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Trombosis venosa profunda como marcador de recidiva de una neoplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and objectiveThere is a bidirectional association between neoplasia and venous thromboembolism (VTE). However, whether this association has an impact in tumor recurrence is unknown. The aim of the study is to assess the incidence of cancer recurrence after diagnosis of VTE and determine if VTE could be a marker for cancer recurrence.

Montserrat Blanch Alerany; Mariona Calvo Campos; Antonio Romera Villegas; Antonio Pérez-Piqueras Gómez; Santiago Riera Batalla; Marc Antoni Cairols Castellote



Perineuroma maligno (tumor maligno de vaina nerviosa periférica, perineural). Estudio inmunohistoquímico de un tumor poco frecuente, utilizando EMA, GLUT1 y Claudina-1, como marcadores de diferenciación perineural Malignant perineurioma (malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, perineurial). Immunohistochemical study of an unusual tumor, using EMA, Glut1 and Claudin-1, as perineurial cell differentiation markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Introduction: Malignant perineurioma (MP) or malig- nant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) with perineu- rial differentiation is an unusual tumor. We report a case of MP with immunohistochemical evidence. Material and Methods: A 58 year-old female with a retroperitoneal tumor with no clinical evidence of neurofibromatosis. Results: The tumor presented extensive areas of necrosis and was compo- sed of

Carlos Ortiz-Hidalgo; Armando Carvajal-Dosamantes


Reconocimiento robusto de marcadores artificiales para la navegacion de robots  

E-print Network

centran m´as en la descripci´on de un sistema rob´otico concreto o en el uso de caracter´isticas naturales´on y reconocimiento de marcadores por s´i mismo, sin considerar un sistema rob´otico concreto donde

Escolano, Francisco


Neuroendocrine tumors.  


Neuroendocrine tumors comprise a broad family of tumors, the most common of which are carcinoid and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. The NCCN Neuroendocrine Tumors Guidelines discuss the diagnosis and management of both sporadic and hereditary neuroendocrine tumors. Most of the recommendations pertain to well-differentiated, low- to intermediate-grade tumors. This updated version of the NCCN Guidelines includes a new section on pathology for diagnosis and reporting and revised recommendations for the surgical management of neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas. PMID:22679117

Kulke, Matthew H; Benson, Al B; Bergsland, Emily; Berlin, Jordan D; Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S; Choti, Michael A; Clark, Orlo H; Doherty, Gerard M; Eason, James; Emerson, Lyska; Engstrom, Paul F; Goldner, Whitney S; Heslin, Martin J; Kandeel, Fouad; Kunz, Pamela L; Kuvshinoff, Boris W; Moley, Jeffrey F; Pillarisetty, Venu G; Saltz, Leonard; Schteingart, David E; Shah, Manisha H; Shibata, Stephen; Strosberg, Jonathan R; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas; White, Rebekah; Yao, James C; Freedman-Cass, Deborah A; Dwyer, Mary A



Brain Tumor  


... from Mayo Clinic Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Brain tumor This shows a tumor that likely began ... Make a difference today. Learn more Give now Brain tumor Overview Symptoms & causes Diagnosis and treatment at ...


Brain tumors.  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in experimental tumor biology are being applied to critical clinical problems of primary brain tumors. The expression of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors, which are sparse in normal brain, is increased as much as 20-fold in brain tumors. Experimental studies show promise in using labeled ligands to these receptors to identify the outer margins of malignant brain tumors. Whereas positron emission tomography has improved the dynamic understanding of tumors, the labeled selective tumor receptors with positron emitters will enhance the ability to specifically diagnose and greatly aid in the pretreatment planning for tumors. Modulation of these receptors will also affect tumor growth and metabolism. Novel methods to deliver antitumor agents to the brain and new approaches using biologic response modifiers also hold promise to further improve the management of brain tumors. Images PMID:1848735

Black, K. L.; Mazziotta, J. C.; Becker, D. P.



Bone Tumor  


... Some tumors may come back, even repeatedly, a er appropriate treatment. Malignant Tumors Limb Salvage Surgery This ... implants. This allows better function and durability a er limb salvage surgery. Advancements in the development of ...


Warthin tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Warthin tumor is the second most common benign parenchymal salivary neoplasm. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the histopathologic features of Warthin tumor to determine whether a developmental pattern could be identified.Study design. Seventy-nine Warthin tumors in 63 patients (62 male and 1 female; average age, 58.62 years) were examined. All cases were histopathologically classified and morphometrically

J. M Aguirre; M. A Echebarría; R Martínez-Conde; C Rodriguez; J. J Burgos; J. M Rivera



What Is Wilms Tumor?  


... the key statistics about Wilms tumor? What is Wilms tumor? Wilms tumor (also called Wilms’ tumor or nephroblastoma ) ... living normal, healthy lives with just one kidney. Wilms tumors Wilms tumors are the most common cancers in ...


[Carcinoid tumors].  


The authors review the most important clinical aspects of carcinoid tumors. Carcinoid tumors originating in neuroendocrine cells are rare, usually slowly-growing neoplasms, however, they may present as aggressive and rapidly progressing tumors. Epidemiologic data indicates that their prevalence is gradually increasing, which may be explained, at least in part, by the development and wider use of advanced diagnostic methods. A considerable proportion of patients with neuroendocrine tumors are symptom-free, whereas others may have carcinoid syndrome or symptoms of other endocrine syndromes. Early diagnosis may be established by the measurement of biochemical markers (serum chromogranin A, urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid) and advanced localization methods. A considerable number of patients are diagnosed at the late stages of the disease; in these cases surgical cure is not possible but surgical and/or interventional radiologic procedures which reduce tumoral mass should be still considered. The most effective drugs for symptomatic treatment of carcinoid tumors are somatostatin analogues; in addition to their beneficial effect on clinical symptoms they may stabilize tumor growth for many years and, less frequently, may produce tumor regression. The use of chemotherapeutic agents is considered in patients with aggressive, rapidly growing and advanced tumors; initial findings with temozolomide and thalidomide in clinical trials raise the possibility that these chemotherapeutic agents may prove to be new therapeutic options. Radioisotope-labeled peptide receptor therapy with 131 I-MIBG, 90 Y-DOTA-TOC or 177 Lu-DOTA-TOC may offer a highly effective option for patients with progressive and advanced stage of neuroendocrine tumors. Initial observations obtained in clinical trials with some tyrosine kinase inhibitors, antibodies against tyrosine kinases, and with inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) support the possibility that at least some of these new agents may have a role in future treatment options in patients with advanced neuroendocrine tumors. PMID:21044939

Pregun, István; Bodoky, György; Rácz, Károly; Tulassay, Zsolt



Hypothalamic tumor  


... at any age, but they are often more aggressive in adults than in children. In adults, tumors ... The treatment depends on how aggressive the tumor is, and whether it is a glioma or another type of cancer. Treatment may involve combinations of surgery, radiation , ...


Wilms' Tumor  


... Doctors usually diagnose and remove the tumor in surgery. Other treatments include chemotherapy and radiation and biologic therapies. Biologic therapy boosts your body's own ability to fight cancer. NIH: National Cancer Institute


Pregnancy Tumor  


... Pregnancy tumors are not dangerous. Causes include: Poor oral hygiene (not enough brushing, flossing or cleanings to remove food or plaque) Irritation of the area (caused by the mouth's inflammatory response to the food or plaque) Trauma ...


Ependymal Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ependymomas represent a heterogeneous group of glial tumors whose biological behavior depends on various histological, molecular,\\u000a and clinical variables. The scope of this chapter is to review the clinical and histo-logical features as well as the molecular\\u000a genetics of ependymomas with special emphasis on their influence on tumor recurrence and prognosis. Furthermore, potential\\u000a molecular targets for therapy are outlined.

Martin Hasselblatt


Brain Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A brain tumor, or neoplasm, is a growth of abnormal cells inside the skull cavity. Most tumors of the Central Nervous System (>90%) originate from glial\\u000a cells (e.g., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, and ependymal cells), and only rarely develop from neurons (1%) (Davis\\u000a LE, King MK, Schultz JL, Fundamentals of neurologic disease, Demos Medical Publishing, New York, 2005; Kaye AH, Essential

Kyle E. Ferguson; Grant L. Iverson; Mike R. Schoenberg


Pineal tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1972–1985, 30 patients with pineal area tumor have been treated with combinations of surgery and irradiation, no patient receiving chemotherapy as a primary recommendation. Patients ranged between 3 and 69 years of age, 18 were male and 12 female. In 18 patients a tissue diagnosis was made initially, 14 patients required shunts before definitive management and in 8 of

Rita M. Linggood; Paul H. Chapman



Benign Tumors  


... cannot spread or invade other parts of your body. Even so, they can be dangerous if they press on vital organs, such as your brain. Treatment often involves surgery. Benign tumors usually don't grow back. NIH: National Cancer Institute


Brain tumor (image)  


Brain tumors are classified depending on the exact site of the tumor, the type of tissue involved, benign ... tendencies of the tumor, and other factors. Primary brain tumors can arise from the brain cells, the meninges ( ...


Metastatic brain tumor  


Brain tumor - metastatic (secondary); Cancer - brain tumor (metastatic) ... For many people with metastatic brain tumors, the cancer is not curable. It will eventually spread to other areas of the body. Prognosis depends on the type of tumor and ...


Brain Tumors  

PubMed Central

This review addresses the specific contributions of nuclear medicine techniques, and especially positron emission tomography (PET), for diagnosis and management of brain tumors. 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose PET has particular strengths in predicting prognosis and differentiating cerebral lymphoma from nonmalignant lesions. Amino acid tracers including 11C-methionine, 18F-fluoroethyltyrosine, and 18F-l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine provide high sensitivity, which is most useful for detecting recurrent or residual gliomas, including most low-grade gliomas. They also play an increasing role for planning and monitoring of therapy. 18F-fluorothymidine can only be used in tumors with absent or broken blood–brain barrier and has potential for tumor grading and monitoring of therapy. Ligands for somatostatin receptors are of particular interest in pituitary adenomas and meningiomas. Tracers to image neovascularization, hypoxia, and phospholipid synthesis are under investigation for potential clinical use. All methods provide the maximum of information when used with image registration and fusion display with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging scans. Integration of PET and magnetic resonance imaging with stereotactic neuronavigation systems allows the targeting of stereotactic biopsies to obtain a more accurate histologic diagnosis and better planning of conformal and stereotactic radiotherapy. PMID:23026359

Herholz, Karl; Langen, Karl-Josef; Schiepers, Christiaan; Mountz, James M.



Brain Tumor Symptoms  


... Types of Tumors Risk Factors Brain Tumor Statistics Brain Tumor Dictionary Webinars Anytime Learning About Us Letter from the President & CEO Our ... Types of Tumors Risk Factors Brain Tumor Statistics Brain Tumor Dictionary Webinars Anytime Learning Donate to the ABTA Help advance the understanding ...



PubMed Central

Hormonally active tumors of the adrenal cortex are either benign adenomas or adenocarcinomas. They may be located within the adrenal gland or as adrenal rests along the Wolffian tract. Hyperplastic cortical tissue without actual neoplastic formation is also capable of elaborating excessive cortical secretions. At the present state of knowledge, any one or a combination of the following compounds may be elaborated in a given case: the electrolytic, glucogenic, androgenic, or estrogenic corticosteroids. Whether or not Cushing's syndrome is primarily pituitary or adrenal in origin is still a matter of conjecture. PMID:15426994

Shelton, E. Kost



Pancreatic islet cell tumor  


Islet cell tumors; Islet of Langerhans tumor; Neuroendocrine tumors ... In the healthy pancreas, cells called islet cells produce hormones that regulate a several bodily functions. These include blood sugar level and the production of ...


Pancreatic Exocrine Tumors  


Pancreatic Exocrine Tumors More than 95% of pancreatic cancers are classified as exocrine tumors. These tumors start in the exocrine cells of the pancreas. The following table describes the most common pancreatic ...


Lacrimal Gland Tumor  


... Gland Tumor Lacrimal Gland Tumor This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Lacrimal Gland Tumor. Use the menu ... guide is reviewed by experts on the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , which is composed of medical, surgical, ...


Tumors and Pregnancy  


Tumors during pregnancy are rare, but they can happen. Tumors can be either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. The most common cancers in pregnancy are breast cancer, cervical cancer, lymphoma, and melanoma. ...


Other vascular tumors.  


Vascular tumors are rare in children and adults. Classification of these tumors has been difficult, especially in the pediatric population, due to the rarity of these lesions, the unusual morphologic appearance, their diverse clinical behavior, and no independent stratification for pediatric tumors. In 2013, The World Health Organization updated the classification of soft tissue vascular tumors. Pediatric tumors were not independently stratified and the terminology was mostly left unchanged, but the intermediate category of tumors was divided into locally aggressive and rarely metastasizing. These tumors are treated with multimodality therapy and therefore need the guidance of an interdisciplinary team for best care. PMID:25241094

Adams, Denise M; Hammill, Adrienne



Nonmalignant pediatric brain tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain tumors are the most common solid neoplasms in the pediatric population. Each year in the United States, approximately\\u000a 1500 to 2000 children are affected by one of these tumors. About 50% of pediatric brain tumors are malignant. Nonmalignant\\u000a pediatric brain tumors comprise an eclectic group of pathologic entities that have fascinating clinical features. Many of\\u000a these tumors demonstrate a

Mahmoud Rashidi; Victor Reis DaSilva; Alireza Minagar; James T. Rutka



Tumors and Tumor-Like Lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peripheral nerve tumors are uncommon, nerve sheath tumors, schwannoma and neurofibromas being the most frequent. Their clinical\\u000a signs and symptoms are often unspecific, which is why they may pose a diagnostic problem; this is particularly true for the\\u000a neck, where a palpable mass is often mistaken for an enlarged lymph node by the referring clinician. Several neurogenic tumors\\u000a can affect

Gerd Bodner; Siegfried Peer


Tumor microenvironment and nanotherapeutics  

PubMed Central

Recent studies delineate a predominant role for the tumor microenvironment in tumor growth and progression. Improved knowledge of cancer biology and investigation of the complex functional interrelation between the cellular and noncellular compartments of the tumor microenvironment have provided an ideal platform for the evolution of novel cancer nanotherapies. In addition, multifunctional “smart” nanoparticles carrying imaging agents and delivering multiple drugs targeted preferentially to the tumor/tumor microenvironment will lead to early diagnosis and better treatment for patients with cancer. The emerging knowledge of the tumor microenvironment has enabled rational designing of nanoparticles for combinatorial treatment strategies that include radiotherapy, antiangiogenesis and chemotherapy. This multimodality approach is thus expected to achieve therapeutic efficacy and enhance the quality of life of cancer patients. This review highlights the unique characteristics of the tumor microenvironment that are exploited by nanotechnology to develop novel drug delivery systems aimed to target the tumor/tumor microenvironment. PMID:24634853

Upreti, Meenakshi; Jyoti, Amar; Sethi, Pallavi



Tumor Macroenvironment and Metabolism  

PubMed Central

In this review we introduce the concept of the tumor macroenvironment and explore it in the context of metabolism. Tumor cells interact with the tumor microenvironment including immune cells. Blood and lymph vessels are the critical components that deliver nutrients to the tumor and also connect the tumor to the macroenvironment. Several factors are then released from the tumor itself but potentially also from the tumor microenvironment, influencing the metabolism of distant tissues and organs. Amino acids, and distinct lipid and lipoprotein species can be essential for further tumor growth. The role of glucose in tumor metabolism has been studied extensively. Cancer-associated cachexia is the most important tumor-associated systemic syndrome and not only affects the quality of life of patients with various malignancies but is estimated to be the cause of death in 15%–20% of all cancer patients. On the other hand, systemic metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes are known to influence tumor development. Furthermore, the clinical implications of the tumor macroenvironment are explored in the context of the patient’s outcome with special consideration for pediatric tumors. Finally, ways to target the tumor macroenvironment that will provide new approaches for therapeutic concepts are described. PMID:24787299

Al-Zhoughbi, Wael; Huang, Jianfeng; Paramasivan, Ganapathy S.; Till, Holger; Pichler, Martin; Guertl-Lackner, Barbara; Hoefler, Gerald



Pathology of pineal region tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various histological types of tumors arise in the pineal region. The most common tumors are pineal parenchymal tumors and germ cell tumors. Pineal parenchymal tumors are divided into pineocytoma, pineal parenchymal tumor with intermediate differentiation and pineoblastoma. Pineocytomas are well-differentiated tumors and retain the morphological and immunohistochemical features of pineal parenchymal cells. Lobular architectures and pineocytomatous rosettes are also typical

Junko Hirato; Yoichi Nakazato



Concentración del fragmento aminoterminal del pro-péptido natriurético cerebral en plasma como marcador biológico predictivo de mortalidad en las neumonías adquiridas en la comunidad.  

E-print Network

??Objetivo: Evaluar la relación entre la concentración plasmática del fragmento aminoterminal del pro-péptido natriurético cerebral (NT-proBNP) en el momento del diagnóstico de neumonía adquirida en… (more)

Tazón Varela, Manuel Antonio



Epidemiology of brain tumors.  


After lagging behind other brain tumor disciplines in the 1980s, the epidemiology of brain tumors is now making progress on several fronts. The Central Brain Tumor Registry in the USA has made a complete description of primary brain tumors available to researchers. International data suggest that environmental components in the etiology of brain tumors are likely to be widely dispersed by geography and demographic subgroups. There are few proven causes of brain tumors: high-dose ionizing radiation, inherited genetic syndromes and AIDs-related brain lymphomas. Promising avenues of research include the role of immune function, genetic components in families, metabolic and DNA-repair pathways and neurocarcinogen exposures. PMID:18076316

Davis, Faith S



Brain Tumor Risk Factors  


... cells grow, which may eventually lead to the development of a tumor. Brain tumors can also be associated with changes in the chromosomes. Each normal cell in any human body has 23 pairs of chromosomes. The most ...


Brain tumor - primary - adults  


... adults; Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... play a role: Radiation therapy used to treat brain cancers increases the risk of brain tumors up to ...


Vaginal endodermal sinus tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malignant germ cell tumors are rare tumors of childhood accounting less than 3% of pediatric malignancies, and endodermal\\u000a sinus tumor (EST) is the most common histological subtype. The vagina is an extremely rare site for germ cell tumors (GCT).\\u000a A one-year female was admitted with history of bleeding pervagina. She had pallor and a mass was palpable anteriorly on rectal

Vijay Kumar; Pushpa Kini; Deepti Vepakomma; M. Basant



Genetics of Wilms' tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analyses of published data for Wilms' tumor show the following results:1)The mode of inheritance of familial cases, which constitute less than 1% of all Wilms' tumors, is autosomal dominant with variable penetrance and expressivity. The familial pattern reveals no evidence that this tumor is associated with a vertically transmitting tumor virus.2)There is a significant correlation between the first-degree relatives

E. Matsunaga



Cranial Surgery BRAIN TUMORS  

E-print Network

, Spinal Cord Tumors, Sciatica Andrew Wensel, M.D. 585-467-1643 Pierre Girgis, M.D. 585-276-4299 Kevin Walter, M.D. 585-276-3581 Director, Brain and Spinal Tumor Program Acoustic Neuroma G. Edward Vates, MCranial Surgery BRAIN TUMORS Meningioma/General All Neurosurgical Faculty Pediatric Howard

Goldman, Steven A.


Logistics of tumor immunology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This article deals with the experimental problems of tumor immunology. It stresses that animal tumors should in their pathogenesis closely reflect the pathogenesis of human cancer because otherwise they may be useless and cloud the issues instead of making useful contributions. Animal tumors for experimental work should be of “spontaneous” origin, metastatie and of low antigenicity. However, the origin

H. Kirchner



Malignant tumors of childhood  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 34 papers about malignant tumors. some of the titles are: Invasive Cogenital Mesoblastic Nephroma, Leukemia Update, Unusual Perinatal Neoplasms, Lymphoma Update, Gonadal Germ Cell Tumors in Children, Nutritional Status and Cancer of Childhood, and Chemotherapy of Brain tumors in Children.

Brooks, B.J.



Intratesticular borderline serous tumor.  


Neoplasms resembling ovarian serous tumors rarely arise in the male genital organs. Müllerian histogenesis of this tumor has been suggested. We report a case of an intratesticular borderline serous tumor accidentally discovered during the course of a preoperative workup in a 72-year-old man admitted for left upper lobectomy for squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. PMID:17118032

Abdullah, Layla Saleh; Gupta, Richta; Arnst, A



Tumor-Penetrating Peptides  

PubMed Central

Tumor-homing peptides can be used to deliver drugs into tumors. Phage library screening in live mice has recently identified homing peptides that specifically recognize the endothelium of tumor vessels, extravasate, and penetrate deep into the extravascular tumor tissue. The prototypic peptide of this class, iRGD (CRGDKGPDC), contains the integrin-binding RGD motif. RGD mediates tumor-homing through binding to ?v integrins, which are selectively expressed on various cells in tumors, including tumor endothelial cells. The tumor-penetrating properties of iRGD are mediated by a second sequence motif, R/KXXR/K. This C-end Rule (or CendR) motif is active only when the second basic residue is exposed at the C-terminus of the peptide. Proteolytic processing of iRGD in tumors activates the cryptic CendR motif, which then binds to neuropilin-1 activating an endocytic bulk transport pathway through tumor tissue. Phage screening has also yielded tumor-penetrating peptides that function like iRGD in activating the CendR pathway, but bind to a different primary receptor. Moreover, novel tumor-homing peptides can be constructed from tumor-homing motifs, CendR elements and protease cleavage sites. Pathologies other than tumors can be targeted with tissue-penetrating peptides, and the primary receptor can also be a vascular “zip code” of a normal tissue. The CendR technology provides a solution to a major problem in tumor therapy, poor penetration of drugs into tumors. The tumor-penetrating peptides are capable of taking a payload deep into tumor tissue in mice, and they also penetrate into human tumors ex vivo. Targeting with these peptides specifically increases the accumulation in tumors of a variety of drugs and contrast agents, such as doxorubicin, antibodies, and nanoparticle-based compounds. Remarkably the drug to be targeted does not have to be coupled to the peptide; the bulk transport system activated by the peptide sweeps along any compound that is present in the blood. PMID:23986882

Teesalu, Tambet; Sugahara, Kazuki N.; Ruoslahti, Erkki



Tumor Endothelial Cells  

PubMed Central

The vascular endothelium is a dynamic cellular “organ” that controls passage of nutrients into tissues, maintains the flow of blood, and regulates the trafficking of leukocytes. In tumors, factors such as hypoxia and chronic growth factor stimulation result in endothelial dysfunction. For example, tumor blood vessels have irregular diameters; they are fragile, leaky, and blood flow is abnormal. There is now good evidence that these abnormalities in the tumor endothelium contribute to tumor growth and metastasis. Thus, determining the biological basis underlying these abnormalities is critical for understanding the pathophysiology of tumor progression and facilitating the design and delivery of effective antiangiogenic therapies. PMID:22393533

Dudley, Andrew C.



Galectins in tumor angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

The expansion of solid tumors depends on the continuous ingrowth of new blood vessels out of pre-existing capillaries. Consequently, tumor neovascularization or tumor angiogenesis is considered a hallmark of cancer and an attractive target for cancer therapy. Tumor angiogenesis is mainly carried out by endothelial cells (EC), i.e., the cells lining the luminal vessel wall. These cells have to take on different functional activities in order to successfully make new tumor blood vessels. In the last decade it has become apparent that galectins are important regulators of tumor angiogenesis. In the present review we summarize the current knowledge regarding the role galectins in tumor angiogenesis focussing on the endothelial galectins, i.e., gal-1/-3/-8/-9.

Griffioen, Arjan W.



Pineal Region Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The pineal gland was first discovered in 300 B.C. by Herophilus [1]. The first pineal tumor was reported in a 20-year-old\\u000a woman in 1717 by Charles Drélincourt [1] and the first reported attempt at a pineal tumor resection was in 1910 by Hosley\\u000a [2]. Since then, there has been ongoing debate about optimal management of pineal tumors.

Harry C. Brastianos; Priscilla K. Brastianos; Jaishri Blakeley


Intramedullary Spinal Cord Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Intramedullary spinal cord tumors (IMSCT) are rare and account for only 5–6% of all central nervous systems (CNS) tumors (Sloof\\u000a and McCarthy 1964; Goh et al. 1997b; Houten and Weiner 2000). These tumors can occur at any age, but most are identified during\\u000a the first three decades of life. Approximately 100–200 cases of pediatric IMSCT are diagnosed each year in

Isaac Yang; Andrew T. Parsa


Tumor Hypoxia Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a need to measure tumor hypoxia in assessing the aggressiveness of tumor and predicting the outcome of therapy. A\\u000a number of invasive and noninvasive techniques have been exploited to measure tumor hypoxia, including polarographic needle\\u000a electrodes, immunohistochemical staining, radionuclide imaging (positron emission tomography [PET] and single-photon emission\\u000a computed tomography [SPECT]), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical imaging (bioluminescence and

Xilin Sun; Gang Niu; Nicholas Chan; Baozhong Shen; Xiaoyuan Chen



Tumor Ablation and Nanotechnology  

PubMed Central

Next to surgical resection, tumor ablation is a commonly used intervention in the treatment of solid tumors. Tumor ablation methods include thermal therapies, photodynamic therapy, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) producing agents. Thermal therapies induce tumor cell death via thermal energy and include radiofrequency, microwave, high intensity focused ultrasound, and cryoablation. Photodynamic therapy and ROS producing agents cause increased oxidative stress in tumor cells leading to apoptosis. While these therapies are safe and viable alternatives when resection of malignancies is not feasible, they do have associated limitations that prevent their widespread use in clinical applications. To improve the efficacy of these treatments, nanoparticles are being studied in combination with nonsurgical ablation regimens. In addition to better thermal effect on tumor ablation, nanoparticles can deliver anticancer therapeutics that show synergistic anti-tumor effect in the presence of heat and can also be imaged to achieve precision in therapy. Understanding the molecular mechanism of nanoparticle-mediated tumor ablation could further help engineer nanoparticles of appropriate composition and properties to synergize the ablation effect. This review aims to explore the various types of nonsurgical tumor ablation methods currently used in cancer treatment and potential improvements by nanotechnology applications. PMID:20866097

Manthe, Rachel L.; Foy, Susan P.; Krishnamurthy, Nishanth; Sharma, Blanka; Labhasetwar, Vinod



[Chemokines and tumors].  


Chemokines are cytokines which induce chemotaxis on many cell types, thus regulating cell migration within inflammatory and allergic sites, and leucocyte homing. Also, they play a crucial role in inflammatory and tumor-associated angiogenesis, as well as in tumor progression. Chemokines are grouped into: 1) alpha or CXC; 2) beta or CC; 3) gamma or C; 4) delta or CX3C molecules. Each of them recognizes one or more cell surface receptors, named CXCR, CCR, XCR, CX3CR respectively, according to the corresponding subfamily. Many chemokines have been identified within tumor tissues, as a secretory product of tumor cells and/or inflammatory cells. The CXC chemokines (such as IL-8, IP10, Mig, SDF-1 alpha) or CC chemokines (such as MCP-1, MIP-1 alpha, eotaxin, RANTES) have been frequently harvested from tumor tissues or the biological fluids of patients. Some chemokines inhibit tumor growth and progression by activating immunocompetent cytolytic cells or inhibiting tumor-associated angiogenesis. In contrast, other chemokines induce tumor progression by interacting with the specific receptor expressed on the tumor cells and hence by activating chemotaxis and secretion of proteolytic enzymes, or by inducing angiogenesis and metastatic spreading. Sometimes neoplastic cells express chemokine receptors which are not expressed on their normal counterpart. Data from this lab show the CXCR3 expression by cells from lymphoproliferative diseases, such as multiple myeloma and lymphoma, and the stimulation of an invasive phenotype following interaction with specific chemokines. PMID:12489485

Pellegrino, Antonio; Vacca, Angelo; Scavelli, Claudio; Dammacco, Franco



Intraperitoneal Solitary Fibrous Tumor  

PubMed Central

Solitary fibrous tumors of the pelvis are rare. We report the case of a 32-years-old patient who presented with abdominopelvic mass. The imaging studies showed a right adnexal mass of more than 10?cm. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a 20?cm mass at the Douglas pouch which was adhered to the posterior wall of the uterus. Complete resection of the mass was performed. Histological analysis showed a spindle cell undifferentiated tumor whose morphological and immunohistochemical profile are consistent with solitary fibrous tumor. It is important to know that although these tumors are rare, their evolution can be pejorative. Therefore, long-term followup should be recommended. PMID:25276449

Benabdejlil, Youssef; Kouach, Jaouad; Babahabib, Abdellah; Elhassani, Moulay Elmehdi; Rharassi, Issam; Boudhas, Adil; Bakkali, Hicham; Elmarjany, Mohammed; Moussaoui, Driss; Dehayni, Mohamed



Endodermal sinus tumor in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malignant germ cell tumors account for about 3% of neoplasms in children, and endodermal sinus tumor (EST) is the most common histological subtype. The authors reviewed 22 years' experience (at their institution) in the management of 37 patients with this tumor. Fifteen of them (41%) had a sacrococcygeal primary, 10 had a testicular tumor (27%), 6 had an ovarian tumor

Andrew M. Davidoff; Andre Hebra; Nancy Bunin; Stephen J. Shochat; Louise Schnaufer



[Mediastinal germ cell tumors: anatomopathology, classification, teratomas and malignant tumors].  


Mediastinal germ cell tumors are rare tumors. It is classic to divide those tumors into two categories, seminomas and nonseminomatous germ cell tumors: teratomas (mature or immature), embryonal carcinomas, yolk sac tumors, and choriocarcinomas. Each histological sub-type can be associated to another sub-type that realise a so-called mixed germ cell tumor. Diagnosis strategy is currently well codified for malignant mediastinal germ cell tumors. It greatly benefits from tumoral markers (alpha-fetoprotein and beta human chorionic gonadotrophin). For instance, the treatment strategy still raises some specific problems to each histological type. The treatment of seminomatous tumors is standardised--chemotherapy/surgery on residual tumor greater than 3 cm/radiotherapy on viable persistent residual tumors--and provides very satisfying results. As for the nonseminomatous germ cell tumors, the situation is dramatically different. The treatment strategy is less standardised--association of chemotherapy and surgery--and the prognosis is very severe. PMID:20207298

Chetaille, B; Massard, G; Falcoz, P-E



Posterior fossa tumor  


... and cause increased pressure on the brain and spinal cord. Most tumors of the posterior fossa are primary brain cancers . They start in the brain, rather than spreading from somewhere else ... Posterior fossa tumors have no known causes or risk factors.


Adrenocortical tumors in childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adrenocortical tumors (ACT) are rare in childhood. Determination of malignant potential is difficult. To assess the presentation, clinical behaviour, and histology of these tumors in our center, the records of nine patients with ACTs between 1989 and 2000 were analyzed. The age, sex, clinical presentation, investigations, treatment, follow-up data, and current status were determined. The pathological features were reanalyzed by

K. L. Narasimhan; R. Samujh; A. Bhansali; R. K. Marwaha; S. K. Chowdhary; B. D. Radotra; K. L. N. Rao



Benign bone tumors.  


Benign bone lesions are a broad category that demonstrates a spectrum of activities from latent to aggressive. Differentiating the various tumors is important in order to properly determine necessary intervention. This chapter focuses on the presentation, imaging, diagnostic features, and treatment of the most common benign bone tumors in order to help guide diagnosis and management. PMID:25070230

Steffner, Robert



Reactivating Tumor Suppressor Genes

This is the first clinical trial to test the combination of a drug called 5-fluoro-2'-deoxycytidine (FdCyd) and tetrahydrouridine (THU) in humans. Researchers are interested in establishing the maximum tolerated dose and determining how this regimen affects the activity of certain tumor suppressor genes in patients with advanced solid tumors.


Hormonally active ovarian tumors.  


Steroid-hormone-producing ovarian tumors include those in which the neoplastic cells secrete hormones as well as a wide variety of tumors in which the neoplastic cells stimulate the ovarian stroma or adjacent hilus cells to become hormonally active. PMID:9474877

Scully, R E



Metastatic Spinal Tumor  

PubMed Central

In accordance with extending survival periods of cancer patients, number of consecutively developing metastatic spinal tumor is also increasing. There have been improvements in the treatment results of metastatic spine tumor by virtue of the developments in diagnostic radiology, chemotherapy, adjuvant treatment, operative device and technique, discrete preoperative plan, and standardized operation. Accordingly, surgical indication has also increased. Clinically, in case of metastatic spine tumor, treatment of tumor itself should be focused on pain relief, preservation of neurologic function, prevention of pathologic fracture, prevention of pathologic fracture, and correction of spinal instability for improving quality of life, rather than for extension of survival. Additionally, etiology of spinal tumor, correct diagnosis and subsequent treatment principles should be thoroughly understood before establishing treatment plans for effective treatments. PMID:22439092

Jung, Chul-Hee



Adrenocortical tumors in childhood.  


Adrenocortical tumors (ACT) are rare in childhood. Determination of malignant potential is difficult. To assess the presentation, clinical behaviour, and histology of these tumors in our center, the records of nine patients with ACTs between 1989 and 2000 were analyzed. The age, sex, clinical presentation, investigations, treatment, follow-up data, and current status were determined. The pathological features were reanalyzed by our pathologist. The endocrine profile of the tumors was also retrieved from the records. There were two males and seven females; the median age at referral was 2.5 years. Two patients (one male, one female) presented with clinical features of Cushing's syndrome with hypertension. Four girls had features of Cushing's syndrome with associated virilization. One 11-year-old girl presented with hypertension, hypokalemia, and pseudoparalysis due to an aldosterone-secreting tumor. One girl presented with precocious pubic hair and clitoromegaly. One male had evidence of true precocious puberty. The endocrine profile was available in eight cases: cortisol levels were raised in four, testosterone in four, and aldosterone in one. One boy had pubertal levels of follicle-stimulating hormone and testosterone. Surgery was the only modality of therapy used. Histopathology showed capsular invasion in four patients and vascular invasion in two. The median tumor weight was 80 g (15-550 g) and the size ranged from 1.5 x 1.5 to 12 x 12 cm. Five patients are alive without tumor recurrence at a median follow-up time of 2 years. Tumor recurrence was seen in two patients, one with capsular rupture during surgery and another with a tumor weight of 16 g with associated capsular and vascular invasion. Atypical modes of presentation like pseudoparalysis must be kept in mind. Histologic criteria for malignancy in ACT are unreliable. Tumor weight may not always be accurate in predicting tumor behaviour. Complete surgical excision remains the only effective and potentially curative treatment. PMID:12883850

Narasimhan, K L; Samujh, R; Bhansali, A; Marwaha, R K; Chowdhary, S K; Radotra, B D; Rao, K L N



[Hypophyseal dysfunction and tumors].  


Some pituitary hormones secrete hormones while others do not. Nonsecreting tumors can interfere with normal pituitary hormone secretion and produce tumor symptoms and signs like headaches and visual field defects. The most frequent hormone-secreting tumors are prolactinomas. Growth hormone or ACTH or gonadotropin or gonadotropin-alpha and beta chain-producing tumors are less frequent, TSH producing tumors are extremely rare. The most important elements of the diagnostic work-up are clinical signs and symptoms, assessment of pituitary function (measurement of TSH, free T4, LH, FSH, oestradiol/free testosteron, growth hormone, IGF-1, prolactin, ACTH, Cortisol, serum and urine osmolality), CT and/or MRI and, in patients with large tumors, a visual field exam. The treatment of choice of pituitary tumors is often surgery. Alternative therapies are radiation treatment (in nonoperable patients or when hormone levels are persistently elevated after pituitary surgery) and drug treatment (dopamine agonists in hyperprolactinemia, somatostatin analogues in acromegaly). Pituitary hormone deficiencies are treated depending on the specific deficiency with thyroxine, cortisone, oestrogen/gestagen/testosterone gonadotropines or ADH analogues. PMID:1585268

Bürgi, U; Seiler, R



Mediastinal parathyroid tumors.  


Mediastinal parathyroid tumors are a frequent cause of failed parathyroid operations. I therefore reviewed my experience with 285 consecutive patients treated surgically for hyperparathyroidism from January 1981 to Dec 31, 1986. Two hundred eighty-eight operations were performed on these patients (246 primary, 38 secondary, one error in diagnosis, and 53 reoperations). Mediastinal parathyroid tumors were present in 64 (22%) of the entire group of 285 patients with hyperparathyroidism, and 20 (38%) of 53 patients requiring reoperation for persistent or recurrent hyperparathyroidism. Fifty-two parathyroid tumors were situated in the anterior mediastinum and 12 were found in the posterior mediastinum; 56 of the mediastinal tumors were removed via a cervical approach. In four patients the mediastinal tumor was a fifth histologically documented parathyroid gland. Mediastinal tumors were identified by preoperative localization studies (ultrasonography, three [16%]; thallium-technetium, five of 17 [29%]; computed tomography, eight of 14 [57%]; magnetic resonance imaging, three of seven [43%]; and selective venous catheterization for parathyroid hormone, ten of 11 [91%]). Awareness of the relatively high occurrence of mediastinal tumors (52 anterior, 12 posterior) should decrease the risk of failed parathyroid operations. PMID:3415460

Clark, O H



[Gastrointestinal stroma tumor].  


Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) represents less than 3% of gastrointestinal malignancies. However, it is the most common mesenchymal tumor of the digestive tract. GIST is characterized by the expression tyrosine kinase CD117, which differentiates it from other mesenchymal tumors such as leiomyomas, leio-miosarcomas, leiomyoblastoma and neurogenic tumors that do not express this protein. 70-80% of the GIST are benign and located mostly in the stomach and small intestine (> 90%).They can also arise from any portion of the digestive tract, mesentery, omentum and retroperitoneum. Malignant GISTs are usually large (> 5 cm), with a high mitotic index, and it can metastasize to the liver and peritoneum. The treatment is surgical resection.Good results have been reported with tyrosine kinase inhibitor STI571. The treatment is the surgical resection; in cases of surgical resection tumors cannot do it, radiotherapy and chemotherapy is carried out. A 43 year-old patient is presented, admitted to present pain in the epigastrium, melena in an occasion. The ecography, CT scan, and laparoscopic view, showed a tumor in the second portion of the duodenum, approximately 10 cm size. Whipple´s operation was carried out (cephalic pancreatoduodenectomy) with conservation of the pylorus (Traverso-Longmire), resecting the entirely tumor. Final results of pathological anatomy informed: fusocelular tumor of the gastrointestinal estroma (GIST of duodenal wall), with high potential of malignancy. Size of the tumor 9,5 cm, mitotic index of 9 for 50 HPF with high positive for CD117, CD34. Two years later of theintervention he presents a good evolution. PMID:25293993

Ramos Socarrás, Aníval Ernesto; Vallés Gamboa, Moraima Emilia; Rodríguez Núñez, José Rolando; Neyra Rodríguez, Carlos Manuel; Vargas La O, Francisco Antonio



Peripheral squamous odontogenic tumor.  


A case of peripheral squamous odontogenic tumor is described in a 60-year-old female who presented with a sessile growth in the right posterior mandible. Radiographic examination revealed no evidence of a central lesion in bone. With the characteristic histopathological picture of benign-appearing islands of squamous epithelium scattered randomly against a background of mature fibrous connective tissue, the tumor was diagnosed as peripheral squamous odontogenic tumor (PSOT). The epithelial islands showed peripheral cuboidal or flattened cells, microcyst formation, individual cell keratinization, and keratin pearl formation. PMID:22945726

Malathi, N; Radhika, T; Thamizh, Chelvan H; Nandakumar, N



Targeting the tumor microenvironment  

SciTech Connect

Despite some notable successes cancer remains, for the most part, a seemingly intractable problem. There is, however, a growing appreciation that targeting the tumor epithelium in isolation is not sufficient as there is an intricate mutually sustaining synergy between the tumor epithelial cells and their surrounding stroma. As the details of this dialogue emerge, new therapeutic targets have been proposed. The FDA has already approved drugs targeting microenvironmental components such as VEGF and aromatase and many more agents are in the pipeline. In this article, we describe some of the 'druggable' targets and processes within the tumor microenvironment and review the approaches being taken to disrupt these interactions.

Kenny, P.A.; Lee, G.Y.; Bissell, M.J.



Como Lo Hago Yo: Myelomeningocele  

PubMed Central

Fortificación con ádico fólico es efectiva, pero aún falta conciencia en los jóvenes. La legalidad del aborto aumenta la importancia de la consulta prenatal. Realizo la cirugía bajo microcoscopio por razones didácticas. Irrigación continua para reducir la temperatura del tejido. Trato a la plaqueta como tejido viable. No suturo la plaqueta. No cierro músculo. ATB por una semana después de cirugía. Hidrocefalia: Válvula en todos los casos de ventriculomegalia. Médula anclada: Desanclar una sola vez. Chiari II: Revisar la válvula. Incluir en el seguimiento rendimiento escolar, puede indicar obstrucción de la válvula o médula anclada. PMID:24791217

Lazareff, Jorge



Comprometimento órbito-craniano por tumores malignos sinonasais: estudo por tomografia computadorizada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumores malignos das cavidades sinonasais são raros e freqüentemente diagnosticados em estágio avan- çado da doença. A extensão destes tumores para locais críticos como a órbita e o crânio gera dificuldades no tratamento destas lesões. Dez pacientes com neoplasia maligna sinonasal, sem qualquer tratamento prévio e com evidência radiológica de extensão órbito-craniana, foram estudados por tomografia computa- dorizada. Dos dez

Ana Célia Baptista; Edson Marchiori; Edson Boasquevisque; Carlos Eduardo Lassance Cabral



Metabolic control of tumor progression and anti-tumor immunity  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Loss of cell growth control does not explain why tumors form as the immune system recognizes many malignant cells and keeps them in check. The local inflammatory microenvironment is a pivotal factor in tumor formation as tumor associated inflammation actively suppresses anti-tumor immunity. The purpose of this review is to evaluate emerging evidence that amino acid catabolism is a key feature of tumor-associated inflammation that supports tumor progression and immune resistance to therapy. Recent findings Enhanced amino acid catabolism in inflammatory tumor microenvironments correlates with carcinogen resistance and immune regulation mediated by tumor-associated immune cells that protect tumors from natural and vaccine-induced immunity. Interfering with metabolic pathways exploited by tumors is a promising anti-tumor strategy, especially when combined with other therapies. Moreover, molecular sensors that evolved to detect pathogens may enhance evasion of immune surveillance to permit tumor progression. Summary Innate immune sensing that induces amino acid catabolism in tumor microenvironments may be pivotal in initiating and sustaining local inflammation that promotes immune resistance and attenuates anti-tumor immunity. Targeting molecular sensors that mediate these metabolic changes may be an effective strategy to enhance anti-tumor immunity that prevents tumor progression, as well as improving the efficacy of cancer therapy. PMID:24305570

Huang, Lei; Mellor, Andrew L.



Tumor growth modeling based on cell and tumor lifespans  

E-print Network

Tumor growth modeling based on cell and tumor lifespans R. Keinj1 , T. Bastogne2,4,6 , P. Vallois3 September 9, 2012 Abstract This paper deals with the lifespan modeling of heterogenous tumors treated by radiotherapy. A bi-scale model describing the cell and tumor lifespans by random variables is proposed. First

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Neurocysticercosis mimicking brain tumor.  


Neurocysticercosis together with brain tumors is one of the leading causes of seizures in the developing world. In Western Europe NCC is rare and a high degree of physician awareness is necessary for diagnosis. PMID:24059665

Vasiljevi?-Vu?kovi?, V; Miloševi? Medenica, S; Gruji?i?, D



Waking up dormant tumors  

E-print Network

As appreciation grows for the contribution of the tumor microenvironment to the progression of cancer, new evidence accumulates to support that the participation of stromal cells can extend beyond the local environment. ...

Tse, Joyce C.


Stages of Pituitary Tumors  


... Tests to measure the levels of testosterone or estrogen in the blood. A higher or lower than ... sign of a pituitary tumor and Cushing syndrome . High- dose dexamethasone suppression test : A test in which ...


Tumor Microenvironment Consortium

Tumor Microenvironment Network (TMEN) Dinah Singer, Ph.D. Director Suresh Mohla, Ph.D. TMEN Program Director Division of Cancer Biology TMEN 2006-2011: Goals – Generate a comprehensive understanding of the composition of the normal stroma


Tumor Glycome Labs 2

Tumor Glycomics Laboratories of the NIH Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer The National Cancer Institute is funding an initiative to discover, develop, and clinically validate cancer biomarkers based on complex carbohydrate structures


Osteochondroma (Bone Tumor)  


... 2013 by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Osteochondroma An osteochondroma is a benign (noncancerous) tumor that develops during ... the growth plates harden into solid bone. An osteochondroma is an outgrowth of the growth plate and ...


Liver Tumors (For Parents)  


... likely, but will subside once treatment ends. Liver transplant. In cases where tumors have caused the liver to lose all or most function, a transplant from a donor may be necessary. Most liver ...


Skin tumors on squirrels  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Skin tumors having the gross appearance of previously reported fibromas are reported on gray squirrels from N. Y., Md., Va., N. C., and W. Va. and from a fox squirrel from W. Va. and a porcupine from Pa.

Herman, C.M.; Reilly, J.R.



Intramedullary spinal cord tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  The three most common types of intramedullary spinal cord tumors are low-grade astrocytomas, ependymomas, and high-grade astrocytomas.\\u000a Surgical extirpation is the necessary and sufficient primary treatment for most intramedullary spinal cord tumors. Radiation\\u000a therapy may also have a role in the management of persistent, recurrent, or progressive low-grade astrocytomas and ependymomas.\\u000a The current treatment of spinal cord high-grade astrocytomas,

Daniel C. Bowers; Bradley E. Weprin



Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.  


Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pancreatic NETs) are rare, low- to intermediate-grade neoplasms thought to arise from the pancreatic islets. Recent advances in pathology and our understanding of the biological behavior of this group of tumors has resulted in changes in their nomenclature and how we treat them. This review puts into perspective our current understanding of pancreatic NETs in terms of their incidence, pathology, and management. PMID:23054950

Shrikhande, Shailesh V; Sirohi, Bhawna; Goel, Mahesh; Barreto, Savio G



Canine mammary gland tumors.  


An understanding of the known biologic facts of this disease and methodical evaluation of the individual patient are necessary prerequisites for outlining rational courses of therapy for dogs afflicted with mammary tumors. Because of the common occurrence of multiple tumors arising at various stages of development simultaneously and the heterogeneity of histology of the complex (mixed tissue types) tumors, presurgical biopsy is recommended only in cases in which mast cell tumor or anaplastic carcinoma is suspected. Although investigative work is being performed regarding the efficacy of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and immunotherapy, surgery still remains the mainstay in treatment of this condition. No one surgical procedure fits the needs of all patients, although it seems logical to remove as much breast tissue as is reasonable in each circumstance owing to the multicentric nature of the disease. Ovariohysterectomy has not been demonstrated to be of value in treatment of dogs with mammary tumors, but it is a markedly effective method of preventing mammary tumors if it is performed before puberty; it is moderately effective if performed before the dog is 21/2 years of age. PMID:3892866

Ferguson, H R



Radiology of juxtaglomerular tumors  

SciTech Connect

Nine cases of proven juxtaglomerular tumor of the kidney are reviewed. Each patient presented with hypertension; elevated peripheral renin levels were found in four patients. As in past studies, this tumor occurred more frequently in women (7/9 cases). Although the patients tended to be younger (mean age, 31 years) than those with essential hypertension, all but two patients were more than 20 years of age. In all cases, the tumor was solitary, well-defined, and curable by surgery. The tumor was identified by excretory urography in 5/8 patients who underwent this procedure. A solid renal mass was detected in each of the seven patients examined by ultrasound. Since the tumor tends to be isodense with normal renal parenchyma, it is sometimes not seen on computed tomography without intravenouse contrast material. Arteriography revealed a hypovascular mass in each of the nine patients. The combination of a hypovascular solid renal mass in a patient with elevated renin but no renal artery lesions should suggest the diagnosis of a juxtaglomerular cell tumor.

Dunnick, N.R. (Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC); Hartman, D.S.; Ford, K.K.; Davis, C.J. Jr.; Amis, E.S. Jr.



Molecular pathogenesis of oligodendroglial tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on their histopathological appearances, most diffusely infiltrative gliomas can be classified either as astrocytic tumors (As), pure oligodendroglial tumors (Os) or mixed oligoastrocytic tumors (OAs). The latter two may be grouped together as oligodendroglial tumors (OTs). The distinction between As and OTs is important because of the more favorable clinical behavior of OTs. Unfortunately, the histopathological delineation of OAs,

Judith W. M. Jeuken; Andreas Von Deimling; Pieter Wesseling



Optical imaging of tumor microenvironment  

PubMed Central

Tumor microenvironment plays important roles in tumor development and metastasis. Features of the tumor microenvironment that are significantly different from normal tissues include acidity, hypoxia, overexpressed proteases and so on. Therefore, these features can serve as not only biomarkers for tumor diagnosis but also theraputic targets for tumor treatment. Imaging modalities such as optical, positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been intensively applied to investigate tumor microenvironment. Various imaging probes targeting pH, hypoxia and proteases in tumor microenvironment were thus well developed. In this review, we will focus on recent examples on fluorescent probes for optical imaging of tumor microenvironment. Construction of these fluorescent probes were based on characteristic feature of pH, hypoxia and proteases in tumor microenvironment. Strategies for development of these fluorescent probes and applications of these probes in optical imaging of tumor cells or tissues will be discussed in this review paper. PMID:23342297

Wu, Yihan; Zhang, Wenjie; Li, Jinbo; Zhang, Yan



Treatment of spinal cord tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Tumors associated with the spinal cord can have devastating effects on patient function and quality of life. Most of these\\u000a tumors are from metastatic disease, usually to the epidural space. Less frequently, the tumors are intrinsic to the spinal\\u000a cord itself (ie, primary tumor). Regardless of the etiology, spinal cord tumors often present first with progressive local\\u000a or radicular

Brian Vaillant; Monica Loghin



Tumor metabolism as modulator of immune response and tumor progression.  


About a century ago Otto Warburg observed that tumor cells exhibited increased glycolysis despite the presence of oxygen and stated this metabolic shift to glycolysis as the origin of cancer cell. In the meantime it has become clear, that the altered glucose metabolism is only one piece of the tumor metabolome puzzle. In addition, amino acid, lipid and adenosine metabolism are adapted to fulfill the tumors needs for energy and generation of building blocks such as lipids and nucleotides for new cell structures. The altered tumor metabolism leads to accumulation of specific metabolites in the tumor environment and creates a favorable milieu for tumor growth, progression and metastasis. These tumor-derived metabolites are important players in immune escape mechanisms beside other known factors such as cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. A variety of metabolites re-educate immune cells and prevent an effective immune response against tumor cells. Furthermore, tumor infiltrating immune cells support tumor growth by the secretion of cytokines, growth factors and other metabolic determinants. Hence, a complex interplay of tumor metabolites, cytokines and stromal factors is active in tumors and facilitates their establishment and growth. Pharmacological blockade of tumor metabolites could overcome some limitations of cancer treatment and rescue the endogenous immune response against tumor cells. PMID:22414910

Gottfried, Eva; Kreutz, Marina; Mackensen, Andreas



Detection of circulating tumor cells and of tumor DNA in plasma during tumor progression in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role and clinical significance of circulating tumor cells and of tumor DNA in the plasma have not yet been clarified. In the present study, we compared rates of detection of tumor-derived DNA in the buffy coat to those in plasma from tumor-bearing rats, and we attempted to correlate these rates with the progression of tumors. We injected DHD\\/K12-PROb cancer

Dolores C. García-Olmo; Lydia Gutiérrez-González; Rocío Ruiz-Piqueras; María G. Picazo; Damián García-Olmo



Cerebral tumor or pseudotumor?  


Pseudotumoral lesions are uncommon but important to identity lesions. They can occur during inflammatory diseases (systemic diseases, vasculitis, demyelinating diseases), infectious, and vascular diseases. Also, in a patient with a treated tumor, pseudo-progression and radionecrosis must be differentiated from the tumoral development. Diagnosis can be difficult on an MRI scan, but some MRI aspects in conventional sequences, diffusion, perfusion and spectroscopy can suggest the pseudotumoral origin of a lesion. Imaging must be interpreted according to the context, the clinic and the biology. The presence of associated intracranial lesions can orientate towards a systemic or infectious disease. A T2 hyposignal lesion suggests granulomatosis or histiocytosis, especially if a meningeal or hypothalamic-pituitary involvement is associated. Non-tumoral lesions are generally not hyperperfused. In the absence of a definitive diagnosis, the evolution of these lesions, whether under treatment or spontaneous, is fundamental. PMID:25260711

Leclercq, D; Trunet, S; Bertrand, A; Galanaud, D; Lehéricy, S; Dormont, D; Drier, A



Abdominal Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor  

PubMed Central

A 28-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of abdominal pain, weight loss and a palpable intra-abdominal mass. A CT scan revealed a tumor with a diameter of 7 cm with sharp margins, intra-tumoral fatty components and enhancing soft tissue. After initial workup, which suggested an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT), she underwent laparotomy with complete resection. Pathological examination indeed revealed IMT. IMT is a rare benign neoplasm and has been described in nearly the entire body. It presents with nonspecific symptoms. The therapy of abdominal IMT consists of radical surgery because of high local recurrence rates. In this case report clinical, surgical, radiological and histological features with a review of the relevant literature are described. PMID:24707245

Groenveld, Roosmarijn L.; Raber, Menno H.; Oosterhof-Berktas, Richard; Eijken, Erik; Klaase, Joost M.



Tumor-induced osteomalacia  

PubMed Central

Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is an acquired disorder of isolated renal phosphate wasting associated with tumors, typically of mesenchymal origin. Patients with TIO share similar biochemical and skeletal phenotypes with patients who have autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (ADHR) and X-linked hypophosphatemia. The study of TIO introduced the idea of the existence of circulating factors, referred to as ‘phosphatonins’, produced by the tumor, which act upon the kidney to reduce phosphate reabsorption. Although several factors have been identified, the phosphatonin FGF-23, also identified as the causative factor in ADHR, is currently the best characterized of these factors relative to phosphate handling. This review describes the importance of TIO in understanding phosphate homeostasis in the context of new endocrine interactions between the skeleton and the kidney. PMID:20228870

Farrow, Emily G; White, Kenneth E



Vascular tumors of bone.  


Vascular tumors of the bone represent a variety of neoplasms, ranging from benign hemangiomas and epithelioid hemangiomas to intermediate grade hemangioendotheliomas to frankly malignant angiosarcomas. Over the years, there has been considerable debate concerning the aggressivity, nomenclature, and mere existence of various nosologic entities, due to morphologic similarities and uncertainty regarding biologic behavior. Such debate has led to confusion among pathologists and clinicians, thus diminishing the prognostic implications in the diagnosis of these lesions. Here we review the current knowledge concerning the primary vascular neoplasms of the bone and correlate clinicopathologic features with tumor behavior. PMID:24680180

Hart, Jesse L; Edgar, Mark A; Gardner, Jerad M



Radioembolization of hepatic tumors.  


Unresectable primary and metastatic liver tumors are a leading cause of cancer mortality and morbidity. This remains a challenging and key task for every oncologist despite significant advances that have been made with selective targeted systemic agents and in technology advances with radiotherapy delivery. Radioembolization (RE) is a technique of permanently implanting microspheres containing Yttrium-90 ((90)Y), a beta-emitting isotope with a treatment range of 2 mm, into hepatic tumors. This form of brachytherapy utilizes the unique dual vascular anatomy of the liver to preferentially deliver radioactive particles via the hepatic artery to tumor, sparing normal liver parenchyma. The main treatment inclusion criteria are patients with solid tumors, compensated liver functions, life expectancy of at least three months, and ECOG performance status 0-2. Benefit of RE has been proven in patients that have low-to-moderate extrahepatic disease burden, prior liver radiotherapy, heavy prior chemotherapy and biologic agent exposure, and history of hepatic surgery or ablation. Most of the clinical evidence is reported in metastatic colorectal, and neuroendocrine tumors (NET), and primary hepatocellular cancer. A growing body of data supports the use of RE in hepatic metastatic breast cancer, intrahepatic cholangiocarinoma, and many other metastatic tumor types. Side effects are typically mild constitutional and GI issues limited to the first 7-14 days post treatment, with only 6% grade 3 toxicity reported in large series. Potentially serious or fatal radiation induced liver disease is extremely rare, reported in only 1% or fewer in major series of both metastatic and primary tumors treated with RE. Currently, high priority prospective clinical trials are testing RE combined with chemotherapy in first line therapy for colorectal hepatic metastases, and combined with sorafenib for hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Fortunately, this beneficial and now widely available therapy is being increasingly incorporated into the standard therapy algorithms of multidisciplinary GI cancer teams worldwide. This form of radiotherapy differs significantly from daily external beam radiotherapy in many ways, particularly in dose rate, dosimetric coverage and duration of radiation delivery, side effects, and patient selection factors. A wealth of experience using RE in solid tumors exists and ongoing major prospective clinical trials will soon clarify the role of RE in the management of metastatic colorectal liver metastases. PMID:24982766

Kennedy, Andrew



The tumor microenvironment.  


The concept of the tumor microenvironment, developed from Paget's "seed and soil" theory is made up of the cancer cells, the stromal tissue, and the extracellular matrix. In this mini-review, each of the components of this dynamic network will be examined. We will show that there are a multitude of complex interactions and a host of molecules involved in tumorogenesis and metastasis. We will further illustrate this notion with examples from the tumor microenvironment of breast cancer. Lastly, we conclude with thoughts about how this will influence the surgical field with examples of therapeutic agents already in use that target aspects of this microenvironment. PMID:21963199

Weber, Cynthia E; Kuo, Paul C



Radioembolization of hepatic tumors  

PubMed Central

Unresectable primary and metastatic liver tumors are a leading cause of cancer mortality and morbidity. This remains a challenging and key task for every oncologist despite significant advances that have been made with selective targeted systemic agents and in technology advances with radiotherapy delivery. Radioembolization (RE) is a technique of permanently implanting microspheres containing Yttrium-90 (90Y), a beta-emitting isotope with a treatment range of 2 mm, into hepatic tumors. This form of brachytherapy utilizes the unique dual vascular anatomy of the liver to preferentially deliver radioactive particles via the hepatic artery to tumor, sparing normal liver parenchyma. The main treatment inclusion criteria are patients with solid tumors, compensated liver functions, life expectancy of at least three months, and ECOG performance status 0-2. Benefit of RE has been proven in patients that have low-to-moderate extrahepatic disease burden, prior liver radiotherapy, heavy prior chemotherapy and biologic agent exposure, and history of hepatic surgery or ablation. Most of the clinical evidence is reported in metastatic colorectal, and neuroendocrine tumors (NET), and primary hepatocellular cancer. A growing body of data supports the use of RE in hepatic metastatic breast cancer, intrahepatic cholangiocarinoma, and many other metastatic tumor types. Side effects are typically mild constitutional and GI issues limited to the first 7-14 days post treatment, with only 6% grade 3 toxicity reported in large series. Potentially serious or fatal radiation induced liver disease is extremely rare, reported in only 1% or fewer in major series of both metastatic and primary tumors treated with RE. Currently, high priority prospective clinical trials are testing RE combined with chemotherapy in first line therapy for colorectal hepatic metastases, and combined with sorafenib for hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Fortunately, this beneficial and now widely available therapy is being increasingly incorporated into the standard therapy algorithms of multidisciplinary GI cancer teams worldwide. This form of radiotherapy differs significantly from daily external beam radiotherapy in many ways, particularly in dose rate, dosimetric coverage and duration of radiation delivery, side effects, and patient selection factors. A wealth of experience using RE in solid tumors exists and ongoing major prospective clinical trials will soon clarify the role of RE in the management of metastatic colorectal liver metastases. PMID:24982766



[Benign conjunctival tumors].  


Benign conjunctival tumors include congenital, melanocytic, epithelial and stromal lesions. Clinical observation often fails to make the diagnosis, and complete excisional biopsy must be performed as soon as growth is suspected. Histology remains the best way to exclude malignancy or lesions with a risk of transformation, because malignant lesions carry a poor prognosis and require specific therapy and follow-up. Onco-ophthalmologists must have a perfect knowledge of benign conjunctival tumors, since during adulthood, nevi can be confused with melanomas, and epithelial or stromal lesions with carcinomas. For children and teenagers, surgery is only recommended when growth or functional problems are observed. PMID:24099696

Maschi, C; Caujolle, J-P; Liolios, I; Costet, C



Mouse Models for Tumor Metastasis  

PubMed Central

Tumor metastasis is the main cause of death of cancer patients. Here we describe two mouse models for investigating tumor metastasis. In the first spontaneous metastasis mouse model, 4T1 mouse breast tumor cells are injected into the mammary gland of host mice and the metastasis of 4T1 tumor cells into the lung are examined with a colonogenic assay. In the second experimental metastasis mouse model, luciferase-labeled MDA-MB-231 human breast tumor cells are injected into the tail vein of NOD-SCID immunodeficient mice and the colonization of MDA-MB-231 tumor cells in the lung are monitored using noninvasive bioluminescence imaging. PMID:22956145

Yang, Shengyu; Zhang, J. Jillian; Huang, Xin-Yun



Pineal germ cell tumors.  


Intracranial germ cell tumors (GCTs), especially pineal tumors have attracted the special attention of neuropathologists and neurosurgeons because of their unique growth sites, characteristic subtypes with different histology, and high incidence in Japan and other Asian countries. This chapter describes the general clinical features of pineal GCTs and current treatment of intracranial GCTs. Despite excellent long-term results for patients with germinoma treated with radiation therapy, the potential for late effects makes the treatment controversial. Most patients with nongerminomatous tumors treated by conventional treatment with surgery and radiation therapy failed to survive longer than 3 years. After combination chemotherapy with cisplatin was confirmed to be effective in gonadal GCTs, GCTs of the brain became candidates for chemotherapy. For germinoma, a trial with chemotherapy alone failed with a high rate of recurrence, but Japanese and European trials with chemotherapy and reduced dose and volume of radiation therapy demonstrate good event-free survival rates. Ongoing phase II studies with combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy for nongerminomatous tumors will result in a 5-year survival rate of >50%, which is better than that by radiation therapy alone. PMID:19329862

Matsutani, Masao



[Malignant cardiac tumors].  


Cardiac neoplasms are a rare occurrence in clinical practice. The various frequencies of primary and secondary malignant tumors vary from report to report, approximately 1% in most autopsy series and 4% in cancer patient's autopsies. Cardiac malignancies account for less 1% of cardiac surgery and about for 0.1% of cardiac echographic studies. The presence of metastatic tumor to the heart usually indicates widespread metastases. Lung carcinomas are the most commonly encountered tumor followed by breast and pancreas cancer and melanoma. Apart from primary pericardial mesothelioma, primary cardiac tumors are high-grade sarcomas with a high metastatic potency that often becomes evident early after surgery. Symptoms are non specific, occur late in the disease and affect few patients; especially secondary neoplasms of the heart take their course so fast that they cannot become symptomatic. The signs of cardiac neoplasms are divided into systemic symptoms (fever, arthralgias and myalgias), cardiac symptoms (congestive heart failure, arrhythmia, chest pain) and uncommon embolisms. Diagnosis is actually made easier with cardiac echography. Cardiac RMI is helpful to estimate vessels and pericardium involvement. Due to its poor prognosis, treatment of cardiac metastases is restricted to best supportive care. For primary cardiac neoplasms, surgery must be carefully discussed because operative intervention is often followed by rapid widespread metastases that adjuvant chemotherapy cannot avoid in most cases. PMID:15899620

Debourdeau, Philippe; Gligorov, Joseph; Teixeira, Luis; Aletti, Marc; Zammit, Christine



Tumor-induced osteomalacia  

PubMed Central

Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare and fascinating paraneoplastic syndrome in which patients present with bone pain, fractures, and muscle weakness. The cause is high blood levels of the recently identified phosphate and vitamin D-regulating hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). In TIO, FGF23 is secreted by mesenchymal tumors that are usually benign, but are typically very small and difficult to locate. FGF23 acts primarily at the renal tubule and impairs phosphate reabsorption and 1?-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, leading to hypophosphatemia and low levels of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D. A step-wise approach utilizing functional imaging (F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and octreotide scintigraphy) followed by anatomical imaging (computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging), and, if needed, selective venous sampling with measurement of FGF23 is usually successful in locating the tumors. For tumors that cannot be located, medical treatment with phosphate supplements and active vitamin D (calcitriol or alphacalcidiol) is usually successful; however, the medical regimen can be cumbersome and associated with complications. This review summarizes the current understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease and provides guidance in evaluating and treating these patients. Novel imaging modalities and medical treatments, which hold promise for the future, are also reviewed. PMID:21490240

Chong, William H; Molinolo, Alfredo A; Chen, Clara C; Collins, Michael T



Pediatric Extradural Spinal Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have reviewed 16 children with extradural spinal tumors, both benign and malignant, treated from 1998 to 2006 in Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India. The duration of symptomatology, clinical signs, radiological investigations, surgical approach, outcome and histopathological variation from the Western world was noted and evaluated. The age of these children ranged from 3 to 20

Raj Kumar; Pramod J. Giri



The role of tumor-associated macrophages in tumor vascularization  

PubMed Central

Tumor vascularization is a highly complex process that involves the interaction between tumors and their surrounding stroma, as well as many distinct angiogenesis-regulating factors. Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) represent one of the most abundant cell components in the tumor environment and key contributors to cancer-related inflammation. A large body of evidence supports the notion that TAMs play a critical role in promoting the formation of an abnormal tumor vascular network and subsequent tumor progression and invasion. Clinical and experimental evidence has shown that high levels of infiltrating TAMs are associated with poor patient prognosis and tumor resistance to therapies. In addition to stimulating angiogenesis during tumor growth, TAMs enhance tumor revascularization in response to cytotoxic therapy (e.g., radiotherapy), thereby causing cancer relapse. In this review, we highlight the emerging data related to the phenotype and polarization of TAMs in the tumor microenvironment, as well as the underlying mechanisms of macrophage function in the regulation of the angiogenic switch and tumor vascularization. Additionally, we discuss the potential of targeting pro-angiogenic TAMs, or reprograming TAMs toward a tumoricidal and angiostatic phenotype, to promote normalization of the tumor vasculature to enhance the outcome of cancer therapies. PMID:24314323



Inhibiting Tumor Angiogenesis in Children

In this trial, researchers are testing an angiogenesis inhibitor called cediranib in pediatric patients who have solid tumors (except brain tumors) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a type of blood cancer.


Tumor heterogeneity: causes and consequences  

PubMed Central

With rare exceptions, spontaneous tumors originate from a single cell. Yet, at the time of clinical diagnosis, the majority of human tumors display startling heterogeneity in many morphological and physiological features, such as expression of cell surface receptors, proliferative and angiogenic potential. To a substantial extent, this heterogeneity might be attributed to morphological and epigenetic plasticity, but there is also strong evidence for the co-existence of genetically divergent tumor cell clones within tumors. In this perspective, we summarize the sources of intra-tumor phenotypic heterogeneity with emphasis on genetic heterogeneity. We review experimental evidence for the existence of both intra-tumor clonal heterogeneity as well as frequent evolutionary divergence between primary tumors and metastatic outgrowths. Furthermore, we discuss potential biological and clinical implications of intra-tumor clonal heterogeneity. PMID:19931353

Marusyk, Andriy; Polyak, Kornelia



Adolescent and Pediatric Brain Tumors  


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Childhood Brain Tumor Foundation Newsletters  


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Experience with pineal region tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results are reported of a retrospective review of the presentation and outcome of 43 pineal region tumors treated from\\u000a 1982 to 1996, including 20 identified tumors: 5 germinomas, 8 teratomas, 2 embryonal carcinomas, 1 endodermal sinus tumor,\\u000a 2 pineocytomas and 2 pineoblastomas. Of the 43 tumors reviewed, 36 were located in the pineal region, 5 in the suprasellar,\\u000a and

J. K. Kang; S. S. Jeun; Yong Kil Hong; Chun Kun Park; Byeong Cheol Son; I. W. Lee; Moon Chan Kim



Tumors of the Pineal Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The term “pineal region tumors” includes both the neoplasms originating from the pineal body and those originating from the\\u000a adjacent anatomical structures, such as the thalamus, the dorsal midbrain, and the fal-cotentorium. The term “pineal tumors”\\u000a indicates the former. Glial tumors originating from the tectum and meningiomas originating from the falcotentorial junction\\u000a are not a true pineal tumor. Primary pineal

Yutaka Sawamura; Ivan Radovanovic; Nicolas de Tribolet


Radiological review of pleural tumors  

PubMed Central

Tumors of the pleura are not uncommon and diagnosis is clinched by combined imaging and clinical correlation. Malignant tumors are more common than benign tumors. Initial imaging modalities are chest radiography and Computed Tomography (CT). Further characterization may be required using Ultrasoundgraphy (USG), Magnetic resonance Imaging (MRI) and PET-CT. Biopsy remains gold standard. This article highlights various common and uncommon tumors of pleura and characteristic imaging findings. PMID:24604935

Sureka, Binit; Thukral, Brij Bhushan; Mittal, Mahesh Kumar; Mittal, Aliza; Sinha, Mukul



PET Imaging of Brain Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of primary brain tumors is ~ 11:100,000 of the population. In the year 2006, ~ 18,820 new cases of brain and\\u000a other nervous system tumors were diagnosed in the United States [1] and these tumors were the cause of death in ~ 12,820 patients.\\u000a Despite advances in diagnosis and therapy, the prognosis for patients with primary brain tumors

Alan J. Fischman


Monoclonal Antibodies Targeting Tumor Growth

The type 1 insulin-like growth factor (IGF) receptor (IGF1R) is over-expressed by many tumors and mediates proliferation, motility, and protection from apoptosis. Agents that inhibit IGF1R expression or function can potentially block tumor growth and metastasis. Its major ligands, IGF-I, and IGF-II are over-expressed by multiple tumor types.


The controversy of Warthin's tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Warthin's tumor is controversial. This controversy is multifaceted and relates to all aspects of the tumor from its historical beginnings to its pathogenesis, investigations, and treatments. In this paper, an in depth study of Warthin's tumor has been made to help clarify these controversies.




Tumor Physiology and Drug Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical resistance is usually assumed to be due to the initial presence or selection of drug-resistant cells in tumors. While important, it is suggested in this review that genetically-determined causes of cellular resistance represent but one cause (and possibly not the major cause) of effective clinical resistance of solid tumors. Factors that depend on tumor physiology, and on the microenvironment

Ian F. Tannock



Pathology of Pineal Parenchymal Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pinea l parenchymal tumors (PPTs) are neuroepithelial tumors that arise from pineocytes or their precursors. According to the currently revised WHO classification of tumors of the central nervous system, PPTs are subdivided into well-differentiated pineocytoma, poorly differentiated pineoblastoma, and PPT with intermediate differentiation (PPTID). Pineocytomas are slow-growing neoplasms composed of small mature cells resembling pineocytes. Large pineocytomatous rosettes are the

Kazufumi Sato; Toshihiko Kubota



The History of Tumor Virology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the century since its inception, the field of tumor virology has provided groundbreaking insights into the causes of human cancer. Peyton Rous founded this scientific field in 1911 by discovering an avian virus that induced tumors in chickens; however, it took 40years for the scientific community to comprehend the effect of this seminal finding. Later identification of mammalian tumor

Ronald T. Javier; Janet S. Butel


Tumor uptake of radioruthenium compounds  

SciTech Connect

The use of ruthenium-97 as a scintigraphic agent, particularly for tumor localization, is investigated. The tumor uptake of ruthenium chloride and ruthenium-labelled transferrin is evaluated and their application as tumor-imagine agents is compared to gallium-67 citrate. (ACR)

Srivastava, S C; Richards, P; Meinken, G E; Larson, S M; Grunbaum, Z



Recurrent Brain Tumors in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant cohort of children with central nervous system tumors will fail initial therapeutic intervention and demonstrate recurrent disease. Treatment of children with these recurrent tumors requires a comprehensive multidisciplinary approach, with consideration of both histologic classification and anatomic location of the tumor. The choice of the specific therapeutic modality selected should reflect institutional experience and seek-to advance the treatment

Henry S. Friedman; Jerry Oakes



Tumor Microenvironment in the Brain  

PubMed Central

In addition to malignant cancer cells, tumors contain a variety of different stromal cells that constitute the tumor microenvironment. Some of these cell types provide crucial support for tumor growth, while others have been suggested to actually inhibit tumor progression. The composition of tumor microenvironment varies depending on the tumor site. The brain in particular consists of numerous specialized cell types such as microglia, astrocytes, and brain endothelial cells. In addition to these brain-resident cells, primary and metastatic brain tumors have also been shown to be infiltrated by different populations of bone marrow-derived cells. The role of different cell types that constitute tumor microenvironment in the progression of brain malignancies is only poorly understood. Tumor microenvironment has been shown to be a promising therapeutic target and diagnostic marker in extracranial malignancies. A better understanding of tumor microenvironment in the brain would therefore be expected to contribute to the development of improved therapies for brain tumors that are urgently required due to a poor availability of treatments for these malignancies. This review summarizes some of the known interactions between brain tumors and different stromal cells, and also discusses potential therapeutic approaches within this context. PMID:24213237

Lorger, Mihaela



Nestin expression in astrocytic tumors delineates tumor infiltration.  


Nestin is an intermediate filament protein expressed in undifferentiated cells during central nervous system development, and glioma is known to be a highly infiltrative tumor. We determined whether nestin was expressed in astrocytic tumors and could identify infiltrating tumor cells. We screened 65 archival, paraffin-embedded adult astrocytic tumors using immunohistochemical staining and computerized overlaid photographs. Normal biopsied brains and metastatic brain tumors were also examined. The intensity of nestin expression corresponded to the tumor grade. All 33 glioblastoma cases showed positive and extensive staining, which was less positive in diffuse astrocytoma. Overlaid images showed that nestin immunostaining delineated tumor invasion into adjacent gray and white matter. Nestin is a useful marker for examining the infiltration of malignant cells into surrounding tissue. PMID:20425043

Kitai, Ryuhei; Horita, Ryosuke; Sato, Kazufumi; Yoshida, Kazuhiko; Arishima, Hidetaka; Higashino, Yoshifumi; Hashimoto, Norichika; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Kubota, Toshihiko; Kikuta, Ken-Ichiro



Testis tumor associated to microlithiasis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To discuss the relationship between testicular microlithiasis and testis tumors in children and to consider the chances of testis preserving surgery in specific cases. CASE DESCRIPTION: Pre-adolescent presenting testicular microlithiasis and a larger left testis, corresponding to a cystic testicular tumor. The tumor was excised, with ipsilateral testis preservation. Histology diagnosed a testis dermoid tumor. COMMENTS: The relationship between testis tumors and testicular microlithiasis is ill defined in children. Pediatric urologists need to develop specific follow-up protocols for pre-pubertal children. PMID:24473964

de Jesus, Lisieux Eyer; Maciel, Felipe; Monnerat, Andrea Lima C.; Fernandes, Marcia Antunes; Dekermache, Samuel



Spinal cord tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Spinal cord tumors are rare; however, every radiologist should be able to recognize and readily identify those lesions often\\u000a found in younger patients or children [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9]. Early diagnosis plays an important role in the management\\u000a of the lesions and interferes with the prognosis and final outcome of the patient [10]. Plain X-ray

D. L. F. Balériaux; Service de Radiologie



Peripheral Nerve Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Peripheral nerve tumors (PNTs) are rare soft tissue lesions that can arise anywhere on the body and as a result have a wide\\u000a differential diagnosis, which is often confirmed to be a PNT only at surgery. PNTs occur both sporadically and within the\\u000a context of genetically predisposing syndromes; hence, a thorough history of the mass and associated symptoms, with a

Joseph Wiley; Asis Kumar Bhattacharyya; Gelareh Zadeh; Patrick Shannon; Abhijit Guha


Cervical Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background.Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are rare and potentially aggressive malignancies.Case. A 24-year-old woman in her eighth week of pregnancy presented with a cervical mass. Tissue biopsy demonstrated poorly differentiated carcinosarcoma with neuroendocrine features. Immunohistochemical studies confirmed the diagnosis of PNET. Treatment included alternating courses of cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine (CAV) and ifosfamide, etoposide (IE). A radical hysterectomy with bilateral ovarian transposition

Anne S. Tsao; Lawrence M. Roth; Alan Sandler; Jean A. Hurteau



Human nervous system tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thick sections (0.5–2 µ) of biopsies from human nervous system tumors (Schwannoma, ependymoma, medulloblastoma), fixed in aldehydes followed by osmium, and stained with uranyl acetate and lead, have been studied at 2.5 MV, and compared to thin sections of the same material observed by ordinary low voltage electron microscopy. High voltage electron microscopy permits direct observation of cell fine structure

Katherine M. Lyser



[Gigantic nasal tumor].  


A space-occupying lesion, which had been growing on the external surface of the nose of a 57-year-old man for 5 years was considered to most likely be an angiofibroma after surgical removal and histological examination, but the final clinical diagnosis was clearly a rhinophyma. This discrepancy is relevant for surgical treatment, because the vessel-rich tumor tended to substantial intraoperative bleeding. PMID:19183915

Lehnerdt, G; Oztürk, E; Grabellus, F



Brain tumors in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pediatric brain tumors are a challenging group of very divergent diseases. Considerable controversy exists concerning the\\u000a accurate diagnosis and treatment of these patients. Aggressive therapy is often needed to cure aggressive and potentially\\u000a lethal disease, yet late effects, especially injury to the developing brain, remain a profound problem. The discipline of\\u000a pediatric neuro-oncology remains one of the most productive areas

Andrew W. Walter; Joanne M. Hilden



Odontogenic Tumor Markers - An Overview  

PubMed Central

The practice of pathology is currently undergoing significant change, due to advances in the field of molecular pathology. Tumor markers are molecules that help the pathologists for confirmatory diagnosis of histopathologically confounding lesions. Odontogenic tumors are relatively rare with estimated incidence of less than 0.5 cases/ 100,000 population per year. Odontogenic tumors can pose diagnostic challenges because of overlapping histology. But, appropriate diagnosis is crucial as their treatment modality and prognosis differ; in these situations tumor markers can be helpful. But lack of comprehensive literature on specific markers for odontogenic tumors imposes pathologists to think aimlessly about various markers to arrive at an appropriate diagnosis. With this background, it is our attempt at compiling diagnostically important odontogenic tumor markers. Also, a note is added on tumor behaviour studies in common clinically important odontogenic tumors: Ameloblastoma and Keratocystic odontogenic tumor. How to cite this article: Premalatha B R, Patil S, Rao R S, Reddy N P, Indu M. Odontogenic Tumor Markers - An Overview. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(2):65-75. How to cite this article: Premalatha B R, Patil S, Rao R S, Reddy N P, Indu M. Odontogenic Tumor Markers - An Overview. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(2):65-75 PMID:24155593

Premalatha, B R; Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S; Reddy, Narendranatha P; Indu, M



Study of Kidney Tumors in Young Patients

Clear Cell Sarcoma of the Kidney; Congenital Mesoblastic Nephroma; Diffuse Hyperplastic Perilobar Nephroblastomatosis; Rhabdoid Tumor of the Kidney; Stage I Renal Cell Cancer; Stage I Wilms Tumor; Stage II Renal Cell Cancer; Stage II Wilms Tumor; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage III Wilms Tumor; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IV Wilms Tumor; Stage V Wilms Tumor



Surgical management of pancreatic endocrine tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) are uncommon but clinically challenging and fascinating tumors with an annual incidence of 1 per 100,000 people. PETs present as either functional pancreatic tumors or as nonfunctional pancreatic tumors. Functional tumors are commonly associated with a specific hormonal syndrome directly related to a hormone secreted by the tumor, such as Zollinger–Ellison syndrome or organic hyperinsulinism. Nonfunctional

Jens Waldmann; Detlef K. Bartsch; Peter Langer; Volker Fendrich



[Chromogranin A and neuroendocrine tumors].  


Chromogranin A (CgA) is the most abundant granin in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs). As a tumor marker is moderately sensitive and nonspecific. Despite the limitations of testing methods, which require careful interpretation, especially in the case of gastrinomas, patients treated with somatostatin analogues, and poorly differentiated tumors, it is the best tumor marker in GEP-NETs and may be of value in other tumors with neuroendocrine differentiation. CgA may be used as a marker in blood or tissue samples through immunohistochemical techniques. CgA levels correlate with tumor burden and extension and may be used for diagnosis and monitoring of GEP-NETs, especially midgut carcinoids and endocrine pancreatic tumors. It is also useful as a prognostic marker for detection of recurrence and monitoring of response to different treatments. PMID:23271036

Díaz Pérez, José Ángel; Currás Freixes, Maria



Primary Tumors of the Spleen  

PubMed Central

Tumors of the spleen are rare compared to the incidence of such tumors in other parenchymatous organs. Their classification has varied with both time and author. They can be divided into two main categories: nonlymphoid and lymphoid. The most common nonlymphoid tumors are the vascular tumors which include benign and malignant haemangiomas, littoral cell angiomas, lymphangiomas and haemangioendotheliomas. The remaining nonlymphoid tumors, such as fibrosarcoma, neurinoma, and lipoma are very uncommon. The lymphoid tumors include Hodgkin’s and non Hodgkin’s lymphoma, histiocytic lymphoma and plasmacytoma. Metastatic tumors to the spleen mainly originate from melanoma, breast and lung lesions. However, metastases to the spleen are rare compared to those of other parenchymatous organs. PMID:23675122

Fotiadis, C.; Georgopoulos, I.; Stoidis, C.; Patapis, P.



[Differential diagnostics of sebaceous tumors].  


Sebaceous tumors are epithelial tumors with a differentiation towards sebaceous adnexal structures of the skin. They imitate the epithelial cells of mature sebaceous glands, sebaceous ducts, immature (embryonic) sebaceous structures or sebaceous glands that are not stimulated by hormones (mantle structures). This article explains the classification of sebaceous tumors on the basis of the normal histology of sebaceous glands. Clinical and histopathological criteria are given for the most important sebaceous tumors. The differential diagnosis of sebaceoma, sebaceous adenoma and various types of sebaceous carcinoma is emphasized. The importance of a specific diagnosis of adnexal tumors is demonstrated by tumor-associated syndromes with involvement of other organs (e.g., Muir-Torre syndrome and Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome). Furthermore, conceptional controversies, problems in differential diagnosis and the impact of immunohistochemical staining in the assessment of sebaceous tumors are considered. PMID:25103328

Böer-Auer, A



[Tumors and tumor-like diseases of the carpal bones].  


This presentation concerns the findings in 105 tumors or tumor-like lesions in the bones of the carpus. These tumors generally produce complaints which are uncharacteristic and they are quite difficult to recognize on X-ray. Due to this difficulty, there may be many different therapies before the correct final diagnosis is confirmed. These tumors are usually found in the scaphoid, capitate, lunate, or hamate. Of the 105 tumors, 45.7% were osteoid osteoma, which has an incidence of only 11.33% of all bone tumors in the body as a whole. Of the remaining tumors, 15.24% were diagnoses to be intraosseous ganglia (= tumorlike lesions). Lesser percentages were giant-cell tumors, osteochondromas, chondromas. One intraosseous lipoma was found and this had never before been reported. The majority of the patients were between twenty and thirty years of age. With surgical removal, complaints are generally reduced. Dramatic relief from pain is reported by patients when an osteoid osteoma is removed. The most important deduction from these findings is that tumors in the carpus are not as rare as once assumed. The possibility of bone tumors should be considered in patients with intractable pain in the carpus. PMID:3623270

Baron, J; Scharizer, E



Wnt5a Suppresses Tumor Formation and Redirects Tumor Phenotype in MMTV-Wnt1 Tumors  

PubMed Central

Wnt5a is a non-canonical signaling Wnt that has been implicated in tumor suppression. We previously showed that loss of Wnt5a in MMTV-PyVmT tumors resulted in a switch in tumor phenotype resulting in tumors with increased basal phenotype and high Wnt/?-catenin signaling. The object of this study was to test the hypothesis that Wnt5a can act to inhibit tumors formed by activation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling. To this end, we characterized tumor and non-tumor mammary tissue from MMTV-Wnt1 and double transgenic MMTV-Wnt1;MMTV-Wnt5a mice. Wnt5a containing mice demonstrated fewer tumors with increased latency when compared to MMTV-Wnt1 controls. Expression of markers for basal-like tumors was down-regulated in the tumors that formed in the presence of Wnt5a indicating a phenotypic switch. Reduced canonical Wnt signaling was detected in double transgenic tumors as a decrease in active ?-catenin protein and a decrease in Axin2 mRNA transcript levels. In non-tumor tissues, over-expression of Wnt5a in MMTV-Wnt1 mammary glands resulted in attenuation of phenotypes normally observed in MMTV-Wnt1 glands including hyperbranching and increased progenitor and basal cell populations. Even though Wnt5a could antagonize Wnt/?-catenin signaling in primary mammary epithelial cells in culture, reduced Wnt/?-catenin signaling was not detected in non-tumor MMTV-Wnt1;Wnt5a tissue in vivo. The data demonstrate that Wnt5a suppresses tumor formation and promotes a phenotypic shift in MMTV-Wnt1 tumors. PMID:25401739

Easter, Stephanie L.; Mitchell, Elizabeth H.; Baxley, Sarah E.; Desmond, Renee; Frost, Andra R.; Serra, Rosa



Informe Especial Supremaca de Concreto Como  

E-print Network

Informe Especial Mayo 2013 Supremacía de Concreto Como Material Estructural Paulo Helene #12;Supremacía de Concreto como Material Estructural* Paulo Helene Prof. Titular da Universidade de São Paulo Asamblea General de la FICEM. 2012. #12;3 supremacía del concreto Por Prof. Paulo Helene * Conferencia

Paraná, Universidade Federal do


Modulation of tumor induced angiogenesis in Ehrlich ascites tumor.  


In this study the enzyme glutaminase, purified from the ascites fluid of ovarian cancer patients, was analysed for its antiangiogenic activity. Intraperitoneal administration of this enzyme reduces the number of tumor directed capillaries in solid and ascites tumor bearing Swiss mice induced by transplantation of Ehrlich ascites cells. The enzyme has a critical role in regulating the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from tumor cell and in turn tumor growth. Glutamine analogue like 6-diazo, 5- oxo L-norleucine (DON) is also found to be effective in regulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion from tumor cells in vitro. Treatment with enzyme reduced serum VEGF levels of the tumor induced animals. In vitro VEGF production by EAC cells was reduced in a concentration dependent manner in presence of glutamine analogue. PMID:15743040

Ghosh, S; Roy, S; Banerjee, M; Maity, P



Tumor-colonizing bacteria: a potential tumor targeting therapy.  


In 1813, Vautier published his observation of tumor regression in patients who had suffered from gas gangrene. Since then, many publications have described the use of bacteria as antitumor therapy. For example, Bifidobacterium and Clostridium have been shown to selectively colonize tumors and to reduce tumor size. In addition, recent studies have focused on the use of genetic engineering to induce the expression of pro-drug converting enzymes, cytokines, specific antibodies, or suicide genes in tumor-colonizing bacteria. Moreover, some animal experiments have reported the treatment of tumors with engineered bacteria, and few side effects were observed. Therefore, based on these advances in tumor targeting therapy, bacteria may represent the next generation of cancer therapy. PMID:23964706

Zu, Chao; Wang, Jiansheng



Roles of tumor suppressors in regulating tumor-associated inflammation  

PubMed Central

Loss or silencing of tumor suppressors (TSs) promotes neoplastic transformation and malignant progression. To date, most work on TS has focused on their cell autonomous effects. Recent evidence, however, demonstrates an important noncell autonomous role for TS in the control of tumor-associated inflammation. We review evidence from clinical data sets and mouse model studies demonstrating enhanced inflammation and altered tumor microenvironment (TME) upon TS inactivation. We discuss clinical correlations between tumor-associated inflammation and inactivation of TS, and their therapeutic implications. This review sets forth the concept that TS can also suppress tumor-associated inflammation, a concept that provides new insights into tumor–host interactions. We also propose that in some cases the loss of TS function in cancer can be overcome through inhibition of the resulting inflammatory response, regardless whether it is a direct or an indirect consequence of TS loss. PMID:25190145

Yang, L; Karin, M



Roles of tumor suppressors in regulating tumor-associated inflammation.  


Loss or silencing of tumor suppressors (TSs) promotes neoplastic transformation and malignant progression. To date, most work on TS has focused on their cell autonomous effects. Recent evidence, however, demonstrates an important noncell autonomous role for TS in the control of tumor-associated inflammation. We review evidence from clinical data sets and mouse model studies demonstrating enhanced inflammation and altered tumor microenvironment (TME) upon TS inactivation. We discuss clinical correlations between tumor-associated inflammation and inactivation of TS, and their therapeutic implications. This review sets forth the concept that TS can also suppress tumor-associated inflammation, a concept that provides new insights into tumor-host interactions. We also propose that in some cases the loss of TS function in cancer can be overcome through inhibition of the resulting inflammatory response, regardless whether it is a direct or an indirect consequence of TS loss. PMID:25190145

Yang, L; Karin, M



Multiparametric Classification Links Tumor Microenvironments with Tumor Cell Phenotype  

PubMed Central

While it has been established that a number of microenvironment components can affect the likelihood of metastasis, the link between microenvironment and tumor cell phenotypes is poorly understood. Here we have examined microenvironment control over two different tumor cell motility phenotypes required for metastasis. By high-resolution multiphoton microscopy of mammary carcinoma in mice, we detected two phenotypes of motile tumor cells, different in locomotion speed. Only slower tumor cells exhibited protrusions with molecular, morphological, and functional characteristics associated with invadopodia. Each region in the primary tumor exhibited either fast- or slow-locomotion. To understand how the tumor microenvironment controls invadopodium formation and tumor cell locomotion, we systematically analyzed components of the microenvironment previously associated with cell invasion and migration. No single microenvironmental property was able to predict the locations of tumor cell phenotypes in the tumor if used in isolation or combined linearly. To solve this, we utilized the support vector machine (SVM) algorithm to classify phenotypes in a nonlinear fashion. This approach identified conditions that promoted either motility phenotype. We then demonstrated that varying one of the conditions may change tumor cell behavior only in a context-dependent manner. In addition, to establish the link between phenotypes and cell fates, we photoconverted and monitored the fate of tumor cells in different microenvironments, finding that only tumor cells in the invadopodium-rich microenvironments degraded extracellular matrix (ECM) and disseminated. The number of invadopodia positively correlated with degradation, while the inhibiting metalloproteases eliminated degradation and lung metastasis, consistent with a direct link among invadopodia, ECM degradation, and metastasis. We have detected and characterized two phenotypes of motile tumor cells in vivo, which occurred in spatially distinct microenvironments of primary tumors. We show how machine-learning analysis can classify heterogeneous microenvironments in vivo to enable prediction of motility phenotypes and tumor cell fate. The ability to predict the locations of tumor cell behavior leading to metastasis in breast cancer models may lead towards understanding the heterogeneity of response to treatment. PMID:25386698

Gligorijevic, Bojana; Bergman, Aviv; Condeelis, John



Pineal Parenchymal Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose:\\u000a   To evaluate the efficacy of interstitial radiosurgery (IRS) for pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and Methods:\\u000a   18 consecutively admitted patients (twelve male and six female, age range 6–68 years, median age 34 years) with PPTs (eight\\u000a pineocytomas, ten malignant PPTs) were treated at the authors’ institution with IRS using stereotactically guided iodine-125\\u000a seed implantation (125I-IRS) as either primary

Mohammad Maarouf; Faycal El Majdoub; Christian Bührle; Jürgen Voges; Ralph Lehrke; Martin Kocher; Stefan Hunsche; Harald Treuer; Volker Sturm



Therapeutic Trial for Patients With Ewing Sarcoma Family of Tumor and Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumors

Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor; Ewing Sarcoma of Bone or Soft Tissue; Localized Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor



Dynamic CT of pancreatic tumors  

SciTech Connect

Dynamic computed tomography was performed on 19 patients with clinically diagnosed pancreatic and peripancreatic tumors. There were 10 patients with pancreatic cancer, three with inflammatory pancreatic masses, two with cystadenoma, one with insuloma, and three with peripancreatic tumors. Computed tomography was performed with a Varian-V-360-3 scanner; scanning was for 30 consecutive sec at 3 sec intervals after the bolus injection of 50 ml of contrast medium into the antecubital vein. Dynamic computed tomography (CT) may be more useful than conventional contrast CT because it facilitates: (1) correct evaluation of tumor vascularity allowing a differential diagnosis; (2) location of the boundary between tumor and a nontumor tissue; (3) detection of small tumors; and (4) visualization of pancreatic invasion by peripancreatic tumors. In addition, contrast enhancement and the degree of vascular proliferation can be quantitatively assessed by analyzing time-density curves.

Hosoki, T.




PubMed Central

Brain tumors are often overlooked in differential diagnosis. This omission is attributable largely to the false belief that neoplasms of the brain occur only rarely, to disregard of characteristic diagnostic signs, and to confusion of brain tumor symptomatology with that of other disease processes. The most effective means of insuring early identification of these lesions is to bear the possibility of brain tumor constantly in mind in differential diagnosis. PMID:13160812

Boldrey, Edwin



Phyllodes tumors of the breast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Phyllodes tumor is a rare fibroepithelial neoplasm of the breast with a very variable, but usually benign, course. Formerly\\u000a known as cystosarcoma phyllodes, the designation “phyllodes tumor” with appropriate qualification regarding malignant potential\\u000a based on pathologic features is now the agreed-upon term. The most important diagnostic distinction is from fibroadenoma—phyllodes\\u000a tumors require complete excision with free margins even when

Seema A. Khan; Sunil Badve



Drug delivery to brain tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prerequisite for the efficacy of any cancer drug is that it reaches the tumor in therapeutic concentrations. This is difficult\\u000a to accomplish in most systemic solid tumors because of factors such as variable hypoxia, intratumoral pressure gradients,\\u000a and abnormal vasculature within the tumors. In brain cancer, the situation is complicated by the blood-brain barrier (BBB)\\u000a and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier,

Jaishri Blakeley



Sex Cord-Stromal Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Sex cord-stromal tumors are rare neoplasms which most commonly occur in the ovary. Granulosa cell tumors are the most common\\u000a histologic subtype. Presenting symptoms and signs may be specific to this group of tumors, and treatment is determined by\\u000a many factors, including age and histologic subtype. Appropriate therapy usually includes surgery, and chemotherapy often plays\\u000a a role. Much progress has

Jubilee Brown; David M. Gershenson


Breaking the tolerance for tumor  

PubMed Central

Tumors arise and progress in immunocompetent hosts presumably by activating tolerance mechanisms critical for normal homeostasis. Host immune cells can mount anti-tumor responses by activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs). However, emerging data suggests that molecules that negatively regulate TLRs are exploited by tumors to induce tolerance and mitigate the host immunosurveillance. Targeting these negative regulators can be a potential new immunotherapeutic strategy. PMID:22737610

Standiford, Theodore J.; Keshamouni, Venkateshwar G.



Proton Therapy for Thoracoabdominal Tumors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In advanced-stage disease of certain thoracoabdominal tumors, proton therapy (PT) with concurrent chemotherapy may be an option to reduce side effects. Several technological developments, including a respiratory gating system and implantation of fiducial markers for image guided radiation therapy (IGRT), are necessary for the treatment in thoracoabdominal tumors. In this chapter, the role of PT for tumors of the lung, the esophagus, and liver are discussed.

Sakurai, Hideyuki; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Sugahara, Shinji; Nakayama, Hidetsugu; Tokuuye, Koichi


[Malignant nail tumors].  


Because of the large number of different tissues making up the distal phalanx of fingers and toes, a large variety of malignant tumors can be found in and around the nail apparatus. Bowen disease is probably the most frequent nail malignancy. It is usually seen as a verrucous plaque of the nail fold and nail bed in persons above the age of 40 years. It slowly grows over a period of years or even decades before degenerating to an invasive squamous cell carcinoma. The latter may also occur primarily often as a weeping onycholysis. The next most frequent nail malignancy is ungual melanoma. Those arising from the matrix are usually pigmented and often start with a longitudinal melanonychia whereas those originating from the nail bed remain amelanotic, are often nodular and mistaken for an ingrown nail in an elderly person. The treatment of choice for in situ and early invasive subungual melanomas is generous extirpation of the nail apparatus whereas distal amputation is only indicated for advanced melanomas. In addition to these frequent nail malignancies, nail-specific carcinomas, malignant vascular and osseous tumors, other sarcomas, nail involvement in malignant systemic disorders and metastases may occur. In most cases, they cannot be diagnosed accurately on clinical grounds. Therefore, a high degree of suspicion is necessary in all isolated or single-digit proliferations that do not respond to conservative treatment. PMID:24718507

Haneke, E



Pulmonary malignant granular cell tumor  

PubMed Central

Background Malignant granular cell tumor (MGCT) is a rare disease entity. Forty-one well-documented MGCTs have been reported in the world literature. Case Report This report describes a patient who presented with a MGCT of the lung and reviews the preoperative evaluation, pathologic features and differential diagnosis of the disease. This case represents the first report of resected primary pulmonary MGCT. Conclusions Diagnosis of MGCT is based on histology of the primary tumor, immunohistochemistry, and exclusion of tumors that may mimic granular cell tumor. PMID:14613555

Jiang, Ming; Anderson, Timothy; Nwogu, Chukwumere; Tan, Dongfeng



Detection of Circulating Tumor Cells  

PubMed Central

The increasing number of treatment options for patients with metastatic carcinomas has created an accompanying need for methods to determine if the tumor will be responsive to the intended therapy and to monitor its effectiveness. Ideally, these methods would be noninvasive and provide quantitative real-time analysis of tumor activity in a variety of carcinomas. Assessment of circulating tumor cells shed into the blood during metastasis may satisfy this need. Here we review the CellSearch technology used for the detection of circulating tumor cells and discuss potential future directions for improvements. PMID:25133014

Terstappen, Leon W. M. M.



[Hürthle cell tumors: personal experience].  


Hürthle cell tumors of the thyroid gland are uncommon lesions (3% of all well differentiated tumors). Histological diagnosis is often difficult: according to recent criteria only those tumors with almost 75% of oxyphil cells are well recognized as Hürthle cell neoplasms. Extracapsular and blood-vessels invasion, capsular penetration, DNA patterns and tumoral necrosis are indicative for malignancy. The Authors report their experience in the management of 46 patients who underwent thyroid surgery for Hürthle cell neoplasms. Histological findings, surgical approach and post-operative follow up are discussed. PMID:7654499

De Toma, G; Gabriele, R; Sgarzini, G; Plocco, M; Campli, M; Sambuco, L



Primary intratesticular spindle cell tumors: interdigitating dendritic cell tumor and inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor.  


Spindle cell neoplasms arising in the testis are uncommon; most cases belong to the category of gonadal stromal tumors, and the presence of distinctive clinical and pathological features usually lead to a definitive diagnosis. In some instances, however, the diagnosis of these tumors can be challenging and special techniques are needed. The present study reports 2 unusual cases of primary intratesticular tumors showing a striking morphology, characterized by spindle to stellate cells in a lymphoid background. The diagnosis of interdigitating dendritic cell tumor and inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor was established in the 2 cases, and their probable origin in cells of the accessory immune system is discussed. Although both tumors share similar histological features, their immunohistochemical profiles were decisive for a definitive diagnosis. PMID:18805870

Nistal, Manuel; Gonzalez-Peramato, Pilar; Serrano, Alvaro; Reyes-Mugica, Miguel; Cajaiba, Mariana M



Tumor bed expression in xenografted artificial heterogeneous colon tumors  

SciTech Connect

Artificial heterogeneous xenograft tumors (AHTs) were produced by injecting admixtures of two clonal cell lines (A and D) originally isolated from the DLD-1 human colon adenocarcinoma. The volumetric growth of unirradiated pure A or D tumors and 2 different admixtures (approximately 90% A + 10% D or 10% A + 90% D) were compared to growth of similar tumors growing in normal tissue stroma that had received 5, 10, or 15 Gy of X rays 1 day prior to cell injections. The X-irradiations produced a dose dependent delay in growth at sizes of 500 mm3 (designated as the tumor bed effect, TBE) for both pure and admixed tumors of about 2 at 15 Gy. There were no significant differences in TBE among the various groups. Also, determination of tumor cell yields, or colony forming efficiencies, showed no differences among tumors growing in undamaged or damaged stroma. However, beginning at about 20 days postirradiation, there was a significant change in the percentage composition of the tumors growing in the irradiated stroma. Both admixtures became significantly enriched in the subpopulation that was originally predominant. In contrast, the percentage compositions of the admixtures growing in unirradiated stroma remained stable over the duration of the experiment period (to about 70 days postirradiation). We interpret these data to indicate that the radiation damage to the normal tissue produced an intratumor environment leading to competitive exclusion dynamics of the minority subpopulation. Clinical implications of these results are discussed.

Leith, J.T.; Faulkner, L.E.; Bliven, S.F.; Michelson, S.



SIRT1, Is It a Tumor Promoter or Tumor Suppressor?  

Microsoft Academic Search

SIRT1 has been considered as a tumor promoter because of its increased expression in some types of cancers and its role in inactivating proteins that are involved in tumor sup- pression and DNA damage repair. However, recent studies demonstrated that SIRT1 levels are reduced in some other types of cancers, and that SIRT1 deficiency results in genetic in- stability and

Chu-Xia Deng



Tumor de células de Sertoli esclerosante Sclerosing Sertoli Cell Tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Background: Sertoli cell tumor is an unfrequent neo- plasm of the testis and the recently reported sclerosing variant is even rarer, and seems to have a different progno- sis. Patients and Methods: A 28 year-old man consulted the urologist because of a slight increase in right testicular volume. Echographic examination revealed an intratesticu- lar solid tumor, 1 cm in

Leire Etxegarai; Leire Andrés; Cosme Ereño; Francisco José Bilbao; José Ignacio López


Mechanics in Tumor Growth 1 Mechanics in Tumor Growth  

E-print Network

the extracellular matrix. As will be described in the following this process is affected by the stress applied some of the main feature of tumor growth and in particular the phenomena involving stress description, one can say that the cells forming a compact tumor, like other cells in the body, live

Preziosi, Luigi


Tumor stroma: a complexity dictated by the hypoxic tumor microenvironment.  


A lot of effort has been done to study how cancer cells react to low-oxygen tension, a condition known as hypoxia. Indeed, abnormal and dysfunctional blood vessels in the tumor are incapable to restore oxygenation, therefore perpetuating hypoxia, which, in turn, will fuel tumor progression, metastasis and resistance to antitumor therapies. Nevertheless, how stromal components including blood and lymphatic endothelial cells, pericytes and fibroblasts, as well as hematopoietic cells, respond to low-oxygen tension in comparison with their normoxic counterparts has been a matter of investigation in the last few years only and, to date, this field of research remains poorly understood. In general, opposing phenotypes can arise from the same stromal component when embedded in different tumor microenvironments, and, vice versa, different stromal components can have opposite reaction to the same tumor microenvironment. In this article, we will discuss the emerging link between tumor stroma and hypoxia, and how this complexity is translated at the molecular level. PMID:23604130

Casazza, A; Di Conza, G; Wenes, M; Finisguerra, V; Deschoemaeker, S; Mazzone, M



Solitary fibrous tumors of the pleura  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura is a mesenchymal tumor that has been increasingly recognized over the past few years. The tumor was initially described in the pleura, but it has been reported in many other sites lately. Although the majority of these tumors have a benign course, the malignant form still remains enigmatic. Indeed, the behavior of these tumors

Marc de Perrot; Stefan Fischer; Marie-Anne Bründler; Yasuo Sekine; Shaf Keshavjee



Familial germ cell tumor  

PubMed Central

Familial testicular germ cell tumors are well known in literature. Only few cases are reported where both brother and sister of the same family suffered from germ cell malignancies. We present a family where the proband is a survivor of ovarian dysgerminoma stage IA. Her elder male sibling became acutely ill and was detected to have disseminated testicular malignancy with grossly elevated markers and vegetations in the mitral valve leaflets. Despite all measures he could not be saved. Presence of germ cell malignancies in the siblings of different sex in the same family points toward a genetic susceptibility. Literature review revealed only six similar cases. A discussion regarding the rare occurrence of familial germ cell malignancies with the affected family members may be worthwhile. PMID:22754236

Cyriac, Sanju; Rajendranath, Rejeev; Louis, A Robert; Sagar, T. G.



Ossified intratesticular mucinous tumor.  


We report a case of an ossified primary intratesticular mucinous tumor in a 69-year-old man, which was discovered incidentally during a consultation for erectile dysfunction. The 7.5 x 4.8 x 4-cm, predominantly solid, and partially cystic mass completely replaced the testis with no extension to tunica albuginea and epididymis. The multiloculated area was mostly covered by a single layer of bland mucinous epithelium with few areas of epithelial tufting, stratification, and nuclear atypia. The solid areas consisted of mature bone and fibrous stroma with cholesterol clefts, some multinucleated giant cells, moderate infiltration of lymphocytes, and foamy vacuolated macrophages. The bone showed occasional rimming of osteoblasts and rare osteoclasts. Rare foci of mature bone were found in the nonfibrosed wall and lumen cysts. The patient is alive and well 3 years after right orchiectomy with spermatic cord resection. PMID:10086514

Mesia, L; Georgsson, S; Zuretti, A



Surgical Management of Phyllodes Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypothesis: Although phyllodes tumors have mini- mal metastatic potential, we hypothesized that they have a proclivity for local recurrence and should be excised with a wide margin. We reviewed the clinical and radio- logical appearance of phyllodes tumors and analyzed the role of surgical treatment in their management. Design: Medical records, imaging studies, pathology re- ports, and interventions were reviewed.

Abeel A. Mangi; Barbara L. Smith; Michele A. Gadd; Kenneth K. Tanabe; Mark J. Ott; Wiley W. Souba



Molecular characterization of Warthin tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Warthin tumor of the salivary gland is composed of oncocytic epithelium with a prominent follicular lymphoid infiltrate. The purpose of this study was to characterize the clonality of this lymphoid component by means of polymerase chain reaction technology.Study design. DNA was isolated from paraffin-embedded tissue from 20 cases of typical Warthin tumor of the salivary gland and amplified by

Kimiko Takezawa; Cynthia Jackson; Douglas R Gnepp; Thomas C King



Carbaborane Conjugates in Tumor Therapy  

E-print Network

Keywords Carbaborane Conjugates in Tumor Therapy Carbaboranes as Pharmacophoric Moieties for selective destruc- tion of tumor tissue in the presence of normal cells is boron neutron capture therapy in Advances in Neutron Capture Therapy 2006, Proceedings of ICNCT-12 Chemistry and Pharmacy. Nakagawa, Y

Schüler, Axel


Phyllodes Tumor of the Breast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To better identify prognostic factors for local control and survival, as well as the role of different therapeutic options, for phyllodes tumors, a rare fibroepithelial neoplasm of the breast. Methods and Materials: Data from 443 women treated between 1971 and 2003 were collected from the Rare Cancer Network. The median age was 40 years (range, 12-87 years). Tumors were

Yazid Belkacémi; Guilhem Bousquet; Hugo Marsiglia; Isabelle Ray-Coquard; Nicolas Magné; Yann Malard; Magalie Lacroix; Cristina Gutierrez; Elzbieta Senkus; David Christie; Karen Drumea; Edouard Lagneau; Sidney P. Kadish; Luciano Scandolaro; David Azria; Mahmut Ozsahin



Neurogenic tumors of the thorax.  


Neurogenic tumors of the thorax are observed in all age groups, although they are rare in the elderly. They are more likely to be malignant in the child than in the adult. Tumors of the autonomic system are common in children, whereas the nerve sheath tumors are more likely to be found in adults. The malignant lesions are almost always symptomatic and the benign lesions asymptomatic, except in the child, in whom a benign lesion may result in symptoms because of its size relative to the volume of the child's thorax. Intraspinal canal extension, although relatively infrequent, should be sought for in all paravertebral tumors, for a significant percentage of these may be initially asymptomatic. Excision of such an hourglass tumor without foreknowledge of such extension may lead to serious spinal cord complications. Surgical excision of most of these tumors is sufficient except for the malignant lesions, especially in infancy and childhood, for which the addition of postoperative irradiation and chemotherapy may be beneficial. The prognosis after the removal of benign neurogenic tumors of the thorax is excellent. In the infant or child with Stage III or IV neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma, or an Askin tumor, the prognosis is poor. In the adult with a malignant neurogenic sarcoma or a malignant paraganglioma, the prognosis likewise is grave. PMID:3375959

Shields, T W; Reynolds, M



Gene Therapy for Pituitary Tumors  

PubMed Central

Pituitary tumors are the most common primary intracranial neoplasms. Although most pituitary tumors are considered typically benign, others can cause severe and progressive disease. The principal aims of pituitary tumor treatment are the elimination or reduction of the tumor mass, normalization of hormone secretion and preservation of remaining pituitary function. In spite of major advances in the therapy of pituitary tumors, for some of the most difficult tumors, current therapies that include medical, surgical and radiotherapeutic methods are often unsatisfactory and there is a need to develop new treatment strategies. Gene therapy, which uses nucleic acids as drugs, has emerged as an attractive therapeutic option for the treatment of pituitary tumors that do not respond to classical treatment strategies if the patients become intolerant to the therapy. The development of animal models for pituitary tumors and hormone hypersecretion has proven to be critical for the implementation of novel treatment strategies and gene therapy approaches. Preclinical trials using several gene therapy approaches for the treatment of anterior pituitary diseases have been successfully implemented. Several issues need to be addressed before clinical implementation becomes a reality, including the development of more effective and safer viral vectors, uncovering novel therapeutic targets and development of targeted expression of therapeutic transgenes. With the development of efficient gene delivery vectors allowing long-term transgene expression with minimal toxicity, gene therapy will become one of the most promising approaches for treating pituitary adenomas. PMID:16457646

Seilicovich, Adriana; Pisera, Daniel; Sciascia, Sandra A.; Candolfi, Marianela; Puntel, Mariana; Xiong, Weidong; Jaita, Gabriela; Castro, Maria G.



Imaging probe for tumor malignancy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid tumors possess unique microenvironments that are exposed to chronic hypoxic conditions ("tumor hypoxia"). Although more than half a century has passed since it was suggested that tumor hypoxia correlated with poor treatment outcomes and contributed to cancer recurrence, a fundamental solution to this problem has yet to be found. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) is the main transcription factor that regulates the cellular response to hypoxia. It induces various genes whose functions are strongly associated with malignant alteration of the entire tumor. The cellular changes induced by HIF-1 are extremely important targets of cancer therapy, particularly in therapy against refractory cancers. Imaging of the HIF-1-active microenvironment is therefore important for cancer therapy. To image HIF-1activity in vivo, we developed a PTD-ODD fusion protein, POHA, which was uniquely labeled with near-infrared fluorescent dye at the C-terminal. POHA has two functional domains: protein transduction domain (PTD) and VHL-mediated protein destruction motif in oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domain of the alpha subunit of HIF-1 (HIF-1?). It can therefore be delivered to the entire body and remain stabilized in the HIF-1-active cells. When it was intravenously injected into tumor-bearing mice, a tumor-specific fluorescence signal was detected in the tumor 6 h after the injection. These results suggest that POHA can be used an imaging probe for tumor malignancy.

Tanaka, Shotaro; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae; Hiraoka, Hasahiro



Regorafenib in Treating Patients With Advanced or Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

Gastrinoma; Glucagonoma; Insulinoma; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Pulmonary Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma; Somatostatinoma



ABT-751 in Treating Young Patients With Refractory Solid Tumors

Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors; Childhood Germ Cell Tumor; Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Kidney Cancer; Liver Cancer; Neuroblastoma; Ovarian Cancer; Sarcoma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific



Targeting Tumor Associated Fibroblasts and Chemotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are key mediators of tumor growth. CAFs can promote tumor growth by producing growth\\u000a factors that drive tumor angiogenesis and survival of tumor cells. In recent years, resistance to chemotherapy has emerged\\u000a as a consequence of these tumor-promoting activities. CAFs can directly affect the delivery and efficacy of chemotherapeutic\\u000a drugs by promoting tumor angiogenesis and altering

Debbie Liao; Ralph A. Reisfeld


Therapeutic modalities for Pancoast tumors  

PubMed Central

A Pancoast tumor, also called a pulmonary sulcus tumor or superior sulcus tumor, is a tumor of the pulmonary apex. It is a type of lung cancer defined primarily by its location situated at the top end of either the right or left lung. It typically spreads to nearby tissues such as the ribs and vertebrae. Most Pancoast tumors are non-small cell cancers. The growing tumor can cause compression of a brachiocephalic vein, subclavian artery, phrenic nerve, recurrent laryngeal nerve, vagus nerve, or, characteristically, compression of a sympathetic ganglion resulting in a range of symptoms known as Horner’s syndrome. Pancoast tumors are named for Henry Pancoast, a US radiologist, who described them in 1924 and 1932.The treatment of a Pancoast lung cancer may differ from that of other types of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Its position and close proximity to vital structures may make surgery difficult. As a result, and depending on the stage of the cancer, treatment may involve radiation and chemotherapy given prior to surgery. Surgery may consist of the removal of the upper lobe of a lung together with its associated structures as well as mediastinal lymphadenectomy. Surgical access may be via thoracotomy from the back or the front of the chest and modification. Careful patient selection, improvements in imaging such as the role of PET-CT in restaging of tumors, radiotherapy and surgical advances, the management of previously inoperable lesions by a combined experienced thoracic-neurosurgical team and prompt recognition and therapy of postoperative complications has greatly increased local control and overall survival for patients with these tumors. PMID:24672693

Nikolaos, Panagopoulos; Vasilios, Livaditis; Efstratios, Koletsis; Panagiotis, Alexopoulos; Christos, Prokakis; Nikolaos, Baltayiannis; Antonios, Hatzimichalis; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Tsiouda, Theodora; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Madesis, Athanasios; Vretzakis, Georgios; Kolettas, Alexandros; Dimitrios, Dougenis



Surgical removal of retroperitoneal tumors after chemotherapy treated testicular tumors.  


In the era of chemotherapy, patients with advanced testicular tumor often presents with residual mass after completion of chemotherapy. Post chemotherapy RPLND is an important part of the multimodality treatment in these patients. According to current guidelines and recommendations, post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (PC-RPLND) is recommended in NSGCT patients with all residual lesions and normalized tumor markers. In seminomas, surgery is considered in patients with residual tumor >?3 cm and a positive positron emission tomography (PET) scan. A conventional bilateral template should be performed for patients undergoing PC-RPLND. However, a modified template can be performed in select patients with low volume disease to reduce the long-term morbidities and peri-operative complications. Laparoscopic PC-RPLND is safe and feasible. The oncological outcome of PC-RPLND is excellent if all tumors are resected. PC-RPLND is a complex surgery and should be done in high volume tertiary centers. PMID:25277371

Sim, Allen; Aufderklamm, Stefan; Halalsheh, Omar; Todenhöfer, Tilman; Schwentner, Christian



Regorafenib in gastrointestinal stromal tumors.  


Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the GI tract and constitute less than 1% of all digestive tract tumors--the stomach is the most common site. Regorafenib is a multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor with regulatory approvals granted for colorectal cancers and GIST. The US FDA granted approval for the use of regorafenib in February 2013 in patients with advanced GIST for those who had failed on imatinib and sunitinib. This was based on a pivotal Phase III double-blind placebo controlled randomized trial that showed that there was a significant improvement in progression-free survival for patients on regorafenib. PMID:25145429

Sirohi, Bhawna; Philip, Deepa Susan; Shrikhande, Shailesh V



Classification of human ovarian tumors.  

PubMed Central

Most human ovarian tumors are classified into one of several categories based on presumed histogenesis and direction of differentiation. Separate categories are reserved for neoplasms composed of cells of several origins and for nonneoplastic disorders that simulate neoplasms. Using the World Health Organization Histologic Classification of Ovarian Tumors, histologic features for common and rare human ovarian tumors are described and illustrated. Images PLATE 1. PLATE 2. PLATE 3. PLATE 4. PLATE 5. PLATE 6. PLATE 7. PLATE 8. PLATE 9. PLATE 10. PLATE 11. PLATE 12. PLATE 13. PLATE 14. PLATE 15. PLATE 16. PLATE 17. PLATE 18. PLATE 19. PLATE 20. PLATE 21. PLATE 22. PMID:3665859

Scully, R E



Brain tumors in irradiated monkeys.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was made of 32 monkeys which survived one to seven years after total body exposure to protons or to high-energy X rays. Among these 32 monkeys there were 21 which survived two years or longer after exposure to 200 to 800 rad. Glioblastoma multiforme developed in 3 of the 10 monkeys surviving three to five years after receiving 600 or 800 rad 55-MeV protons. Thus, the incidence of tumor development in the present series was far higher than the incidence of spontaneously developing brain tumors in monkeys cited in the literature. This suggests that the tumors in the present series may have been radiation-induced.

Haymaker, W.; Miquel, J.; Rubinstein, L. J.



Heterogeneity of tumor cells from a single mouse mammary tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the use of a variety of cell culture and separation methods, four cell lines were isolated from a single au tochthonous BALB\\/cfC3H mammary tumor. These lines differ markedly from each other in culture morphology, various in vitro growth properties, expression of murine mammary tumor virus antigen, and karyotype, yet all four lines are tumorigenic in normal, syngeneic hosts, yielding

Daniel L. Dexter; Henryk M. Kowalski; Beverly A. Blazar; Zuzana Fligiel; R Vogel; G H Heppner



Modification of tumor response by manipulation of tumor oxygenation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) requires tissue oxygenation during light irradiation. Tumor hypoxia, either pre-existing or induced by PDT during light irradiation, can severely hamper the effectiveness of a PDT treatment. Lowering the light irradiation does rate or fractionating a light dose may improve cell kill of PDT induced hypoxic cells, but will have no effects on pre-existing hypoxic cells. In the current study, we used hyper-oxygenation during PDT to overcome cell hypoxia in PDT. C3H mice with transplanted mammary carcinoma tumor were injected with 12.5 mg/kg Photofrin and irradiated with 630 nm laser light 24 hours later. Tumor oxygenation was manipulated by subjecting the animals to 3 a.t.p. hyperbaric oxygen or normobaric oxygen during PDT light irradiation. The results show a significant improvement in tumor response when PDT was delivered during hyper-oxygenation. With hyper-oxygenation, up to 80% of treated tumors showed no re-growth after 60 days. In comparison, only 20% of tumors treated while animals breathed normal room air, did not re-grow. To quantitatively evaluate the effects of manipulating tumor oxygenation, tumor p02 was measured with microelectrodes positioned in pre-existing hypoxic regions before and during the PDT light irradiation. The results show that hyper-oxygenation may oxygenate pre-existing hypoxic cells and compensate oxygen depletion induced by PDT light irradiation. In conclusion, hyper-oxygenation may provide effective ways to improve PDT treatment efficiency by oxygenating both pre-existing and treatment induced cell hypoxia.

Chen, Qun; Beckers, Jill; Hetzel, Fred W.



[Pancreatic tumors: recent developments].  


Pancreatic cancer (PC) still typically has a poor prognosis. In addition to smoking, obesity and new-onset diabetes mellitus are considered to be significant risk factors. An endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) remains the mainstay for diagnosis and on which the majority of advances are based. In this sense, needle-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (nCLE) is gaining importance in the differential diagnosis of solid pancreatic lesions and studies comparing different needle types (cytology vs. histology) for EUS-guided puncture. Intravenous contrast (IC-EUS) and elastography are additional tools associated with EUS that can assist in diagnosing PC. Regarding prognostic factors, the importance of the role of mesenteric-portal vein resection was emphasized, given the limited advances in treatment, as in previous years. Regarding cystic tumors, work focuses on validating the new international guidelines from Fukuoka 2012 (revised Sendai criteria) and on determining predictors of cystic lesion malignancy, mainly of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN). From a therapeutic point of view, there are theories regarding the usefulness of alcohol and the gemcitabine-paclitaxel combination in the ablation of small mucinous cystic lesions through EUS-injection. PMID:25294272

Lariño Noia, José



Macrophages in Tumor Microenvironments and the Progression of Tumors  

PubMed Central

Macrophages are widely distributed innate immune cells that play indispensable roles in the innate and adaptive immune response to pathogens and in-tissue homeostasis. Macrophages can be activated by a variety of stimuli and polarized to functionally different phenotypes. Two distinct subsets of macrophages have been proposed, including classically activated (M1) and alternatively activated (M2) macrophages. M1 macrophages express a series of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and effector molecules, such as IL-12, IL-23, TNF-?, iNOS and MHCI/II. In contrast, M2 macrophages express a wide array of anti-inflammatory molecules, such as IL-10, TGF-?, and arginase1. In most tumors, the infiltrated macrophages are considered to be of the M2 phenotype, which provides an immunosuppressive microenvironment for tumor growth. Furthermore, tumor-associated macrophages secrete many cytokines, chemokines, and proteases, which promote tumor angiogenesis, growth, metastasis, and immunosuppression. Recently, it was also found that tumor-associated macrophages interact with cancer stem cells. This interaction leads to tumorigenesis, metastasis, and drug resistance. So mediating macrophage to resist tumors is considered to be potential therapy. PMID:22778768

Hao, Ning-Bo; Lü, Mu-Han; Fan, Ya-Han; Cao, Ya-Ling; Zhang, Zhi-Ren; Yang, Shi-Ming



Radiofrequency Ablation of Renal Tumors  

PubMed Central

Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of renal tumors is a promising technique that plays a unique and increasingly important role in urologic oncology practices. RFA is appealing as a minimally invasive therapy that may be performed on an outpatient basis. It enables treatment of an area 3 to 5 cm in diameter, with relatively low morbidity and mortality rates. Most interventional radiologists (IRs) are familiar with RFA of liver tumors, and several principles and techniques used in the liver may be extrapolated for use in the kidney. However, it is crucial to bear in mind that local tumor ablation in the kidney presents unique challenges, secondary to the kidney's unique anatomic and physiologic features. Clinical and technical considerations, risks, and complications pertaining to RFA of renal tumors are reviewed here, including approaches commonly used in our practice. PMID:18070691

Stone, Michael J.; Venkatesan, Aradhana M.; Locklin, Julia; Pinto, Peter; Linehan, Marston; Wood, Bradford J.



How Are Pituitary Tumors Diagnosed?  


... see if this corrects the problem. Venous blood sampling Corticotropin (ACTH)-secreting adenomas may be too small ... a person’s MRI scan is normal, a venous sampling test may be useful to find the tumor. ...


Immunotherapy for Nonresponsive Solid Tumors

In this phase I trial, researchers are testing the ability of interleukin-7 (IL-7) to stimulate patients' white blood cells to kill cancer cells in solid tumors that have not responded to standard therapies.


Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium

The Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) is a comprehensive and coordinated effort to accelerate the understanding of the molecular basis of cancer through the application of robust, quantitative, proteomic technologies and workflows.


Primary tumors of the spine.  


Spinal tumors consist of a large spectrum of various histologic entities. Multiple spinal lesions frequently represent known metastatic disease or lymphoproliferative disease. In solitary lesions primary neoplasms of the spine should be considered. Primary spinal tumors may arise from the spinal cord, the surrounding leptomeninges, or the extradural soft tissues and bony structures. A wide variety of benign neoplasms can involve the spine including enostosis, osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, aneurysmal bone cyst, giant cell tumor, and osteochondroma. Common malignant primary neoplasms are chordoma, chondrosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma or primitive neuroectodermal tumor, and osteosarcoma. Although plain radiographs may be useful to characterize some spinal lesions, magnetic resonance imaging is indispensable to determine the extension and the relationship with the spinal canal and nerve roots, and thus determine the plan of management. In this article we review the characteristic imaging features of extradural spinal lesions. PMID:24896744

Orguc, Sebnem; Arkun, Remide



Delivering nanomedicine to solid tumors  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in nanotechnology have offered new hope for cancer detection, prevention, and treatment. While the enhanced permeability and retention effect has served as a key rationale for using nanoparticles to treat solid tumors, it does not enable uniform delivery of these particles to all regions of tumors in sufficient quantities. This heterogeneous distribution of therapeutics is a result of physiological barriers presented by the abnormal tumor vasculature and interstitial matrix. These barriers are likely to be responsible for the modest survival benefit offered by many FDA-approved nanotherapeutics and must be overcome for the promise of nanomedicine in patients to be realized. Here, we review these barriers to the delivery of cancer therapeutics and summarize strategies that have been developed to overcome these barriers. Finally, we discuss design considerations for optimizing the delivery of nanoparticles to tumors. PMID:20838415

Jain, Rakesh K.; Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos



General Information about Pituitary Tumors  


... signs or symptoms of disease. The pituitary gland hormones control many other glands in the body. Hormones ... A clinical trial of stereotactic radiation surgery . Growth Hormone–Producing Pituitary Tumors Treatment may include the following: ...


Ontogenetic Aspects of Liver Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Hepatoblastomas and related tumors display morphologic features that reflect distinct phases of normal hepatic ontogeny. The\\u000a histologic tumor patterns mimicking ontogenesis of the liver include primitve epithelia resembling early derivatives of primed\\u000a endoderm, populations of potential hepatic progenitor cells, hepatoblasts in various phases of differentiation, and specific\\u000a immature mesenchymes, which are known to occur in early hepatogenesis. An impressive amount

Arthur Zimmermann


Phyllodes tumors of the breast  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The aim of this study was to describe the clinical, mammographic, and sonographic findings of phyllodes tumor of the breast\\u000a and correlate them to the benign or malignant pathological nature of the lesion and its clinical behavior. We retrospectively\\u000a reviewed the clinical, radiologic, and pathologic findings of 12 cases of phyllodes tumors diagnosed in our hospital in the\\u000a past

A. Jorge Blanco; B. Vargas Serrano; R. Rodríguez Romero; E. Martínez Cendejas



Management of pineal region tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Tumors of the pineal region represent a diverse collection of tumors with a variety of natural histories. This diversity necessitates\\u000a accurate histologic diagnosis to allow rational therapeutic planning. Evaluation of a pineal lesion should begin with craniospinal\\u000a MRI and analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Whereas certainty of the histologic diagnosis is now a requirement for\\u000a treatment in Western

Jaishri O. Blakeley; Stuart A. Grossman



Tumors of the Cranial Nerves  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The most frequent tumors of the cranial nerves are referred to as schwannomas (formerly neuromas). They may develop in most\\u000a cranial nerves, except I and II, which do not have Schwann cells, except for very rare cases of ectopic pediatric olfactory\\u000a schwannomas. CNSs account for 8% of intracranial tumors. The incidence is rising since the distribution of MRI became widespread.

Berndt Wowra; Jörg-Christian Tonn


Molecular Genetics of Neuroendocrine Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through insights into the molecular genetics of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), the genes predisposing to multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes were identified. In MEN1, tumors occur in the parathyroids, endocrine pancreas, anterior pituitary, adrenal glands and thymic neuroendocrine tissues. The MEN1 gene encodes a putative growth-suppressor protein, menin, binding JunD, a transcriptional factor belonging to the AP-1 complex. However, new partners

A. Calender



Tumors of the Skull Base  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The skull base is affected by a wide range of tumor pathologies. They are often slow-growing, benign, extra-axial tumors that\\u000a cause symptoms by involvement of the cranial nerves or a mass effect on the brain stem and cerebellum. They are often located\\u000a in critical areas within the cranium that are especially hard to reach with routine surgical techniques. Involvement of

Kadir Erkmen; Ossama Al-Mefty; Badih Adada


Radiologic management of musculoskeletal tumors  

SciTech Connect

The present book is written by a radiologist and two orthopedic surgeons with long experience in musculoskeletal tumors. It is based on modern pathologic and surgical principles, and from those principles the radiologic approach is discussed. The main questions ask what information can be gained by the different modalities, and which combination of modalities is the most profitable to determine the local behaviour of the tumor, diagnosis and local extent.

Pettersson, H.; Springfield, D.S.; Enneking, W.F.



[Medicolegal aspects of tumor boards].  


The presentation of tumor patients to tumor boards has widely developed into a medical standard. The necessary compliance to the medical standard can lead to obligatory presentation if the complexity of a case dictates that this cannot be comprehensively covered by a single treating physician. The organization of a tumor board must be so that the structure and specialist competence guarantees an adequate consultative function of the represented specialties. Tumor board members are not automatically promoted to become part of the treating team just by participation and therefore do not have a guarantor position but do have the obligation of care of a consulting physician. Tumor board decisions have a recommendation character, are not binding in the legal sense and do not relieve the treating physician from the obligation to critically scrutinize the recommendations before implementation. On the other hand the treating physician must be able to justify not following the recommendations on the basis of the medical obligation to care. The tumor board must fulfil the same requirements for documentation as any other consultative activity. PMID:23455588

Haier, J; Bergmann, K O



Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy for Adrenal Tumors  

PubMed Central

Objective. To evaluate the indication and the clinical value of laparoscopic adrenalectomy of different types of adrenal tumor. Methods. From 2009 to 2014, a total of 110 patients were diagnosed with adrenal benign tumor by CT scan and we performed laparoscopic adrenalectomy. The laparoscopic approach has been the procedure of choice for surgery of benign adrenal tumors, and the upper limit of tumor size was thought to be 6?cm. Results. 109 of 110 cases were successful; only one was converted to open surgery due to bleeding. The average operating time and intraoperative blood loss of pheochromocytoma were significantly more than the benign tumors (P < 0.05). After 3 months of follow-up, the preoperative symptoms were relieved and there was no recurrence. Conclusions. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has the advantages of minimal invasion, less blood loss, fewer complications, quicker recovery, and shorter hospital stay. The full preparation before operation can decrease the average operating time and intraoperative blood loss of pheochromocytomas. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy should be considered as the first choice treatment for the resection of adrenal benign tumor. PMID:25132851

Chuan-yu, Sun; Yat-faat, Ho; Wei-hong, Ding; Yuan-cheng, Gou; Qing-feng, Hu; Ke, Xu; Bin, Gu; Guo-wei, Xia



Microfluidic Platforms for Capturing Circulating Tumor Cells  

E-print Network

Microfluidic Platforms for Capturing Circulating Tumor Cells Sweta Gupta, Allison C. Baker-cost microfluidic device that can be used to isolate and capture circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from whole blood of almost 50%. Keywords--microfluidic; platforms; tumor; cells I. INTRODUCTION Invasive tumor cells

Tang, William C


Solitary Fibrous Tumors of the Pleura  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura is a mesenchymal tumor that has been increasingly recognized over the past few years. The tumor was initially described in the pleura, but it has been reported in many other sites lately. Although the majority of these tumors have a benign course, the malignant form still remains enig- matic. Indeed, the behavior of these

Marc de Perrot; Stefan Fischer; Marie-Anne Brundler; Yasuo Sekine; Shaf Keshavjee


Tumor lysate-loaded biodegradable microparticles  

E-print Network

Tumor lysate-loaded biodegradable microparticles as cancer vaccines Expert Rev. Vaccines 13(1), 9 tumor lysate (TL) as a source of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) have significant potential for generating therapeutic anti-tumor immune responses. Vaccines encompassing TL bypass the limitations of single

Salem, Aliasger K.


Adenomatoid tumor of the tunica albuginea.  


Adenomatoid tumors are benign mesothelial tumors most commonly found in the paratesticular structures, especially the epididymis. Herein, we report a case of adenomatoid tumor originating in the tunica albuginea and mimicking an intratesticular neoplasm. We review the ultrasonographic presentation and literature regarding adenomatoid tumors originating in the tunica albuginea and testicular parenchyma. PMID:15948758

Barry, Piers; Chan, Kevin G; Hsu, Joshua; Quek, Marcus L



Conformal Radiation Therapy for Childhood CNS Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation therapy plays a central role in the man- agement of many childhood brain tumors. By combin- ing advances in brain tumor imaging with technology to plan and deliver radiation therapy, pediatric brain tumors can be treated with conformal radiation ther- apy. Through conformal radiation therapy, the radia- tion dose is targeted to the tumor, which can minimize the dose



Cancer stem cells and tumor dormancy.  


The cancer stem cell hypothesis postulates that only a subpopulation of cancer cells in a tumor is capable of initiating, sustaining, and reinitiating tumors, while the bulk of the population comprises non-stem cancer cells that lack tumor initiation potential. The interactions of these two phenotypically distinct populations can provoke various nonlinear growth kinetics in the emerging tumor. An environmentally independent, intrinsic dormant state is an inevitable early tumor progression bottleneck within a range of biologically realistic cell kinetic parameters. In certain conditions, cell kinetics can combine to enable escape to tumor progression, yielding morphologically distinct self-metastatic expansion of multiple self-limiting tumor clones. PMID:23143975

Enderling, Heiko



Rare Primary Central Nervous System Tumors  

PubMed Central

There are close to 70,000 new cases of primary central nervous system tumors diagnosed annually in the United States. Meningiomas, gliomas, nerve sheath tumors and pituitary tumors account for 85% of them. There is abundant literature on these commonly occurring tumors but data from the literature on infrequently encountered tumors such as atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, choroid plexus carcinoma, ganglioglioma, hemangiopericytoma, and pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma are limited. This review provides an overview of the clinicopathologic and therapeutic aspects of these rare primary central nervous system tumors.

Kubicky, Charlotte Dai; Sahgal, Arjun; Chang, Eric L.; Lo, Simon S.



Computational approach for designing tumor homing peptides  

PubMed Central

Tumor homing peptides are small peptides that home specifically to tumor and tumor associated microenvironment i.e. tumor vasculature, after systemic delivery. Keeping in mind the huge therapeutic importance of these peptides, we have made an attempt to analyze and predict tumor homing peptides. It was observed that certain types of residues are preferred in tumor homing peptides. Therefore, we developed support vector machine based models for predicting tumor homing peptides using amino acid composition and binary profiles of peptides. Amino acid composition, dipeptide composition and binary profile-based models achieved a maximum accuracy of 86.56%, 82.03%, and 84.19% respectively. These methods have been implemented in a user-friendly web server, TumorHPD. We anticipate that this method will be helpful to design novel tumor homing peptides. TumorHPD web server is freely accessible at PMID:23558316

Sharma, Arun; Kapoor, Pallavi; Gautam, Ankur; Chaudhary, Kumardeep; Kumar, Rahul; Chauhan, Jagat Singh; Tyagi, Atul; Raghava, Gajendra P. S.



Integrated Analysis of Tumor Samples Sheds Light on Tumor Heterogeneity  

PubMed Central

The heterogeneity of tumor samples is a major challenge in the analysis of high-throughput profiling of tumor biopsies and cell lines. The measured aggregate signals of multigenerational progenies often represent an average of several tumor subclones with varying genomic aberrations and different gene expression levels. The goal of the present study was to integrate copy number analyses from SNP-arrays and karyotyping, gene expression profiling, and pathway analyses to detect heterogeneity, identify driver mutations, and explore possible mechanisms of tumor evolution. We showed the heterogeneity of the studied samples, characterized the global copy number alteration profiles, and identified genes whose copy number status and expression levels were aberrant. In particular, we identified a recurrent association between two BRAFV600E and BRAFV600K mutations and changes in DKK1 gene expression levels, which might indicate an association between the BRAF and WNT pathways. These findings show that the integrated approaches used in the present study can robustly address the challenging issue of tumor heterogeneity in high-throughput profiling. PMID:23012583

Parisi, Fabio; Micsinai, Mariann; Strino, Francesco; Ariyan, Stephan; Narayan, Deepak; Bacchiocchi, Antonella; Cheng, Elaine; Xu, Fang; Li, Peining; Kluger, Harriet; Halaban, Ruth; Kluger, Yuval



Imaging the Tumor Response to the Tumor-penetrating Peptide iRGD  

E-print Network

126 Chapter 5 Imaging the Tumor Response to the Tumor-penetrating Peptide iRGD Improvement of drug uptake into the tumor mass is highly desirable. Recently, a tumor-penetrating peptide, iRGD, has been shown to improve the uptake of a number of different classes of drugs into the tumor mass without

Winfree, Erik


Sclerosing stromal tumor of the ovary  

PubMed Central

Sclerosing stromal tumor is a rare ovarian tumor, occurring in young adults in the second and third decade of life. We report clinical and histopathological features of three cases of sclerosing stromal tumor of the ovary with a review of literature. The tumor has distinct histological features and is easily recognizable when a high index of suspicion is maintained in young patients presenting with an ovarian mass. These tumors are benign and can be treated successfully by enucleation or unilateral ovariotomy.

Atram, Manisha; Sharma, Satish; Gangane, Nitin



Metastasis Suppressors and the Tumor Microenvironment  

PubMed Central

The most lethal and debilitating attribute of cancer cells is their ability to metastasize. Throughout the process of metastasis, tumor cells interact with other tumor cells, host cells and a variety of molecules. Tumor cells are also faced with a number of insults, such as hemodynamic sheer pressure and immune selection. This brief review explores how metastasis suppressor proteins regulate interactions between tumor cells and the microenvironments in which tumor cells find themselves. PMID:21168504

Cook, Leah M.; Hurst, Douglas R.; Welch, Danny R.



Serous borderline tumor of the fallopian tube.  


Serous borderline tumors of the ovary are fairly common, making up between 4% and 14% of ovarian epithelial tumors. While to our knowledge serous borderline tumor of the fallopian tube occurs rarely with only ten previously reported cases in literature. We report the case of the serous borderline tumor of the fallopian tumor in a 25-year-old woman and review the literature. PMID:25105110

Choi, So Mi; Kang, Woo Dae; Choi, Ho Sun; Kim, Seok Mo



Askin's Tumor: A Dual Case Study  

PubMed Central

Askin's tumor is a rare tumor arising from the chest wall. It is a subset of Ewing sarcoma characterized histologically by the presence of small round blue cells. It is a highly malignant tumor with guarded prognosis, which is dependent upon the extension of tumor at the time of diagnosis. A dual paper of Askin's tumors in young boys is being presented here. PMID:21792357

Shrestha, Bikash; Kapur, Bhupendra Nath; Karmacharya, Kavita; Kakkar, Sunita; Ghuliani, Ranjit



Biomarkers in Tissue Samples From Patients With High-Risk Wilms Tumor

Clear Cell Sarcoma of the Kidney; Recurrent Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors; Rhabdoid Tumor of the Kidney; Stage I Wilms Tumor; Stage II Wilms Tumor; Stage III Wilms Tumor; Stage IV Wilms Tumor; Stage V Wilms Tumor



Angiogenesis in Spontaneous Tumors and Implications for Comparative Tumor Biology  

PubMed Central

Blood supply is essential for development and growth of tumors and angiogenesis is the fundamental process of new blood vessel formation from preexisting ones. Angiogenesis is a prognostic indicator for a variety of tumors, and it coincides with increased shedding of neoplastic cells into the circulation and metastasis. Several molecules such as cell surface receptors, growth factors, and enzymes are involved in this process. While antiangiogenic therapy for cancer has been proposed over 20 years ago, it has garnered much controversy in recent years within the scientific community. The complex relationships between the angiogenic signaling cascade and antiangiogenic substances have indicated the angiogenic pathway as a valid target for anticancer drug development and VEGF has become the primary antiangiogenic drug target. This review discusses the basic and clinical perspectives of angiogenesis highlighting the importance of comparative biology in understanding tumor angiogenesis and the integration of these model systems for future drug development. PMID:24563633

Benazzi, C.; Al-Dissi, A.; Chau, C. H.; Figg, W. D.; Sarli, G.; de Oliveira, J. T.; Gartner, F.



Tumor Ablation with Irreversible Electroporation  

PubMed Central

We report the first successful use of irreversible electroporation for the minimally invasive treatment of aggressive cutaneous tumors implanted in mice. Irreversible electroporation is a newly developed non-thermal tissue ablation technique in which certain short duration electrical fields are used to permanently permeabilize the cell membrane, presumably through the formation of nanoscale defects in the cell membrane. Mathematical models of the electrical and thermal fields that develop during the application of the pulses were used to design an efficient treatment protocol with minimal heating of the tissue. Tumor regression was confirmed by histological studies which also revealed that it occurred as a direct result of irreversible cell membrane permeabilization. Parametric studies show that the successful outcome of the procedure is related to the applied electric field strength, the total pulse duration as well as the temporal mode of delivery of the pulses. Our best results were obtained using plate electrodes to deliver across the tumor 80 pulses of 100 µs at 0.3 Hz with an electrical field magnitude of 2500 V/cm. These conditions induced complete regression in 12 out of 13 treated tumors, (92%), in the absence of tissue heating. Irreversible electroporation is thus a new effective modality for non-thermal tumor ablation. PMID:17989772

Al-Sakere, Bassim; Andre, Franck; Bernat, Claire; Connault, Elisabeth; Opolon, Paule; Davalos, Rafael V.; Rubinsky, Boris; Mir, Lluis M.



Scintigraphic differentiation of intrahepatic tumors  

SciTech Connect

Intrahepatic tumors in asymptomatic patients are seen with increasing frequency. Treatment is dependent of the histology; while follicular nodular hyperplasia (FNH) and hemangiomas need no further treatment, all other tumors should be resected. In a prospective study we investigated the usefulness of two-stage scintigraphy (TSS) for the differentiation. The cholescintigraphy was started with a perfusion study, followed by a scan in the parenchymal phase and in the excretion phase. There is a typical scintigraphic pattern for FNH (hyperperfusion, normal parenchymal uptake delayed excretion) and hemangioma (hypoperfusion, no uptake), while all other tumors may have a mixed pattern. Therefore a blood pool is added to look for a hemangioma, if there is no typical pattern for FNH in the cholescintigraphy. The TSS classified correct 21 of 23 patients with FNH, 17 of 18 with hemangiomas, all 3 with adenoma and 36 of 37 with primary malignant intrahepatic tumors. The TSS is more accurate than CT or sonography, safe and inexpensive and therefore the method of first choice in the differentiation of intrahepatic tumors.

Creutzig, H.; Brolsch, C.; Gratz, K.; Neuhaus, P.; Muller, St.; Schober, O.; Lang, W.; Hundeshagen, H.; Pichlmayr, R.



Cellular potts modeling of tumor growth, tumor invasion, and tumor evolution.  


Despite a growing wealth of available molecular data, the growth of tumors, invasion of tumors into healthy tissue, and response of tumors to therapies are still poorly understood. Although genetic mutations are in general the first step in the development of a cancer, for the mutated cell to persist in a tissue, it must compete against the other, healthy or diseased cells, for example by becoming more motile, adhesive, or multiplying faster. Thus, the cellular phenotype determines the success of a cancer cell in competition with its neighbors, irrespective of the genetic mutations or physiological alterations that gave rise to the altered phenotype. What phenotypes can make a cell "successful" in an environment of healthy and cancerous cells, and how? A widely used tool for getting more insight into that question is cell-based modeling. Cell-based models constitute a class of computational, agent-based models that mimic biophysical and molecular interactions between cells. One of the most widely used cell-based modeling formalisms is the cellular Potts model (CPM), a lattice-based, multi particle cell-based modeling approach. The CPM has become a popular and accessible method for modeling mechanisms of multicellular processes including cell sorting, gastrulation, or angiogenesis. The CPM accounts for biophysical cellular properties, including cell proliferation, cell motility, and cell adhesion, which play a key role in cancer. Multiscale models are constructed by extending the agents with intracellular processes including metabolism, growth, and signaling. Here we review the use of the CPM for modeling tumor growth, tumor invasion, and tumor progression. We argue that the accessibility and flexibility of the CPM, and its accurate, yet coarse-grained and computationally efficient representation of cell and tissue biophysics, make the CPM the method of choice for modeling cellular processes in tumor development. PMID:23596570

Szabó, András; Merks, Roeland M H



Epilepsy associated tumors: Review article  

PubMed Central

Long-term epilepsy associated tumors (LEAT) represent a well known cause of focal epilepsies. Glioneuronal tumors are the most frequent histological type consisting of a mixture of glial and neuronal elements and most commonly arising in the temporal lobe. Cortical dysplasia or other neuronal migration abnormalities often coexist. Epilepsy associated with LEAT is generally poorly controlled by antiepileptic drugs while, on the other hand, it is high responsive to surgical treatment. However the best management strategy of tumor-related focal epilepsies remains controversial representing a contemporary issues in epilepsy surgery. Temporo-mesial LEAT have a widespread epileptic network with complex epileptogenic mechanisms. By using an epilepsy surgery oriented strategy LEAT may have an excellent seizure outcome therefore surgical treatment should be offered early, irrespective of pharmacoresistance, avoiding both the consequences of uncontrolled seizures as well as the side effects of prolonged pharmacological therapy and the rare risk of malignant transformation.

Giulioni, Marco; Marucci, Gianluca; Martinoni, Matteo; Marliani, Anna Federica; Toni, Francesco; Bartiromo, Fiorina; Volpi, Lilia; Riguzzi, Patrizia; Bisulli, Francesca; Naldi, Ilaria; Michelucci, Roberto; Baruzzi, Agostino; Tinuper, Paolo; Rubboli, Guido



Mouse Models of Endocrine Tumors  

PubMed Central

Since the onset of the genomic era, there has been tremendous progress in identifying the genetic causes of endocrine tumors. Although this knowledge is valuable in its own right, understanding the molecular basis of tumorigenesis allows the development of new therapies targeted towards the causative defects. Understanding the connection between genotype and phenotype is a complex process, which can only be partially understood from analysis of primary tumors or from studies of cells in vitro. To bridge this gap, genetically modified mice have been developed in order to allow molecular dissection of the relevant defects in an intact organism. In this review, we will discuss the status of genetic modeling for hereditary and sporadic endocrine tumorigenesis with a goal towards providing a picture of how this technology will be of future benefit to clinicians developing specifically targeted therapies for endocrine tumors. PMID:20833336

Jones, Georgette N.; Manchanda, Parmeet K.; Pringle, Daphne R.; Zhang, Mei; Kirschner, Lawrence S.



FGF23 Producing Mesenchymal Tumor  

PubMed Central

A 40-year-old patient was referred to Clinic of Endocrinology due to hypophosphatemia causing pain, cramps, and weakness of muscles. Moreover, his bone mineral density was very low. The previous treatment with phosphorus and active vitamin D metabolites was ineffective. In lab tests the hypophosphatemia, hyperphosphaturia, and elevated FGF23 levels were found. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) showed increased radiotracer uptake in the right maxillary sinus and CT scans confirmed presence of tumor in this localization. Biopsy and cytological examination created suspicion of mesenchymal tumor—glomangiopericytoma. Waiting for surgery the patient was treated with long acting Somatostatine analogue, and directly before operation short acting Octreotide and intravenous phosphorus were used. Histology confirmed the cytological diagnosis and the phosphatemia return to normal values in 10 days after the tumor removal. PMID:24639905

Cwikla, Jaroslaw B.; Misiorowski, Waldemar; Rabijewski, Michal; Sikora, Krzysztof; Wanyura, Hubert



Histones: Controlling Tumor Signaling Circuitry  

PubMed Central

Epigenetic modifications constitute the next frontier in tumor biology research. Post-translation modification of histones dynamically influences gene expression independent of alterations to the DNA sequence. These mechanisms are often mediated by histone linkers or by proteins associated with the recruitment of DNA-binding proteins, HDAC I and II interacting proteins and transcriptional activators, coactivators or corepressors. Early evidence suggested that histones and their modifiers are involved in sophisticated processes that modulate tumor behavior and cellular phenotype. In this review, we discuss how recent discoveries about chromatin modifications, particularly histone acetylation, are shaping our knowledge of cell biology and our understanding of the molecular circuitry governing tumor progression and consider whether recent insights may extend to novel therapeutic approaches. Furthermore, we discuss the latest oncogenomic findings in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) from studies using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology and highlight the impact of mutations identified in histones and their modifiers. PMID:25177526

Martins, Manoela D.; Castilho, Rogerio M.



Epithelial tumors of the lung.  


Our knowledge and understanding of bronchopulmonary tract tumors have grown considerably; modern pathology enables the phenotyping of many tumors with increasingly improving techniques and tools and, arguably, improving criteria. By the same token, at least some of the new data may not be readily grafted onto traditional classification schemes. Some traditional designations will be dropped and replaced. And, although it has been overenthusiastically argued that molecular classifications may be attained, that ideal might not be truly an improvement. For classifications to be useful, they should be relatively simple, easily reproducible, and clinically significant. Still, modern marker pathology has revealed new vistas for the evaluation, diagnosis, and therapy of at least some tumors. These developments merit optimism but also caution from clinicians and pathologists. PMID:11091921

Gould, V E; Warren, W H



Cytosine Methyltransferases as Tumor Markers  

PubMed Central

Changes in DNA methylation patterns is a prominent characteristic of human tumors. Tumor cells display reduced levels of genomic DNA methylation and site-specific CpG island hypermethylation. Methylation of CpG dinucleotides is catalyzed by the enzyme family of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). In this review, the role of DNA methylation and DNMTs as key determinants of carcinogenesis is further elucidated. The chromatin modifying proteins that are known to interact with DNMTs are also described. Finally, the role of DNMTs as potential therapeutic targets is addressed. PMID:21629434

Pavlopoulou, Athanasia; Kossida, Sophia



Palifosfamide in Treating Patients With Recurrent Germ Cell Tumors

Adult Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Adult Teratoma; Malignant Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Malignant Extragonadal Non-Seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor; Extragonadal Seminoma; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Extragonadal Non-Seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Extragonadal Seminoma; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor



Mesenchymal stem cells in the tumor microenvironment  

PubMed Central

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are non-hematopoietic, multipotent cells, which are able to differentiate to bone, adipose and cartilage tissue. MSCs have the characteristic of migration to injured areas or tumor microenvironment following induction by chemokines or inflammatory factors. An increasing number of studies have reported that MSCs recruited to the tumor microenvironment play various roles in tumor cell development and tumor progression. In this study, we reviewed the studies related to the tumor-promoting roles of MSCs from several aspects, such as increasing stemness of tumor cells, mediating migration, promoting angiogenesis, suppressing immune response and inducing drug resistance. PMID:24648978




Ceramide kinase promotes tumor cell survival and mammary tumor recurrence.  


Recurrent breast cancer is typically an incurable disease and, as such, is disproportionately responsible for deaths from this disease. Recurrent breast cancers arise from the pool of disseminated tumor cells (DTC) that survive adjuvant or neoadjuvant therapy, and patients with detectable DTCs following therapy are at substantially increased risk for recurrence. Consequently, the identification of pathways that contribute to the survival of breast cancer cells following therapy could aid in the development of more effective therapies that decrease the burden of residual disease and thereby reduce the risk of breast cancer recurrence. We now report that ceramide kinase (Cerk) is required for mammary tumor recurrence following HER2/neu pathway inhibition and is spontaneously upregulated during tumor recurrence in multiple genetically engineered mouse models for breast cancer. We find that Cerk is rapidly upregulated in tumor cells following HER2/neu downregulation or treatment with Adriamycin and that Cerk is required for tumor cell survival following HER2/neu downregulation. Consistent with our observations in mouse models, analysis of gene expression profiles from more than 2,200 patients revealed that elevated CERK expression is associated with an increased risk of recurrence in women with breast cancer. In addition, although CERK expression is associated with aggressive subtypes of breast cancer, including those that are estrogen receptor-negative, HER2(+), basal-like, or high grade, its association with poor clinical outcome is independent of these clinicopathologic variables. Together, our findings identify a functional role for Cerk in breast cancer recurrence and suggest the clinical utility of agents targeted against this prosurvival pathway. Cancer Res; 74(21); 6352-63. ©2014 AACR. PMID:25164007

Payne, Ania W; Pant, Dhruv K; Pan, Tien-Chi; Chodosh, Lewis A



Tumors of the Infratemporal Fossa  

PubMed Central

Neoplastic processes involving the infratemporal fossa may originate from the tissues in the region, but more often are the result of extension from neighboring structures. Metastatic lesions located in the region are rarely encountered. Because of its concealed localization, tumors may remain unnoticed for some time. Clinical signs and symptoms often arise late, are insidious, and may be mistakenly attributed to other structures. The close proximity of the area to the intracranial structures, the orbit, the paranasal sinuses, the nasopharynx, and the facial area demands careful planning of surgical excision and combined procedures may be called for. Modern imaging techniques have made three-dimensional visualization of the extent of the pathology possible. Treatment depends on the histopathology and staging of the tumor. Several surgical approaches have been developed over the years. Radical tumor excision with preservation of the quality of life remain the ultimate goal for those tumors where surgery is indicated. Experience over a decade with various pathologies is presented. ImagesFigure 1p6-bFigure 2Figure 3 PMID:17171095

Tiwari, Rammohan; Quak, Jasper; Egeler, Saskia; Smeele, Ludi; Waal, Isaac v.d.; Valk, Paul v.d.; Leemans, Rene



Tumoral calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A report of two patients in which a soft tissue mass, initially regarded as a malignant tumor, was shown to be the result of calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease. The first case, a woman aged 71 years, presented with a mass involving the right fifth finger. In the second case, also a women aged 71 years, the lesion involved the tissues

Hubert A. Sissons; German C. Steiner; Fiona Bonar; Michael May; Zehava S. Rosenberg; Hershel Samuels



A Paracrine Loop between Tumor Cells and Macrophages Is Required for Tumor Cell Migration in Mammary Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasion of tumor cells into the surrounding connective tissue and blood vessels is a key step in the metastatic spread of breast tumors. Although the presence of macrophages in primary tumors is associated with increased metastatic potential, the mechanistic basis for this obser- vation is unknown. Using a chemotaxis-based in vivo invasion assay and multiphoton-based intravital imaging, we show that

Jeffrey Wyckoff; Weigang Wang; Elaine Y. Lin; Yarong Wang; Fiona Pixley; E. Richard Stanley; Thomas Graf; Jeffrey W. Pollard; Jeffrey Segall; John Condeelis



Image Based Characterization of Circulating Tumor Cells  

E-print Network

Image Based Characterization of Circulating Tumor Cells Katrine Brandt Albrektsen CY T O T R A C K;Abstract he ssessment of irulting tumor ells @ggsA in lood smples from ner ptients n help in determining


Fibroid Tumors in Women: A Hidden Epidemic?  


... Home Current Issue Past Issues Fibroid Tumors in Women: A Hidden Epidemic? Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table ... turn Javascript on. Dr. Cynthia Morton is seeking women who have fibroid tumors for a "sister study" ...



Microsoft Academic Search

PurposePartial nephrectomy for hilar tumors represents a technical challenge not only for laparoscopic, but also for open surgeons. We report the technical feasibility and perioperative outcomes of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) for hilar tumors.




Tumor cell migration in complex microenvironments  

E-print Network

Tumor cell migration is essential for invasion and dissemination from primary solid tumors and for the establishment of lethal secondary metastases at distant organs. In vivo and in vitro models enabled identification of ...

Polacheck, William Joseph


CT and MR of pineal region tumors.  


Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging features of pineal region tumors were analyzed in 14 oncologic cases. The tumors were classified as germ-cell tumors, glial tumors, pineal parenchymal tumors, meningiomas, and cysts. They demonstrated different MR signal characteristics on precontrast scans and nodular or ring type enhancement with occasional central lucencies, except for benign cysts, which have not shown enhancement. MR images were useful in defining the relationship of the tumor to the posterior third ventricle, sylvian aqueduct, vein of Galen, and tentorium. Although CT can demonstrate in more evident fashion displacement of the original pineal calcification as well as tumor calcifications, MR imaging demonstrates different signal characteristics in germinomas and pineoblastomas which can be a useful adjunct in the evaluation and differential diagnosis of these tumors. PMID:8295504

Gouliamos, A D; Kalovidouris, A E; Kotoulas, G K; Athanasopoulou, A K; Kouvaris, J R; Trakadas, S J; Vlahos, L J; Papavasiliou, C G



Tumor Quantification in Clinical Positron Emission Tomography  

PubMed Central

Positron emission tomography (PET) is used extensively in clinical oncology for tumor detection, staging and therapy response assessment. Quantitative measurements of tumor uptake, usually in the form of standardized uptake values (SUVs), have enhanced or replaced qualitative interpretation. In this paper we review the current status of tumor quantification methods and their applications to clinical oncology. Factors that impede quantitative assessment and limit its accuracy and reproducibility are summarized, with special emphasis on SUV analysis. We describe current efforts to improve the accuracy of tumor uptake measurements, characterize overall metabolic tumor burden and heterogeneity of tumor uptake, and account for the effects of image noise. We also summarize recent developments in PET instrumentation and image reconstruction and their impact on tumor quantification. Finally, we offer our assessment of the current development needs in PET tumor quantification, including practical techniques for fully quantitative, pharmacokinetic measurements. PMID:24312151

Bai, Bing; Bading, James; Conti, Peter S



Paxillin-dependent control of tumor angiogenesis  

E-print Network

Angiogenesis- the growth of new capillaries from existing vessels- is required for tumor growth; however, tumor vessels exhibit abnormal structure and function, which impairs the targeted delivery of anti-cancer agents. ...

German, Alexandra Elisa



Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium Working Groups

Childhood Brain Tumor Working Group - This Working Group focuses on epidemiologic studies of childhood brain tumors. We will focus on establishing research questions of interest in order to plan appropriate studies to address these questions.


Brain and Spinal Tumors: Hope through Research  


... of a CNS tumor to a particular treatment. Biological therapy involves enhancing the body’s overall immune response ... and injected directly into the brain following surgery. Biological therapies to fight CNS tumors include vaccines, gene ...


Romidepsin in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

Gastrinoma; Glucagonoma; Insulinoma; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Pulmonary Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma; Regional Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Somatostatinoma



Malignant solitary fibrous tumor in the pleura  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a case of malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura in an asymptomatic 75-year-old man. A needle biopsy specimen\\u000a revealed a solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura with suspected. The tumor was resected and the final diagnosis was a malignant\\u000a solitary fibrous tumor. At one-and-a-half years later, the patient has no clinical or radiological evidence of recurrence.\\u000a The

Ryoji Yamamoto; Hirohito Tada; Akihiro Kishi; Takashi Tojo



Antibody-Based Vascular Tumor Targeting  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The inhibition of angiogenesis represents a major step toward a more selective and better-tolerated therapy of cancer. An\\u000a alternative way to take advantage of a tumor’s absolute dependence on a functional neovasculature is illustrated by the strategy\\u000a of “antibody-based vascular tumor targeting.” This technology aims at the selective delivery of bioactive molecules to the\\u000a tumor site by their conjugation to

Christoph Schliemann; Dario Neri


Primary salivary type lung tumor: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Primary salivary type lung cancer are extremely rare intrathoracic malignancies. Mucoepidermoid tumor is one of the salivary gland tumor which originates from submucosal glands of tracheobronchial tree. These are very slow growing low grade malignant tumors. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment and rarely requires adjuvant therapy. In this case report, we describe a case of a young male who presented with cough and hemoptysis. On further investigation he was found to have mucoepidermoid tumor originating from the left bronchus.

Chopra, Amit; Shim, Chang; Sharma, Nirmal; Gordon, David; Tibb, Amit



LiquichekTM Tumor Marker Control  

E-print Network

LiquichekTM Tumor Marker Control Bio-Rad Laboratories T U M O R M A R K E R C O N T R O L S #12;T U M O R M A R K E R C O N T R O L S LiquichekTM Tumor Marker Control LiquichekTM Tumor Marker Control is a liquid, human serum based, third party control for monitoring the precision of tumor marker testing

Rodriguez, Carlos


Glioneuronal tumors of the central nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in the immunohistochemical detection of neuron-specific and neuronal-associated antigens have resulted in the discovery\\u000a of neuronal elements in certain primary human brain tumors. The results have been not only to expand what neuropathologists\\u000a commonly recognize as gangliogliomas, including the tumors now known as glioneurocytic tumor with neuropil rosettes and papillary\\u000a ganglioneuroma, but also to expand the spectrum of tumor

Roger E. McLendon; James Provenzale



New tumor markers of testis cancer.  


Potential tumor markers for testis cancer have become numerous with the new molecular techniques available. New protein markers have been evaluated, and histologic factors have shown correlations with stage of disease. Cytogenetic analysis studies have also shown associations with stage progression. Chromosomal markers, oncogenes, and tumor suppressor genes are possible candidates for tumor markers. These new potential tumor markers may become as commonplace as the established markers and may enhance diagnosis, staging, and treatment of testis cancer. PMID:9728207

Dean, R C; Moul, J W



Diagnostic Imaging of Primary Pediatric Brain Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pediatric brain tumors are the most common type of solid tumor among children, the second most frequent childhood malignancy\\u000a after leukemia [1], and the leading cause of death from solid tumors in this population. The incidence of brain tumors in children younger\\u000a than 20 years of age was 27.4 cases per million children according to the NCI’s Surveillance Epidemiology and

Tina Young Poussaint


Solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solitary fibrous tumors of the pleura are an uncommon but increasingly recognized neoplasm derived from mesenchymal cells located in the submesothelial lining of the pleural space. They may be differentiated from mesotheliomas and other pleural tumors due to unique immunohistochemical characteristics. The vast majority of these tumors are benign, and complete surgical resection remains the mainstay of therapy for both

John D. Mitchell



Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Pineal and Related Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiosurgery is increasingly being used to treat pineal region tumors, either as an additional therapy after conventional treatments or as a primary treatment. We report our experience with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for the treatment of pineal and related tumors. Forty-nine patients underwent GKRS for pineal and related tumors (n = 74) between February 1992 and September 2007. The diagnosis

Yoshimasa Mori; Tatsuya Kobayashi; Toshinori Hasegawa; Kouta Yoshida; Yoshihisa Kida



Fuzzy tumor-immune interaction system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we study a tumor-immune interaction system in fuzzy environment. By assuming the initial values of the tumor-immune interaction system as fuzzy values, we obtain a fuzzy tumor-immune interaction system. We then use the extension principle of Zadeh to interpret the obtained system and propose its solution numerically by means of fuzzy Euler method.

Daud, Wan Suhana Wan; Ahmad, Muhammad Zaini; Sakib, Elyana; Hasan, Zabidi Abu



NCI-MICCAI Challenge on Brain Tumor  

E-print Network

I NCI-MICCAI Challenge on Multimodal Brain Tumor Segmentation Proceedings of NCI-MICCAI BRATS 2013 of their unpredictable appearance and shape, segmenting brain tumors from multi-modal imaging data is one of the most; ...), the type of lesion (primary or secondary tumors; solid or infiltratively growing), and the state

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


MICCAI 2012 Challenge on Brain Tumor  

E-print Network

I MICCAI 2012 Challenge on Multimodal Brain Tumor Segmentation Proceedings of MICCAI-BRATS 2012 appearance and shape, segmenting brain tumors from multi-modal imaging data is one of the most challenging of lesion (primary or secondary tumors; solid or infiltratively growing), and the state of the disease (pre

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Neurologic Sequelae of Brain Tumors in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurologic signs and symptoms are often the initial presenting features of a primary brain tumor and may also emerge during the course of therapy or as late effects of the tumor and its treatment. Variables that influence the development of such neurologic complications include the type, size, and location of the tumor, the patient’s age at diagnosis, and the treatment

Nicole J. Ullrich



Multiparametric MR assessment of pediatric brain tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

MR assessment of pediatric brain tumors has expanded to include physiologic information related to cellular metabolites, hemodynamic and diffusion parameters. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between MR and proton MR spectroscopic imaging in children with primary brain tumors. Twenty-one patients (mean age 9 years) with histologically verified brain tumors underwent conventional MR imaging, hemodynamic MR

A. A. Tzika; L. Astrakas; M. Zarifi; N. Petridou; T. Young-Poussaint; L. Goumnerova; D. Zurakowski; D. Anthony; P. Black



Stereotactic techniques in managing pediatric brain tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stereotactic techniques available for managing pediatric brain tumors include not only stereotactic biopsy but also stereotactic craniotomy, brachytherapy, and stereotactic radiosurgery. This paper illustrates the use of these techniques in brain tumors in children over a 2-year period at Children's Hospital, Boston. Stereotactic biopsy was used in six cases of deep-seated tumor, with successful tissue diagnosis in all six. Stereotactic

Peter Mcl. Black; Nancy J. Tarbell; Eben Alexander; Mark Rockoff; Min-Shu Zhan; Jay Loeffler



Tumor-Associated Macrophages in Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neoplastic cells form only one part of a complex network of cell types that make up a breast tumor. The normal cell types that make up the nonneoplastic components of tumors include fibroblasts, endothelium, and inflammatory cells, such as tumor associated macrophages (TAMs). TAMs have the potential to carry out both anti- and protumor activities. In their antitumor role TAMs

Russell D. Leek; Adrian L. Harris



Magnetic resonance imaging of pelvic bone tumors.  


The aim of our study was to determine the value of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the diagnostic workup of pelvic bone tumors. We retrospectively evaluated the MR findings in 60 pelvic bone tumors. Owing to its high contrast resolution and multiplanar imaging capabilities, MR offers a clear depiction of cortical, medullar or soft tissue involvement, intratumoral necrosis, and relationship to neurovascular structures, and may be considered as the modality of choice for the staging of pelvic bone tumors. Since grading of bone tumors reaches a high accuracy on conventional radiography (CR), the value of MR imaging is rather complementary. Although the role of MR imaging in tissue characterization is mostly limited to recognition of tumoral components, accurate tissue characterization if often possible (e.g. in low-grade chondrosarcoma, eosinophilic granuloma, aneurysmal bone cyst, giant cell tumor, and chordoma). MR imaging in osteochondromas, metastases, and fibrous dysplasia remains of limited value since most of these lesions are well recognized on CR and/or CT. CR remains the first choice examination in diagnosis and grading of bone tumors, but MR imaging has significantly improved staging and tissue characterization in bone tumor imaging. The aim of our study is to determine the value of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the diagnostic workup of pelvic bone tumors, i.e. in staging, in differentiating benign from malignant tumors (grading), and in further characterization of tumors or tumoral components. PMID:8647781

De Beuckeleer, L H; De Schepper, A M; Ramon, F



Tumor and Stem Cell Biology Transiently Entrapped Circulating Tumor Cells Interact with  

E-print Network

Tumor and Stem Cell Biology Transiently Entrapped Circulating Tumor Cells Interact with Neutrophils,6 , and Gavin P. Robertson1,2,3,4,5 Abstract It is unknown why only a minority of circulating tumor cells through physical interaction and anchoring of circulating tumor cells to endothelium. Human melanoma cells

Dong, Cheng


Tumor-stroma interactions directing phenotype and progression of epithelial skin tumor cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor-stroma interactions play a significant role in tumor development and progression. Alterations in the stromal microenvironment, including enhanced vasculature (angiogenesis), modified extracellular matrix composition, inflammatory cells, and dys-balanced protease activity, are essential regulatory factors of tumor growth and invasion. Differential modulation of stromal characteristics is induced by epithelial skin tumor cells depending on their transformation stage when grown as surface

Margareta M. Mueller; Norbert E. Fusenig



Warthin Tumor of the Upper Lip: An Unusual Location of a Benign Salivary Gland Tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Warthin tumor (papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum) is a benign salivary gland tumor involving almost exclusively the parotid gland. The lip is a very unusual location for this type of tumor, which develops only rarely in minor salivary glands. The case of 42-year-old woman with Warthin tumor arising in minor salivary glands of the upper lip is reported.

Aroldo dos Santos Almeida; João Adolfo Costa Hanemann; Denise Tostes Oliveira



Epidemiology of germ cell tumors in Asia of pineal region tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A higher incidence of pineal region tumors in Asian countries compared to Western countries has been reported. In the Brain Tumor Registry of Japan (BTRJ), there were 38,273 primary brain tumors except those of unknown histology (1123 cases) registered in the period between 1984 and 1993, in which 807 pineal region tumors with 104 unknown histology were registered in BTRJ.

Kazuhiro Nomura



Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor mimicking carotid body tumor—case report and review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor is a rare neurogenic tumor that usually presents in geriatic patients. Typically, it is found in the trunk and extremities and rarely presents in the head and neck region. It may mimic a carotid body tumor when it presents in the neck. We report the first case of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the

R. M. Lee; C. P. Ong; A. S. Jacobsen; M. Y. Chan; W. S. Hwang



Mechanisms of tumor escape: role of tumor microenvironment in inducing apoptosis of cytolytic effector cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

.??Spontaneous tumors grow and kill the host unless therapy reduces their mass to a level where the immune system, it is thought, can control their growth and diffusion. Indeed, in many instances tumors can reappear, become resistant to therapy, and escape the host immune response. Many mechanisms of tumor escape operating in the tumor microenvironment have been proposed: 1) low

Alessandro Poggi; Maria Raffaella Zocchi



Influence of tumor antigen on maintenance versus depression of tumor- -specific immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The development of immunity to tumor-specific transplan tation antigens has been studied with a syngeneic methyl- cholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma. Of several immunization procedures tested, live tumor implantation followed by resection gave the strongest immune resistance to challenge implantation of tumor cells. The immune resistance persisted with only slight decline for at least 100 days after the sensitizing tumor was cured

Jan Vaage



Deregulation of tumor angiogenesis and blockade of tumor growth in PPARb-deficient mice  

E-print Network

Deregulation of tumor angiogenesis and blockade of tumor growth in PPARb-deficient mice Sabine Mu Peters5 and Rolf Mu� ller1, * 1 Institute of Molecular Biology and Tumor Research (IMT), Philipps show that the growth of syn- geneic Pparb wild-type tumors is impaired in Pparb�/� mice, concomitant

Omiecinski, Curtis


Minimization of Tumor Volume and Endothelial Support for a System Describing Tumor Anti-Angiogenesis  

E-print Network

Minimization of Tumor Volume and Endothelial Support for a System Describing Tumor Anti is a novel treatment approach for cancer that aims at preventing a tumor from developing its own network of the tumor. In this paper a mathematical model for anti-angiogenic treatment is analyzed as a 3- dimensional

Ledzewicz, Urszula


Aflac ST0901 CHOANOME - Sirolimus in Solid Tumors

Ewing's Sarcoma; Osteosarcoma; Astrocytoma; Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Ependymoma; Germ Cell Tumor; Glioma; Medulloblastoma; Rhabdoid Tumor; Retinoblastoma; Clear Cell Sarcoma; Renal Cell Carcinoma; Wilms Tumor; Hepatoblastoma; Neuroblastoma; Rhabdomyosarcoma



Survival Rates for Wilms Tumor by Stage and Histology  


... How is Wilms tumor treated? Survival rates for Wilms tumor by stage and histology Survival rates are often ... or she is familiar with your child’s situation. Wilms Tumor 4-year Survival Rates Tumor Stage Favorable Histology ...


Pazopanib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Progressive Carcinoid Tumors

Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Pulmonary Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Regional Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Stage III Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage IV Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma



[Advances in the relationship between tumor cell metabolism and tumor metastasis].  


Intracellular nutrients and the rate of energy flowing in tumor cells are often higher than that in normal cells due to the prolonged stress of tumor-specific microenvironment. In this context, the metabolism of tumor cells provides the fuel of bio-synthesis and energy required for tumor metastasis. Consistent with this, the abnormal metabolism such as extremely active glucose metabolism and excessive accumulating of fatty acid is also discovered in metastatic tumors. Previous Studies have confirmed that the regulation of tumor metabolism can affect the tumor metastasis, and some of these have been successfully applied in clinical effective, positive way. Thus, targeting metabolism of tumor cells might be an effectively positive way to prevent the metastasis of tumor. So, our review is focused on the research development of the relationship between tumor metabolism and metastasis as well as the underlying mechanism. PMID:25404272

Zhang, Yalong; Fang, Nianzhen; You, Jiacong; Zhou, Qinghua



Tumor-Infiltrating Immune Cells Promoting Tumor Invasion and Metastasis: Existing Theories  

PubMed Central

It is a commonly held belief that infiltration of immune cells into tumor tissues and direct physical contact between tumor cells and infiltrated immune cells is associated with physical destructions of the tumor cells, reduction of the tumor burden, and improved clinical prognosis. An increasing number of studies, however, have suggested that aberrant infiltration of immune cells into tumor or normal tissues may promote tumor progression, invasion, and metastasis. Neither the primary reason for these contradictory observations, nor the mechanism for the reported diverse impact of tumor-infiltrating immune cells has been elucidated, making it difficult to judge the clinical implications of infiltration of immune cells within tumor tissues. This mini-review presents several existing hypotheses and models that favor the promoting impact of tumor-infiltrating immune cells on tumor invasion and metastasis, and also analyzes their strength and weakness. PMID:23386907

Man, Yan-gao; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Mason, Jeffrey; Avital, Itzhak; Bilchik, Anton; Bruecher, Bjoern; Protic, Mladjan; Nissan, Aviram; Izadjoo, Mina; Zhang, Xichen; Jewett, Anahid



Intravital imaging of anti-tumor immune response and the tumor microenvironment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor growth, invasiveness, and metastasis are dynamic processes involving cancer interactions with the extracellular matrix,\\u000a the vasculature, and various types of non-cancerous host cells that form the tumor stroma. An often-present stromal component\\u000a is the immune cells, such as tumor-associated myeloid and lymphocytic infiltrates, yet endogenous anti-tumor immune responses\\u000a are typically ineffective in tumor rejection and may even contribute to

Tomasz Zal; Grzegorz Chodaczek



Blocking tumor cell eicosanoid synthesis by GPx4 impedes tumor growth and malignancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using tumor cell-restricted overexpression of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4), we investigated the contribution of tumor cell eicosanoids to solid tumor growth and malignant progression in two tumor models differing in tumorigenic potential. By lowering cellular lipid hydroperoxide levels, GPx4 inhibits cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) activities. GPx4 overexpression drastically impeded solid tumor growth of weakly tumorigenic L929 fibrosarcoma cells, whereas

Ingeborg Heirman; Daisy Ginneberge; Regina Brigelius-Flohé; Nico Hendrickx; Patrizia Agostinis; Peter Brouckaert; Pieter Rottiers; Johan Grooten



Tumor Metabolism of Malignant Gliomas  

PubMed Central

Constitutively activated oncogenic signaling via genetic mutations such as in the EGFR/PI3K/Akt and Ras/RAF/MEK pathways has been recognized as a major driver for tumorigenesis in most cancers. Recent insights into tumor metabolism have further revealed that oncogenic signaling pathways directly promote metabolic reprogramming to upregulate biosynthesis of lipids, carbohydrates, protein, DNA and RNA, leading to enhanced growth of human tumors. Therefore, targeting cell metabolism has become a novel direction for drug development in oncology. In malignant gliomas, metabolism pathways of glucose, glutamine and lipid are significantly reprogrammed. Moreover, molecular mechanisms causing these metabolic changes are just starting to be unraveled. In this review, we will summarize recent studies revealing critical gene alterations that lead to metabolic changes in malignant gliomas, and also discuss promising therapeutic strategies via targeting the key players in metabolic regulation. PMID:24217114

Ru, Peng; Williams, Terence M.; Chakravarti, Arnab; Guo, Deliang



Pathology of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is a well recognized and relatively well understood soft tissue tumor. Early events in GIST development are activating mutations in KIT or PDGFRA, which occur in most GISTs and encode for mutated tyrosine receptor kinases that are therapeutic targets for tyrosine kinase inhibitors, including imatinib and sunitinib. A small minority of GISTs possessing neither KIT nor PDGFRA mutations may have germline mutations in SDH, suggesting a potential role of SDH in the pathogenesis. Immunohistochemical detection of KIT, and more recently DOG1, has proven to be reliable and useful in the diagnosis of GISTs. Because current and future therapies depend on pathologists, it is important that they recognize KIT-negative GISTs, GISTs in specific clinical contexts, GISTs with unusual morphology, and GISTs after treatment. This review focuses on recent developments in the understanding of the biology, immunohistochemical diagnosis, the role of molecular analysis, and risk assessment of GISTs. PMID:22855636

Foo, Wai Chin; Liegl-Atzwanger, Bernadette; Lazar, Alexander J.



Pathology Case Study: Cystic Tumor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This cytogenetics case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. This case involves 21-year-old male presented with a mass in his right thigh. Prior to this, the patient was healthy and had no major health concerns. The tumor was removed and the attending doctor ordered a cytogenetic analysis of the specimen. The results from that analysis along with microscopic images and electron photomicrographs of the tumor are included in the case study to aid in the understanding of the final diagnosis. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâÂÂs conditions.

Dunn, Jean; Mnuskin, Anna; Surti, Urvashi



Senescent cells in growing tumors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tumors are defined by their intense proliferation, but sometimes cancer cells turn senescent and stop replicating. In the stochastic cancer model in which all cells are tumorigenic, senescence is seen as the result of random mutatations, suggesting that it could represent a barrier to tumor growth. In the hierarchical cancer model a subset of the cells, the cancer stem cells, divide indefinitely while other cells eventually turn senescent. Here we formulate cancer growth in mathematical terms and obtain distinct predictions for the evolution of senescence in the two models. We perform experiments in human melanoma cells which confirm the predictions of the hierarchical model and show that senescence is a reversible process controlled by survivin. We conclude that enhancing senescence is unlikely to provide a useful therapeutic strategy to fight cancer, unless the cancer stem cells are specifically targeted.

Zapperi, Stefano; La Porta, Caterina A. M.; Sethna, James P.



Genetically Engineered Mouse Models of Pituitary Tumors  

PubMed Central

Animal models constitute valuable tools for investigating the pathogenesis of cancer as well as for preclinical testing of novel therapeutics approaches. However, the pathogenic mechanisms of pituitary-tumor formation remain poorly understood, particularly in sporadic adenomas, thus, making it a challenge to model pituitary tumors in mice. Nevertheless, genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) of pituitary tumors have provided important insight into pituitary tumor biology. In this paper, we review various GEMMs of pituitary tumors, highlighting their contributions and limitations, and discuss opportunities for research in the field. PMID:25136513

Cano, David A.; Soto-Moreno, Alfonso; Leal-Cerro, Alfonso



Rheumatic manifestations of pituitary tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pituitary tumors may cause rheumatologic problems as a result of underproduction or overproduction of one pituitary hormone.\\u000a Excessive growth hormone causes destruction of cartilage by a direct action. Facial and acral changes and arthralgias may\\u000a be some of the first symptoms of acromegaly. The arthritis associated with acromegaly is often devastating. Carpal tunnel\\u000a syndrome is very common in patients with

Stavros Stavrou; David L. Kleinberg



Tumor Vessel Associated-Pericytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In blood vessels, the crosstalk between vascular endothelial cells and mural cells (pericytes\\/vascular smooth muscle cells)\\u000a play a central role in the regulation of vascular formation, maturation, remodeling, stabilization and function. During embryonic\\u000a development as well as tumor growth and metastasis the process of angiogenesis is tightly regulated by vascular endothelial\\u000a growth factor. Since vascular endothelial growth factor receptor is

Arne Bartol; Anna M. Laib; Hellmut G. Augustin


Cloacal anomaly with bladder tumor  

PubMed Central

A rare case of squamous cell carcinoma of bladder occurring in a 36-year-old female with persistent cloacal anomaly who presented with frequency, urgency, dysuria, and recurrent urinary tract infection is reported. Contrast Enhanced Computed Tomography with three dimensional reconstruction showed presence of bladder tumor and persistent cloaca. She underwent pelvic exenteration and wet colostomy. Histopathologic findings revealed locally advanced moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:23956519

Seth, Amlesh; Ram, Ishwar



The immunological identity of tumor  

PubMed Central

By means of well-characterized autoimmunity models, we comparatively probed the “selfness” of malignant cells and their normal counterparts. We found that tumors activate self-tolerance mechanisms much more efficiently than normal tissues, reflecting a status of immunoprivileged “self.” Our findings indicate that potent autoimmune responses can eradicate established malignancies, yet the collateral destruction of healthy tissues may prove difficult to circumvent. PMID:23734327

Miska, Jason; Devarajan, Priyadharshini; Chen, Zhibin



Tumor Stem Cells and Metastasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The last decade has seen the emergence of a shift in paradigm in the therapeutic strategies to target cancer. This is based\\u000a on the existence of a small reservoir of cells within the tumor mass that exhibits the capacity for self-renewal, as well\\u000a as undergo differentiation to give rise to phenotypically heterogeneous progeny with limited proliferative potential. These\\u000a stem-like cells

Jaclyn Y. Hung


Pituitary tumor diagnosis and treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past few years, significant contributions have been made to the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of pituitary\\u000a tumors. This article reviews recent advances in the areas of biology, diagnostic imaging, medical diagnosis and treatment,\\u000a surgical results and technique, and adjuvant therapy in the form of radiotherapy and radiosurgery. Of particular note are\\u000a the roles of endoscopy, intraoperative magnetic resonance

Paul L. Penar; David J. Nathan; Muriel H. Nathan; Afshin Salsali



Management of metastatic brain tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Brain metastases are the most common neurological complication of systemic cancer. They represent a serious cause of morbidity\\u000a and mortality and a significant challenge for neurosurgeons. They outnumber all other intracranial tumors combined and, with\\u000a advances in technology and treatment of systemic cancer, are on the increase as cancer patients live longer.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: We have reviewed the major factors

Raymond Sawaya; B. Lee Ligon; Rajesh K. Bindal



Principles of Modular Tumor Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Nature is interwoven with communication and is represented and reproduced through communication acts. The central question\\u000a is how may multimodal modularly acting and less toxic therapy approaches, defined as modular therapies, induce an objective\\u000a response or even a continuous complete remission, although single stimulatory or inhibitingly acting drugs neither exert mono-activity\\u000a in the respective metastatic tumor type nor are they

Albrecht Reichle; Gerhard C. Hildebrandt


Principles of Modular Tumor Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nature is interwoven with communication and is represented and reproduced through communication acts. The central question\\u000a is how may multimodal modularly acting and less toxic therapy approaches, defined as modular therapies, induce an objective\\u000a response or even a continuous complete remission, although single stimulatory or inhibitingly acting drugs neither exert mono-activity\\u000a in the respective metastatic tumor type nor are they

Albrecht Reichle; Gerhard C. Hildebrandt



Tumor pathology of the orbit.  


The term orbital tumor covers a wide range of benign and malignant diseases affecting specific component of the orbit or developing in contact with them. They are found incidentally or may be investigated as part of the assessment of a systemic disorder or because of orbital signs (exophthalmos, pain, etc.). Computed tomography, MRI and Color Doppler Ultrasound (CDU), play a varying role depending on the clinical presentation and the disease being investigated. This article reflects long experience in a reference center but does not claim to be exhaustive. We have chosen to consider these tumors from the perspective of their usual presentation, emphasizing the most common causes and suggestive radiological and clinical presentations (progressive or sudden-onset exophthalmos, children or adults, lacrimal gland lesions, periorbital lesions and enophthalmos). We will describe in particular muscle involvement (thyrotoxicosis and tumors), vascular lesions (cavernous sinus hemangioma, orbital varix, cystic lymphangioma), childhood lesions and orbital hematomas. We offer straightforward useful protocols for simple investigation and differential diagnosis. Readers who wish to go further to extend their knowledge in this fascinating area can refer to the references in the bibliography. PMID:25195185

Héran, F; Bergès, O; Blustajn, J; Boucenna, M; Charbonneau, F; Koskas, P; Lafitte, F; Nau, E; Roux, P; Sadik, J C; Savatovsky, J; Williams, M



Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Young Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors

Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific



Measures of Acutance and Shape for Classification of Breast Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most benign breast tumors possess well-defined, sharp boundaries that delineate them from surrounding tissues, as opposed to malignant tumors. Computer techniques proposed to date for tumor analysis have concentrated on shape factors of tumor regions and texture measures. While shape measures based on contours of tumor regions can indicate differences in shape complexities between circumscribed and spiculated tumors, they are

Rangaraj M. Rangayyan; Nema M. El-Faramawy; J. E. Leo Desautels; Onsy Abdel Alim



Chemokines in tumor angiogenesis and metastasis  

PubMed Central

Chemokines are a large group of low molecular weight cytokines that are known to selectively attract and activate different cell types. Although the primary function of chemokines is well recognized as leukocyte attractants, recent evidences indicate that they also play a role in number of tumor-related processes, such as growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Chemokines activate cells through cell surface seven trans-membranes, G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). The role played by chemokines and their receptors in tumor pathophysiology is complex as some chemokines favor tumor growth and metastasis, while others may enhance anti-tumor immunity. These diverse functions of chemokines establish them as key mediators between the tumor cells and their microenvironment and play critical role in tumor progression and metastasis. In this review, we present some of the recent advances in chemokine research with special emphasis on its role in tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. PMID:17828470

Singh, Seema; Sadanandam, Anguraj



Cancer stem cells and tumor metastasis (Review).  


Previous studies have shown that tumors can induce angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, which plays an important role in promoting hematogenous and lymphogenous spread. In recent years, the cancer stem cell (CSC) theory has emerged as an attractive hypothesis for tumor development and progression. The theory proposes that one small subset of cancer cells has the characteristics of stem cells. These CSCs have the capability of both self-renewal and differentiation into diverse cancer cells, which play a decisive role in maintaining capacity for malignant proliferation, invasion, metastasis, and tumor recurrence. CSCs are involved in tumor metastasis, however, the details, and the possible relationship of CSCs, angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and tumor metastasis is still ambiguous. The aim of this report is to summarize current studies of CSCs and tumor metastasis at the cellular level, with the goal of bringing new insights into understanding the role of CSCs in tumor metastasis. PMID:24691919

Li, Shuang; Li, Qin



Quantitative relationships of intravascular tumor cells, tumor vessels and pulmonary metastases following tumor implantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY An experimental model has been developed to quantify some of the major processes initiated by tumor transplanta tion and culminating in pulmonary métastases. The T241 fibrosarcoma, chosen because of its high hematogenous metastatic propensity and reproducible biological behavior, is transplanted into the femoral region of the C57BL mouse. Experiments are performed at specified times after trans plantation to determine

Lance Allen Liotta; Jerome Kleinerman; Gerald M. Saidel



Imaging Review of Skeletal Tumors of the Pelvis Malignant Tumors and Tumor Mimics  

PubMed Central

Malignant lesions of the pelvis are not uncommon and need to be differentiated from benign lesions and tumor mimics. Appearances are sometimes nonspecific leading to consideration of a broad differential diagnosis. Clinical history, anatomic location, and imaging characterization can help narrow the differential diagnosis. The focus of this paper is to demonstrate the imaging features and the role of plain films, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging for detecting and characterizing malignant osseous pelvic lesions and their common mimics. PMID:22593667

Girish, Gandikota; Finlay, Karen; Fessell, David; Pai, Deepa; Dong, Qian; Jamadar, David



[Ovarian tumor markers of presumed benign ovarian tumors].  


Cancer Antigen 125 (CA125) and Human Epididymis Protein 4 (HE4) are the most studied ovarian tumor markers. Their diagnostic performance for identification of ovarian cancer are superior to CA19-9, CA72-4, and carcinoembryonic antigen, which are no more recommended for the diagnosis of presumed benign ovarian tumor. HE4 (>140 pmol/L) is superior to CA125 (>30 U/mL) in terms of specificity and positive likelihood ratio. CA125 and HE4 can be combined into an algorithm ROMA, or associated to clinical information (composite index), biological data (OVA1) or imaging (Risk for Malignancy Index (RMI), LR2). ROMA algorithm is an exponential equation combining plasmatic concentrations of HE4 and CA125. ROMA is more sensitive and less specific than HE4 in predicting epithelial ovarian cancer. ROMA is more accurate in post-menopausal women. The performance of ROMA is lower than the ultrasound model LR2 in differentiating malignant from benign ovarian tumors, whatever the hormonal status. The composite index combining CA125 with a symptoms index (pain, abdominal distension, bloating, difficulty eating) has a good sensitivity in a screening program, but because of a 12% false positive rate, ultrasound is required before management. The RMI algorithm is based on serum CA125, ultrasound findings (septation, solid zones, metastases, ascite, bilaterality) and menopausal status. RMI is less sensitive, but more specific than ROMA or OVA1 for the classification of ovarian masses. The addition of HE4 to RMI seems to be the most accurate. The subjective evaluation of ovarian cysts by sonography and color Doppler is better than ROMA and RMI algorithms, and not affected by the hormonal status. PMID:24210243

Lahlou, N; Brun, J-L



Collision tumor with inflammatory breast carcinoma and malignant phyllodes tumor: a case report and literature review.  


There have been some reports of coincidental presentation of breast carcinoma and phyllodes tumor in the same breast. Most of the cases were carcinoma that arose from a phyllodes tumor with a histologically identified transitional area, and they behaved less aggressively than the usually encountered carcinoma. Collision tumors are rare clinical entities in which two histologically distinct tumor types show involvement at the same site. The occurrence of these tumors in the breast is extremely rare. Here, we report a case of 45-year-old woman who had both invasive ductal carcinoma as the finding of inflammatory carcinoma and a malignant phyllodes tumor in the same breast. There was no evidence of a transitional area between the phyllodes tumor and the invasive ductal carcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a collision tumor of inflammatory breast carcinoma coincident with a malignant phyllodes tumor in same breast. PMID:24400686

Shin, Young Duck; Lee, Seul Kee; Kim, Kyu Sun; Park, Mi Ja; Kim, Joo Heon; Yim, Hyun Sun; Choi, Young Jin



Collision tumor with inflammatory breast carcinoma and malignant phyllodes tumor: a case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

There have been some reports of coincidental presentation of breast carcinoma and phyllodes tumor in the same breast. Most of the cases were carcinoma that arose from a phyllodes tumor with a histologically identified transitional area, and they behaved less aggressively than the usually encountered carcinoma. Collision tumors are rare clinical entities in which two histologically distinct tumor types show involvement at the same site. The occurrence of these tumors in the breast is extremely rare. Here, we report a case of 45-year-old woman who had both invasive ductal carcinoma as the finding of inflammatory carcinoma and a malignant phyllodes tumor in the same breast. There was no evidence of a transitional area between the phyllodes tumor and the invasive ductal carcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a collision tumor of inflammatory breast carcinoma coincident with a malignant phyllodes tumor in same breast. PMID:24400686



PET/CT in benign and malignant musculoskeletal tumors and tumor-like conditions.  


This article briefly reviews malignant bone tumors, diffuse marrow infiltrating diseases, and other benign bone diseases with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) that should be differentiated from malignant tumors. Clinical use of FDG PET/CT in (1) primary malignant bone tumors including osteosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, and primary bone lymphoma, (2) hematopoietic tumors with bone marrow involvement, such as plasmacytoma, multiple myeloma, lymphoma and leukemia, and (3) benign tumors and tumor-like lesions including hemangioma, neurogenic tumor, fibrous dysplasia, and nodular fasciitis are presented, with an emphasis on various imaging findings on FDG PET/CT. Benign tumors and tumor-like conditions are often incidentally detected on FDG PET/CT in serial follow-up studies of cancer patients and should be differentiated from metastasis. PMID:24715446

Choi, Yun Young; Kim, Ji Young; Yang, Seoung-Oh



Malignant odontogenic tumors: an update on selected tumors.  


This is an update on selected odontogenic malignancies. The article deals with aspects of recognized odontogenic carcinomas, odontogenic sarcoma and a yet unrecognized entity, sclerosing odontogenic carcinoma. Odontogenic malignancies are exceedingly rare, complicating a thorough understanding of the biologic behavior, reproducible standardized diagnostic criteria, appropriate classification and clinical management. Without the knowledge of the tumor's biologic behavior, adequate clinical management is difficult and patient outcomes uncertain. The histopathologic features are emphasized as well as the more recent biomarker findings. These recent advances may facilitate further understanding of this group of malignancies and provide useful stratification to guide patient management. PMID:25409848

Richardson, Mary S; Muller, Susan



Isolation of Immune Cells from Primary Tumors  

PubMed Central

Tumors create a unique immunosuppressive microenvironment (tumor microenvironment, TME) whereby leukocytes are recruited into the tumor by various chemokines and growth factors 1,2. However, once in the TME, these cells lose the ability to promote anti-tumor immunity and begin to support tumor growth and down-regulate anti-tumor immune responses 3-4. Studies on tumor-associated leukocytes have mainly focused on cells isolated from tumor-draining lymph nodes or spleen due to the inherent difficulties in obtaining sufficient cell numbers and purity from the primary tumor. While identifying the mechanisms of cell activation and trafficking through the lymphatic system of tumor bearing mice is important and may give insight to the kinetics of immune responses to cancer, in our experience, many leukocytes, including dendritic cells (DCs), in tumor-draining lymph nodes have a different phenotype than those that infiltrate tumors 5,6 . Furthermore, we have previously demonstrated that adoptively-transferred T cells isolated from the tumor-draining lymph nodes are not tolerized and are capable of responding to secondary stimulation in vitro unlike T cells isolated from the TME, which are tolerized and incapable of proliferation or cytokine production 7,8. Interestingly, we have shown that changing the tumor microenvironment, such as providing CD4+ T helper cells via adoptive transfer, promotes CD8+ T cells to maintain pro-inflammatory effector functions 5. The results from each of the previously mentioned studies demonstrate the importance of measuring cellular responses from TME-infiltrating immune cells as opposed to cells that remain in the periphery. To study the function of immune cells which infiltrate tumors using the Miltenyi Biotech isolation system9, we have modified and optimized this antibody-based isolation procedure to obtain highly enriched populations of antigen presenting cells and tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. The protocol includes a detailed dissection of murine prostate tissue from a spontaneous prostate tumor model (TRansgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate -TRAMP) 10 and a subcutaneous melanoma (B16) tumor model followed by subsequent purification of various leukocyte populations. PMID:22733225

Watkins, Stephanie K.; Zhu, Ziqiang; Watkins, Keith E.; Hurwitz, Arthur A.



Thoracoscopic treatment of benign esophageal tumors  

PubMed Central

Introduction Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are among the most frequent mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract; the incidence of these tumors in the esophagus is less than 5%. Prognosis depends on localization, size, mitotic activity and possible invasion of surrounding structures. Minimally invasive surgery may be maximally utilized for removal of these tumors from the esophageal wall. This operation is usually performed thoracoscopically or laparoscopically and using the “rendez-vous” method – with endoscopic navigation. Aim To evaluate a set of patients with benign tumor of the esophagus who were operated on at the First Department of Surgery from 2006 to 2011. Material and methods In the years 2006-2011 a total of 11 patients with benign tumors of the esophagus underwent operation. Results Of the 11 patients with esophageal tumor, 5 were diagnosed with gastrointestinal stromal tumor, 5 with leiomyoma and in one patient the lesion was described as heterotopy of the pancreas. We used the minimally invasive rendez-vous method with endoscopic navigation in 9 cases. All patients healed primarily and were released from hospital on the 4th-7th day. These patients are being followed up as outpatients and recurrence of the tumor has not been observed in any of them. Conclusions Minimally invasive treatment of benign tumors of the esophageal wall is considered to the method of choice. Due to possible complications and the need for subsequent therapy in some patients, these procedures should be centralized to departments with experience in esophageal, thoracic and minimally invasive surgery. PMID:23362430

Neoral, Cestmir; Aujesky, Rene; Skarda, Jozef; Vrba, Radek; Chudacek, Josef; Vomackova, Katherine



Parotid gland tumors in a Korean population.  


Salivary gland tumors occur in about 3% of the head and neck tumors, and among the salivary gland tumors, parotid gland tumor occurs in about 80%. Because of its low frequency and small cases, it is hard to establish the epidemiologic characteristics of the tumors. This study was performed retrospectively from February 1987 to August 2010. There were 95 male, and 76 female patients. Most of the patients complained of the painless and progressively enlarged mass in the preauricular area. Peak incidence of benign parotid gland tumor was at the fifth decade of life. In the malignant tumors, peak age in males was the eighth decade, and peak age in females was from the third to the fifth decade of life, which was relatively younger and has a broad range of spectrum. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumor of the 93 cases (61.6%) followed by Warthin tumor, occurring in 20 cases (13.2%). Squamous cell carcinoma, reported in 6 cases (30%), is the most frequent. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the second leading tumor. In conclusion, parotid gland tumor incidence was found to be higher in males. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most commonly encountered type of parotid gland neoplasms, which is in agreement with findings from all of the published literature from all over world. In contrast to most of the previous studies, squamous cell carcinoma was the most frequent malignant tumor found. Based on the data in this study, it has significant clinical respect and is helpful in the management of parotid gland tumors in Orientals. PMID:22627434

Lee, Young Man; Choi, Hwan Jun; Kim, Joo Won; Kim, Jun Hyuk



Malignant Trigeminal Nerve Sheath Tumor and Anaplastic Astrocytoma Collision Tumor with High Proliferative Activity and Tumor Suppressor P53 Expression  

PubMed Central

Background. The synchronous development of two primary brain tumors of distinct cell of origin in close proximity or in contact with each other is extremely rare. We present the first case of collision tumor with two histological distinct tumors. Case Presentation. A 54-year-old woman presented with progressive atypical left facial pain and numbness for 8 months. MRI of the brain showed left middle cranial fossa heterogeneous mass extending into the infratemporal fossa. At surgery, a distinct but intermingled intra- and extradural tumor was demonstrated which was completely removed through left orbitozygomatic-temporal craniotomy. Histopathological examination showed that the tumor had two distinct components: malignant nerve sheath tumor of the trigeminal nerve and temporal lobe anaplastic astrocytoma. Proliferative activity and expressed tumor protein 53 (TP53) gene mutations were demonstrated in both tumors. Conclusions. We describe the first case of malignant trigeminal nerve sheath tumor (MTNST) and anaplastic astrocytoma in collision and discuss the possible hypothesis of this rare occurrence. We propose that MTNST, with TP53 mutation, have participated in the formation of anaplastic astrocytoma, or vice versa. PMID:25386378

Al-Ardati, Hosam; Baeesa, Saleh S.



Esophageal Lipoma: A Rare Tumor  

PubMed Central

Esophageal lipomas are rare tumors, making up 0.4% of all digestive tract benign neoplasms. Most of these lesions are clinically silent as a result of their small size, however, the majority of lesions over 4 cm have been reported to cause dysphagia, regurgitation and/or epigastralgia. We report a case of a 53 year-old African American female who presented with dysphagia. Computed tomography of the chest and esophagram confirmed esophageal lipoma as the cause of the patient’s symptoms. Accurately diagnosing an esophageal lipoma is crucial in order to rule out potential malignant lesions, relieve patient symptoms and plan the appropriate treatment. PMID:23365708

Feldman, Jeremy; Tejerina, Manfred; Hallowell, Michael



Gossypiboma mimicking a retroperitoneal tumor.  


"Gossypiboma" denotes a mass of cotton that is retained in the body after surgery. An image is presented of a retroperitoneal mass in a lady who had a right nephrectomy 8 years earlier for a nonfunctioning kidney. Clinical examination and plain abdominal radiography were not contributory. Contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography revealed a well-defined, heterogeneous, spherical, soft-tissue mass, 13 × 9 × 9 cm in size, in the retroperitoneum, with a dense enhanced wall, abutting the right psoas and posterior abdominal wall. Exploration revealed an abdominal sponge surrounded by foreign body granuloma adherent to surrounding structures. Gossypiboma can mimic a tumor and is a diagnostic challenge. PMID:25123428

Jacob Philip George, Arun; Mukha, Rajiv Paul; Kekre, Nitin S



Pathology Case Study: Metastasizing Tumor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a woman presented with a low-grade sarcoma with features of plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumor in the subcutaneous soft tissue of left posterior thigh. Visitors can view both gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of soft tissue pathology.

Rao, Uma N.; Rostami, Sassan



Radiation-induced nitric oxide mitigates tumor hypoxia and radioresistance in a murine SCCVII tumor model  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •IR-induced NO increased tissue perfusion and pO{sub 2}. •IR increased NO production in tumors without changes in the mRNA and protein levels of NOS isoforms. •NOS activity assay showed that IR upregulated eNOS activity in tumors. •IR-induced NO decreased tumor hypoxia and altered tumor radiosensitivity. -- Abstract: Tumor hypoxia, which occurs mainly as a result of inadequate tissue perfusion in solid tumors, is a well-known challenge for successful radiotherapy. Recent evidence suggests that ionizing radiation (IR) upregulates nitric oxide (NO) production and that IR-induced NO has the potential to increase intratumoral circulation. However, the kinetics of NO production and the responsible isoforms for NO synthase in tumors exposed to IR remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the mechanism by which IR stimulates NO production in tumors and the effect of IR-induced NO on tumor radiosensitivity. Hoechst33342 perfusion assay and electron spin resonance oxymetry showed that IR increased tissue perfusion and pO{sub 2} in tumor tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis using two different hypoxic probes showed that IR decreased hypoxic regions in tumors; treatment with a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, L-NAME, abrogated the effects of IR. Moreover, IR increased endothelial NOS (eNOS) activity without affecting its mRNA or protein expression levels in SCCVII-transplanted tumors. Tumor growth delay assay showed that L-NAME decreased the anti-tumor effect of fractionated radiation (10 Gy × 2). These results suggested that IR increased eNOS activity and subsequent tissue perfusion in tumors. Increases in intratumoral circulation simultaneously decreased tumor hypoxia. As a result, IR-induced NO increased tumor radiosensitivity. Our study provides a new insight into the NO-dependent mechanism for efficient fractionated radiotherapy.

Nagane, Masaki, E-mail: [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)] [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Yasui, Hironobu, E-mail: [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)] [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Yamamori, Tohru, E-mail: [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)] [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Zhao, Songji, E-mail: [Department of Tracer Kinetics and Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)] [Department of Tracer Kinetics and Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Kuge, Yuji, E-mail: [Central Institute of Isotope Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)] [Central Institute of Isotope Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Tamaki, Nagara, E-mail: [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)] [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Kameya, Hiromi, E-mail: [Food Safety Division, National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan)] [Food Safety Division, National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan); Nakamura, Hideo, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Hokkaido University of Education, Hakodate (Japan)] [Department of Chemistry, Hokkaido University of Education, Hakodate (Japan); Fujii, Hirotada, E-mail: [Center for Medical Education, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo (Japan)] [Center for Medical Education, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo (Japan); Inanami, Osamu, E-mail: [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)] [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)



Tumor-altered dendritic cell function: implications for anti-tumor immunity.  


Dendritic cells (DC) are key regulators of both innate and adaptive immunity, and the array of immunoregulatory functions exhibited by these cells is dictated by their differentiation, maturation, and activation status. Although a major role for these cells in the induction of immunity to pathogens has long been appreciated, data accumulated over the last several years has demonstrated that DC are also critical regulators of anti-tumor immune responses. However, despite the potential for stimulation of robust anti-tumor immunity by DC, tumor-altered DC function has been observed in many cancer patients and tumor-bearing animals and is often associated with tumor immune escape. Such dysfunction has significant implications for both the induction of natural anti-tumor immune responses as well as the efficacy of immunotherapeutic strategies that target endogenous DC in situ or that employ exogenous DC as part of anti-cancer immunization maneuvers. In this review, the major types of tumor-altered DC function will be described, with emphasis on recent insights into the mechanistic bases for the inhibition of DC differentiation from hematopoietic precursors, the altered programing of DC precursors to differentiate into myeloid-derived suppressor cells or tumor-associated macrophages, the suppression of DC maturation and activation, and the induction of immunoregulatory DC by tumors, tumor-derived factors, and tumor-associated cells within the milieu of the tumor microenvironment. The impact of these tumor-altered cells on the quality of the overall anti-tumor immune response will also be discussed. Finally, this review will also highlight questions concerning tumor-altered DC function that remain unanswered, and it will address factors that have limited advances in the study of this phenomenon in order to focus future research efforts in the field on identifying strategies for interfering with tumor-associated DC dysfunction and improving DC-mediated anti-tumor immunity. PMID:23874338

Hargadon, Kristian M



Surgical management of pediatric brain tumors.  


Brain tumors are the most common cause of cancer-related death and the second most common form of cancer in pediatric patients. Many of these tumors are treated primarily with surgery, either alone or in combination with radiation or chemotherapy. Recent advances have lead to greater survival and decreased morbidities in childhood brain tumor patients. A full understanding of the biology and primary treatment modalities for the particular tumor are essential for any professional treating these patients, including the neurosurgeon. Each tumor type has features in common with, and unique from, other tumors that need to be understood prior to undertaking a rational treatment plan. This article summarizes some of these features. PMID:18076320

Heuer, Gregory G; Jackson, Eric M; Magge, Suresh N; Storm, Phillip B



Tumor Bioengineering Using a Transglutaminase Crosslinked Hydrogel  

PubMed Central

Development of a physiologically relevant 3D model system for cancer research and drug development is a current challenge. We have adopted a 3D culture system based on a transglutaminase-crosslinked gelatin gel (Col-Tgel) to mimic the tumor 3D microenvironment. The system has several unique advantages over other alternatives including presenting cell-matrix interaction sites from collagen-derived peptides, geometry-initiated multicellular tumor spheroids, and metabolic gradients in the tumor microenvironment. Also it provides a controllable wide spectrum of gel stiffness for mechanical signals, and technical compatibility with imaging based screening due to its transparent properties. In addition, the Col-Tgel provides a cure-in-situ delivery vehicle for tumor xenograft formation in animals enhancing tumor cell uptake rate. Overall, this distinctive 3D system could offer a platform to more accurately mimic in vivo situations to study tumor formation and progression both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25133673

Fang, Josephine Y.; Tan, Shih-Jye; Yang, Zhi; Tayag, Charisse; Han, Bo



PML Surfs into HIPPO Tumor Suppressor Pathway  

PubMed Central

Growth arrest, inhibition of cell proliferation, apoptosis, senescence, and differentiation are the most characterized effects of a given tumor suppressor response. It is becoming increasingly clear that tumor suppression results from the integrated and synergistic activities of different pathways. This implies that tumor suppression includes linear, as well as lateral, crosstalk signaling. The latter may happen through the concomitant involvement of common nodal proteins. Here, we discuss the role of Promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) in functional cross-talks with the HIPPO and the p53 family tumor suppressor pathways. PML, in addition to its own anti-tumor activity, contributes to the assembly of an integrated and superior network that may be necessary for the maximization of the tumor suppressor response to diverse oncogenic insults. PMID:23459691

Strano, Sabrina; Fausti, Francesca; Di Agostino, Silvia; Sudol, Marius; Blandino, Giovanni



A Case of Cutaneous Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor  

PubMed Central

Pseudo-inflammatory tumors are also known as plasma cell granuloma, inflammatory pseudo-tumor and inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, and these tumors are a group of highly variable proliferations of myofibroblastic cells that are associated with a prominent inflammatory infiltrate. This tumor is known to most commonly occur in the lungs, bladder and gastrointestinal system with only a few cases having been reported in the skin. A previously healthy 26-year-old man presented with a 6-year history of an intermittently pruritic lesion on his back. On the histologic examination, there were spindle cells in fascicles and a mixed inflammatory cellular infiltrate of plasma cells and lymphocytes. A diagnosis of inflammatory fibroblastic tumor was made and the nodule was surgically removed. We report here on an additional case of this rare cutaneous entity, and it is probably the first such report from Korea. PMID:20548893

Son, Soo Bin; Heo, Young Soo; Shin, Won Woong; Oh, Tae Seok; Song, Hae Jun



Radiosurgery for miscellaneous skull base tumors.  


Stereotactic radiosurgery has become an integral part of conventional and advanced skull base surgery. Despite the advances in skull base techniques, the goal of total resection of such tumors is often problematic and associated with significant risk to critical structures of the skull base, including those within the cavernous sinus, those in the petrous apex, and the jugular bulb. Aggressive resection of such tumors sometimes results in severe adverse neurological events, ranging from permanent extraocular movement deficits to hearing loss, facial weakness, and difficulties with vagal and glossopharyngeal function. Gamma Knife radiosurgery is a primary alternative option for these patients. It minimizes the risks of open surgical techniques and preserves existing cranial nerve function in most patients and achieves tumor growth arrest. Adjuvant radiosurgery is used for larger tumors after their initial partial resection. Gamma Knife radiosurgery becomes an adjuvant tool to provide longterm tumor growth control of a significantly reduced tumor volume. PMID:17317987

Lunsford, L Dade; Niranjan, Ajay; Martin, Juan J; Sirin, Sait; Kassam, Amin; Kondziolka, Douglas; Flickinger, John C



Human tumor cells killed by anthracyclines induce a tumor-specific immune response.  


Immunogenic cell death is characterized by the early surface exposure of chaperones including calreticulin and HSPs, which affect dendritic cell (DC) maturation and the uptake and presentation of tumor antigens. It has also been shown that it is characterized by the late release of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), which acts through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and augments the presentation of antigens from dying tumor cells to DCs. Most of the data on immunogenic tumor cell death were obtained using mouse models. In this study, we investigated the capacity of clinically used chemotherapeutics to induce immunogenic cell death in human tumor cell lines and primary tumor cells. We found that only anthracyclines induced a rapid translocation of calreticulin, HSP70, and HSP90 to the cell surface and the release of HMGB1 12 hours after the treatment. The interaction of immature DCs with immunogenic tumor cells led to an increased tumor cell uptake and induces moderate phenotypic maturation of DCs. Killed tumor cell-loaded DCs efficiently stimulated tumor-specific IFN-?-producing T cells. DCs pulsed with killed immunogenic tumor cells also induced significantly lower numbers of regulatory T cells than those pulsed with nonimmunogenic tumor cells. These data indicate that human prostate cancer, ovarian cancer, and acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells share the key features of immunogenic cell death with mice tumor cells. These data also identify anthracyclines as anticancer drugs capable of inducing immunogenic cell death in sensitive human tumor cells. PMID:21602432

Fucikova, Jitka; Kralikova, Petra; Fialova, Anna; Brtnicky, Tomas; Rob, Lukas; Bartunkova, Jirina; Spísek, Radek



Effect of tumor cells and tumor microenvironment on NK-cell function.  


The ability of tumors to manage an immune-mediated attack has been recently included in the "next generation" of cancer hallmarks. In solid tumors, the microenvironment that is generated during the first steps of tumor development has a pivotal role in immune regulation. An intricate net of cross-interactions occurring between tumor components, stromal cells, and resident or recruited immune cells skews the possible acute inflammatory response toward an aberrant ineffective chronic inflammatory status that favors the evasion from the host's defenses. Natural killer (NK) cells have powerful cytotoxic activity, but their activity may be eluded by the tumor microenvironment. Immunosubversion, immunoediting or immunoselection of poorly immunogenic tumor cells and interference with tumor infiltration play a major role in evading NK-cell responses to tumors. Tumor cells, tumor-associated fibroblasts and tumor-induced aberrant immune cells (i.e. tolerogenic or suppressive macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells) can interfere with NK-cell activation pathways or the complex receptor array that regulate NK-cell activation and antitumor activity. Thus, the definition of tumor microenvironment-related immunosuppressive factors, along with the identification of new classes of tissue-residing NK-like innate lymphoid cells, represent key issues to design effective NK-cell-based therapies of solid tumors. PMID:24777896

Vitale, Massimo; Cantoni, Claudia; Pietra, Gabriella; Mingari, Maria Cristina; Moretta, Lorenzo



Solitary fibrous tumor of the submandibular gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solitary fibrous tumors (SFT) are generally benign, well-circumscribed soft-tissue tumors of mesenchymal origin. CD34 antigen expression is characteristic for this tumor. A rare subgroup shows malignant histological patterns with aggressive behavior. The common site of occurrence is the pleura, but various other sites, including the head and neck, have been described. We present a 56-year-old, white, female patient with a

Thiemo Hofmann; Hannes Braun; Wolfgang Köle; Alfred Beham



Papillary tumor of the pineal region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumors of the pineal region are rare in adulthood, accounting for approximately 1% of intracranial neoplasms in this age range.\\u000a Papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR) was first described by Jouvet et al. in 2003. In 2007, PTPR was included by the\\u000a World Health Organization as a distinct entity in their new classification of central nervous system tumors. We

Gerival Vieira Júnior; Marcos Dellaretti; Gervásio Teles Cardoso de Carvalho; Rafael Augusto Castro Santiago Brandão; Arnoldo Mafra; Atos Alves de Sousa


High-Grade Pediatric Spinal Cord Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our institutional experience with high-grade pediatric spinal cord tumors includes 11 children treated during the period of 1981–1997. All patients underwent a biopsy or an attempt at resection and received postoperative radiation therapy. Three patients had a gross-total resection of their primary tumor, 6 patients had a subtotal resection and the remaining 2 were biopsied. Histologically, these tumors were characterized

Thomas E. Merchant; Duyen Nguyen; Stephen J. Thompson; David A. Reardon; Larry E. Kun; Robert A. Sanford



Descriptive epidemiology of primary spinal cord tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Object There is little population-based data available on primary spinal cord tumors. Many of the existing statistics are not current\\u000a or were obtained from surgical series. Historically, population-based data were collected only for malignant tumors, and only\\u000a recently have data begun to be collected on non-malignant tumors. The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence\\u000a of both non-malignant

Kate A. Schellinger; Jennifer M. Propp; J. Lee Villano; Bridget J. McCarthy



Radiology of Soft Tissue Tumors Including Melanoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soft tissue tumors are defined as mesenchymal proliferations that occur in the extraskeletal, non-epithelial tissues of the\\u000a body, excluding the viscera, coverings of the brain and lymphoreticular system [1]. The true frequency of soft tissue tumors\\u000a is difficult to estimate because most benign lesions are not removed. A conservative estimate is that benign tumors outnumber\\u000a their malignant counterparts by a

M. J. Shelly; P. J. MacMahon; S. Eustace


Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided tumor ablation.  


With the introduction of curvilinear endosonoscopes, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) has achieved the role of a therapeutic modality as well as diagnostic procedure. EUS-guided tumor ablation is one such therapeutic modality. Various techniques of EUS-guided tumor ablation have been described, including radiofrequency ablation, photodynamic therapy, laser ablation, and ethanol injection. Most of the currently described techniques are experimental. Development and continuous improvement of devices, as well as establishment of indications for EUS-guided tumor ablations, are mandatory. PMID:22632957

Yoon, Won Jae; Brugge, William R



Metastasis Suppressors and the Tumor Microenvironment  

PubMed Central

The most dangerous attribute of cancer cells is their ability to metastasize. Throughout the process of metastasis, tumor cells interact with other tumor cells, host cells and extracellular molecules. This brief review explores how a new class of molecules – metastasis suppressors – regulate tumor cell–microenvironmental interactions. Data are presented which demonstrate that metastasis suppressors act at multiple steps of the metastatic cascade. A brief discussion for how metastasis suppressor regulation of cellular interactions might be exploited is presented. PMID:19308680

Bodenstine, Thomas M.



Contrast Ultrasound in Imaging Tumor Angiogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a New strategies to detect tumor angiogenesis and monitor response of tumor vasculature to therapy are needed. There are a plethora\\u000a of anti-angiogenic strategies being evaluated pre-clinically and in the clinical setting; however, a ­significant unmet challenge\\u000a is following the response of tumors to anti-angiogenic therapy. Herein we review current modalities being investigated for\\u000a this purpose and highlight the utility of

Grzegorz Korpanty; Rolf A. Brekken


Thoracic phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors causing oncogenic osteomalacia.  


Oncogenic osteomalacia is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome induced by mesenchymal tumors. Just over 100 cases have been reported for this rare disorder, and only seven instances were caused by phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors of the spine. The authors present an illustrative case of a 61-year-old woman with oncogenic osteomalacia induced by a tumor of the spine, and review the literature describing the clinical presentation, surgical treatment, and follow-up of this syndrome. PMID:23618679

Puthenveetil, Peter J; Hattab, Eyas M; Peacock, Munro; Horn, Eric M



Cell Adhesion Molecules in Tumor Metastasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

When tumors progress to greater malignancy, cells within the tumor develop an increasing ability to detach from neighboring\\u000a cells and invade through surrounding tissues and tissue boundaries to form new growths (metastasis) at sites distinct from\\u000a that of the primary tumor. The molecular mechanisms involved in the metastatic process are diverse and not completely understood;\\u000a however, the processes of cell-cell

Sujata Persad; Gurmit Singh


Tumors of the peripheral nerves and plexuses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Peripheral nerve tumors are a diverse group of lesions histologically and in their clinical behavior. The genetic disorders\\u000a neurofibromatosis type 1 and 2 and schwannomatosis are significant risk factors for the development of peripheral nerve tumors.\\u000a An understanding of these disorders is important in allowing appropriate management. Active treatment of peripheral nerve\\u000a tumors is reserved for lesions that are

Jason H. Huang; Victoria E. Johnson; Eric L. Zager



Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors.  


Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are uncommon, biologically aggressive soft tissue sarcomas of neural origin that pose tremendous challenges to effective therapy. In 50% of cases, they occur in the context of neurofibromatosis type I, characterized by loss of function mutations to the tumor suppressor neurofibromin; the remainder arise sporadically or following radiation therapy. Prognosis is generally poor, with high rates of relapse following multimodality therapy in early disease, low response rates to cytotoxic chemotherapy in advanced disease, and propensity for rapid disease progression and high mortality. The last few years have seen an explosion in data surrounding the potential molecular drivers and targets for therapy above and beyond neurofibromin loss. These data span multiple nodes at various levels of cellular control, including major signal transduction pathways, angiogenesis, apoptosis, mitosis, and epigenetics. These include classical cancer-driving genetic aberrations such as TP53 and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) loss of function, and upregulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and (mechanistic) target of rapamycin (TOR) pathways, as well as less ubiquitous molecular abnormalities involving inhibitors of apoptosis proteins, aurora kinases, and the Wingless/int (Wnt) signaling pathway. We review the current understanding of MPNST biology, current best practices of management, and recent research developments in this disease, with a view to informing future advancements in patient care. PMID:24470531

Farid, Mohamad; Demicco, Elizabeth G; Garcia, Roberto; Ahn, Linda; Merola, Pamela R; Cioffi, Angela; Maki, Robert G



Functional imaging of neuroendocrine tumors.  


Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) have several distinct pathophysiological features that can be addressed by specific radiolabeled probes. An overview on the different radiopharmaceuticals that have been developed for positron emission tomography (PET) of NET are presented. The focus is on fluordeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG), biogenic amine precursors, somatostatin analogs, and hormone syntheses markers. Due to the highly specific tracers lacking any clear anatomical landmarking, the advantages of integrated functional and morphological imaging systems such as PET-CT are obvious. Based on the up to now published literature and one's own experience, it is concluded that amine precursors (e.g. fluor-dihydroxyphenylalanin and hydroxytryptophane) should be employed in most gastroenteropancreatic NET, whereas F-18 FDG should be preserved for more aggressive less-differentiated NETs. Hormone syntheses markers have up to now only been used in few centers and their broad clinical value remains uncertain. The different available somatostatin analogs are the most promising tracers, since they can improve dosimetry in cases where peptide receptor radiotherapies are planned. Of specific interest are the somatostatin analogs addressing several subtypes of the somatostatin receptor (e.g. DOTANOC) that allow detecting also subtypes not expressing the "classically" addressed subtype 2 and 5. Since NET have a high variety of different features, the individual diagnostic approach using PET or integrated PET-CT should be tailored, depending on the histological classification and the differentiation of the tumor. PMID:21331931

Van Binnebeek, Sofie; Karges, Wolfram; Mottaghy, Felix M



Wilms Tumor Survival in Kenya  

PubMed Central

Purpose Survival from Wilms Tumor (WT) exceeds 90% at 5 years in developed nations, whereas at last report, 2-year event-free survival (EFS) in Kenya reached only 35%. To clarify factors linked to these poor outcomes in Kenya, we established a comprehensive web-based WT registry, comprised of patients from the four primary hospitals treating childhood cancers. Materials and Methods WT patients diagnosed between January 2008 and January 2012 were identified. Files were abstracted for demographic characteristics, treatment regimens, and enrollment in the Kenyan National Hospital Insurance Fund (NHIF). Children under 15 years of age having both a primary kidney tumor on imaging and concordant histology consistent with WT were included. Results Two-year event-free survival (EFS) was 52.7% for all patients (n=133), although loss to follow up (LTFU) was 50%. For the 33 patients who completed all scheduled standard therapy, 2-year EFS was 94%. Patients enrolled in NHIF tended to complete more standard therapy and had a lower hazard of death (Cox 0.192, p <0.001). Conclusion Survival of Kenyan WT patients has increased slightly since last report. Notably, WT patients completing all phases of standard therapy experienced 2-year survival approaching the benchmarks of developed nations. Efforts in Kenya should be made to enhance compliance with WT treatment through NHIF enrollment. PMID:23845615

Axt, Jason; Abdallah, Fatmah; Axt, Meridith; Githanga, Jessie; Hansen, Erik; Lessan, Joel; Li, Ming; Musimbi, Joyce; Mwachiro, Michael; Newton, Mark; Ndung'u, James; Njuguna, Festis; Nzioka, Ancent; Oruko, Oliver; Patel, Kirtika; Tenge, Robert; Ukoli, Flora; White, Russel; O'Neill, James; Lovvorn, Harold



Tumor vascular disruption using various radiation types  

PubMed Central

The feasibility of disrupting a tumor’s vascular structure with various radiation types and radionuclides is investigated. Calculated absorbed dose profiles for photons and 4He ions suggest that low-energy beta-gamma and alpha emitting radionuclides can deposit sufficient absorbed dose to disrupt a tumor’s vascular structure while minimizing the dose outside the blood vessel. Candidate radionuclides uniformly distributed in microspheres are theoretically investigated with respect to their vascular disruption potential and to offer an alternative to 90Y microsphere therapy. Requisite activities of candidate low-energy beta-gamma and alpha emitting radionuclides to facilitate vascular disruption are calculated. PMID:24749005



Bone tumor mimickers: A pictorial essay  

PubMed Central

Focal lesions in bone are very common and many of these lesions are not bone tumors. These bone tumor mimickers can include numerous normal anatomic variants and non-neoplastic processes. Many of these tumor mimickers can be left alone, while others can be due to a significant disease process. It is important for the radiologist and clinician to be aware of these bone tumor mimickers and understand the characteristic features which allow discrimination between them and true neoplasms in order to avoid unnecessary additional workup. Knowing which lesions to leave alone or which ones require workup can prevent misdiagnosis and reduce patient anxiety. PMID:25114385

Mhuircheartaigh, Jennifer Ni; Lin, Yu-Ching; Wu, Jim S



Somatostatin receptors in differentiated ovarian tumors.  

PubMed Central

The presence of somatostatin receptors was investigated in 57 primary human ovarian tumors using in vitro receptor autoradiography with three different somatostatin radioligands, 125I-[Tyr11]-somatostatin-14, 125I-[Leu8, D-Trp22, Tyr25]-somatostatin-28, or 125I-[Tyr3]-SMS 201-995. Three cases, all belonging to epithelial tumors, were receptor positive; specifically 1 of 42 adenocarcinomas, 1 of 3 borderline malignancies, and 1 of 2 cystadenomas. Four other epithelial tumors (3 fibroadenomas, 1 Brenner tumor), 4 sex cord-stromal tumors (2 fibrothecomas, 2 granulosa cell tumors), and 2 germ cell tumors (1 dysgerminoma, 1 teratoma) were receptor negative. In the positive cases, the somatostatin receptors were localized on epithelial cells exclusively, were of high affinity (KD = 4.6 nmol/l [nanomolar]), and specific for somatostatin analogs. These receptors bound somatostatin-14 and somatostatin-28 radioligands with a higher affinity than the octapeptide [Tyr3]-SMS 201-995. Healthy ovarian tissue had no somatostatin receptors. A subpopulation of relatively well-differentiated ovarian tumors, therefore, was identified pathobiochemically on the basis of its somatostatin receptor content. This small group of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors may be a target for in vivo diagnostic imaging with somatostatin ligands. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1850962

Reubi, J. C.; Horisberger, U.; Klijn, J. G.; Foekens, J. A.



[Tumor-induced osteomalacia: rhinosinusal hemangiopericytoma].  


Tumor-induced osteomalacia is a rare disease of bone metabolism. The characteristic of this disease is an increase in phosphate excretion followed by hypophosphatemia, due to phosphaturic agents produced by different types of tumors. Tumor resection results in complete resolution of clinical, biochemical and radiological abnormalities. We present the case of a 61 year old man with signs, symptoms and laboratory findings consistent with oncogenic osteomalacia due to a rhino-sinusal mesenchymal tumor. The histological diagnosis showed a vascular neoplasm: hemangiopericytoma. PMID:23335705

Serafini, Enriqueta M; Pisarevsky, Ana A; Plumet Garrido, Javier; Zamora, Rafael J; Petrucci, Enrique A



Imaging Tumor Cell Movement In Vivo  

PubMed Central

This unit describes the methods that we have been developing for analyzing tumor cell motility in mouse and rat models of breast cancer metastasis. Rodents are commonly used both to provide a mammalian system for studying human tumor cells (as xenografts in immunocompromised mice) as well as for following the development of tumors from a specific tissue type in transgenic lines. The Basic Protocol in this unit describes the standard methods used for generation of mammary tumors and imaging them. Additional protocols for labeling macrophages, blood vessel imaging, and image analysis are also included. PMID:23456602

Entenberg, David; Kedrin, Dmitriy; Wyckoff, Jeffrey; Sahai, Erik; Condeelis, John; Segall, Jeffrey E.



Current Advance in Small Bowel Tumors  

PubMed Central

Small intestinal tumors are difficult challenge to gastroenterologists. The difficulty in making a diagnosis of small intestinal tumor lies in the relative inaccessibility and absence of typical presentation. New endoscopic and radiologic technologies provide clear and fine anatomical visualization of the small bowel and are approved to improve the diagnostic sensitivity and accuracy. Patients at risk of small intestinal tumors might gain a benefit from proper surveillance with this new technology. Minimally invasive therapy is now available with advance of balloon assisted enteroscopy. This review describes the general aspect of the small intestinal tumors, focusing on the new modalities for diagnosis. PMID:22741107

Cheung, Dae Young



Buckling Instability in Growing Tumor Spheroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A growing tumor is subjected to intrinsic physical forces, arising from the cellular turnover in a spatially constrained environment. This work demonstrates that such residual solid stresses can provoke a buckling instability in heterogeneous tumor spheroids. The growth rate ratio between the outer shell of proliferative cells and the inner necrotic core is the control parameter of this instability. The buckled morphology is found to depend both on the elastic and the geometric properties of the tumor components, suggesting a key role of residual stresses for promoting tumor invasiveness.

Ciarletta, P.



(SWNTs) CVD [1][2] Co/Mo  

E-print Network

( ) ( ) ( ) * ( ) 1. (SWNTs) CVD 1-2 nm CVD 2 CoMo CO [1][2] Co/Mo [3]CoMo CVD SWNTs CVD 2. 15mm 0.5 mm 2 mm 3.6 mm Mo(0.019-1.9nm) Co(0.034-2.1nm) Cold-wall CVD H2: 100 sccm, Ar: 300 sccm 50 Torr 10 min H2 Ar 30 Torr SWNTs (: 488nm) 3. CVD SWNTs 1 CVD 700 900

Maruyama, Shigeo


Recent advances in tumor hypoxia: tumor progression, molecular mechanisms, and therapeutic implications.  


Tumor oxygenation status is tightly regulated and correlates with its aggressive behavior. Hypoxia plays critical roles in tumor progression including tumor angiogenesis, mutation rate, metastasis and resistance to radiation and chemotherapy. Many molecular pathways have been recognized to mediate these hypoxia-induced responses in tumors. For example, extensive studies demonstrate that hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a key molecule in regulating tumor responses to hypoxia. Many other genes including growth factors, glycolytic enzymes, cytokines, and transcription factors are inducible by hypoxia via either HIF-1-dependent or HIF-1-independent pathways. This review summarizes current advances in tumor hypoxia regarding new technologies of tumor hypoxia measurement, clinical and animal studies, cell culture models, the hypoxia-induced key molecules and therapeutic implications. This valuable information is particularly timely and helpful for clinicians and researchers who want to recognize the newest endeavors within the field and identify possible lines of investigation in tumor hypoxia. PMID:17901861

Zhang, Yuqing; Li, Min; Yao, Qizhi; Chen, Changyi



A rare presentation of hybrid odontogenic tumor involving calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor and plexiform ameloblastoma  

PubMed Central

A hybrid odontogenic tumor comprising two distinct lesions is extremely rare. We presented a hybrid odontogenic tumor composed of a calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT) and a plexiform ameloblastoma. This tumor was observed in the anterior area of the mandible of a 17-year-old Indian male. Masses of ghost epithelial cells with the characteristics of CCOT were seen in the lining of the cyst. The odontogenic epithelia with the features of plexiform ameloblastoma were also observed. PMID:24124318

Chaubey, Snehal S.; Mishra, Sunil S.; Degwekar, Shirish S.; Chaubey, Saujanya



Statistical Analysis of Pineal Tumors Based on the Data of Brain Tumor Registry of Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we present statistical analyses of pineal tumors based on the data from Brain Tumor Registry of Japan. The most frequent tumor in the pineal region was germinoma, and it accounted for 49.2% of all pineal tumors; it was followed by pineocytoma (8.5%), glioma (6.5%), pineoblastoma (5.1%), malignant teratoma (5.2%) and teratoma (5.1%). Germinoma is most frequent among

Soichiro Shibui; Kazuhiro Nomura



Benign bone tumors and tumor-like lesions: value of cross-sectional imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the role of CT and MR imaging in the diagnosis of benign bone tumors and tumor-like lesions of bone with\\u000a with regard to differential diagnosis, the assessment of tumor-related complications, and the detection of postoperative recurrence.\\u000a Indications for cross-sectional imaging of specific lesions, including osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, enchondroma, osteochondroma,\\u000a intraosseous lipoma, hemangioma, giant cell tumor, aneurysmal bone

Klaus Woertler



Tumor antigens: Biological activity of components of soluble antigens of MTV-induced mammary tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antigens (AMMT) of MTV-induced mammary tumors of BALB\\/cfC3H CRGL mice were solubilized by treatment of homogenates of the tumor with 1 M perchloric acid. The soluble antigens exhibited biological activity by their ability to induce DNA synthesis in spleen cells of mice bearing syngeneic transplants of the tumor. AMMT-induced DNA synthesis, however, was abrogated by serum from tumor-bearing mice. AMMT

Calbert A. Laing; Gloria H. Heppner; J. George Bekesi



Mechanism of liver-specific metastatic tumor spread in a murine tumor model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malignant tumors frequently show an organ-specific metastatic spread, the causes of which are still largely unknown. Using an experimental tumor model, a methylcholanthrene-induced pleomorphic myofibrosarcoma ER 15-P of the C57 Bl6J mouse, we wanted to find out whether this phenomenon is due to an adaptation or to a selction of tumor cells. After i.v. injection of tumor cells from the

G. Edel



Gastric adenocarcinoma with yolk sac tumor differentiation and liver metastasis of yolk sac tumor component.  


Gastric adenocarcinoma with yolk sac tumor (YST) differentiation has rarely been reported. We report a case of primary gastric adenocarcinoma with yolk sac tumor differentiation and liver metastases of the YST component in a 50-years-old patient. This was suspected due to high serum level of alpha fetoprotein in the presence of a gastric fundal tumor. Gastric carcinoma with yolk sac tumor component is a rare entity with a poor prognostic outcome. PMID:24294529

Bihari, Chhagan; Rastogi, Archana; Chandan, K N; Yadav, Vikas; Panda, Dipanjan



Gastric Adenocarcinoma with Yolk Sac Tumor Differentiation and Liver Metastasis of Yolk Sac Tumor Component  

PubMed Central

Gastric adenocarcinoma with yolk sac tumor (YST) differentiation has rarely been reported. We report a case of primary gastric adenocarcinoma with yolk sac tumor differentiation and liver metastases of the YST component in a 50-years-old patient. This was suspected due to high serum level of alpha fetoprotein in the presence of a gastric fundal tumor. Gastric carcinoma with yolk sac tumor component is a rare entity with a poor prognostic outcome. PMID:24294529

Bihari, Chhagan; Rastogi, Archana; Chandan, K. N.; Yadav, Vikas; Panda, Dipanjan



N -Methyl- N -nitrosourea-induced Renal Tumors in Rats: Immunohistochemical Comparison to Human Wilms Tumors  

PubMed Central

N-Methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced renal tumors in rats and Wilms tumors in humans were compared. Renal mesenchymal tumors (RMTs) and nephroblastomas (blastemal and epithelial components) in female Lewis rats treated with a single intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg MNU at birth and Wilms tumors (blastemal, epithelial and mesenchymal components) in humans were analyzed for the expression of pancytokeratin (CK), vimentin, p63, ?-smooth muscle actin (SMA), desmin, S-100, CD57, CD117/c-kit, Wilms tumor 1 protein (WT1) and ?-catenin. The mesenchymal components of rat RMTs and human Wilms tumors expressed vimentin, SMA and ?-catenin. The blastemal components of rat nephroblastomas and human Wilms tumors expressed vimentin, CD117/c-kit and ?-catenin. The epithelial components of rat nephroblastomas and human Wilms tumors expressed vimentin and ?-catenin. WT1 was expressed in different cellular components of rat tumors as compared with human Wilms tumors; the expression was seen in mesenchymal tumors and blastemal components of nephroblastomas in rats and epithelial components in human Wilms tumors. CK, p63 and CD57 were not expressed in rat RMTs or nephroblastomas, while CK and WT1 were expressed in epithelial components and CD57 was expressed in blastemal and epithelial components of human Wilms tumors. Rat and human tumors were universally negative for the expression of desmin and S-100. The immunohistochemical characteristics of rat renal tumors and human Wilms tumors may provide valuable information on the differences in renal oncogenesis and biology between the two species. PMID:23914056

Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Kinoshita, Yuichi; Emoto, Yuko; Kimura, Ayako; Uehara, Norihisa; Yuri, Takashi; Shikata, Nobuaki; Tsubura, Airo



Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C Promotes Tumor Lymphangiogenesis and Intralymphatic Tumor Growth1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many solid tumors produce vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C), and its receptor, VEGFR-3, is expressed in tumor blood vessels. To study the role of VEGF-C in tumorigenesis, we implanted MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells overexpressing recombinant VEGF-C orthotopically into severe combined immunodeficient mice. VEGF-C increased tumor growth, but unlike VEGF, it had little effect on tumor angiogenesis. Instead, VEGF-C

Terhi Karpanen; Mikala Egeblad; Marika J. Karkkainen; Hajime Kubo; Kari Alitalo



High-Dose Thiotepa Plus Peripheral Stem Cell Transplantation in Treating Patients With Refractory Solid Tumors

Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors; Childhood Germ Cell Tumor; Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Cancer; Retinoblastoma; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific



Molecular Genetic Analysis of Placental Site Trophoblastic Tumors and Epithelioid Trophoblastic Tumors Confirms Their Trophoblastic Origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trophoblastic tumors represent a unique group of human neoplasms because they are derived from fetal tissue. Except for choriocarcinoma, the neoplasms that develop from human trophoblast are poorly characterized. Placental site trophoblastic tumors and epithelioid trophoblastic tumors are thought to arise from intermediate (extravillous) trophoblasts based on histopathological studies, but direct molecular ev- idence of a trophoblastic origin has not

Robert J. Oldt; Robert J. Kurman; Ie-Ming Shih



Therapeutic implications of tumor interstitial fluid pressure in subcutaneous RG?2 tumors 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) in brain tumors results in rapid removal of drugs from tumor extracellu- lar space. We studied the effects of dexamethasone and hypothermia on IFP in s.c. RG-2 rat gliomas, because they could potentially be useful as means of maintain- ing drug concentrations in human brain tumors. We used dexamethasone, external hypothermia, combined dexamethasone and hypothermia,

Yot Navalitloha; Erica S. Schwartz; Elizabeth N. Groothuis; Cathleen V. Allen; Robert M. Levy; Dennis R. Groothuis



Host defense mechanisms against tumors as the principal targets of tumor promoters  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is now evidence that tumor-promoting agents can interfere with natural cellular defense mechanisms at diverse developmental and functional levels, resulting in various, partly opposite consequences. Such findings are in keeping with the concept that tumor promoters interfere with the formation and growth of tumors by promoting cell transformation and by stimulating the multiplication and functional capacities of transformed cells

R. Keller



Clinical Relevance of Tumor Cells with Stem-Like Properties in Pediatric Brain Tumors  

E-print Network

Clinical Relevance of Tumor Cells with Stem-Like Properties in Pediatric Brain Tumors Ce, Hospital Sainte-Anne, Paris, France, 3 Pediatric Neurosurgical Department. Hospital Necker, University high-grade gliomas in adults. Whether TSCs are a common component of pediatric brain tumors

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Activity of drug-loaded tumor-penetrating microparticles in peritoneal pancreatic tumors.  


Intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy confers significant survival benefits in cancer patients. However, several problems, including local toxicity and ineffectiveness against bulky tumors, have prohibited it from becoming a standard of care. We have developed drug-loaded, polymeric tumor-penetrating microparticles (TPM) to address these problems. Initial studies showed that TPM provides tumor-selective delivery and is effective against ovarian SKOV3 tumors of relatively small size (<50 mg). The present study evaluated whether the TPM activity extends to other tumor types that are more bulky and have different morphologies and disease presentation. We evaluated TPM in mice bearing two IP human pancreatic tumors with different growth characteristics and morphologies (rapidly growing, large and porous Hs766T vs. slowly growing, smaller and densely packed MiaPaCa2), and at different disease stage (early stage with smaller tumors vs. late stage with larger tumors plus peritoneal carcinomatosis). Comparison of treatments with TPM or paclitaxel in Cremophor micelles, at equi-toxic doses, shows, in all tumor types: (a) higher paclitaxel levels in tumors (up to 55-fold) for TPM, (b) greater efficacy for TPM, including significantly longer survival and higher cure rate, and (c) a single dose of TPM was equally efficacious as multiple doses of paclitaxel/Cremophor. The results indicate tumor targeting property and superior antitumor activity of paclitaxel-loaded TPM are generalizable to small and large peritoneal tumors, with or without accompanying carcinomatosis. PMID:24200079

Lu, Ze; Tsai, Max; Wang, Jie; Cole, David J; Wientjes, M Guillaume; Au, Jessie L-S



Curcumin reverses breast tumor exosomes mediated immune suppression of NK cell tumor cytotoxicity  

PubMed Central

An important characteristic of tumors is that they at some point in their development overcome the surveillance of the immune system. Tumors secrete exosomes, multivesicular bodies containing a distinct set of proteins that can fuse with cells of the circulating immune system. Purified exosomes from TS/A breast cancer cells, but not non-exosomal fractions, inhibit (at concentrations of nanograms per ml protein) IL-2-induced natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity. The dietary polyphenol, curcumin (diferuloylmethane), partially reverses tumor exosome-mediated inhibition of natural killer cell activation, which is mediated through the impairment of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Exposure of mouse breast tumor cells to curcumin causes a dose-dependent increase in ubiquitinated exosomal proteins compared to those in untreated TS/A breast tumor cells. Furthermore, exosomes isolated from tumor cells pretreated with curcumin have a much attenuated inhibition of IL-2 stimulated NK cell activation. Jak3-mediated activation of Stat5 is required for tumor cytotoxicity of IL-2 stimulated NK cells. TS/A tumor exosomes strongly inhibit activation of Stat5, whereas the tumor exosomes isolated from curcumin-pretreated tumor cells have a lowered potency for inhibition of IL-2 stimulated NK cell cytotoxicity. These data suggest that partial reversal of tumor exosome-mediated inhibition of NK cell tumor cytotoxicity may account for the anti-cancer properties curcumin. PMID:17555831

Zhang, Huang-Ge; Kim, Helen; Liu, Cunren; Yu, Shaohua; Wang, Jianhua; Grizzle, William E.; Kimberly, Robert P.; Barnes, Stephen



Natural selection of tumor variants in the generation of “tumor escape” phenotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea that tumors must “escape” from immune recognition contains the implicit assumption that tumors can be destroyed by immune responses either spontaneously or as the result of immunotherapeutic intervention. Simply put, there is no need for tumor escape without immunological pressure. Here, we review evidence supporting the immune escape hypothesis and critically explore the mechanisms that may allow such

Hung T. Khong; Nicholas P. Restifo



Mapping of a Putative Tumor Suppressor Locus to Proximal 7p in Wilms Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different findings suggest that alterations of chromosome 7 genes play a role in the development of Wilms tumors. To define the positions of these genes, we have accomplished a combined cytogenetic and molecular study on 11 sporadic Wilms tumors. In one case, where both chromosomes 7 were rearranged, the karyotypic picture was consistent with the presence of a tumor suppressor

Monica Miozzo; Daniela Perotti; Fabiola Minoletti; Patrizia Mondini; Silvana Pilotti; Roberto Luksch; Franca Fossati-Bellani; Marco A. Pierotti; Gabriella Sozzi; Paolo Radice



Tumor acidity, chemoresistance and proton pump inhibitors.  


Tumor microenvironment may play a key role in tumor malignancy. It is hypothesized that hypoxia and acidity may contribute to the progression from benign to malignant growth. In particular, the unfavorable environment may induce the selection of tumor cells able to survive in acidic and hypoxic conditions. In fact, the common components of the cancer phenotype result from active selection, and characteristics of tumor microenvironment may create the best condition for this selection. Acidity, in particular, has been shown to have a role in resistance to chemotherapy, proliferation and metastatic behavior. In fact, a mechanism of resistance to cytotoxic drugs may be the alteration of the tumor microenvironment through changes of the pH gradient between the extracellular environment and cell cytoplasm. The extracellular pH of solid tumors is significantly more acidic than that of normal tissues, thus impairing the uptake of weakly basic chemotherapeutic drugs and reducing their effect on tumors. An important determinant of tumor acidity is the anaerobic metabolism that allows selection of cells able to survive in an hypoxic-anoxic environment with the generation of lactate. However, this is not the major mechanism responsible for the development of an acidic environment within solid tumors. It appears clear that a complex framework of protein-protein, protein-lipid and lipid-lipid interactions underlay the pH homeostasis in mammalian cells. Malignant tumor cells seem to hijack some of these mechanism to protect themselves from the acidic environment and to maintain acidity in an environment unsuitable for normal or more differentiated cells. Recent data suggest that vacuolar-type (V-type) H(+)-ATPases, that pump protons across the plasma membrane, may have a key role in the acidification of the tumor microenvironment. Some human tumor cells are characterized by an increased V-type H(+)-ATPase expression and activity, and pretreatment with proton pump inhibitors -- a class of H(+)-ATPase inhibitors -- sensitized tumor cell lines to the effect of a variety of anticancer drugs. Proton pump inhibitor pretreatment has been associated with inhibition of V-type H(+)-ATPase activity and increase in both extracellular pH and pH of lysosomal organelles. In vivo experiments in human/mouse xenografts have shown that oral pretreatment with proton pump inhibitors is able to sensitize human solid tumors to anticancer drugs. These data suggest that tumor alkalinization may represent a key target of future antitumor strategies. PMID:16556057

De Milito, Angelo; Fais, Stefano



Characteristics of endobronchial primitive tumors in children.  


Primary endobronchial tumors are rare in children and they include a broad spectrum of lesions. The aim of this study was to determine the characteristic features, treatments and outcomes of these tumors. We report a retrospective analysis of all patients treated for endobronchial tumor in nine French hospitals between 1990 and 2010 and a comparison of the results with those reported in the medical literature. Twelve tumors were reported: five low grade muco epidermoid carcinomas, two inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors, two hemangiomas, one anaplastic large cell lymphoma, one carcinoid tumor, and one juvenile xanthogranuloma. The mean age of the patients was 7.5?±?3.5 years. The most common sign revealing the disease was persistent atelectasis or recurrent pneumonia (eight cases). The other revealing signs were a persistent bronchospasm (three cases) and hemoptysis (one case). The clinical presentation, biology, serum tumor markers, and chest X-ray abnormalities were not specific to a particular histological diagnosis. Chest CT scan revealed the presence of an endobronchial tumor in 11 cases. Nine tumors could be diagnosed from a biopsy obtained by video endoscopy. Complete surgical resection was performed in seven patients. Bronchoscopic removal was performed in five cases and was successful in three. There were no deaths. Endobronchial tumors are rare in childhood and their histology is diverse. Chest CT scan and per-endoscopic endobronchial biopsies are required for diagnosis, when possible. Surgical or endoscopic treatment should be discussed by a multidisciplinary team. Despite the multiple etiologies, the prognosis of these tumors is good if diagnosis is early and if resection is complete. Long-term recurrences have been described, so long-term follow-up of these children is recommended. PMID:24532419

Eyssartier, E; Ang, P; Bonnemaison, E; Gibertini, I; Diot, P; Carpentier, E; Chantepie, A; Leclair, M D; Brouard, J; Boutard, P; Deneuville, E; Marie-Cardine, A; Lardy, H



Minimally Invasive Approaches in Management of Hepatic Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT raditionally, the only curative option for patients with liver tumors has been hepatic resection. Unfortunately, only 10%-20% of patients with liver tumors can undergo surgical resection due to limited T hepatic reserve, high surgical risk, or unfavorable tumor location. Ablation of liver tumors is currently the main alternative to formal liver resection. Tumor cell death is achieved through a

Andrew S. Wright; Resident Ing Enerals Urgery; David M. Mahvi; Dieter G. Haemmerich


Cytogenetic Studies of Pediatric Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventy pediatric patients with brain and spinal cord tumors had cytogenetic analysis of 99 samples of their tumors. Successful analysis was accomplished in 95%. Tumors included 43 gliomas, 9 medulloblastomas and a variety of other lesions. Forty-three patients had normal chromosomes; 28 of these had benign tumors and good outcomes. Of 11 patients with malignant tumors and normal chromosomes, 8

William M. Chadduck; Frederick A. Boop; Jeffrey R. Sawyer



Cannibalism: A way to feed on metastatic tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cannibalism of tumors is an old story for pathologists, but it remained a mystery for at least one century. Recent data highlighted tumor cannibalism as a key advantage in tumor malignancy, possibly involved in resistance of tumors to the specific immune reaction. However, new data suggests also that metastatic tumor cells may use this peculiar function to feed in conditions

Stefano Fais



Exophytic Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Spinal Cord  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: We present a case of an exophytic spinal prim- itive neuroectodermal tumor that, radiologically, simulated an extramedullary nerve sheath tumor, meningioma, or metastatic tumor deposit. MR imaging provided discrete anatomic localization of the tumor, enabling exclusion of multicentricity in the brain and spinal cord. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) is a ge- neric term used to describe a group of

Demetrios Papadatos; Stephen Albrecht; Gerard Mohr


Targeting and utilizing primary tumors as live vaccines: changing strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor metastases and relapse are the major causes of morbidity and mortality in cancer. Although surgery, chemotherapy and\\/or radiation therapy can typically control primary tumor growth, metastatic and relapsing tumors are often inaccessible or resistant to these treatments. An adaptive immune response can be generated during these conventional treatments of the primary tumor, and presumably both the primary tumor and

Xuanming Yang; Eric D Mortenson; Yang-Xin Fu; XM Yang



Study of the Glutaminase Inhibitor CB-839 in Solid Tumors

Solid Tumors; Triple-Negative Breast Cancer; Non Small Cell Lung Cancer; Renal Cell Carcinoma; Mesothelioma; Fumarate Hydratase (FH)-Deficient Tumors; Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH)-Deficient Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GIST); Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH)-Deficient Non-gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors; Tumors Harboring Isocitrate Dehydrogenase-1 (IDH1) and IDH2 Mutations



Delayed Contrast Extravasation MRI for Depicting Tumor and Non-Tumoral Tissues in Primary and Metastatic Brain Tumors  

PubMed Central

The current standard of care for newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is resection followed by radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide. Recent studies suggest that nearly half of the patients with early radiological deterioration post treatment do not suffer from tumor recurrence but from pseudoprogression. Similarly, a significant number of patients with brain metastases suffer from radiation necrosis following radiation treatments. Conventional MRI is currently unable to differentiate tumor progression from treatment-induced effects. The ability to clearly differentiate tumor from non-tumoral tissues is crucial for appropriate patient management. Ten patients with primary brain tumors and 10 patients with brain metastases were scanned by delayed contrast extravasation MRI prior to surgery. Enhancement subtraction maps calculated from high resolution MR images acquired up to 75 min after contrast administration were used for obtaining stereotactic biopsies. Histological assessment was then compared with the pre-surgical calculated maps. In addition, the application of our maps for prediction of progression was studied in a small cohort of 13 newly diagnosed GBM patients undergoing standard chemoradiation and followed up to 19.7 months post therapy. The maps showed two primary enhancement populations: the slow population where contrast clearance from the tissue was slower than contrast accumulation and the fast population where clearance was faster than accumulation. Comparison with histology confirmed the fast population to consist of morphologically active tumor and the slow population to consist of non-tumoral tissues. Our maps demonstrated significant correlation with perfusion-weighted MR data acquired simultaneously, although contradicting examples were shown. Preliminary results suggest that early changes in the fast volumes may serve as a predictor for time to progression. These preliminary results suggest that our high resolution MRI-based delayed enhancement subtraction maps may be applied for clear depiction of tumor and non-tumoral tissues in patients with primary brain tumors and patients with brain metastases. PMID:23251672

Zach, Leor; Guez, David; Last, David; Daniels, Dianne; Grober, Yuval; Nissim, Ouzi; Hoffmann, Chen; Nass, Dvora; Talianski, Alisa; Spiegelmann, Roberto; Cohen, Zvi R.; Mardor, Yael



Natural history of tumor growth and immune modulation in common spontaneous murine mammary tumor models.  


Recent studies in patients with breast cancer suggest the immune microenvironment influences response to therapy. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between growth rates of tumors in common spontaneous mammary tumor models and immune biomarkers evaluated in the tumor and blood. TgMMTV-neu and C3(1)-Tag transgenic mice were followed longitudinally from birth, and MPA-DMBA-treated mice from the time of carcinogen administration, for the development of mammary tumors. Tumor-infiltrating CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells, FOXP3(+) T-regulatory cells, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells were assessed by flow cytometry. Serum cytokines were evaluated in subsets of mice. Fine needle aspirates of tumors were collected and RNA was isolated to determine levels of immune and proliferation markers. Age of tumor onset and kinetics of tumor growth were significantly different among the models. Mammary tumors from TgMMTV-neu contained a lower CD8/CD4 ratio than that of other models (p < 0.05). MPA-DMBA-induced tumors contained a higher percentage of FOXP3(+) CD4(+) T-cells (p < 0.01) and MDSC (p < 0.001) compared with the other models. Individuals with significantly slower tumor growth demonstrated higher levels of Type I serum cytokines prior to the development of lesions compared to those with rapid tumor growth. Moreover, the tumors of animals with more rapid tumor growth demonstrated a significant increase in the expression of genes associated with Type II immunity than those with slower-progressing tumors. These data provide a foundation for the development of in vivo models to explore the relationship between endogenous immunity and response to standard therapies for breast cancer. PMID:25395320

Gad, Ekram; Rastetter, Lauren; Slota, Meredith; Koehnlein, Marlese; Treuting, Piper M; Dang, Yushe; Stanton, Sasha; Disis, Mary L



Percutaneous Ablation of Hepatic Tumors  

PubMed Central

The liver is a common site of both primary and secondary malignancy resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Careful patient evaluation and triage allows for optimal utilization of all oncologic therapies, including radiation, systemic chemotherapy, surgery, transarterial therapies, and ablation. Although the role of interventional oncologists in the management of hepatic malignancies continues to evolve, the use of percutaneous ablation therapies has proven to be an effective and minimally invasive modality for treatment. Percutaneous ablation therapies have diversified from direct ethanol injection to multiple modalities including radiofrequency ablation (RFA), cryoablation, acetic acid injection, laser ablation, microwave ablation, high-intensity focused ultrasound, and irreversible electroporation. RFA is the most commonly utilized modality for hepatic interventions and has proven efficacy in both hepatocellular carcinoma and colorectal carcinoma metastases. Although tumor size remains a challenge, combination therapies and new device innovations continue to allow for improved ablation zones and more durable results. PMID:22550364

McCarley, James R.; Soulen, Michael C.



[Abdominal cystic tumor revealing lymphangioleiomyomatosis].  


We report the case of a 39 year-old woman with many years of intermittent abdominal pain who was found to have cystic masses evocative of cystic lymphangioma involving the posterior mediastinal and retroperitoneum. Worsening abdominal pain led to a recommendation for laparoscopic unroofing and decompression of the cysts. During the postoperative period, hemorrhagic shock required reintervention with excision of the tumoral mass. Pathologic examination revealed lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). On the 15th postoperative day, the patient developed a chylopneumothorax which required prolonged chest tube drainage. The presence of multiple polycystic lesions in the pulmonary parenchyma supported the diagnosis of diffuse LAM with primary extrapulmonary presentation. This diagnosis should be considered preoperatively since it modifies the treatment: a complete excision of the cystic lesions seems to be necessary in order to prevent bleeding and lymphatic extravasation. PMID:19446700

Barbier, L; Ebbo, M; Andrac-Meyer, L; Schneilitz, N; Le Treut, Y-P; Reynaud-Gaubert, M; Hardwigsen, J



Radiometallacarboranes as tumor imaging reagents  

SciTech Connect

Monoclonal antibodies (Mab), when conjugated with bifunctional chelation reagents containing a radiometal, have provided sensitive and accurate imaging agents for the detection of cancer and other diseases. The bifunctional chelates presently in use are generally of the aminocarboxylate family and subject to catabolism with release of metal ion in vivo. The authors have now designed, synthesized, and evaluated a functionalized cluster containing a radiotransition metal (venus flytrap cluster, VFC) which makes use of an inorganic ligand set, incorporates exceedingly strong cluster bonding based upon a bridged commo-bis(dicarbollide) structure, and can be prepared in the aqueous media commonly used to supply radiometal salts. The species reported here presages the existence of a large family of functionalized metallacarborane clusters which may serve as biologically inviolable radio-transition-metal carriers for the antibody-mediated {gamma}-imaging or {beta}-therapy of tumors.

Hawthorne, M.F.; Varadarajan, A.; Knobler, C.B.; Chakrabarti, S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA)); Paxton, R.J.; Beatty, B.G.; Curtis, F.L. (Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte, CA (USA))



15. Como gatehouse (outlet tower) and access bridge, looking west ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Como gatehouse (outlet tower) and access bridge, looking west from dam crest (Trash rack visible in reservoir pool behind and right of tower) - Bitter Root Irrigation Project, Como Dam, West of U.S. Highway 93, Darby, Ravalli County, MT


High Efficiency Diffusion Molecular Retention Tumor Targeting  

PubMed Central

Here we introduce diffusion molecular retention (DMR) tumor targeting, a technique that employs PEG-fluorochrome shielded probes that, after a peritumoral (PT) injection, undergo slow vascular uptake and extensive interstitial diffusion, with tumor retention only through integrin molecular recognition. To demonstrate DMR, RGD (integrin binding) and RAD (control) probes were synthesized bearing DOTA (for 111 In3+), a NIR fluorochrome, and 5 kDa PEG that endows probes with a protein-like volume of 25 kDa and decreases non-specific interactions. With a GFP-BT-20 breast carcinoma model, tumor targeting by the DMR or IV methods was assessed by surface fluorescence, biodistribution of [111In] RGD and [111In] RAD probes, and whole animal SPECT. After a PT injection, both probes rapidly diffused through the normal and tumor interstitium, with retention of the RGD probe due to integrin interactions. With PT injection and the [111In] RGD probe, SPECT indicated a highly tumor specific uptake at 24 h post injection, with 352%ID/g tumor obtained by DMR (vs 4.14%ID/g by IV). The high efficiency molecular targeting of DMR employed low probe doses (e.g. 25 ng as RGD peptide), which minimizes toxicity risks and facilitates clinical translation. DMR applications include the delivery of fluorochromes for intraoperative tumor margin delineation, the delivery of radioisotopes (e.g. toxic, short range alpha emitters) for radiotherapy, or the delivery of photosensitizers to tumors accessible to light. PMID:23505478

Guo, Yanyan; Yuan, Hushan; Cho, Hoonsung; Kuruppu, Darshini; Jokivarsi, Kimmo; Agarwal, Aayush; Shah, Khalid; Josephson, Lee



Malignant phyllodes tumor of the left atrium  

PubMed Central

Metastatic tumors to the heart usually involve right sided chambers. We report a rare case of malignant phyllodes tumor of breast with metastatic involvement of left atrium occurring through direct invasion from mediastinal micro-metastasis and presenting as a left atrial mass causing arrhythmia. PMID:24814127

Bhambhani, Anupam; Ayyagari, Sudha; Mohapatra, Tushar; Rehman, Syed Abdul; Shah, Milap; Rao, Sudhakar; Rangashamanna, Vital; Rajasekhar, V.; Chittimilla, Santosh



Malignant phyllodes tumor of the left atrium.  


Metastatic tumors to the heart usually involve right sided chambers. We report a rare case of malignant phyllodes tumor of breast with metastatic involvement of left atrium occurring through direct invasion from mediastinal micro-metastasis and presenting as a left atrial mass causing arrhythmia. PMID:24814127

Bhambhani, Anupam; Ayyagari, Sudha; Mohapatra, Tushar; Rehman, Syed Abdul; Shah, Milap; Rao, Sudhakar; Rangashamanna, Vital; Rajasekhar, V; Chittimilla, Santosh



Giant Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Pleura  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solitary fibrous tumors of the pleura are rare. Approximately 600 cases have been described in the literature. We report a case of a young man with a giant solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura that filled his entire left hemithorax and anterior mediastinum and extended into the right side of his chest. The diagnostic modalities employed, the operation, and the

Junaid H. Khan; Sarah B. Rahman; Carolyn Clary-Macy; Robert K. Kerlan; Tracy I. George; Timothy S. Hall; David M. Jablons



Bony endothelium: tumor-mediated transdifferentiation?  


In this issue of Cancer Cell, Dudley et al. (2008) report that endothelial cells (ECs) from murine prostate tumors unexpectedly differentiate into cells with characteristics of bone and cartilage and that human and murine prostate tumors contain "calcified" ECs. These observations open the possibility for targeted antiangiogenic therapy. PMID:18772107

Verfaillie, Catherine M



Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Hypoglossal Nerve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: We report a case of solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) causing isolated hypoglossal nerve palsy. The neuroimag- ing appearance of the tumor was indistinguishable from that of schwannoma or meningioma. Immunohistochemi- cal tests demonstrated strong reactivity for CD34 but an absence of staining for S100 and epithelial membrane an- tigen; this profile is indicative of an SFT. SFTs are mesen-

Ma Lourdes; S. Badion; C. C. Tchoyoson Lim; Jennifer Teo; Peck Leong Ong; Francis Hui


PCNU and recurrent childhood brain tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

PCNU the latest nitrosourea analogue to be subjected to clinical trials, held promise as a superior chemotherapy agent for brain tumors because of more favorable biochemical and cytotoxic characteristics in laboratory studies. Thirty-nine children with a variety of recurrent primary CNS tumors, all of whom had evaluable disease, participated in a phase 11 PCNU trial. Their mean age was 9.7

Jeffrey C. Allen; Counce Hancock; Russell Walker; Charlotte Tan



Retroperitoneal Extragastrointestinal Stromal Tumor: Radiologic Pathologic Correlation  

PubMed Central

Neoplasms with histology and immunohistochemistry similar to gastrointestinal stromal tumors may occur primarily outside the gastrointestinal tract, usually in the omentum and mesentery. These are referred to as extragastrointestinal stromal tumors (EGISTs). Retroperitoneum is a very rare site for such neoplasms. We report a patient with EGIST in the retroperitoneum, elaborating the cross-sectional imaging and histopathologic findings. PMID:25161803

Watal, Pankaj; Brahmbhatt, Swetang G.; Thoriya, Prashant J.; Bahri, Nandini U.



Management of primary spinal cord tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature is scarce on surgical and\\/or radiotherapeutic management of primary neoplasms of the spinal cord, a rare form of tumor. We have reviewed retrospectively the records of all patients with spinal cord tumor who were treated at the University of California, San Francisco, from 1950 to 1975, a total of 34 patients. Patients were treated with megavoltage equipment to

J. G. Schwade; W. M. Wara; G. E. Sheline; S. Sorgen; C. B. Wilson



Pediatric Intramedullary Spinal Cord Tumors: Special Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intramedullary spinal cord tumors (IMSCTs) of the pediatric population are rare and comprise thirty-five percent of intraspinal neoplasms. Low-grade astrocytomas predominate; ependymomas increase in frequency with ascending age and become the most frequent IMSCT in adults. Gangliogliomas are very rare in adults but comprise nearly thirty percent of tumors in children under three years of age. The cervical spine is

John K. Houten; Howard L. Weiner



Childhood scoliosis revealing spinal cord tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal cord tumors typically show slow and insidious growth and scoliosis may be the only presenting feature of these lesions. The aim of this study is to determine the clinical and\\/or imaging signs that can contribute in uncovering the underlying etiology of a presumed “idiopathic” scoliosis. We retrospectively reviewed seven cases of histologically confirmed spinal cord tumors presenting as scoliosis

M. Chelli Bouaziz; M. S. Daghfous; M. F. Ladeb



Diagnosis of breast tumors after breast reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the diagnosability of breast tumors after breast reductions as this is a frequent surgical procedure. The data should shed light on the hypothesis that routine screening methods concerning the diagnosis of breast tumors prove more difficult after breast operations. All women who had undergone breast reduction at our department between January 1989 and

Gertrude M. Beer; Peter Kompatscher; Klaus Hergan



Reprogramming the tumor stroma: a new paradigm.  


A recent article in Cell shows that vitamin D receptor activation reprograms reactive stroma in the tumor microenvironment to a less inflammatory, quiescent state and is associated with increased drug retention, tumor response, and survival in pancreatic cancer models. Stroma reprogramming, as opposed to ablation, may emerge as a new treatment paradigm. PMID:25314074

Rowley, David R



Activating transcription factor 2 in mesenchymal tumors.  


Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) is a member of activator protein 1 superfamily, which can heterodimerize with other transcription factors regulating cell differentiation and survival. ATF2 assembles into a complex with the synovial sarcoma translocation, chromosome 18 (SS18)-synovial sarcoma, X breakpoint (SSX) fusion oncoprotein, and the transducin-like enhancer of split 1 (TLE1) corepressor, driving oncogenesis in synovial sarcoma. The fusion oncoproteins in many other translocation-associated sarcomas incorporate transcription factors from the ATF/cAMP response element binding or E26 families, which potentially form heterodimers with ATF2 to regulate transcription. ATF2 may therefore play an important role in the oncogenesis of many mesenchymal tumors, but as yet, little is known about its protein expression in patient specimens. Herein we perform immunohistochemical analyses using a validated specific antibody for ATF2 expression and intracellular localization on a cohort of 594 malignant and 207 benign mesenchymal tumors representing 47 diagnostic entities. Melanoma served as a positive control for nuclear and cytoplasmic staining. High nuclear ATF2 expression was mainly observed in translocation-associated and/or spindle cell sarcomas including synovial sarcoma, desmoplastic small round cell tumor, endometrial stromal sarcoma, gastrointestinal stromal tumor, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, and solitary fibrous tumor. Cytoplasmic ATF2 expression was less frequently seen than nuclear expression in malignant mesenchymal tumors. Benign mesenchymal tumors mostly showed much lower nuclear and cytoplasmic ATF2 expression. PMID:24289970

Endo, Makoto; Su, Le; Nielsen, Torsten O



Intrasellar malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Intracranial malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) and intrasellar schwannomas are rare tumors. We describe a case\\u000a of an intrasellar schwannoma with progression to a MPNST, a finding that, although very rare, extends the differential diagnosis\\u000a of intrasellar lesions.

N. Krayenbühl; F. Heppner; Y. Yonekawa; R. L. Bernays



Midfacial Degloving Approach for Malignant Maxillary Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The aim of this work is to study the use of this technique in extirpation of malignant tumors of the maxillary sinus. This includes the exposure for adequate tumor resection and the preservation of as much as possible functional tissue integrity. This approach will be evaluated including the advantages and disadvantages as regards the physiological function, aesthetic outcome and




Tumor cohesion and glioblastoma cell dispersal  

PubMed Central

Patients with glioblastoma typically present when tumors are at an advanced stage. Surgical resection, radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy are currently the standard of care for glioblastoma. However, due to the infiltrative and dispersive nature of the tumor, recurrence rate remains high and typically results in very poor prognosis. Efforts to treat the primary tumor are, therefore, palliative rather than curative. From a practical perspective, controlling growth and dispersal of the recurrence may have a greater impact on disease-free survival, In order for cells to disperse, they must first detach from the mass. Preventing detachment may keep tumors that recur more localized and perhaps more amenable to therapy. Here we introduce a new perspective in which a quantifiable mechanical property, namely tissue surface tension, can provide novel information on tumor behavior. The overall theme of the discussion will attempt to integrate how adhesion molecules can alter a tumor’s mechanical properties and how, in turn, these properties can be modified to prevent tumor cell detachment and dispersal. PMID:23902244

Foty, Ramsey A



Bilateral Wilms' tumors: changing concepts in management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bilaterality is uncommon in Wilms' tumor, being present in 4% to 8% of the cases. We report the combined experience of two children's hospitals in one city over a 20-year period. We encountered nine cases of synchronous bilateral nephroblastoma (National Wilms' Tumor Study 3, stage V). Age at diagnosis ranged from 9 to 41 months (mean 23 months). There were

J. M. Laberge; L. T. Nguyen; Y. L. Homsy; D. P. Doody



Percutaneous needle treatment of liver tumors  

E-print Network

· Percutaneous needle treatment of liver tumors · Target multiple tumors through a single incisionmm x 90mm x 260mm · Autoclavable I. Free Space III. Bovine Liver · Precurved concentric nitinol tubes.80 Bovine Liver (mm) 3.32 ± 2.66 II. Ethanol Solution Future Work · Human trials with manual unit · Fully

Webster III, Robert James


Discovery of Tumor Suppressor Gene Function.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is an update of a 1991 review on tumor suppressor genes written at a time when understanding of how the genes work was limited. A recent major breakthrough in the understanding of the function of tumor suppressor genes is discussed. (LZ)

Oppenheimer, Steven B.



Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the pelvis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are well recognized in the pleura, but their occurrence at other sites has only become appreciated in recent years, as a consequence of which extrapleural examples often go unrecognized and misdiagnosed. Because of their rarity, overall experience concerning this tumor has not been significant and reports detailing radiological findings are few. We herein report an unusual

Shiu Yan J. Wat; Monalisa Sur; Kavita Dhamanaskar



Extracranial lower cranial nerve sheath tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this article is to review the clinicoradiographic features of lower cranial nerve sheath tumors and to outline surgical approaches that allow the safe and complete resection of these lesions. Methods: Thirteen patients with lower cranial nerve sheath tumors of the infratemporal fossa were surgically treated between 7\\/88 and 10\\/99. A retrospective chart analysis provided details pertaining

John P. Leonetti; Bryan Wachter; Sam J. Marzo; Guy Petruzzelli



Endoscopic management of benign tracheobronchial tumors  

PubMed Central

Even though benign tracheobronchial tumors are quite rare, they still can induce airway obstruction, result in suffocation, and need emergent management to remove the obstructing lesions and make the respiratory tracts unobstructed. Although the preferred therapy is surgery, it is still difficult to deal with the tumors in some cases, and the complications of surgery are common. Therefore, bronchoscopic managements, such as Nd: YAG laser, electrocautery, APC and Cryotherapy, are very important to treat benign tracheobronchial tumors and can cure most of them. The efficacy of therapeutic endoscopy for the treatment of patients with benign airways obstruction has been established. However, in order to maximally eradicate the benign tumors with minimal damage to patients, the success of bronchoscopic managements for the treatment strongly depends on the diligent identification of the various factors, including the location, size, shape of tumor, and the age, status, cardio respiratory function of patients, and full comprehension of the limits and potential of each particular technique. Because the advantages and disadvantages of above mentioned interventional methods, single method can not solve all clinical issues. Therefore, in order to remove benign tracheobronchial tumors completely, and reduce the incidence of recurrence as far as possible, many doctors combine several methods of them to treat complicated benign tracheobronchial tumors. This article reviews the core principles and techniques available to the bronchoscope managing benign tracheobronchial tumors. PMID:22263100

Gao, Hui; Ding, Xin; Wei, Dong; Cheng, Peng; Su, Xiaomei; Liu, Huanyi; Zhang, Tao



Shark Cartilage Contains Inhibitors of Tumor Angiogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shark cartilage contains a substance that strongly inhibits the growth of new blood vessels toward solid tumors, thereby restricting tumor growth. The abundance of this factor in shark cartilage, in contrast to cartilage from mammalian sources, may make sharks an ideal source of the inhibitor and may help to explain the rarity of neoplasms in these animals.

Anne Lee; Robert Langer



Apoptotic markers for primary brain tumor prognosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Molecular studies of brain tumors have provided insights into pathogenesis, yet it is unclear how important these markers are in predicting clinical outcome and response to treatment. Quantitation of apoptosis by various techniques and the expression of several apoptotic markers have been studied in brain tumors, seeking to refine the information gained from established prognostic variables, which traditionally dictate therapeutic

A. E. Konstantinidou; P. Korkolopoulou; E. Patsouris



Breast cancer intra-tumor heterogeneity  

PubMed Central

In recent years it has become clear that cancer cells within a single tumor can display striking morphological, genetic and behavioral variability. Burgeoning genetic, epigenetic and phenomenological data support the existence of intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity in breast cancers; however, its basis is yet to be fully defined. Two of the most widely evoked concepts to explain the origin of heterogeneity within tumors are the cancer stem cell hypothesis and the clonal evolution model. Although the cancer stem cell model appeared to provide an explanation for the variability among the neoplastic cells within a given cancer, advances in massively parallel sequencing have provided several lines of evidence to suggest that intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity likely plays a fundamental role in the phenotypic heterogeneity observed in cancers. Many challenges remain, however, in the interpretation of the next generation sequencing results obtained so far. Here we review the models that explain tumor heterogeneity, the causes of intra-tumor genetic diversity and their impact on our understanding and management of breast cancer, methods to study intra-tumor heterogeneity and the assessment of intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity in the clinic.



Brain Mapping for Hemispheric Tumors in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemispheric tumors are common in children. Pathologically, they range from indolent low grade astrocytic tumors to high grade malignant neoplasms. In general, the extent of resection correlates favorably with survival. Advances in technology are permitting surgical resection to be extended to near eloquent and eloquent regions of the brain. These techniques include advanced neuronavigation, brain mapping, and intra-operative MRI scanners.

Nalin Gupta; Mitchel S. Berger



Temozolomide and O6-benzylguanine in Treating Children With Solid Tumors

Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors; Childhood Germ Cell Tumor; Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Kidney Cancer; Liver Cancer; Neuroblastoma; Ovarian Cancer; Sarcoma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific



[Studies on keratocystic odontogenic tumors].  


Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs, previously known as odontogenic keratocysts) are aggressive, noninflammatory jaw lesions with a putative high growth potential and a propensity for recurrence. This article puts together a summary of the serial studies related to KCOTs undertaken by the author's research group in recent years. Intraosseous jaw cysts with a solely orthokeratinized lining epithelium have been suggested to differ from the typical KCOTs. We report 20 cases of such cyst type under the term of 'orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC)'. Apart from the presence of a keratinizing epithelial lining, the OOC lacks the other histological features of KCOT, exhibits little if any tendency to recur, has no apparent association with NBCCS, may be cured by simple enucleation, and may thus constitute its own clinical entity. Mutations in PTCH1 gene are responsible for NBCCS and are related in tumors associated with this syndrome. We have so far detected 26 PTCH1 mutations (2 mutations occurred twice) in 10 out of 34 (29.4%) sporadic and 14 out of 16 (87.5%) NBCCS-associated KCOTs. The 26 mutations consisted of 10 frameshift, 2 nonsense, 3 aberrant splicing, 4 in-frame insertion/deletion/ duplication and 7 missense mutations. Two missense mutations in PTCH2 were also detected in 2 out of 15 NBCCS related KCOT patients. By contrast, no pathogenic mutation was detected in SMO. Thus, our data, together with reports from other groups, indicate that defects of PTCH1 are involved in the pathogenesis of syndromic as well as sporadic KCOTs. The pathogenic role of PTCH2 requires further investigation. A series of in vitro studies on bone resorption of KCOTs and ameloblastomas were undertaken by this group. The results indicate that odontogenic lesions could promote bone resorption in vitro and it is likely to be related to some of the cytokines secreted by the lesions. PMID:19221557

Li, Tie-jun; Sun, Li-sha; Luo, Hai-yan; Yuan, Jun-wei; Gao, Li; Gu, Xiao-mei; Li, Xue-fen; Xu, Li-li



Radiotherapy for Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNTs) are rare malignant neoplasms considered to be resistant to radiotherapy (RT), although data on efficacy are scarce. We reviewed our institutional experience to further delineate the role of RT for patients with PNTs. Methods and Materials: Between 1986 and 2006, 36 patients with PNTs were treated with RT to 49 sites. Of these 36 patients, 23 had radiographic follow-up data, which were used to determine the tumor response rate and freedom from local progression. Long-term toxicity was graded according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Results: The overall response rate to RT was 39% (13% complete response, 26% partial response, 56% stable disease, and 4% progressive disease). A significant difference in the freedom from local progression between the groups receiving either greater than or less than the median 2 Gy/fraction biologically equivalent dose of 49.6 Gy was found, with all radiographic progression occurring in patients who had received <=32 Gy. The actuarial 3-year local freedom from progression rate was 49%. Palliation was achieved in 90% of patients, with either improvement or resolution of symptoms after RT. Of 35 patients, 33 had metastatic disease at their referral for RT, and the median overall survival for this patient population was 2 years. Three long-term Grade 3 or greater toxicities were recorded. Conclusion: RT is an effective modality for achieving local control in patients with PNTs. RT produces high rates of symptomatic palliation and freedom from local progression. Prospective trials of radiotherapy for PNTs are warranted.

Contessa, Joseph N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Griffith, Kent A. [Comprehensive Cancer Center Biostatistics Unit, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Wolff, Elizabeth [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ensminger, William; Zalupski, Mark [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ben-Josef, Edgar, E-mail: edgarb@med.umich.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)



Spinal and Paraspinal Ewing Tumors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To perform a review of the 40-year University of Florida experience treating spinal and paraspinal Ewing tumors. Patients and Methods: A total of 27 patients were treated between 1965 and 2007. For local management, 21 patients were treated with radiotherapy (RT) alone and 6 with surgery plus RT. All patients with metastatic disease were treated with RT alone. The risk profiles of each group were otherwise similar. The median age was 17 years, and the most frequent subsite was the sacral spine (n = 9). The median potential follow-up was 16 years. Results: The 5-year actuarial overall survival, cause-specific survival, and local control rate was 62%, 62%, and 90%, respectively. For the nonmetastatic subset (n = 22), the 5-year overall survival, cause-specific survival, and local control rate was 71%, 71%, and 89%, respectively. The local control rate was 84% for patients treated with RT alone vs. 100% for those treated with surgery plus RT. Patients who were >14 years old and those who were treated with intensive therapy demonstrated superior local control. Of 9 patients in our series with Frankel C or greater neurologic deficits at presentation, 7 experienced a full recovery with treatment. Of the 27 patients, 37% experienced Common Toxicity Criteria Grade 3 or greater toxicity, including 2 deaths from sepsis. Conclusion: Aggressive management of spinal and paraspinal Ewing tumors with RT with or without surgery results in high toxicity but excellent local control and neurologic outcomes. Efforts should be focused on identifying disease amenable to combined modality local therapy and improving RT techniques.

Indelicato, Daniel J., E-mail: dindelicato@floridaproton.or [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Keole, Sameer R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Shahlaee, Amir H. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); Morris, Christopher G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Gibbs, C. Parker; Scarborough, Mark T. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); Pincus, David W. [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); Marcus, Robert B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States)



Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the kidney presenting with pulmonary tumor embolism: A case report  

PubMed Central

Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) of the kidney is a rare, aggressive tumor known for its recurrence and metastatic potential. Despite the frequency of venous extension to the renal veins and inferior vena cava, pulmonary tumor embolism at the initial presentation is not common. We report a case of 22-year-old female with PNET of the kidney who presented with tumor embolism in the inferior vena cava (IVC) and bilateral pulmonary artery. The patient underwent surgical resection and histopathological analysis confirmed the presence of tumor within the IVC and pulmonary arteries. The patient received adjuvant chemotherapy and is currently doing well on follow-up. PMID:25349668

Chinnaa, Sathya; Das, Chandan J; Sharma, Sanjay; Singh, Prabhjot; Seth, Amlesh; Purkait, Suvendu; Mathur, Sandeep R



Allele-specific copy number analysis of tumor samples with aneuploidy and tumor heterogeneity  

PubMed Central

We describe a bioinformatic tool, Tumor Aberration Prediction Suite (TAPS), for the identification of allele-specific copy numbers in tumor samples using data from Affymetrix SNP arrays. It includes detailed visualization of genomic segment characteristics and iterative pattern recognition for copy number identification, and does not require patient-matched normal samples. TAPS can be used to identify chromosomal aberrations with high sensitivity even when the proportion of tumor cells is as low as 30%. Analysis of cancer samples indicates that TAPS is well suited to investigate samples with aneuploidy and tumor heterogeneity, which is commonly found in many types of solid tumors. PMID:22023820



Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the kidney presenting with pulmonary tumor embolism: A case report.  


Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) of the kidney is a rare, aggressive tumor known for its recurrence and metastatic potential. Despite the frequency of venous extension to the renal veins and inferior vena cava, pulmonary tumor embolism at the initial presentation is not common. We report a case of 22-year-old female with PNET of the kidney who presented with tumor embolism in the inferior vena cava (IVC) and bilateral pulmonary artery. The patient underwent surgical resection and histopathological analysis confirmed the presence of tumor within the IVC and pulmonary arteries. The patient received adjuvant chemotherapy and is currently doing well on follow-up. PMID:25349668

Chinnaa, Sathya; Das, Chandan J; Sharma, Sanjay; Singh, Prabhjot; Seth, Amlesh; Purkait, Suvendu; Mathur, Sandeep R



Alteration in interactions between tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and tumor cells in human melanomas after chemotherapy or immunotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Alteration in interactions between tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and tumor cells after chemotherapy or immunotherapy was studied in metastatic melanoma patients. Tumors were harvested from surgical specimens 17 days after the end of chemotherapy with cisplatin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (CVD). Tumors of nonlymph-node metastases from two responders yielded neither TILs nor tumor cells, whereas those from all four nonresponders had

Kyogo Itoh; Kazuhiro Hayakawal; Marie A. Salmeron; Sewa S. Legha; James L. Murray; Moshe Talpaz; Charles M. Balch; David R. Parkinson; Kevin Lee; Alexander A. Zukiwski; Sigrid E. Ring; Ruth LaPushin; Lazel B. Augustus



[Genetics of testicular germ cell tumors].  


Testicular cancer is by far the most common neoplasm among young males between the ages of 20 and 40 years and with an increasing incidence rate worldwide. Congenital malformations of the male genitals, such as cryptorchidism or inguinal hernia are established risk factors. Men with a family history of testicular cancer are also associated with an increased risk of the disease. In the testes more than 90?% of tumors develop from germ cells (progenitor cells) and represent a histologically heterogeneous group. Germ cell tumors in extragonadal localizations are rare. Isochromosome i(12p), the typical marker chromosome in testicular germ cell tumors, occurs as an early event in tumorigenesis. Spermatocytic seminoma is a rare variant of germ cell tumors and according to the current classification is a distinct entity with different morphological, clinical and also cytogenetical features compared with other germ cell tumors. PMID:24819977

Verdorfer, I



Decreased decorin expression in the tumor microenvironment  

PubMed Central

Decorin is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan, synthesized and deposited by fibroblasts in the stroma where it binds to collagen I. It sequesters several growth factors and antagonizes numerous members of the receptor tyrosine kinase family. In experimental murine systems, it acted as a potent tumor suppressor. Examining the Human Protein Atlas online database of immunostained tissue samples we have surveyed decorin expression in silico in several different tumor types, comparing them with corresponding normal tissues. We found that decorin is abundantly secreted and deposited in normal connective tissue but its expression is consistently decreased in the tumor microenvironment. We developed a software to quantitate the difference in expression. The presence of two closely related proteoglycans in the newly formed tumor stroma indicated that the decreased decorin expression was not caused by the delay in proteoglycan deposition in the newly formed connective tissue surrounding the tumor. PMID:24634138

Bozoky, Benedek; Savchenko, Andrii; Guven, Hayrettin; Ponten, Fredrik; Klein, George; Szekely, Laszlo



Germ-cell tumors of the mediastinum.  


Mediastinal germ-cell tumors (GCTs) usually occur within the anterior mediastinum, accounting for about 15% of all mediastinal cysts and tumors. They are associated with the thymus, presumably arising from extragonadal germ cells or thymic cells with germ-cell potential. Mediastinal seminoma develops primarily in young males with rare cases reported in females; likewise, embryonal carcinoma, endodermal sinus tumor or yolk-sac tumor, choriocarcinoma, and malignant mixed or combined GCTs also overwhelmingly affect males. Mature cystic teratoma affects males and females equally. The prognosis for mediastinal mature cystic teratoma and seminoma is very good. Nonseminomatous malignant GCTs of the mediastinum often present with advanced disease and do not respond as well to chemotherapy as their gonadal counterparts. Nonetheless, it is important to separate mediastinal GCTs from other undifferentiated malignant tumors, especially thymic carcinoma, which has a poor prognosis. Clearly, some patients with mediastinal GCTs respond very well to modern therapies. PMID:10355653

Weidner, N



Strange Attractor in Immunology of Tumor Growth  

E-print Network

The time delayed cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response on the tumor growth has been developed on the basis of discrete approximation (2-dimensional map). The growth kinetic has been described by logistic law with growth rate being the bifurcation parameter. Increase in the growth rate results in instability of the tumor state and causes period-doubling bifurcations in the immune+tumor system. For larger values of tumor growth rate a strange attractor has been observed. The model proposed is able to describe the metastable-state production when time series data of the immune state and the number of tumor cells are irregular and unpredictable. This metastatic disease may be caused not by exterior (medical) factors, but interior density dependent ones.

Margarita Voitikova



Ethanol ablation of extradigital solid glomus tumors.  


Glomus tumors are predominantly benign neoplasms accounting for less than 2 % of all soft tissue tumors. While generally solitary, multiple lesions have been reported in approximately 10 % of cases. Glomus tumors are typically under 1 cm in dimension accompanied by the classic triad of symptoms: debilitating pain, pinpoint tenderness, and hypersensitivity to cold temperatures. Excisional therapy is the accepted standard of care, however, past reports of non-invasive treatments for multiple glomangiomata variant tumors include laser therapy, irradiation, and sclerotherapy with STS and hypertonic saline. We present a case of a patient with multiple subcutaneous and intramuscular, lower-extremity benign solid glomus tumors treated successfully utilizing ethanol ablation, which has not been previously reported. This minimally invasive treatment allowed for control of symptoms from a benign condition previously requiring multiple invasive surgeries. PMID:25022808

Sanders, Paul; Spouge, Rebecca J; Akbari, Majid; Spouge, David J



Tumor suppressors: enhancers or suppressors of regeneration?  

PubMed Central

Tumor suppressors are so named because cancers occur in their absence, but these genes also have important functions in development, metabolism and tissue homeostasis. Here, we discuss known and potential functions of tumor suppressor genes during tissue regeneration, focusing on the evolutionarily conserved tumor suppressors pRb1, p53, Pten and Hippo. We propose that their activity is essential for tissue regeneration. This is in contrast to suggestions that tumor suppression is a trade-off for regenerative capacity. We also hypothesize that certain aspects of tumor suppressor pathways inhibit regenerative processes in mammals, and that transient targeted modification of these pathways could be fruitfully exploited to enhance processes that are important to regenerative medicine. PMID:23715544

Pomerantz, Jason H.; Blau, Helen M.



Adult primary pulmonary primitive neuroectodermal tumor  

PubMed Central

Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) arising directly from the lung are very rare but particularly aggressive neoplasms. We report a case of a 31-y-old man with primary pulmonary neuroectodermal tumor. We review the clinical as well as pathological features. As typical for these tumors, the diagnosis was initially delayed in our patient and prognosis was poor despite aggressive surgical resection, postoperative chemotherapy and local irradiation. Recent biological insights have revealed unique chromosomal translocations crucial to the pathogenesis of these tumors, most notably the EWS-FLI-1 translocation. We provide an overview of the molecular features of the Ewing Sarcoma Family of Tumors (ESFT) including PNET and their potential implications for therapeutic targeting. PMID:23114712

Andrei, Mirela; Cramer, Stewart F.; Kramer, Zachary B.; Zeidan, Amer; Faltas, Bishoy



Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Pelvis  

PubMed Central

The primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) belongs to a group of highly malignant tumors and is composed of small round cells of a neuroectodermal origin. Categorized in the same tumor family as Ewing sarcoma, the PNET is most likely to occur in bones and soft tissues. However, a small number of PNET cases arising in the pelvis have been reported as well. We present three cases of pelvic PNET: two cases in the ovary and one case in the broad ligament. The PNET often exhibits aggressive clinical behavior with worse outcomes than other small round cell tumors. The significant prognostic factors of the PNET include site of tumor, volume of neoplasm, and presence of metastasis. The treatment protocol is multimodal and includes local surgical treatment followed by chemotherapy. We herein describe three PNET cases as a rare entity in the pelvis. Pelvic PNETs should be included in the differential diagnosis of pelvic masses. PMID:24453398

Yousefi, Zohreh; Sharifhi, Nourieh; Hasanzadeh, Malihe; Mottaghi, Mansoureh; Bolandy, Somayeh



The clinical importance of assessing tumor hypoxia: relationship of tumor hypoxia to prognosis and therapeutic opportunities.  


Tumor hypoxia is a well-established biological phenomenon that affects the curability of solid tumors, regardless of treatment modality. Especially for head and neck cancer patients, tumor hypoxia is linked to poor patient outcomes. Given the biological problems associated with tumor hypoxia, the goal for clinicians has been to identify moderately to severely hypoxic tumors for differential treatment strategies. The "gold standard" for detecting and characterizing of tumor hypoxia are the invasive polarographic electrodes. Several less invasive hypoxia assessment techniques have also shown promise for hypoxia assessment. The widespread incorporation of hypoxia information in clinical tumor assessment is severely impeded by several factors, including regulatory hurdles and unclear correlation with potential treatment decisions. There is now an acute need for approved diagnostic technologies for determining the hypoxia status of cancer lesions, as it would enable clinical development of personalized, hypoxia-based therapies, which will ultimately improve outcomes. A number of different techniques for assessing tumor hypoxia have evolved to replace polarographic pO2 measurements for assessing tumor hypoxia. Several of these modalities, either individually or in combination with other imaging techniques, provide functional and physiological information of tumor hypoxia that can significantly improve the course of treatment. The assessment of tumor hypoxia will be valuable to radiation oncologists, surgeons, and biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies who are engaged in developing hypoxia-based therapies or treatment strategies. PMID:24512032

Walsh, Joseph C; Lebedev, Artem; Aten, Edward; Madsen, Kathleen; Marciano, Liane; Kolb, Hartmuth C



Tumor Interstitial Fluid Pressure--A Link between Tumor Hypoxia, Microvascular Density, and Lymph Node Metastasis  

PubMed Central

High microvascular density (MVD) in the primary tumor has been shown to be associated with increased incidence of lymph node metastases and poor clinical outcome. Other investigations have revealed that a large fraction of hypoxic tissue in the primary tumor is associated with metastatic disease and impaired survival. These data are apparently incompatible because tumor hypoxia is primarily a consequence of poor oxygen supply caused by an inadequate vasculature with increased intervessel distances. Here, we provide an explanation of these observations. Human melanoma xenografts were used as preclinical cancer models. Tumors that metastasized to lymph nodes showed higher interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) than those that did not metastasize, and compared with tumors with low IFP, tumors with high IFP showed large hypoxic fractions centrally, high MVD in the periphery, high peritumoral density of lymphatics, and elevated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and VEGF-C. Significant correlations were found between peripheral MVD and central hypoxia, and lymph node metastasis was associated with high values of both parameters. These findings suggest that the outcome of cancer may be associated with both high MVD and extensive hypoxia in the primary tumor. We propose that proangiogenic factors are upregulated in the tumor center and that the outward interstitial fluid flow caused by the elevated IFP transports these factors to the tumor surface where they evoke hemangiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, and consequently, that the IFP serves as a link between tumor hypoxia, peripheral tumor hemangiogenesis, peritumoral lymphangiogenesis, and lymph node metastasis. PMID:25117980

Rofstad, Einar K.; Galappathi, Kanthi; Mathiesen, Berit S.



Ways to Enhance Lymphocyte Trafficking into Tumors and Fitness of Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes  

PubMed Central

The tumor is a hostile microenvironment for T lymphocytes. Indeed, irregular blood flow, and endothelial cell (EC) anergy that characterize most solid tumors hamper leukocyte adhesion, extravasation, and infiltration. In addition, hypoxia and reprograming of energy metabolism within cancer cells transform the tumor mass in a harsh environment that limits survival and effector functions of T cells, regardless of being induced in vivo by vaccination or adoptively transferred. In this review, we will summarize on recent advances in our understanding of the characteristics of tumor-associated neo-angiogenic vessels as well as of the tumor metabolism that may impact on T cell trafficking and fitness of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. In particular, we will focus on how advances in knowledge of the characteristics of tumor ECs have enabled identifying strategies to normalize the tumor-vasculature and/or overcome EC anergy, thus increasing leukocyte-vessel wall interactions and lymphocyte infiltration in tumors. We will also focus on drugs acting on cells and their released molecules to transiently render the tumor microenvironment more suitable for tumor infiltrating T lymphocytes, thus increasing the therapeutic effectiveness of both active and adoptive immunotherapies. PMID:24062984

Bellone, Matteo; Calcinotto, Arianna



Diagnosis of pancreatic tumors by endoscopic ultrasonography  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic tumors are highly diverse, as they can be solid or cystic, and benign or malignant. Since their imaging features overlap considerably, it is often difficult to characterize these tumors. In addition, small pancreatic tumors, especially those less than 2 cm in diameter, are difficult to detect and diagnose. For characterizing pancreatic tumors and detecting small pancreatic tumors, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is the most sensitive of the imaging procedures currently available. This technique also provides good results in terms of the preoperative staging of pancreatic tumors. EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has also proved to be a safe and useful method for tissue sampling of pancreatic tumors. Despite these advantages, however, it is still difficult to differentiate between benign and malignant, solid or cystic pancreatic tumors, malignant neoplasms, and chronic pancreatitis using EUS, even when EUS-FNA is performed. Recently, contrast-enhanced EUS with Doppler mode (CE-EUS) employing ultrasound contrast agents, which indicate vascularization in pancreatic lesions, has been found to be useful in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic tumors, especially small pancreatic tumors. However, Doppler ultrasonography with contrast-enhancement has several limitations, including blooming artifacts, poor spatial resolution, and low sensitivity to slow flow. Consequently, an echoendoscope was developed recently that has a broad-band transducer and an imaging mode that was designed specifically for contrast-enhanced harmonic EUS (CEH-EUS) with a second-generation ultrasound contrast agent. The CEH-EUS technique is expected to improve the differential diagnosis of pancreatic disease in the future. This review describes the EUS appearances of common solid and cystic pancreatic masses, the diagnostic accuracy of EUS-FNA, and the relative efficacies and advantages of CE-EUS and CEH-EUS along with their relative advantages and their complementary roles in clinical practice. PMID:21160578

Sakamoto, Hiroki; Kitano, Masayuki; Kamata, Ken; El-Masry, Muhammad; Kudo, Masatoshi



Tumor dormancy: potential therapeutic target in tumor recurrence and metastasis prevention  

PubMed Central

In past decades, cancer patient survival has been improved with earlier detection and advancements in therapy. However, many patients who exhibit no clinical symptoms after frontline therapy subsequently suffer, often many years later, aggressive tumor recurrence. Cancer recurrence represents a critical clinical challenge in effectively treating malignancies and for patients’ quality of life. Tumor cell dormancy may help to explain treatment resistance and recurrence or metastatic reactivation. Understanding the dormant stage of tumor cells may help in discovering ways to maintain the dormant state or permanently eliminate dormant residual disseminated tumor cells. Over the past decade, numerous studies indicate that various mechanisms of tumor dormancy exist, including cellular dormancy (quiescence), angiogenic dormancy, and immunologic dormancy. In this short review, we summarize recent experimental and clinical evidence for these three mechanisms and other possible tumor microenvironment mechanisms that may influence tumor dormancy. PMID:24502434



Cytostatic effect of spleen cells of tumor-bearing mice on syngenetic tumor cells.  


Spleen cell suspensions of methylcholanthrene-induced tumor-bearing mice were tested for their ability to inhibit tumor growth in vitro. The level of cytostasis was correlated with tumor growth and disappeared rapidly after surgical removal of the tumor. Pretreatment by anti-Thy 1-2 antiserum and complement, or by carbonyl iron and a magnet, showed that adherent, non-T-cells were the main effector cells of the cytostatic antitumor effect. Thymus cells suspensions from tubor-bearing mice were not effective in inhibiting tumor growth. This cytostatic effect was not tumor specific, inasmuch as the same spleen cell suspension inhibited growth of tumor cells of different origin. PMID:870185

Lespinats, G; Poupon, M F



Immunotherapeutic implications of the immunophenotype of pediatric brain tumors  

PubMed Central

The cytofluorometric analysis of dissociated tumor samples identified distinct immunophenotypes among the most common variants of pediatric brain tumor. These findings suggest that immunotherapeutic regimens against pediatric brain malignancies should be tailored to individual tumor types. PMID:24575386

Griesinger, Andrea M; Donson, Andrew M; Foreman, Nicholas K



What's New in Pituitary Tumor Research and Treatment?  


... Next Topic Additional resources for pituitary tumors What’s new in pituitary tumor research and treatment? Research into ... of non-functioning adenomas, which may lead to new medical therapies for these tumors. Imaging tests such ...


What's New in Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors Research and Treatment?  


... Topic Additional resources for gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors What’s new in gastrointestinal carcinoid tumor research and treatment? There ... for the causes of , ways to prevent , and new approaches to diagnose and treat GI carcinoid tumors. ...


What's New in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Research and Treatment?  


... Topic Additional resources for gastrointestinal stromal tumor What’s new in gastrointestinal stromal tumor research and treatment? There ... GIST) Talking With Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST) Research? Other Resources ...


HPV associated tumor cells control tumor microenvironment and leukocytosis in experimental models  

PubMed Central

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main etiological factor for cervical cancer development. HPV is also associated with other anogenital and oropharyngeal tumors. HPV associated tumors are frequent and constitute a public health problem, mainly in developing countries. Therapy against such tumors is usually excisional, causing iatrogenic morbidity. Therefore, development of strategies for new therapies is desirable. The tumor microenvironment is essential for tumor growth, where inflammation is an important component, displaying a central role in tumor progression. Inflammation may be a causal agent, suppressor of anti-tumor T cell responses, or may have a role in angiogenesis, drug resistance, and metastasis. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of HPV transformed cells in the tumor microenvironment and tumor effects on myeloid populations in lymphoid organs in the host. We used experimental models, where we injected cervical cancer derived cell lines in immunodeficient mice, comparing HPV positive, SiHa, and HeLa cells (HPV 16 and HPV18, respectively), with HPV negative cell line, C33A. Our data shows that HPV positive cell lines were more efficient than the HPV negative cell line in leukocyte recruitment to the tumor microenvironment and increase in myeloid cell proliferation in the bone marrow and spleen. We also observed that HPV positive cells lines expressed significantly higher levels of IL-6 and IL-8, while C33A expressed significantly higher levels of IL-16 and IL-17. Finally, in spite of cytokine secretion by tumor cells, leukocytes infiltrating SiHa and HeLa tumors displayed almost negligible STAT3 and no NF?B phosphorylation. Only the inflammatory infiltrate of C33A tumors had NF?B and STAT3 activated isoforms. Our results indicate that, although from the same anatomical site, the uterine cervix, these cell lines display important differences regarding inflammation. These results are important for the design of immunotherapies against cervical cancer, and possibly against HPV associated tumors in other anatomical sites.

Stone, Simone Cardozo; Rossetti, Renata Ariza Marques; Lima, Aleida Maria; Lepique, Ana Paula



Tumor targeting by conjugation of DHA to paclitaxel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Targeting an anti-cancer drug to tumors should increase the Area Under the drug concentration–time Curve (AUC) in tumors while decreasing the AUC in normal cells and should therefore increase the therapeutic index of that drug. Anti-tumor drugs typically have half-lives far shorter than the cell cycle transit times of most tumor cells. Tumor targeting, with concomitant long tumor exposure times,

M. O Bradley; C. S Swindell; F. H Anthony; P. A Witman; P Devanesan; N. L Webb; S. D Baker; A. C Wolff; R. C Donehower



Bone and soft tissue tumors of hip and pelvis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective is to identify epidemiologic and radiologic criteria allowing specific diagnoses of tumors and tumor-like lesions in the hip region and pelvis, and to optimize pre-operative staging.Patients with pelvic tumors are usually older, and their tumors are larger relative to patients with tumors in extremities. The majority of tumors in the pelvis are malignant (metastases, myeloma, chondrosarcoma, Ewing-, osteo-, and

Johan L. Bloem; Inge I. Reidsma


Tumor-targeted delivery of liposome-encapsulated doxorubicin by use of a peptide that selectively binds to irradiated tumors  

PubMed Central

Tumor-targeted drug delivery improves anti-tumor efficacy and reduces systemic toxicity by limiting bioavailability of cytotoxic drugs to within tumors. Targeting reagents, such as peptides or antibodies recognizing molecular targets over-expressed within tumors, have been used to improve liposome-encapsulated drug accumulation within tumors and resulted in enhanced tumor growth control. In this report, we expand the scope of targeting reagents by showing that one peptide, HVGGSSV which was isolated from an in vivo screening of phage-displayed peptide library due to its selective binding within irradiated tumors, enabled highly selective tumor-targeted delivery of liposome-encapsulated doxorubicin and resulted in enhanced cytotoxicity within tumors. Targeting liposomes (TL) and non-targeting liposomes (nTL) were labeled with Alexa Fluor 750. Biodistribution of the liposomes within tumor-bearing mice was studied with near infrared (NIR) imaging. In the single dose pharmacokinetic study, the liposomal doxorubicin has an extended circulation half life as compared to the free doxorubicin. Targeting liposomes partitioned to the irradiated tumors and improved drug deposition and retention within tumors. The tumor-targeted delivery of doxorubicin improved tumor growth control as indicated with reduced tumor growth rate and tumor cell proliferation, enhanced tumor blood vessel destruction, and increased treatment-associated apoptosis and necrosis of tumor cells. Collectively, the results demonstrated the remarkable capability of the HVGGSSV peptide in radiation-guided drug delivery to tumors. PMID:21075152

Lowery, Amanda; Onishko, Halina; Hallahan, Dennis E.; Han, Zhaozhong



Persistence of tumor-infiltrating CD8 T cells is tumor-dependent but antigen-independent  

E-print Network

How tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) that are tumor-specific but functionally tolerant persist in the antigen-expressing tumor tissue is largely unknown. We have previously developed a modified TRansgenic Adenocarcinoma ...

Olurinde, Mobolaji O.


Imaging, Diagnosis, Prognosis Visualizing Implanted Tumors in Mice with Magnetic  

E-print Network

Imaging, Diagnosis, Prognosis Visualizing Implanted Tumors in Mice with Magnetic Resonance Imaging imaging use- fulness in cancer diagnosis and treatment evaluation. Because many bacteria colonize tumors

Matin, A.C.


[Mesenchymal tumors of the ovary and uterine corpus. Selected review].  


In the large group of uterine and ovarian tumors, the knowledge was updated in recent years substantially. New entities were defined and changes in classification of the lesions were performed. This review is limited to updates, such as evaluation of uterine smooth muscle tumors, new variants of uterine stromal tumors, uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex-cord tumor (UTROSCT), perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEC-omas), ovarian fibroma and fibrosarcoma, sclerosing stromal tumor and myxoma. Group of tumors of specialized gonadal stroma is not discussed as it represents particular area and thus requires a separated review article. PMID:18188918

Zámecník, M



Emerging Trends for Radioimmunotherapy in Solid Tumors  

PubMed Central

Abstract Due to its ability to target both known and occult lesions, radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is an attractive therapeutic modality for solid tumors. Poor tumor uptake and undesirable pharmacokinetics, however, have precluded the administration of radioimmunoconjugates at therapeutically relevant doses thereby limiting the clinical utility of RIT. In solid tumors, efficacy of RIT is further compromised by heterogeneities in blood flow, tumor stroma, expression of target antigens and radioresistance. As a result significant efforts have been invested toward developing strategies to overcome these impediments. Further, there is an emerging interest in exploiting short-range, high energy ?-particle emitting radionuclides for the eradication of minimal residual and micrometastatic disease. As a result several modalities for localized therapy and models of minimal disease have been developed for preclinical evaluation. This review provides a brief update on the recent efforts toward improving the efficacy of RIT for solid tumors, and development of RIT strategies for minimal disease associated with solid tumors. Further, some of promising approaches to improve tumor targeting, which showed promise in the past, but have now been ignored are also discussed. PMID:23844555

Gupta, Suprit; Kaur, Sukhwinder; Ponnusamy, Moorthy P.



Clinical aspects of drug delivery to tumors.  


This report describes our experience on enhancement of drug delivery to solid tumors. Results of our preclinical and clinical studies including a randomized prospective phase III trial have validated the concept that enhanced drug delivery can significantly improve the treatment efficacy of intravesical mitomycin C therapy of superficial bladder cancer. The report further describes the roles of interstitial space, drug removal by capillaries, tissue structure and tissue composition on drug distribution. In general, drug distribution favors interstitial space and vasculature, with little penetration in muscles. The transport of highly protein-bound drugs such as paclitaxel and doxorubicin in a solid tumor is retarded by a high tumor cell density and enhanced by drug-induced apoptosis. Results of in vitro studies using solid tumor histocultures and in vivo studies using tumor-bearing animals demonstrate that the delivery of highly protein-bound drugs to tumor can be enhanced using a pretreatment that induces apoptosis and reduces cell density, and by using treatment schedules designed to take advantage of these drug-induced changes in tumor tissue composition. PMID:11772451

Au, Jessie L-S; Jang, Seong H; Wientjes, M Guill



Regulation of Tumor Angiogenesis by EZH2  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY While VEGF-targeted therapies are showing promise, new angiogenesis targets are needed to make additional gains. Here, we show that increased Zeste homologue 2 (EZH2) expression in either tumor cells or in tumor vasculature is predictive of poor clinical outcome. The increase in endothelial EZH2 is a direct result of VEGF stimulation by a paracrine circuit that promotes angiogenesis by methylating and silencing vasohibin1 (VASH1). EZH2 silencing in the tumor-associated endothelial cells inhibited angiogenesis mediated by reactivation of VASH1, and reduced ovarian cancer growth, which is further enhanced in combination with EZH2 silencing in tumor cells. Collectively, these data support the potential for targeting EZH2 as an important therapeutic approach. SIGNIFICANCE In this work, we identify EZH2 as a key regulator of tumor angiogenesis. The increase in endothelial EZH2 is a direct result of VEGF stimulation and indicates the presence of a paracrine circuit that promotes angiogenesis. EZH2 silencing in the tumor-associated endothelial cells using siRNA, packaged in the chitosan delivery system, resulted in significant growth inhibition in an orthotopic ovarian cancer model. EZH2 silencing in tumor endothelial cells resulted in decreased angiogenesis that was mediated by increased levels of the angiogenesis inhibitor, vasohibin1 (VASH1). Combined, these data provide a significant conceptual advance in our understanding of the regulation of angiogenesis in ovarian carcinoma and support the potential for targeting EZH2 as a therapeutic approach. PMID:20708159

Lu, Chunhua; Han, Hee Dong; Mangala, Lingegowda S.; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Newton, Christopher S.; Ozbun, Laurent; Armaiz-Pena, Guillermo N.; Hu, Wei; Stone, Rebecca L.; Munkarah, Adnan; Ravoori, Murali K.; Shahzad, Mian M. K.; Lee, Jeong-Won; Mora, Edna; Langley, Robert R.; Carroll, Amy R.; Matsuo, Koji; Spannuth, Whitney A.; Schmandt, Rosemarie; Jennings, Nicholas B.; Goodman, Blake W.; Jaffe, Robert B.; Nick, Alpa M.; Kim, Hye Sun; Guven, Eylem Ozturk; Chen, Ya-Huey; Li, Long-Yuan; Hsu, Ming-Chuan; Coleman, Robert L.; Calin, George A.; Denkbas, Emir B.; Lim, Jae Yun; Lee, Ju-Seog; Kundra, Vikas; Birrer, Michael J.; Hung, Mien-Chie; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Sood, Anil K.



Malignant solitary fibrous tumor involving the liver  

PubMed Central

Solitary fibrous tumors are predominantly benign and are most commonly found in the thoracic cavity and pleura; while reports exist in the literature of malignant solitary fibrous tumors and those located in extrathoracic organs, these cases are considered extremely rare. Herein, a case is reported of a malignant solitary fibrous tumor involving the liver that was diagnosed and treated in a 62-year-old woman. The patient presented with complaints of upper abdominal pain and unintentional weight loss. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen revealed a remarkably large mass, measuring 15 cm × 10 cm × 20 cm, which appeared to be unrelated to any particular organ. The intraoperative finding of a wide communication with the left liver suggested hepatic origin, and served as an indicator for tumor resection via left hemihepatectomy. The diagnosis of solitary fibrous tumor and its malignant nature was confirmed by histological and immunohistochemical examination of the resected tissues. Hepatic solitary fibrous tumor is very rare, and surgery remains the mainstay of treatment. Due to limited reports of such tumors in the literature, little can be said about the benefit of adjuvant therapy and prognosis for the rare cases with malignant histological findings. PMID:23745040

Jakob, Manuel; Schneider, Matthias; Hoeller, Ingo; Laffer, Urban; Kaderli, Reto



Triple Primary Origin Tumor: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Generally, among the extradural spinal tumors, metastatic spinal tumor is much more common than primary spinal tumors. Thus, in the case of a spinal tumor patient with cancer history (such as lung cancer, breast cancer, etc.), we used to infer that the spinal lesion is the metastasis from, primary malignancy. We introduce an experience of a case of triple primary origin tumor in a 57-year-old man. When the spinal lesion was found on the abdominal computed tomography scan, he already had a history of colon cancer and liver cancer. Initially, it was thought that the lesion would probably be a metastatic tumor from the liver or colon cancers, and the operation was performed accordingly. In the pathologic final report, however, the mass was proven to plasmacytoma - the third primary lesion. The patient underwent chemotherapy after surgery. Globally, the triple primary origin tumor has been reported very rarely. With this report, we wish to emphasize the necessity of pathologic confirmation and adequate treatment even in a patient with known malignancies. PMID:24757467

Jung, Yong-Su; Ha, Sung-Kon; Kim, Sang-Dae; Lim, Dong-Jun



[Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST)--medical rarities?].  


Although their overall incidence is low, GISTs are distinctive subgroup of gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumors which express CD117 or platelet derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA). Considered as rare digestive cancers, tumors like schwannomas, neurofibromas, gastrointestinal leiomiomas are now reclassified as GIST based on immunohistochemistry studies. GIST are more frequent in stomach (40-70%), small bowel (20-40%), colon (5-15%), meanwhile locations such as mesentery, omentum, retro peritoneum in less of 5%. 10 GIST patients were surgically managed during 2004-2009. 5 gastric and 5 small bowel GIST. Most with symptomatic disease: palpable tumor, abdominal pain, anemia, fatigue, superior digestive hemorrhage or occlusion. Imagistic diagnosis consisted of: barium swallow, abdominal sonography, CT and PET-CT. Confirmation was made by hystopathological exam and immunohistochemistry. All patients had more or less wide surgical resections. For some patients there was also a specific adjuvant treatment. All patients survived after surgery. The principle of surgery for GIST is RO resection of the tumor. Tumor rupture or R1 resection of the primary tumor has a negative impact on disease free survival. Some patients (great volume tumors, R1 or R2 resection) had adjuvant treatment. Imatinib mesylate and derivates showed a significant improvement of recurrence free survival with one condition: permanent treatment. Surgery remains the mainstay of treatment in patients with localized, resectable GIST. Recurrence rate of 17-21% and 5 years survival rate of 48-70%, even in resectable GIST, impose an adjuvant treatment. PMID:20941986

Predescu, D; Gheorghe, M; Predoiu, I; Iosif, C; Constantin, A; Chiru, F; Cociu, L; Constantinoiu, S



Rare diaphragmatic tumor mimicking liver mass.  


Primary tumors of the diaphragm are quite rare. About 150 cases have been reported in the literature. Fibrosarcomas are the commonest malignant neoplasms of the diaphragm; however, only a few (less than 20) cases have been reported to date. We present the case of an extremely rare tumor of the diaphragm mimicking a liver mass. The patient, a young 28-year-old woman, presented with an 8-month-history of mildly progressive upper abdominal pain and early fullness after meals. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen revealed a mass located in the region of the left lobe of the liver with non visualized left lobe and partial vascular supply of the mass from the left hepatic artery. The tumor was also seen to draw its vascularity from bilateral internal mammary arteries. Surgical excision and hepatectomy was planned, keeping in mind the diagnosis of an atypical left hepatic mass. Laparotomy revealed a left diaphragmatic tumor growing caudally into the upper abdomen, compressing and splaying the liver along the left medial surface where the tumor was virtually adherent to it. Successful excision of the mass and subsequent histopathological and immunochemistry examination of the specimen revealed low grade fibromyxoid sarcoma of the diaphragm. This case highlights the unusual presentation of a diaphragmatic mesenchymal tumor and how it can be mistaken as an atypical liver mass. It also emphasizes the tumoral vascular supply as an indicator of its organ of origin. PMID:24600509

Thapar, Shalini; Ahuja, Arvind; Rastogi, Archana



The immunization site of cytokine-secreting tumor cell vaccines influences the trafficking of tumor-specific T lymphocytes and antitumor efficacy against regional tumors.  


Tumor cells engineered to secrete cytokines, referred to as tumor cell vaccines, can often generate systemic antitumor immunity and, in many cases, cause tumor regression. We compared the efficacy of s.c. immunization or intrahepatic immunization of GM-CSF-expressing tumor cell vaccines on the growth of s.c. or orthotopic liver tumors. A chemically transformed hepatic epithelial cell line, GP7TB, derived from Fischer 344 rats, was used to generate tumor models and tumor cell vaccines. Our results demonstrated that two s.c. injections of an irradiated tumor cell vaccine significantly controlled the growth of s.c. tumors, but was completely ineffective against orthotopic liver tumors. Effector cell infiltration in liver tumors was markedly reduced compared with s.c. tumors. Enhanced apoptosis of some effector cells was observed in the liver tumors compared with the s.c. tumors. Furthermore, the T cells induced by s.c. immunization preferentially migrated to s.c. tumor sites, as demonstrated by adoptive transfer experiments. In contrast, intrahepatic immunization, using parental tumor cells admixed with adenoviruses carrying the GM-CSF gene, yielded significantly better therapeutic effects on the liver tumors than on the s.c. tumors. Adoptive transfer experiments further confirmed that the T cells induced by liver immunization preferentially migrated to the liver tumor sites. Our results demonstrate that distinct T cell populations are induced by different immunization routes. Thus, the homing behavior of T cells depends on the route of immunization and is an important factor determining the efficacy of immunotherapy for regional tumors. PMID:15528337

Chang, Chun-Jung; Tai, Kuo-Feng; Roffler, Steve; Hwang, Lih-Hwa



Surgery and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Children With Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors

Childhood Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Teratoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Stage II Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma



Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent or Resistant Malignant Germ Cell Tumors

Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Malignant Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Testicular Choriocarcinoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Yolk Sac Tumor



Molecular genetic analysis of placental site trophoblastic tumors and epithelioid trophoblastic tumors confirms their trophoblastic origin.  


Trophoblastic tumors represent a unique group of human neoplasms because they are derived from fetal tissue. Except for choriocarcinoma, the neoplasms that develop from human trophoblast are poorly characterized. Placental site trophoblastic tumors and epithelioid trophoblastic tumors are thought to arise from intermediate (extravillous) trophoblasts based on histopathological studies, but direct molecular evidence of a trophoblastic origin has not been established. In this study, we performed molecular analysis in an attempt to confirm their presumable trophoblastic origin. We demonstrated that such tumors contain a Y-chromosomal locus and/or new (paternal) alleles not present in adjacent normal uterine tissue in all 31 informative cases. Loss of heterozygosity was found in 60% of tumors and all 42 tumors assessed contained wild-type K-ras. All of the trophoblastic tumors were heterozygous in at least 1 of 10 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers studied in contrast to homozygosity in all 10 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers in most complete hydatidiform moles indicating that these tumors are not related to complete hydatidiform moles. This study provides the first molecular evidence that placental site trophoblastic tumors and epithelioid trophoblastic tumors are of fetal (trophoblastic) origin. PMID:12213732

Oldt, Robert J; Kurman, Robert J; Shih, Ie-Ming



Glutathione S-transferase isoenzyme profile in non-tumor and tumor human kidney tissue.  


Glutathione S-transferase (GST) isoenzyme profiles of non-tumor and tumor renal tissue of patients suffering from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) of the clear cell type were determined and compared to those of normal renal tissue. GST isoenzyme(s) were first separated on the basis of their affinity to glutathione sepharose 4B affinity column. Affinity-bound GSTs were further purified by anionic and cationic chromatofocusing. The results presented in this study show that non-tumor tissue distant from renal tumors and renal tumors have lower specific GST activity and a different isoenzyme profile than normal human kidney. Purification of normal kidney GSTs by affinity chromatography revealed the presence of two GST fractions: flow-through GST without affinity for glutathione affinity resin and GST fraction tightly bound to affinity matrix. In non-tumor kidney tissue of RCC patients, substantially less flow-through GST fraction was found, whereas renal tumors did not express flow-through GST at all. Isoelectric chromatofocusing indicated smaller numbers of GST isoenzymes in non-tumor and tumor kidney regions, with anionic forms dominating. It could be speculated that decreased expression of cationic GST isoenzymes (corresponding to class alpha) in non-tumor kidney tissue of RCC patients might be responsible for differences in sensitivity to specific carcinogens. The observations that RCCs are devoid of affinity flow-through GST and have small number of isoenzymes are further proof of low-level GST expression in RCC. PMID:12811499

Simi?, Tatjana; Mimi?-Oka, Jasmina; Ille, Katarina; Dragicevi?, Dejan; Savi?-Radojevi?, Ana



Neutrophils responsive to endogenous IFN-? regulate tumor angiogenesis and growth in a mouse tumor model  

PubMed Central

Angiogenesis is a hallmark of malignant neoplasias, as the formation of new blood vessels is required for tumors to acquire oxygen and nutrients essential for their continued growth and metastasis. However, the signaling pathways leading to tumor vascularization are not fully understood. Here, using a transplantable mouse tumor model, we have demonstrated that endogenous IFN-? inhibits tumor angiogenesis through repression of genes encoding proangiogenic and homing factors in tumor-infiltrating neutrophils. We determined that IFN-?–deficient mice injected with B16F10 melanoma or MCA205 fibrosarcoma cells developed faster-growing tumors with better-developed blood vessels than did syngeneic control mice. These tumors displayed enhanced infiltration by CD11b+Gr1+ neutrophils expressing elevated levels of the genes encoding the proangiogenic factors VEGF and MMP9 and the homing receptor CXCR4. They also expressed higher levels of the transcription factors c-myc and STAT3, known regulators of VEGF, MMP9, and CXCR4. In vitro, treatment of these tumor-infiltrating neutrophils with low levels of IFN-? restored expression of proangiogenic factors to control levels. Moreover, depletion of these neutrophils inhibited tumor growth in both control and IFN-?–deficient mice. We therefore suggest that constitutively produced endogenous IFN-? is an important mediator of innate tumor surveillance. Further, we believe our data help to explain the therapeutic effect of IFN treatment during the early stages of cancer development. PMID:20237412

Jablonska, Jadwiga; Leschner, Sara; Westphal, Kathrin; Lienenklaus, Stefan; Weiss, Siegfried



Tumor-Associated Macrophages as Major Players in the Tumor Microenvironment  

PubMed Central

During tumor progression, circulating monocytes and macrophages are actively recruited into tumors where they alter the tumor microenvironment to accelerate tumor progression. Macrophages shift their functional phenotypes in response to various microenvironmental signals generated from tumor and stromal cells. Based on their function, macrophages are divided broadly into two categories: classical M1 and alternative M2 macrophages. The M1 macrophage is involved in the inflammatory response, pathogen clearance, and antitumor immunity. In contrast, the M2 macrophage influences an anti-inflammatory response, wound healing, and pro-tumorigenic properties. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) closely resemble the M2-polarized macrophages and are critical modulators of the tumor microenvironment. Clinicopathological studies have suggested that TAM accumulation in tumors correlates with a poor clinical outcome. Consistent with that evidence, experimental and animal studies have supported the notion that TAMs can provide a favorable microenvironment to promote tumor development and progression. In this review article, we present an overview of mechanisms responsible for TAM recruitment and highlight the roles of TAMs in the regulation of tumor angiogenesis, invasion, metastasis, immunosuppression, and chemotherapeutic resistance. Finally, we discuss TAM-targeting therapy as a promising novel strategy for an indirect cancer therapy. PMID:25125485

Chanmee, Theerawut; Ontong, Pawared; Konno, Kenjiro; Itano, Naoki



Intravital imaging of anti-tumor immune response and the tumor microenvironment  

PubMed Central

Tumor growth, invasiveness, and metastasis are dynamic processes involving cancer interactions with the extracellular matrix, the vasculature, and various types of non-cancerous host cells that form the tumor stroma. An often-present stromal component is the immune cells, such as tumor-associated myeloid and lymphocytic infiltrates, yet endogenous anti-tumor immune responses are typically ineffective in tumor rejection and may even contribute to the progression of some cancers. How exactly cancer cells interact with the stroma and invade healthy tissues while avoiding anti-tumor immune responses, and which interactions should be targeted for anti-tumor therapy, can now be studied by minimally invasive observation using multi-photon and other low impact confocal microscopy techniques and fluorescent animal tumor models. Intravital video microscopy has already been instrumental in defining the roles and modes of cellular motility in the angiogenic process and during tissue invasion at the tumor margin. In the hands of cancer immunologists, intravital video microscopy is beginning to unravel the complexity of effector and suppressory lymphocytic interactions in tumors and in the draining lymphoid organs. As the intravital microscopy approach is beginning to move beyond fundamental description and into analyzing the molecular underpinnings of cell’s dynamics, future technical advances will undoubtedly provide yet deeper insight while stitching together a systems dynamics view of cancer–host interactions that will keep on inspiring cancer researchers and therapists. PMID:20652252

Chodaczek, Grzegorz



Selected anti-tumor vaccines merit a place in multimodal tumor therapies  

PubMed Central

Multimodal approaches are nowadays successfully applied in cancer therapy. Primary locally acting therapies such as radiotherapy (RT) and surgery are combined with systemic administration of chemotherapeutics. Nevertheless, the therapy of cancer is still a big challenge in medicine. The treatments often fail to induce long-lasting anti-tumor responses. Tumor recurrences and metastases result. Immunotherapies are therefore ideal adjuncts to standard tumor therapies since they aim to activate the patient's immune system against malignant cells even outside the primary treatment areas (abscopal effects). Especially cancer vaccines may have the potential both to train the immune system against cancer cells and to generate an immunological memory, resulting in long-lasting anti-tumor effects. However, despite promising results in phase I and II studies, most of the concepts finally failed. There are some critical aspects in development and application of cancer vaccines that may decide on their efficiency. The time point and frequency of medication, usage of an adequate immune adjuvant, the vaccine's immunogenic potential, and the tumor burden of the patient are crucial. Whole tumor cell vaccines have advantages compared to peptide-based ones since a variety of tumor antigens (TAs) are present. The master requirements of cell-based, therapeutic tumor vaccines are the complete inactivation of the tumor cells and the increase of their immunogenicity. Since the latter is highly connected with the cell death modality, the inactivation procedure of the tumor cell material may significantly influence the vaccine's efficiency. We therefore also introduce high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) as an innovative inactivation technology for tumor cell-based vaccines and outline that HHP efficiently inactivates tumor cells by enhancing their immunogenicity. Finally studies are presented proving that anti-tumor immune responses can be triggered by combining RT with selected immune therapies. PMID:23087898

Weiss, Eva-Maria; Wunderlich, Roland; Ebel, Nina; Rubner, Yvonne; Schlucker, Eberhard; Meyer-Pittroff, Roland; Ott, Oliver J.; Fietkau, Rainer; Gaipl, Udo S.; Frey, Benjamin



Host deficiency in caveolin-2 inhibits lung carcinoma tumor growth by impairing tumor angiogenesis.  


Caveolin-2 (Cav-2), a member of caveolin protein family, is largely different from better known caveolin-1 (Cav-1) and thus might play distinct functions. Here, we provide the first genetic evidence suggesting that host-expressed Cav-2 promotes subcutaneous tumor growth and tumor-induced neovascularization using two independent syngeneic mouse models. Host deficiency in Cav-2 resulted in defective and reduced growth of subcutaneously implanted Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) and B16-F10 melanoma tumors, respectively. Consistent with the defective growth, LLC and B16-F10 melanoma tumors implanted into Cav-2 KO mice displayed reduced microvascular density (MVD) determined by IHC with anti-CD31 antibodies, suggesting impaired pathologic angiogenesis. Additional studies involving LLC tumors extracted from Cav-2 KO mice just 10 days after implantation determined reduced cell proliferation, massive necrotic cell death, and fibrosis. In contrast with day 10, only MVD but not cell proliferation and survival was reduced in the earliest palpable LLC tumors extracted 6 days after implantation into Cav-2 KO mice, suggesting that impaired angiogenesis is the causative factor. Mechanistically, impaired LLC tumor growth and angiogenesis in Cav-2 KO mice was associated with increased expression levels of antiangiogenic thrombospondin-1 and inhibited S1177 phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Taken together, our data suggest that host deficiency in Cav-2 impairs tumor-induced angiogenesis, leading to compromised tumor cell survival/proliferation manifested by the defective tumor growth. In conclusion, host-expressed Cav-2 may promote tumor growth via supporting tumor-induced angiogenesis. Thus, Cav-2 expressed in tumor microenvironment may potentially become a novel target for cancer therapy. Cancer Res; 74(22); 6452-62. ©2014 AACR. PMID:25269481

Liu, Yajun; Jang, Sungchan; Xie, Leike; Sowa, Grzegorz



EPR oxygen images predict tumor control by a 50 percent tumor control radiation dose  

PubMed Central

Clinical trials to ameliorate hypoxia as a strategy to relieve the radiation resistance it causes have prompted a need to assay the precise extent and location of hypoxia in tumors. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance oxygen imaging (EPR O2 imaging) provides a non-invasive means to address this need. To obtain a preclinical proof of principle that EPR O2 images could predict radiation control, we treated mouse tumors at or near doses required to achieve 50 percent control (TCD50). Mice with FSa fibrosarcoma or MCa4 carcinoma were subjected to EPR O2 imaging and immediately radiated to a TCD50 or TCD50 ±10 Gy.. Statistical analysis was permitted by collection of ~ 1300 tumor pO2 image voxels, including the fraction of tumor voxels with pO2 less than 10 mm Hg (HF10). Tumors were followed for 90 days (FSa) or 120 days (MCa4) to determine local control or failure. HF10 obtained from EPR images showed statistically significant differences between tumors that were controlled by the TCD50 and those that were not controlled for both FSa and MCa4. Kaplan-Meier analysis of both types of tumors showed ~90% of mildly hypoxic tumors were controlled (HF10<10%), and only 37% (FSA) and 23% (MCa4) tumors controlled if hypoxic. EPR pO2 image voxel distributions in these ~0.5 ml tumors provide a prediction of radiation curability independent of radiation dose. These data confirm the significance of EPR pO2 hypoxic fractions. The ~90% control of low HF10 tumors argue that ½ ml subvolumes of tumors may be more sensitive to radiation and may need less radiation for high tumor control rates. PMID:23861469

Elas, Martyna; Magwood, Jessica M.; Butler, Brandi; Li, Chanel; Wardak, Rona; Barth, Eugene D.; Epel, Boris; Rubinstein, Samuel; Pelizzari, Charles A.; Weichselbaum, Ralph R.; Halpern, Howard J.



Papillary tumor of the pineal region  

PubMed Central

Presented is a patient with papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR), an uncommon and recently recognized neoplasm. As its name implies, PTPR does not arise from the pineal gland itself. The cell of origin is thought to be the specialized ependymocytes of the subcommissural organ. Primary tumors of the pineal region include pineal parenchymal neoplasms, germ cell neoplasms, and tumors arising from adjacent structures, including meningiomas, astrocytomas, and ependymomas. Like other masses in this location, PTPR often leads to obstructive hydrocephalus. Due to the relative paucity of reported cases of PTPR, its natural history is unknown. PMID:22275792

Opatowsky, Michael; O'Rourke, Brian; Layton, Kennith



Role of oxygen radicals in tumor promotion  

SciTech Connect

Tumor promoters provoke the elaboration of oxygen radicals by direct chemical generation and through the indirect activation or alteration of cellular sources including membrane oxidases, peroxisomes, and electron transport chains in mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. Although direct measurement of amplified oxygen radical production in response to tumor promoters in target tissues remains problematic, studies with scavengers of reactive oxygen species demonstrate inhibition of biochemical and biological sequelae of tumor promoter exposure and provide strong presumptive evidence for oxygen radical involvement in this late stage of carcinogenesis. The critical macromolecular targets for these oxygen radicals remain undefined; however, they may include lipids, DNA, DNA repair systems, and other enzymes. Over 250 references are cited.

Kensler, T.W.; Trush, M.A.



Lymphotoxin Network Pathways Shape the Tumor Microenvironment  

PubMed Central

Accumulating evidence indicates that Lymphotoxin (LT)-? related cytokines directly contribute to the phenotype of cancer cells and alter the tumor microenvironment. Lymphotoxins are part of a cytokine network well known in controlling the development and homeostasis of secondary lymphoid organs. In the adult, the LT network takes on the responsibility of generating inflammatory microenvironments that control innate and adaptive immune responses involved in host defense. This review provides a perspective of the emerging evidence implicating the LT Network in the development and progression of various cancers including lymphoma. Redirecting the LT Network to alter tumor microenvironments may provide a specific approach to therapeutically target tumor-permissive microenvironments and cancer progression. PMID:23339845

Bjordahl, Ryan L.; Steidl, Christian; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Ware, Carl F.



Hyperammonemia in anorectic tumor-bearing rats  

SciTech Connect

Plasma ammonia concentrations were significantly elevated by 150% in anorectic rats bearing methylcholanthrene sarcomas. Assessment of ammonia levels in blood draining these sarcomas indicated nearly a 20-fold increase as compared with venous blood in control rats, suggesting the tumor mass as the source of this increase in ammonia. Infusing increasing concentrations of ammonium salts produced anorexia and alterations in brain amino acids in normal rats that were similar to those observed in anorectic tumor-bearing rats. Therefore, these results suggest that ammonia released by tumor tissue may be an important factor in the etiology of cancer anorexia.

Chance, W.T.; Cao, L.; Nelson, J.L.; Foley-Nelson, T.; Fischer, J.E.



Ablative therapies for small renal tumors  

PubMed Central

Ablative therapies of renal tumors are steadily gaining popularity in clinical practice due to the many benefits they offer to patients. Moreover, ablative procedures hold promise in the field of uro-oncology for the best compromise between low invasiveness, high efficacy and advantages in terms of procedural costs. Reported outcomes with ablative therapies for small renal tumors are excellent and without significant differences for surgical procedures based on nephron-sparing surgery. Nevertheless, these methods for treatment of small renal tumors should still be confined to carefully selected patients. This review discusses the currently used ablative techniques in urology. PMID:23788957

Tworkiewicz, Jakub; Siekiera, Jerzy; Drewa, Tomasz



Cancer Progression and Tumor Growth Kinetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present and analyze tumor growth data from prostate and brain cancer. Scaling the data from different patients shows that early stage prostate tumors show non-exponential growth while advanced prostate and brain tumors enter a stage of exponential growth. The scaling analysis points to the existence of cancer stem cells and/or massive apoptosis in early stage prostate cancer and that late stage cancer growth is not dominated by cancer stem cells. Statistical models of these two growth modes are discussed.

Blagoev, Krastan; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Wilkerson, Julia; Sprinkhuizen, Sara; Song, Yi-Qiao; Bates, Susan; Rosen, Bruce; Fojo, Tito



FNA of thyroid granular cell tumor.  


Granular cell tumor rarely occurs in the thyroid. This case report describes the cytologic features of a granular cell tumor seen in a fine needle aspirate obtained from a 27-year-old woman with a gradually enlarging thyroid nodule. The aspirate showed single as well as syncytial clusters of cells with abundant granular cytoplasm. The differential diagnosis in this case included granular cell tumor, Hurthle cell lesion/neoplasm, and a histiocytic reparative process. Immunohistochemical studies, including S-100 protein and CD68, performed on a cell block preparation were helpful in supporting the diagnosis. PMID:22508678

Harp, Eric; Caraway, Nancy P



Canine hematopoietic tumors: diagnosis, treatment and complications  

SciTech Connect

Canine hematopoietic tumors constitute a group of neoplasms that are frequently encountered in veterinary practice. Although common, they are also a diagnostically confusing group of tumors due to continued revision of their definition and classification. The confusion that arises from these changes presents the clinician with a perpetual challenge of diagnosis and therapy. Therapy of canine hematopoietic tumors has traditionally evolved from treatment of human patients with similar diseases, and in turn, these neoplasms have served as models for evaluating newer therapies for possible application in human patients. Methods of treatment have included chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery, and hyperthermia. 9 tabs.

Weller, R.E.



Chemokines in tumor development and progression  

SciTech Connect

Chemokines were originally identified as mediators of the inflammatory process and regulators of leukocyte trafficking. Subsequent studies revealed their essential roles in leukocyte physiology and pathology. Moreover, chemokines have profound effects on other types of cells associated with the inflammatory response, such as endothelial cells and fibroblasts. Thus, chemokines are crucial for cancer-related inflammation, which can promote tumor development and progression. Increasing evidence points to the vital effects of several chemokines on the proliferative and invasive properties of tumor cells. The wide range of activities of chemokines in tumorigenesis highlights their roles in tumor development and progression.

Mukaida, Naofumi, E-mail: [Division of Molecular Bioregulation, Cancer Research Institute, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan) [Division of Molecular Bioregulation, Cancer Research Institute, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Baba, Tomohisa [Division of Molecular Bioregulation, Cancer Research Institute, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan)] [Division of Molecular Bioregulation, Cancer Research Institute, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan)



Percutaneous ablation of bone tumors.  


Percutaneous ablation (radiofrequency or cryotherapy) of bone tumors is most often performed for palliative purposes. Many studies have shown that percutaneous ablation of a painful bone metastasis can significantly and sustainably reduce symptoms. It is therefore an alternative to radiotherapy and to long-term opiates. Percutaneous ablation can also be performed for curative purposes. In this situation, its efficacy has however only been studied to a very small extent (apart from radiofrequency ablation of osteoid osteomas in which the success rate is almost 100%). In our experience, the success rate after radiofrequency ablation of a bone metastasis is 75% if it is less than 3cm in diameter and fall significantly over this (to 40%, P=0.04). This treatment can therefore be justified in oligometastatic patients whose disease is progressing slowly. Its benefit on survival has however not been assessed in this selected population. Whether it is performed for palliative or curative reasons, percutaneous ablation should ideally be followed by an injection of cement if the metastasis being treated is lytic and located in a bone, which is subject to mechanical forces. The aim of consolidating cementoplasty is to counterbalance the additional risk of fracture due to destruction of the percutaneously ablated bone. PMID:25017149

Deschamps, F; Farouil, G; de Baere, T



Tumor deposits in gastric carcinomas.  


We performed this study to examine the prevalence of tumor deposits (TD) in gastric adenocarcinomas (GACa), and the relevance of their presence, size and type to clinical outcome. Ninety-six patients, histopathologically diagnosed as GACa following a total/subtotal gastrectomy were included, and clinicopathologic data were recorded. Due to the statistical analysis, the majority of TD(+) cases were of intestinal type and showed vascular invasion. In these cases, the incidence of local recurrence was significantly higher. The majority of GACa of intestinal type with TD were of high grade and showed vascular invasion. Recurrence and death were more commonly encountered among them. The recurrence-free survival (RFS) was significantly shorter in patients with TDs, which was also confirmed by multivariate analysis, and there was a significant difference between both RFS and overall survival of TD(+) and TD(-) cases of intestinal type GACa. In conclusion, in this study, we demonstrate that TDs are not infrequently observed in GACa, they are more commonly associated with the intestinal type and vascular invasive gastric cancers. Our study shows the prognostic impact of TDs, especially regarding the RFS. Therefore, the documentation of TDs might be considered for prospective studies, especially for the intestinal type GACa, a shortcoming of this study. PMID:24726262

Ersen, Ayca; Unlu, Mehtat S; Akman, Tulay; Sagol, Ozgul; Oztop, Ilhan; Atila, Koray; Bora, Seymen; Ellidokuz, Huyla; Sarioglu, Sulen



Tumores neonatales y malformaciones cong?nitas  

PubMed Central

Introducción La asociación entre tumores y malformaciones congénitas está bien establecida, pero no existen datos exclusivos en el período neonatal y se desconocen los mecanismos subyacentes que generan dicha relación. Objetivos Este trabajo tiene dos objetivos: primero, analizar la frecuencia de los tumores neonatales asociados a malformaciones congénitas, y segundo, comentar las posibles hipótesis etiopatogénicas de la relación entre ambas entidades. Materiales y método Estudio retrospectivo de las historias clínicas de los tumores neonatales, en el Hospital Universitario Materno- Infantil La Fe de Valencia, desde enero de 1990 hasta diciembre de 1999. Selección y descripción de las variedades histológicas asociadas a malformaciones congénitas. Éstas se han agrupado siguiendo los criterios de la Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades CIE-9, códigos 740.0–759.9. Revisión sistemática bibliográfica de los últimos 25 años, obtenida del Medline, Cancerlit, Index Citation Science y Embase. El perfil de búsqueda utilizado fue la combinación de “neonatal/congenital-tumors/cancer/neoplasms” y “congenital malformations/birth defects”. Resultados Se identificaron 72 tumores neonatales (2,8 % del total de tumores pediátricos diagnosticados en dichos años) y 15 de ellos (20,8 %) asociados a malformaciones congénitas, enfermedades o síndromes congénitos. Las asociaciones entre tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas fueron las siguientes: a) angioma en 3 pacientes: con dos cardiopatías congénitas y una atresia de coanas-laringomalacia; b) neuroblastoma en 2 pacientes: uno con riñón en herradura y anomalías vertebrales, y otro con cardiopatía congénita; c) teratoma en 2 pacientes: uno con fisura palatina y anomalías vertebrales, y otro con metatarso varo; d) tumor del sistema nervioso central en un paciente con hernia de Bochdaleck; e) tumor cardíaco en 4 pacientes con esclerosis tuberosa; f) leucemia aguda en un paciente con síndrome de Down y cardiopatía congénita; g) tumor renal en un caso con hidrocefalia triventricular, y h) tumor adrenal en un caso con hemihipertrofia. En la bibliografía específica, las publicaciones engloban tumores de diferentes épocas pediátricas y sin unanimidad de criterios para clasificar las malformaciones congénitas. Apenas existen datos en el período neonatal y la asociación entre ambas entidades se obtiene de registros de instituciones médicas. La prevalencia oscila entre el 15 y el 31,6 %. Las hipótesis etiopatogénicas que explican la asociación entre tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas están basadas en las exposiciones prenatales (preconcepcionales y transplacentarias) a factores de riesgo potencialmente mutagénicos y carcinogénicos. Conclusiones Probablemente, los tumores neonatales se asocian con mayor frecuencia a malformaciones congénitas que los tumores diagnosticados en épocas posteriores de la vida. Para conocer la prevalencia real de la asociación entre tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas, es necesario unificar los criterios de inclusión y definición de ambas entidades. La obtención de una minuciosa historia medioambiental en todos los tumores neonatales asociados a malformaciones congénitas, donde se detallen y registren todos los factores de riesgo constitucionales y ambientales, es fundamental para mejorar nuestros escasos conocimientos de los mecanismos prenatales subyacentes y avanzar en su prevención. PMID:18559198

Tornero, O. Berbel; Garcia, J.A. Ortega; Tortajada, J. Ferris i; Castell, J. Garcia; Colomer, J. Donat i; Soldin, O.P.; Soler, J.L. Fuster



CT and MR imaging findings of palatal tumors.  


Palatal tumors commonly arise from the minor salivary glands, and benign tumors account for approximately half of all minor salivary gland tumors. Minor salivary gland tumors have an affinity for the posterior hard palate and soft palate and virtually never arise in the midline, probably because of the distribution of palatal salivary glands. The majority of benign salivary gland tumors of the palate are pleomorphic adenomas, while the most common malignant salivary gland tumor is adenoid cystic carcinoma, followed by mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma. Epithelial tumors frequently arise from the soft palate. The majority of benign epithelial tumors of the palate are papillomas, while most malignant epithelial tumors are squamous cell carcinomas. Various types of mesenchymal tumors, including fibromas, lipomas, schwannomas, neurofibromas, hemangiomas, and lymphangiomas, also involve the palate. This article describes the CT and MR findings of benign and malignant palatal tumors. PMID:24377674

Kato, Hiroki; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Makita, Hiroki; Kato, Keizo; Hatakeyama, Daijiro; Shibata, Toshiyuki; Mizuta, Keisuke; Aoki, Mitsuhiro



A differential diagnosis of inherited endocrine tumors and their tumor counterparts  

PubMed Central

Inherited endocrine tumors have been increasingly recognized in clinical practice, although some difficulties still exist in differentiating these conditions from their sporadic endocrine tumor counterparts. Here, we list the 12 main topics that could add helpful information and clues for performing an early differential diagnosis to distinguish between these conditions. The early diagnosis of patients with inherited endocrine tumors may be performed either clinically or by mutation analysis in at-risk individuals. Early detection usually has a large impact in tumor management, allowing preventive clinical or surgical therapy in most cases. Advice for the clinical and surgical management of inherited endocrine tumors is also discussed. In addition, recent clinical and genetic advances for 17 different forms of inherited endocrine tumors are briefly reviewed. PMID:23917672

Toledo, Sergio P. A.; Lourenco, Delmar M.; Toledo, Rodrigo A.



The roles of mesenchymal stem cells in tumor inflammatory microenvironment  

PubMed Central

Tumor behavior is not entirely determined by tumor cells. Studies have demonstrated that a variety of non-tumor cells in the tumor microenvironment affect tumor behavior; thus, a new focus of cancer research has been the development of novel cancer treatment ideas and therapeutic targets based on the effects of these cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an important component of the tumor microenvironment; however, previous studies have produced controversial results regarding whether MSCs promote or inhibit tumor growth and progression. In particular, Naïve MSCs and tumor-derived MSCs (T-MSCs) have different functions. Naïve MSCs could exert bidirectional effects on tumors because these cells can both promote and inhibit tumor progression while T-MSCs promote tumor progression due to influences from the tumor itself and from the inflammatory tumor microenvironment. As an unhealed wound, tumor produces a continuous source of inflammatory mediators and causes aggregation of numerous inflammatory cells, which constitute an inflammatory microenvironment. Inflammatory factors can induce homing of circulating MSCs and MSCs in adjacent tissues into tumors, which are then being “educated” by the tumor microenvironment to support tumor growth. T-MSCs could recruit more immune cells into the tumor microenvironment, increase the proportion of cancer stem cells and promote tumor angiogenesis, further supporting tumor progression. However, as plasticity is a fundamental feature of MSCs, MSCs can also inhibit tumors by activating various MSC-based signaling pathways. Studies of the mechanisms by which interactions among tumors, MSCs, and the inflammatory microenvironment occur and methods to disrupt these interactions will likely reveal new targets for cancer therapy. PMID:24502410



[Development of embedded ultrasound tumor hyperthermia instrument].  


We developed an ultrasound tumor hyperthermia instrument by optimizing the embedded platform and system units construction to realize miniaturization and portability. The instrument can accurately and safely control the target temperature by using PID feedback algorithm. PMID:23777059

Yang, Bo; Shen, Guofeng; Chen, Sheng; Su, Zhiqiang; Zhu, Mengyuan



Imidazoacridones with Anti-Tumor Activity

The present invention relates to a class of bifunctional therapeutic agents with potent and selective activity against colon, liver and pancreatic cancers inhibiting tumor growth via a novel mechanism.


Fully Endoscopic Resection of Pineal Region Tumors  

PubMed Central

Background and Objective Surgical treatment for pineal tumors is technically challenging—weighing the risks and benefits of microsurgical resection for the patient with a pineal tumor versus settling for an endoscopic third ventriculostomy and biopsy is sometimes difficult. Traditional microsurgical resection for pineal region tumors has typically required large open craniotomies and involvement or retraction of neural tissue with significant mortality and morbidity. With the advancement of high-resolution fiber optics, a fully endoscopic, supracerebellar, infratentorial approach, without any cerebellar retraction or manipulation of neural tissue, is introduced for the gross total resection of pineal region tumors. Conclusion As an endoscopic modification of the open craniotomy procedure, this technique combines the advantages and benefits of both open microsurgical resection and minimally invasive endoscopic surgeries. PMID:24436899

Shahinian, Hrayr; Ra, Yoon



Treatment Based on Colorectal Tumor Protein Level

In this clinical trial, researchers will measure the level of a protein called thymidylate synthase (TS) in the tumors of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer and assign patients to one of two treatment groups based on their TS levels.


Giant cell tumor of the talar neck.  


We describe a patient with a giant cell tumor in the talar head and neck of the left foot who was diagnosed as having osteochondritis dissecans and treated with arthroscopic drilling in this same location 3 years earlier. Giant cell tumors can be confused with several conditions, including giant cell reparative granulomas, brown tumors, and aneurysmal bone cysts. Giant cell tumors of bone typically occur in the epiphysis of long bones, including the distal femur and proximal tibia. They are uncommonly found in the small bones of the foot or ankle, and talar involvement is rare. Despite this rarity, the radiographic appearance and clinical signs of talar lesions should be considered in the differential diagnosis of nontraumatic conditions in the foot. PMID:17507533

Selek, Hakan; Ozer, Hamza; Turanli, Sacit; Erdem, Ozlem



Drugs Approved for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.


Targeting of drugs and nanoparticles to tumors  

PubMed Central

The various types of cells that comprise the tumor mass all carry molecular markers that are not expressed or are expressed at much lower levels in normal cells. These differentially expressed molecules can be used as docking sites to concentrate drug conjugates and nanoparticles at tumors. Specific markers in tumor vessels are particularly well suited for targeting because molecules at the surface of blood vessels are readily accessible to circulating compounds. The increased concentration of a drug in the site of disease made possible by targeted delivery can be used to increase efficacy, reduce side effects, or achieve some of both. We review the recent advances in this delivery approach with a focus on the use of molecular markers of tumor vasculature as the primary target and nanoparticles as the delivery vehicle. PMID:20231381

Bhatia, Sangeeta N.; Sailor, Michael J.



Thyroid tumors: novel insights from proteomic studies.  


Several genomics-based techniques have been applied in the last decade to the molecular characterization of cancer, which has led to a variety of applications suitable for improved diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of outcome to treatment. Proteomics-based approaches have also been seen as crucial to the discovery of biomarkers for early diagnosis and prognosis of tumors, as well as for a better understanding of the molecular bases of cancer. Accordingly, proteomic techniques have been used extensively for a better molecular characterization of thyroid tumors. In this field, three main directions have been preceded: first, proteomic studies of model systems; second, proteomics of thyroid tumor specimens; and third, serum proteomics. In this review, we describe the most relevant results that have been obtained for tumors derived from thyroid follicular cells using various proteomic approaches. PMID:19681672

Damante, Giuseppe; Scaloni, Andrea; Tell, Gianluca



Physical Activity, Cell Signaling, and Tumor Vascularity

Meetings & Events Home Agenda Speaker Biosketches Abstracts Logistics Contact Abstracts Physical Activity, Cell Signaling, and Tumor Vascularity Henry J. Thompson, PhD  [ View bio ](Colorado State University) Physical activity (PA) is distinct


Does Tumor Development Follow a Programmed Path?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The initiation and progression of a tumor is a complex process, resembling the growth of a embryo in terms of the stages of development and increasing differentiation and somatic evolution of constituent cells in the community of cells that constitute the tumor. Typically we view cancer cells as rogue individuals violating the rules of the games played within an organism, but I would suggest that what we see is a programmed and algorithmic process. I will then question If tumor progression is dominated by the random acquisition of successive survival traits, or by a systematic and sequential unpacking of "weapons" from a pre-adapted "toolkit" of genetic and epigenetic potentialities? Can we then address this hypothesis by data mining solid tumors layer by layer?

Austin, Robert



Tumor-induced osteomalacia: a case report.  


Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplasic syndrome with overproduction of fibroblast growth factor 23 as a phosphaturic agent, leading to chronic hyperphosphaturia and hypophosphatemia, associated with inappropriately normal or low levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Diagnosis of this disease is often challenging. The following case report described a middle-aged man with symptoms of bone pain and severe muscle weakness, who was found to have TIO. The tumor responsible for the symptoms was localized on his thigh and its resection resulted in normalization of blood chemistry and complaints. Subsequent microscopic examination revealed a phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor, mixed connective tissue type. The authors reinforce the importance of recognition of this disease, as severe disability and even death can be avoided with the surgical removal of the causative tumor. PMID:19578602

Romualdo-Silva, Daniel Dutra; Silva, Bárbara Campolina Carvalho; Caetano, Cristiane Vasconcelos; Tibúrcio, Angélica Maria França Paiva; Nunes, Maurício Buzelin; Chagas, Sérgio Almeida Pinheiro; Polito, Elizandra Tomazela Laurenti; Ferreira, Antônio Rodrigues; Purisch, Saulo



Diagnosis and Surgical Therapy of Pancreas Tumors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The efficiency of surgery and presurgical diagnosis on several tumorous diseases of the pancreas is investigated. If there is the clinical suspicion of a pancreas carcinoma, sonography computerized tomography, and endoscopic-retrograde cholangio-pancreati...

A. Heid



Preoperative Embolization of Cervical Spine Tumors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the technical success rate, complications, and effect on intraoperative blood loss of preoperative transarterial embolization of cervical spine tumors. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 38 patients with tumors of the cervical spine; 69 vertebrae were affected. Polyvinyl alcohol particles, coils, gelfoam particles, either alone or in combination, were used for preoperative tumor embolization. After embolization a total of 57 corporectomies with titanium basket implantation were performed. Results: In 36 of 38 patients, complete (n= 27) or partial (n= 9) embolization was achieved. In 23 patients one vertebral artery was completely occluded by coil placement, and in one patient the ipsilateral internal and external carotid arteries were occluded in addition. No neurological complications could be directly related to the embolization, but two postoperative brain stem infarctions occurred. The mean intraoperative blood loss was 2.4 L. Conclusion: Transarterial embolization of cervical spine tumors is a safe and effective procedure to facilitate extensive surgery.

Vetter, Sylvia C.; Strecker, Ernst-Peter [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Diakonissenkrankenhaus, Diakonissenstrasse 28, D-76199 Karlsruhe (Germany); Ackermann, Ludwig W.; Harms, Juergen [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Klinikum Karlsbad-Langensteinbach Guttmannstrasse 1, D-76307 Karlsbad (Germany)



Fully endoscopic resection of pineal region tumors.  


Background and Objective Surgical treatment for pineal tumors is technically challenging-weighing the risks and benefits of microsurgical resection for the patient with a pineal tumor versus settling for an endoscopic third ventriculostomy and biopsy is sometimes difficult. Traditional microsurgical resection for pineal region tumors has typically required large open craniotomies and involvement or retraction of neural tissue with significant mortality and morbidity. With the advancement of high-resolution fiber optics, a fully endoscopic, supracerebellar, infratentorial approach, without any cerebellar retraction or manipulation of neural tissue, is introduced for the gross total resection of pineal region tumors. Conclusion As an endoscopic modification of the open craniotomy procedure, this technique combines the advantages and benefits of both open microsurgical resection and minimally invasive endoscopic surgeries. PMID:24436899

Shahinian, Hrayr; Ra, Yoon



Functional characterization of mobilized tumor cells  

E-print Network

Despite being responsible for 90% of cancer mortality, metastasis is not well understood. This thesis is focused on the circulation step of the metastatic cascade, examining three types of mobilized tumor cells: circulating ...

Yao, Xiaosai



Nanotechnology-mediated targeting of tumor angiogenesis  

E-print Network

Abstract Angiogenesis is disregulated in many diseased states, most notably in cancer. An emerging strategy for the development of therapies targeting tumor-associated angiogenesis is to harness the potential of nanotechnology ...

Banerjee, Deboshri


Analyzing tumor gene expression profiles Carsten Petersona,*  

E-print Network

; diagnostic prediction of small round blue cell tumors (SRBCT) of childhood and determining the estrogen receptor (ER) status of sporadic breast cancer. The classification performance is gauged using blind tests

Ringnér, Markus


Visual analysis of longitudinal brain tumor perfusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In clinical research on diagnosis and evaluation of brain tumors, longitudinal perfusion MRI studies are acquired for tumor grading as well as to monitor and assess treatment response and patient prognosis. Within this work, we demonstrate how visual analysis techniques can be adapted to multidimensional datasets from such studies within a framework to support the computer-aided diagnosis of brain tumors. Our solution builds on two innovations: First, we introduce a pipeline yielding comparative, co-registered quantitative perfusion parameter maps over all time steps of the longitudinal study. Second, based on these time-dependent parameter maps, visual analysis methods were developed and adapted to reveal valuable insight into tumor progression, especially regarding the clinical research area of low grade glioma transformation into high grade gliomas. Our examination of four longitudinal brain studies demonstrates the suitability of the presented visual analysis methods and comprises new possibilities for the clinical researcher to characterize the development of low grade gliomas.

Glaßer, Sylvia; Oeltze, Steffen; Preim, Uta; Bjørnerud, Atle; Hauser, Helwig; Preim, Bernhard



Microenvironmental regulation of tumor progression and metastasis  

PubMed Central

Cancers develop in complex tissue environments, which they depend upon for sustained growth, invasion and metastasis. Unlike tumor cells, stromal cell types within the tumor microenvironment (TME) are genetically stable, and thus represent an attractive therapeutic target with reduced risk of resistance and tumor recurrence. However, specifically disrupting the pro-tumorigenic TME is a challenging undertaking, as the TME has diverse capacities to induce both beneficial and adverse consequences for tumorigenesis. Furthermore, many studies have shown that the microenvironment is capable of normalizing tumor cells, suggesting that reeducation of stromal cells, rather than targeted ablation per se, may be an effective strategy for treating cancer. Here, we will discuss the paradoxical roles of the TME during specific stages of cancer progression and metastasis, and recent therapeutic attempts to re-educate stromal cells within the TME to have anti-tumorigenic effects. PMID:24202395

Quail, DF; Joyce, JA



Localization of tumors by radiolabelled antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of utilizing radiolabelled antibodies to carcinoembryonic antigens for determining the site of tumors which produce or are associated with carcinoembryonic antigen is disclosed. 3 claims, no drawings.

H. J. Hansen; F. J. Primus



In vitro cultivation of human tumor tissues.  


In order to develop cell substrates suitable for the isolation of human oncornaviruses, a large number of human tumors, mostly sarcomas, were sultured in vitro. All explants yielded primary outgrowth of cells. These were of various nature and morphology and exhibited different growth potentials. About 40% of the tumors yielded cell strains which were undistinguishable from diploid human embryonic cell strains. About 20% yielded 'difficult' diploid cultures; 35% yielded short-term cultures mostly composed of undefinable cells, rarely of clearly recognizable tumor cells. About 5% yielded cell strains or lines which were aberrant in morphology or karyotype, or both. The malignant nature of the cell strains obtained in our study is conjecturable. Although some of the cell cultures showed evidence of tumoral origin, none complied with currently employed in vitro criteria for malignancy such as lack of topoinhibition and high density growth. PMID:1208022

Billiau, A; Cassiman, J J; Willems, D; Verhelst, M; Heremans, H



Targeting of drugs and nanoparticles to tumors  

E-print Network

The various types of cells that comprise the tumor mass all carry molecular markers that are not expressed or are expressed at much lower levels in normal cells. These differentially expressed molecules can be used as ...

Rusolahti, Erkki


How Are Lung Carcinoid Tumors Staged?  


... from the abdomen (diaphragm), the membranes surrounding the space between the lungs (mediastinal pleura), or membranes of ... tumor of any size has grown into the space between the lungs (mediastinum), the heart, the large ...


Network-based stratification of tumor mutations  

PubMed Central

Many forms of cancer have multiple subtypes with different causes and clinical outcomes. Somatic tumor genomes provide a rich new source of data for uncovering these subtypes but have proven difficult to compare as two tumors rarely share the same mutations. Here, we introduce a method called Network Based Stratification (NBS) which integrates somatic tumor genomes with gene networks. This approach allows for stratification of cancer into informative subtypes by clustering together patients with mutations in similar network regions. We demonstrate NBS in ovarian, uterine and lung cancer cohorts from The Cancer Genome Atlas. For each tissue, NBS identifies clear subtypes that are predictive of clinical outcomes such as patient survival, response to therapy or tumor histology. We identify network regions characteristic of each subtype and show how mutation-derived subtypes can be used to train an mRNA expression signature which provides similar information in the absence of DNA sequence. PMID:24037242

Hofree, Matan; Shen, John P.; Carter, Hannah; Gross, Andrew; Ideker, Trey



Stereotactic radiosurgery for pineal and related tumors.  


Radiosurgery is increasingly being used to treat pineal region tumors, either as an additional therapy after conventional treatments or as a primary treatment. We report our experience with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for the treatment of pineal and related tumors. Forty-nine patients underwent GKRS for pineal and related tumors (n = 74) between February 1992 and September 2007. The diagnosis was germ cell tumors (GCTs) in 38 patients (53 tumors), pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs) in 9 (19 tumors), and unknown in 2 (2 tumors). The mean treatment volume was 3.3 ml (range 0.1-22 ml) in GCT cases and 3.7 ml (range 0.3-23 ml) in PPT cases. Prescribed doses around 50% isodose line ranged from 9.9 to 25.7 Gy. One patient (one tumor) with pineocytoma was lost to follow-up. Median clinical and imaging follow-up in the remaining 48 cases was 33.5 months (range, 3-192 months). Survival rates at 5 years and 10 years after GKRS in GCT cases (n = 38) were both 68%. They were 100 and 67%, respectively, in PPT cases (n = 8). We evaluated the treatment results with categorization of GCT cases into 2 groups, i.e. germinoma (group 1), and germinoma with syncytiotrophoblastic giant cell and malignant GCT (group 2). PPT cases were also divided into 2 groups, i.e. pineocytoma (group 3) and pineoblastoma and mixed pineocytoma/pineoblastoma (group 4). Local tumor control (LTC) rates at 3 and 5 years were 82% in group 1 (n = 18), 72 and 62% in group 2 (n = 35), and 85% in group 3 (n = 13). LTC rate at 2 years was 30% in group 4 (n = 5). In group 1 (n = 16), progression-free survival (PFS) rates at 3 and 5 years were 79 and 63%. They were 43 and 37% in group 2 (n = 22), and 80% in group 3 (n = 5). PFS rate at 2 years was 33% in group 4 (n = 3). Germinoma and pineocytoma showed higher LTC and PFS rates after GKRS, though pineoblastoma was liable to relapse. Intermediate prognosis was obtained in germinoma with syncytiotrophoblastic giant cell and malignant GCT. GKRS is expected to be an effective and safe adjuvant treatment approach to pineal and related tumors. PMID:19329865

Mori, Yoshimasa; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Hasegawa, Toshinori; Yoshida, Kouta; Kida, Yoshihisa



CEACAM1 expression in pancreatic endocrine tumors.  


The aim of this study was to examine the expression of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) in pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) and to correlate it with clinicopathologic parameters. Sixty-nine PETs were examined for tumor size, necrosis, local peripancreatic invasion and lymphovascular invasion, lymph node, and liver metastasis. The mitotic count, expressed per 10 high-power fields (HPF) and MIB1 index were assessed and tumors were classified according to the World Health Organization classification. A tissue microarray was constructed and stained with an extensive panel of endocrine markers and CEACAM1. Twenty-nine tumors were from males and 40 from females, age range: 23 to 80 years (mean 52.4 y), tumor size ranged from 0.8 to 11 cm (mean 3.5 cm), 8 patients had multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 syndrome, and 1 had von Hippel-Lindau disease. Twenty tumors demonstrated local invasion, 32 had lymphovascular invasion, 16 had lymph node metastasis, and 10 had liver metastasis. CEACAM1 was positive in 47 cases and negative in 22 cases (31.9%). Ninety percent of the CEACAM1-negative cases had a MIB1 index 2% (P=0.02). 86.4% of the CEACAM1-negative PETs had a mitotic count 2/10 HPF. In addition, 80% of tumors >or=2 cm in diameter were CEACAM positive (P<0.05). CEACAM1-positive tumors were more frequently insulin negative (9 of 10 cases) (P=0.005) and vasoactive intestinal peptide-positive PETs were all CEACAM1 immunopositive (7 of 7 cases) (P=0.005). Benign tumors and PETs of uncertain malignant behavior were more frequently CEACAM1-negative and low-grade malignant cases were CEACAM1 positive (27 of 29 cases) (P=0.001). In addition, CEACAM1-positive tumors were statistically correlated with cytokeratin 19-positive tumors (P<0.05). PETs showing CEACAM1 positivity have a statistically significant correlation with several of the pathologic parameters of aggressive behavior and its overexpression is seen in those cases with increased invasiveness. PMID:19349857

Serra, Stefano; Asa, Sylvia L; Bamberger, Ana-Maria; Wagener, Christoph; Chetty, Runjan



Conventional and advanced MRI features of pediatric intracranial tumors: supratentorial tumors.  


OBJECTIVE. Our objective is to review the imaging characteristics and applications of conventional and advanced neuroimaging techniques of supratentorial intracranial masses in the pediatric population. Specifically, we review astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, primary neuroectodermal tumors, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors, gangliogliomas, arachnoid cysts, and choroid plexus and pineal region masses. CONCLUSION. Advanced imaging methods, such as MR spectroscopy, perfusion MRI, functional MRI, diffusion-tensor imaging, and tractography, help develop a more accurate differential diagnosis and aid in planning tumor treatment. PMID:23617516

Borja, Maria J; Plaza, Michael J; Altman, Nolan; Saigal, Gaurav



A rare germ-cell tumor site: vaginal endodermal sinus tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malignant germ-cell tumors (MGCT) are rare tumors of childhood accounting for less than 3% of pediatric malignancies. Endodermal sinus tumor (EST) forms the most common histologic subtype of MGCT. The vagina is an extremely rare site for GCTs. A 9-month-old female was admitted with a short history of vaginal bleeding, a mass protruding from the vagina, and difficulty in passing

M. Arora; R. Shrivastav; M. Jaiprakash



Effect of a Topical Vasodilator on Tumor Hypoxia and Tumor Oxygen Guided Radiotherapy using EPR Oximetry  

PubMed Central

We sought to reduce tumor hypoxia by topical application of a vasodilator, benzyl nicotinate (BN), and investigated its effect on the growth of tumors irradiated at times when tumor pO2 increased. EPR oximetry was used to follow the changes in the tissue pO2 of subcutaneous radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF-1) tumors during topical applications of 1.25–8% BN formulations for 5 consecutive days. The RIF-1 tumors were hypoxic with a tissue pO2 of 4.6–7.0 mmHg. A significant increase in tumor pO2 occurred 10–30 min after BN application. The formulation with the minimal BN concentration that produced a significant increase in tumor pO2 was used for the radiation study. The tumors were irradiated (4 Gy × 5) at the time of the maximum increase in pO2 observed with the 2.5% BN formulation. The tumors with an increase in pO2 of greaterthan 2 mmHg from the baseline after application of BN on day 1 had a significant growth inhibition compared to the tumors with an increase in pO2 of less than 2 mmHg. The results indicate that the irradiation of tumors at the time of an increase in pO2 after the topical application of the 2.5% BN formulation led to a significant growth inhibition. EPR oximetry provided dynamic information on the changes in tumor pO2, which could be used to identify responders and non-responders and schedule therapy during the experiments. PMID:20426665

Hou, Huagang; Abramovic, Zrinka; Lariviere, Jean P.; Sentjurc, Marjeta; Swartz, Harold; Khan, Nadeem



Tumor Volume-Adapted Dosing in Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy of Lung Tumors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Current stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) protocols for lung tumors prescribe a uniform dose regimen irrespective of tumor size. We report the outcomes of a lung tumor volume-adapted SABR dosing strategy. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the outcomes in 111 patients with a total of 138 primary or metastatic lung tumors treated by SABR, including local control, regional control, distant metastasis, overall survival, and treatment toxicity. We also performed subset analysis on 83 patients with 97 tumors treated with a volume-adapted dosing strategy in which small tumors (gross tumor volume <12 mL) received single-fraction regimens with biologically effective doses (BED) <100 Gy (total dose, 18-25 Gy) (Group 1), and larger tumors (gross tumor volume {>=}12 mL) received multifraction regimens with BED {>=}100 Gy (total dose, 50-60 Gy in three to four fractions) (Group 2). Results: The median follow-up time was 13.5 months. Local control for Groups 1 and 2 was 91.4% and 92.5%, respectively (p = 0.24) at 12 months. For primary lung tumors only (excluding metastases), local control was 92.6% and 91.7%, respectively (p = 0.58). Regional control, freedom from distant metastasis, and overall survival did not differ significantly between Groups 1 and 2. Rates of radiation pneumonitis, chest wall toxicity, and esophagitis were low in both groups, but all Grade 3 toxicities developed in Group 2 (p = 0.02). Conclusion: A volume-adapted dosing approach for SABR of lung tumors seems to provide excellent local control for both small- and large-volume tumors and may reduce toxicity.

Trakul, Nicholas; Chang, Christine N.; Harris, Jeremy [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Chapman, Christopher [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Rao, Aarti [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); University of California, Davis, School of Medicine, Davis, CA (United States); Shen, John [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); University of California, Irvine, School of Medicine, Irvine, CA (United States); Quinlan-Davidson, Sean [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, McMaster University, Juravinski Cancer Centre, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Filion, Edith J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Departement de Medecine, Service de Radio-Oncologie, Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Wakelee, Heather A.; Colevas, A. Dimitrios [Department of Medicine, Division of Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States) [Department of Medicine, Division of Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Whyte, Richard I. [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Division of General Thoracic Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States) [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Division of General Thoracic Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); and others