as asymptomatic, discrete, soft, pale yellow, shiny bumps on the forehead or cheeks, or near hair follicles. Except for cosmesis, they have no clinical significance. Lipomas are soft, flesh-colored nodules that are easily moveable under the overlying skin. Keratoacanthomas are rapidly growing, squamoproliferative benign tumors that resemble squamous cell carcinomas. Early simple excision is recommended. Pyogenic granuloma is a rapidly growing nodule that bleeds easily. Treatment includes laser ablation or shave excision with electrodesiccation of the base. Dermatofibromas are an idiopathic benign proliferation of fibroblasts. No treatment is required unless there is a change in size or color, bleeding, or irritation from trauma. Epidermal inclusion cysts can be treated by simple excision with removal of the cyst and cyst wall. Seborrheic keratoses and cherry angiomas generally do not require treatment. PMID:26447443

  20. Tumor cell autocrine motility factor.

    PubMed Central

    Liotta, L A; Mandler, R; Murano, G; Katz, D A; Gordon, R K; Chiang, P K; Schiffmann, E

    1986-01-01

    A cell motility-stimulating factor has been isolated, purified, and partially characterized from the serum-free conditioned medium of human A2058 melanoma cells. We term this activity "autocrine motility factor" (AMF). AMF has the properties of a protein with an estimated size of 55 kDa. At concentrations of 10 nM or less, AMF stimulated the random or directed motility of the producer cells. However, AMF is not an attractant for neutrophils. Amino acid analysis of the purified AMF protein revealed a high content of serine, glycine, glutamic acid, and aspartic acid residues. The activity of AMF was not replaced or blocked by known growth factors such as epidermal growth factor or type beta transforming growth factor. Mechanistic studies showed that AMF stimulated the incorporation of [3H]methyl into cell membrane phospholipids after incubation with [methyl-3H]methionine with a sustained increase in the methylation of phosphatidyldimethylethanolamine to phosphatidylcholine. In contrast, AMF did not affect the incorporation of [1,2-14C]choline into phosphatidylcholine. AMF was produced in large amounts by three different clones of ras oncogene-transfected metastatic NIH 3T3 cells but not by the nontransformed parental cells. AMF may play a major role in the local invasive behavior of tumor cells and may also facilitate the concerted invasion by groups of tumor cells. Images PMID:3085086

  1. Promiscuous tumor targeting phage proteins.

    PubMed

    Gross, Amanda L; Gillespie, James W; Petrenko, Valery A

    2016-03-01

    Cancer cell-specific targeting ligands against numerous cancer cell lines have been selected previously and used as ligands for cell-specific delivery of chemotherapies and various nanomedicines. However, tumor heterogeneity is one recognized problem hampering clinical translation of targeted anti-cancer medicines. Therefore, a novel class of targeting ligands is required that recognize receptors expressed between a variety of cancer phenotypes, identified here as 'promiscuous' ligands. In this work, promiscuous phage fusion proteins were first identified by a novel selection scheme to enrich for pan-cancer cell binding abilities, as indicated by conserved structural motifs identified previously in other cancer types. Additionally, peptide sequences containing a combination of motifs were identified to modulate binding. A panel of phage fusion proteins was studied for their specificity and selectivity for lung and pancreatic cancer cells. Phage displaying the fusion peptides GSLEEVSTL or GEFDELMTM, the two predominate clones with greatest binding ability, were used to modify preformed, doxorubicin-loaded, liposomes. These modified liposomes increased cytotoxicity up to 8.1-fold in several cancer cell lines when compared with unmodified liposomal doxorubicin. Taken together, these data indicate that promiscuous phage proteins, selected against different cancer cell lines, can be used as targeting ligands for treatment of heterogeneous tumor populations. PMID:26764410

  2. [Infant rhabdoid tumors: a diagnostic emergency].

    PubMed

    Marty, L; Cuinet, A; Roujeau, T; Prodhomme, O; Saumet, L; Coupier, I; Sirvent, N

    2014-11-01

    Rhabdoid tumors are a heterogeneous family of aggressive tumors affecting young children. Their grouping within a single entity is recent, following the discovery of a bi-allelic inactivation of the hSNF5/INI1 tumor suppressor gene in tumoral cells. This bi-allelic inactivation of the hSNF5/INI1 gene found at the constitutional level in up to one-third of cases has led to the identification of a predisposal syndrome to rhabdoid tumors. Herein we report extrarenal rhabdoid tumors observed in three infants between 3 and 6 months of age, underlining the misleading feature of the clinical presentation and the aggressiveness of the disease. Finally, we also report the genetic patient care management strategy. PMID:25267195

  3. Options for management of intra ocular tumors

    PubMed Central

    Lingam, Gopal

    2015-01-01

    The management of intra ocular tumors has undergone a sea change from the era of enucleation or external beam radiation. With the advent of new chemotherapy protocols, globe and vision salvage have become possible in a majority of cases of retinoblastoma. This article is an overview of the various modalities available for the management of intra ocular tumors and their indications. Chemotherapy has been covered elsewhere in this series of articles on ocular oncology. Photocoagulation and cryopexy are easily administered modalities of treatment for small tumors and totally within the ophthalmologist's domain. Slightly larger tumors are treatable with brachytherapy. The susceptibility of the tumors to chemotherapy and radiation decide the choice of treatment and the dosage. Management of intra ocular tumors very often needs a multidisciplinary approach including ophthalmologist, oncologist, radiation physicist, and radiotherapist. PMID:25971164

  4. Tumors and mitochondrial respiration: a neglected connection.

    PubMed

    Viale, Andrea; Corti, Denise; Draetta, Giulio F

    2015-09-15

    For decades, tumor cells have been considered defective in mitochondrial respiration due to their dominant glycolytic metabolism. However, a growing body of evidence is now challenging this assumption, and also implying that tumors are metabolically less homogeneous than previously supposed. A small subpopulation of slow-cycling cells endowed with tumorigenic potential and multidrug resistance has been isolated from different tumors. Deep metabolic characterization of these tumorigenic cells revealed their dependency on mitochondrial respiration versus glycolysis, suggesting the existence of a common metabolic program active in slow-cycling cells across different tumors. These findings change our understanding of tumor metabolism and also highlight new vulnerabilities that can be exploited to eradicate cancer cells responsible for tumor relapse. PMID:26374463

  5. Tumor lysis syndrome: A clinical review

    PubMed Central

    Mirrakhimov, Aibek E; Voore, Prakruthi; Khan, Maliha; Ali, Alaa M

    2015-01-01

    Tumor lysis syndrome is an oncometabolic emergency resulting from rapid cell death. Tumor lysis syndrome can occur as a consequence of tumor targeted therapy or spontaneously. Clinicians should stratify every hospitalized cancer patient and especially those receiving chemotherapy for the risk of tumor lysis syndrome. Several aspects of prevention include adequate hydration, use of uric acid lowering therapies, use of phosphate binders and minimization of potassium intake. Patients at high risk for the development of tumor lysis syndrome should be monitored in the intensive care unit. Established tumor lysis syndrome should be treated in the intensive care unit by aggressive hydration, possible use of loop diuretics, possible use of phosphate binders, use of uric acid lowering agents and dialysis in refractory cases. PMID:25938028

  6. Laparoscopic excision of abdominal wall desmoid tumor.

    PubMed

    Meshikhes, Abdul-Wahed; Al-Zahrani, Hana; Ewies, Tarek

    2016-02-01

    Open surgical resection is the mainstay treatment for desmoid tumors. Laparoscopic resection is rarely used and not well described in the literature. We report a case of a single, 35-year-old woman who presented with palpable abdominal wall desmoid tumor. The patient had had laparoscopic cholecystectomy 2 years earlier, and the tumor was at the insertion site of the right upper quadrant trocar. The diagnosis was made by a Tru-Cut biopsy at another institution, after the lesion had increased in size and caused increased discomfort. The patient underwent successful laparoscopic resection of the tumor. This report aimed to promote laparoscopic resection of abdominal wall desmoid tumors, whenever feasible, and describe the laparoscopic technique. We believe this is the second case of laparoscopic excision of desmoid tumor reported in the English-language literature. PMID:26781534

  7. Animal models of spontaneous pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Run

    2016-02-01

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are usually low-grade neoplasms derived from the endocrine pancreas. PNETs can be functioning and cause well-described hormonal hypersecretion syndromes or non-functioning and cause only tumor mass effect. PNETs appear to be more common recently likely due to incidental detection by imaging. Although the diagnosis and management of PNETs have been evolving rapidly, much remains to be studied in the areas of molecular pathogenesis, molecular markers of tumor behavior, early detection, and targeted drug therapy. Unique challenges facing PNETs studies are long disease course, the deep location of pancreas and difficult access to pancreatic tissue, and the variety of tumors, which make animal models valuable tools for PNETs studies. Existing animal models of PNETs have provided insights into the pathogenesis and natural history of human PNETs. Future studies on animal models of PNETs should address early tumor detection, molecular markers of tumor behavior, and novel targeted therapies. PMID:26261055

  8. Emerging topics in human tumor virology.

    PubMed

    Hoppe-Seyler, Felix; Hoppe-Seyler, Karin

    2011-09-15

    After a long period of scepticism and disbelief, tumor viruses are today recognized as a significant cancer risk factor for humans. Much has been learned about the viral transforming mechanisms and prophylactic vaccines have been developed against 2 major tumor viruses, HBV and HPV. Yet, many important issues of tumor virology remain unresolved and exciting new ones are emerging from recent discoveries. They define future research directions for the field and include (i) novel strategies for tumor virus hunting, (ii) tumor viruses as experimental tools to study human carcinogenesis, (iii) the interplay between viruses and the world of small noncoding RNAs, (iv) epigenetic interactions between tumor viruses and the host cell, (v) the role of virus/virus interactions for viral carcinogenesis and (vi) novel strategies for prevention and therapy of virus-associated cancers. These topics are discussed by summarizing recent developments, pointing out unresolved issues and suggesting possible strategies for their solution. PMID:21445966

  9. Evolutionarily new sequences expressed in tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kozlov, Andrei P; Galachyants, Yuri P; Dukhovlinov, Ilya V; Samusik, Nickolai A; Baranova, Ancha V; Polev, Dmitry E; Krukovskaya, Larisa L

    2006-01-01

    Background Earlier we suggested the concept of the positive evolutionary role of tumors. According to this concept, tumors provide conditions for the expression of evolutionarily new and/or sleeping genes in their cells. Thus, tumors are considered as evolutionary proving ground or reservoir of expression. To support this concept we have previously characterized in silico and experimentally a new class of human tumor-related transcribed sequences. Results In this article we describe results of further studies of previously described tumor-related sequences. The results of molecular phylogeny studies, Southern hybridization experiments and computational comparison with genomes of other species are presented. Conclusion These results suggest that these previously described tumor-related human transcripts are also relatively evolutionarily new. PMID:17189608

  10. Tumor Bioengineering Using a Transglutaminase Crosslinked Hydrogel

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Josephine Y.; Tan, Shih-Jye; Yang, Zhi; Tayag, Charisse; Han, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Development of a physiologically relevant 3D model system for cancer research and drug development is a current challenge. We have adopted a 3D culture system based on a transglutaminase-crosslinked gelatin gel (Col-Tgel) to mimic the tumor 3D microenvironment. The system has several unique advantages over other alternatives including presenting cell-matrix interaction sites from collagen-derived peptides, geometry-initiated multicellular tumor spheroids, and metabolic gradients in the tumor microenvironment. Also it provides a controllable wide spectrum of gel stiffness for mechanical signals, and technical compatibility with imaging based screening due to its transparent properties. In addition, the Col-Tgel provides a cure-in-situ delivery vehicle for tumor xenograft formation in animals enhancing tumor cell uptake rate. Overall, this distinctive 3D system could offer a platform to more accurately mimic in vivo situations to study tumor formation and progression both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25133673

  11. Embryonal brain tumors and developmental control genes

    SciTech Connect

    Aguzzi, A.

    1995-12-31

    Cell proliferation in embryogenesis and neoplastic transformation is thought to be controlled by similar sets of regulatory genes. This is certainly true for tumors of embryonic origin, such as Ewing sarcoma, Wilms` tumor and retinoblastoma, in which developmental control genes are either activated as oncogenes to promote proliferation, or are inactivated to eliminate their growth suppressing function. However, to date little is known about the genetic events underlying the pathogenesis of medulloblastoma, the most common brain tumor in children, which still carries an unfavourable prognosis. None of the common genetic alterations identified in other neuroectodermal tumors, such as mutation of the p53 gene or amplification of tyrosine kinase receptor genes, could be uncovered as key events in the formation of medulloblastoma. The identification of regulatory genes which are expressed in this pediatric brain tumor may provide an alternative approach to gain insight into the molecular aspects of tumor formation.

  12. What underlies the diversity of brain tumors?

    PubMed Central

    Swartling, Fredrik J.; Hede, Sanna-Maria; Weiss, William A.

    2012-01-01

    Glioma and medulloblastoma represent the most commonly occurring malignant brain tumors in adults and in children respectively. Recent genomic and transcriptional approaches present a complex group of diseases, and delineate a number of molecular subgroups within tumors that share a common histopathology. Differences in cells of origin, regional niches, developmental timing and genetic events all contribute to this heterogeneity. In an attempt to recapitulate the diversity of brain tumors, an increasing array of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) has been developed. These models often utilize promoters and genetic drivers from normal brain development, and can provide insight into specific cells from which these tumors originate. GEMMs show promise in both developmental biology and developmental therapeutics. This review describes numerous murine brain tumor models in the context of normal brain development, and the potential for these animals to impact brain tumor research. PMID:23085857

  13. Network dynamics in the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Bolouri, Hamid

    2015-02-01

    The evolutionary path from tumor initiation to metastasis can only be fully understood by considering cancer cells as part of a multi-species ecosystem within the tumor microenvironment. This paper reviews and suggests two important recent trends. Firstly, I review arguments that interactions among diverse cells in the tumor microenvironment create a distinct cellular environment that can confer growth advantages, resist interventions, and allow tumors to remain dormant for long periods. Second, I review and highlight a trend toward data-rich, molecularly detailed, computational models of the tumor microenvironment. I argue that data-driven molecularly detailed tumor microenvironment models can now be built using data from multiple emerging high-throughput technologies, and that such models can pinpoint mechanisms of dysregulation and suggest specific drug targets and follow up experiments. PMID:24582766

  14. Radiation-induced nitric oxide mitigates tumor hypoxia and radioresistance in a murine SCCVII tumor model

    SciTech Connect

    Nagane, Masaki; Yasui, Hironobu; Yamamori, Tohru; Zhao, Songji; Kuge, Yuji; Tamaki, Nagara; Kameya, Hiromi; Nakamura, Hideo; Fujii, Hirotada; Inanami, Osamu

    2013-08-02

    Highlights: •IR-induced NO increased tissue perfusion and pO{sub 2}. •IR increased NO production in tumors without changes in the mRNA and protein levels of NOS isoforms. •NOS activity assay showed that IR upregulated eNOS activity in tumors. •IR-induced NO decreased tumor hypoxia and altered tumor radiosensitivity. -- Abstract: Tumor hypoxia, which occurs mainly as a result of inadequate tissue perfusion in solid tumors, is a well-known challenge for successful radiotherapy. Recent evidence suggests that ionizing radiation (IR) upregulates nitric oxide (NO) production and that IR-induced NO has the potential to increase intratumoral circulation. However, the kinetics of NO production and the responsible isoforms for NO synthase in tumors exposed to IR remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the mechanism by which IR stimulates NO production in tumors and the effect of IR-induced NO on tumor radiosensitivity. Hoechst33342 perfusion assay and electron spin resonance oxymetry showed that IR increased tissue perfusion and pO{sub 2} in tumor tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis using two different hypoxic probes showed that IR decreased hypoxic regions in tumors; treatment with a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, L-NAME, abrogated the effects of IR. Moreover, IR increased endothelial NOS (eNOS) activity without affecting its mRNA or protein expression levels in SCCVII-transplanted tumors. Tumor growth delay assay showed that L-NAME decreased the anti-tumor effect of fractionated radiation (10 Gy × 2). These results suggested that IR increased eNOS activity and subsequent tissue perfusion in tumors. Increases in intratumoral circulation simultaneously decreased tumor hypoxia. As a result, IR-induced NO increased tumor radiosensitivity. Our study provides a new insight into the NO-dependent mechanism for efficient fractionated radiotherapy.

  15. Joint tumor growth prediction and tumor segmentation on therapeutic follow-up PET images.

    PubMed

    Mi, Hongmei; Petitjean, Caroline; Vera, Pierre; Ruan, Su

    2015-07-01

    Tumor response to treatment varies among patients. Patient-specific prediction of tumor evolution based on medical images during the treatment can help to build and adapt patient's treatment planning in a non-invasive way. Personalized tumor growth modeling allows patient-specific prediction by estimating model parameters based on individual's images. The model parameters are often estimated by optimizing a cost function constructed based on the tumor delineations. In this paper, we propose a joint framework for tumor growth prediction and tumor segmentation in the context of patient's therapeutic follow ups. Throughout the treatment, a series of sequential positron emission tomography (PET) images are acquired for tumor response monitoring. We propose to take into account the predicted information, which is used in combination with the random walks (RW) algorithm, to develop an automatic tumor segmentation method on PET images. Moreover, we propose an iterative scheme of RW, making the segmentation more performant. Furthermore, the obtained segmentation is applied to the process of model parameter estimation so as to get the model based prediction of tumor evolution. We evaluate our methods on 7 lung tumor patients, totaling 29 PET exams, under radiotherapy by comparing the obtained tumor prediction and tumor segmentation with manual tumor delineation by expert. Our system produces promising results when compared to the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:25988489

  16. Interaction between tumor and immune system: the role of tumor cell biology.

    PubMed

    Berezhnaya, N M

    2010-09-01

    In present work the role of tumor cell biology upon different conditions of their interaction with the cells of immune system is discussed. The presented data show that it tumor cell biology that in many cases determines tumor antigen recognition and realization of cytotoxic action of killer cells. Here also we discuss own data obtained with the use of experimental tumor models (transplantable MC-rhabdomyosarcoma, B16 melanoma) and human tumors (soft tissue sarcoma, melanoma, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, cervical cancer). It was demonstrated that various tumors have different sensitivity to antitumor action of activated (LAK) and non-activated lymphocytes. Recent studies on the role of tumor cells in expansion and activity of different suppressor cells (MDSC, Treg, Th17, M-2 macrophages, etc.) are overviewed. The role of organ-specificity and interaction of the components of microenvironment (cells of immune system and stroma, tumor cells, endothelial cells, extracellular matrix) are discussed in details. Along with the presentation of modern views on some patterns that characterize the development of drug resistance of different tumors and capabilities of immune system cells to participate in lysis of resistant tumor cells, the authors present their own data illustrating that resistant tumor cells reveal increased sensitivity to LAK. An analysis of the involvement of a number of molecules, lymphocytes, and tumor cells in the phenomenon of elevated sensitivity to LAK action allowed to conclude that tumor cells reveal high sensitivity at the background of decreased E-cadherin expression and increased CD40 expression. PMID:21403611

  17. Primary tumor dependent inhibition of tumor growth, angiogenesis, and perfusion of secondary breast cancer in bone.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Christian; Schroeder, Malte; Fuhrhop, Ina; Viezens, Lennart; Otten, Jasmin; Fiedler, Walter; Rther, Wolfgang; Hansen-Algenstaedt, Nils

    2011-08-01

    The systemic balance of angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors has been proposed to play a key-role in primary tumor growth dependent growth suppression of secondary tumors. Despite the importance of the organ microenvironment to angiogenesis and microcirculation, the influence of a primary tumor on secondary bone tumors has not been investigated so far. Since breast cancer has a high propensity to spread to bone, we used an in vivo xenograft model to determine the impact of growing breast cancer cells (MCF-7) in the mammary fat pad on the microvascular properties of subsequently inoculated secondary breast cancer tumors in bone. Mice were either treated with a resection of the primary tumor (n?=?10) or no surgery (n?=?9) and intravital microscopy was performed over 25 days in bone tumors. Tumor growth in bone was temporarily suppressed by the primary tumor on days 10 and 14. While microvascular permeability and vascular diameter decreased in both groups over time, the presence of the primary tumor was accompanied by a decreased tumor perfusion on days 8 and 10 through a reduction in vessels with diameters between 5 and 20?m. The results imply a potential benefit of a therapeutic regime in which the resection of the primary tumor is combined with an anti-angiogenic therapy in the perioperative or direct postoperative period. This might result in reduced progression of bone metastasis subsequent to excision of the primary tumor. PMID:21381098

  18. Simulation of Complex Transport of Nanoparticles around a Tumor Using Tumor-Microenvironment-on-Chip

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Bongseop; Ozcelikkale, Altug; Shin, Crystal S.; Park, Kinam; Han, Bumsoo

    2014-01-01

    Delivery of therapeutic agents selectively to tumor tissue, which is referred as “targeted delivery,” is one of the most ardently pursued goals of cancer therapy. Recent advances in nanotechnology enable numerous types of nanoparticles (NPs) whose properties can be designed for targeted delivery to tumors. In spite of promising early results, the delivery and therapeutic efficacy of the majority of NPs are still quite limited. This is mainly attributed to the limitation of currently available tumor models to test these NPs and systematically study the effects of complex transport and pathophysiological barriers around the tumors. In this study, thus, we developed a new in vitro tumor model to recapitulate the tumor microenvironment determining the transport around tumors. This model, named tumor-microenvironment-on-chip (T-MOC), consists of 3-dimensional microfluidic channels where tumor cells and endothelial cells are cultured within extracellular matrix under perfusion of interstitial fluid. Using this T-MOC platform, the transport of NPs and its variation due to tumor microenvironmental parameters have been studied including cut-off pore size, interstitial fluid pressure, and tumor tissue microstructure. The results suggest that T-MOC is capable of simulating the complex transport around the tumor, and providing detailed information about NP transport behavior. This finding confirms that NPs should be designed considering their dynamic interactions with tumor microenvironment. PMID:25194778

  19. Different staining patterns of ovarian Brenner tumor and the associated mucinous tumor.

    PubMed

    Roma, Andres A; Masand, Ramya P

    2015-02-01

    The association of ovarian Brenner tumors and adjacent mucinous tumors is well known but not completely understood. In this study, we analyzed immunohistochemical markers on Brenner tumors and their associated mucinous tumor to explore Mullerian as well as Wolffian and germ cell derivation and determine if the mucinous component is independent or related to the Brenner tumor. Of 32 consecutive cases of Brenner tumors, 8 were identified with significant mucinous component, and 7 additional cases included foci of mucinous epithelium within the Brenner transitional nests. All Brenner tumors were diffusely positive for GATA3 and negative for Paired box gene 8, PAX2, and Sal-like protein 4. Interestingly, the areas of mucinous epithelium as well as mucinous tumors, intermixed and adjacent to the Brenner tumor, were negative for all 4 markers; however, occasional basal-like cells retained expression of GATA3. The immunoprofile of mucinous tumors associated with Brenner tumors shares the lack of Mullerian markers PAX2 and Paired box gene 8 with the Brenner tumor but differs in the expression of GATA3 only in the Brenner tumor component. PMID:25596159

  20. [Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors of childhood].

    PubMed

    Mitrofanova, A M; Konovalov, D M; Kisliakov, A N; Roshchin, V Iu; Abramov, D S

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes 6 cases of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (ATRT) in the complete absence of classical rhabdoid elements isolated from 25 INI1-negative central nervous system tumors investigated in the period 2006 to the present time. Analysis of the specific features of the histological structure of INI1-negative tumors could identify a few histological types of ATRT according to the conventionally standardized criteria for diagnostic search. PMID:24341231

  1. [Cardiac tumors: CT and MR imaging features].

    PubMed

    Moskovitch, G; Chabbert, V; Escourrou, G; Desloques, L; Otal, P; Glock, Y; Rousseau, H

    2010-09-01

    The CT and MR imaging features of the main cardiac tumors will be reviewed. Cross-sectional imaging features may help differentiate between cardiac tumors and pseudotumoral lesions and identify malignant features. Based on clinical features, imaging findings are helpful to further characterize the nature of the lesion. CT and MR imaging can demonstrate the relationship of the tumor with adjacent anatomical structures and are invaluable in the presurgical work-up and postsurgical follow-up. PMID:20814374

  2. Kidney Tumors | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Kidney tumors are rare and generally curable in children. However, there are subsets of patients afflicted with these diseases that do not respond to treatment or eventually relapse. These patients usually have poor clinical outcomes as compared with the majority of children diagnosed with kidney tumors. All patients undergo therapy regimens that can be detrimental later in life. Through genome-wide characterization, TARGET investigators are identifying critical molecular alterations in these tumors, mostly from relapsed patients.

  3. Radiological evaluation of Pott puffy tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, R.G.; Sty, J.R.; Landers, A.D.

    1986-03-14

    The Pott puffy tumor represents frontal osteomyelitis with subperiosteal (pericranial) abscess, secondary to frontal sinusitis. Pott puffy tumor is one of several potential complications of infection of a frontal sinus. Computed tomography (CT) and radionuclide bone imaging have proved to be invaluable tools in the diagnosis of frontal sinusitis, osteomyelitis, and intracranial infection. This article details the radionuclide bone imaging and findings on CT in three children with Pott puffy tumor, as well as the clinical features and pathophysicological mechanisms.

  4. Maximizing Tumor Immunity With Fractionated Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Schaue, Doerthe; Ratikan, Josephine A.; Iwamoto, Keisuke S.; McBride, William H.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Technologic advances have led to increased clinical use of higher-sized fractions of radiation dose and higher total doses. How these modify the pathways involved in tumor cell death, normal tissue response, and signaling to the immune system has been inadequately explored. Here we ask how radiation dose and fraction size affect antitumor immunity, the suppression thereof, and how this might relate to tumor control. Methods and Materials: Mice bearing B16-OVA murine melanoma were treated with up to 15 Gy radiation given in various-size fractions, and tumor growth followed. The tumor-specific immune response in the spleen was assessed by interferon-{gamma} enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay with ovalbumin (OVA) as the surrogate tumor antigen and the contribution of regulatory T cells (Tregs) determined by the proportion of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup hi}Foxp3{sup +} T cells. Results: After single doses, tumor control increased with the size of radiation dose, as did the number of tumor-reactive T cells. This was offset at the highest dose by an increase in Treg representation. Fractionated treatment with medium-size radiation doses of 7.5 Gy/fraction gave the best tumor control and tumor immunity while maintaining low Treg numbers. Conclusions: Radiation can be an immune adjuvant, but the response varies with the size of dose per fraction. The ultimate challenge is to optimally integrate cancer immunotherapy into radiation therapy.

  5. Are biomechanical changes necessary for tumor progression?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kas, Josef A.; Fritsch, Anatol; Kiessling, Tobias; Nnetu, David K.; Pawlizak, Steve; Wetzel, Franziska; Zink, Mareike

    2011-03-01

    With an increasing knowledge in tumor biology an overwhelming complexity becomes obvious which roots in the diversity of tumors and their heterogeneous molecular composition. Nevertheless in all solid tumors malignant neoplasia, i.e. uncontrolled growth, invasion of adjacent tissues, and metastasis, occurs. Physics sheds some new light on cancer by approaching this problem from a functional, materials perspective. Recent results indicate that all three pathomechanisms require changes in the active and passive cellular biomechanics. Malignant transformation causes cell softening for small deformations which correlates with an increased rate of proliferation and faster cell migration. The tumor cell's ability to strain harden permits tumor growth against a rigid tissue environment. A highly mechanosensitive, enhanced cell contractility is a prerequisite that tumor cells can cross its tumor boundaries and that this cells can migrate through the extracellular matrix. Insights into the biomechanical changes during tumor progression may lead to selective treatments by altering cell mechanics. Such drugs would not cure by killing cancer cells, but slow down tumor progression with only mild side effects and thus may be an option for older and frail patients.

  6. Systemic Therapies for Advanced Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors.

    PubMed

    Raj, Nitya; Reidy-Lagunes, Diane

    2016-02-01

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors are an uncommon tumor type and compose 1% to 2% of all pancreatic neoplasms. They are rarely localized at presentation and are typically diagnosed in the presence of metastatic disease. The management poses a significant challenge because of the heterogeneous clinical presentations and varying degrees of aggressiveness. A variety of systemic therapies have been developed for the management of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, including somatostatin analogues, a select group of cytotoxic chemotherapy agents, and targeted or biological agents. This article reviews the available systemic therapy options for advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. PMID:26614372

  7. Imaging Tumor Cell Movement In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Entenberg, David; Kedrin, Dmitriy; Wyckoff, Jeffrey; Sahai, Erik; Condeelis, John; Segall, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    This unit describes the methods that we have been developing for analyzing tumor cell motility in mouse and rat models of breast cancer metastasis. Rodents are commonly used both to provide a mammalian system for studying human tumor cells (as xenografts in immunocompromised mice) as well as for following the development of tumors from a specific tissue type in transgenic lines. The Basic Protocol in this unit describes the standard methods used for generation of mammary tumors and imaging them. Additional protocols for labeling macrophages, blood vessel imaging, and image analysis are also included. PMID:23456602

  8. Behavior of tumors under nonstationary therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotolongo-Costa, O.; Morales Molina, L.; Rodrguez Perez, D.; Antoranz, J. C.; Chacn Reyes, M.

    2003-04-01

    We present a model for the interaction dynamics of lymphocytes-tumor cells population. This model reproduces all known states for the tumor. Further, we develop it taking into account periodical immunotherapy treatment with cytokines alone. A detailed analysis for the evolution of tumor cells as a function of frequency and therapy burden applied for the periodical treatment is carried out. Certain threshold values for the frequency and applied doses are derived from this analysis. So it seems possible to control and reduce the growth of the tumor. Also, constant values for cytokines doses seems to be a successful treatment.

  9. [Clinical and neuroradiological diagnostics of orbital tumors].

    PubMed

    Poloschek, C M; Lagrze, W A; Ridder, G J; Hader, C

    2011-06-01

    Exophthalmus is the leading sign of space-occupying lesions of the orbit. Patients may further present with lid swelling, impaired ocular motility and optic neuropathy including a relative afferent pupillary defect, compressive optic disc edema or optic atrophy. Orbital tumors can be classified into various categories depending on the etiology, as lymphoproliferative lesions (in particular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma as the most common malignant orbital tumor of adulthood), optic nerve and meningeal lesions, lacrimal gland lesions, secondary orbital tumors which extend to the orbit from neighboring structures and metastases. Slightly less common are vasculogenic and cystic lesions including cavernous hemangioma as the most common benign orbital tumor of adulthood and dermoid cysts as the most common benign orbital tumor of childhood. Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common malignant orbital tumor of childhood but has a low total incidence. Orbital tumors might not only cause symptoms like pain, diplopia and loss of visual acuity but may also lead to esthetically disfiguring changes. Particular attention should be paid to underlying systemic diseases and generalized tumor diseases. This article illustrates the approach to a detailed clinical and neuroradiological assessment which is mandatory for the care of orbital tumor patients. PMID:21695605

  10. Anatomical basis for Wilms tumor surgery

    PubMed Central

    Trbs, R. B.

    2009-01-01

    Wilms tumor surgery requires meticulous planning and sophisticated surgical technique. Detailed anatomical knowledge can facilitate the uneventful performance of tumor nephrectomy and cannot be replaced by advanced and sophisticated imaging techniques. We can define two main goals for surgery: (1) exact staging as well as (2) safe and complete resection of tumor without spillage. This review aims to review the anatomical basis for Wilms tumor surgery. It focuses on the surgical anatomy of retroperitoneal space, aorta, vena cava and their large branches with lymphatics. Types and management of vascular injuries are discussed. PMID:20671845

  11. SYNOVIAL GIANT CELL TUMOR OF THE KNEE

    PubMed Central

    Abdalla, Rene Jorge; Cohen, Moisés; Nóbrega, Jezimar; Forgas, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Synovial giant cell tumor is a benign neoplasm, rarely reported in the form of malignant metastasis. Synovial giant cell tumor most frequently occurs on the hand, and, most uncommon, on the ankle and knee. In the present study, the authors describe a rare case of synovial giant cell tumor on the knee as well as the treatment approach. Arthroscopy has been shown, in this case, to be the optimal method for treating this kind of lesion, once it allowed a less aggressive approach, while providing good visualization of all compartments of knee joint and full tumor resection.

  12. Photodynamic therapy of head and neck tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakoulovskaya, Elena G.; Shental, Victor V.; Abdoullin, N. A.; Kuvshinov, Yury P.; Tabolinovskaia, T. D.; Edinak, N. J.; Poddubny, Boris K.; Lioubaev, V. L.; Boikov, V. P.; Kondratjeva, T. T.; Meerovich, Gennadii A.; Stratonnikov, Alexander A.; Linkov, Kirill G.; Agafonov, Valery V.

    1996-12-01

    This paper deals with the results of stage 1 clinical trials for sulfated aluminum phthalocyanine (PHS) (Photosens, Russia) in 1994-1996. The results of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of head and neck tumors (HNT), side effects and ways of their correction and prevention, as well as changes in doses of injected photosensitizer (PS), regimes of light irradiation, choice of laser and type of irradiation (surface or interstitial) are discussed. PDT have been provided in 42 patients (93 tumor sites) with different head and neck tumors. Fluorescent diagnostics of tumor, accumulation of PS in tumor, adjacent tissue has been fulfilled. Total 78 PDT sessions have been done. As a source of light we used: quantoscope, solid laser, krypton laser, tunable dye laser, He-Ne-laser. In 38 tumor sites (21 patients) -- 40.8% -- we had clinical response, in 27 tumor sites (16 patients) -- 29.0% -- we had partial response, in 28 tumor sites (8 patients) -- 30.2% -- we had no response. Our experience shows pronounced efficacy of PDT for HNT, except of melanoma. Providing PDT twice with the interval 24 - 72 hours when retention of PS is sufficient for treatment, did additive effect to the tumor, but didn't increase adjacent tissue damage.

  13. Cellular immunotherapy for pediatric solid tumors

    PubMed Central

    HEGDE, MEENAKSHI; MOLL, ALEXANDER; BYRD, TIARA T.; LOUIS, CHRYSTAL U.; AHMED, NABIL

    2015-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made in the treatment of pediatric solid tumors over the past 4 decades. However, children with metastatic and or recurrent disease continue to do poorly despite the aggressive multi-modality conventional therapies. The increasing understanding of the tumor biology and the interaction between the tumor and the immune system over the recent years have led to the development of novel immune-based therapies as alternative options for some of these high-risk malignancies. The safety and anti-tumor efficacy of various tumor vaccines and tumor-antigen specific immune cells are currently being investigated for various solid tumors. In early clinical trials, most of these cellular therapies have been well tolerated and have shown promising clinical responses. Although substantial work is being done in this field, the available knowledge for pediatric tumors remains limited. We review the contemporary early phase cell-based immunotherapy efforts for pediatric solid tumors and discuss the rationale and the challenges thereof. PMID:25082406

  14. Proliferating trichilemmal tumor of the nose*

    PubMed Central

    Rosmaninho, Aristóteles; Caetano, Mónica; Oliveira, Ana; de Almeida, Teresa Pinto; Selores, Manuela; Alves, Rosário

    2012-01-01

    Proliferating trichilemmal tumor is a rare tumor originating in the external root sheath, that is usually found in the scalp of middle-aged or elderly females. Its histologic appearance may not correlate with its clinical behavior. In addition, there are no guidelines available for the treatment of these tumors, making its management a challenge for physicians. We report the case of a 53 year-old woman with a proliferating trichilemmal tumor on her nose, which is a very uncommon location for these lesions. PMID:23197215

  15. Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-07-01

    Bladder Cancer; Breast Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Kidney Cancer; Lung Cancer; Ovarian Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  16. Electric Field Analysis of Breast Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sree, V. Gowri; Udayakumar, K.; Sundararajan, R.

    2011-01-01

    An attractive alternative treatment for malignant tumors that are refractive to conventional therapies, such as surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, is electrical-pulse-mediated drug delivery. Electric field distribution of tissue/tumor is important for effective treatment of tissues. This paper deals with the electric field distribution study of a tissue model using MAXWELL 3D Simulator. Our results indicate that tumor tissue had lower electric field strength compared to normal cells, which makes them susceptible to electrical-pulse-mediated drug delivery. This difference could be due to the altered properties of tumor cells compared to normal cells, and our results corroborate this. PMID:22295214

  17. Diffuse soft tissue calcification in tumoral calcinosis

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, E.S.; Schumacher, H.R.; Dalinka, M.K.

    1981-10-01

    Tumoral calcinosis is a rare disease characterized biochemically by hyperphosphatemia, normocalcemia, and reduced fractional excretion of phosphate. Radiographically, it has been defined by the presence of large, amorphous juxtaarticular calcific deposits. A 53-year-old woman with tumoral calcinosis was found to have unusual diffuse soft tissue calcification indistinguishable from that usually seen in collagen vascular disease and previously referred to as calcinosis universalis. It is suggested that tumoral calcinosis is a misnomer as the calcification seen in patients with this disease may be 'tumoral' or diffuse.

  18. Promotion of lung tumors in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Witschi, H.P.

    1981-01-01

    Several elements of two-stage carcinogenesis apply to the development of lung tumors in mice. At least three agents, identified as promoters, will also enhance tumor formation in lung: phorbol, saccharin, and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The antioxidant BHT is effective only if animals are treated after exposure to an initiating agent. Administration can be delayed up to 5 months after urethan treatment and still enhance tumor formation. BHT enhances lung tumor formation regardless of its route of administration. The lowest dose required to produce an effect has not yet been determined. In at least one mouse strain, BHT also enhances tumor formation in animals initiated with 3-methylcholanthren or diethylnitrosaine. No evidence is available yet to show that BHT would enhance tumor development in animals treated with subcarcinogenic doses of an initiating compound. Nor has it been possible to produce more tumors with BHT in mouse strains which have a low spontaneous tumor incidence and respond poorly to urethan. Neveretheless, the data collected on the effects of BHT on mouse lung tumor development have broadened the concept of two-stage carcinogenesis and complement the evidence for initiation-promotion available for other epithelial tissues. (ERB)

  19. Exploiting tumor epigenetics to improve oncolytic virotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Nicole E.; Abdelbary, Hesham; Lupien, Mathieu; Bell, John C.; Diallo, Jean-Simon

    2013-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses (OVs) comprise a versatile and multi-mechanistic therapeutic platform in the growing arsenal of anticancer biologics. These replicating therapeutics find favorable conditions in the tumor niche, characterized among others by increased metabolism, reduced anti-tumor/antiviral immunity, and disorganized vasculature. Through a self-amplification that is dependent on multiple cancer-specific defects, these agents exhibit remarkable tumor selectivity. With several OVs completing or entering Phase III clinical evaluation, their therapeutic potential as well as the challenges ahead are increasingly clear. One key hurdle is tumor heterogeneity, which results in variations in the ability of tumors to support productive infection by OVs and to induce adaptive anti-tumor immunity. To this end, mounting evidence suggests tumor epigenetics may play a key role. This review will focus on the epigenetic landscape of tumors and how it relates to OV infection. Therapeutic strategies aiming to exploit the epigenetic identity of tumors in order to improve OV therapy are also discussed. PMID:24062768

  20. Holographic optical coherence imaging of tumor spheroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, P.; Mustata, M.; Turek, J. J.; French, P. M. W.; Melloch, M. R.; Nolte, D. D.

    2003-07-01

    We present depth-resolved coherence-domain images of living tissue using a dynamic holographic semiconductor film. An AlGaAs photorefractive quantum-well device is used in an adaptive interferometer that records coherent backscattered (image-bearing) light from inside rat osteogenic sarcoma tumor spheroids up to 1 mm in diameter in vitro. The data consist of sequential holographic image frames at successive depths through the tumor represented as a visual video "fly-through." The images from the tumor spheroids reveal heterogeneous structures presumably caused by necrosis and microcalcifications characteristic of human tumors in their early avascular growth.

  1. Somatostatin receptors in differentiated ovarian tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Reubi, J. C.; Horisberger, U.; Klijn, J. G.; Foekens, J. A.

    1991-01-01

    The presence of somatostatin receptors was investigated in 57 primary human ovarian tumors using in vitro receptor autoradiography with three different somatostatin radioligands, 125I-[Tyr11]-somatostatin-14, 125I-[Leu8, D-Trp22, Tyr25]-somatostatin-28, or 125I-[Tyr3]-SMS 201-995. Three cases, all belonging to epithelial tumors, were receptor positive; specifically 1 of 42 adenocarcinomas, 1 of 3 borderline malignancies, and 1 of 2 cystadenomas. Four other epithelial tumors (3 fibroadenomas, 1 Brenner tumor), 4 sex cord-stromal tumors (2 fibrothecomas, 2 granulosa cell tumors), and 2 germ cell tumors (1 dysgerminoma, 1 teratoma) were receptor negative. In the positive cases, the somatostatin receptors were localized on epithelial cells exclusively, were of high affinity (KD = 4.6 nmol/l [nanomolar]), and specific for somatostatin analogs. These receptors bound somatostatin-14 and somatostatin-28 radioligands with a higher affinity than the octapeptide [Tyr3]-SMS 201-995. Healthy ovarian tissue had no somatostatin receptors. A subpopulation of relatively well-differentiated ovarian tumors, therefore, was identified pathobiochemically on the basis of its somatostatin receptor content. This small group of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors may be a target for in vivo diagnostic imaging with somatostatin ligands. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1850962

  2. Tumors in Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.W.; Rubinstein, J.H.

    1995-03-13

    The 14 tumors reported in Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome since 1989, when added to the 22 previously reported, are beginning to show a pattern of neural and developmental tumors, especially of the head, which is malformed in the syndrome. Among the neoplasms were 12 of the nervous system: 2 each of oligodendroglioma, medulloblastoma, neuroblastoma, and 3 other benign tumors; 2 of nasopharyngeal rhabdomyosarcoma; and 1 each of leiomyosarcoma, seminoma, and embryonal carcinoma. Among the other benign tumors were an ondontoma, a choristoma, a dermoid cyst, and 2 pilomatrixomas. 20 refs., 1 tab.

  3. Recent Advances in Targeting Tumor Energy Metabolism with Tumor Acidosis as a Biomarker of Drug Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Akhenblit, Paul J; Pagel, Mark D

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells employ a deregulated cellular metabolism to leverage survival and growth advantages. The unique tumor energy metabolism presents itself as a promising target for chemotherapy. A pool of tumor energy metabolism targeting agents has been developed after several decades of efforts. This review will cover glucose and fatty acid metabolism, PI3K/AKT/mTOR, HIF-1 and glutamine pathways in tumor energy metabolism, and how they are being exploited for treatments and therapies by promising pre-clinical or clinical drugs being developed or investigated. Additionally, acidification of the tumor extracellular microenvironment is hypothesized to be the result of active tumor metabolism. This implies that tumor extracellular pH (pHe) can be a biomarker for assessing the efficacy of therapies that target tumor metabolism. Several translational molecular imaging methods (PET, MRI) for interrogating tumor acidification and its suppression are discussed as well. PMID:26962408

  4. A rare case of hybrid odontogenic tumor: Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor combined with ameloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Wadhwan, Vijay; Sharma, Preeti; Bansal, Vishal

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid odontogenic tumor comprising two distinct lesions is extremely rare. Nevertheless, such tumors have been reported in the literature for academic and research interest. However, it is still obscure whether they behave as a new entity or they solely present separate histopathologic patterns. Here, we present a true hybrid neoplasm of combined ameloblastoma and calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor showing intermixed histopathologic patterns of both the tumors. PMID:26604514

  5. Idiopathic periscapular tumoral calcinosis mimicking and presenting as extraskeletal chondromatous tumor.

    PubMed

    Jayendra, Palan; Ganesh, Mandakulutur S; Siddappa, Kadanapuradadoddi T

    2012-12-01

    Tumoral calcinosis is a rare, benign condition of extra-osseous calcification. The term tumoral calcinosis has been liberally and imprecisely used to describe any massive collection of periarticular calcification.It is important to diagnose and differentiate it from other similar conditions causing extra-osseous calcification. The authors report here one such case having tumoral calcinosis around scapula mimicking as chondromatous tumor. PMID:22237636

  6. Characterization of Circulating Tumor DNA for Genetic Assessment of solid Tumors.

    PubMed

    Dorner, A J; Badola, S; Niu, H

    2015-07-01

    Personalized cancer therapy requires characterization of the current status of an individual's cancer, necessitating invasive tumor tissue biopsies at diagnosis, during treatment and at progression. Serial acquisition of solid tumor biopsies during treatment to characterize mutations related to acquired resistance may not be medically feasible. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in plasma offers a possible noninvasive "real time" tool for tumor characterization, providing accessible genetic biomarkers for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and response to therapy. PMID:25858882

  7. Gene therapy for brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Bansal, K; Engelhard, H H

    2000-09-01

    "Gene therapy" can be defined as the transfer of genetic material into a patient's cells for therapeutic purposes. To date, a diverse and creative assortment of treatment strategies utilizing gene therapy have been devised, including gene transfer for modulating the immune system, enzyme prodrug ("suicide gene") therapy, oncolytic therapy, replacement/therapeutic gene transfer, and antisense therapy. For malignant glioma, gene-directed prodrug therapy using the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene was the first gene therapy attempted clinically. A variety of different strategies have now been pursued experimentally and in clinical trials. Although, to date, gene therapy for brain tumors has been found to be reasonably safe, concerns still exist regarding issues related to viral delivery, transduction efficiency, potential pathologic response of the brain, and treatment efficacy. Improved viral vectors are being sought, and potential use of gene therapy in combination with other treatments is being investigated. PMID:11122879

  8. [Vascular tumors in the aged].

    PubMed

    Hundeiker, M

    1989-11-15

    In elderly people, we find other vascular malformations and neoplasms to be frequent and important than during the first decades of life. The features of malformations change in the course of the years due to degenerative processes (e.g., venous lakes in solar degeneration, Pasini's ectasias of the lower lip). True angiomas are relatively rare in old people (except "senile" or tardive angiomas). Most of the malignant vascular tumors do not develop until very late in life (e.g., the sporadic type of Kaposi's sarcoma, Stewart-Treves syndrome, multicentric angiosarcoma of the scalp). Except for these malignancies, there is a greater range of therapeutic means in the elderly, since aged skin is more extensible and late sequelae of X-ray therapy are of minor importance. PMID:2692331

  9. Transplantation of kidneys with tumors.

    PubMed

    Frascà, Giovanni M; D'Errico, Antonia; Malvi, Deborah; Porta, Camillo; Cosmai, Laura; Santoni, Matteo; Sandrini, Silvio; Salviani, Chiara; Gallieni, Maurizio; Balestra, Emilio

    2016-04-01

    The shortage of donors in the face of the increasing number of patients wait-listed for renal transplantation has prompted several strategies including the use of kidneys with a tumor, whether found by chance on harvesting from a deceased donor or intentionally removed from a living donor and transplanted after excision of the lesion. Current evidence suggests that a solitary well-differentiated renal cell carcinoma, Fuhrman nuclear grade I-II, less than 1 cm in diameter and resected before grafting may be considered at minimal risk of recurrence in the recipient who, however, should be informed of the possible risk and consent to receive such a graft. PMID:26588915

  10. Controversies in borderline ovarian tumors

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Seok Ju; Kim, Mi Kyoung; Song, Taejong

    2015-01-01

    Borderline ovarian tumors (BOTs) represent about 15% to 20% of all ovarian malignancies and differ from invasive ovarian cancers (IOCs) by many characters. Historically, standard management of BOT is peritoneal washing cytology, hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, omentectomy, complete peritoneal resection of macroscopic lesions; in case of mucinous BOTs, appendectomy should be performed. Because BOTs are often diagnosed at earlier stage, in younger age women and have better prognosis, higher survival rate than IOCs, fertility-sparing surgery is one of the option to preserve childbearing capacity. The study of such conservative surgery is being released, and still controversial. After surgery, pregnancy and ovarian induction followed by in vitro fertilization are also significant issues. In surgery, laparoscopic technique can be used by a gynecologic oncology surgeon. So far postoperative chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormone therapy are not recommended. We will discuss controversial issues of BOTs on this review and present the outline of the management of BOTs. PMID:26404125

  11. [Tumor markers for hepatocellular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Tateishi, Ryosuke; Enooku, Kenichiro; Shiina, Shuichiro; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2012-05-01

    Three tumor markers for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are available in Japan: alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonists-II (PIVKA-II), and Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-L3). Although AFP has drawbacks in its specificity, it is widely utilized in treatment evaluation and prognosis prediction. PIVKA-II is a unique marker that does not correlate with AFP value and can predict microvascular invasion. AFP-L3 is a highly specific marker and strong predictor of poor prognosis. These three markers are indispensable in every aspect of clinical practice of hepatocellular carcinoma including surveillance, diagnosis, treatment evaluation, and prognosis prediction. PMID:22620007

  12. Radiometallacarboranes as tumor imaging reagents

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, M.F.; Varadarajan, A.; Knobler, C.B.; Chakrabarti, S. ); Paxton, R.J.; Beatty, B.G.; Curtis, F.L. )

    1990-06-20

    Monoclonal antibodies (Mab), when conjugated with bifunctional chelation reagents containing a radiometal, have provided sensitive and accurate imaging agents for the detection of cancer and other diseases. The bifunctional chelates presently in use are generally of the aminocarboxylate family and subject to catabolism with release of metal ion in vivo. The authors have now designed, synthesized, and evaluated a functionalized cluster containing a radiotransition metal (venus flytrap cluster, VFC) which makes use of an inorganic ligand set, incorporates exceedingly strong cluster bonding based upon a bridged commo-bis(dicarbollide) structure, and can be prepared in the aqueous media commonly used to supply radiometal salts. The species reported here presages the existence of a large family of functionalized metallacarborane clusters which may serve as biologically inviolable radio-transition-metal carriers for the antibody-mediated {gamma}-imaging or {beta}-therapy of tumors.

  13. Autologous tumor immunizing devascularization in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Kalina, Vladimir; Kopsky, David J

    2016-04-01

    Tumor vaccination depending on specific antigens, autologous tumor vaccination involving wide range of antigens, immunomodulating cytokines and bacterial agents have been studied extensively with the purpose of stimulating the antitumor immune response. Unfortunately these therapies showed disappointing results mainly due to undesirable mechanisms tending to dampen the antitumor immune response. We will discuss a novel approach of autologous tumor immunization using a surgical technique: autologous tumor immunizing devascularization (ATID). This approach involves complete surgical devascularization of a tumor which is then left isolated in situ in the body. The stressing pathophysiological condition of the completely isolated tumor provokes a generalized immune response which, as shown from clinical cases, leads to the elimination of the devascularized tumor and distant metastases without causing sepsis. Until now no clinical study was properly executed. The possible significance of this method which resides in its curative potential has thus escaped attention in the field of cancer therapy. This article will hypothesize optimal physiological criteria and necessary clinical conditions for ATID to be performed effectively. The main criteria are (1) complete isolation of the tumor from the vascular system, (2) sufficient devascularized tumor load to trigger a sustained generalized immune response to cancer antigens until elimination of all cancer loci, (3) tumor cell killing rate corresponding to the elicited immune response is higher than the tumor cell growth rate, and (4) patients with an uncompromised immune system. Future studies have to be performed under the indicated conditions in order to confirm the efficacy and safety of ATID as a novel approach in the treatment of cancer. PMID:26968914

  14. Intraoperative infrared imaging of brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Gorbach, Alexander M.; Heiss, John D.; Kopylev, Leonid; Oldfield, Edward H.

    2014-01-01

    Object Although clinical imaging defines the anatomical relationship between a brain tumor and the surrounding brain and neurological deficits indicate the neurophysiological consequences of the tumor, the effect of a brain tumor on vascular physiology is less clear. Methods An infrared camera was used to measure the temperature of the cortical surface before, during, and after removal of a mass in 34 patients (primary brain tumor in 21 patients, brain metastases in 10 and falx meningioma, cavernous angioma, and radiation necrosisastrocytosis in one patient each). To establish the magnitude of the effect on blood flow induced by the tumor, the images were compared with those from a group of six patients who underwent temporal lobectomy for epilepsy. In four cases a cerebral artery was temporarily occluded during the course of the surgery and infrared emissions from the cortex before and after occlusion were compared to establish the relationship of local temperature to regional blood flow. Discrete temperature gradients were associated with surgically verified lesions in all cases. Depending on the type of tumor, the cortex overlying the tumor was either colder or warmer than the surrounding cortex. Spatial reorganization of thermal gradients was observed after tumor resection. Temperature gradients of the cortex in patients with tumors exceeded those measured in the cortex of patients who underwent epilepsy surgery. Conclusions Brain tumors induce changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the cortex, which can be made visible by performing infrared imaging during cranial surgery. A reduction in CBF beyond the tumor margin improves after removal of the lesion. PMID:15599965

  15. Characteristics of endobronchial primitive tumors in children.

    PubMed

    Eyssartier, E; Ang, P; Bonnemaison, E; Gibertini, I; Diot, P; Carpentier, E; Chantepie, A; Leclair, M D; Brouard, J; Boutard, P; Deneuville, E; Marie-Cardine, A; Lardy, H

    2014-06-01

    Primary endobronchial tumors are rare in children and they include a broad spectrum of lesions. The aim of this study was to determine the characteristic features, treatments and outcomes of these tumors. We report a retrospective analysis of all patients treated for endobronchial tumor in nine French hospitals between 1990 and 2010 and a comparison of the results with those reported in the medical literature. Twelve tumors were reported: five low grade muco epidermoid carcinomas, two inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors, two hemangiomas, one anaplastic large cell lymphoma, one carcinoid tumor, and one juvenile xanthogranuloma. The mean age of the patients was 7.5??3.5 years. The most common sign revealing the disease was persistent atelectasis or recurrent pneumonia (eight cases). The other revealing signs were a persistent bronchospasm (three cases) and hemoptysis (one case). The clinical presentation, biology, serum tumor markers, and chest X-ray abnormalities were not specific to a particular histological diagnosis. Chest CT scan revealed the presence of an endobronchial tumor in 11 cases. Nine tumors could be diagnosed from a biopsy obtained by video endoscopy. Complete surgical resection was performed in seven patients. Bronchoscopic removal was performed in five cases and was successful in three. There were no deaths. Endobronchial tumors are rare in childhood and their histology is diverse. Chest CT scan and per-endoscopic endobronchial biopsies are required for diagnosis, when possible. Surgical or endoscopic treatment should be discussed by a multidisciplinary team. Despite the multiple etiologies, the prognosis of these tumors is good if diagnosis is early and if resection is complete. Long-term recurrences have been described, so long-term follow-up of these children is recommended. PMID:24532419

  16. Sleeping Parathyroid Tumor: Rapid Hyperfunction after Removal of the Dominant Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Simonds, William F.; Weinstein, Lee S.; Collins, Michael T.; Kebebew, Electron; Nilubol, Naris; Phan, Giao Q.; Libutti, Steven K.; Remaley, Alan T.; Van Deventer, Manuel; Marx, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Due to frequent multiplicity of tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, it may be difficult to decide when to stop a parathyroid exploration. A fall of intraoperative serum PTH by a certain percentage during parathyroid surgery is often used as one criterion for ending the operation. Results: We report two patients with primary hyperparathyroidism due to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 who had their first parathyroidectomy at the National Institutes of Health. In both cases, two and a half glands were removed, an extensive search was done for an occult parathyroid tumor, and intraoperative PTH decreased markedly to the lower limits of normal, suggesting a successful operation. Despite this, both patients became hypercalcemic within 3 d after the operation and showed persistent primary hyperparathyroidism. Detailed findings suggest the following course: chronic hypercalcemia had caused near total suppression of PTH secretion by an undiscovered parathyroid tumor (sleeping parathyroid tumor). When the hypercalcemia decreased after surgery due to the removal of the dominant parathyroid tumor(s), the abnormal yet previously suppressed tumor rapidly began to oversecrete PTH and thus caused postoperative hypercalcemia. Conclusions: Even a fall of the intraoperative PTH to the lower limits of the normal range cannot guarantee that removal of all parathyroid tumors has been complete in cases with multiple tumors. These findings likely reflect strikingly differing PTH secretory functions among distinct tumors in the same patient, with hypercalcemia at least from a dominant tumor suppressing PTH secretion by one or more other parathyroid tumors. PMID:22508712

  17. Activity of drug-loaded tumor-penetrating microparticles in peritoneal pancreatic tumors.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ze; Tsai, Max; Wang, Jie; Cole, David J; Wientjes, M Guillaume; Au, Jessie L-S

    2014-01-01

    Intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy confers significant survival benefits in cancer patients. However, several problems, including local toxicity and ineffectiveness against bulky tumors, have prohibited it from becoming a standard of care. We have developed drug-loaded, polymeric tumor-penetrating microparticles (TPM) to address these problems. Initial studies showed that TPM provides tumor-selective delivery and is effective against ovarian SKOV3 tumors of relatively small size (<50 mg). The present study evaluated whether the TPM activity extends to other tumor types that are more bulky and have different morphologies and disease presentation. We evaluated TPM in mice bearing two IP human pancreatic tumors with different growth characteristics and morphologies (rapidly growing, large and porous Hs766T vs. slowly growing, smaller and densely packed MiaPaCa2), and at different disease stage (early stage with smaller tumors vs. late stage with larger tumors plus peritoneal carcinomatosis). Comparison of treatments with TPM or paclitaxel in Cremophor micelles, at equi-toxic doses, shows, in all tumor types: (a) higher paclitaxel levels in tumors (up to 55-fold) for TPM, (b) greater efficacy for TPM, including significantly longer survival and higher cure rate, and (c) a single dose of TPM was equally efficacious as multiple doses of paclitaxel/Cremophor. The results indicate tumor targeting property and superior antitumor activity of paclitaxel-loaded TPM are generalizable to small and large peritoneal tumors, with or without accompanying carcinomatosis. PMID:24200079

  18. A rare case report of rib hemangioma mimicking a malignant bone tumor or metastatic tumor

    PubMed Central

    Haro, Akira; Nagashima, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Hemangioma of the rib is a rare benign vascular tumor. This benign disease induces osteolytic changes, and must be distinguished from a malignant bone tumor or metastatic tumor. Definitive diagnosis is achieved by excision biopsy or histological examination after surgical resection in many cases. We here in present a rare case of hemangioma of the rib. PMID:26454500

  19. Maspin expression in prostate tumor elicits host anti-tumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Dzinic, Sijana H; Chen, Kang; Thakur, Archana; Kaplun, Alexander; Bonfil, R Daniel; Li, Xiaohua; Liu, Jason; Bernardo, M Margarida; Saliganan, Allen; Back, Jessica B; Yano, Hiroshi; Schalk, Dana L; Tomaszewski, Elyse N; Beydoun, Ahmed S; Dyson, Gregory; Mujagic, Adelina; Krass, David; Dean, Ivory; Mi, Qing-Sheng; Heath, Elisabeth; Sakr, Wael; Lum, Lawrence G; Sheng, Shijie

    2014-11-30

    The goal of the current study is to examine the biological effects of epithelial-specific tumor suppressor maspin on tumor host immune response. Accumulated evidence demonstrates an anti-tumor effect of maspin on tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. The molecular mechanism underlying these biological functions of maspin is thought to be through histone deacetylase inhibition, key to the maintenance of differentiated epithelial phenotype. Since tumor-driven stromal reactivities co-evolve in tumor progression and metastasis, it is not surprising that maspin expression in tumor cells inhibits extracellular matrix degradation, increases fibrosis and blocks hypoxia-induced angiogenesis. Using the athymic nude mouse model capable of supporting the growth and progression of xenogeneic human prostate cancer cells, we further demonstrate that maspin expression in tumor cells elicits neutrophil- and B cells-dependent host tumor immunogenicity. Specifically, mice bearing maspin-expressing tumors exhibited increased systemic and intratumoral neutrophil maturation, activation and antibody-dependent cytotoxicity, and decreased peritumoral lymphangiogenesis. These results reveal a novel biological function of maspin in directing host immunity towards tumor elimination that helps explain the significant reduction of xenograft tumor incidence in vivo and the clinical correlation of maspin with better prognosis of several types of cancer. Taken together, our data raised the possibility for novel maspin-based cancer immunotherapies. PMID:25373490

  20. Immunotherapy using slow-cycling tumor cells prolonged overall survival of tumor-bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite considerable progress in the development of anticancer therapies, there is still a high mortality rate caused by cancer relapse and metastasis. Dormant or slow-cycling residual tumor cells are thought to be a source of tumor relapse and metastasis, and are therefore an obstacle to therapy. In this study, we assessed the drug resistance of tumor cells in mice, and investigated whether vaccination could promote survival. Methods The mouse colon carcinoma cell line CT-26 was treated with 5-fluorouracil to assess its sensitivity to drug treatment. Mice with colon tumors were immunized with inactivated slow-cycling CT-26 cells to estimate the efficacy of this vaccine. Results We identified a small population of slow-cycling tumor cells in the mouse colon carcinoma CT-26 cell line, which was resistant to conventional chemotherapy. To inhibit tumor recurrence and metastasis more effectively, treatments that selectively target the slow-cycling tumor cells should be developed to complement conventional therapies. We found that drug-treated, slow-cycling tumor cells induced a more intense immune response in vitro. Moreover, vaccination with inactivated slow-cycling tumor cells caused a reduction in tumor volume and prolonged the overall survival of tumor-bearing mice. Conclusions These findings suggest that targeting of slow-cycling tumor cells application using immunotherapy is a possible treatment to complement traditional antitumor therapy. PMID:23270473

  1. Tumor Endothelium FasL Establishes a Selective Immune Barrier Promoting Tolerance in Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Motz, Gregory T.; Santoro, Stephen P.; Wang, Li-Ping; Garrabrant, Tom; Lastra, Ricardo R.; Hagemann, Ian S.; Lal, Priti; Feldman, Michael D.; Benencia, Fabian; Coukos, George

    2014-01-01

    We describe a novel mechanism regulating the tumor endothelial barrier and T cell homing to tumors. Selective expression of the death mediator Fas ligand (FasL/CD95L) was detected in the vasculature of many human and mouse solid tumors but not in normal vasculature, and in these tumors it was associated with scarce CD8+ infiltration and predominance of FoxP3+ T regulatory (Treg) cells. Tumor-derived vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), interleukin 10 (IL-10) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) cooperatively induced FasL expression on endothelial cells, which acquired the ability to kill effector CD8+ T cells, but not Treg cells, due to higher levels of cFLIP expression in Tregs. In the mouse, genetic or pharmacologic suppression of FasL produced a significant increase in the influx of tumor-rejecting CD8+ over FoxP3+ T cells. Pharmacologic inhibition of VEGF and PGE2 attenuated tumor endothelial FasL expression, produced a significant increase in the influx of tumor-rejecting CD8+ over FoxP3+ T cells, which was FasL-dependent, and led to CD8-dependent tumor growth suppression. Thus, tumor paracrine mechanisms establish a tumor endothelial death barrier, which plays a critical role in establishing immune tolerance and determining the fate of tumors. PMID:24793239

  2. [An update: keratocystic odontogenic tumor--a cyst to a tumor].

    PubMed

    Brauer, H U; Manegold-Brauer, G

    2014-01-01

    According to the 2005 WHO classification of head neck tumors the parakeratinized form of the odontogenic keratocyst (primordial cyst) is listed as benign odontogenic tumor and is classified as keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT). In this short communication the surgical regimen as well as KCOT as an entity are discussed. PMID:23945714

  3. Differential potency of regulatory T cell-mediated immunosuppression in kidney tumors compared to subcutaneous tumors

    PubMed Central

    Devaud, Christel; Westwood, Jennifer A; Teng, Michele WL; John, Liza B; Yong, Carmen SM; Duong, Connie PM; Smyth, Mark J; Darcy, Phillip K; Kershaw, Michael H

    2014-01-01

    In many cancers, regulatory T cells (Treg) play a crucial role in suppressing the effector immune response thereby permitting tumor development. Indeed, in mouse models, their depletion can promote the regression of tumors of various origins, including renal cell carcinoma when located subcutaneous (SC). In the present study, we aimed to assess the importance of Treg immunosuppression in the physiologic context of metastatic renal carcinoma (Renca) disease. To that purpose we inoculated renal tumors orthotopically, intra-kidney (IK), in mice. Treg depletions were performed using anti-CD4 antibody in wild type mice or diphtheria toxin (DT) in Foxp3DTR transgenic mice. Our main observation was that Treg were not the key immunosuppressive component of the IK tumoral microenvironment, compared to the same tumors located SC. We demonstrated that the CD8+ effector immune response was still suppressed in IK tumors when compared to SC tumors, following Treg depletion. Furthermore, the level of program cell death protein (PD)-1 was increased on the surface of CD4+ T cells infiltrating IK tumors compared to SC tumors. Finally, the Treg-independent immunosuppression, occurring in IK tumors, was potent enough to inhibit regression of concomitant SC tumors, normally responsive to Treg depletion. Our findings provide further insight into the immunosuppressive nature of the immune response generated in the kidney microenvironment, suggesting that it can have additional mechanisms in addition to Treg. These observations might help to identify better targets from the kidney tumor microenvironment for future cancer therapies. PMID:25941590

  4. Gonadotropin-positive pituitary tumors accompanied by ovarian tumors in aging female ER??/? mice

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiaotang; Gabbi, Chiara; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Cheng, Guojun; Andersson, Leif C.; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-ke

    2010-01-01

    At 2 years of age, 100% (23/23) of ER??/? female mice have developed large pituitary and ovarian tumors. The pituitary tumors are gonadotropin-positive and the ovarian tumors are sex cord (less differentiated) and granulosa cell tumors (differentiated and estrogen secreting). No male mice had pituitary tumors and no pituitary or ovarian tumors developed in ER??/? mice or in ER???/? double knockout mice. The tumors have high proliferation indices, are ER?-positive, ER?-negative, and express high levels of nuclear phospho-SMAD3. Mice with granulosa cell tumors also had hyperproliferative endometria. The cause of the pituitary tumors appeared to be excessive secretion of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus resulting from high expression of NPY. The ovarian phenotype is similar to that seen in mice where inhibin is ablated. The data indicate that ER? plays an important role in regulating GnRH secretion. We suggest that in the absence of ER?, the proliferative action of FSH/SMAD3 is unopposed and the high proliferation leads to the development of ovarian tumors. The absence of tumors in the ER???/? mice suggests that tumor development requires the presence of ER?. PMID:20308571

  5. Spinal and Paraspinal Ewing Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Indelicato, Daniel J.; Keole, Sameer R.; Shahlaee, Amir H.; Morris, Christopher G.; Gibbs, C. Parker; Scarborough, Mark T.; Pincus, David W.; Marcus, Robert B.

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: To perform a review of the 40-year University of Florida experience treating spinal and paraspinal Ewing tumors. Patients and Methods: A total of 27 patients were treated between 1965 and 2007. For local management, 21 patients were treated with radiotherapy (RT) alone and 6 with surgery plus RT. All patients with metastatic disease were treated with RT alone. The risk profiles of each group were otherwise similar. The median age was 17 years, and the most frequent subsite was the sacral spine (n = 9). The median potential follow-up was 16 years. Results: The 5-year actuarial overall survival, cause-specific survival, and local control rate was 62%, 62%, and 90%, respectively. For the nonmetastatic subset (n = 22), the 5-year overall survival, cause-specific survival, and local control rate was 71%, 71%, and 89%, respectively. The local control rate was 84% for patients treated with RT alone vs. 100% for those treated with surgery plus RT. Patients who were >14 years old and those who were treated with intensive therapy demonstrated superior local control. Of 9 patients in our series with Frankel C or greater neurologic deficits at presentation, 7 experienced a full recovery with treatment. Of the 27 patients, 37% experienced Common Toxicity Criteria Grade 3 or greater toxicity, including 2 deaths from sepsis. Conclusion: Aggressive management of spinal and paraspinal Ewing tumors with RT with or without surgery results in high toxicity but excellent local control and neurologic outcomes. Efforts should be focused on identifying disease amenable to combined modality local therapy and improving RT techniques.

  6. Radiotherapy for Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Contessa, Joseph N.; Griffith, Kent A.; Wolff, Elizabeth; Ensminger, William; Zalupski, Mark; Ben-Josef, Edgar

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNTs) are rare malignant neoplasms considered to be resistant to radiotherapy (RT), although data on efficacy are scarce. We reviewed our institutional experience to further delineate the role of RT for patients with PNTs. Methods and Materials: Between 1986 and 2006, 36 patients with PNTs were treated with RT to 49 sites. Of these 36 patients, 23 had radiographic follow-up data, which were used to determine the tumor response rate and freedom from local progression. Long-term toxicity was graded according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Results: The overall response rate to RT was 39% (13% complete response, 26% partial response, 56% stable disease, and 4% progressive disease). A significant difference in the freedom from local progression between the groups receiving either greater than or less than the median 2 Gy/fraction biologically equivalent dose of 49.6 Gy was found, with all radiographic progression occurring in patients who had received <=32 Gy. The actuarial 3-year local freedom from progression rate was 49%. Palliation was achieved in 90% of patients, with either improvement or resolution of symptoms after RT. Of 35 patients, 33 had metastatic disease at their referral for RT, and the median overall survival for this patient population was 2 years. Three long-term Grade 3 or greater toxicities were recorded. Conclusion: RT is an effective modality for achieving local control in patients with PNTs. RT produces high rates of symptomatic palliation and freedom from local progression. Prospective trials of radiotherapy for PNTs are warranted.

  7. Thermal Ablation of Lung Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sonntag, P. David; Hinshaw, J. Louis; Lubner, Meghan G.; Brace, Christopher L.; Lee, Fred T.

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death in the United States, accounting for an estimated 29% of cancer deaths in 2009.1 Pneumonectomy or lobectomy with hilar and mediastinal lymph node sampling is the gold standard treatment and offers the best option for cure of stage 1/2 nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC).2 Unfortunately, only 15% of patients present with stage 1/2 disease, and many of these patients do not meet the pulmonary physiologic guidelines for lobar resection.3 In addition to lung cancer, pulmonary metastases are present in 25% to 30% of patients dying from all types of cancer.4 For some patients with oligometastatic pulmonary disease, metastectomy is associated with an improvement in survival.5 External beam radiation traditionally has been offered as the alternative to surgical resection for NSCLC or pulmonary metastatic disease. Unfortunately, the 5-year survival following radiation for stage 1 and 2 NSCLC remains low at 15% to 20%, with local recurrence being the most common mode of failure.6,7 Thermal ablation offers an intriguing therapeutic option to increase local tumor control and survival in patients with early stage NSCLC or with limited metastatic disease from nonlung primaries who are not surgical candidates because of poor cardiopulmonary reserve, anatomic constraints limiting resection, failure of traditional therapies, or refusal of operative approaches. Thermal ablation has been shown to be effective in treating tumors in bone, kidney, and liver.811 Most preclinical and clinical trials have focused on demonstrating the feasibility of three modalities for pulmonary thermal ablation, namely radiofrequency (RF) ablation, microwave (MW) ablation, and cryoablation. This article discusses the unique challenges of performing thermal ablation in lung tissue and reviews the current literature regarding RF, MW, and cryoablation in the lung. PMID:21377589

  8. Lung tumor promotion by curcumin.

    PubMed

    Dance-Barnes, Stephanie T; Kock, Nancy D; Moore, Joseph E; Lin, Elaine Y; Mosley, Libyadda J; D'Agostino, Ralph B; McCoy, Thomas P; Townsend, Alan J; Miller, Mark Steven

    2009-06-01

    Curcumin exhibits anti-inflammatory and antitumor activity and is being tested in clinical trials as a chemopreventive agent for colon cancer. Curcumin's chemopreventive activity was tested in a transgenic mouse model of lung cancer that expresses the human Ki-ras(G12C) allele in a doxycycline (DOX) inducible and lung-specific manner. The effects of curcumin were compared with the lung tumor promoter, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and the lung cancer chemopreventive agent, sulindac. Treatment of DOX-induced mice with dietary curcumin increased tumor multiplicity (36.3 +/- 0.9 versus 24.3 +/- 0.2) and progression to later stage lesions, results which were similar to animals that were co-treated with DOX/BHT. Microscopic examination showed that the percentage of lung lesions that were adenomas and adenocarcinomas increased to 66% in DOX/BHT, 66% in DOX/curcumin and 49% in DOX/BHT/curcumin-treated groups relative to DOX only treated mice (19%). Immunohistochemical analysis also showed increased evidence of inflammation in DOX/BHT, DOX/curcumin and DOX/BHT/curcumin mice relative to DOX only treated mice. In contrast, co-treatment of DOX/BHT mice with 200 p.p.m. [DOSAGE ERROR CORRECTED] of sulindac inhibited the progression of lung lesions and reduced the inflammation. Lung tissue from DOX/curcumin-treated mice demonstrated a significant increase (33%; P = 0.01) in oxidative damage, as assessed by the levels of carbonyl protein formation, relative to DOX-treated control mice after 1 week on the curcumin diet. These results suggest that curcumin may exhibit organ-specific effects to enhance reactive oxygen species formation in the damaged lung epithelium of smokers and ex-smokers. Ongoing clinical trials thus may need to exclude smokers and ex-smokers in chemopreventive trials of curcumin. PMID:19359593

  9. Inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis by photoimmunotherapy targeting tumor-associated macrophage in a sorafenib-resistant tumor model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chenran; Gao, Liquan; Cai, Yuehong; Liu, Hao; Gao, Duo; Lai, Jianhao; Jia, Bing; Wang, Fan; Liu, Zhaofei

    2016-04-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play essential roles in tumor invasion and metastasis, and contribute to drug resistance. Clinical evidence suggests that TAM levels are correlated with local tumor relapse, distant metastasis, and poor prognosis in patients. In this study, we synthesized a TAM-targeted probe (IRD-αCD206) by conjugating a monoclonal anti-CD206 antibody with a near-infrared phthalocyanine dye. We then investigated the potential application of the IRD-αCD206 probe to near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging and photoimmunotherapy (PIT) of tumors resistant to treatment with the kinase inhibitor sorafenib. Sorafenib treatment had no effect on tumor growth in a 4T1 mouse model of breast cancer, but induced M2 macrophage polarization in tumors. M2 macrophage recruitment by sorafenib-treated 4T1 tumors was noninvasively visualized by in vivo NIRF imaging of IRD-αCD206. Small-animal single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT and intratumoral microdistribution analysis indicated TAM-specific localization of the IRD-αCD206 probe in 4T1 tumors after several rounds of sorafenib treatment. Upon light irradiation, IRD-αCD206 suppressed the growth of sorafenib-resistant tumors. In vivo CT imaging and ex vivo histological analysis confirmed the inhibition of lung metastasis in mice by IRD-αCD206 PIT. These results demonstrate the utility of the IRD-αCD206 probe for TAM-targeted diagnostic imaging and treatment of tumors that are resistant to conventional therapeutics. PMID:26803407

  10. Enhanced delivery of liposomes to lung tumor through targeting interleukin-4 receptor on both tumor cells and tumor endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chi, Lianhua; Na, Moon-Hee; Jung, Hyun-Kyung; Vadevoo, Sri Murugan Poongkavithai; Kim, Cheong-Wun; Padmanaban, Guruprasath; Park, Tae-In; Park, Jae-Yong; Hwang, Ilseon; Park, Keon Uk; Liang, Frank; Lu, Maggie; Park, Jiho; Kim, In-San; Lee, Byung-Heon

    2015-07-10

    A growing body of evidence suggests that pathological lesions express tissue-specific molecular targets or biomarkers within the tissue. Interleukin-4 receptor (IL-4R) is overexpressed in many types of cancer cells, including lung cancer. Here we investigated the properties of IL-4R-binding peptide-1 (IL4RPep-1), a CRKRLDRNC peptide, and its ability to target the delivery of liposomes to lung tumor. IL4RPep-1 preferentially bound to H226 lung tumor cells which express higher levers of IL-4R compared to H460 lung tumor cells which express less IL-4R. Mutational analysis revealed that C1, R2, and R4 residues of IL4RPep-1 were the key binding determinants. IL4RPep-1-labeled liposomes containing doxorubicin were more efficiently internalized in H226 cells and effectively delivered doxorubicin into the cells compared to unlabeled liposomes. In vivo fluorescence imaging of nude mice subcutaneously xenotransplanted with H226 tumor cells indicated that IL4RPep-1-labeled liposomes accumulate more efficiently in the tumor and inhibit tumor growth more effectively compared to unlabeled liposomes. Interestingly, expression of IL-4R was high in vascular endothelial cells of tumor, while little was detected in vascular endothelial cells of control organs including the liver. IL-4R expression in cultured human vascular endothelial cells was also up-regulated when activated by a pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-?. Moreover, the up-regulation of IL-4R expression was observed in primary human lung cancer tissues. These results indicate that IL-4R-targeting nanocarriers may be a useful strategy to enhance drug delivery through the recognition of IL-4R in both tumor cells and tumor endothelial cells. PMID:25979323

  11. Simulating tumor growth in confined heterogeneous environments.

    PubMed

    Gevertz, Jana L; Gillies, George T; Torquato, Salvatore

    2008-01-01

    The holy grail of computational tumor modeling is to develop a simulation tool that can be utilized in the clinic to predict neoplastic progression and propose individualized optimal treatment strategies. In order to develop such a predictive model, one must account for many of the complex processes involved in tumor growth. One interaction that has not been incorporated into computational models of neoplastic progression is the impact that organ-imposed physical confinement and heterogeneity have on tumor growth. For this reason, we have taken a cellular automaton algorithm that was originally designed to simulate spherically symmetric tumor growth and generalized the algorithm to incorporate the effects of tissue shape and structure. We show that models that do not account for organ/tissue geometry and topology lead to false conclusions about tumor spread, shape and size. The impact that confinement has on tumor growth is more pronounced when a neoplasm is growing close to, versus far from, the confining boundary. Thus, any clinical simulation tool of cancer progression must not only consider the shape and structure of the organ in which a tumor is growing, but must also consider the location of the tumor within the organ if it is to accurately predict neoplastic growth dynamics. PMID:18824788

  12. Simulating tumor growth in confined heterogeneous environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gevertz, Jana L.; Gillies, George T.; Torquato, Salvatore

    2008-09-01

    The holy grail of computational tumor modeling is to develop a simulation tool that can be utilized in the clinic to predict neoplastic progression and propose individualized optimal treatment strategies. In order to develop such a predictive model, one must account for many of the complex processes involved in tumor growth. One interaction that has not been incorporated into computational models of neoplastic progression is the impact that organ-imposed physical confinement and heterogeneity have on tumor growth. For this reason, we have taken a cellular automaton algorithm that was originally designed to simulate spherically symmetric tumor growth and generalized the algorithm to incorporate the effects of tissue shape and structure. We show that models that do not account for organ/tissue geometry and topology lead to false conclusions about tumor spread, shape and size. The impact that confinement has on tumor growth is more pronounced when a neoplasm is growing close to, versus far from, the confining boundary. Thus, any clinical simulation tool of cancer progression must not only consider the shape and structure of the organ in which a tumor is growing, but must also consider the location of the tumor within the organ if it is to accurately predict neoplastic growth dynamics.

  13. [CyberKnife treatment for parasellar tumors].

    PubMed

    Sato, Kengo; Nomura, Ryutaro; Suzuki, Ichiro

    2011-03-01

    Microscopic and endoscopic techniques requiring superior skills are required for the examination of parasellar tumors. However, the parasellar region is surgically inaccessible, and complete excision of parasellar tumors remains a challenge. CyberKnife (CK) enables frameless radiosurgery and provides chronological and spatial freedom. We have previously treated parasellar tumors with stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT). Here, we evaluated the feasibility of CK surgery for parasellar tumors. Between June 2000 and August 2010, we conducted CK surgery for 4,500 patients. This study included 246 patients with pituitary adenoma (PA); 78, craniopharyngioma (CP); 38, parasellar meningioma (PM); and 6, metastatic pituitary tumor (M). The tumor volume ranged from 0.3 to 107 mL (median: 4.8 mL), and the patients were treated with 1-5 sessions of SRT. The treatment results were analyzed with a follow-up period of more than a year (range, 12-120 months; median: 35 months). The control rate of PA, CP, PM, and M was 96.6%, 79.0%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. Treatment failure in the case of CP was related to tumor volume. One PA patient had visual deterioration, and another had new hypopituitarism. One M patient showed visual loss 12 months after the CK treatment, which was related to the treatment dose. Thus, CK was found to be feasible for parasellar tumors, although its safety and efficacy must be observed in long-term follow up. PMID:21386120

  14. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor and mitosis, pay attention.

    PubMed

    Coccolini, Federico; Catena, Fausto; Ansaloni, Luca; Pinna, Antonio Daniele

    2012-02-14

    The difference between stages I and III of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor depends principally on the number of mitosis. According with TNM classification, the presence in the tumor of high mitotic rate determines the upgrading. Many studies exposed different count techniques in evaluating the number of mitosis. An international standardized method to assess mitotic rate is needed. PMID:22363128

  15. How Are Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors Staged?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... high. Stage IV: One of the following applies: Any T, N1, M0, any mitotic rate: The tumor can be any size ( ... M0). The tumor can have any mitotic rate. Any T, any N, M1, any mitotic rate: The ...

  16. Cancer-associated fibroblasts in digestive tumors

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lei; Xu, A-Man; Liu, Sha; Liu, Wei; Li, Tuan-Jie

    2014-01-01

    The significant influence of tumor stroma on malignant cells has been extensively investigated in this era of targeted therapy. The tumor microenvironment, as a dynamic system, is orchestrated by various cells including tumor vascular composing cells, inflammatory cells and fibroblasts. As a major and important component in tumor stroma, increasing evidence has shown that spindle-shaped cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are a significant modifier of cancer evolution, and promote tumorigenesis, tumor invasion and metastasis by stimulating angiogenesis, malignant cell survival, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and proliferation via direct cell-to-cell contact or secretion of soluble factors in most digestive solid tumors. CAFs are thought to be activated, characterized by the expression of α-smooth muscle actin, fibroblast activated protein, fibroblast specific protein, vimentin, fibronectin, etc. They are hypothesized to originate from normal or aged fibroblasts, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells, or vascular endothelial cells. EMT may also be an important process generating CAFs, and most probably, CAFs may originate from multiple cells. A close link exists between EMT, tumor stem cells, and chemo-resistance of tumor cells, which is largely orchestrated by CAFs. CAFs significantly induce immunosuppression, and may be a prognostic marker in various malignancies. Targeted therapy toward CAFs has displayed promising anticancer efficacy, which further reinforces the necessity to explore the relationship between CAFs and their hosts. PMID:25548479

  17. Vaccines targeting the neovasculature of tumors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Angiogenesis has a critical role in physiologic and disease processes. For the growth of tumors, angiogenesis must occur to carry sufficient nutrients to the tumor. In addition to growth, development of new blood vessels is necessary for invasion and metastases of the tumor. A number of strategies have been developed to inhibit tumor angiogenesis and further understanding of the interplay between tumors and angiogenesis should allow new approaches and advances in angiogenic therapy. One such promising angiogenic approach is to target and inhibit angiogenesis with vaccines. This review will discuss recent advances and future prospects in vaccines targeting aberrant angiogenesis of tumors. The strategies utilized by investigators have included whole endothelial cell vaccines as well as vaccines with defined targets on endothelial cells and pericytes of the developing tumor endothelium. To date, several promising anti-angiogenic vaccine strategies have demonstrated marked inhibition of tumor growth in pre-clinical trials with some showing no observed interference with physiologic angiogenic processes such as wound healing and fertility. PMID:21385454

  18. Genomic tumor evolution of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sato, Fumiaki; Saji, Shigehira; Toi, Masakazu

    2016-01-01

    Owing to recent technical development of comprehensive genome-wide analysis such as next generation sequencing, deep biological insights of breast cancer have been revealed. Information of genomic mutations and rearrangements in patients' tumors is indispensable to understand the mechanism in carcinogenesis, progression, metastasis, and resistance to systemic treatment of breast cancer. To date, comprehensive genomic analyses illustrate not only base substitution patterns and lists of driver mutations and key rearrangements, but also a manner of tumor evolution. Breast cancer genome is dynamically changing and evolving during cancer development course from non-invasive disease via invasive primary tumor to metastatic tumor, and during treatment exposure. The accumulation pattern of base substitution and genomic rearrangement looks gradual and punctuated, respectively, in analogy with contrasting theories for evolution manner of species, Darwin's phyletic gradualism, and Eldredge and Gould's "punctuated equilibrium". Liquid biopsy is a non-invasive method to detect the genomic evolution of breast cancer. Genomic mutation patterns in circulating tumor cells and circulating cell-free tumor DNA represent those of tumors existing in patient body. Liquid biopsy methods are now under development for future application to clinical practice of cancer treatment. In this article, latest knowledge regarding breast cancer genome, especially in terms of 'tumorevolution', is summarized. PMID:25998191

  19. TUMOR HAPLOTYPE ASSEMBLY ALGORITHMS FOR CANCER GENOMICS

    PubMed Central

    AGUIAR, DEREK; WONG, WENDY S.W.; ISTRAIL, SORIN

    2014-01-01

    The growing availability of inexpensive high-throughput sequence data is enabling researchers to sequence tumor populations within a single individual at high coverage. But, cancer genome sequence evolution and mutational phenomena like driver mutations and gene fusions are difficult to investigate without first reconstructing tumor haplotype sequences. Haplotype assembly of single individual tumor populations is an exceedingly difficult task complicated by tumor haplotype heterogeneity, tumor or normal cell sequence contamination, polyploidy, and complex patterns of variation. While computational and experimental haplotype phasing of diploid genomes has seen much progress in recent years, haplotype assembly in cancer genomes remains uncharted territory. In this work, we describe HapCompass-Tumor a computational modeling and algorithmic framework for haplotype assembly of copy number variable cancer genomes containing haplotypes at different frequencies and complex variation. We extend our polyploid haplotype assembly model and present novel algorithms for (1) complex variations, including copy number changes, as varying numbers of disjoint paths in an associated graph, (2) variable haplotype frequencies and contamination, and (3) computation of tumor haplotypes using simple cycles of the compass graph which constrain the space of haplotype assembly solutions. The model and algorithm are implemented in the software package HapCompass-Tumor which is available for download from http://www.brown.edu/Research/Istrail_Lab/. PMID:24297529

  20. Tumor cohesion and glioblastoma cell dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Foty, Ramsey A

    2013-01-01

    Patients with glioblastoma typically present when tumors are at an advanced stage. Surgical resection, radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy are currently the standard of care for glioblastoma. However, due to the infiltrative and dispersive nature of the tumor, recurrence rate remains high and typically results in very poor prognosis. Efforts to treat the primary tumor are, therefore, palliative rather than curative. From a practical perspective, controlling growth and dispersal of the recurrence may have a greater impact on disease-free survival, In order for cells to disperse, they must first detach from the mass. Preventing detachment may keep tumors that recur more localized and perhaps more amenable to therapy. Here we introduce a new perspective in which a quantifiable mechanical property, namely tissue surface tension, can provide novel information on tumor behavior. The overall theme of the discussion will attempt to integrate how adhesion molecules can alter a tumors mechanical properties and how, in turn, these properties can be modified to prevent tumor cell detachment and dispersal. PMID:23902244

  1. Tumorous diseases of turkeys - an update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This update is primarily focused on addressing various aspects of virus-induced tumorous diseases of turkeys including review of current methods for diagnosis and control of these diseases of turkeys. Virus-induced tumorous diseases of turkeys are caused primarily by retroviruses, namely reticuloend...

  2. Vascular tumors of the choroid and retina

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugam, P Mahesh; Ramanjulu, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Vascular tumors of the retina and choroid can be seen occasionally. In the following article, the key clinical and diagnostic features of the major retinal and choroidal vascular tumors, their systemic associations, and the literature pertaining to the most currently available treatment strategies are reviewed. PMID:25827544

  3. Intrasellar malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST).

    PubMed

    Krayenbhl, N; Heppner, F; Yonekawa, Y; Bernays, R L

    2007-02-01

    Intracranial malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) and intrasellar schwannomas are rare tumors. We describe a case of an intrasellar schwannoma with progression to a MPNST, a finding that, although very rare, extends the differential diagnosis of intrasellar lesions. PMID:17195046

  4. Deformability of Tumor Cells versus Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shaw Bagnall, Josephine; Byun, Sangwon; Begum, Shahinoor; Miyamoto, David T.; Hecht, Vivian C.; Maheswaran, Shyamala; Stott, Shannon L.; Toner, Mehmet; Hynes, Richard O.; Manalis, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    The potential for circulating tumor cells (CTCs) to elucidate the process of cancer metastasis and inform clinical decision-making has made their isolation of great importance. However, CTCs are rare in the blood, and universal properties with which to identify them remain elusive. As technological advancements have made single-cell deformability measurements increasingly routine, the assessment of physical distinctions between tumor cells and blood cells may provide insight into the feasibility of deformability-based methods for identifying CTCs in patient blood. To this end, we present an initial study assessing deformability differences between tumor cells and blood cells, indicated by the length of time required for them to pass through a microfluidic constriction. Here, we demonstrate that deformability changes in tumor cells that have undergone phenotypic shifts are small compared to differences between tumor cell lines and blood cells. Additionally, in a syngeneic mouse tumor model, cells that are able to exit a tumor and enter circulation are not required to be more deformable than the cells that were first injected into the mouse. However, a limited study of metastatic prostate cancer patients provides evidence that some CTCs may be more mechanically similar to blood cells than to typical tumor cell lines. PMID:26679988

  5. [Electrocardiographic sign of secondary atrial tumor presentation].

    PubMed

    Protasov, K V; Kolchina, T Iu; Barkhatova, A A; Larionova, O V; Sokol'nikov, M V; Dvornichenko, V V

    2013-01-01

    Two cases of intravital diagnosis of left atrial tumor secondary to lung cancer and esophagus cancer are presented. The myocardial alteration was caused by direct invasion of primary tumor. In both cases the PQ (PR) segment depression was found on ECG, which could reflect neoplastic lesion of the atrium. We proposed to consider this phenomenon as ECG marker of secondary atrial malignancies. PMID:24087968

  6. Discovery of Tumor Suppressor Gene Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheimer, Steven B.

    1995-01-01

    This is an update of a 1991 review on tumor suppressor genes written at a time when understanding of how the genes work was limited. A recent major breakthrough in the understanding of the function of tumor suppressor genes is discussed. (LZ)

  7. Dependence of FDG uptake on tumor microenvironment

    SciTech Connect

    Pugachev, Andrei . E-mail: pugachea@mskcc.org; Ruan, Shutian; Carlin, Sean; Larson, Steven M.; Campa, Jose; Ling, C. Clifton; Humm, John L.

    2005-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the factors affecting the {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) uptake in tumors at a microscopic level, by correlating it with tumor hypoxia, cellular proliferation, and blood perfusion. Methods and Materials: Nude mice bearing Dunning prostate tumors (R3327-AT) were injected with {sup 18}F-FDG and pimonidazole, bromodeoxyuridine, and, 1 min before sacrifice, with Hoechst 33342. Selected tumor sections were imaged by phosphor plate autoradiography, while adjacent sections were used to obtain the images of the spatial distribution of Hoechst 33342, pimonidazole, and bromodeoxyuridine. The images were co-registered and analyzed on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Results: Statistical analysis of the data obtained from these tumors demonstrated that {sup 18}F-FDG uptake was positively correlated with pimonidazole staining intensity in each data set studied. Correlation of FDG uptake with bromodeoxyuridine staining intensity was always negative. In addition, FDG uptake was always negatively correlated with the staining intensity of Hoechst 33342. Conclusions: For the Dunning prostate tumors studied, FDG uptake was always positively correlated with hypoxia and negatively correlated with both cellular proliferation and blood flow. Therefore, for the tumor model studied, higher FDG uptake is indicative of tumor hypoxia, but neither blood flow nor cellular proliferation.

  8. Towards the Standardization of Tumor Diagnosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The differential diagnosis of chicken tumors is important but has been difficult in practice for a variety of reasons. Methods and criteria have varied among laboratories. This poster is based on a new publication (1) designed to encourage greater standardization of tumor diagnosis. The use of a...

  9. An overview of tumorous diseases of turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This overview is primarily aimed at addressing various aspects of virus-induced tumorous diseases of turkeys including review of current methods for diagnosis and control of these diseases of turkeys. Virus-induced tumorous diseases of turkeys are caused primarily by retroviruses, namely reticuloend...

  10. Transsacrococcygeal approach for resection of retrorectal tumors.

    PubMed

    Gong, Lei; Liu, Wei; Li, Peiyu; Huang, Xiaohui

    2015-06-01

    Retrorectal tumors, are a rare and interesting entity, traditionally managed with surgery. The surgical approach is a key to get an easy and safe access. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of resection by a transsacrococcygeal approach. Thirty-six patients had retrorectal tumors resected by a transsacrococcygeal approach in our department. All the tumors were en bloc resected, irrespective of size and anatomical depth. The clinic data were retrospectively reviewed. Tumor mean size was 10 4.4 cm. In 16 cases, tumors were 10 cm or more in size. The largest tumor measured 20 cm. The estimated mean blood loss was 130 ml. No mortality and severe postoperative complications were observed. The most significant issues were wound infection and delayed healing. Pathology showed 15 cases of epidermal cysts, two cases of enterogenous cyst, one case of bronchogenic cyst, 12 cases of teratoma, two cases of schwannoma, two cases of low-grade malignant fibrous myxoma, one case of aggressive angiomyxoma, one case of desmoid tumor. The transsacrococcygeal approach gives an easy access and good visualization with fewer complications. This surgical approach shows to be safe and effective for resection of retrorectal tumors. PMID:26031268

  11. Transmissible Tumors: Breaking the Cancer Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Ostrander, Elaine A; Davis, Brian W; Ostrander, Gary K

    2016-01-01

    Transmissible tumors are those that have transcended the bounds of their incipient hosts by evolving the ability to infect another individual through direct transfer of cancer cells, thus becoming parasitic cancer clones. Coitus, biting, and scratching are transfer mechanisms for the two primary species studied, the domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) and the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii). Canine transmissible venereal tumors (CTVT) are likely thousands of years old, and have successfully travelled from host to host around the world, while the Tasmanian devil facial tumor disease (DFTD) is much younger and geographically localized. The dog tumor is not necessarily lethal, while the devil tumor has driven the population to near extinction. Transmissible tumors are uniform in that they have complex immunologic profiles, which allow them to escape immune detection by their hosts, sometimes for long periods of time. In this review, we explore how transmissible tumors in CTVT, DFTD, and as well as the soft-shell clam and Syrian hamster, can advance studies of tumor biology. PMID:26686413

  12. [Desmoid tumors of the abdominal wall].

    PubMed

    Carlomagno, N; Dodaro, C; Boccia, L; Mazzarella, L; Renda, A

    1992-05-01

    The authors report their experience in the management of desmoid tumors, rare benign neoplasias, locally aggressive and potentially recurrent after surgery. Etiopathogenetic, diagnostic, and therapeutic features of these tumors are analysed and the value of surgery as well as chemo- or radiotherapy is considered. PMID:1307711

  13. High Efficiency Diffusion Molecular Retention Tumor Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanyan; Yuan, Hushan; Cho, Hoonsung; Kuruppu, Darshini; Jokivarsi, Kimmo; Agarwal, Aayush; Shah, Khalid; Josephson, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Here we introduce diffusion molecular retention (DMR) tumor targeting, a technique that employs PEG-fluorochrome shielded probes that, after a peritumoral (PT) injection, undergo slow vascular uptake and extensive interstitial diffusion, with tumor retention only through integrin molecular recognition. To demonstrate DMR, RGD (integrin binding) and RAD (control) probes were synthesized bearing DOTA (for 111 In3+), a NIR fluorochrome, and 5 kDa PEG that endows probes with a protein-like volume of 25 kDa and decreases non-specific interactions. With a GFP-BT-20 breast carcinoma model, tumor targeting by the DMR or IV methods was assessed by surface fluorescence, biodistribution of [111In] RGD and [111In] RAD probes, and whole animal SPECT. After a PT injection, both probes rapidly diffused through the normal and tumor interstitium, with retention of the RGD probe due to integrin interactions. With PT injection and the [111In] RGD probe, SPECT indicated a highly tumor specific uptake at 24 h post injection, with 352%ID/g tumor obtained by DMR (vs 4.14%ID/g by IV). The high efficiency molecular targeting of DMR employed low probe doses (e.g. 25 ng as RGD peptide), which minimizes toxicity risks and facilitates clinical translation. DMR applications include the delivery of fluorochromes for intraoperative tumor margin delineation, the delivery of radioisotopes (e.g. toxic, short range alpha emitters) for radiotherapy, or the delivery of photosensitizers to tumors accessible to light. PMID:23505478

  14. Connective tissue growth factor in tumor pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Key roles for connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) are demonstrated in the wound repair process where it promotes myofibroblast differentiation and angiogenesis. Similar mechanisms are active in tumor-reactive stroma where CTGF is expressed. Other potential roles include prevention of hypoxia-induced apoptosis and promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transistion (EMT). CTGF expression in tumors has been associated to both tumor suppression and progression. For example, CTGF expression in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, breast, pancreas and gastric cancer correlates to worse prognosis whereas the opposite is true for colorectal, lung and ovarian cancer. This discrepancy is not yet understood. High expression of CTGF is a hallmark of ileal carcinoids, which are well-differentiated endocrine carcinomas with serotonin production originating from the small intestine and proximal colon. These tumors maintain a high grade of differentiation and low proliferation. Despite this, they are malignant and most patients have metastatic disease at diagnosis. These tumors demonstrate several phenotypes potentially related to CTGF function namely: cell migration, absent tumor cell apoptosis, as well as, reactive and well vascularised myofibroblast rich stroma and fibrosis development locally and in distal organs. The presence of CTGF in other endocrine tumors indicates a role in the progression of well-differentiated tumors. PMID:23259759

  15. [Submerse bacterial plant tumor on roots].

    PubMed

    Hhn, K; Hartmann, E

    1968-03-01

    Spontaneous infections seem to indicate that not only the crown of herbeous plants is disposed to generate tumors. Under substrate conditions such as those normally found at the crown, infections caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens will yield tumors in the entire area of the roots.Roots of Helianthus annuus and Solanum lycopersicum grown in nutritive medium are disposed to tumor when given appropriate conditions of culture and inoculation. Tissue culture, the most widely applied method for the analysis of bacterial plant tumor, has a disadvantage in the correlation with the whole organism is lacking. This disadvantage is avoided when submerse cultures on intact roots are used, and the methodical advantages involved in using tissue cultures are preserved.When two unfavorable factors such as lack of oxygen and suboptimal temperature come together, a slowing down of tumoral induction results in hydroponic culture. Tumors already induced will grow normally. When the induction temperature is optimal (for Helianthus annuus 26C) lack of oxygen will not produce inhibition of induction. Lack of oxygen will, however, unfavorably effect the total development of the roots in any case.Proportional dependence between the growth of the roots and that of the tumor does not exist. Tumors of medium size correspond to a maximal weight of roots. This paper discusses the relationship between the above mentioned phenomena and growth hormones.In the tests involving lack of oxygen epinasty could be observed. PMID:24522818

  16. Targeting Tumor Suppressor Networks for Cancer Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xuning Emily; Ngo, Bryan; Modrek, Aram Sandaldjian; Lee, Wen-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a consequence of mutations in genes that control cell proliferation, differentiation and cellular homeostasis. These genes are classified into two categories: oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Together, overexpression of oncogenes and loss of tumor suppressors are the dominant driving forces for tumorigenesis. Hence, targeting oncogenes and tumor suppressors hold tremendous therapeutic potential for cancer treatment. In the last decade, the predominant cancer drug discovery strategy has relied on a traditional reductionist approach of dissecting molecular signaling pathways and designing inhibitors for the selected oncogenic targets. Remarkable therapies have been developed using this approach; however, targeting oncogenes is only part of the picture. Our understanding of the importance of tumor suppressors in preventing tumorigenesis has also advanced significantly and provides a new therapeutic window of opportunity. Given that tumor suppressors are frequently mutated, deleted, or silenced with loss-of-function, restoring their normal functions to treat cancer holds tremendous therapeutic potential. With the rapid expansion in our knowledge on cancer over the last several decades, developing effective anticancer regimens against tumor suppressor pathways has never been more promising. In this article, we will review the concept of tumor suppression, and outline the major therapeutic strategies and challenges of targeting tumor suppressor networks for cancer therapeutics. PMID:24387338

  17. Breast cancer intra-tumor heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In recent years it has become clear that cancer cells within a single tumor can display striking morphological, genetic and behavioral variability. Burgeoning genetic, epigenetic and phenomenological data support the existence of intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity in breast cancers; however, its basis is yet to be fully defined. Two of the most widely evoked concepts to explain the origin of heterogeneity within tumors are the cancer stem cell hypothesis and the clonal evolution model. Although the cancer stem cell model appeared to provide an explanation for the variability among the neoplastic cells within a given cancer, advances in massively parallel sequencing have provided several lines of evidence to suggest that intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity likely plays a fundamental role in the phenotypic heterogeneity observed in cancers. Many challenges remain, however, in the interpretation of the next generation sequencing results obtained so far. Here we review the models that explain tumor heterogeneity, the causes of intra-tumor genetic diversity and their impact on our understanding and management of breast cancer, methods to study intra-tumor heterogeneity and the assessment of intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity in the clinic. PMID:25928070

  18. Sickle red blood cells accumulate in tumor.

    PubMed

    Brown, S L; Ewing, J R; Nagaraja, T N; Swerdlow, P S; Cao, Y; Fenstermacher, J D; Kim, J H

    2003-12-01

    The preferential accumulation of sickle blood cells in tumor vasculature is demonstrated noninvasively using MRI and sickle red blood cells loaded with Gd-DTPA and invasively by two other techniques. The distribution of red blood cells in rat brain tumors relative to normal brains were measured using three separate techniques: MRI of Gd-DTPA loaded cells, fluorescent microscopy detection of Oregon Green 488 fluorescence conjugated to a streptavidin-biotin complex that binds to red blood cell surface proteins, and autoradiography using a technetium (99m)Tc-labeling kit. Labeled red cells were infused intravenously in rats with brain tumors. Sickle cells preferentially accumulated in tumor relative to normal brain, with highest concentrations near the tumor / normal tissue boundary, whereas control normal red cells did not preferentially aggregate at the tumor periphery. This demonstrates the potential of sickle red blood cells to accumulate in the abnormal tumor vessel network, and the ability to detect their aggregation noninvasively and at high spatial resolution using MRI. The application of the noninvasive measurement of sickle cells for imaging tumor neovasculature, or as a delivery tool for therapy, requires further study. PMID:14648568

  19. Whole Tumor Antigen Vaccines: Where Are We?

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Cheryl Lai-Lai; Coukos, George; Kandalaft, Lana E.

    2015-01-01

    With its vast amount of uncharacterized and characterized T cell epitopes available for activating CD4+ T helper and CD8+ cytotoxic lymphocytes simultaneously, whole tumor antigen represents an attractive alternative source of antigens as compared to tumor-derived peptides and full-length recombinant tumor proteins for dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy. Unlike defined tumor-derived peptides and proteins, whole tumor lysate therapy is applicable to all patients regardless of their HLA type. DCs are essentially the master regulators of immune response, and are the most potent antigen-presenting cell population for priming and activating nave T cells to target tumors. Because of these unique properties, numerous DC-based immunotherapies have been initiated in the clinics. In this review, we describe the different types of whole tumor antigens that we could use to pulse DCs ex vivo and in vivo. We also discuss the different routes of delivering whole tumor antigens to DCs in vivo and activating them with toll-like receptor agonists. PMID:26343191

  20. Visualizing extravasation dynamics of metastatic tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Stoletov, Konstantin; Kato, Hisashi; Zardouzian, Erin; Kelber, Jonathan; Yang, Jing; Shattil, Sanford; Klemke, Richard

    2010-07-01

    Little is known about how metastatic cancer cells arrest in small capillaries and traverse the vascular wall during extravasation in vivo. Using real-time intravital imaging of human tumor cells transplanted into transparent zebrafish, we show here that extravasation of cancer cells is a highly dynamic process that involves the modulation of tumor cell adhesion to the endothelium and intravascular cell migration along the luminal surface of the vascular wall. Tumor cells do not damage or induce vascular leak at the site of extravasation, but rather induce local vessel remodeling characterized by clustering of endothelial cells and cell-cell junctions. Intravascular locomotion of tumor cells is independent of the direction of blood flow and requires beta1-integrin-mediated adhesion to the blood-vessel wall. Interestingly, the expression of the pro-metastatic gene Twist in tumor cells increases their intravascular migration and extravasation through the vessel wall. However, in this case, Twist expression causes the tumor cells to switch to a beta1-integrin-independent mode of extravasation that is associated with the formation of large dynamic rounded membrane protrusions. Our results demonstrate that extravasation of tumor cells is a highly dynamic process influenced by metastatic genes that target adhesion and intravascular migration of tumor cells, and induce endothelial remodeling. PMID:20530574