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1

[From research on occupational tumors to interventional prevention: use of the OCCAM method at the ASL in Como].  

PubMed

In the framework of "Occupational Cancers" project of the Lombardy Region, estimates of cancer risk by site and by economic activity for the incidence period 2001-2004 have been produced in the Local Health Unit of Como. Using these estimates a set of cancer cases with possible occupational origin has been determined. This has been carried out using the OCCAM approach, a case control study where incident cases are identified by hospital discharge records, controls are sampled from health population files and occupational histories are obtained by automatic link with social security archives. This has been integrated with the knowledge of firms and the workers' awareness of other cancer cases in the workforce of the same firms. Among 45 cases with potential occupational origin, 24 were established as due to occupation. These cases were referred for compensation. Moreover, carcinogenic risks still present in some firms were identified and appropriate interventions were carried out. PMID:22452094

Aiani, Maria Rita; Bai, Edoardo; Oddone, Enrico; Settimi, Lamberto; Genna, Giovanni; Maternini, Paola; Scaburri, Alessandra; Panizza, Celestino; Crosignani, Paolo

2011-01-01

2

Bone tumor  

MedlinePLUS

Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor ... include: Genetic defects passed down through families Radiation Injury In ... or metastatic bone tumors. They behave very differently ...

3

TUBERCULOSIS COMO ENFERMEDAD OCUPACIONAL  

PubMed Central

Existe evidencia suficiente para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en diversos profesionales especialmente entre los trabajadores de salud. En el Perú están normados y reglamentados los derechos laborales inherentes a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional, como la cobertura por discapacidad temporal o permanente. Sin embargo, estos derechos aún no han sido suficientemente socializados. En este trabajo se presenta información sobre el riesgo de adquirir tuberculosis en el lugar de trabajo, se revisan las evidencias para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en trabajadores de salud y se presenta la legislación peruana vigente al respecto. PMID:22858771

Mendoza-Ticona, Alberto

2014-01-01

4

Endocrine Tumor  

MedlinePLUS

... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Endocrine Tumor Endocrine Tumor This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Endocrine Tumor. Use the menu below to choose the ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Endocrine Tumor Overview Statistics Risk Factors Symptoms and Signs ...

5

Wilms' Tumor  

MedlinePLUS

Wilms' tumor is a rare type of kidney cancer. It causes a tumor on one or both kidneys. It usually affects children, but can happen in adults. Having certain genetic conditions or birth defects can increase ...

6

Urogenital tumors  

SciTech Connect

An overview is provided for veterinary care of urogenital tumors in companion animals, especially the dog. Neoplasms discussed include tumors of the kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, testis, ovary, vagina, vulva and the canine transmissible venereal tumor. Topics addressed include description, diagnosis and treatment.

Weller, R.E.

1994-03-01

7

Wilms Tumor  

MedlinePLUS

... cells that are destined to form into the kidneys malfunctioning and forming a tumor. Signs and Symptoms Before being diagnosed with Wilms ... IV. Stage V: Cancer is found in both kidneys at diagnosis (also called bilateral tumors). About 5% are stage V. Surgery is most ...

8

Hypothalamic tumor  

MedlinePLUS

... at any age, but they are often more aggressive in adults than in children. In adults, tumors ... The treatment depends on how aggressive the tumor is, and whether it is a glioma or another type of cancer. Treatment may involve combinations of surgery, radiation , ...

9

Carcinoid Tumors  

PubMed Central

Carcinoid tumors are rare, slow-growing neuroendocrine tumors arising from the enterochromaffin cells disseminated throughout the gastrointestinal and bronchopulmonary systems. Though they have been traditionally classified based upon the embryologic site of origin, morphologic pattern, and silver affinity, newer classification systems have been developed to emphasize the considerable clinical and histopathologic variability of carcinoid tumors found within each embryologic site of origin. These neoplasms pose a diagnostic challenge because they are often innocuous at the time of presentation, emphasizing the need for a multidisciplinary diagnostic approach utilizing biochemical analysis, standard cross-sectional imaging, and newer advances in nuclear medicine. Similarly, treatment of both primary and disseminated carcinoid disease reflects the need for a multidisciplinary approach, with surgery remaining the only curative modality. The prognosis for patients with these tumors is generally favorable, however can be quite variable and is related to the location of the primary tumor, extent of metastatic disease at initial presentation, and the time of diagnosis. PMID:19091780

Pinchot, Scott N.; Holen, Kyle; Sippel, Rebecca S.; Chen, Herbert

2010-01-01

10

[Conjunctival tumors].  

PubMed

Conjunctival tumors are one of the most frequent of the eye and adnexa. They comprise a large variety of conditions, from benign lesions such as nevus or papilloma, to malignant lesions such as epidermoid carcinoma or melanoma which may threaten visual function and the life of the patient. They can arise from any cellular component, but the most frequent are of epithelial and melanocytic origin. Early diagnosis is essential for preventing ocular and systemic spread and to preserve visual function. In this paper we review the clinical characteristics of the most frequent conjunctival tumors, and we discuss tumor management. PMID:19173134

Saornil, M A; Becerra, E; Méndez, M C; Blanco, G

2009-01-01

11

[Adipocytic tumors].  

PubMed

Adipocytic tumors are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms, liposarcoma accounting for approximately 20% of soft tissue sarcomas. The differential diagnosis between benign and malignant tumors is often problematic and represents a significant proportion of consultation cases. The goal of this article is to review liposarcoma subtypes, the main benign adipocytic neoplasms: lipoblastoma, hibernoma, spindle/pleomorphic cell lipoma, chondroid lipoma, as well as non adipocytic neoplasms with a lipomatous component such as lipomatous solitary fibrous tumor, emphasizing on practical differential diagnosis issues, and immunohistochemical and molecular tools allowing their resolution. PMID:25533918

Stock, Nathalie

2015-01-01

12

Carcinoid Tumor  

MedlinePLUS

... a roadmap to this full guide. About the endocrine system and endocrine tumors The endocrine system consists of cells that produce hormones. Hormones ... or cells in the body. Part of the endocrine system is the neuroendocrine system, which is made ...

13

Fibroid Tumors  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... develop from genetic changes in a smooth muscle cell within the myometrium. The cell multiplies to form a tumor. The exact cause ... temperature and break down and destroy the abnormal cells. Other tissues around the fibroid are not affected. ...

14

Pituitary tumor  

MedlinePLUS

... pituitary tumor is an abnormal growth in the pituitary gland. This is the part of the brain that ... are never diagnosed during the person's lifetime. The pituitary gland is a pea-sized endocrine gland located at ...

15

Pituitary Tumors  

MedlinePLUS

... is an abnormal growth of cells within the pituitary gland. Most pituitary tumors are benign, which means they ... of the body; however they can make the pituitary gland produce either too many or too few hormones, ...

16

Pregnancy Tumor  

MedlinePLUS

... Poor oral hygiene (not enough brushing, flossing or cleanings to remove food or plaque) Irritation of the ... of getting a pregnancy tumor. Have regular dental cleanings before you become pregnant. Visit the dentist very ...

17

Understanding Brain Tumors  

MedlinePLUS

... to Know About Brain Tumors . What is a Brain Tumor? A brain tumor is an abnormal growth? ... Tumors” from Frankly Speaking Frankly Speaking About Cancer: Brain Tumors Download the full book Questions to ask ...

18

[Temporomandibular joint primitive tumors and pseudo tumors].  

PubMed

The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) can be the site of bone, cartilaginous, or synovial tumors. There is no well-defined histological classification. We listed all benign tumors, malignant primitive tumors, and rare pseudo tumors of the TMJ. We provide a list to help for the diagnosis and the differential diagnosis of non-tumoral lesions by far the most frequent. PMID:23711211

Oukabli, M; Chibani, M; Ennouali, H; Hemmaoui, B; Albouzidi, A

2013-02-01

19

What Is Wilms Tumor?  

MedlinePLUS

... are living normal, healthy lives with just one kidney. Wilms tumors Wilms tumors are the most common cancers in ... rare cases children may develop other types of kidney tumors. Mesoblastic nephroma These tumors usually appear in the ...

20

Brain Tumor Diagnosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Types of Brain Scans X-rays Laboratory Tests DNA Profiling Biopsy Procedure Malignant and Benign Brain Tumors Tumor ... Types of Brain Scans X-rays Laboratory Tests DNA Profiling Biopsy Procedure Malignant and Benign Brain Tumors Tumor ...

21

Retrorectal tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred twenty patients with primary retrorectal tumors (79 congenital, 14 neurogenic, 13 osseous, and 14 miscellaneous)\\u000a had their initial treatment at the Mayo Clinic from 1960 to 1979. The mean age was 43 years (100 patients were adults). Female\\u000a predominance was associated with congenital cysts (15?1) and male predominance with chordomas (5?1). Forty-three percent of\\u000a the patients had malignant

Shu-Wen Jao; Robert W. Beart; Robert J. Spencer; Herbert M. Reiman; Duane M. Ilstrup

1985-01-01

22

ADRENOCORTICAL TUMORS  

PubMed Central

Hormonally active tumors of the adrenal cortex are either benign adenomas or adenocarcinomas. They may be located within the adrenal gland or as adrenal rests along the Wolffian tract. Hyperplastic cortical tissue without actual neoplastic formation is also capable of elaborating excessive cortical secretions. At the present state of knowledge, any one or a combination of the following compounds may be elaborated in a given case: the electrolytic, glucogenic, androgenic, or estrogenic corticosteroids. Whether or not Cushing's syndrome is primarily pituitary or adrenal in origin is still a matter of conjecture. PMID:15426994

Shelton, E. Kost

1950-01-01

23

Benign sacral tumors.  

PubMed

Primary tumors of the sacrum are rare. In adults, the most common sacral tumors are metastases. The most common primary sacral tumor is a chordoma. Chordomas along as well as tumors such as chondrosarcomas, osteosarcomas, myxopapillary ependymomas, myelomas, and Ewing sarcomas are considered malignant. In this article the authors focus on benign sacral tumors. PMID:15350045

Deutsch, Harel; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Haid, Regis W; Rodts, Gerald E; Ondra, Stephen L

2003-08-15

24

LA BIOÉTICA COMO QUEHACER FILOSÓFICO  

PubMed Central

El artículo examina el estatuto epistemológico de la bioética como disciplina académica. El autor sostiene que el estatuto epistemológico de un discurso lo determina la pregunta fundamental que se plantea y la respuesta que se busca, focos integradores del discurso. En el caso de la bioética, la pregunta fundamental es de índole moral. La bioética es pues una disciplina ética que tiene su hogar epistemológico en la filosofía. El autor también defiende el concepto de “éticas aplicadas”. Sugiere finalmente que el método de la bioética, sobre todo la que se hace desde nuestras latitudes, debería adoptar el círculo hermenéutico como metodología para su filosofar. PMID:20463860

Ferrer, Jorge José

2009-01-01

25

Tumors and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

Tumors during pregnancy are rare, but they can happen. Tumors can be either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. The most common cancers in pregnancy are breast cancer, cervical cancer, lymphoma, and melanoma. ...

26

Pancreatic islet cell tumor  

MedlinePLUS

Islet cell tumors; Islet of Langerhans tumor; Neuroendocrine tumors ... In the healthy pancreas, cells called islet cells produce hormones that regulate a several bodily functions. These include blood sugar level and the production of ...

27

Brain Tumor Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... updates Please leave this field empty Brain Tumor Statistics SHARE Share on Facebook Preview your comments Share ... Close Finish Home > About Us > News > Brain Tumor Statistics Listen Brain Tumors do not discriminate. Primary brain ...

28

CARACTERIZACIÓN DE LA DIVERSIDAD DEL PASTO NATIVO Bouteloua curtipendula Michx. Torr. MEDIANTE MARCADORES DE AFLP NATIVE GRASS Bouteloua curtipendula Michx. Torr. DIVERSITY CHARACTERIZATION USING AFLP MARKERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

El pasto Banderita (Bouteloua curtipendula) Michx. (Torr.), es una especie nativa de México, pero no se ha hecho un uso plani- ficado de su riqueza genética. Para determinar relaciones genéti- cas en 90 poblaciones nativas de Banderita, de varios Estados de México, se analizó la expresión de marcadores de polimorfismo de longitud de fragmentos amplificados (AFLP) y su consisten- cia,

Carlos Morales-Nieto; Adrián Quero-Carrillo; Olivier Le-Blanc; Alfonso Hernández-Garay; Jorge Pérez-Pérez; Sergio González-Muñoz

2006-01-01

29

Como Lo Hago Yo: Myelomeningocele  

PubMed Central

Fortificación con ádico fólico es efectiva, pero aún falta conciencia en los jóvenes. La legalidad del aborto aumenta la importancia de la consulta prenatal. Realizo la cirugía bajo microcoscopio por razones didácticas. Irrigación continua para reducir la temperatura del tejido. Trato a la plaqueta como tejido viable. No suturo la plaqueta. No cierro músculo. ATB por una semana después de cirugía. Hidrocefalia: Válvula en todos los casos de ventriculomegalia. Médula anclada: Desanclar una sola vez. Chiari II: Revisar la válvula. Incluir en el seguimiento rendimiento escolar, puede indicar obstrucción de la válvula o médula anclada. PMID:24791217

Lazareff, Jorge

2014-01-01

30

Tumor microenvironment and nanotherapeutics  

PubMed Central

Recent studies delineate a predominant role for the tumor microenvironment in tumor growth and progression. Improved knowledge of cancer biology and investigation of the complex functional interrelation between the cellular and noncellular compartments of the tumor microenvironment have provided an ideal platform for the evolution of novel cancer nanotherapies. In addition, multifunctional “smart” nanoparticles carrying imaging agents and delivering multiple drugs targeted preferentially to the tumor/tumor microenvironment will lead to early diagnosis and better treatment for patients with cancer. The emerging knowledge of the tumor microenvironment has enabled rational designing of nanoparticles for combinatorial treatment strategies that include radiotherapy, antiangiogenesis and chemotherapy. This multimodality approach is thus expected to achieve therapeutic efficacy and enhance the quality of life of cancer patients. This review highlights the unique characteristics of the tumor microenvironment that are exploited by nanotechnology to develop novel drug delivery systems aimed to target the tumor/tumor microenvironment. PMID:24634853

Upreti, Meenakshi; Jyoti, Amar; Sethi, Pallavi

2014-01-01

31

Tumor Macroenvironment and Metabolism  

PubMed Central

In this review we introduce the concept of the tumor macroenvironment and explore it in the context of metabolism. Tumor cells interact with the tumor microenvironment including immune cells. Blood and lymph vessels are the critical components that deliver nutrients to the tumor and also connect the tumor to the macroenvironment. Several factors are then released from the tumor itself but potentially also from the tumor microenvironment, influencing the metabolism of distant tissues and organs. Amino acids, and distinct lipid and lipoprotein species can be essential for further tumor growth. The role of glucose in tumor metabolism has been studied extensively. Cancer-associated cachexia is the most important tumor-associated systemic syndrome and not only affects the quality of life of patients with various malignancies but is estimated to be the cause of death in 15%–20% of all cancer patients. On the other hand, systemic metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes are known to influence tumor development. Furthermore, the clinical implications of the tumor macroenvironment are explored in the context of the patient’s outcome with special consideration for pediatric tumors. Finally, ways to target the tumor macroenvironment that will provide new approaches for therapeutic concepts are described. PMID:24787299

Al-Zhoughbi, Wael; Huang, Jianfeng; Paramasivan, Ganapathy S.; Till, Holger; Pichler, Martin; Guertl-Lackner, Barbara; Hoefler, Gerald

2014-01-01

32

Tumor macroenvironment and metabolism.  

PubMed

In this review we introduce the concept of the tumor macroenvironment and explore it in the context of metabolism. Tumor cells interact with the tumor microenvironment including immune cells. Blood and lymph vessels are the critical components that deliver nutrients to the tumor and also connect the tumor to the macroenvironment. Several factors are then released from the tumor itself but potentially also from the tumor microenvironment, influencing the metabolism of distant tissues and organs. Amino acids, and distinct lipid and lipoprotein species can be essential for further tumor growth. The role of glucose in tumor metabolism has been studied extensively. Cancer-associated cachexia is the most important tumor-associated systemic syndrome and not only affects the quality of life of patients with various malignancies but is estimated to be the cause of death in 15%-20% of all cancer patients. On the other hand, systemic metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes are known to influence tumor development. Furthermore, the clinical implications of the tumor macroenvironment are explored in the context of the patient's outcome with special consideration for pediatric tumors. Finally, ways to target the tumor macroenvironment that will provide new approaches for therapeutic concepts are described. PMID:24787299

Al-Zoughbi, Wael; Al-Zhoughbi, Wael; Huang, Jianfeng; Paramasivan, Ganapathy S; Till, Holger; Pichler, Martin; Guertl-Lackner, Barbara; Hoefler, Gerald

2014-04-01

33

Childhood Brain Tumor Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... Discoveries Basic Facts &Epidemiology Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma (DIPG)is a devastating, aggressive brain tumor of childhood. ... approximately 10-15% of all pediatric brain tumors. DIPG is the… Read more... Tweet Researchers 2015 Grant ...

34

Endocrine, Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors  

MedlinePLUS

... tumors. They develop from the abnormal growth of endocrine (hormone-producing) cells in the pancreas called islet ... as part of a genetic syndrome called Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 (MEN1) (see below), multiple tumors ...

35

American Brain Tumor Association  

MedlinePLUS

... Overcome Resistance in Brain Tumors Going Viral: Targeting Brain Cancer Cells with a Wound-Healing Drug Read More ABTA News February 10, 2015 American Brain Tumor Association to Host Free Educational Meetings for ...

36

Tracing the Tumor Lineage  

PubMed Central

Defining the pathways through which tumors progress is critical to our understanding and treatment of cancer. We do not routinely sample patients at multiple time points during the progression of their disease, and thus our research is limited to inferring progression a posteriori from the examination of a single tumor sample. Despite this limitation, inferring progression is possible because the tumor genome contains a natural history of the mutations that occur during the formation of the tumor mass. There are two approaches to reconstructing a lineage of progression: (1) inter-tumor comparisons, and (2) intra-tumor comparisons. The inter-tumor approach consists of taking single samples from large collections of tumors and comparing the complexity of the genomes to identify early and late mutations. The intra-tumor approach involves taking multiple samples from individual heterogeneous tumors to compare divergent clones and reconstruct a phylogenetic lineage. Here we discuss how these approaches can be used to interpret the current models for tumor progression. We also compare data from primary and metastatic copy number profiles to shed light on the final steps of breast cancer progression. Finally, we discuss how recent technical advances in single cell genomics will herald a new era in understanding the fundamental basis of tumor heterogeneity and progression. PMID:20537601

Navin, Nicholas E.; Hicks, James

2010-01-01

37

Malignant tumors of childhood  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 34 papers about malignant tumors. some of the titles are: Invasive Cogenital Mesoblastic Nephroma, Leukemia Update, Unusual Perinatal Neoplasms, Lymphoma Update, Gonadal Germ Cell Tumors in Children, Nutritional Status and Cancer of Childhood, and Chemotherapy of Brain tumors in Children.

Brooks, B.J.

1986-01-01

38

Targeting the tumor microenvironment  

PubMed Central

Persistent JAK-STAT3 signaling is implicated in many aspects of tumorigenesis. Apart from its tumor-intrinsic effects, STAT3 also exerts tumor-extrinsic effects, supporting tumor survival and metastasis. These involve the regulation of paracrine cytokine signaling, alterations in metastatic sites rendering these permissive for the growth of cancer cells and subversion of host immune responses to create an immunosuppressive environment. Targeting this signaling pathway is considered a novel promising therapeutic approach, especially in the context of tumor immunity. In this article, we will review to what extent JAK-STAT3-targeted therapies affect the tumor microenvironment and whether the observed effects underlie responsiveness to therapy. PMID:24058812

Bournazou, Eirini; Bromberg, Jacqueline

2013-01-01

39

15 INTRACRANIAL GERM CELL TUMORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intracranial germ cell tumors are a heterogeneous group of lesions which occur in children and adults. Within the classification of intracranial germ cell tumors, there are a variety of different tumor types which carry different prognoses. The diagnosis of an intracranial germ cell tumor usually requires histological informa- tion, but a subgroup of tumors will secrete specific tumor markers, including

J Bjornsson; B Scheithauer; H Okazakl; R W Leech

1984-01-01

40

[Tumor of the tracheobronchus].  

PubMed

Tumors of the tracheobronchus consist of tracheobronchial gland tumor, squamous cell carcinoma, and other tumors. Tracheobronchial gland tumors, such as adenoid cystic carcinoma or mucoepidermoid carcinoma, are rare tumors, and resemble salivary gland tumors pathologically. Surgical complete resection should be considered if possible. Radiotherapy alone results in less survival compared to complete resection. Radiotherapy or palliative bronchoscopic recanalization is a choice of therapy when unresectable. Over all survival rate after operation has been reported to be 66-79% at 5-year and 51-57% at 10-year. Mortality of the surgery is less than 5% in Japan. Adjuvant radiotherapy is often adopted when surgical margin is pathologically positive, since adenoid cystic carcinoma is thought to be radiosensitive tumor. PMID:21916186

Chida, Masayuki

2011-07-01

41

Embolization of sacral tumors.  

PubMed

The management of sacral tumors is challenging because of difficulties in accessing the lesion, the high rate of local recurrence, extensive vascularity causing significant intraoperative blood loss, resistance to radiation therapy, and risk of malignant transformation. Although surgery is the main treatment for many sacral tumors, embolization is a valuable primary and adjunctive therapy. Patients with benign lesions, including aneurysmal bone cysts and giant cell tumors, have responded to embolization with resolution of their symptoms and with ossification of their lesions. Embolization is used as a primary therapy for metastatic lesions and results in neurological improvement, reduced tumor size, and decreased spinal canal compromise. It is also used as an adjuvant therapy to reduce intraoperative blood loss and to aid in the resection of benign, malignant, and metastatic sacral lesions. It is important to note that embolization techniques are a valuable resource in the treatment of sacral tumors, and, overall, embolization should always be considered in patients with sacral tumors. PMID:15350035

Gottfried, Oren N; Schmidt, Meic H; Stevens, Edwin A

2003-08-15

42

Desmoid tumors in childhood.  

PubMed

Eight cases of extraabdominal desmoid tumors in children are reviewed. Seven were located in the pelvis or forearm, and the most common presenting complaint was a slowly enlarging mass. In all cases, diagnosis was established by open biopsy, and initial treatment was by surgical excision. At follow-up (average, 5.8 years), six patients were tumor free. Desmoids are benign tumors that usually carry a good prognosis. There is no difference between the tumor behavior in children and adults. The treatment of choice is wide local excision. If vital structures are involved, it may be more appropriate to preserve function by performing partial tumor excision. For quiescent recurrent tumors, observation is appropriate management, but if further treatment is required, reexcision or radiotherapy may be tried. PMID:3331192

Scougall, P; Staheli, L T; Chew, D E; Taylor, T K; Almquist, E E

1987-07-01

43

Spine Tumors: Surgery Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Tumors of the spine comprise a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that can be characterized by their pathology, anatomic location,\\u000a and degree of invasiveness. The majority of spine tumors encountered by clinicians are metastatic, accounting for approximately\\u000a 70% of all spine tumors [1]. Less frequently encountered neoplasms of the spine and spinal cord include primary lesions such as meningiomas, schwannomas,\\u000a osseous

Gabriel Zada; Michael Y. Wang

44

Intraperitoneal Solitary Fibrous Tumor  

PubMed Central

Solitary fibrous tumors of the pelvis are rare. We report the case of a 32-years-old patient who presented with abdominopelvic mass. The imaging studies showed a right adnexal mass of more than 10?cm. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a 20?cm mass at the Douglas pouch which was adhered to the posterior wall of the uterus. Complete resection of the mass was performed. Histological analysis showed a spindle cell undifferentiated tumor whose morphological and immunohistochemical profile are consistent with solitary fibrous tumor. It is important to know that although these tumors are rare, their evolution can be pejorative. Therefore, long-term followup should be recommended. PMID:25276449

Benabdejlil, Youssef; Kouach, Jaouad; Babahabib, Abdellah; Elhassani, Moulay Elmehdi; Rharassi, Issam; Boudhas, Adil; Bakkali, Hicham; Elmarjany, Mohammed; Moussaoui, Driss; Dehayni, Mohamed

2014-01-01

45

Tumor Ablation and Nanotechnology  

PubMed Central

Next to surgical resection, tumor ablation is a commonly used intervention in the treatment of solid tumors. Tumor ablation methods include thermal therapies, photodynamic therapy, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) producing agents. Thermal therapies induce tumor cell death via thermal energy and include radiofrequency, microwave, high intensity focused ultrasound, and cryoablation. Photodynamic therapy and ROS producing agents cause increased oxidative stress in tumor cells leading to apoptosis. While these therapies are safe and viable alternatives when resection of malignancies is not feasible, they do have associated limitations that prevent their widespread use in clinical applications. To improve the efficacy of these treatments, nanoparticles are being studied in combination with nonsurgical ablation regimens. In addition to better thermal effect on tumor ablation, nanoparticles can deliver anticancer therapeutics that show synergistic anti-tumor effect in the presence of heat and can also be imaged to achieve precision in therapy. Understanding the molecular mechanism of nanoparticle-mediated tumor ablation could further help engineer nanoparticles of appropriate composition and properties to synergize the ablation effect. This review aims to explore the various types of nonsurgical tumor ablation methods currently used in cancer treatment and potential improvements by nanotechnology applications. PMID:20866097

Manthe, Rachel L.; Foy, Susan P.; Krishnamurthy, Nishanth; Sharma, Blanka; Labhasetwar, Vinod

2010-01-01

46

Comprometimento órbito-craniano por tumores malignos sinonasais: estudo por tomografia computadorizada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumores malignos das cavidades sinonasais são raros e freqüentemente diagnosticados em estágio avan- çado da doença. A extensão destes tumores para locais críticos como a órbita e o crânio gera dificuldades no tratamento destas lesões. Dez pacientes com neoplasia maligna sinonasal, sem qualquer tratamento prévio e com evidência radiológica de extensão órbito-craniana, foram estudados por tomografia computa- dorizada. Dos dez

Ana Célia Baptista; Edson Marchiori; Edson Boasquevisque; Carlos Eduardo Lassance Cabral

2002-01-01

47

Glial tumors with neuronal differentiation.  

PubMed

Immunohistochemical studies for neuronal differentiation in glial tumors revealed subsets of tumors having both characteristics of glial and neuronal lineages. Glial tumors with neuronal differentiation can be observed with diverse phenotypes and histologic grades. The rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor of the fourth ventricle and papillary glioneuronal tumor have been newly classified as distinct disease entities. There are other candidates for classification, such as the glioneuronal tumor without pseudopapillary architecture, glioneuronal tumor with neuropil-like islands, and the malignant glioneuronal tumor. The clinical significance of these previously unclassified tumors should be confirmed. PMID:25432191

Park, Chul-Kee; Phi, Ji Hoon; Park, Sung-Hye

2015-01-01

48

Reactivating Tumor Suppressor Genes  

Cancer.gov

This is the first clinical trial to test the combination of a drug called 5-fluoro-2'-deoxycytidine (FdCyd) and tetrahydrouridine (THU) in humans. Researchers are interested in establishing the maximum tolerated dose and determining how this regimen affects the activity of certain tumor suppressor genes in patients with advanced solid tumors.

49

Metastatic brain tumor  

MedlinePLUS

... Bladder cancer Breast cancer Certain sarcomas Germ cell tumors Kidney cancer Leukemia Lung cancer Lymphoma Melanoma Some types of cancer rarely spread to the brain, such as colon cancer and ... rare cases, a tumor can spread to the brain from an unknown ...

50

Metastatic Spinal Tumor  

PubMed Central

In accordance with extending survival periods of cancer patients, number of consecutively developing metastatic spinal tumor is also increasing. There have been improvements in the treatment results of metastatic spine tumor by virtue of the developments in diagnostic radiology, chemotherapy, adjuvant treatment, operative device and technique, discrete preoperative plan, and standardized operation. Accordingly, surgical indication has also increased. Clinically, in case of metastatic spine tumor, treatment of tumor itself should be focused on pain relief, preservation of neurologic function, prevention of pathologic fracture, prevention of pathologic fracture, and correction of spinal instability for improving quality of life, rather than for extension of survival. Additionally, etiology of spinal tumor, correct diagnosis and subsequent treatment principles should be thoroughly understood before establishing treatment plans for effective treatments. PMID:22439092

Jung, Chul-Hee

2012-01-01

51

Tumor heterogeneity, tumor size, and radioresistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutant clonogenic cells, resistant to individual chemotherapeutic agents, are known to play a central role in clinical chemotherapy failure. The possibility that mutant cells, resistant to conventionally fractionated megavoltage photon radiotherapy, exist in human tumors is considered. Applying the mutation theory of Luria and Delbruck to describe the appearance of resistant cells, several conclusions follow: (a) the mean number of

Robert J. Yaes

1989-01-01

52

What Are Lung Carcinoid Tumors?  

MedlinePLUS

... key statistics about lung carcinoid tumors? What are lung carcinoid tumors? Lung carcinoid tumors (also known as ... lungs, as well as the neuroendocrine system. The lungs The lungs are 2 sponge-like organs in ...

53

Intradural spinal granular cell tumor  

PubMed Central

Granular cell tumor is a rare, usually benign tumor with classical histomorphology. Location of tumor varies widely within body, but spine is distinctly a rare location for this tumor. We report a rare case of granular cell tumor involving intradural extramedullary portion of lumbar region of spinal cord. Knowledge of which is important as subsequent prognosis differs from other tumor at same location. PMID:25126126

Vaghasiya, Viren L.; Nasit, Jitendra G.; Parikh, Pinki A.; Trivedi, Priti P.

2014-01-01

54

Intradural spinal granular cell tumor.  

PubMed

Granular cell tumor is a rare, usually benign tumor with classical histomorphology. Location of tumor varies widely within body, but spine is distinctly a rare location for this tumor. We report a rare case of granular cell tumor involving intradural extramedullary portion of lumbar region of spinal cord. Knowledge of which is important as subsequent prognosis differs from other tumor at same location. PMID:25126126

Vaghasiya, Viren L; Nasit, Jitendra G; Parikh, Pinki A; Trivedi, Priti P

2014-04-01

55

Cirugía transnasal endoscópica para tumores de hipófisis  

PubMed Central

Introducción: Exponer la técnica utilizada y los resultados obtenidos en los primeros 52 pacientes portadores de tumores hipofisarios tratados por la vía endoscópica transnasal en el Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires Métodos: Se llevó a cabo un análisis retrospectivo de 52 cirugías endoscópicas transnasales utilizadas en el tratamiento de tumores hipofisários. Las mismas fueron realizadas en el Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires durante el período junio del 2011 a junio del 2012. Se analizaron las características demográficas de los pacientes, la patología de base y la morbimortalidad asociada a la cirugía. Resultados: La edad media de los pacientes fue de 41,52 años con un rango de 18-79. La distribución fue similar entre hombres y mujeres. Las patologías más frecuentes fueron: adenomas no funcionantes (40.4%), tumores productores de GH/Acromegalia (25%) y tumores productores de ACTH/Enfermedad de Cushing (23.1%). Aproximadamente el 70 % correspondieron a macroadenomas. Sólo un paciente presentó complicaciones. No se registro ningún óbito. Conclusión: Si bien podremos objetivar fehacientemente resultados más concluyentes en futuros trabajos, podemos decir a priori que, en la endoscopía el detalle anatómico es claramente superior al microscópico y que la posibilidad de la introducción del endoscopio en la silla turca permite la visualización directa de remanentes tumorales, de sitios de fístula y como así también de la glándula normal, ventajas que potencialmente podrían permitir obtener mejores resultados quirúrgicos, en términos de control de la enfermedad y tasa de complicaciones. PMID:23596553

Ajler, Pablo; Hem, Santiago; Goldschmidt, Ezequiel; Landriel, Federico; Campero, Alvaro; Yampolsky, Claudio; Carrizo, Antonio

2012-01-01

56

Rhabdoid Tumor Predisposition Syndrome.  

PubMed

Abstract Rhabdoid tumors (RT), or malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRT), are amongst the most aggressive and lethal forms of human cancer. They can arise in any location in the body but are most commonly observed in the brain, where they are called atypical teratoid / rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT), and in the kidneys, where they are called rhabdoid tumors of the kidney (RTK). The vast majority of rhabdoid tumors present with a loss of function in the SMARCB1 gene, also known as INI1, BAF47 and hSNF5,, a core member of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex. Recently, mutations in a second locus of the SWI/SNF complex, the SMARCA4 gene, also known as BRG1 were found in rhabdoid tumors with retention of SMARCB1 expression. Familial cases may occur in a condition known as rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome (RTPS). In RTPS, germline inactivation of one allele of a gene occurs. When the mutation occurs in the SMARCB1 gene, the syndrome is called RTPS1, and when the mutation occurs in the SMARCA4, gene it is called RTPS2. Children presenting with RTPS tend to develop tumors at a younger age, but the impact that germline mutation has on survival remains unclear. Adults who carry the mutation tend to develop multiple schwannomas. The diagnosis of RTPS should be considered in patients with RT, especially if they have multiple primary tumors and/or in individuals with a family history of RT. Because germline mutations result in an increased risk of carriers developing RT, genetic counseling for families with this condition is recommended. PMID:25494491

Sredni, Simone Treiger; Tomita, Tadanori

2014-12-10

57

The Ecology of Tumors  

PubMed Central

No tumor is an island. Chemical and physical forces exerted by the diverse cellular populations that surround a tumor – its so-called microenvironment – shape development and progression. Manipulating these ‘ecological’ factors is increasingly attractive therapeutically, as Mina Bissell and colleagues discuss in the following pages. And just as the cellular neighborhood is diverse, tumors enriched in these environments comprise a variety of cell types. In this heterogeneous mix, increasing evidence points to so-called cancer stem cells as the root of malignancy. Irving Weissman and Michael Clarke discuss the implications for leukemias on page 35, and on page 37 Peter B. Dirks discusses cancer stem cells in the brain. PMID:21132085

Kenny, Paraic A.; Nelson, Celeste M.; Bissell, Mina J.

2010-01-01

58

Inter-tumor heterogeneity.  

PubMed

Advances in the molecular study of cancer have focused on biomarkers in the setting of tumor-driving mutations within the great heterogeneity of the tumor genomic landscape. It is clearly recognized now that even two tumors originating from the same organ even if histological they appear similar their behavior and response to therapy can be different. These findings have increased interest and research to find truly prognostic and predictive biomarkers to serve as tools in better assessing the natural course of disease and response to treatments in the hope of truly individualizing cancer therapy in the future. PMID:22854659

Cusnir, Mike; Cavalcante, Ludmila

2012-08-01

59

Inter-tumor heterogeneity  

PubMed Central

Advances in the molecular study of cancer have focused on biomarkers in the setting of tumor-driving mutations within the great heterogeneity of the tumor genomic landscape. It is clearly recognized now that even two tumors originating from the same organ even if histological they appear similar their behavior and response to therapy can be different. These findings have increased interest and research to find truly prognostic and predictive biomarkers to serve as tools in better assessing the natural course of disease and response to treatments in the hope of truly individualizing cancer therapy in the future. PMID:22854659

Cusnir, Mike; Cavalcante, Ludmila

2012-01-01

60

Targeting the tumor microenvironment  

SciTech Connect

Despite some notable successes cancer remains, for the most part, a seemingly intractable problem. There is, however, a growing appreciation that targeting the tumor epithelium in isolation is not sufficient as there is an intricate mutually sustaining synergy between the tumor epithelial cells and their surrounding stroma. As the details of this dialogue emerge, new therapeutic targets have been proposed. The FDA has already approved drugs targeting microenvironmental components such as VEGF and aromatase and many more agents are in the pipeline. In this article, we describe some of the 'druggable' targets and processes within the tumor microenvironment and review the approaches being taken to disrupt these interactions.

Kenny, P.A.; Lee, G.Y.; Bissell, M.J.

2006-11-07

61

Metabolic control of tumor progression and anti-tumor immunity  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Loss of cell growth control does not explain why tumors form as the immune system recognizes many malignant cells and keeps them in check. The local inflammatory microenvironment is a pivotal factor in tumor formation as tumor associated inflammation actively suppresses anti-tumor immunity. The purpose of this review is to evaluate emerging evidence that amino acid catabolism is a key feature of tumor-associated inflammation that supports tumor progression and immune resistance to therapy. Recent findings Enhanced amino acid catabolism in inflammatory tumor microenvironments correlates with carcinogen resistance and immune regulation mediated by tumor-associated immune cells that protect tumors from natural and vaccine-induced immunity. Interfering with metabolic pathways exploited by tumors is a promising anti-tumor strategy, especially when combined with other therapies. Moreover, molecular sensors that evolved to detect pathogens may enhance evasion of immune surveillance to permit tumor progression. Summary Innate immune sensing that induces amino acid catabolism in tumor microenvironments may be pivotal in initiating and sustaining local inflammation that promotes immune resistance and attenuates anti-tumor immunity. Targeting molecular sensors that mediate these metabolic changes may be an effective strategy to enhance anti-tumor immunity that prevents tumor progression, as well as improving the efficacy of cancer therapy. PMID:24305570

Huang, Lei; Mellor, Andrew L.

2014-01-01

62

Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors.  

PubMed

Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors (UTROSCT) are rare neoplasms of unknown etiology. Only 67 cases have been reported in the literature, to our knowledge, so far. The neoplasm usually occurs in middle-aged women. Most patients present with abnormal uterine bleeding and/or abdominal pain, along with an enlarged uterus or a palpable uterine mass. There is no specific imaging finding, and the diagnosis is made exclusively on histopathologic examination. A multitude of architectural patterns are described, which include plexiform cords, anastomosing trabeculae, watered-silk, microfollicle, macrofollicle, tubules, retiform, solid cellular islands, and diffuse pattern of growth. The neoplastic cells are usually small with round to ovoid nuclei, nuclear monotony, mild nuclear hyperchromasia, and inconspicuous nucleoli with scant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Nuclear grooves are rare. Mitotic figures are infrequent, and necrosis is mostly absent. This tumor depicts a diverse immunohistochemical profile with expression of sex cord, epithelial, and smooth muscle lineages markers. Sex cord markers, such as inhibin, calretinin, CD99, WT1, and MART-1; epithelial markers, such as pancytokeratin and epithelial membrane antigen; smooth muscle markers, such as smooth muscle actin, desmin, and histone deacetylase 8; and miscellaneous markers, such as CD10, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, S100, and CD117, are often coexpressed. Immunoexpression for calretinin and at least for one of the other sex cord markers is required to establish a diagnosis of UTROSCT. Hysterectomy with or without bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is usually the treatment for UTROSCT. Although most UTROSCTs behave benignly, some do recur, and thus, this entity should be considered as a tumor of low malignant potential. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge on UTROSCT and its clinical relevance. PMID:24283865

Pradhan, Dinesh; Mohanty, Sambit K

2013-12-01

63

Glomus tympanum tumor  

MedlinePLUS

... bone of the skull, behind the eardrum (tympanic membrane). This area contains nerve fibers (glomus bodies) that normally respond to changes in body temperature or blood pressure. These tumors usually occur late ...

64

Lung Carcinoid Tumor: Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... drain any new fluid that might collect. Catheter placement: This is another way to control the buildup ... placed through the skin and into the tumor. Placement of the probe is guided by ultrasound or ...

65

Tumor Glycome Labs 2  

Cancer.gov

Tumor Glycomics Laboratories of the NIH Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer The National Cancer Institute is funding an initiative to discover, develop, and clinically validate cancer biomarkers based on complex carbohydrate structures

66

The mesenchymal tumor microenvironment  

PubMed Central

Drug and radiation resistance represent a challenge for most anticancer therapies. Diverse experimental approaches have provided evidence that the tumor-associated microenvironment constitutes both a protective shell that impedes drug or radiation access and a permissive or promotive microenvironment that encourages a nurturing cancer (i.e., cancer stem cell) niche where tumor cells overcome treatment- and cancer-induced stresses. Better understanding of the effects of the tumor microenvironment on cancer cells before, during and immediately after chemo- or radiotherapy is imperative to design new therapies aimed at targeting this tumor-protective niche. This review summarizes some of the known mesenchymal stromal effects that account for drug resistance, the main signal transduction pathways associated with this resistance and the therapeutic efforts directed to increase the success of current therapies. Special emphasis is given to environment-mediated drug resistance in general and to cell adhesion-mediated drug resistance in particular. PMID:22568991

Cukierman, Edna; Bassi, Daniel E.

2012-01-01

67

Tumor Microenvironment Consortium  

Cancer.gov

Tumor Microenvironment Network (TMEN) Dinah Singer, Ph.D. Director Suresh Mohla, Ph.D. TMEN Program Director Division of Cancer Biology TMEN 2006-2011: Goals – Generate a comprehensive understanding of the composition of the normal stroma

68

The Gastrointestinal Tumor Microenvironment  

PubMed Central

Over the past decade, the microenvironment of gastrointestinal tumors has gained increasing attention because it is required for tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis. The tumor microenvironment has many components and has been recognized as one of the major “hallmarks” of epithelial cancers. Although therapeutic strategies for gastrointestinal cancer have previously focused on the epithelial cell compartment, there is increasing interest in reagents that alter the microenvironment, based on reported interactions among gastrointestinal epithelial, stromal, and immune cells during gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. We review the different cellular components of the gastrointestinal tumor microenvironment and their functions in carcinogenesis, and discuss how improving our understanding of the complex stromal network could lead to new therapeutic strategies. PMID:23583733

Quante, Michael; Varga, Julia; Wang, Timothy C.; Greten, Florian R.

2013-01-01

69

The gastrointestinal tumor microenvironment.  

PubMed

Over the past decade, the microenvironment of gastrointestinal tumors has gained increasing attention because it is required for tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis. The tumor microenvironment has many components and has been recognized as one of the major hallmarks of epithelial cancers. Although therapeutic strategies for gastrointestinal cancer have previously focused on the epithelial cell compartment, there is increasing interest in reagents that alter the microenvironment, based on reported interactions among gastrointestinal epithelial, stromal, and immune cells during gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. We review the different cellular components of the gastrointestinal tumor microenvironment and their functions in carcinogenesis and discuss how improving our understanding of the complex stromal network could lead to new therapeutic strategies. PMID:23583733

Quante, Michael; Varga, Julia; Wang, Timothy C; Greten, Florian R

2013-07-01

70

Osteochondroma (Bone Tumor)  

MedlinePLUS

... of these benign tumors changing to cancer (malignant transformation) is greater than solitary osteochondroma. Cause About 70% ... Doctor Examination Diagnosing multiple osteochondromatosis includes a medical history and physical examination, as well as imaging tests. ...

71

Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... Statistics Request Permissions Print to PDF Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics This section has been reviewed and approved by ... nodes or distant parts of the body. Survival statistics should be interpreted with caution. These estimates are ...

72

[Tumor lysis syndrome].  

PubMed

Tumor lysis syndrome is a potentially life threatening oncologic emergency that requires immediate medical intervention. The syndrome results from the destruction (or lysis) of a large number of rapidly dividing malignant cells spontaneously or during chemotherapy. The resulting metabolic abnormalities include hyperkaliemia, hyperuricemia, and hyperphosphatemia with secondary hypocalcemia, all of which put patients at risk for renal failure and alteration in cardiac function. The tumor lysis syndrome occurs most often in patients with large tumor burdens that are very sensitive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, such as acute or chronic leukaemias with high leukocyte counts and high-grade lymphoma. The current standard management for tumor lysis syndrome consists of allopurinol or recombinant urate oxidase for high risk patient in conjunction with i.v. hydratation with or without alkalinization. PMID:17665670

Jeddi, Ramzi; Ben Abdennebi, Yosr; Allani, Bassam; Belakhal, Raihane; Aissaoui, Lamia; Ben Abid, Hela; Ali, Zaher Belhadj; Meddeb, Balkis

2007-02-01

73

Managing Presacral Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Presacral or retrorectal tumors are uncommon. At the Mayo Clinic, a large tertiary care center, only 120 patients with retrorectal\\u000a tumors were seen over a 20-year period (Jao et al. 1985). Uhlig reviewed the medical records of Portland Oregon’s major hospitals\\u000a over a 30-year period prior to 1975 and identified 63 cases, approximately 2 per year in major metropolitan area

Richard M. Devine

74

Skull Base Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ocular manifestations are not infrequent in the presence of skull base tumors because of the crucial visual and oculomotor\\u000a pathways traversing the skull base. Because familiarity with the intricate skull base anatomy is imperative for accurately\\u000a diagnosing and effectively managing skull base tumors, this chapter provides a description of the anatomy of the skull base\\u000a and a discussion of imaging

Anitha Raghunath; Jade S. Schiffman

75

Antibody tumor penetration  

PubMed Central

Antibodies have proven to be effective agents in cancer imaging and therapy. One of the major challenges still facing the field is the heterogeneous distribution of these agents in tumors when administered systemically. Large regions of untargeted cells can therefore escape therapy and potentially select for more resistant cells. We present here a summary of theoretical and experimental approaches to analyze and improve antibody penetration in tumor tissue. PMID:18541331

Thurber, Greg M.; Schmidt, Michael M.; Wittrup, K. Dane

2009-01-01

76

Experimental models of kidney tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We here present in outline some outstanding results on the animal models of renal tumors submitted to the highest attention, which include two kinds of epithelial neoplams: those developed from the epithelium lining each the renal tubules (renal cell tumors) and pelvis; the mesenchymal tumor of rat; and tumors with embryonal appearance: the nephroplastoma as well as the variant of

Enrique Nogueira; Antonio Cardesa; Ulrich Mohr

1993-01-01

77

Pediatric brain tumor cell lines.  

PubMed

Pediatric brain tumors as a group, including medulloblastomas, gliomas, and atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRT) are the most common solid tumors in children and the leading cause of death from childhood cancer. Brain tumor-derived cell lines are critical for studying the biology of pediatric brain tumors and can be useful for initial screening of new therapies. Use of appropriate brain tumor cell lines for experiments is important, as results may differ depending on tumor properties, and can thus affect the conclusions and applicability of the model. Despite reports in the literature of over 60 pediatric brain tumor cell lines, the majority of published papers utilize only a small number of these cell lines. Here we list the approximately 60 currently-published pediatric brain tumor cell lines and summarize some of their central features as a resource for scientists seeking pediatric brain tumor cell lines for their research. PMID:25211508

Xu, Jingying; Margol, Ashley; Asgharzadeh, Shahab; Erdreich-Epstein, Anat

2015-02-01

78

Matrix metalloproteinases and tumor metastasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functions of individual matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) differentially expressed by tumor cells and stromal cells, are finely\\u000a regulated by their spatial as well as temporal interactions with distinct cellular and extracellular components of the tumor\\u000a microenvironment and also distant pre-metastatic sites. Certain aspects of MMP involvement in tumor metastasis such as tumor-induced\\u000a angiogenesis, tumor invasion, and establishment of metastatic foci at

Elena I. Deryugina; James P. Quigley

2006-01-01

79

Chemoimmunotherapy: reengineering tumor immunity  

PubMed Central

Cancer chemotherapy drugs have long been considered immune suppressive. However, more recent data indicate that some cytotoxic drugs effectively treat cancer in part by facilitating an immune response to the tumor when given at the standard dose and schedule. These drugs induce a form of tumor cell death that is immunologically active, thereby inducing an adaptive immune response specific for the tumor. In addition, cancer chemotherapy drugs can promote tumor immunity through ancillary and largely unappreciated immunologic effects on both the malignant and normal host cells present within the tumor microenvironment. These more subtle immunomodulatory effects are dependent on the drug itself, its dose, and its schedule in relation to an immune-based intervention. The recent approvals of two new immune-based therapies for prostate cancer and melanoma herald a new era in cancer treatment and have led to heightened interest in immunotherapy as a valid approach to cancer treatment. A detailed understanding of the cellular and molecular basis of interactions between chemotherapy drugs and the immune system is essential for devising the optimal strategy for integrating new immune-based therapies into the standard of care for various cancers, resulting in the greatest long-term clinical benefit for cancer patients. PMID:23389507

Chen, Gang

2013-01-01

80

Radiation therapy: uveal tumors.  

PubMed

Among primary uveal tumors, uveal melanoma is the most frequently occurring malignant neoplasm, albeit much less common than skin melanoma and indeed most other cancers. Traditionally, uveal melanoma was treated by enucleation of the globe, but is now increasingly been managed by an eye-preserving option, which saves vision without compromising the life of patients. More than 90% of eyes now preserved have some form of radiotherapy; most often episcleral brachytherapy that is easily accessible at many ophthalmic centers. Conversely, teletherapy in the form of charged particle irradiation, stereotactic radiotherapy or radiosurgery is only available at a comparatively small number of centers. Radiotherapy for uveal melanoma causes significant side effects and complications, but the vast majority of patients can keep their eye with some remaining function. This is of significant benefit to the quality of life for many patients. The side effects of radiotherapy are intimately related to the size of the irradiated tumor, hence early detection and identification of tumors that need to be treated is critical to improve the functional outcome. Experience gained from treating uveal melanoma has been expanded to treat benign uveal tumors such as choroidal hemangioma and other malignant tumors such as uveal lymphoma and uveal metastasis. PMID:23989126

Seregard, Stefan; Pelayes, David E; Singh, Arun D

2013-01-01

81

Mesenteric inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs), also known as inflammatory pseudotumors and inflammatory fibrosarcomas, are uncommon mesenchymal tumors composed of myofibroblastic spindle cells admixed with lymphocytes, plasma cells and eosinophils. Once thought to be reactive, these lesions are now considered to be neoplastic. These tumors can occur throughout the body, most commonly in the lung, mesentery and omentum. Patients commonly present with painless abdominal mass or with intestinal obstruction. IMTs may be multicentric, have a high local recurrence rate and may metastasize in rare cases. The lesions show wide variability in their histologic features and cellularity, and marked inflammatory infiltration, predominantly of plasmatocytes and lymphocytes, and occasionally neutrophils and eosinophils. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements and/or ALK1 and p80 immunoreactivity are reported in 33-67% of the tumors. Owing to the rarity of these lesions, there are no specific imaging findings that distinguish IMTs from other mesenteric masses. Complete surgical resection is the treatment of choice. Local recurrence rates are high, and re-excision is the preferred therapy for local recurrences. ALK-positive tumors show good response to ALK inhibitors. Current knowledge and comprehensive review of the available literature on IMTs is herein presented. PMID:25608706

Chaudhary, Poras

2015-01-01

82

Papillary glioneuronal tumor--a new tumor entity.  

PubMed

Glioneuronal neoplasms of the CNS comprises a heterogeneous group of generally low-grade tumors expressing glial and neuronal cells of varying differentiation. Recently, a new variant of the glioneuronal tumors has been identified. We present a case of a glioneuronal tumor located in the left frontal lobe of a 16-year-old boy who developed seizures 6 months after brain concussion. MR scan demonstrated an irregular, but well circumscribed, mixed cystic and solid tumor with contrast enhancement in the solid part. Histology showed a papillary glioneuronal tumor. The tumor is indolent with no sign of recurrence after gross total resection. PMID:11846038

Broholm, H; Madsen, F F; Wagner, A A; Laursen, H

2002-01-01

83

Abdominal Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor  

PubMed Central

A 28-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of abdominal pain, weight loss and a palpable intra-abdominal mass. A CT scan revealed a tumor with a diameter of 7 cm with sharp margins, intra-tumoral fatty components and enhancing soft tissue. After initial workup, which suggested an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT), she underwent laparotomy with complete resection. Pathological examination indeed revealed IMT. IMT is a rare benign neoplasm and has been described in nearly the entire body. It presents with nonspecific symptoms. The therapy of abdominal IMT consists of radical surgery because of high local recurrence rates. In this case report clinical, surgical, radiological and histological features with a review of the relevant literature are described. PMID:24707245

Groenveld, Roosmarijn L.; Raber, Menno H.; Oosterhof-Berktas, Richard; Eijken, Erik; Klaase, Joost M.

2014-01-01

84

[Primary lung tumors].  

PubMed

Pulmonary neoplasia in children is usually due to methastatic disease because primary lung tumors are very unfrequent. Due to its' rarity they are usually not included in the differential diagnosis of lung masses, so treatment is delayed and prognosis is worsened. Herein, we show our experience in the management of five primary tumors of the lung or the airway: one tracheal, three bronchial, and another intraparenchymatous. We study the clinical behaviour, diagnostic work-up, treatment, histology, and follow-up. Despite its rarity, a diagnosis of pulmonary tumor should be considered in any child with respiratory symptoms that does not improve with standard therapy. An early and accurate diagnosis and an adequate treatment are crutial in the prognosis of these patients. PMID:17352111

López Díaz, M; Antón-Pacheco Sánchez, J L; Tejedor Sánchez, R; Cuadros, J; Vivanco Martínez, J L; Cabezalí Barbancho, D; Hernández Bernal, I

2006-10-01

85

Cerebral tumor or pseudotumor?  

PubMed

Pseudotumoral lesions are uncommon but important to identity lesions. They can occur during inflammatory diseases (systemic diseases, vasculitis, demyelinating diseases), infectious, and vascular diseases. Also, in a patient with a treated tumor, pseudo-progression and radionecrosis must be differentiated from the tumoral development. Diagnosis can be difficult on an MRI scan, but some MRI aspects in conventional sequences, diffusion, perfusion and spectroscopy can suggest the pseudotumoral origin of a lesion. Imaging must be interpreted according to the context, the clinic and the biology. The presence of associated intracranial lesions can orientate towards a systemic or infectious disease. A T2 hyposignal lesion suggests granulomatosis or histiocytosis, especially if a meningeal or hypothalamic-pituitary involvement is associated. Non-tumoral lesions are generally not hyperperfused. In the absence of a definitive diagnosis, the evolution of these lesions, whether under treatment or spontaneous, is fundamental. PMID:25260711

Leclercq, D; Trunet, S; Bertrand, A; Galanaud, D; Lehéricy, S; Dormont, D; Drier, A

2014-10-01

86

Tumor-induced osteomalacia  

PubMed Central

Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is an acquired disorder of isolated renal phosphate wasting associated with tumors, typically of mesenchymal origin. Patients with TIO share similar biochemical and skeletal phenotypes with patients who have autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (ADHR) and X-linked hypophosphatemia. The study of TIO introduced the idea of the existence of circulating factors, referred to as ‘phosphatonins’, produced by the tumor, which act upon the kidney to reduce phosphate reabsorption. Although several factors have been identified, the phosphatonin FGF-23, also identified as the causative factor in ADHR, is currently the best characterized of these factors relative to phosphate handling. This review describes the importance of TIO in understanding phosphate homeostasis in the context of new endocrine interactions between the skeleton and the kidney. PMID:20228870

Farrow, Emily G; White, Kenneth E

2009-01-01

87

Endobronchial glomus tumor.  

PubMed

We report a case of a 52-year-old patient who had undergone a bladder resection and an ileal conduit for a transitional cell carcinoma. He then presented with a short history of hemoptysis 3 months later. Rigid bronchoscopy was performed revealing an endobronchial lesion, which was removed via laser and debulking method without complications. Histopathologic examination confirmed it to be a benign endobronchial glomus tumor. On the basis of our literature search, this is the 34th reported case of glomus tumor arising from the respiratory tract, seventh reported case of an endobronchial glomus tumor treated bronchoscopically, and the first possibly coincidental finding in relation to a patient with primary transitional bladder cell carcinoma. PMID:25590487

Rashid Ali, Muhammad R S; Kannan, Kunji K S

2015-01-01

88

Radioembolization of hepatic tumors  

PubMed Central

Unresectable primary and metastatic liver tumors are a leading cause of cancer mortality and morbidity. This remains a challenging and key task for every oncologist despite significant advances that have been made with selective targeted systemic agents and in technology advances with radiotherapy delivery. Radioembolization (RE) is a technique of permanently implanting microspheres containing Yttrium-90 (90Y), a beta-emitting isotope with a treatment range of 2 mm, into hepatic tumors. This form of brachytherapy utilizes the unique dual vascular anatomy of the liver to preferentially deliver radioactive particles via the hepatic artery to tumor, sparing normal liver parenchyma. The main treatment inclusion criteria are patients with solid tumors, compensated liver functions, life expectancy of at least three months, and ECOG performance status 0-2. Benefit of RE has been proven in patients that have low-to-moderate extrahepatic disease burden, prior liver radiotherapy, heavy prior chemotherapy and biologic agent exposure, and history of hepatic surgery or ablation. Most of the clinical evidence is reported in metastatic colorectal, and neuroendocrine tumors (NET), and primary hepatocellular cancer. A growing body of data supports the use of RE in hepatic metastatic breast cancer, intrahepatic cholangiocarinoma, and many other metastatic tumor types. Side effects are typically mild constitutional and GI issues limited to the first 7-14 days post treatment, with only 6% grade 3 toxicity reported in large series. Potentially serious or fatal radiation induced liver disease is extremely rare, reported in only 1% or fewer in major series of both metastatic and primary tumors treated with RE. Currently, high priority prospective clinical trials are testing RE combined with chemotherapy in first line therapy for colorectal hepatic metastases, and combined with sorafenib for hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Fortunately, this beneficial and now widely available therapy is being increasingly incorporated into the standard therapy algorithms of multidisciplinary GI cancer teams worldwide. This form of radiotherapy differs significantly from daily external beam radiotherapy in many ways, particularly in dose rate, dosimetric coverage and duration of radiation delivery, side effects, and patient selection factors. A wealth of experience using RE in solid tumors exists and ongoing major prospective clinical trials will soon clarify the role of RE in the management of metastatic colorectal liver metastases. PMID:24982766

2014-01-01

89

Radioembolization of hepatic tumors.  

PubMed

Unresectable primary and metastatic liver tumors are a leading cause of cancer mortality and morbidity. This remains a challenging and key task for every oncologist despite significant advances that have been made with selective targeted systemic agents and in technology advances with radiotherapy delivery. Radioembolization (RE) is a technique of permanently implanting microspheres containing Yttrium-90 ((90)Y), a beta-emitting isotope with a treatment range of 2 mm, into hepatic tumors. This form of brachytherapy utilizes the unique dual vascular anatomy of the liver to preferentially deliver radioactive particles via the hepatic artery to tumor, sparing normal liver parenchyma. The main treatment inclusion criteria are patients with solid tumors, compensated liver functions, life expectancy of at least three months, and ECOG performance status 0-2. Benefit of RE has been proven in patients that have low-to-moderate extrahepatic disease burden, prior liver radiotherapy, heavy prior chemotherapy and biologic agent exposure, and history of hepatic surgery or ablation. Most of the clinical evidence is reported in metastatic colorectal, and neuroendocrine tumors (NET), and primary hepatocellular cancer. A growing body of data supports the use of RE in hepatic metastatic breast cancer, intrahepatic cholangiocarinoma, and many other metastatic tumor types. Side effects are typically mild constitutional and GI issues limited to the first 7-14 days post treatment, with only 6% grade 3 toxicity reported in large series. Potentially serious or fatal radiation induced liver disease is extremely rare, reported in only 1% or fewer in major series of both metastatic and primary tumors treated with RE. Currently, high priority prospective clinical trials are testing RE combined with chemotherapy in first line therapy for colorectal hepatic metastases, and combined with sorafenib for hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Fortunately, this beneficial and now widely available therapy is being increasingly incorporated into the standard therapy algorithms of multidisciplinary GI cancer teams worldwide. This form of radiotherapy differs significantly from daily external beam radiotherapy in many ways, particularly in dose rate, dosimetric coverage and duration of radiation delivery, side effects, and patient selection factors. A wealth of experience using RE in solid tumors exists and ongoing major prospective clinical trials will soon clarify the role of RE in the management of metastatic colorectal liver metastases. PMID:24982766

Kennedy, Andrew

2014-06-01

90

Malignant Proliferating Trichilemmal Tumor  

PubMed Central

Proliferating trichilemmal tumor (PTT) is a benign tumor originating from the outer root sheath of a hair follicle. Malignant transformation in case of PTT is very rare and unusual finding. It is usually confused with squamous cell carcinoma both sharing many common features. So the identification of malignant PTT is very essential. Only 39 well-documented cases of malignant proliferating trichilemmal cyst have been published to date in the English language literature. We hereby present a case of a 75-year-old female patient with a rapidly growing swelling on the scalp. PMID:22470211

Goyal, Snigdha; Jain, Bhawna Bhutoria; Jana, Sritanu; Bhattacharya, Subodh K

2012-01-01

91

Primary chest wall tumors.  

PubMed

The differential diagnosis of chest wall tumors is diverse, including both benign and malignant lesions (primary and malignant), local extension of adjacent disease, and local manifestations of infectious and inflammatory processes. Primary chest wall tumors are best classified by their primary component: soft tissue or bone. Work-up consists of a thorough history, physical examination and imaging to best assess location, size, composition, association with surrounding structures, and evidence of any soft tissue component. Biopsies are often required, especially for soft tissue masses. Treatment depends on histological subtype and location, but may include chemotherapy and radiotherapy in addition to surgical resection. PMID:20974433

Smith, Shona E; Keshavjee, Shaf

2010-11-01

92

Adenocarcinoid tumor of appendix presenting as unilateral Krukenberg tumor.  

PubMed

We report a case of adenocarcinoid tumor of the appendix that presented initially as a unilateral Krukenberg tumor (a signet ring cell mucinous adenocarcinoma with prominent cellular stroma). The primary tumor in the appendix was discovered 10 months later at the time of a "second look" laparotomy. The ovarian metastasis showed both goblet cell elements and tubular formations with numerous argyrophilic cells, indicating that both components of these tumors may metastasize, a finding at variance with the conclusions of some authors who suggest that only the mucinous component may metastasize. Theories of histogenesis of these tumors are discussed, and 12 previously reported cases presenting as Krukenberg tumors (all bilateral) are reviewed. Because the primary tumor in the appendix may be small and easily missed, appendectomy is recommended in all patients with Krukenberg tumors when another primary site cannot be identified at the time of surgery. PMID:2826924

Miller, R T; Sarikaya, H; Jenison, E L

1988-01-01

93

Tumor Treated by Endoscopy  

PubMed Central

Background This study was conducted to examine the clinical usefulness and efficacy of endoscopic curettage on benign bone tumor. Methods Thirty-two patients (20 men and 12 women) with benign bone tumor were included in the study. The patients were aged between five and 76 years; the mean follow-up period was 27.05 months (range, 9.6 to 39.9 months). The primary sites include simple bone cyst (9 cases), fibrous dysplasia (6 cases), enchondroma (5 cases), non-ossifying fibroma (4 cases), bone infarct (3 cases), aneurysmal bone cyst (1 case), chondroblastoma (1 case), osteoblastoma (1 case), intraosseous lipoma (1 case), and Brodie abscess (1 case). A plain radiography was performed to assess the radiological recovery. Radiological outcomes, including local recurrence and bone union, were evaluated as excellent, good, poor, and recurred. Results In our series, there were 27 cases (84.4%) of good or better outcomes, six cases (18.8%) of complications (4 local recurrence, 1 wound infection, and 1 pathologic fracture). Conclusions Our results showed that endoscopic curettage and bone graft had a lower rate of recurrence and a higher cure rate in cases of benign bone tumor. It can, therefore, be concluded that endoscopic curettage and bone graft might be good treatment modalities for benign bone tumors. PMID:24605192

Choi, Young; Kwak, Jae Man; Chung, So Hak; Jung, Gu Hee

2014-01-01

94

Tumor-induced osteomalacia  

PubMed Central

Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare and fascinating paraneoplastic syndrome in which patients present with bone pain, fractures, and muscle weakness. The cause is high blood levels of the recently identified phosphate and vitamin D-regulating hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). In TIO, FGF23 is secreted by mesenchymal tumors that are usually benign, but are typically very small and difficult to locate. FGF23 acts primarily at the renal tubule and impairs phosphate reabsorption and 1?-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, leading to hypophosphatemia and low levels of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D. A step-wise approach utilizing functional imaging (F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and octreotide scintigraphy) followed by anatomical imaging (computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging), and, if needed, selective venous sampling with measurement of FGF23 is usually successful in locating the tumors. For tumors that cannot be located, medical treatment with phosphate supplements and active vitamin D (calcitriol or alphacalcidiol) is usually successful; however, the medical regimen can be cumbersome and associated with complications. This review summarizes the current understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease and provides guidance in evaluating and treating these patients. Novel imaging modalities and medical treatments, which hold promise for the future, are also reviewed. PMID:21490240

Chong, William H; Molinolo, Alfredo A; Chen, Clara C; Collins, Michael T

2012-01-01

95

Primary chest wall tumors.  

PubMed

A retrospective study of 53 primary chest wall tumors, 26 benign and 27 malignant, was carried out to review their clinical radiological and pathological features. Forty-nine of the 53 lesions presented in the ribs and the remaining 4, in the sternum. The overall 5-year survival for patients with primary malignant neoplasms of the chest wall was 33.3%, and the 10-year survival was 18.5%. All of the deaths were disease related. All of the patients with benign tumors were treated by excision without recurrence or death. Distinction between benign and malignant chest wall tumors was not possible using radiographic criteria unless cortical destruction and involvement of soft tissues were visualized. On the basis of our analysis, we believe that all tumors of the chest wall should be considered malignant until proven otherwise and that wide excision should be carried out. This is necessary not only to obtain an adequate diagnosis but also to provide the best chance for cure in both benign and malignant lesions. PMID:3966836

Sabanathan, S; Salama, F D; Morgan, W E; Harvey, J A

1985-01-01

96

Management of orbital tumors.  

PubMed

Orbital tumors are uncommon. In children, both malignant and benign causes of orbital proptosis necessitate urgent assessment; in many cases, emergent intervention is necessary to avoid blindness. In adults, proptosis is most commonly associated with thyroid orbitopathy. Orbital tumors in adults rarely are characterized by the explosive growth and damage that can occur with childhood lesions. In both age-groups, the evolution of better scanning modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging with fat saturation and gadolinium enhancement, has improved diagnostic accuracy, especially in patients with loss of vision. In more than 95% of cases, noninvasive techniques yield a correct diagnosis. In patients who require nonsurgical intervention, especially if the diagnosis is uncertain, fine-needle aspiration biopsy has an accuracy that exceeds 95%. Combined-modality therapy has improved the control of and decreased the morbidity associated with several orbital tumors. Surgical advances, such as the ancillary use of the CO2 laser, have enhanced the management of some orbital tumors. PMID:8231272

Char, D H

1993-11-01

97

Brain and Spinal Tumors  

MedlinePLUS

... be used to diagnose or monitor a particular disorder) of CNS tumors. Other researchers are testing different drugs and molecules to see if they can modulate the normal activity of the blood-brain barrier and better target ... Headache: Hope Through Research Information ...

98

Tumor lysis syndrome.  

PubMed

Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) refers to the constellation of deranged metabolic state, characterized by hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, hyperuricemia, hypocalcemia, and/or azotemia, secondary to rapid breakdown of tumor cells. It is a life threatening emergency that typically follows administration of chemotherapy or may be spontaneous. Malignancies which have a large tumor burden, rapid turnover, as well as speedy breakdown following chemotherapy are susceptible. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkins lymphoma (particularly Burkitt's lymphoma) are typically predisposed. TLS is best managed by early anticipation and preventive measures than the complicated task of treating an established TLS. Vigorous intravenous hydration is the cornerstone of prevention as well as treatment. Rasburicase has revolutionized the management. It is available in India for past 1 1/2 y, although the cost is a limiting factor. Children with acute leukemia in developing countries may reach health facility late, with severe anemia and hyperleukocytosis. Exchange transfusion may have to be restored to in such patients to simultaneously correct anemia and hyperleukocytosis and enable safe administration of fluids. Dialysis may be required when the metabolic 'trash' overwhelms the renal excretion, resulting in renal failure. Chemotherapeutic drugs are often administered in a phased manner in susceptible patients, in an attempt to prevent precipitous lysis of tumor cells. Presentation and management of TLS in relevance to the pediatric emergency room is outlined. PMID:22752730

Rajendran, Aruna; Bansal, Deepak; Marwaha, R K; Singhi, Sunit C

2013-01-01

99

Preoperative tumor embolization.  

PubMed

In this article, the authors review general principles and technical details of preoperative embolization of various hypervascular head, neck, and spinal tumors encountered in contemporary neuroendovascular practice. Indications, treatment goals, techniques, outcomes, and complications are discussed, and illustrative case examples are presented. PMID:24994094

Ashour, Ramsey; Aziz-Sultan, Ali

2014-07-01

100

Tumor Blood Vessel Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

``Normalization'' of tumor blood vessels has shown promise to improve the efficacy of chemotherapeutics. In theory, anti-angiogenic drugs targeting endothelial VEGF signaling can improve vessel network structure and function, enhancing the transport of subsequent cytotoxic drugs to cancer cells. In practice, the effects are unpredictable, with varying levels of success. The predominant effects of anti-VEGF therapies are decreased vessel leakiness (hydraulic conductivity), decreased vessel diameters and pruning of the immature vessel network. It is thought that each of these can influence perfusion of the vessel network, inducing flow in regions that were previously sluggish or stagnant. Unfortunately, when anti-VEGF therapies affect vessel structure and function, the changes are dynamic and overlapping in time, and it has been difficult to identify a consistent and predictable normalization ``window'' during which perfusion and subsequent drug delivery is optimal. This is largely due to the non-linearity in the system, and the inability to distinguish the effects of decreased vessel leakiness from those due to network structural changes in clinical trials or animal studies. We have developed a mathematical model to calculate blood flow in complex tumor networks imaged by two-photon microscopy. The model incorporates the necessary and sufficient components for addressing the problem of normalization of tumor vasculature: i) lattice-Boltzmann calculations of the full flow field within the vasculature and within the tissue, ii) diffusion and convection of soluble species such as oxygen or drugs within vessels and the tissue domain, iii) distinct and spatially-resolved vessel hydraulic conductivities and permeabilities for each species, iv) erythrocyte particles advecting in the flow and delivering oxygen with real oxygen release kinetics, v) shear stress-mediated vascular remodeling. This model, guided by multi-parameter intravital imaging of tumor vessel structure and function, provides a tool for identifying the structural and functional determinants of tumor vessel normalization.

Munn, Lance

2009-11-01

101

Tumor heterogeneity: causes and consequences  

PubMed Central

With rare exceptions, spontaneous tumors originate from a single cell. Yet, at the time of clinical diagnosis, the majority of human tumors display startling heterogeneity in many morphological and physiological features, such as expression of cell surface receptors, proliferative and angiogenic potential. To a substantial extent, this heterogeneity might be attributed to morphological and epigenetic plasticity, but there is also strong evidence for the co-existence of genetically divergent tumor cell clones within tumors. In this perspective, we summarize the sources of intra-tumor phenotypic heterogeneity with emphasis on genetic heterogeneity. We review experimental evidence for the existence of both intra-tumor clonal heterogeneity as well as frequent evolutionary divergence between primary tumors and metastatic outgrowths. Furthermore, we discuss potential biological and clinical implications of intra-tumor clonal heterogeneity. PMID:19931353

Marusyk, Andriy; Polyak, Kornelia

2009-01-01

102

Atypical teratoid\\/rhabdoid tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Case reports. We describe three cases of atypical ATRT that were identified at the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario. Discussion. Over the past decade, atypical teratoid\\/rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs) of the central nervous system have emerged as a distinct entity. This tumor is typically misdiagnosed as a primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET)\\/medulloblastoma. The unique immunohistochemistry profile of an ATRT helps distinguish it

Tommy Dang; Michael Vassilyadi; Jean Michaud; Carmencita Jimenez; Enrique C. G. Ventureyra

2003-01-01

103

Tumor uptake of radioruthenium compounds  

SciTech Connect

The use of ruthenium-97 as a scintigraphic agent, particularly for tumor localization, is investigated. The tumor uptake of ruthenium chloride and ruthenium-labelled transferrin is evaluated and their application as tumor-imagine agents is compared to gallium-67 citrate. (ACR)

Srivastava, S C; Richards, P; Meinken, G E; Larson, S M; Grunbaum, Z

1980-01-01

104

Tumor Microenvironment in the Brain  

PubMed Central

In addition to malignant cancer cells, tumors contain a variety of different stromal cells that constitute the tumor microenvironment. Some of these cell types provide crucial support for tumor growth, while others have been suggested to actually inhibit tumor progression. The composition of tumor microenvironment varies depending on the tumor site. The brain in particular consists of numerous specialized cell types such as microglia, astrocytes, and brain endothelial cells. In addition to these brain-resident cells, primary and metastatic brain tumors have also been shown to be infiltrated by different populations of bone marrow-derived cells. The role of different cell types that constitute tumor microenvironment in the progression of brain malignancies is only poorly understood. Tumor microenvironment has been shown to be a promising therapeutic target and diagnostic marker in extracranial malignancies. A better understanding of tumor microenvironment in the brain would therefore be expected to contribute to the development of improved therapies for brain tumors that are urgently required due to a poor availability of treatments for these malignancies. This review summarizes some of the known interactions between brain tumors and different stromal cells, and also discusses potential therapeutic approaches within this context. PMID:24213237

Lorger, Mihaela

2012-01-01

105

Tumor endothelial marker 1–specific DNA vaccination targets tumor vasculature  

PubMed Central

Tumor endothelial marker 1 (TEM1; also known as endosialin or CD248) is a protein found on tumor vasculature and in tumor stroma. Here, we tested whether TEM1 has potential as a therapeutic target for cancer immunotherapy by immunizing immunocompetent mice with Tem1 cDNA fused to the minimal domain of the C fragment of tetanus toxoid (referred to herein as Tem1-TT vaccine). Tem1-TT vaccination elicited CD8+ and/or CD4+ T cell responses against immunodominant TEM1 protein sequences. Prophylactic immunization of animals with Tem1-TT prevented or delayed tumor formation in several murine tumor models. Therapeutic vaccination of tumor-bearing mice reduced tumor vascularity, increased infiltration of CD3+ T cells into the tumor, and controlled progression of established tumors. Tem1-TT vaccination also elicited CD8+ cytotoxic T cell responses against murine tumor-specific antigens. Effective Tem1-TT vaccination did not affect angiogenesis-dependent physiological processes, including wound healing and reproduction. Based on these data and the widespread expression of TEM1 on the vasculature of different tumor types, we conclude that targeting TEM1 has therapeutic potential in cancer immunotherapy. PMID:24642465

Facciponte, John G.; Ugel, Stefano; De Sanctis, Francesco; Li, Chunsheng; Wang, Liping; Nair, Gautham; Sehgal, Sandy; Raj, Arjun; Matthaiou, Efthymia; Coukos, George; Facciabene, Andrea

2014-01-01

106

Teratoid wilms' tumor exhibiting extensive squamous differentiation.  

PubMed

Teratoid Wilms' tumor is a rare renal tumor. Herein, we report an unusual variant of such tumor which simulated renal teratoma because of abundant keratinized squamous epithelium within the tumor. PMID:24946081

Karaku?, Esra; Senayli, Atilla; Özcan, Fatma; Demir, Ahmet Haci; Tiryaki, Tugrul; Özyörük, Derya; Emir, Suna

2015-02-01

107

Tumors of the thymus.  

PubMed

Thymic neoplasms are a common cause of an anterior mediastinal mass and may be benign or malignant. Thymic cysts are congenital or acquired and may be associated with a thymic malignancy. True thymic hyperplasia and thymic lymphoid hyperplasia may enlarge the thymus and simulate a neoplasm. Thymoma and thymic carcinoma are epithelial malignancies with distinct clinicopathologic features. Thymic carcinoid is a rare aggressive neuroendocrine malignancy associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia 1. Thymolipoma is a benign neoplasm. Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma may primarily or secondarily involve the thymus. Primary mediastinal germ cell tumors may arise primarily within the thymus and include mature teratoma, seminoma, and non-seminomatous malignant germ cell tumors. PMID:10404501

Strollo, D C; Rosado-de-Christenson, M L

1999-07-01

108

Testis tumor associated to microlithiasis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To discuss the relationship between testicular microlithiasis and testis tumors in children and to consider the chances of testis preserving surgery in specific cases. CASE DESCRIPTION: Pre-adolescent presenting testicular microlithiasis and a larger left testis, corresponding to a cystic testicular tumor. The tumor was excised, with ipsilateral testis preservation. Histology diagnosed a testis dermoid tumor. COMMENTS: The relationship between testis tumors and testicular microlithiasis is ill defined in children. Pediatric urologists need to develop specific follow-up protocols for pre-pubertal children. PMID:24473964

de Jesus, Lisieux Eyer; Maciel, Felipe; Monnerat, Andrea Lima C.; Fernandes, Marcia Antunes; Dekermache, Samuel

2013-01-01

109

Spinal cord tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Spinal cord tumors are rare; however, every radiologist should be able to recognize and readily identify those lesions often\\u000a found in younger patients or children [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9]. Early diagnosis plays an important role in the management\\u000a of the lesions and interferes with the prognosis and final outcome of the patient [10]. Plain X-ray

D. L. F. Balériaux; Service de Radiologie

1999-01-01

110

Treatment of Bone Tumors  

PubMed Central

Synopsis In this article, the authors summarize the state of the art and future potential in the management of Osteosarcoma, Ewing’s sarcoma, and Chondrosarcoma. They cover systemic therapy, surgical therapy, and radiotherapy, along with targeted therapies to inhibit signal transduction pathways. They discuss staging and the role of imaging evaluation to provide an overview of bone tumor treatment. Images presenting pathologic-radiologic correlations are included. PMID:22328909

Rajani, Rajiv; Gibbs, C. Parker

2012-01-01

111

Malignant epithelial odontogenic tumors.  

PubMed

Malignant epithelial odontogenic tumors are very rare. They may arise from the epithelial components of the odontogenic apparatus. The rests of Malassez, the reduced enamel epithelium surrounding the crown of an impacted tooth, the rests of Serres in the gingiva, and the linings of odontogenic cysts represent the precursor cells for malignant transformation. Because metastatic carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the jaws, the diagnosis of a primary intraosseous carcinoma must always be made to the exclusion of metastatic disease. Odontogenic carcinomas include malignant (metastasizing) ameloblastoma, ameloblastic carcinoma, primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma, clear cell odontogenic carcinoma, and malignant epithelial ghost cell tumor. There are specific histopathologic features that support the diagnosis of a primary carcinoma of odontogenic epithelium which are presented in this article. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining is important for distinguishing clear cell odontogenic carcinoma from metastatic renal cell tumors, yet IHC stains are not particularly helpful for other lesions in this group-all of which exhibit low molecular weight cytokeratin positivity. Aggressive growth and nodal and distant metastases occur with all of these entities. PMID:10587275

Eversole, L R

1999-11-01

112

Modeling tumor evolutionary dynamics  

PubMed Central

Tumorigenesis can be seen as an evolutionary process, in which the transformation of a normal cell into a tumor cell involves a number of limiting genetic and epigenetic events, occurring in a series of discrete stages. However, not all mutations in a cell are directly involved in cancer development and it is likely that most of them (passenger mutations) do not contribute in any way to tumorigenesis. Moreover, the process of tumor evolution is punctuated by selection of advantageous (driver) mutations and clonal expansions. Regarding these driver mutations, it is uncertain how many limiting events are required and/or sufficient to promote a tumorigenic process or what are the values associated with the adaptive advantage of different driver mutations. In spite of the availability of high-quality cancer data, several assumptions about the mechanistic process of cancer initiation and development remain largely untested, both mathematically and statistically. Here we review the development of recent mathematical/computational models and discuss their impact in the field of tumor biology. PMID:23420281

Stransky, Beatriz; de Souza, Sandro J.

2013-01-01

113

Papillary glioneuronal tumor.  

PubMed

The descriptive term papillary glioneuronal tumor (PGNT) has been repeatedly applied to a morphologic subset of low-grade mixed glial-neuronal neoplasia of juvenile and young adult patients. We report on a 13-year-old boy with PGNT of the left temporal lobe, who presented with headaches and a single generalized seizure. On magnetic resonance imaging, tumor was seen as a large, moderately enhancing paraventricular mass with cyst-mural nodule configuration and slight midline shift. Perifocal edema was virtually absent. Gross total resection could be performed, followed by an uneventful recovery. Histologically, the tumor exhibited similar, if not identical, features as reported previously. These comprised a patterned biphasic mixture of sheets of synaptophysin-expressing small round cells and pseudorosettes of GFAP-positive rudimentary astrocytes along vascular cores. Focally, the latter imprinted a pseudopapillary aspect on this otherwise solid lesion. Both cellular components expressed non-polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)-L species, and several overlapping areas of synaptophysin and GFAP immunoreactivity were present. The mean MIB-1 labeling index remained below 1%. Signs of anaplasia, in particular mitotic figures, endothelial proliferation, or necrosis were consistently lacking. We perceive PGNT as a clinically and morphologically well-delineated subgroup of extraventricular neurocytic neoplasia, whose paradigmatic presentation may allow for consideration as an entity. PMID:16413693

Vajtai, Istvan; Kappeler, Andreas; Lukes, Anton; Arnold, Marlene; Lüthy, Annette Ridolfi; Leibundgut, Kurt

2006-01-01

114

Connective tissue tumors.  

PubMed

Connective tissue consists of collagen, elastic fibers and ground substances produced by fibrocytes. These cells are usually spindle-shaped with slender nuclei and bipolar cytoplasmic extensions. Apart from labeling for vimentin and variable reactivity for factor XIIIa and CD34, fibrocytes are immunonegative. Electron microscopy reveals prominent endoplasmic reticulum, but is otherwise indistinct. Lesions with fibrocytic differentiation can be divided into five categories: scars, keloids, dermatofibromas, nodular fasciitis, and superficial fibromatoses are inflammatory lesions. Thereby, dermatofibromas and their subcutaneous/deep soft tissue counterpart nodular fasciitis can present with a wide variety of clinicopathologic variants which may be misinterpreted as malignancies. Prurigo nodularis, chondrodermatitis nodularis helicis, acanthoma fissuratum, and knuckle pads are hyperplasias; fibroma molle, fibrous papules, connective tissue nevi, and elastofibroma are hamartomas; and fibroma of tendon sheath, pleomorphic fibroma, and giant cell tumor of tendon sheath are benign neoplasms. Deep fibromatoses, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, giant cell fibroblastoma, giant cell angiofibroma, hyalinizing spindle cell tumor with giant rosettes, solitary fibrous tumor, myxofibrosarcoma, low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma, acral myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma, and classical fibrosarcoma, are malignant neoplasms, that is fibrosarcomas of variable malignant potential. Lesions dominated by myocytes/ myofibroblasts, e.g. cutaneous myofibroma/infantile myofibromatosis, or by macrophages, e.g. xanthogranulomas, are not part of this chapter. PMID:12079232

Zelger, Bernhard

2002-01-01

115

Tumors and the danger model.  

PubMed

This article reviews the evidence for the danger model in the context of immune response to tumors and the insufficiency of the immune system to eliminate tumor growth. Despite their potential immunogenicity tumors do not induce significant immune responses which could destroy malignant cells. According to the danger model, the immune surveillance system fails to detect tumor antigens because transformed cells do not send any danger signals which could activate dendritic cells and initiate an immune response. Instead, tumor cells or antigen presenting cells turn off the responding T cells and induce tolerance. The studies reviewed herein based on model tumor antigens, recombinant viral vectors and detection of tumor specific T cells by MHC/peptide tetramers underscore the critical role of tumor antigen presentation and the context in which it occurs. They indicate that antigen presentation only by activated but not by cancer or resting dendritic cells is necessary for the induction of immune responses to tumor antigens. It becomes apparent that the inability of dendritic cells to become activated provides a biological niche for tumor escape from immune destruction and seems to be a principal mechanism for the failure of tumor immune surveillance. PMID:12362970

Kowalczyk, Dariusz W

2002-01-01

116

Study of Kidney Tumors in Young Patients  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Clear Cell Sarcoma of the Kidney; Congenital Mesoblastic Nephroma; Diffuse Hyperplastic Perilobar Nephroblastomatosis; Rhabdoid Tumor of the Kidney; Stage I Renal Cell Cancer; Stage I Wilms Tumor; Stage II Renal Cell Cancer; Stage II Wilms Tumor; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage III Wilms Tumor; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IV Wilms Tumor; Stage V Wilms Tumor

2014-08-05

117

Laser therapy in intraocular tumors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intraocular tumors present special problems of diagnosis and treatment. Diagnostic methods include, in addition to systemic and ophthalmological examinations, ancillary examinations such as transillumination, fluorescein angiography, ultrasonography, radioactive phosphorus uptake test, radiology, computerized tomography, and fine-needle aspiration biopsy with cytological analyses. Previously, enucleation of the involved eye was generally accepted as management of malignant tumors. Improved therapeutic methods such as photocoagulation and better surgical techniques now provide a variety of therapeutical alternatives. This study consists of 21 cases of intraocular tumors that were managed by Argon laser photocoagulation. Four cases were intraocular metastasis and 17 cases were primitive intraocular tumors. Argon laser therapy proved to be totally ineffective for the intraocular metastasis and a very adequate therapy for the primitive tumors. Tumor extirpations (choroidal, cillary body, or iris tumors) using laser lancet proved to be more suitable than classic surgery.

Carstocea, Benone D.; Gafencu, Otilia L.; Apostol, Silvia

1995-01-01

118

Tumor-colonizing bacteria: a potential tumor targeting therapy.  

PubMed

In 1813, Vautier published his observation of tumor regression in patients who had suffered from gas gangrene. Since then, many publications have described the use of bacteria as antitumor therapy. For example, Bifidobacterium and Clostridium have been shown to selectively colonize tumors and to reduce tumor size. In addition, recent studies have focused on the use of genetic engineering to induce the expression of pro-drug converting enzymes, cytokines, specific antibodies, or suicide genes in tumor-colonizing bacteria. Moreover, some animal experiments have reported the treatment of tumors with engineered bacteria, and few side effects were observed. Therefore, based on these advances in tumor targeting therapy, bacteria may represent the next generation of cancer therapy. PMID:23964706

Zu, Chao; Wang, Jiansheng

2014-08-01

119

Growing tumors induce hypersensitivity to endotoxin and tumor necrosis factor.  

PubMed Central

Lewis lung carcinoma and EMT6 sarcoma growing as solid tumors in mice caused a gradual increase in the susceptibility of the animals to lethal toxicity of endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides [LPS]). By day 15 following inoculation of the tumors, the 50% lethal dose of LPS, which in normal mice was approximately 400 micrograms, decreased to 2 micrograms for the sarcoma-bearing mice and 0.1 microgram for the carcinoma-bearing mice. This sensitization to endotoxin was paralleled by a high sensitization to tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Human recombinant TNF given to normal mice was lethal at about 500 micrograms. It was lethal for 50% of the animals bearing EMT6 or Lewis lung carcinoma tumors in amounts of 4 and 0.01 micrograms, respectively, on day 15 following tumor inoculation. The sensitization of tumor-bearing animals to LPS and TNF was paralleled by marked granulocytosis. PMID:3623699

Bartholeyns, J; Freudenberg, M; Galanos, C

1987-01-01

120

Ewing sarcoma/peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor and related tumors.  

PubMed

Ewing sarcoma/peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (EWS/pPNET) and other tumors with EWS gene rearrangements encompass a malignant and intermediate neoplasm with a broad anatomic distribution and a wide age range but a predilection for soft tissue in children, adolescents, and young adults. The overlapping histologic, immunohistochemical and cytogenetic and molecular genetic features create diagnostic challenges despite significant clinical and prognostic differences. Ewing sarcoma is the 3rd most common sarcoma in children and adolescents, and desmoplastic small round cell tumor is a rare neoplasm that occurs more often in older children, adolescents, and young adults. Pathologic examination is complemented by immunohistochemistry, cytogenetics, and molecular genetics. This article reviews the clinicopathologic features of EWS/pPNET and desmoplastic small round cell tumor in the spectrum of tumors with EWS gene rearrangements. Other tumors with different histopathologic features and an EWS gene rearrangement are discussed elsewhere in this volume. PMID:22420726

Tsokos, Maria; Alaggio, Rita D; Dehner, Louis P; Dickman, Paul S

2012-01-01

121

Occlusive arteriopathy and brain tumor.  

PubMed

Four cases with the association of occlusive arteriopathy and brain tumor are presented. A clinical analysis of these cases and cases reported in the literature revealed that occlusive arteriopathy at the base of the brain was often associated with a slowly growing basal tumor in children. Possible causes of occlusive arteriopathy in these cases were compression of the circle of Willis by a slowly growing basal tumor, secondary artial occlusive changes by radiation therapy for a basal tumor, or vasculopathy associated with neurocutaneous syndrome. Symptoms of sudden onset or episodic nature suggest the presence of occlusive arteriopathy rather than the mass effect of a tumor. Cerebral angiography is mandatory whenever computerized tomography (CT), performed to rule out recurrence of a basal tumor, shows an ischemic lesion with low-density areas without any evidence of mass effect of the tumor. Cerebral angiography is also necessary when a basal tumor is suspected in children, particularly in cases associated with neurocutaneous syndrome and a basal tumor. Care should be taken not to scarify the abnormal vascular network at the base of the brain at the time of operation, because it is considered to be functioning as collateral circulation. The potential hazards of radiotherapy to radiation-induced occlusive changes of the circle of Willis must be considered in treating a benign basal brain tumor in children. Even in adults, repeated large doses of irradiation could cause occlusive arteriopathy. PMID:660265

Mori, K; Takeuchi, J; Ishikawa, M; Handa, H; Toyama, M; Yamaki, T

1978-07-01

122

Precision radiotherapy for brain tumors  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Precision radiotherapy plays an important role in the management of brain tumors. This study aimed to identify global research trends in precision radiotherapy for brain tumors using a bibliometric analysis of the Web of Science. DATA RETRIEVAL: We performed a bibliometric analysis of data retrievals for precision radiotherapy for brain tumors containing the key words cerebral tumor, brain tumor, intensity-modulated radiotherapy, stereotactic body radiation therapy, stereotactic ablative radiotherapy, imaging-guided radiotherapy, dose-guided radiotherapy, stereotactic brachytherapy, and stereotactic radiotherapy using the Web of Science. SELECTION CRITERIA: Inclusion criteria: (a) peer-reviewed articles on precision radiotherapy for brain tumors which were published and indexed in the Web of Science; (b) type of articles: original research articles and reviews; (c) year of publication: 2002-2011. Exclusion criteria: (a) articles that required manual searching or telephone access; (b) Corrected papers or book chapters. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: (1) Annual publication output; (2) distribution according to country; (3) distribution according to institution; (4) top cited publications; (5) distribution according to journals; and (6) comparison of study results on precision radiotherapy for brain tumors. RESULTS: The stereotactic radiotherapy, intensity-modulated radiotherapy, and imaging-guided radiotherapy are three major methods of precision radiotherapy for brain tumors. There were 260 research articles addressing precision radiotherapy for brain tumors found within the Web of Science. The USA published the most papers on precision radiotherapy for brain tumors, followed by Germany and France. European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, German Cancer Research Center and Heidelberg University were the most prolific research institutes for publications on precision radiotherapy for brain tumors. Among the top 13 research institutes publishing in this field, seven are in the USA, three are in Germany, two are in France, and there is one institute in India. Research interests including urology and nephrology, clinical neurology, as well as rehabilitation are involved in precision radiotherapy for brain tumors studies. CONCLUSION: Precision radiotherapy for brain tumors remains a highly active area of research and development.

Yan, Ying; Guo, Zhanwen; Zhang, Haibo; Wang, Ning; Xu, Ying

2012-01-01

123

Role of tumor associated macrophages in tumor angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Tumor angiogenesis is an essential process for supplying rapidly growing malignant tissues with essential nutrients and oxygen. An angiogenic switch allows tumor cells to survive and grow, and provides them access to vasculature resulting in metastatic disease. Monocyte-derived macrophages recruited and reprogrammed by tumor cells serve as a major source of angiogenic factors boosting the angiogenic switch. Tumor endothelium releases angiopoietin-2 and further facilitates recruitment of TIE2 receptor expressing monocytes (TEM) into tumor sites. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) sense hypoxia in avascular areas of tumors, and react by production of angiogenic factors such as VEGFA. VEGFA stimulates chemotaxis of endothelial cells (EC) and macrophages. In some tumors, TAM appeared to be a major source of MMP9. Elevated expression of MMP9 by TAM mediates extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and the release of bioactive VEGFA. Other angiogenic factors released by TAM include basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), thymidine phosphorylase (TP), urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), and adrenomedullin (ADM). The same factors used by macrophages for the induction of angiogenesis [like vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and MMP9] support lymphangiogenesis. TAM can express LYVE-1, one of the established markers of lymphatic endothelium. TAM support tumor lymphangiogenesis not only by secretion of pro-lymphangiogenic factors but also by trans-differentiation into lymphatic EC. New pro-angiogenic factor YKL-40 belongs to a family of mammalian chitinase-like proteins (CLP) that act as cytokines or growth factors. Human CLP family comprises YKL-40, YKL-39, and SI-CLP. Production of all three CLP in macrophages is antagonistically regulated by cytokines. It was recently established that YKL-40 induces angiogenesis in vitro and in animal tumor models. YKL-40-neutralizing monoclonal antibody blocks tumor angiogenesis and progression. The role of YKL-39 and SI-CLP in tumor angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis remains to be investigated. PMID:24634660

Riabov, Vladimir; Gudima, Alexandru; Wang, Nan; Mickley, Amanda; Orekhov, Alexander; Kzhyshkowska, Julia

2014-01-01

124

Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor: A Rare Tumor in the Tongue  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is composed of myofibroblast and inflammatory cell infiltration of the tissue. Malign transformation and recurrence rate of this tumor is rare and accepted as benign fibroinflammatory disease. The main etiology is unclear, but infection, trauma, and immunologic event are accused. In this study, we presented a 75-year-old man with a mass on his tongue, which was diagnosed as “inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor.” This type of tumor is rarely seen in the tongue and might be difficult to diagnose. Complete mass excision was provided for an adaquete treatment. PMID:23607022

Yucel Ekici, Nur; Bayindir, Tuba; Kizilay, Ahmet; Aydin, Nasuhi Engin

2013-01-01

125

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor: a rare tumor in the tongue.  

PubMed

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is composed of myofibroblast and inflammatory cell infiltration of the tissue. Malign transformation and recurrence rate of this tumor is rare and accepted as benign fibroinflammatory disease. The main etiology is unclear, but infection, trauma, and immunologic event are accused. In this study, we presented a 75-year-old man with a mass on his tongue, which was diagnosed as "inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor." This type of tumor is rarely seen in the tongue and might be difficult to diagnose. Complete mass excision was provided for an adaquete treatment. PMID:23607022

Yucel Ekici, Nur; Bayindir, Tuba; Kizilay, Ahmet; Aydin, Nasuhi Engin

2013-01-01

126

Multiparametric classification links tumor microenvironments with tumor cell phenotype.  

PubMed

While it has been established that a number of microenvironment components can affect the likelihood of metastasis, the link between microenvironment and tumor cell phenotypes is poorly understood. Here we have examined microenvironment control over two different tumor cell motility phenotypes required for metastasis. By high-resolution multiphoton microscopy of mammary carcinoma in mice, we detected two phenotypes of motile tumor cells, different in locomotion speed. Only slower tumor cells exhibited protrusions with molecular, morphological, and functional characteristics associated with invadopodia. Each region in the primary tumor exhibited either fast- or slow-locomotion. To understand how the tumor microenvironment controls invadopodium formation and tumor cell locomotion, we systematically analyzed components of the microenvironment previously associated with cell invasion and migration. No single microenvironmental property was able to predict the locations of tumor cell phenotypes in the tumor if used in isolation or combined linearly. To solve this, we utilized the support vector machine (SVM) algorithm to classify phenotypes in a nonlinear fashion. This approach identified conditions that promoted either motility phenotype. We then demonstrated that varying one of the conditions may change tumor cell behavior only in a context-dependent manner. In addition, to establish the link between phenotypes and cell fates, we photoconverted and monitored the fate of tumor cells in different microenvironments, finding that only tumor cells in the invadopodium-rich microenvironments degraded extracellular matrix (ECM) and disseminated. The number of invadopodia positively correlated with degradation, while the inhibiting metalloproteases eliminated degradation and lung metastasis, consistent with a direct link among invadopodia, ECM degradation, and metastasis. We have detected and characterized two phenotypes of motile tumor cells in vivo, which occurred in spatially distinct microenvironments of primary tumors. We show how machine-learning analysis can classify heterogeneous microenvironments in vivo to enable prediction of motility phenotypes and tumor cell fate. The ability to predict the locations of tumor cell behavior leading to metastasis in breast cancer models may lead towards understanding the heterogeneity of response to treatment. PMID:25386698

Gligorijevic, Bojana; Bergman, Aviv; Condeelis, John

2014-11-01

127

Multiparametric Classification Links Tumor Microenvironments with Tumor Cell Phenotype  

PubMed Central

While it has been established that a number of microenvironment components can affect the likelihood of metastasis, the link between microenvironment and tumor cell phenotypes is poorly understood. Here we have examined microenvironment control over two different tumor cell motility phenotypes required for metastasis. By high-resolution multiphoton microscopy of mammary carcinoma in mice, we detected two phenotypes of motile tumor cells, different in locomotion speed. Only slower tumor cells exhibited protrusions with molecular, morphological, and functional characteristics associated with invadopodia. Each region in the primary tumor exhibited either fast- or slow-locomotion. To understand how the tumor microenvironment controls invadopodium formation and tumor cell locomotion, we systematically analyzed components of the microenvironment previously associated with cell invasion and migration. No single microenvironmental property was able to predict the locations of tumor cell phenotypes in the tumor if used in isolation or combined linearly. To solve this, we utilized the support vector machine (SVM) algorithm to classify phenotypes in a nonlinear fashion. This approach identified conditions that promoted either motility phenotype. We then demonstrated that varying one of the conditions may change tumor cell behavior only in a context-dependent manner. In addition, to establish the link between phenotypes and cell fates, we photoconverted and monitored the fate of tumor cells in different microenvironments, finding that only tumor cells in the invadopodium-rich microenvironments degraded extracellular matrix (ECM) and disseminated. The number of invadopodia positively correlated with degradation, while the inhibiting metalloproteases eliminated degradation and lung metastasis, consistent with a direct link among invadopodia, ECM degradation, and metastasis. We have detected and characterized two phenotypes of motile tumor cells in vivo, which occurred in spatially distinct microenvironments of primary tumors. We show how machine-learning analysis can classify heterogeneous microenvironments in vivo to enable prediction of motility phenotypes and tumor cell fate. The ability to predict the locations of tumor cell behavior leading to metastasis in breast cancer models may lead towards understanding the heterogeneity of response to treatment. PMID:25386698

Gligorijevic, Bojana; Bergman, Aviv; Condeelis, John

2014-01-01

128

Hepatic vascular tumors.  

PubMed

The most common hepatic vascular tumor in the pediatric population is the infantile hepatic hemangioma. Although these lesions have a spectrum of presentations, there are three main subtypes that have been described-focal, multifocal, and diffuse. An algorithm on the workup, treatment, and follow-up of these lesions can be based on this categorization. Recent shifts in the management of hemangiomas with beta-blockers (propranolol) have also influenced the treatment of hepatic hemangiomas. This article reviews the current understanding of hepatic hemangiomas and protocols in the management of these patients. PMID:25241093

Hsi Dickie, Belinda; Fishman, Steven J; Azizkhan, Richard G

2014-08-01

129

Dynamic CT of pancreatic tumors  

SciTech Connect

Dynamic computed tomography was performed on 19 patients with clinically diagnosed pancreatic and peripancreatic tumors. There were 10 patients with pancreatic cancer, three with inflammatory pancreatic masses, two with cystadenoma, one with insuloma, and three with peripancreatic tumors. Computed tomography was performed with a Varian-V-360-3 scanner; scanning was for 30 consecutive sec at 3 sec intervals after the bolus injection of 50 ml of contrast medium into the antecubital vein. Dynamic computed tomography (CT) may be more useful than conventional contrast CT because it facilitates: (1) correct evaluation of tumor vascularity allowing a differential diagnosis; (2) location of the boundary between tumor and a nontumor tissue; (3) detection of small tumors; and (4) visualization of pancreatic invasion by peripancreatic tumors. In addition, contrast enhancement and the degree of vascular proliferation can be quantitatively assessed by analyzing time-density curves.

Hosoki, T.

1983-05-01

130

Therapeutic Trial for Patients With Ewing Sarcoma Family of Tumor and Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumors  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor; Ewing Sarcoma of Bone or Soft Tissue; Localized Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

2015-02-04

131

Therapeutic Trial for Patients With Ewing Sarcoma Family of Tumor and Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumors  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor; Ewing Sarcoma of Bone or Soft Tissue; Localized Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

2014-12-04

132

Drug delivery to brain tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prerequisite for the efficacy of any cancer drug is that it reaches the tumor in therapeutic concentrations. This is difficult\\u000a to accomplish in most systemic solid tumors because of factors such as variable hypoxia, intratumoral pressure gradients,\\u000a and abnormal vasculature within the tumors. In brain cancer, the situation is complicated by the blood-brain barrier (BBB)\\u000a and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier,

Jaishri Blakeley

2008-01-01

133

About a submucosal tracheal tumor.  

PubMed

The authors report the case of 46-year-old man with recurrent hemoptysis. Bronchoscopy revealed a submucosal tumor protruding into the tracheal lumen. Transbronchial biopsy failed to obtain a conclusive diagnosis; only surgery allowed complete resection of the tumor and confirmed the diagnosis of tracheal mucoepidermoid carcinoma. We discuss the unusual submucosal presentation of this tumor, and the contribution of surgery for diagnosis and therapy. PMID:24034840

Serraj, Mounia; Lakranbi, Marouane; Ghalimi, Jamal; Ouadnouni, Yassine; Tizniti, Siham; Smahi, Mohamed

2013-01-01

134

About a submucosal tracheal tumor  

PubMed Central

The authors report the case of 46-year-old man with recurrent hemoptysis. Bronchoscopy revealed a submucosal tumor protruding into the tracheal lumen. Transbronchial biopsy failed to obtain a conclusive diagnosis; only surgery allowed complete resection of the tumor and confirmed the diagnosis of tracheal mucoepidermoid carcinoma. We discuss the unusual submucosal presentation of this tumor, and the contribution of surgery for diagnosis and therapy. PMID:24034840

2013-01-01

135

Proton Therapy for Thoracoabdominal Tumors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In advanced-stage disease of certain thoracoabdominal tumors, proton therapy (PT) with concurrent chemotherapy may be an option to reduce side effects. Several technological developments, including a respiratory gating system and implantation of fiducial markers for image guided radiation therapy (IGRT), are necessary for the treatment in thoracoabdominal tumors. In this chapter, the role of PT for tumors of the lung, the esophagus, and liver are discussed.

Sakurai, Hideyuki; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Sugahara, Shinji; Nakayama, Hidetsugu; Tokuuye, Koichi

136

Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC)  

Cancer.gov

The Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC) is an open scientific forum organized to foster the development of multi-center, international and inter-disciplinary collaborations that will lead to a better understanding of the etiology, outcomes, and prevention of brain tumors. During the process of attaining this mission, BTEC plans to mentor junior investigators or investigators who are new to brain tumor epidemiologic research.

137

Sex Cord-Stromal Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Sex cord-stromal tumors are rare neoplasms which most commonly occur in the ovary. Granulosa cell tumors are the most common\\u000a histologic subtype. Presenting symptoms and signs may be specific to this group of tumors, and treatment is determined by\\u000a many factors, including age and histologic subtype. Appropriate therapy usually includes surgery, and chemotherapy often plays\\u000a a role. Much progress has

Jubilee Brown; David M. Gershenson

138

Radiotherapy of skin tumors.  

PubMed

The incidence of cancers of the skin is increasing, as is life expectancy among most of the population. Besides surgery, all skin cancers can be treated with radiotherapy, with excellent results. Unfortunately, both less training and less equipment are available than earlier, which means that dermatologists also have less experience in this field. We would like to propose radiotherapy for medium-sized or larger lesions, especially on the face in elderly people. Good indications are keratoacanthomas, extensive actinic keratoses, Bowen's disease including erythroplasia of Queyrat, basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas, but also lentigo maligna and lentigo maligna melanomas. These tumors can be treated in a curative way. Excellent results of palliative X-ray therapy are achieved in Kaposi's sarcoma and in lymphomas, and also in Merkel cell tumors. After 100 years of treatment of skin cancers by radiotherapy, dermatologists should not forget that if appropriate principles are followed and precautions are taken, X-ray treatment is still a safe and effective method. PMID:12079218

Panizzon, R G

2002-01-01

139

[Malignant nail tumors].  

PubMed

Because of the large number of different tissues making up the distal phalanx of fingers and toes, a large variety of malignant tumors can be found in and around the nail apparatus. Bowen disease is probably the most frequent nail malignancy. It is usually seen as a verrucous plaque of the nail fold and nail bed in persons above the age of 40 years. It slowly grows over a period of years or even decades before degenerating to an invasive squamous cell carcinoma. The latter may also occur primarily often as a weeping onycholysis. The next most frequent nail malignancy is ungual melanoma. Those arising from the matrix are usually pigmented and often start with a longitudinal melanonychia whereas those originating from the nail bed remain amelanotic, are often nodular and mistaken for an ingrown nail in an elderly person. The treatment of choice for in situ and early invasive subungual melanomas is generous extirpation of the nail apparatus whereas distal amputation is only indicated for advanced melanomas. In addition to these frequent nail malignancies, nail-specific carcinomas, malignant vascular and osseous tumors, other sarcomas, nail involvement in malignant systemic disorders and metastases may occur. In most cases, they cannot be diagnosed accurately on clinical grounds. Therefore, a high degree of suspicion is necessary in all isolated or single-digit proliferations that do not respond to conservative treatment. PMID:24718507

Haneke, E

2014-04-01

140

Perlecan and Tumor Angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Perlecan is a major heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) of basement membranes (BMs) and connective tissues. The core protein of perlecan is divided into five domains based on sequence homology to other known proteins. Commonly, the N-terminal domain I of mammalian perlecan is substituted with three HS chains that can bind a number of matrix molecules, cytokines, and growth factors. Perlecan is essential for metazoan life, as shown by genetic manipulations of nematodes, insects, and mice. There are also known human mutations that can be lethal. In vertebrates, new functions of perlecan emerged with the acquisition of a closed vascular system and skeletal connective tissues. Many of perlecan's functions may be related to the binding and presentation of growth factors to high-affinity tyrosine kinase (TK) receptors. Data are accumulating, as discussed here, that similar growth factor-mediated processes may have unwanted promoting effects on tumor cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis. Understanding of these attributes at the molecular level may offer opportunities for therapeutic intervention. PMID:14566013

Jiang, Xinnong; Couchman, John R.

2003-01-01

141

Glomus tumor of the trachea.  

PubMed

Glomus tumors of the trachea are rare and benign, but most become symptomatic, so they need intervention. A 21-year-old man was evaluated due to cough and hemoptysis. Computed tomography and bronchoscopy showed a polypoid mass above the carina. The tumor was removed completely by rigid bronchoscopy. The pathologic diagnosis was glomus tumor. After one year, because of recurrence of the tumor at the same site, the patient underwent reoperation, and resection and anastomosis of trachea through a right posterolateral thoracotomy was performed. PMID:24696105

Masoum, Seyyed Hossein Fattahi; Jafarian, Amir Hossein; Attar, Ali Reza Sharifian; Attaran, Davood; Afghani, Reza; Noghabi, Azadeh Jabbari

2015-03-01

142

Tumor suppressor and hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

A few signaling pathways are driving the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma. Each of these pathways possesses negative regulators. These enzymes, which normally suppress unchecked cell proliferation, are circumvented in the oncogenic process, either the over-activity of oncogenes is sufficient to annihilate the activity of tumor suppressors or tumor suppressors have been rendered ineffective. The loss of several key tumor suppressors has been described in hepatocellular carcinoma. Here, we systematically review the evidence implicating tumor suppressors in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:18350603

Martin, Juliette; Dufour, Jean-François

2008-01-01

143

Mechanics in Tumor Growth 1 Mechanics in Tumor Growth  

E-print Network

the extracellular matrix. As will be described in the following this process is affected by the stress applied some of the main feature of tumor growth and in particular the phenomena involving stress description, one can say that the cells forming a compact tumor, like other cells in the body, live

Preziosi, Luigi

144

Putting Tumors in Context  

SciTech Connect

The interactions between cancer cells and their micro- and macroenvironment create a context that promotes tumor growth and protects it from immune attack. The functional association of cancer cells with their surrounding tissues forms a new 'organ' that changes as malignancy progresses. Investigation of this process might provide new insights into the mechanisms of tumorigenesis and could also lead to new therapeutic targets. Under normal conditions, ORGANS are made up of TISSUES that exchange information with other cell types via cell-cell contact, cytokines and the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM). The ECM, which is produced by collaboration between STROMAL fibroblasts and EPITHELIAL cells, provides structural scaffolding for cells, as well as contextual information. The endothelial vasculature provides nutrients and oxygen, and cells of the immune system combat pathogens and remove apoptotic cells. Epithelial cells associate into intact, polarized sheets. These tissues communicate through a complex network of interactions: physically, through direct contact or through the intervening ECM, and biochemically, through both soluble and insoluble signalling molecules. In combination, these interactions provide the information that is necessary to maintain cellular differentiation and to create complex tissue structures. Occasionally, the intercellular signals that define the normal context become disrupted. Alterations in epithelial tissues can lead to movement of epithelial sheets and proliferation - for example, after activation of mesenchymal fibroblasts due to wounding.Normally, these conditions are temporary and reversible, but when inflammation is sustained, an escalating feedback loop ensues.Under persistent inflammatory conditions, continual upregulation of enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by stromal fibroblasts can disrupt the ECM, and invading immune cells can overproduce factors that promote abnormal proliferation. As this process progresses, the normal organization of the organ is replaced by a functional disorder. If there are pre-existing epithelial cells within this changing context that possess tumorigenic potential, they can start to proliferate. Alternatively, the abnormal interactions might lead to genomic instability within the epithelial cells and the acquisition of tumorigenic potential. The proliferating cancer cells can then interact with their microenvironment and enhance the abnormal interactions. At this point, the tumor has become its own organ, with a distinct context that now defines all its cellular responses. Here, we will examine how the mechanisms that contribute to the normal context also act to suppress developing tumors, how disruption of this context initiates and supports the process of tumorigenicity, and how some cells with a tumorigenic genotype can become phenotypically normal if the context is appropriately manipulated.

Bissell, Mina; Radisky, Derek

2001-10-01

145

Radiosensitizing hypoxic tumors through metabolic inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Objectives. The response of tumors to radiation therapy is dependent upon oxygen levels, and tumors with low oxygen levels (i.e., hypoxic tumors) are radioresistant. Over 60% of human breast tumors are severely hypoxic. Of the two methods to increase oxygen levels, inhibition of tumor cell oxygen consumption is theoretically a better method than increasing the oxygen supply. The

John L Chunta

2008-01-01

146

Role of chemokines in tumor growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemokines play a paramount role in the tumor progression. Chronic inflammation promotes tumor formation. Both tumor cells and stromal cells elaborate chemokines and cytokines. These act either by autocrine or paracrine mechanisms to sustain tumor cell growth, induce angiogenesis and facilitate evasion of immune surveillance through immunoediting. The chemokine receptor CXCR2 and its ligands promote tumor angiogenesis and leukocyte infiltration

Dayanidhi Raman; Paige J. Baugher; Yee Mon Thu; Ann Richmond

2007-01-01

147

Familial germ cell tumor  

PubMed Central

Familial testicular germ cell tumors are well known in literature. Only few cases are reported where both brother and sister of the same family suffered from germ cell malignancies. We present a family where the proband is a survivor of ovarian dysgerminoma stage IA. Her elder male sibling became acutely ill and was detected to have disseminated testicular malignancy with grossly elevated markers and vegetations in the mitral valve leaflets. Despite all measures he could not be saved. Presence of germ cell malignancies in the siblings of different sex in the same family points toward a genetic susceptibility. Literature review revealed only six similar cases. A discussion regarding the rare occurrence of familial germ cell malignancies with the affected family members may be worthwhile. PMID:22754236

Cyriac, Sanju; Rajendranath, Rejeev; Louis, A Robert; Sagar, T. G.

2012-01-01

148

Immunohistochemical characteristics of desmoid tumors.  

PubMed

A comparative morphological study of primary and relapsing desmoid tumors was carried out. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the progress of desmoid tumors in the form of relapses was paralleled by an increase in the counts of immunopositive cells and intensity of ?-catenin and cycloxygenase-2 expression. PMID:22803179

Dubova, E A; Sidorenko, T V; Shchyogolev, A I; Adamyan, A A

2012-04-01

149

Delivering nanomedicine to solid tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in nanotechnology have offered new hope for cancer detection, prevention, and treatment. While the enhanced permeability and retention effect has served as a key rationale for using nanoparticles to treat solid tumors, it does not enable uniform delivery of these particles to all regions of tumors in sufficient quantities. This heterogeneous distribution of therapeutics is a result of

Triantafyllos Stylianopoulos; Rakesh K. Jain

2010-01-01

150

Primary diffuse leptomeningeal glioneuronal tumors.  

PubMed

Diffuse leptomeningeal disseminated glioneuronal tumor (DL-GNT) is a rare brain tumor that presents as a plaque-like subarachnoid tumor, commonly involving the basal cisterns and interhemispheric fissure of children but lacking intraparenchymal tumor. Histologically, the tumors are composed of sheets of monotonous rounded cells. Here, we report three cases of DL-GNTs, focusing on clinicopathologic features. Two patients were adult male, but one patient was child. The patients presented with seizures (n = 1) or headaches (n = 2). In all patients, radiography revealed characteristic leptomeningeal thickening and enhancement with minor superficial parenchymal lesions. All three cases were diffusely positive for both GFAP and synaptophysin, and scattered positive for OLIG2 and NeuN, but negative for IDH-1 (H09). Electron microscopic examination showed astrocytic and neuronal differentiation. The patient with the anaplastic tumor died due to aggressive progression of the tumor, but the remaining two patients were stable without tumor recurrence for 23 and 37 months. Thus, these findings suggest that DL-GNT can occur in both children and adult and both supra- and infra-tentorial leptomeninges. It has unique radiological and histopathological features and biological behavior. Further clinicopathological data with molecular genetic study are required for establishing DL-GNT as a unique entity. PMID:24770606

Cho, Hwa Jin; Myung, Jae Kyung; Kim, Hannah; Park, Chul-Kee; Kim, Sung-Ki; Chung, Chun Kee; Choi, Seung-Hong; Park, Sung-Hye

2014-04-26

151

Radiofrequency Ablation of Lung Tumors  

MedlinePLUS

Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA) of Lung Tumors • Overview View larger with caption Drawing of a 4-prong needle electrode. An electric current has caused heat around ... Radiofrequency ablation is used to treat early-stage lung cancer and tumors that have spread to the ...

152

Tumor suppression in triploid trout  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triploidy was induced in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by heat shock of fertilized eggs and triploid and diploid fry were treated with three carcinogens (DMBA, MNNG and aflatoxin B1) by bath exposure. The incidence of tumors was substantially lower in triploids than in diploids in the swimbladder, stomach and kidney and moderately lower in the liver. The lower tumor incidence

Gary H Thorgaard; Daniel N Arbogast; Jerry D Hendricks; Clifford B Pereira; George S Bailey

1999-01-01

153

Radiofrequency ablation of renal tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Percutaneous thermal ablation is increasingly applied in the therapy of renal tumors. Various techniques are available, allowing a safe and accurate therapy of renal tumors either using hyperthermia such as radiofrequency ablation (RFA), laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) and microwave ablation (MW) or by hypothermia (cryoablation). As thermal ablation is a minimally invasive and nephron-sparing procedure, it is ideally suited for patients

Andreas H. Mahnken; Rolf W. Günther; Josef Tacke

2004-01-01

154

Pazopanib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Progressive Carcinoid Tumors  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Atypical Carcinoid Tumor; Foregut Carcinoid Tumor; Hindgut Carcinoid Tumor; Lung Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Midgut Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Recurrent Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Regional Gastrointestinal Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Stage IIIA Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Stage IIIB Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma

2015-01-26

155

ABT-751 in Treating Young Patients With Refractory Solid Tumors  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors; Childhood Germ Cell Tumor; Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Kidney Cancer; Liver Cancer; Neuroblastoma; Ovarian Cancer; Sarcoma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

2012-03-14

156

Pazopanib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Progressive Carcinoid Tumors  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Atypical Carcinoid Tumor; Foregut Carcinoid Tumor; Hindgut Carcinoid Tumor; Lung Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Midgut Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Recurrent Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Regional Gastrointestinal Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Stage IIIA Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Stage IIIB Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma

2015-02-19

157

Radiofrequency ablation of solid tumors.  

PubMed

Radiofrequency ablation of solid tumors is produced by frictional heating caused when ions in the tissue attempt to follow the changing directions of a high-frequency alternating current. The radiofrequency probe is typically placed under ultrasound guidance, and the ablation is performed with real-time ultrasound monitoring. Radiofrequency ablation has been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of unresectable hepatic tumors, and promising results have also been obtained in tumors of the lung, bone, brain, kidney, prostate gland, and pancreas. Most recently, radiofrequency ablation has been tested in the treatment of invasive breast tumors. A preliminary study reported that intraoperative radiofrequency ablation causes invasive breast cancer cell death in patients with locally advanced breast cancer. An ongoing study is investigating the use of radiofrequency ablation for the treatment of breast tumors 2 cm or less in diameter. PMID:11324771

Mirza, A N; Fornage, B D; Sneige, N; Kuerer, H M; Newman, L A; Ames, F C; Singletary, S E

2001-01-01

158

Papillary glioneuronal tumor: unexplored entity.  

PubMed

Papillary glioneuronal tumors represent a new and rare entity of an uncommon morphologic subtype of low-grade mixed neuronal-glial neoplasms with an unclear etiology. They are described as benign lesions with extraventricular localization. We report the second case of papillary glioneuronal tumor with recurrent nature after gross-total resection, and the third case of this tumor with intraventricular localization. While conventional magnetic resonance imaging of papillary glioneuronal tumors is well described in literature, there are no data based on advanced magnetic resonance techniques. The present article represents a review of clinicopathological and both conventional and advanced magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of papillary glioneuronal tumors, with focus on 2 cases with atypical course and localization. PMID:21842459

Lavrnic, S; Macvanski, M; Ristic-Balos, D; Gavrilov, M; Damjanovic, D; Gavrilovic, S; Milicevic, M; Skender-Gazibara, M; Stosic-Opincal, T

2012-08-01

159

The History of Tumor Virology  

PubMed Central

In the century since its inception, the field of tumor virology has provided groundbreaking insights into the causes of human cancer. Peyton Rous founded this scientific field in 1911 by discovering an avian virus that induced tumors in chickens; however, it took 40 years for the scientific community to comprehend the effect of this seminal finding. Later identification of mammalian tumor viruses in the 1930s by Richard Shope and John Bittner, and in the 1950s by Ludwik Gross, sparked the first intense interest in tumor virology by suggesting the possibility of a similar causal role for viruses in human cancers. This change in attitude opened the door in the 1960s and 1970s for the discovery of the first human tumor viruses—EBV, hepatitis B virus, and the papillomaviruses. Such knowledge proved instrumental to the development of the first cancer vaccines against cancers having an infectious etiology. Tumor virologists additionally recognized that viruses could serve as powerful discovery tools, leading to revolutionary breakthroughs in the 1970s and 1980s that included the concept of the oncogene, the identification of the p53 tumor suppressor, and the function of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor. The subsequent availability of more advanced molecular technologies paved the way in the 1980s and 1990s for the identification of additional human tumor viruses—human T-cell leukemia virus type 1, hepatitis C virus, and Kaposi’s sarcoma virus. In fact, current estimates suggest that viruses are involved in 15% to 20% of human cancers worldwide. Thus, viruses not only have been shown to represent etiologic agents for many human cancers but have also served as tools to reveal mechanisms that are involved in all human malignancies. This rich history promises that tumor virology will continue to contribute to our understanding of cancer and to the development of new therapeutic and preventive measures for this disease in the 21st century. PMID:18829521

Javier, Ronald T.; Butel, Janet S.

2012-01-01

160

Targeting Tumor Associated Fibroblasts and Chemotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are key mediators of tumor growth. CAFs can promote tumor growth by producing growth\\u000a factors that drive tumor angiogenesis and survival of tumor cells. In recent years, resistance to chemotherapy has emerged\\u000a as a consequence of these tumor-promoting activities. CAFs can directly affect the delivery and efficacy of chemotherapeutic\\u000a drugs by promoting tumor angiogenesis and altering

Debbie Liao; Ralph A. Reisfeld

161

Tumor Targeting via Integrin Ligands  

PubMed Central

Selective and targeted delivery of drugs to tumors is a major challenge for an effective cancer therapy and also to overcome the side-effects associated with current treatments. Overexpression of various receptors on tumor cells is a characteristic structural and biochemical aspect of tumors and distinguishes them from physiologically normal cells. This abnormal feature is therefore suitable for selectively directing anticancer molecules to tumors by using ligands that can preferentially recognize such receptors. Several subtypes of integrin receptors that are crucial for cell adhesion, cell signaling, cell viability, and motility have been shown to have an upregulated expression on cancer cells. Thus, ligands that recognize specific integrin subtypes represent excellent candidates to be conjugated to drugs or drug carrier systems and be targeted to tumors. In this regard, integrins recognizing the RGD cell adhesive sequence have been extensively targeted for tumor-specific drug delivery. Here we review key recent examples on the presentation of RGD-based integrin ligands by means of distinct drug-delivery systems, and discuss the prospects of such therapies to specifically target tumor cells. PMID:24010121

Marelli, Udaya Kiran; Rechenmacher, Florian; Sobahi, Tariq Rashad Ali; Mas-Moruno, Carlos; Kessler, Horst

2013-01-01

162

Chemosensitization of tumors by resveratrol  

PubMed Central

Because tumors develop resistance to chemotherapeutic agents, the cancer research community continues to search for effective chemosensitizers. One promising possibility is to use dietary agents that sensitize tumors to the chemotherapeutics. In this review, we discuss that the use of resveratrol can sensitize tumor cells to chemotherapeutic agents. The tumors shown to be sensitized by resveratrol include lung carcinoma, acute myeloid leukemia, promyelocytic leukemia, multiple myeloma, prostate cancer, oral epidermoid carcinoma, and pancreatic cancer. The chemotherapeutic agents include vincristine, adriamycin, paclitaxel, doxorubicin, cisplatin, gefitinib, 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), velcade, and gemcitabine. The chemosensitization of tumor cells by resveratrol appears to be mediated through its ability to modulate multiple cell signaling molecules, including drug transporters, cell survival proteins, cell proliferative proteins, and members of the NF-?B and STAT-3 signaling pathways. Interestingly, however, this nutraceutical has also been reported to suppress apoptosis induced by paclitaxel, vincristine, and daunorubicin in some tumor cells. The potential mechanisms underlying this dual effect are discussed. Overall, studies suggest that resveratrol can be used to sensitize tumors to standard cancer chemotherapeutics. PMID:21261654

Gupta, Subash C; Kannappan, Ramaswamy; Reuter, Simone; Kim, Ji Hye; Aggarwal, Bharat B

2010-01-01

163

Laser therapy in ocular tumors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The medical laser equipments made at NILPRP have been exploited intensively for more than 10 years at CMH. The availability and reliability of the first like-on equipment have increased, following improvements in optical delivery system and cooling circuit. This paper shows the impact of technical advances on the development of ophthalmologic laser therapy. Intraocular tumors pose special problems of diagnosis and treatment. Diagnostic methods include addition to systemic and ophthalmologic examinations, ancillary examinations, such as transillumination, fluorescence angiography, ultrasonography, radioactive phosphorus uptake tests, radiology, computerized tomography and fine-needle aspiration biopsy with cytological analyses. The enucleation of the involved eye used to be a generally accepted management of malignant tumors. Improved therapeutic methods such as photocoagulation and better surgical techniques now provide a variety of therapeutic alternatives. This study covers 31 cases of intraocular tumors that were managed either by Argon Laser photocoagulation and/or by Nd:YAG laser surgical treatment. Four cases were intraocular metastasse and 17 cases were primitive intraocular tumors. Argon laser therapy proved to be totally ineffective for intraocular metastasse but very adequate therapy for primitive tumors. Tumor extirpations (choroidal, cillary body or iris tumors) using Nd:YAG laser lancet proved to be more suitable than classic surgery.

Carstocea, Benone D.; Gafencu, Otilia L.; Apostol, Silvia; Ionita, Marcel A.; Moroseanu, A.; Dascalu, Traian; Lupei, Voicu; Ionita-Manzatu, V.

1998-07-01

164

[Surgical management of retrorectal tumors].  

PubMed

Retrorectal tumors (RRT) constitute an anatomical grouping of various tumors of different nature, both benign and malignant. The diversity of their presentation, surgical management, and prognosis are illustrated by five clinical cases. A simple categorization would distinguish vestigial tumors (whether cystic or solid), congenital nonvestigial tumors such as chordoma, and tumors of neural or bony origin. Imaging by CT scan and by MRI will usually determine the nature of the tumor and its relationship to the surrounding anatomical structures. The principle of treatment is complete removal with free margins. The surgical approach may be posterior, anterior or combined depending on the nature and the size of the lesion and on how high it is situated relative to the second sacral vertebra. Complete resection may be both difficult and bloody. Sacral segments may need to be resected either for reasons of surgical approach or to obtain clear margins. Rectal resection is rarely necessary. The prognosis of these lesions depends on the nature of the tumor and particularly on the quality and completeness of the resection. PMID:15133436

Ko?odziejski, L S; Dyczek, S T; Pogodzinski, M

2004-03-01

165

Tumors of the chest wall.  

PubMed

Primary tumors of the chest wall are uncommon but should be considered in the evaluation of patients with persistent chest wall pain or the presence of a chest wall mass, especially when this is near the costal cartilages. Special radiographic techniques may help to define the diagnostic possibilities and the extent of local involvement. Since at least half of the primary rib tumors and virtually all of the sternal tumors are malignant, these problems demand prompt investigation, accurate tissue diagnosis, and, usually, generous surgical excision. With appropriate attention to skin, soft tissue, and skeletal involvement, resection of major chest wall tumors can be done safely, and there are a variety of reconstructive techniques available to deal with the resulting defects. Radiotherapy has little role in the treatment of chest wall tumors except for the myeloproliferative disorders and possibly some cases of Ewing's sarcoma. Chemotherapy has similarly been ineffective for the cartilaginous tumors but shows some promise in the multidisciplinary approach to osteogenic sarcoma. Surgical resection, however, remains the mainstay for the treatment of most tumors of the chest wall. Even in instances of recurrent disease there are many whose long-term survival has been achieved by multiple operative procedures. PMID:6999648

Stelzer, P; Gay, W A

1980-08-01

166

Tumor Targeting via Integrin Ligands.  

PubMed

Selective and targeted delivery of drugs to tumors is a major challenge for an effective cancer therapy and also to overcome the side-effects associated with current treatments. Overexpression of various receptors on tumor cells is a characteristic structural and biochemical aspect of tumors and distinguishes them from physiologically normal cells. This abnormal feature is therefore suitable for selectively directing anticancer molecules to tumors by using ligands that can preferentially recognize such receptors. Several subtypes of integrin receptors that are crucial for cell adhesion, cell signaling, cell viability, and motility have been shown to have an upregulated expression on cancer cells. Thus, ligands that recognize specific integrin subtypes represent excellent candidates to be conjugated to drugs or drug carrier systems and be targeted to tumors. In this regard, integrins recognizing the RGD cell adhesive sequence have been extensively targeted for tumor-specific drug delivery. Here we review key recent examples on the presentation of RGD-based integrin ligands by means of distinct drug-delivery systems, and discuss the prospects of such therapies to specifically target tumor cells. PMID:24010121

Marelli, Udaya Kiran; Rechenmacher, Florian; Sobahi, Tariq Rashad Ali; Mas-Moruno, Carlos; Kessler, Horst

2013-01-01

167

Genetics of pediatric renal tumors.  

PubMed

Wilms tumor (WT) accounts for approximately 95 % of all pediatric renal tumors, with a peak incidence between 2 and 3 years of age. It occurs in sporadic and congenital forms, the latter often occurring before 1 year of age. Incidence declines with age, and WT rarely is observed in adults. WT is an embryonal tumor of the kidney caused by aberrant proliferation of early metanephric kidney cells. It can arise from more than one developmental error and therefore several subtypes can be defined. WT1, a zinc-finger transcription factor, was identified as the first WT gene. Other genes frequently altered somatically in subsets of WT are CTNNB1 and WTX; both genes influence the Wnt signalling pathway. Imprinting alterations of genes in 11p15 are also observed in a subset of WTs. Other pediatric renal tumors occur less often, e.g. malignant rhabdoid tumor of the kidney, clear-cell sarcoma, desmoplastic small-round-cell tumors, congenital mesoblastic nephroma, renal cell carcinoma of childhood, renal primitive neuroectodermal tumors, renal medullary carcinoma, and synovial sarcoma of the kidney. In most of these, characteristic genetic alterations have been identified that help in the unequivocal diagnosis of these childhood renal cancers that are often difficult to distinguish. PMID:22461142

Royer-Pokora, Brigitte

2013-01-01

168

The Enigma of Desmoid Tumors  

PubMed Central

Objective To analyze patients with recurrent extremity desmoids, in whom the surgical therapeutic option was either major amputation or observation. Summary Background Data The biology and natural history of desmoid tumors are an enigma. These tumors invade surrounding structures and recur locally but do not metastasize. The morbidity of treating these tumors in the context of their relatively benign biology is uncertain. Methods Between July 1982 and June 1998, the authors treated and prospectively followed 206 patients with extremity desmoid tumors. All patients underwent standardized surgical resection, the surgical goal always being complete resection with negative margins. When tumors recurred, they were evaluated for reresection. Amputation was considered when resection was not possible because of neurovascular or major bone involvement, or in the presence of a functionless, painful extremity. Results During this period, 22 patients had disease that was not resectable without amputation. This was out of a total of 115 patients with primary disease and 91 patients with recurrent disease. All recurrences were local; in no patient did metastasis develop. In this group of 22 patients with unresectable disease, 7 underwent amputation and 15 did not. These 15 patients were followed, alive with disease, having no surgical resection. Four patients received systemic treatment with tamoxifen and nonsteroidal antiinflammatories, three received systemic cytotoxic chemotherapy, and two received both tamoxifen and chemotherapy. Six patients received no systemic treatment. The range of follow-up was 25 to 92 months. In all patients, there was no or insignificant tumor progression; in three patients who underwent observation alone, there was some regression of tumor. During follow-up, no patient has required subsequent amputation, and no patient has died from disease. Conclusions In desmoid tumors, aggressive attempts at achieving negative resection margins may result in unnecessary morbidity. Function- and structure-preserving procedures should be the primary goal. In select patients, whose only option is amputation, it may be prudent to observe them with their limb and tumor intact. PMID:10363901

Lewis, Jonathan J.; Boland, Patrick J.; Leung, Dennis H. Y.; Woodruff, James M.; Brennan, Murray F.

1999-01-01

169

Therapeutic modalities for Pancoast tumors  

PubMed Central

A Pancoast tumor, also called a pulmonary sulcus tumor or superior sulcus tumor, is a tumor of the pulmonary apex. It is a type of lung cancer defined primarily by its location situated at the top end of either the right or left lung. It typically spreads to nearby tissues such as the ribs and vertebrae. Most Pancoast tumors are non-small cell cancers. The growing tumor can cause compression of a brachiocephalic vein, subclavian artery, phrenic nerve, recurrent laryngeal nerve, vagus nerve, or, characteristically, compression of a sympathetic ganglion resulting in a range of symptoms known as Horner’s syndrome. Pancoast tumors are named for Henry Pancoast, a US radiologist, who described them in 1924 and 1932.The treatment of a Pancoast lung cancer may differ from that of other types of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Its position and close proximity to vital structures may make surgery difficult. As a result, and depending on the stage of the cancer, treatment may involve radiation and chemotherapy given prior to surgery. Surgery may consist of the removal of the upper lobe of a lung together with its associated structures as well as mediastinal lymphadenectomy. Surgical access may be via thoracotomy from the back or the front of the chest and modification. Careful patient selection, improvements in imaging such as the role of PET-CT in restaging of tumors, radiotherapy and surgical advances, the management of previously inoperable lesions by a combined experienced thoracic-neurosurgical team and prompt recognition and therapy of postoperative complications has greatly increased local control and overall survival for patients with these tumors. PMID:24672693

Nikolaos, Panagopoulos; Vasilios, Livaditis; Efstratios, Koletsis; Panagiotis, Alexopoulos; Christos, Prokakis; Nikolaos, Baltayiannis; Antonios, Hatzimichalis; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Tsiouda, Theodora; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Madesis, Athanasios; Vretzakis, Georgios; Kolettas, Alexandros; Dimitrios, Dougenis

2014-01-01

170

Peri-tumoral leakage during intra-tumoral convection-enhanced delivery has implications for efficacy of peri-tumoral infusion before removal of tumor.  

PubMed

Abstract In cases of malignant brain tumors, infiltrating tumor cells that exist at the tumor-surrounding brain tissue always escape from cytoreductive surgery and, protected by blood-brain barrier (BBB), survive the adjuvant chemoradiotherapy, eventually leading to tumor recurrence. Local interstitial delivery of chemotherapeutic agents is a promising strategy to target these cells. During our effort to develop effective drug delivery methods by intra-tumoral infusion of chemotherapeutic agents, we found consistent pattern of leakage from the tumor. Here we describe our findings and propose promising strategy to cover the brain tissue surrounding the tumor with therapeutic agents by means of convection-enhanced delivery. First, the intracranial tumor isograft model was used to define patterns of leakage from tumor mass after intra-tumoral infusion of the chemotherapeutic agents. Liposomal doxorubicin, although first distributed inside the tumor, distributed diffusely into the surrounding normal brain once the leakage happen. Trypan blue dye was used to evaluate the distribution pattern of peri-tumoral infusions. When infused intra- or peri-tumorally, infusates distributed robustly into the tumor border. Subsequently, volume of distributions with different infusion scheduling; including intra-tumoral infusion, peri-tumoral infusion after tumor resection, peri-tumoral infusion without tumor removal with or without systemic infusion of steroids, were compared with Evans-blue dye. Peri-tumoral infusion without tumor removal resulted in maximum volume of distribution. Prior use of steroids further increased the volume of distribution. Local interstitial drug delivery targeting tumor surrounding brain tissue before tumor removal should be more effective when targeting the invading cells. PMID:24865286

Yang, Xiaoliang; Saito, Ryuta; Nakamura, Taigen; Zhang, Rong; Sonoda, Yukihiko; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Forsayeth, John; Bankiewicz, Krystof; Tominaga, Teiji

2014-05-28

171

Imaging of thoracic cavity tumors.  

PubMed

Computed tomography (CT) is the primary imaging modality for the diagnosis, staging, and follow-up of most thoracic cavity tumors. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT has established itself as a supplementary tool to CT in lung cancer staging and in the assessment for distant metastases of many thoracic tumors. Magnetic resonance imaging is an important adjunctive imaging modality in thoracic oncologic imaging and is used as a problem-solving tool to assess for chest wall invasion, intraspinal extension, and cardiac/vascular invasion. Imaging can facilitate minimally invasive biopsy of most thoracic tumors and is vital in the pretreatment planning of radiation therapy. PMID:25246047

Hayes, Sara A; Plodkowski, Andrew J; Ginsberg, Michelle S

2014-10-01

172

[Radionuclide diagnosis of ovarian tumors].  

PubMed

The authors present a method with the use of 99mTc-pyrophosphate for differential diagnosis of malignant and benign ovarian tumors. A total of 46 patients were examined. Of these, the sample hyperfixation in the zone of malignant ovarian tumors with the rate of differential accumulation of 200-260% was observed in 7. In benign tumors and inflammatory ovarian changes, radiopharmaceutical hyperfixation was either not observed or it did not exceed 130%. Diagnosis in all the patients was verified at operation with subsequent histological examination. PMID:2982074

Korsunski?, V N; Naumenko, A Z; Verbenko, A A; Gukas'ian, V P; Shapoval'iants, I M

1985-01-01

173

Tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas  

PubMed Central

Introducción La asociación entre tumores y malformaciones congénitas está bien establecida, pero no existen datos exclusivos en el período neonatal y se desconocen los mecanismos subyacentes que generan dicha relación. Objetivos Este trabajo tiene dos objetivos: primero, analizar la frecuencia de los tumores neonatales asociados a malformaciones congénitas, y segundo, comentar las posibles hipótesis etiopatogénicas de la relación entre ambas entidades. Materiales y método Estudio retrospectivo de las historias clínicas de los tumores neonatales, en el Hospital Universitario Materno- Infantil La Fe de Valencia, desde enero de 1990 hasta diciembre de 1999. Selección y descripción de las variedades histológicas asociadas a malformaciones congénitas. Éstas se han agrupado siguiendo los criterios de la Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades CIE-9, códigos 740.0–759.9. Revisión sistemática bibliográfica de los últimos 25 años, obtenida del Medline, Cancerlit, Index Citation Science y Embase. El perfil de búsqueda utilizado fue la combinación de “neonatal/congenital-tumors/cancer/neoplasms” y “congenital malformations/birth defects”. Resultados Se identificaron 72 tumores neonatales (2,8 % del total de tumores pediátricos diagnosticados en dichos años) y 15 de ellos (20,8 %) asociados a malformaciones congénitas, enfermedades o síndromes congénitos. Las asociaciones entre tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas fueron las siguientes: a) angioma en 3 pacientes: con dos cardiopatías congénitas y una atresia de coanas-laringomalacia; b) neuroblastoma en 2 pacientes: uno con riñón en herradura y anomalías vertebrales, y otro con cardiopatía congénita; c) teratoma en 2 pacientes: uno con fisura palatina y anomalías vertebrales, y otro con metatarso varo; d) tumor del sistema nervioso central en un paciente con hernia de Bochdaleck; e) tumor cardíaco en 4 pacientes con esclerosis tuberosa; f) leucemia aguda en un paciente con síndrome de Down y cardiopatía congénita; g) tumor renal en un caso con hidrocefalia triventricular, y h) tumor adrenal en un caso con hemihipertrofia. En la bibliografía específica, las publicaciones engloban tumores de diferentes épocas pediátricas y sin unanimidad de criterios para clasificar las malformaciones congénitas. Apenas existen datos en el período neonatal y la asociación entre ambas entidades se obtiene de registros de instituciones médicas. La prevalencia oscila entre el 15 y el 31,6 %. Las hipótesis etiopatogénicas que explican la asociación entre tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas están basadas en las exposiciones prenatales (preconcepcionales y transplacentarias) a factores de riesgo potencialmente mutagénicos y carcinogénicos. Conclusiones Probablemente, los tumores neonatales se asocian con mayor frecuencia a malformaciones congénitas que los tumores diagnosticados en épocas posteriores de la vida. Para conocer la prevalencia real de la asociación entre tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas, es necesario unificar los criterios de inclusión y definición de ambas entidades. La obtención de una minuciosa historia medioambiental en todos los tumores neonatales asociados a malformaciones congénitas, donde se detallen y registren todos los factores de riesgo constitucionales y ambientales, es fundamental para mejorar nuestros escasos conocimientos de los mecanismos prenatales subyacentes y avanzar en su prevención. PMID:18559198

Tornero, O. Berbel; García, J.A. Ortega; Tortajada, J. Ferrís i; Castell, J. García; Colomer, J. Donat i; Soldin, O.P.; Soler, J.L. Fuster

2013-01-01

174

Translationally controlled tumor protein is a target of tumor reversion  

PubMed Central

By analyzing the gene expression profile between tumor cells and revertant counterparts that have a suppressed malignant phenotype, we previously reported a significant down-regulation of translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) in the revertants. In the present study, we derived, by using the H1 parvovirus as a selective agent, revertants from three major solid cancers: colon, lung, and melanoma cell lines. These cells have a strongly suppressed malignant phenotype both in vitro and in vivo. The level of TCTP is decreased in most of the revertants. To verify whether inhibition of TCTP expression induces changes in the malignant phenotype, in the classical, well established model of “flat reversion,” v-src-transformed NIH3T3 cells were transfected with antisense TCTP. By inhibiting the expression of TCTP, the number of revertant cells was raised to 30%, instead of the reported rate for spontaneous flat revertants of 10-6. Because TCTP encodes for a histamine-releasing factor, we tested the hypothesis that inhibitors of the histaminic pathway could be effective against tumor cells. We show that some antihistaminic compounds (hydroxyzine and promethazine) and other pharmacological compounds with a related structure (including thioridazine and sertraline) kill tumor cells and significantly decrease the level of TCTP. All together, these data suggest that, with tumor reversion used as a working model, TCTP was identified as a target and drugs were selected that decrease its expression and kill tumor cells. PMID:15489264

Tuynder, Marcel; Fiucci, Giusy; Prieur, Sylvie; Lespagnol, Alexandra; Géant, Anne; Beaucourt, Séverine; Duflaut, Dominique; Besse, Stéphanie; Susini, Laurent; Cavarelli, Jean; Moras, Dino; Amson, Robert; Telerman, Adam

2004-01-01

175

BCCIP Suppresses Tumor Initiation but is Required for Tumor Progression  

PubMed Central

Dysfunctions of genome caretaker genes contribute to genomic instability and tumor initiation. Because many of the caretaker genes are also essential for cell viability, permanent loss of function of these genes would prohibit further tumor progression. How essential caretaker genes contribute to tumorigenesis is not fully understood. Here, we report a “hit-and-run” mode of action for an essential caretaker gene in tumorigenesis. Using a BRCA2-interacting protein BCCIP as a platform, we found that a conditional BCCIP knockdown and concomitant p53 deletion caused rapid development of medulloblastomas, which bear a wide spectrum of alternations involving the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway, consistent with a caretaker responsibility of BCCIP on genomic integrity. Surprisingly, the progressed tumors have spontaneously lost the transgenic BCCIP knockdown cassette and restored BCCIP expression. Thus, a transient down-regulation of BCCIP, but not necessarily a permanent mutation, is sufficient to initiate tumorigenesis. Once the malignant transformation has been accomplished and autonomous cancer growth has been established, BCCIP reverses its role from a tumor initiation suppressor to become a requisite for progression. This exemplifies a new type of tumor suppressor, which is distinct from the classical tumor suppressors that are often permanently abrogated during tumorigenesis. It has major implications on how a non-mutagenic or transient regulation of essential caretaker gene contributes to tumorigenesis. We further suggest that BCCIP represents a paradoxical class of modulators for tumorigenesis, as a Suppressor for Initiation but a Requisite for Progression (SIRP). PMID:24145349

Huang, Yi-Yuan; Dai, Li; Gaines, Dakim; Droz-Rosario, Roberto; Lu, Huimei; Liu, Jingmei; Shen, Zhiyuan

2013-01-01

176

BCCIP suppresses tumor initiation but is required for tumor progression.  

PubMed

Dysfunctions of genome caretaker genes contribute to genomic instability and tumor initiation. Because many of the caretaker genes are also essential for cell viability, permanent loss of function of these genes would prohibit further tumor progression. How essential caretaker genes contribute to tumorigenesis is not fully understood. Here, we report a "hit-and-run" mode of action for an essential caretaker gene in tumorigenesis. Using a BRCA2-interacting protein BCCIP as the platform, we found that a conditional BCCIP knockdown and concomitant p53 deletion caused rapid development of medulloblastomas, which bear a wide spectrum of alterations involving the Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) pathway, consistent with a caretaker responsibility of BCCIP on genomic integrity. Surprisingly, the progressed tumors have spontaneously lost the transgenic BCCIP knockdown cassette and restored BCCIP expression. Thus, a transient downregulation of BCCIP, but not necessarily a permanent mutation, is sufficient to initiate tumorigenesis. After the malignant transformation has been accomplished and autonomous cancer growth has been established, BCCIP reverses its role from a tumor-initiation suppressor to become a requisite for progression. This exemplifies a new type of tumor suppressor, which is distinct from the classical tumor suppressors that are often permanently abrogated during tumorigenesis. It has major implications on how a nonmutagenic or transient regulation of essential caretaker gene contributes to tumorigenesis. We further suggest that BCCIP represents a paradoxical class of modulators for tumorigenesis as a suppressor for initiation but a requisite for progression (SIRP). PMID:24145349

Huang, Yi-Yuan; Dai, Li; Gaines, Dakim; Droz-Rosario, Roberto; Lu, Huimei; Liu, Jingmei; Shen, Zhiyuan

2013-12-01

177

Macrophages in Tumor Microenvironments and the Progression of Tumors  

PubMed Central

Macrophages are widely distributed innate immune cells that play indispensable roles in the innate and adaptive immune response to pathogens and in-tissue homeostasis. Macrophages can be activated by a variety of stimuli and polarized to functionally different phenotypes. Two distinct subsets of macrophages have been proposed, including classically activated (M1) and alternatively activated (M2) macrophages. M1 macrophages express a series of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and effector molecules, such as IL-12, IL-23, TNF-?, iNOS and MHCI/II. In contrast, M2 macrophages express a wide array of anti-inflammatory molecules, such as IL-10, TGF-?, and arginase1. In most tumors, the infiltrated macrophages are considered to be of the M2 phenotype, which provides an immunosuppressive microenvironment for tumor growth. Furthermore, tumor-associated macrophages secrete many cytokines, chemokines, and proteases, which promote tumor angiogenesis, growth, metastasis, and immunosuppression. Recently, it was also found that tumor-associated macrophages interact with cancer stem cells. This interaction leads to tumorigenesis, metastasis, and drug resistance. So mediating macrophage to resist tumors is considered to be potential therapy. PMID:22778768

Hao, Ning-Bo; Lü, Mu-Han; Fan, Ya-Han; Cao, Ya-Ling; Zhang, Zhi-Ren; Yang, Shi-Ming

2012-01-01

178

[Treatment of superficial bladder tumors].  

PubMed

Superficial bladder cancer, T1, Ta, TIS transitional cell carcinomas of the TNM classification, represent a spectrum disease with different biological behavior. The main difficulty in the management of these tumors is to predict their potential aggressiveness based on clinicopathological parameters. Their management is based on endoscopy findings and histopathological analysis. For low risk tumors, transurethral resection and surveillance allow an adequate tumor control. For high risk tumors, conservative treatment is based on a complete transurethral resection and prophylactic endovesical instillations of bacillus Calmette-Guérin. For intermediate risk lesions, the advantage of prophylactic endovesical instillations have been finally established either using BCG or chemotherapy (mitomycine C). However in this setting, various therapeutic modalities (maintenance therapy, dose, repeat cycles) are proposed and their relative efficacy remains to be established. PMID:9114523

Chopin, D K

1997-02-15

179

General Information about Pituitary Tumors  

MedlinePLUS

... urine that is collected for three days. Venous sampling for pituitary tumors : A procedure in which a ... released into the blood by the gland. Venous sampling may be done if blood tests show there ...

180

How Are Pituitary Tumors Diagnosed?  

MedlinePLUS

... see if this corrects the problem. Venous blood sampling Corticotropin (ACTH)-secreting adenomas may be too small ... a person’s MRI scan is normal, a venous sampling test may be useful to find the tumor. ...

181

Advances in brain tumor chemosensitivity.  

PubMed

Despite advances in surgery and radiation, most malignant central nervous system tumours recur. Chemotherapy has assumed an important role in treatment, particularly for responsive tumors such as primary central nervous system lymphoma and oligodendrogliomas. The design of sound chemotherapeutic trials for brain tumors requires an understanding of drug resistance. Drug sensitivity may be improved in a variety of ways: through the use of agents at higher than conventional doses or in new treatment schedules, through the use of localized resistance to modulators, and even through genetic manipulation of malignant cells. As treatment with chemotherapy for central nervous system tumors becomes more successful, new measurements of tumor response may need to be developed to replace or complement standard criteria. PMID:9619354

Balmaceda, C

1998-05-01

182

Hypercalcemia in tumor lysis syndrome.  

PubMed

Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is characterized by hyperkalemia, hyperuricemia, hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. This report describes a case of hypercalcemia in TLS in a patient with diffuse large B cell lymphoma. PMID:25332546

Shah, Binay Kumar

2014-09-01

183

Pituitary tumor apoplexy: a review.  

PubMed

Pituitary tumor apoplexy is an uncommon syndrome resulting often spontaneously from hemorrhage or infarction of a pre-existing pituitary adenoma. As the primary event involves the adenoma, the syndrome should be referred to as pituitary tumor apoplexy and not as pituitary apoplexy. The sudden increase in sellar contents compresses surrounding structures and portal vessels, resulting in sudden, severe headache, visual disturbances, and impairment in pituitary function. Initial management of patients with pituitary tumor apoplexy includes supportive therapy (intravenous fluids and corticosteroids), following which many patients exhibit clinical improvement. Because those patients can be effectively managed with supportive measures, many who remain clinically and neurologically unstable might benefit from urgent surgical decompression by an experienced neurosurgeon. All patients presenting with this syndrome require long-term follow-up to treat any residual tumor and/or pituitary dysfunction. Close interaction between members of the management team is necessary for optimal patients' outcome. PMID:18372348

Nawar, Rita N; AbdelMannan, Dima; Selman, Warren R; Arafah, Baha M

2008-01-01

184

Percutaneous Ablation of Adrenal Tumors  

PubMed Central

Adrenal tumors comprise a broad spectrum of benign and malignant neoplasms, and include functional adrenal adenomas, pheochromocytomas, primary adrenocortical carcinoma and adrenal metastases. Percutaneous ablative approaches that have been described and used in the treatment of adrenal tumors include percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA), cryoablation, microwave ablation and chemical ablation. Local tumor ablation in the adrenal gland presents unique challenges, secondary to the adrenal gland’s unique anatomic and physiologic features. The results of clinical series employing percutaneous ablative techniques in the treatment of adrenal tumors are reviewed in this article. Clinical and technical considerations unique to ablation in the adrenal gland are presented, including approaches commonly used in our practices, and risks and potential complications are discussed. PMID:20540918

Venkatesan, Aradhana M.; Locklin, Julia; Dupuy, Damian E.; Wood, Bradford J.

2010-01-01

185

Genetics Home Reference: Desmoid tumor  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding desmoid tumor? cancer ; cell ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (6 links) ...

186

Molecular Genetics of Neuroendocrine Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through insights into the molecular genetics of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), the genes predisposing to multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes were identified. In MEN1, tumors occur in the parathyroids, endocrine pancreas, anterior pituitary, adrenal glands and thymic neuroendocrine tissues. The MEN1 gene encodes a putative growth-suppressor protein, menin, binding JunD, a transcriptional factor belonging to the AP-1 complex. However, new partners

A. Calender

2000-01-01

187

Cellphones linked to brain tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Millions of research dollars have been spent worldwide to determine whether cellphones cause brain tumors. Now, what health experts call a large-scale, well-conducted study has yielded the most conclusive evidence of such a link to date. Researchers have found an association between long-term cellphone use and a rare, benign tumor, causing concern among radiation specialists and epidemiologists, though they emphasize

P. P. Predd

2004-01-01

188

Renal tumor ablation.  

PubMed

Percutaneous, image-guided ablation for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is an important treatment option for many patients. With more than 60,000 new cases every year and nearly three-fourths of those presenting as stage 1A, minimally invasive, nephron-sparing therapies have become the standard of care. Stage 1 A (<4cm, organ confined) disease presents the best scenario for percutaneous ablation. Various other factors influence the decision-making tree, such as patient age, life expectancy, comorbid condition, renal function, and the risk of metachronous lesions. Preparation aims at minimizing risks and has been discussed in detail. Computed tomography guidance remains the best option, and conscious sedation is adequate for most cases. Ultrasound and more recently magnetic resonance guidance are becoming viable alternatives. Whether radiofrequency or cryoablation are chosen, a margin of at least 5mm and up to 10mm is recommended. Various maneuvers required for optimum outcome, including hydrodissection and preoperative embolization are also discussed. Most renal ablations can be performed on an outpatient basis. Reasons to admit include complications, high-risk patients, and the need for symptom management. Follow-up aims at (1) ensuring complete ablation and (2) monitoring against a metachronous lesion. For the former, a 3-month contrast computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging is required and for the latter an annual examination is recommended. Though partial nephrectomy remains the gold standard, image-guided, percutaneous ablation for RCC can result in very similar outcomes. Over the last 10 years, there have been numerous studies reporting the efficacy and safety of ablation, and more recently, long-term studies have confirmed those numbers. Overall, the efficacy for percutaneous ablation for RCC stands at 90%-95% with a complication rate of 6%-7%. The most important factors for positive outcome are patient or tumor selection and operator experience. PMID:24238378

Georgiades, Christos; Rodriguez, Ronald

2013-12-01

189

Multimodality evaluation of cervical tumors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clinical signs of radiotherapy failure are often not present until well after treatment has been completed. Methods which could predict the response of tumors either before or early into the radiotherapy schedule would have important implications for patient management. Recent studies performed at our institution suggest that MR perfusion imaging maya be useful in distinguishing between individuals who are likely to benefit from radiation therapy and those who are not. Because MR perfusion imaging reflects tissue vascularity as well as perfusion, quantitative positron emission tomographic (PET) blood flow studies were performed to obtain an independent assessment of tumor perfusion. MR perfusion and PET quantitative blood flow studies were acquired on four women diagnosed with advanced cervical cancer. The MR perfusion studies were acquired on a 1 cm sagittal slice through the epicenter of the tumor mass. Quantitative PET blood flow studies were performed using an autoradiographic technique. The PET and MRI were registered using a manual interactive routine and the mean blood flow in the tumor was compared to the relative signal intensity in a corresponding region on the MR image. The mean blood flow in the cervical tumors ranged form 30-48 ml/min/100 grams. The observed blood flow values are consistent with the assumed relationship between MR contrast enhancement and the distribution of tissue perfusion. The information offered by these studies provides an additional window into the evaluation of the response of cervical tumors to radiation therapy.

Madsen, Mark T.; Mayr, Nina A.; Yuh, William T. C.; Ehrhardt, James C.; Magnotta, Vincent A.; Ponto, Laura L. B.; Vannier, Michael W.; Hichwa, Richard D.

1997-05-01

190

Tumor formations in scleractinian corals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A highly localized incidence of skeletal malformations (tumors) in the scleractinian corals Platygyra pini and P. sinensis on an inshore fringing reef at Cockle Bay, Magnetic Island within the Great Barrier Reef province is reported. These tumors are typified by a localized area of increased growth rate resulting in roughly circular protuberances extending up to 4.5 cm above the colony's surface. In both species, similar proportions of their populations carried tumors (24.1 % in P. pini and 18.7 % in P. sinensis). Larger colonies (>80 cm in diameter) are at least 7 times more likely to possess tumors than smaller colonies (<40 cm in diameter). X-radiographs of the skeletal malformations indicate a point of origin, presumably from a single budded polyp with subsequent, localized, accelerated growth. The mean radial growth rate of the tumorous area was 29 % greater than that of the surrounding normal regions. In contrast to the normal tissue, the tumorous tissue exhibited proliferation of cells, atrophied gastrodermal cells and mesenterial filaments which were larger and disordered in structure. The environmental conditions at Cockle Bay are relatively extreme with high turbidity, periodic exposure of the reef flat, abrupt changes in salinity during the wet season and mechanical damage to corals caused by unpredictable cyclonic storms. It is suggested that a combination of environmental stresses coupled with an injury inflicted on the corals are possible stimuli that initiate the development of these abnormal growth through either bacterial attack or the development of an aberrant polyp during tissue repair.

Loya, Y.; Bull, G.; Pichon, M.

1984-03-01

191

Immunotherapy of malignant brain tumors  

PubMed Central

Summary Despite aggressive multi-modality therapy including surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, the prognosis for patients with malignant primary brain tumors remains very poor. Moreover, the non-specific nature of conventional therapy for brain tumors often results in incapacitating damage to surrounding normal brain and systemic tissues. Thus, there is an urgent need for the development of therapeutic strategies that precisely target tumor cells while minimizing collateral damage to neighboring eloquent cerebral cortex. The rationale for using the immune system to target brain tumors is based on the premise that the inherent specificity of immunologic reactivity could meet the clear need for more specific and precise therapy. The success of this modality is dependent on our ability to understand the mechanisms of immune regulation within the central nervous system (CNS), as well as counter the broad defects in host cell-mediated immunity that malignant gliomas are known to elicit. Recent advances in our understanding of tumor-induced and host-mediated immunosuppressive mechanisms, the development of effective strategies to combat these suppressive effects, and a better understanding of how to deliver immunologic effector molecules more efficiently to CNS tumors have all facilitated significant progress toward the realization of true clinical benefit from immunotherapeutic treatment of malignant gliomas. PMID:18363995

Mitchell, Duane A.; Fecci, Peter E.; Sampson, John H.

2012-01-01

192

Genetics Home Reference: Hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... tumor called Wilms tumor and other types of kidney tumor have also been found. How common is hyperparathyroidism- ... transcription ; hereditary ; hormone ; hyperparathyroidism ; hypertension ; hyperthyroidism ; ... syndrome ; transcription ; tumor ; Wilms tumor You may find definitions for these ...

193

Survival Rates for Wilms Tumor by Stage and Histology  

MedlinePLUS

... tumor treated? Survival rates for Wilms tumor by stage and histology Survival rates are often used by ... situation. Wilms Tumor 4-year Survival Rates Tumor Stage Favorable Histology Unfavorable Histology (Anaplastic Wilms Tumor) I ...

194

Brainstem Tumors: Where Are We Today?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brainstem tumors comprise 10–20% of all pediatric central nervous system tumors. The management of these tumors has evolved dramatically in the past century. Once considered uniformly fatal, it is now known that brainstem tumors have distinguishing characteristics and do not behave identically. The focality and location of the lesion is determined from the clinical history, presentation, and associated imaging. Based

Pablo F. Recinos; Daniel M. Sciubba; George I. Jallo

2007-01-01

195

Matrix metalloproteinases in tumor invasion and metastasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive work on the mechanisms of tumor invasion and metastasis has identified matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) as key players in the events that underlie tumor dissemination. Studies using natural and synthetic MMP inhibitors, as well as tumor cells transfected with cDNAs encoding the MMPs characterized thus far have provided compelling evidence that MMP activity can induce or enhance tumor survival, invasion

Ivan Stamenkovic

2000-01-01

196

Engineering tumors with 3D scaffolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microenvironmental conditions control tumorigenesis and biomimetic culture systems that allow for in vitro and in vivo tumor modeling may greatly aid studies of cancer cells' dependency on these conditions. We engineered three-dimensional (3D) human tumor models using carcinoma cells in polymeric scaffolds that recreated microenvironmental characteristics representative of tumors in vivo. Strikingly, the angiogenic characteristics of tumor cells were dramatically

Claudia Fischbach; Ruth Chen; Takuya Matsumoto; Tobias Schmelzle; Joan S Brugge; Peter J Polverini; David J Mooney

2007-01-01

197

Oncogenes as inducers of tumor angiogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dominantly acting transforming oncogenes are generally considered to contribute to tumor development and progression by their direct effects on tumor cell proliferation and differentiation. However, the growth of solid tumors beyond 1–2 mm in diameter requires the induction and maintenance of a tumor blood vessel supply, which is attributed in large part to the production of angiogenesis promoting growth factors

J. Rak; J. Filmus; G. Finkenzeller; S. Grugel; D. Marmé; R. S. Kerbel

1995-01-01

198

Rare Primary Central Nervous System Tumors  

PubMed Central

There are close to 70,000 new cases of primary central nervous system tumors diagnosed annually in the United States. Meningiomas, gliomas, nerve sheath tumors and pituitary tumors account for 85% of them. There is abundant literature on these commonly occurring tumors but data from the literature on infrequently encountered tumors such as atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, choroid plexus carcinoma, ganglioglioma, hemangiopericytoma, and pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma are limited. This review provides an overview of the clinicopathologic and therapeutic aspects of these rare primary central nervous system tumors. PMID:25276324

Kubicky, Charlotte Dai; Sahgal, Arjun; Chang, Eric L.; Lo, Simon S.

2014-01-01

199

Macroscopic Stiffness of Breast Tumors Predicts Metastasis  

PubMed Central

Mechanical properties of tumors differ substantially from normal cells and tissues. Changes in stiffness or elasticity regulate pro-metastatic behaviors of cancer cells, but effects have been documented predominantly in isolated cells or in vitro cell culture systems. To directly link relative stiffness of tumors to cancer progression, we combined a mouse model of metastatic breast cancer with ex vivo measurements of bulk moduli of freshly excised, intact tumors. We found a high, inverse correlation between bulk modulus of resected tumors and subsequent local recurrence and metastasis. More compliant tumors were associated with more frequent, larger local recurrences and more extensive metastases than mice with relatively stiff tumors. We found that collagen content of resected tumors correlated with bulk modulus values. These data establish that relative differences in tumor stiffness correspond with tumor progression and metastasis, supporting further testing and development of tumor compliance as a prognostic biomarker in breast cancer. PMID:24981707

Fenner, Joseph; Stacer, Amanda C.; Winterroth, Frank; Johnson, Timothy D.; Luker, Kathryn E.; Luker, Gary D.

2014-01-01

200

Computational approach for designing tumor homing peptides  

PubMed Central

Tumor homing peptides are small peptides that home specifically to tumor and tumor associated microenvironment i.e. tumor vasculature, after systemic delivery. Keeping in mind the huge therapeutic importance of these peptides, we have made an attempt to analyze and predict tumor homing peptides. It was observed that certain types of residues are preferred in tumor homing peptides. Therefore, we developed support vector machine based models for predicting tumor homing peptides using amino acid composition and binary profiles of peptides. Amino acid composition, dipeptide composition and binary profile-based models achieved a maximum accuracy of 86.56%, 82.03%, and 84.19% respectively. These methods have been implemented in a user-friendly web server, TumorHPD. We anticipate that this method will be helpful to design novel tumor homing peptides. TumorHPD web server is freely accessible at http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/tumorhpd/. PMID:23558316

Sharma, Arun; Kapoor, Pallavi; Gautam, Ankur; Chaudhary, Kumardeep; Kumar, Rahul; Chauhan, Jagat Singh; Tyagi, Atul; Raghava, Gajendra P. S.

2013-01-01

201

Clinical Relevance of Tumor Cells with Stem-Like Properties in Pediatric Brain Tumors  

E-print Network

brain tumors are the leading cause of cancer-related death in children. Tumor cells with stemClinical Relevance of Tumor Cells with Stem-Like Properties in Pediatric Brain Tumors Ce high-grade gliomas in adults. Whether TSCs are a common component of pediatric brain tumors

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

202

Interfractional Variations of Tumor Centroid Position and Tumor Regression during Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Lung Tumor.  

PubMed

Purpose. To determine interfractional changes of lung tumor centroid position and tumor regression during stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials. 34 patients were treated by SBRT in 4-5 fractions to a median dose of 50?Gy. The CT scans acquired for verification were registered with simulation CT scans. The gross target volume (GTV) was contoured on all verification CT scans and compared to the initial GTV in treatment plan system. Results. The mean (±standard deviation, SD) three-dimension vector shift was 5.2 ± 3.1?mm. The mean (±SD) interfractional variations of tumor centroid position were -0.7 ± 4.5?mm in anterior-posterior (AP) direction, 0.2 ± 3.1?mm in superior-inferior (SI) direction, and 0.4 ± 2.4?mm in right-left (RL) direction. Large interfractional variations (?5?mm) were observed in 5 fractions (3.3%) in RL direction, 16 fractions (10.5%) in SI direction, and 36 fractions (23.5%) in AP direction. Tumor volume did not decrease significantly during lung SBRT. Conclusions. Small but insignificant tumor volume regression was observed during lung SBRT. While the mean interfractional variations of tumor centroid position were minimal in three directions, variations more than 5?mm account for approximately a third of all, indicating additional margin for PTV, especially in AP direction. PMID:25548770

Sun, Yanan; Lu, Yufei; Cheng, Siguo; Guo, Wei; Ye, Ke; Zhao, Huiyun; Zheng, Xiaoli; Li, Dingjie; Wang, Shujuan; Yang, Chengliang; Ge, Hong

2014-01-01

203

Interfractional Variations of Tumor Centroid Position and Tumor Regression during Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Lung Tumor  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To determine interfractional changes of lung tumor centroid position and tumor regression during stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials. 34 patients were treated by SBRT in 4-5 fractions to a median dose of 50?Gy. The CT scans acquired for verification were registered with simulation CT scans. The gross target volume (GTV) was contoured on all verification CT scans and compared to the initial GTV in treatment plan system. Results. The mean (±standard deviation, SD) three-dimension vector shift was 5.2 ± 3.1?mm. The mean (±SD) interfractional variations of tumor centroid position were ?0.7 ± 4.5?mm in anterior-posterior (AP) direction, 0.2 ± 3.1?mm in superior-inferior (SI) direction, and 0.4 ± 2.4?mm in right-left (RL) direction. Large interfractional variations (?5?mm) were observed in 5 fractions (3.3%) in RL direction, 16 fractions (10.5%) in SI direction, and 36 fractions (23.5%) in AP direction. Tumor volume did not decrease significantly during lung SBRT. Conclusions. Small but insignificant tumor volume regression was observed during lung SBRT. While the mean interfractional variations of tumor centroid position were minimal in three directions, variations more than 5?mm account for approximately a third of all, indicating additional margin for PTV, especially in AP direction. PMID:25548770

Sun, Yanan; Lu, Yufei; Cheng, Siguo; Guo, Wei; Ye, Ke; Zhao, Huiyun; Zheng, Xiaoli; Li, Dingjie; Wang, Shujuan; Yang, Chengliang; Ge, Hong

2014-01-01

204

Is renal cell (Grawitz) tumor a carcinosarcoma?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The expression of intermediate filament type was determined in 13 renal cell (Grawitz) tumors (10 primary renal tumors and\\u000a 3 lymph node metastases). All of the tumors except one lymph node metastasis contained cells expressing vimentin intermediate\\u000a filaments, generally a marker of mesodermally-derived tissues and their tumors, the sarcomas. In addition, the 10 primary\\u000a renal tumors and two lymph node

Chester J. Herman; Olof Moesker; Arie Kant; Anita Huysmans; G. Peter Vooijs; Frans C. S. Ramaekers

1983-01-01

205

Metastasis Suppressors and the Tumor Microenvironment  

PubMed Central

The most lethal and debilitating attribute of cancer cells is their ability to metastasize. Throughout the process of metastasis, tumor cells interact with other tumor cells, host cells and a variety of molecules. Tumor cells are also faced with a number of insults, such as hemodynamic sheer pressure and immune selection. This brief review explores how metastasis suppressor proteins regulate interactions between tumor cells and the microenvironments in which tumor cells find themselves. PMID:21168504

Cook, Leah M.; Hurst, Douglas R.; Welch, Danny R.

2011-01-01

206

Serous borderline tumor of the fallopian tube  

PubMed Central

Serous borderline tumors of the ovary are fairly common, making up between 4% and 14% of ovarian epithelial tumors. While to our knowledge serous borderline tumor of the fallopian tube occurs rarely with only ten previously reported cases in literature. We report the case of the serous borderline tumor of the fallopian tumor in a 25-year-old woman and review the literature. PMID:25105110

Choi, So Mi; Kang, Woo Dae; Choi, Ho Sun

2014-01-01

207

Dirio Econmico -Universidades Como ser investigador em Portugal  

E-print Network

Diário Económico - Universidades Como é ser investigador em Portugal Autor: N.D. Editora: ST e SF - Universidades Como é ser investigador em Portugal Autor: N.D. Editora: ST e SF Id: 1646658 Data Publicação: 19

Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

208

Angiogenesis in Spontaneous Tumors and Implications for Comparative Tumor Biology  

PubMed Central

Blood supply is essential for development and growth of tumors and angiogenesis is the fundamental process of new blood vessel formation from preexisting ones. Angiogenesis is a prognostic indicator for a variety of tumors, and it coincides with increased shedding of neoplastic cells into the circulation and metastasis. Several molecules such as cell surface receptors, growth factors, and enzymes are involved in this process. While antiangiogenic therapy for cancer has been proposed over 20 years ago, it has garnered much controversy in recent years within the scientific community. The complex relationships between the angiogenic signaling cascade and antiangiogenic substances have indicated the angiogenic pathway as a valid target for anticancer drug development and VEGF has become the primary antiangiogenic drug target. This review discusses the basic and clinical perspectives of angiogenesis highlighting the importance of comparative biology in understanding tumor angiogenesis and the integration of these model systems for future drug development. PMID:24563633

Benazzi, C.; Al-Dissi, A.; Chau, C. H.; Figg, W. D.; Sarli, G.; de Oliveira, J. T.; Gärtner, F.

2014-01-01

209

Tumor Ablation with Irreversible Electroporation  

PubMed Central

We report the first successful use of irreversible electroporation for the minimally invasive treatment of aggressive cutaneous tumors implanted in mice. Irreversible electroporation is a newly developed non-thermal tissue ablation technique in which certain short duration electrical fields are used to permanently permeabilize the cell membrane, presumably through the formation of nanoscale defects in the cell membrane. Mathematical models of the electrical and thermal fields that develop during the application of the pulses were used to design an efficient treatment protocol with minimal heating of the tissue. Tumor regression was confirmed by histological studies which also revealed that it occurred as a direct result of irreversible cell membrane permeabilization. Parametric studies show that the successful outcome of the procedure is related to the applied electric field strength, the total pulse duration as well as the temporal mode of delivery of the pulses. Our best results were obtained using plate electrodes to deliver across the tumor 80 pulses of 100 µs at 0.3 Hz with an electrical field magnitude of 2500 V/cm. These conditions induced complete regression in 12 out of 13 treated tumors, (92%), in the absence of tissue heating. Irreversible electroporation is thus a new effective modality for non-thermal tumor ablation. PMID:17989772

Al-Sakere, Bassim; André, Franck; Bernat, Claire; Connault, Elisabeth; Opolon, Paule; Davalos, Rafael V.; Rubinsky, Boris; Mir, Lluis M.

2007-01-01

210

Cellular Potts Modeling of Tumor Growth, Tumor Invasion, and Tumor Evolution  

PubMed Central

Despite a growing wealth of available molecular data, the growth of tumors, invasion of tumors into healthy tissue, and response of tumors to therapies are still poorly understood. Although genetic mutations are in general the first step in the development of a cancer, for the mutated cell to persist in a tissue, it must compete against the other, healthy or diseased cells, for example by becoming more motile, adhesive, or multiplying faster. Thus, the cellular phenotype determines the success of a cancer cell in competition with its neighbors, irrespective of the genetic mutations or physiological alterations that gave rise to the altered phenotype. What phenotypes can make a cell “successful” in an environment of healthy and cancerous cells, and how? A widely used tool for getting more insight into that question is cell-based modeling. Cell-based models constitute a class of computational, agent-based models that mimic biophysical and molecular interactions between cells. One of the most widely used cell-based modeling formalisms is the cellular Potts model (CPM), a lattice-based, multi particle cell-based modeling approach. The CPM has become a popular and accessible method for modeling mechanisms of multicellular processes including cell sorting, gastrulation, or angiogenesis. The CPM accounts for biophysical cellular properties, including cell proliferation, cell motility, and cell adhesion, which play a key role in cancer. Multiscale models are constructed by extending the agents with intracellular processes including metabolism, growth, and signaling. Here we review the use of the CPM for modeling tumor growth, tumor invasion, and tumor progression. We argue that the accessibility and flexibility of the CPM, and its accurate, yet coarse-grained and computationally efficient representation of cell and tissue biophysics, make the CPM the method of choice for modeling cellular processes in tumor development. PMID:23596570

Szabó, András; Merks, Roeland M. H.

2013-01-01

211

[Tracheal tumor treated as asthma].  

PubMed

Primary tumors of the trachea are very rare. In adults, the majority of them are malignant. Schwannomas are exceedingly rare benign tumors in the tracheobronchial tree. We report a case of a 37-year-old man who was hospitalized for increasing dyspnea. He had been treated for bronchial asthma for the last 4 years with no benefit. The CT scan of the chest and bronchoscopy identified a tracheal mass that was prolapsed in the left stem bronchus. The patient did not remain free of disease after endoscopic laser resection. So, surgical resection was made. The tumor was excised at its base. A segment of the left stem bronchus was removed and primary anastomosis was performed. The histopathologic diagnosis was of a benign schwannoma without malignant elements. There was no recurrence during the follow-up period. This case demonstrates that intratracheal masses should be considered in patients with dyspnea or in patients with asthma refractory to conventional therapy. PMID:25131369

Ayadi-Kaddour, A; Khadhar, A; Mlika, M; Ismail, O; Braham, E; Marghli, A; Zidi, A; El Mezni, F

2014-12-01

212

Epilepsy associated tumors: Review article  

PubMed Central

Long-term epilepsy associated tumors (LEAT) represent a well known cause of focal epilepsies. Glioneuronal tumors are the most frequent histological type consisting of a mixture of glial and neuronal elements and most commonly arising in the temporal lobe. Cortical dysplasia or other neuronal migration abnormalities often coexist. Epilepsy associated with LEAT is generally poorly controlled by antiepileptic drugs while, on the other hand, it is high responsive to surgical treatment. However the best management strategy of tumor-related focal epilepsies remains controversial representing a contemporary issues in epilepsy surgery. Temporo-mesial LEAT have a widespread epileptic network with complex epileptogenic mechanisms. By using an epilepsy surgery oriented strategy LEAT may have an excellent seizure outcome therefore surgical treatment should be offered early, irrespective of pharmacoresistance, avoiding both the consequences of uncontrolled seizures as well as the side effects of prolonged pharmacological therapy and the rare risk of malignant transformation. PMID:25405186

Giulioni, Marco; Marucci, Gianluca; Martinoni, Matteo; Marliani, Anna Federica; Toni, Francesco; Bartiromo, Fiorina; Volpi, Lilia; Riguzzi, Patrizia; Bisulli, Francesca; Naldi, Ilaria; Michelucci, Roberto; Baruzzi, Agostino; Tinuper, Paolo; Rubboli, Guido

2014-01-01

213

Tumor targeting, trifunctional dendritic wedge.  

PubMed

We report in vitro and in vivo evaluation of a newly designed trifunctional theranostic agent for targeting solid tumors. This agent combines a dendritic wedge with high boron content for boron neutron capture therapy or boron MRI, a monomethine cyanine dye for visible-light fluorescent imaging, and an integrin ligand for efficient tumor targeting. We report photophysical properties of the new agent, its cellular uptake and in vitro targeting properties. Using live animal imaging and intravital microscopy (IVM) techniques, we observed a rapid accumulation of the agent and its retention for a prolonged period of time (up to 7 days) in fully established animal models of human melanoma and murine mammary adenocarcinoma. This macromolecular theranostic agent can be used for targeted delivery of high boron load into solid tumors for future applications in boron neutron capture therapy. PMID:25350602

Dubey, Ramin; Kushal, Swati; Mollard, Alexis; Vojtovich, Lesya; Oh, Philip; Levin, Michael D; Schnitzer, Jan E; Zharov, Ilya; Olenyuk, Bogdan Z

2015-01-21

214

Epilepsy associated tumors: Review article.  

PubMed

Long-term epilepsy associated tumors (LEAT) represent a well known cause of focal epilepsies. Glioneuronal tumors are the most frequent histological type consisting of a mixture of glial and neuronal elements and most commonly arising in the temporal lobe. Cortical dysplasia or other neuronal migration abnormalities often coexist. Epilepsy associated with LEAT is generally poorly controlled by antiepileptic drugs while, on the other hand, it is high responsive to surgical treatment. However the best management strategy of tumor-related focal epilepsies remains controversial representing a contemporary issues in epilepsy surgery. Temporo-mesial LEAT have a widespread epileptic network with complex epileptogenic mechanisms. By using an epilepsy surgery oriented strategy LEAT may have an excellent seizure outcome therefore surgical treatment should be offered early, irrespective of pharmacoresistance, avoiding both the consequences of uncontrolled seizures as well as the side effects of prolonged pharmacological therapy and the rare risk of malignant transformation. PMID:25405186

Giulioni, Marco; Marucci, Gianluca; Martinoni, Matteo; Marliani, Anna Federica; Toni, Francesco; Bartiromo, Fiorina; Volpi, Lilia; Riguzzi, Patrizia; Bisulli, Francesca; Naldi, Ilaria; Michelucci, Roberto; Baruzzi, Agostino; Tinuper, Paolo; Rubboli, Guido

2014-11-16

215

[Pathology of benign thyroid tumor].  

PubMed

True benign neoplasm of the thyroid gland is only follicular adenoma, which is a tumor derived from follicular cells. Follicular adenoma is well-circumscribed, with no evidence of capsular or vascular invasion. The architectural pattern of follicular adenoma varies from trabecular to macrofollicular, and in most instances more than one architectural pattern is observed in one tumor. Adenomatous goiter, a hyperplastic lesion of follicles, is the most common tumorous lesion of thyroid gland. The gland is distorted with a nodular surface. The hyperplasia is followed by involution of the follicles leading to large follicles of varying size. Mature or immature teratoma is also observed in the thyroid gland. Mechanical implantation and parasitic nodule should not be misdiagnosed as lymph nodes harboring metastatic carcinoma. PMID:18018557

Kameyama, Kaori; Ito, Koichi; Takami, Hiroshi

2007-11-01

216

An isolated tumor perfusion model in mice  

PubMed Central

The role of stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment has been extensively characterized. We and others have shown that stromal cells may participate in several steps of the metastatic cascade. This protocol describes an isolated tumor perfusion model that enables studies of cancer and stromal cell shedding. It could also be used to study the effects of therapies interfering with the shedding of tumor cells or fragments, circulating (stem) cells or biomarkers. Primary tumors are grown in a microenvironment in which stromal cells express GFP ubiquitously. Tumors are implanted orthotopically or can be implanted ectopically. As a result, all tumor-associated stromal cells express GFP. This technique can be used to detect and study the role of stromal cells in tumor fragments within the circulation in mice. Studying the role of stromal cells in circulating tumor fragments using this model may take 2–10 weeks, depending on the growth rate of the primary tumor. PMID:22441293

Duyverman, Annique M M J; Kohno, Mitsutomo; Roberge, Sylvie; Fukumura, Dai; Duda, Dan G; Jain, Rakesh K

2012-01-01

217

Management of neuroendocrine tumors of unknown origin.  

PubMed

Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of unknown origin account for more than 10% of all NETs. Most of these tumors are poorly differentiated and, thus, very aggressive. Establishing the location of the primary tumor can be challenging. Workup of these NETs of unknown origin includes a thorough family history, immunohistochemistry, imaging, and OctreoScan. If the location of the primary malignancy is not determined, treatment is often initiated based on the grade and level of differentiation of the tumor, with well- and moderately differentiated tumors treated as carcinoid tumors, whereas poorly differentiated tumors are treated similarly to small cell tumors. Therapy is chosen based on symptoms and with the goal of debulking tumor when feasible and safe. PMID:22157557

Polish, Ariel; Vergo, Maxwell T; Agulnik, Mark

2011-12-01

218

Focal Epilepsy Associated with Glioneuronal Tumors  

PubMed Central

Glioneuronal tumors are an increasingly recognized cause of partial seizures that occur primarily in children and young adults. Focal epilepsy associated with glioneuronal tumors is often resistant to pharmacological treatment. The cellular mechanisms underlying the epileptogenicity of glioneuronal tumors remain largely unknown. The involved mechanisms are certain to be multifactorial and depend on specific tumor histology, integrity of the blood-brain barrier, characteristics of the peritumoral environment, circuit abnormalities, or cellular and molecular defects. Glioneuronal tumors presenting with epilepsy were observed to have relatively benign biological behavior. The completeness of the tumor resection is of paramount importance in avoiding tumor progression and malignant transformation, which are rare in cases of epileptogenic glioneuronal tumors. An evolving understanding of the various mechanisms of tumor-related epileptogenicity may also lead to a more defined surgical objective and effective therapeutic strategies, including antiepileptogenic treatments, to prevent epilepsy in at-risk patients. PMID:22389832

Loiacono, Giulia; Cirillo, Chiara; Chiarelli, Francesco; Verrotti, Alberto

2011-01-01

219

Imaging of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors  

PubMed Central

Imaging of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors can be broadly divided into anatomic and functional techniques. Anatomic imaging determines the local extent of the primary lesion, providing crucial information required for surgical planning. Functional imaging, not only determines the extent of metastatic disease spread, but also provides important information with regard to the biologic behavior of the tumor, allowing clinicians to decide on the most appropriate forms of treatment. We review the current literature on this subject, with emphasis on the strengths of each imaging modality. PMID:21603312

Tan, Eik Hock; Tan, Cher Heng

2011-01-01

220

Tumor Therapy with Ion Beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From 1954 when the first patient was treated at Berkeley to now, tumor therapy using ion beams has developed to high-technology application. In order to achieve an extreme tumor conform irradiation a fine pencil beam is guided over a three-dimensional grid of pixels that fills the target volume. A main problem is the quality assurance before, during, and after patient irradiation where different types of detectors and monitors are used. In this chapter, the basic principles of ion beam therapy are given and the monitor systems are described more in their functionality rather than in the individual specifications that differ between the various therapy units.

Kraft, Gerhard; Weber, Uli

221

Circadian rhythms and tumor growth.  

PubMed

Hormone secretion, metabolism, and the cell cycle are under rhythmic control. Lack of rhythmic control has been predicted to lead to uncontrolled proliferation and cancer. Consistent with this prediction are findings that circadian disruption by dim light at night or chronic jet lag accelerates tumor growth in desynchronized animals. Circadian controlled factors such as insulin/IGF-1, glucocorticoids, catecholamines, and melatonin have be implicated in controlling tumor growth in the desynchronized animals. Recent attention has focused on the signaling pathways activated by the circadian controlled factors because these pathways hold the potential for the development of novel strategies for cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:22252116

Greene, Michael W

2012-05-28

222

Adult Wilms tumor: Case report.  

PubMed

Wilms tumor (WT) occurs infrequently in adults. Even rarer is adult WT with extension by direct intravascular spread into the right side of the heart. The present report describes a WT with intracaval and intracardiac extension in a 38-year-young man. In addition, thrombus extension above the infrahepatic IVC represents a major technical topic for surgeons because of the possible occurrence of uncontrollable hemorrhages and tumor fragmentation. We report the results of a surgical approach to caval thrombosis including the isolation of the IVC from the liver as routinely performed during liver harvesting. The morphologic and immune-histochemical findings confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:25553532

Morabito, V; Guglielmo, N; Melandro, F; Mazzesi, G; Alesini, F; Bosco, S; Berloco, P B

2015-01-01

223

[Unilateral tumor of the iris].  

PubMed

We report the case of a 69-year-old asymptomatic woman who presented with the incidental diagnosis of a prominent, vascular, reddish tumor of the iris. The tumor displayed significant regression within months but reappeared years later with a similar morphology. Fluorescence angiography of the iris revealed a hypofluorescent area without intrinsic vasculature or prominent feeder vessels. In ultrasound biomicroscopy a solid, hypoechogenic iris mass was demonstrated most probably caused by varices of the iris which are a rare finding and difficult to differentiate from a cavernous hemangioma clinically. PMID:20878162

Ammermann, A; Platzeck, H; Hoerauf, H

2011-02-01

224

Tumors of the Pituitary Gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Anterior pituitary tumors are clonal proliferation of pituitary cells. They usually consist of one cell type, although some\\u000a adenomas consist of more than one cell type.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Pituitary tumors can be characterized by broad spectrum markers such as synaptophysin and chromogranin. Reticulin histochemical\\u000a staining is useful in separating normal hyperplastic and neoplastic pituitary tissues. Electron microscopy is a powerful tool\\u000a to

Ricardo V. Lloyd; Bernd W. Scheithauer; Eva Horvath; Kalman Kovacs

225

Evolution of Tumor Invasiveness: The Adaptive Tumor Microenvironment Landscape Model  

PubMed Central

Interactions between cancer cells and their microenvironment are crucial for promoting tumor growth and invasiveness. In the tumor adaptive landscape model, hypoxic and acidic microenvironmental conditions reduce the fitness of cancer cells and significantly restrict their proliferation. This selects for enhanced motility as cancer cells may evolve an invasive phenotype if the consequent cell movement is rewarded by proliferation. Here, we used an integrative approach combining a mathematical tumor adaptive landscape model with experimental studies to examine the evolutionary dynamics that promote an invasive cancer phenotype. Computer simulation results hypothesized an explicit coupling of motility and proliferation in cancer cells. The mathematical modeling results were also experimentally examined by selecting Panc-1 cells with enhanced motility on a fibroblast-derived 3D matrix for cells that move away from the unfavorable metabolic constraints. After multiple rounds of selection, the cells that adapted through increased motility were characterized for their phenotypic properties compared to stationary cells. Microarray and gene depletion studies demonstrated the role of Rho-GDI2 in regulating both cell movement and proliferation. Together, this work illustrates the partnership between evolutionary mathematical modeling and experimental validation as a potentially useful approach to study the complex dynamics of the tumor microenvironment. PMID:21859828

Lee, Hyung-Ok; Silva, Ariosto S.; Concilio, Susanna; Li, Yue-Sheng; Slifker, Michael; Gatenby, Robert A.; Cheng, Jonathan D.

2011-01-01

226

Palifosfamide in Treating Patients With Recurrent Germ Cell Tumors  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Adult Teratoma; Malignant Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Malignant Extragonadal Non-Seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor; Extragonadal Seminoma; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Extragonadal Non-Seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Extragonadal Seminoma; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor

2014-07-16

227

Palifosfamide in Treating Patients With Recurrent Germ Cell Tumors  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Adult Teratoma; Malignant Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Malignant Extragonadal Non-Seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor; Extragonadal Seminoma; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Extragonadal Non-Seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Extragonadal Seminoma; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor

2015-01-30

228

[Classification and natural history of bladder tumors].  

PubMed

Urinary bladder tumors are mainly of urothelial type. Classifications include stage and grade to provide with the required prognostic factors and help to select the most adequate treatment. Though somatic mutations in bladder tumors are known, their used for targeted therapy are restricted to clinical trials. Upper urinary tract tumors are classified as urinary bladder tumor at histological level, but tumor staging is specified according to calyx, renal pelvis or ureter location; in young patients with upper urinary tract tumor, a Lynch syndrome should be eliminated. PMID:25668829

Allory, Yves

2014-12-01

229

Ceramide kinase promotes tumor cell survival and mammary tumor recurrence.  

PubMed

Recurrent breast cancer is typically an incurable disease and, as such, is disproportionately responsible for deaths from this disease. Recurrent breast cancers arise from the pool of disseminated tumor cells (DTC) that survive adjuvant or neoadjuvant therapy, and patients with detectable DTCs following therapy are at substantially increased risk for recurrence. Consequently, the identification of pathways that contribute to the survival of breast cancer cells following therapy could aid in the development of more effective therapies that decrease the burden of residual disease and thereby reduce the risk of breast cancer recurrence. We now report that ceramide kinase (Cerk) is required for mammary tumor recurrence following HER2/neu pathway inhibition and is spontaneously upregulated during tumor recurrence in multiple genetically engineered mouse models for breast cancer. We find that Cerk is rapidly upregulated in tumor cells following HER2/neu downregulation or treatment with Adriamycin and that Cerk is required for tumor cell survival following HER2/neu downregulation. Consistent with our observations in mouse models, analysis of gene expression profiles from more than 2,200 patients revealed that elevated CERK expression is associated with an increased risk of recurrence in women with breast cancer. In addition, although CERK expression is associated with aggressive subtypes of breast cancer, including those that are estrogen receptor-negative, HER2(+), basal-like, or high grade, its association with poor clinical outcome is independent of these clinicopathologic variables. Together, our findings identify a functional role for Cerk in breast cancer recurrence and suggest the clinical utility of agents targeted against this prosurvival pathway. PMID:25164007

Payne, Ania W; Pant, Dhruv K; Pan, Tien-Chi; Chodosh, Lewis A

2014-11-01

230

Unarmed, tumor-specific monoclonal antibody effectively treats brain tumors  

PubMed Central

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is often amplified and rearranged structurally in tumors of the brain, breast, lung, and ovary. The most common mutation, EGFRvIII, is characterized by an in-frame deletion of 801 base pairs, resulting in the generation of a novel tumor-specific epitope at the fusion junction. A murine homologue of the human EGFRvIII mutation was created, and an IgG2a murine mAb, Y10, was generated that recognizes the human and murine equivalents of this tumor-specific antigen. In vitro, Y10 was found to inhibit DNA synthesis and cellular proliferation and to induce autonomous, complement-mediated, and antibodydependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Systemic treatment with i.p. Y10 of s.c. B16 melanomas transfected to express stably the murine EGFRvIII led to long-term survival in all mice treated (n = 20; P < 0.001). Similar therapy with i.p. Y10 failed to increase median survival of mice with EGFRvIII-expressing B16 melanomas in the brain; however, treatment with a single intratumoral injection of Y10 increased median survival by an average 286%, with 26% long-term survivors (n = 117; P < 0.001). The mechanism of action of Y10 in vivo was shown to be independent of complement, granulocytes, natural killer cells, and T lymphocytes through in vivo complement and cell subset depletions. Treatment with Y10 in Fc receptor knockout mice demonstrated the mechanism of Y10 to be Fc receptor-dependent. These data indicate that an unarmed, tumor-specific mAb may be an effective immunotherapy against human tumors and potentially other pathologic processes in the “immunologically privileged” central nervous system. PMID:10852962

Sampson, John H.; Crotty, Laura E.; Lee, Samson; Archer, Gary E.; Ashley, David M.; Wikstrand, Carol J.; Hale, Laura P.; Small, Clayton; Dranoff, Glenn; Friedman, Allan H.; Friedman, Henry S.; Bigner, Darell D.

2000-01-01

231

Diagnostic Study of Tumor Characteristics in Patients With Ewing's Sarcoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Localized Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

2013-06-20

232

ALCHEMIST (Estudios sobre la Secuenciación e Identificación de Marcadores para el Mejoramiento de la Terapia Adjuvante para el Cáncer de Pulmón): Preguntas y respuestas  

Cancer.gov

ALCHEMIST comprende tres estudios clínicos integrados de medicina de precisión diseñados para identificar a personas con cáncer de pulmón en estadio inicial cuyos tumores tienen ciertos cambios genéticos poco comunes. También buscan evaluar si los tratamientos con medicamentos que combaten esos cambios moleculares pueden mejorar la supervivencia

233

Familial Testicular Germ Cell Tumors  

PubMed Central

In this review, we define familial testicular germ cell tumors (FTGCT) as testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) diagnosed in at least two blood relatives, a situation which occurs in 1-2% of all cases of TGCT. Brothers and fathers of TGCT patients have an 8-10 and 4-6 fold increased risk of TGCT, respectively, and an even higher elevated risk of TGCT in twin brothers of men with TGCT has been observed, suggesting that genetic elements play an important role in these tumors. Nevertheless, previous linkage studies with multiple FTGCT families did not uncover any high-penetrance genes and it has been concluded that the combined effects of multiple common alleles, each conferring modest risk, might underlie FTGCT. In agreement with this assumption, recent candidate gene association analyses have identified the chromosome Y gr/gr deletion and mutations in the PDE11A gene as genetic modifiers of FTGCT risk. Moreover, two genomewide association studies of predominantly sporadic but also familial cases of TGCT have identified three additional susceptibility loci, KITLG, SPRY4 and BAK1. Notably, all five loci are involved in the biology of primordial germ cells, representing the cell of origin of TGCT, suggesting that the tumors arise as a result of disturbed testicular development. PMID:20833340

Kratz, Christian P.; Mai, Phuong L.; Greene, Mark H.

2010-01-01

234

Evolution of Avian Tumor Viruses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Virus-induced neoplastic diseases of poultry, namely Marek’s disease (MD), induced by a herpesvirus, and the avian leukosis and reticuloendotheliosis induced by retroviruses, can cause significant economic losses from tumor mortality as well as poor performance. Successful control of MD is and has ...

235

[The systematization of APUD tumors].  

PubMed

The mechanisms involved in neuroendocrine transmission of peptides, underlying the so-called classification of multiple endocrine neoplasms (MEN), are described. Three cases from the clinical practice are followed up where facilitation of the diagnosis and the results of treatment are related to the tumor markers' values. PMID:8648958

Liubenov, T; Terziev, I

1995-01-01

236

Surgery in advanced borderline tumors.  

PubMed

Our retrospective study evaluates the role of conservative surgery, performed in 10 of 22 patients affected by advanced stage serous borderline ovarian tumor. Although patients who underwent conservative surgery had a higher recurrence rate (60% after conservative surgery and 8% after radical surgery), all patients are alive without evidence of disease. PMID:20036359

Viganò, Riccardo; Petrone, Micaela; Pella, Francesca; Rabaiotti, Emanuela; De Marzi, Patrizia; Mangili, Giorgia

2010-08-01

237

Giant cell tumor of bone.  

PubMed

Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is one type of giant cell-rich lesion of bone. This benign mesenchymal tumor has characteristic multinuclear giant cells. Mononuclear stromal cells are the physiologically active and diagnostic cell type. Most GCTs are located in the epiphyseal regions of long bones. The axial skeleton-primarily the sacrum-is a secondary site of involvement. Most patients present with pain, swelling, joint effusion, and disability in the third and fourth decades of life. Imaging studies are important for tumor staging and radiographic grading. Typically, these clinically active but slow-growing tumors are confined to bone, with relatively well-defined radiographic borders. Monostotic disease is most common. Metastatic spread to the lungs is rare. Extended intralesional curettage with or without adjuvant therapy is the primary treatment choice. Local recurrence is seen in ? 20% of cases, and a second local intralesional procedure is typically sufficient in cases that are detected early. Medical therapies include diphosphonates and denosumab. Denosumab has been approved for use in osteoporosis as well as breast and prostate cancer metastatic to bone. Medical therapy and radiotherapy can alter the management of GCT of bone, especially in multifocal disease, local recurrences, and bulky central/axial disease. PMID:23378375

Raskin, Kevin A; Schwab, Joseph H; Mankin, Henry J; Springfield, Dempsey S; Hornicek, Francis J

2013-02-01

238

[Maffucci syndrome and ovarian tumor].  

PubMed

Maffucci's syndrome was first described in 1881 and results of a mesodermic dysembryoplasia, congenital but not hereditary. Pathogenic hypothesis are multiple. This syndrome is characterized by the occurrence of multiple haemangiomas in the soft tissue, and multiple enchondromas of the bones. The association of ovary tumor is however exceptional. Four cases are reported in the literature; we report the fifth case. PMID:8204959

Hamdoun, L; Mouelhi, C; Zhioua, F; Jedoui, A; Meriah, S; Houet, S

1993-09-01

239

Tumors of the Infratemporal Fossa  

PubMed Central

Neoplastic processes involving the infratemporal fossa may originate from the tissues in the region, but more often are the result of extension from neighboring structures. Metastatic lesions located in the region are rarely encountered. Because of its concealed localization, tumors may remain unnoticed for some time. Clinical signs and symptoms often arise late, are insidious, and may be mistakenly attributed to other structures. The close proximity of the area to the intracranial structures, the orbit, the paranasal sinuses, the nasopharynx, and the facial area demands careful planning of surgical excision and combined procedures may be called for. Modern imaging techniques have made three-dimensional visualization of the extent of the pathology possible. Treatment depends on the histopathology and staging of the tumor. Several surgical approaches have been developed over the years. Radical tumor excision with preservation of the quality of life remain the ultimate goal for those tumors where surgery is indicated. Experience over a decade with various pathologies is presented. ImagesFigure 1p6-bFigure 2Figure 3 PMID:17171095

Tiwari, Rammohan; Quak, Jasper; Egeler, Saskia; Smeele, Ludi; Waal, Isaac v.d.; Valk, Paul v.d.; Leemans, Rene

2000-01-01

240

Primary Neuroendocrine Tumor in Brain  

PubMed Central

The incidence of brain metastases for neuroendocrine tumor (NET) is reportedly 1.5~5%, and the origin is usually pulmonary. A 77-year-old man presented to our hospital with headache and disturbance of specific skilled motor activities. Computed tomography (CT) showed a massive neoplastic lesion originating in the left temporal and parietal lobes that caused a mass edematous effect. Grossly, total resection of the tumor was achieved. Histological examination revealed much nuclear atypia and mitotic figures. Staining for CD56, chromogranin A, and synaptophysin was positive, indicating NET. The MIB-1 index was 37%. Histopathologically, the tumor was diagnosed as NET. After surgery, gastroscopy and colonoscopy were performed, but the origin was not seen. After discharge, CT and FDG-PET (fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography) were performed every 3 months. Two years later we have not determined the origin of the tumor. It is possible that the brain is the primary site of this NET. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of this phenomenon. PMID:25506006

Tamura, Ryota; Kuroshima, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Yoshiki

2014-01-01

241

Metastatic placental site trophoblastic tumor.  

PubMed

Since our publication, which first defined the malignant potential of placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT), we have had a keen interest in this rare, unique entity. This histologic entity is noted by its monomorphic population of trophoblast-like cells which are classified as originating in the intermediate trophoblast. These cells contain hymman placental lactogen (HPL). This is in contrast to cytotrophoblastic and syncytiotrophblastic tissues as the histologic, cytologic and immunohistochemical stain characteristics are disparate. Its rarity and the wide spectrum of clinical behavior combined with the lack of sensitivity of serum levels of beta hCG in predicting disease recurrence and spread have lead to anecdotal reports outlining clinical management. Most discerning to the clinician is the high mortality of metastatic placental site trophoblastic tumor. At our institution, we have treated two patients with a metastatic disease with a successful conclusion. The durability of responses is 3 and 8 years. This report will present these patients in detail and define the important characteristics of successful treatment. The use of dose-intensive, multi-agent chemotherapy, early intervention when metastatic disease is discovered, imaging techniques to define disease spread, surgery for localized disease and the use of growth factors, most notably granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), are the fundamentals of clinical care of placental site trophoblastic tumor in patients with metastatic placental site trophoblastic tumor. PMID:9833615

Twiggs, L B; Hartenbach, E; Saltzman, A K; King, L A

1998-04-01

242

NORMAS GERAIS PARA INGRESSO COMO PORTADOR DE DIPLOMA DE  

E-print Network

1 NORMAS GERAIS PARA INGRESSO COMO PORTADOR DE DIPLOMA DE GRADUA��O (BRASIL) PERÍODO 2013.1 PRAZO COMO PORTADOR DE DIPLOMA DE GRADUA��O DO BRASIL I­DAS CONDI��ES Portadores de Diploma de Graduação de; - Certificado de Dispensa de Incorporação; - CPF; Se candidato estrangeiro: - Certificado de

243

Human polyomaviruses and brain tumors.  

PubMed

Polyomaviruses are DNA tumor viruses with small circular genomes. Three polyomaviruses have captured attention with regard to their potential role in the development of human brain tumors: JC virus (JCV), BK virus (BKV), and simian vacuolating virus 40 (SV40). JCV is a neurotropic polyomavirus that is the etiologic agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a fatal demyelinating disease of the central nervous system occurring mainly in AIDS patients. BKV is the causative agent of polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PVN) which occurs after renal transplantation when BKV reactivates from a latent state during immunosuppressive therapy to cause allograft failure. SV40, originating in rhesus monkeys, gained notoriety when it entered the human population via contaminated polio vaccines. All three viruses are highly oncogenic when injected into the brain of experimental animals. Reports indicate that these viruses, especially JCV, are associated with brain tumors and other cancers in humans as evidenced from the analysis of clinical samples for the presence of viral DNA sequences and expression of viral proteins. Human polyomaviruses encode three non-capsid regulatory proteins: large T-antigen, small t-antigen, and agnoprotein. These proteins interact with a number of cellular target proteins to exert effects that dysregulate pathways involved in the control of various host cell functions including the cell cycle, DNA repair, and others. In this review, we describe the three polyomaviruses, their abilities to cause brain and other tumors in experimental animals, the evidence for an association with human brain tumors, and the latest findings on the molecular mechanisms of their actions. PMID:15982744

White, Martyn K; Gordon, Jennifer; Reiss, Krzysztof; Del Valle, Luis; Croul, Sidney; Giordano, Antonio; Darbinyan, Armine; Khalili, Kamel

2005-12-01

244

Estrogen's Impact on Colon Tumor Formation  

E-print Network

One hundred thirty six men and women die every day from colon cancer in the United States (2008 statistics). Estrogen has been shown to reduce colonic tumor inflammation; however, it is unclear in the tumor development and growth process what...

Tinsley, Kirby

2010-07-14

245

General Information about Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors  

MedlinePLUS

... carcinoid tumor, not liver cancer . The plan for cancer treatment depends on where the carcinoid tumor is found ... clinical trials before, during, or after starting their cancer treatment. Some clinical trials only include patients who have ...

246

Deciphering and Reversing Tumor Immune Suppression  

PubMed Central

Generating an anti-tumor immune response is a multi-step process that is executed by effector T cells that can recognize and kill tumor targets. However, tumors employ multiple strategies to attenuate the effectiveness of T cell-mediated attack. This is achieved by interfering with nearly every step required for effective immunity, from deregulation of antigen-presenting cells, to establishment of a physical barrier at the vasculature that prevents homing of effector tumor-rejecting cells, and through the suppression of effector lymphocytes through the recruitment and activation of immunosuppressive cells like myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), tolerogenic monocytes and T regulatory cells (Tregs). Here, we review the ways in which tumors exert immune suppression and highlight the new therapies that seek to reverse this phenomenon and promote anti-tumor immunity. Understanding anti-tumor immunity, and how it becomes disabled by tumors, will ultimately lead to improved immune therapies and prolonged survival of patients. PMID:23890064

Motz, Greg T.; Coukos, George

2013-01-01

247

Systemic Tumor-Specific Gene Delivery  

PubMed Central

The objective of a systemically administered cancer gene therapy is to achieve gene expression that is isolated to the tumor tissue. Unfortunately, viral systems have strong affinity for the liver, and delivery from non-viral cationic systems often results in high expression in the lungs. Non-specific delivery to these organs must be overcome if tumors are to be aggressively treated with genes such as IL-12 which activates a tumor immune response, and TNF-alpha which can induce tumor cell apoptosis. Techniques which have led to specific expression in tumor tissue include receptor targeting through ligand conjugation, utilization of tumor specific promoters and viral mutation in order to take advantage of proteins overexpressed in tumor cells. This review analyzes these techniques applied to liposomal, PEI, dendrimer, stem cell and viral gene delivery systems in order to determine the techniques that are most effective in achieving tumor specific gene expression after systemic administration. PMID:24035974

Kullberg, Max; McCarthy, Ryan; Anchordoquy, Thomas J.

2013-01-01

248

Tumor cell migration in complex microenvironments  

E-print Network

Tumor cell migration is essential for invasion and dissemination from primary solid tumors and for the establishment of lethal secondary metastases at distant organs. In vivo and in vitro models enabled identification of ...

Polacheck, William Joseph

249

Paxillin-dependent control of tumor angiogenesis  

E-print Network

Angiogenesis- the growth of new capillaries from existing vessels- is required for tumor growth; however, tumor vessels exhibit abnormal structure and function, which impairs the targeted delivery of anti-cancer agents. ...

German, Alexandra Elisa

2014-01-01

250

Cancer Stem Cells Found in Pancreatic Tumors  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have detected cancer stem cells in tumors from patients with pancreatic cancer. Experiments in mice suggest that these cancer stem cells may help explain the aggressive growth and spread of pancreatic tumors seen in patients.

251

Tumor Quantification in Clinical Positron Emission Tomography  

PubMed Central

Positron emission tomography (PET) is used extensively in clinical oncology for tumor detection, staging and therapy response assessment. Quantitative measurements of tumor uptake, usually in the form of standardized uptake values (SUVs), have enhanced or replaced qualitative interpretation. In this paper we review the current status of tumor quantification methods and their applications to clinical oncology. Factors that impede quantitative assessment and limit its accuracy and reproducibility are summarized, with special emphasis on SUV analysis. We describe current efforts to improve the accuracy of tumor uptake measurements, characterize overall metabolic tumor burden and heterogeneity of tumor uptake, and account for the effects of image noise. We also summarize recent developments in PET instrumentation and image reconstruction and their impact on tumor quantification. Finally, we offer our assessment of the current development needs in PET tumor quantification, including practical techniques for fully quantitative, pharmacokinetic measurements. PMID:24312151

Bai, Bing; Bading, James; Conti, Peter S

2013-01-01

252

Histopathology of tumors of the pineal region.  

PubMed

Pineal region tumors are heterogeneous lesions and include mainly pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs), papillary tumors of the pineal region (PTPRs) and germ cell tumors (GCTs). This article describes the cystic pineal gland compared with normal tissue and histopathological features of the most frequent pineal region tumors. PPTs are subdivided into pineocytoma (grade I), pineoblastoma (grade IV) and tumors with intermediate differentiation (PPTIDs; grades II-III). A grading system based on the number of mitoses and neurofilament protein expression distinguishes low- from high-grade PPTID. PTPR is a new tumoral entity thought to originate from the subcommissural organ. GCTs include germinoma, embryonal carcinoma, teratoma, yolk sac tumor and choriocarcinoma and are often of mixed histologic composition. New histogenetic data for GCTs are presented. PMID:20465391

Fèvre-Montange, Michelle; Vasiljevic, Alexandre; Champier, Jacques; Jouvet, Anne

2010-05-01

253

Papillary endolymphatic sac tumor: a case report.  

PubMed

Glandular tumors involving the middle ear are rare and distinguishing between adenoma and adenocarcinoma remains difficult. A distinct subclass of these tumors demonstrates microscopic papillary architecture and has a propensity to erode the petrous bone and extend intracranially. The term "aggressive papillary middle ear tumor" has recently been proposed to describe this more invasive type of middle ear tumor. These tumors cause symptoms even when microscopic in size. Although histologically benign, they have been locally destructive with frequent intracranial extension and patients may die of uncontrolled local disease. These tumors do not metastasize but there is single case report of drop metastasis to the spine in the literature. Hence this tumor must be distinguished from other benign tumors of the middle ear. These rare neoplasms constitute a distinct pathological entity and deserve wider recognition. PMID:22953101

Arava, S; Soumya, R M; Chitragar, S; Safaya, R; Chandrashekhar, S H; Thakar, Alok

2012-01-01

254

Deregulated proliferation and differentiation in brain tumors.  

PubMed

Neurogenesis, the generation of new neurons, is deregulated in neural stem cell (NSC)- and progenitor-derived murine models of malignant medulloblastoma and glioma, the most common brain tumors of children and adults, respectively. Molecular characterization of human malignant brain tumors, and in particular brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs), has identified neurodevelopmental transcription factors, microRNAs, and epigenetic factors known to inhibit neuronal and glial differentiation. We are starting to understand how these factors are regulated by the major oncogenic drivers in malignant brain tumors. In this review, we will focus on the molecular switches that block normal neuronal differentiation and induce brain tumor formation. Genetic or pharmacological manipulation of these switches in BTSCs has been shown to restore the ability of tumor cells to differentiate. We will discuss potential brain tumor therapies that will promote differentiation in order to reduce treatment resistance, suppress tumor growth, and prevent recurrence in patients. PMID:25416506

Swartling, Fredrik J; ?an?er, Matko; Frantz, Aaron; Weishaupt, Holger; Persson, Anders I

2015-01-01

255

CT and MR of pineal region tumors.  

PubMed

Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging features of pineal region tumors were analyzed in 14 oncologic cases. The tumors were classified as germ-cell tumors, glial tumors, pineal parenchymal tumors, meningiomas, and cysts. They demonstrated different MR signal characteristics on precontrast scans and nodular or ring type enhancement with occasional central lucencies, except for benign cysts, which have not shown enhancement. MR images were useful in defining the relationship of the tumor to the posterior third ventricle, sylvian aqueduct, vein of Galen, and tentorium. Although CT can demonstrate in more evident fashion displacement of the original pineal calcification as well as tumor calcifications, MR imaging demonstrates different signal characteristics in germinomas and pineoblastomas which can be a useful adjunct in the evaluation and differential diagnosis of these tumors. PMID:8295504

Gouliamos, A D; Kalovidouris, A E; Kotoulas, G K; Athanasopoulou, A K; Kouvaris, J R; Trakadas, S J; Vlahos, L J; Papavasiliou, C G

1994-01-01

256

TumorsThe Multidisciplinary Neuroendocrine Program  

E-print Network

Pituitary TumorsThe Multidisciplinary Neuroendocrine Program The region's most advanced care for pituitary tumors and associated disorders. The Multidisciplinary Neuroendocrine Program offers patients the most complete and advanced care for pituitary adenomas and other disorders of the hypothalamic

Goldman, Steven A.

257

[Pediatric brain tumors of neuroepithelial tissue].  

PubMed

Tumors of neuroepithelial tissue represent the largest group of pediatric brain tumors by far and has therefore been divided into several discrete tumor subtypes each corresponding to a specific component of the neuropil. The neuropil contains several subtypes of glial cells, including astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells and modified ependymal cells that form the choroid plexus. This review discusses the imaging aspects of the most common pediatric tumors of neuroepithelial tissue. PMID:25085594

Papanagiotou, P; Bergmann, M; Pekrun, A; Juergens, K U; Politi, M

2014-08-01

258

Solitary fibrous tumor of the oral cavity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of benign solitary fibrous tumor of the oral cavity is reported. The tumor occurred in the buccal mucosa of a 34-year-old woman. The surgically removed tumor was 1.5 × 1.2 × 1.0 cm in size and well circumscribed. Histologically, the tumor was composed of spindle-shaped cells that were predominantly arranged haphazardly. Hemangiopericytomalike areas and collagenous areas were also

Kenji Kurihara; Kiyoshi Mizuseki; Junya Sonobe; Junji Yanagihara

1999-01-01

259

Normalization of Tumor Vasculature and Microenvironment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid tumors require blood vessels for growth, and many new cancer therapies are targeted against the tumor vasculature. The\\u000a widely held view is that these antiangiogenic therapies destroy the tumor vasculature, thereby depriving the tumor of oxygen\\u000a and nutrients. Indeed that is the ultimate goal of antiangiogenic therapies. However, emerging preclinical and clinical evidence\\u000a support an alternative hypothesis, that judicious

Rakesh K. Jain; Tracy T. Batchelor; Dan G. Duda; Christopher G. Willett

260

Antibody-Based Vascular Tumor Targeting  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The inhibition of angiogenesis represents a major step toward a more selective and better-tolerated therapy of cancer. An\\u000a alternative way to take advantage of a tumor’s absolute dependence on a functional neovasculature is illustrated by the strategy\\u000a of “antibody-based vascular tumor targeting.” This technology aims at the selective delivery of bioactive molecules to the\\u000a tumor site by their conjugation to

Christoph Schliemann; Dario Neri

261

Primary salivary type lung tumor: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Primary salivary type lung cancer are extremely rare intrathoracic malignancies. Mucoepidermoid tumor is one of the salivary gland tumor which originates from submucosal glands of tracheobronchial tree. These are very slow growing low grade malignant tumors. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment and rarely requires adjuvant therapy. In this case report, we describe a case of a young male who presented with cough and hemoptysis. On further investigation he was found to have mucoepidermoid tumor originating from the left bronchus.

Chopra, Amit; Shim, Chang; Sharma, Nirmal; Gordon, David; Tibb, Amit

2013-01-01

262

Tumors and tumor-like lesions of peripheral nerves.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of a peripheral nerve tumor can often be suggested on imaging. Direct continuity with a neural structure or location along a typical nerve distribution, shape, and intrinsic magnetic resonance (MR) signal characteristics represent the most important signs in this regard. Although several nonneoplastic nerve lesions can be specifically diagnosed by MR imaging, benign and malignant neoplasms of peripheral nerves can usually not be distinguished with confidence. This article reviews the MR imaging appearance, clinical and pathological features of schwannoma, localized neurofibroma, plexiform neurofibroma, intraneural perineurioma, fibrolipomatous hamartoma, nerve sheath ganglion, traumatic neuroma, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, and secondary malignant neoplasms of peripheral nerves. Typical findings are illustrated on the basis of histologically confirmed cases. PMID:21072731

Woertler, Klaus

2010-11-01

263

Employing pancreatic tumor ?-glutamyltransferase for therapeutic delivery.  

PubMed

?-Glutamyltransferase (?GT) is a cell surface enzyme that catalyzes hydrolysis of the bond linking the glutamate and cysteine residues of glutathione and glutathione-S-conjugates. We have observed that human pancreatic tumor cells and tumor-associated stellate cells express high levels of this enzyme when compared to normal pancreatic epithelial and stellate cells. Detection of the protein in tumor sections correlated with ?GT activity on the surface of the cultured tumor and stellate cells. We tested whether the tumor ?GT could be employed to deliver a therapeutic to the tumor endothelial cells. GSAO is a glutathione-S-conjugate of a trivalent arsenical that is activated to enter endothelial cells by ?GT cleavage of the ?-glutamyl residue. The arsenical moiety triggers proliferation arrest and death of the endothelial cells by targeting the mitochondria. Human pancreatic tumor and stellate cell ?GT activated GSAO in culture and ?GT activity positively correlated with GSAO-mediated proliferation arrest and death of endothelial cells in Transwell and coculture systems. A soluble form of ?GT is found in blood, and we measured the rate of activation of GSAO by this enzyme. We calculated that systemically administered GSAO would circulate through the pancreatic blood supply several times before appreciable activation by normal blood levels of ?GT. In support of this finding, tumor ?GT activity positively correlated with GSAO-mediated inhibition of pancreatic tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth in mice. Our findings indicate that pancreatic tumor ?GT can be used to deliver a therapeutic to the tumor. PMID:24654974

Ramsay, Emma E; Decollogne, Stéphanie; Joshi, Swapna; Corti, Alessandro; Apte, Minoti; Pompella, Alfonso; Hogg, Philip J; Dilda, Pierre J

2014-05-01

264

Progress of fundamental research in Wilms' tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progress of fundamental research on the histopathological and molecular genetic properties, model systems, growth factor involvement, and tumor markers of clinical nephroblastoma (Wilms' tumor) are reviewed. Histologically, Wilms' tumor (WT) has been found to reveal a disorganized renal developmental process in which blastema and epithelia are randomly interspersed in varying amounts of stroma. Anaplasia is the only criterion for

J. G. Wen; G. J. van Steenbrugge; R. M. Egeler; R. M. Nijman

1997-01-01

265

Non-functioning pituitary tumors: 2012 update.  

PubMed

Non-functioning pituitary adenomas are the most common pituitary macroadenomas in adults, accounting for approximately 14%-28% of all clinically relevant pituitary tumors. They are a heterogeneous group of tumors that cause symptoms by compression and/or hormone deficiencies. The possibility of tumor growth is increased in macroadenomas and solid tumors as compared to microadenomas and cystic tumors. Diagnosis is based on imaging procedures (magnetic resonance imaging), but there are studies reporting promising potential biomarkers. Transsphenoidal surgery remains the first therapeutic option for large tumors with compressive symptoms. There is no evidence that endoscopic procedures improve outcomes, but they decrease morbidity. There is no unanimity in finding prognostic predictors of recurrence. Radiosurgery achieves tumor control and, sometimes, adenoma size reduction. Its adverse effects increase with higher doses and tumor sizes>4cm(3). Drug treatment is of little value. In aggressive non-functioning tumors, temozolomide (TMZ) may be used with caution because no controlled studies are available. TMZ achieves tumor control in 38%-40% of aggressive non-functioning tumors. The optimal treatment regimen and duration have not been defined yet. Lack of response to TMZ after 3 cycles predicts for treatment resistance, but initial response does not ensure optimal mid or long-term results. O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase expression has a limited predictive value of response to treatment with TMZ in aggressive non-functioning tumors. It should therefore not be a determinant factor in selection of patients to be treated with TMZ. PMID:24035732

Cámara Gómez, Rosa

2014-03-01

266

Gene therapy targeting to tumor endothelium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor-associated vasculature is a relatively accessible component of solid cancers that is essential for tumor survival and growth, providing a vulnerable target for cancer gene therapy administered by intravenous injection. Several features of tumor-associated vasculature are different from normal vasculature, including overexpression of receptors for angiogenic growth factors, markers of vasculogenesis, upregulation of coagulation cascades, aberrant expression of adhesion molecules

M Bazan-Peregrino; L W Seymour; A L Harris

2007-01-01

267

Giant cell tumor of the capitate.  

PubMed

Giant cell tumors are primary bone tumors most often observed in the metaepiphyses of long bones; location in the hand, especially the carpal bones, is rare. We report a patient with recurrent giant cell tumor of the capitate and discuss treatment and prognosis in this rare site. PMID:21373912

Angelini, Andrea; Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Ruggieri, Pietro

2011-04-01

268

Overview of Pediatric Testicular Tumors in Korea  

PubMed Central

Prepubertal testicular tumors are rare compared with postpubertal testicular tumors. The incidence of prepubertal testicular tumors peaks at 2 years of age, tapers off after 4 years of age, and then begins to rise again at puberty. Prepubertal and postpubertal testicular tumors show many differences, including the typical tumor histology, molecular biological differences, and the malignant potential of tumors at different ages. Pediatric testicular tumors are classified as benign or malignant on the basis of their clinical behavior and histologically are divided into germ cell and gonadal stromal (nongerm cell) tumors. Many histological and biological studies have further confirmed the distinct nature of prepubertal and postpubertal testicular tumors. These differences have led to various management strategies for prepubertal and postpubertal tumors. Because overall about 75% of prepubertal testicular tumors are benign, a testis-sparing approach is becoming more common in children. Orchiectomy and observation with very selective use of chemotherapy has become the standard approach when a malignant tumor is identified. Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection and radiation therapy play very limited roles. PMID:25512812

Chung, Jae Min

2014-01-01

269

Fuzzy tumor-immune interaction system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we study a tumor-immune interaction system in fuzzy environment. By assuming the initial values of the tumor-immune interaction system as fuzzy values, we obtain a fuzzy tumor-immune interaction system. We then use the extension principle of Zadeh to interpret the obtained system and propose its solution numerically by means of fuzzy Euler method.

Daud, Wan Suhana Wan; Ahmad, Muhammad Zaini; Sakib, Elyana; Hasan, Zabidi Abu

2014-07-01

270

Metastatic Brenner tumor--a case report.  

PubMed

In our report we present a case of metastatic Brenner tumor of the right ovary in a 74-year-old woman. The diagnosis was based on microscopic examination of surgical specimen and a comparison of the immunohistochemical profile of the primary and metastatic tumors. Additionally, we proved urothelial differentiation of the proliferating Brenner tumor, which is in accordance with the literature. PMID:16334984

Korski, Konstanty; Breborowicz, Danuta; Porzegowski, Marek

2005-01-01

271

Rare tumors of the rectum. Narrative review.  

PubMed

Most rectal neoplasms are adenocarcinomas, but there is a small percentage of tumors which are of other histological cell lines such as neuroendocrine tumors, sarcomas, lymphomas and squamous cell carcinomas, which have special characteristics and different treatments. We have reviewed these rare tumors of the rectum from a clinical and surgical point of view. PMID:24629769

Errasti Alustiza, José; Espín Basany, Eloy; Reina Duarte, Angel

2014-11-01

272

Carcinoid tumor of the gall bladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carcinoid of the gall bladder and bile duct is a rare tumor. Primary gall bladder and billiard duct system carinoids constitute less than 1% of all carcinoid tumors arising from different parts of the body. We describe a case of carcinoid tumor of the gall bladder in a 53-year-old woman. The rarity of this entity prompted us to present our

Vasala Anjaneyulu; Gouri Shankar-Swarnalatha; Simhadri Chandra-Sekhar Rao

2007-01-01

273

MR imaging in staging of bone tumors  

PubMed Central

For staging of bone tumors, TNM and Enneking’s systems are used with some differences. Magnetic resonance imaging is particularly useful for defining the extent of high-grade tumors, including transcortical and intertrabecular infiltration and periosteal extension. The concepts of compartment and curative surgical margins are important for bone tumor staging. PMID:17098647

Ehara, Shigeru

2006-01-01

274

Variability of tumor response to chemotherapy II. Contribution of tumor heterogeneity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of tumor-to-tumor variability in response to chemotherapy was investigated in mice bearing mammary adenocarcinoma 16\\/C treated with melphalan. Lissamine green, a triphenylmethane dye, was given systemically to delineate areas of perfusion in the tumors. The regions of low perfusion ranged from 10% to >90% of the mass of individual tumors. The variation in perfusion was as large between

L. Simpson-Herren; P. E. Noker; S. D. Wagoner

1988-01-01

275

Diagnostic strategies in bone tumors and tumor-like lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Real bone tumors are rarely encountered in the daily routine of radiological practice. Therefore, for a general radiologist\\u000a there is no need for a specialist knowledge on this field. However, he should be able to distinguish benign from malignant\\u000a lesions in order to avoid unnecessary biopsies. A systematic approach towards osteolytic lesions, e. g. according to the classification\\u000a of

J. Freyschmidt

1998-01-01

276

Kidney Cancer in Children (Wilms Tumor): After Treatment Information  

MedlinePLUS

... Diagnosed In Treatment After Treatment Late Effects of Kidney/Wilms Tumor After a patient finishes treatment for cancer , there ... Tumors Ewing Sarcoma Eye Cancer Germ Cell Tumors Kidney/Wilms Tumor Liver Cancer Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Skin Cancer Soft ...

277

Aflac ST0901 CHOANOME - Sirolimus in Solid Tumors  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Ewing's Sarcoma; Osteosarcoma; Astrocytoma; Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Ependymoma; Germ Cell Tumor; Glioma; Medulloblastoma; Rhabdoid Tumor; Retinoblastoma; Clear Cell Sarcoma; Renal Cell Carcinoma; Wilms Tumor; Hepatoblastoma; Neuroblastoma; Rhabdomyosarcoma

2014-11-11

278

Tumor-Infiltrating Immune Cells Promoting Tumor Invasion and Metastasis: Existing Theories  

PubMed Central

It is a commonly held belief that infiltration of immune cells into tumor tissues and direct physical contact between tumor cells and infiltrated immune cells is associated with physical destructions of the tumor cells, reduction of the tumor burden, and improved clinical prognosis. An increasing number of studies, however, have suggested that aberrant infiltration of immune cells into tumor or normal tissues may promote tumor progression, invasion, and metastasis. Neither the primary reason for these contradictory observations, nor the mechanism for the reported diverse impact of tumor-infiltrating immune cells has been elucidated, making it difficult to judge the clinical implications of infiltration of immune cells within tumor tissues. This mini-review presents several existing hypotheses and models that favor the promoting impact of tumor-infiltrating immune cells on tumor invasion and metastasis, and also analyzes their strength and weakness. PMID:23386907

Man, Yan-gao; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Mason, Jeffrey; Avital, Itzhak; Bilchik, Anton; Bruecher, Bjoern; Protic, Mladjan; Nissan, Aviram; Izadjoo, Mina; Zhang, Xichen; Jewett, Anahid

2013-01-01

279

Host response in tumor growth and progression.  

PubMed

Tumor growth and progression result from complex controls that appear to be facilitated by the growth factors (GFs) which emerge from the tumor and find responsive targets both within the tumor and in the surrounding host. For example, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are both angiogenic signals which appear to emerge from upregulated genetic messages in the proliferating rim of a solid tumor in response to tumor-wide hypoxia. If these signals are generated in response to unfavorable environmental conditions, i.e. a tumor-wide decrease in oxygen tension, then the tumor may be playing a role in manipulating its own environment. Two questions are raised in this paper: (1) How does the host respond to such signals? (2) Is there a linkage between the host's response and the ultimate growth of the tumor? To answer these questions, we have idealized these adaptive signals within a mathematical model of tumor growth. The host response is characterized by a function which represents the host's carrying capacity for the tumor. If the function is constant, then environmental control is strictly limited to tumor shape and mitogenic signal processing. However, if we assume that the response of the local stroma to these signals is an increase in the host's ability to support an ever larger tumor, then the model describes a positive feedback controller. In this paper, we summarize our previous results and ask the question: What form of host response is reasonable, and how will it affect ultimate tumor growth? We examine some specific candidate response functions, and analyze them for system stability. In this model, unstable states correspond to 'infinite' tumor growth. We will also discuss countervailing negative feedback signals and their roles in maintaining tumor stability. PMID:9311388

Michelson, S; Leith, J T

1996-01-01

280

[Clinical features of accessory parotid gland tumors].  

PubMed

Accessory parotid gland tumors are relatively rare; hence, adequately detailed clinical analyses of these tumors are difficult to perform at a single institution. In this report, we describe the findings for 65 patients [29 men, 36 women; median age, 51 (9-81) years] with accessory parotid gland tumors, consisting of 4 cases documented by us and 61 cases previously reported by other Japanese authors. Approximately 50% of the patients were treated in an otolaryngology department, while the remaining patients were treated in plastic surgery, oral surgery, or dermatology departments. In 4 patients, the results of preoperative fine-needle aspiration cytology indicated that the tumor was benign; however, the postoperative histopathology results revealed malignant tumors. The frequencies of malignant and benign tumors were 44.6% (n = 29) and 55.4% (n = 36), respectively. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma and pleomorphic adenoma were the most frequent types of malignant and benign accessory parotid gland tumors, respectively. Among the various surgical methods that were used, such as direct cheek and intraoral incisions, a standard parotidectomy incision was the most preferred treatment approach for these tumors. Recently, an endoscopic approach has also been found to yield satisfactory results. An optimal approach should be selected after evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of these methods. No definite guidelines are available regarding the choice of elective neck dissection and postoperative radiation therapy for malignant accessory parotid gland tumors. Although tumor resection (plus elective neck dissection) and postoperative radiation therapy have been frequently performed for various kinds of malignant accessory parotid gland tumors to date, additional studies are needed regarding the criteria for selecting elective neck dissection and postoperative radiation therapy. Since the malignancy rate for accessory parotid gland tumors is higher than that for parotid gland tumors, the possibility of malignancy (especially mucoepidermoid carcinoma and carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma) should be considered when resecting accessory parotid gland tumors, even if the results of preoperative fine-needle aspiration cytology indicate that the tumor is benign. PMID:24558945

Iguchi, Hiroyoshi; Wada, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Hidefumi; Yamada, Kei; Matsushita, Naoki; Okamoto, Sachimi; Teranishi, Yuichi; Koda, Yuki; Kosugi, Yuki; Yamane, Hideo

2013-12-01

281

Role of IL13 in regulation of anti-tumor immunity and tumor growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major mediators of anti-tumor immunity are CD4 + T h1 cells and CD8 + cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). In tumor-bearing animals, the T h1- and CTL-mediated anti-tumor immunity is down-regulated in multiple ways. Better understanding of negative regulatory pathways of tumor immunity is crucial for the development of anti-tumor vaccines and immunotherapies. Since immune deviation toward T h2 suppresses T

Masaki Terabe; Jay A. Berzofsky

2004-01-01

282

Augmenting Anti-Tumor T Cell Responses to Mimotope Vaccination by Boosting with Native Tumor Antigens  

PubMed Central

Vaccination with antigens expressed by tumors is one strategy for stimulating enhanced T cell responses against tumors. However, these peptide vaccines rarely result in efficient expansion of tumor-specific T cells or responses that protect against tumor growth. Mimotopes, or peptide mimics of tumor antigens, elicit increased numbers of T cells that cross-react with the native tumor antigen, resulting in potent anti-tumor responses. Unfortunately, mimotopes may also elicit cells that do not cross-react or have low affinity for tumor antigen. We previously showed that one such mimotope of the dominant MHC class I tumor antigen of a mouse colon carcinoma cell-line stimulates a tumor-specific T cell clone and elicits antigen-specific cells in vivo, yet protects poorly against tumor growth. We hypothesized that boosting the mimotope vaccine with the native tumor antigen would focus the T cell response elicited by the mimotope towards high affinity, tumor-specific T cells. We show that priming T cells with the mimotope, followed by a native tumor-antigen boost improves tumor immunity, compared to T cells elicited by the same prime with a mimotope boost. Our data suggest that the improved tumor immunity results from the expansion of mimotope-elicited tumor-specific T cells that have increased avidity for the tumor antigen. The enhanced T cells are phenotypically distinct and enriched for T cell receptors previously correlated with improved anti-tumor immunity. These results suggest that incorporation of native antigen into clinical mimotope vaccine regimens may improve the efficacy of anti-tumor T cell responses. PMID:23161490

Buhrman, Jonathan D.; Jordan, Kimberly R.; U’Ren, Lance; Sprague, Jonathan; Kemmler, Charles B.; Slansky, Jill E.

2012-01-01

283

Endoscopic resection of subepithelial tumors  

PubMed Central

Management of subepithelial tumors (SETs) remains challenging. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has improved differential diagnosis of these tumors but a definitive diagnosis on EUS findings alone can be achieved in the minority of cases. Complete endoscopic resection may provide a reasonable approach for tissue acquisition and may also be therapeutic in case of malignant lesions. Small SET restricted to the submucosa can be removed with established basic resection techniques. However, resection of SET arising from deeper layers of the gastrointestinal wall requires advanced endoscopic methods and harbours the risk of perforation. Innovative techniques such as submucosal tunneling and full thickness resection have expanded the frontiers of endoscopic therapy in the past years. This review will give an overview about endoscopic resection techniques of SET with a focus on novel methods. PMID:25512768

Schmidt, Arthur; Bauder, Markus; Riecken, Bettina; Caca, Karel

2014-01-01

284

Metastatic malignant phyllodes tumor involving the cerebellum.  

PubMed

Brain metastases from malignant phyllodes tumors of the breast are a rare occurrence. We report a patient with a malignant phyllodes tumor of the right breast which subsequently metastasized to the right lower lobe of the lung 1year after initial presentation, and to the right cerebellar hemisphere 2years after diagnosis of her breast mass. After both chemotherapy and whole brain radiotherapy the patient is tumor free at most recent follow-up, 116months after the breast tumor diagnosis was made. The literature is briefly reviewed and the differential diagnosis of malignant spindle cell brain tumors is discussed. PMID:25449208

Rowe, J Jordi; Prayson, Richard A

2015-01-01

285

Genetically Engineered Mouse Models of Pituitary Tumors  

PubMed Central

Animal models constitute valuable tools for investigating the pathogenesis of cancer as well as for preclinical testing of novel therapeutics approaches. However, the pathogenic mechanisms of pituitary-tumor formation remain poorly understood, particularly in sporadic adenomas, thus, making it a challenge to model pituitary tumors in mice. Nevertheless, genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) of pituitary tumors have provided important insight into pituitary tumor biology. In this paper, we review various GEMMs of pituitary tumors, highlighting their contributions and limitations, and discuss opportunities for research in the field. PMID:25136513

Cano, David A.; Soto-Moreno, Alfonso; Leal-Cerro, Alfonso

2014-01-01

286

Tumor cell transformation using antisense oligonucleotide.  

PubMed

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class II-positive, invariant chain (Ii)-suppressed tumor cells induce both T helper and cytotoxic T lymphocytes' responses. Genetically controlled immunotherapy could be utilized for prophylactic vaccination of tumor-free individuals who are at high risk of developing tumor and can be therapeutic for treating established tumors that are nonresponsive to existing therapies. In this chapter, we provide practical methods to create a potent in vivo tumor cell vaccine by inducing MHC Class II and Ii using MHC Class II transactivator (CIITA) or interferon-gamma (IFN-?) and subsequently inhibiting Ii by antisense oligonucleotides. We also describe the development of an adenoviral vector. PMID:24619686

Akl, Mohamed R; Ayoub, Nehad M

2014-01-01

287

Magnetohydrodynamic thermochemotherapy and MRI of mouse tumors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dextran-ferrite magnetic fluid was successfully tested as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent. The same magnetic fluid was then combined with Melphalan, a chemotherapeutic drug, and used for magnetohydrodynamic thermochemotherapy of different tumors. The placement of the tumors in an AC magnetic field led to hyperthermia at 46 °C for 30 min. In combination with tumor slime aspiration, a 30% regression of ˜130 mm 3 non-metastatic P388 tumors in BDF 1 mice was reached, together with a life span increase of 290%. The same procedure associated with cyclophosphamide treatment of ˜500 mm 3 metastases tumor increased the animal's life span by 180%.

Brusentsov, Nikolay A.; Brusentsova, Tatiana N.; Filinova, Elena Yu.; Jurchenko, Nikolay Y.; Kupriyanov, Dmitry A.; Pirogov, Yuri A.; Dubina, Andry I.; Shumskikh, Maxim N.; Shumakov, Leonid I.; Anashkina, Ekaterina N.; Shevelev, Alexandr A.; Uchevatkin, Andry A.

2007-04-01

288

Gastric glomus tumor: A case report  

PubMed Central

Gastric glomus tumors are rare mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. We describe a 72-year-old patient who presented with episodes of melena and was subsequently investigated for a tumor of the antrum of the stomach. Surgical resection revealed a 2 × 2 × 1.7 cm well circumscribed submucosal tumor, extending into the muscularis propria. The histopathologic examination of the specimen demonstrated a glomus tumor of the stomach. We discuss the preoperative investigation, the diagnostic problems and the surgical treatment of the patient with this rare submucosal lesion. PMID:20307271

2010-01-01

289

Tongue Tumor Detection in Medical Hyperspectral Images  

PubMed Central

A hyperspectral imaging system to measure and analyze the reflectance spectra of the human tongue with high spatial resolution is proposed for tongue tumor detection. To achieve fast and accurate performance for detecting tongue tumors, reflectance data were collected using spectral acousto-optic tunable filters and a spectral adapter, and sparse representation was used for the data analysis algorithm. Based on the tumor image database, a recognition rate of 96.5% was achieved. The experimental results show that hyperspectral imaging for tongue tumor diagnosis, together with the spectroscopic classification method provide a new approach for the noninvasive computer-aided diagnosis of tongue tumors. PMID:22368462

Liu, Zhi; Wang, Hongjun; Li, Qingli

2012-01-01

290

Updates on abdominal desmoid tumors  

PubMed Central

Desmoid tumor is a monoclonal, fibroblastic proliferation arising in musculoaponeurotic structures. This connective tissue hyperplasia infiltrates locally, recurs frequently after resection but does not metastasize. Abdominal desmoid occurs sporadically, in association with some familial syndromes and often represents a clinical dilemma for surgeons. The enigmatic biology and anatomical location of abdominal desmoids make treatment recommendations difficult. This distinct pathological entity is reviewed with a specific focus on aetiology and management. PMID:18023087

Rampone, Bernardino; Pedrazzani, Corrado; Marrelli, Daniele; Pinto, Enrico; Roviello, Franco

2007-01-01

291

Cardiac Tumors: A Brief Commentary  

PubMed Central

Patients with cardiac tumors may present with cardiovascular related or constitutional symptoms, but more often than not a cardiac mass is discovered incidentally during an imaging examination performed for an unrelated indication. Cardiac myxoma is generally considered to be a surgical emergency. Echocardiography, including the transesophageal approach, is the most important means of diagnosis; computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The clinical presentation has changed, and the management of cardiac myxoma now needs to be reviewed.

Roever, Leonardo; Casella-Filho, Antonio; Dourado, Paulo Magno Martins; Resende, Elmiro Santos; Chagas, Antônio Carlos Palandri

2014-01-01

292

Hemispheric cerebral tumors in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of 64 consecutive cases of children with neuroepthelial tumors of the cerebral hemispheres operated on from 1966 to 1983 is analyzed with regard to the long-term survival rate and the quality of life at late follow-up. At the time of the diagnosis the age of the patients ranged from 8 months to 15 years (mean age 7.6 years),

M. R. Balestrini; M. Zanette; R. Micheli; M. Fornari; C. L. Solero; G. Broggi

1990-01-01

293

Tumor Stem Cells and Metastasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The last decade has seen the emergence of a shift in paradigm in the therapeutic strategies to target cancer. This is based\\u000a on the existence of a small reservoir of cells within the tumor mass that exhibits the capacity for self-renewal, as well\\u000a as undergo differentiation to give rise to phenotypically heterogeneous progeny with limited proliferative potential. These\\u000a stem-like cells

Jaclyn Y. Hung

294

[Peripelvic tumors: approach and management].  

PubMed

The peripelvic area consists of the bony pelvis, hip joints and adjacent mesenchymal soft tissues. Malignant lesions in this area present unique diagnostic and therapeutic problems, in particular when tumor removal is involved. Between 1986 and 1988 we treated 7 females and a male, aged 8-75 years, for malignant tumors of this area. Diagnoses (histologic) included 4 cases of malignant fibrous histiocytoma, a malignant schwannoma, a Ewing sarcoma, a chondrosarcoma, and an osteosarcoma. Operations included marginal resection (4 cases), radical resection and reconstruction (2), radical resection (1), and modified hemipelvectomy (2). Adjuvant therapy consisted of radiotherapy in 1 case, chemotherapy in 2, and a combination of both in another 2. A patient who underwent radical resection and reconstruction of his left hemipelvis and hip joint died of local infection that progressed to generalized sepsis 2 months after operation. 2 patients died of recurrent disease, 3 and 30 months, respectively, after primary therapy. 1 died of myocardial infarction 20 months after the first and 3 months after the last of a series of marginal resections. 3 patients are alive and well 3-24 months following their first operation, and the fourth is doing well 24 months following first operation and 23 months after resection of lung metastases. Soft tissue sarcomas and osteosarcomas are the most frequent malignant tumors encountered in the pelvis and peripelvic areas. Their varying grades of malignancy and metastatic potential influence the approach on the one hand, while invalidity and compromised quality of life associated with tumor resection, influence it on the other.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2167286

Said, M; Eldar, S; Nash, E; Mendes, D

1990-06-15

295

Neuroendocrine tumors: beyond the abdomen.  

PubMed

Several classification systems for neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) exist, which use variable terminology and criteria for grading and staging. This variability in terminology can cause confusion and difficulty in recognizing which tumors are, in fact, members of this heterogeneous group of malignancies. The largest group of NETs, the gastroenteropancreatic NETs, has been well described and characterized; however, there are less-recognized extra-abdominal NETs that can arise from nearly any organ in the body. In this article, the clinical features and imaging appearances of the extra-abdominal NETs will be reviewed, compared, and contrasted. This diverse group consists of paragangliomas, Merkel cell carcinomas, esthesioneuroblastomas, NETs of the lung, and medullary thyroid carcinomas. Recognition of these tumors as part of the larger group of NETs is important for understanding how best to approach imaging for their diagnosis, staging, and potential treatment. Familiarity with the computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging appearances and the role of radionuclide imaging of these heterogeneous groups aids in the correct diagnosis and in treatment planning. PMID:25162290

Jacobs, Melissa A; Weinstein, Stefanie; Hope, Thomas A; Aslam, Rizwan; Yee, Judy; Coakley, Fergus

2014-01-01

296

Neurocognitive effects of CNS tumors.  

PubMed

There is ample evidence that many children treated for brain tumors experience long-term neurocognitive deficits. The severity of those deficits is determined by a complex interaction of the child's genetic make-up and age, neuroanatomical damage caused by tumor and surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the psychosocial environment, and the intensity of targeted rehabilitation. The consequences of neurocognitive deficits are moderated by the number and severity of other deficits, including neurological and endocrine impairments, and this wider context must be considered. The impact of intellectual decline on academic functioning is evident, and underlies, for example, poor reading, writing, and mathematical skills. The effects of early brain damage on development are cumulative as more functions are expected to mature. Many survivors of CNS tumors can be expected to grow into deficits that have far-reaching consequences not only for academic achievement but also for their psychological and social development and their ability to be self-sufficient. Because the problems typically only become apparent over time, surveillance for their detection is an essential prerequisite for early educational and other interventions to support learning and successful transition to independent adult life. PMID:23622305

Bull, K S; Kennedy, C R

2013-01-01

297

Sunitinib in Treating Young Patients With Refractory Solid Tumors  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Central Nervous System Metastases; Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

2014-01-27

298

Measures of Acutance and Shape for Classification of Breast Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most benign breast tumors possess well-defined, sharp boundaries that delineate them from surrounding tissues, as opposed to malignant tumors. Computer techniques proposed to date for tumor analysis have concentrated on shape factors of tumor regions and texture measures. While shape measures based on contours of tumor regions can indicate differences in shape complexities between circumscribed and spiculated tumors, they are

Rangaraj M. Rangayyan; Nema M. El-Faramawy; J. E. Leo Desautels; Onsy Abdel Alim

1997-01-01

299

Tumor-Stromal Interactions in Pancreatic Cancer  

PubMed Central

The tumor-associated stroma has been described in recent years as being complicit in tumor growth in pancreatic cancer. The stroma hosts a variety of components of both cellular and molecular makeup. In normal tissues, the stroma provides nutrients and regulatory signals for proper cellular polarity and function. However, following oncogenic transformation, the stromal compartment is conscripted to provide stimulatory signals and protection to tumor cells. It is these tumor–stromal interactions that are currently of great therapeutic interest. Several key reports have suggested that therapeutic targeting of the tumor–stromal interactions in pancreatic cancer has the potential to offer survival benefit. In this review, we will discuss the tumor–stromal interactions that contribute to tumor growth and progression, and ways in which we might counter these interactions. PMID:23237556

Whatcott, Clifford J.; Han, Haiyong; Posner, Richard G.; Von Hoff, Daniel D.

2013-01-01

300

Cimetidine inhibits angiogenesis and suppresses tumor growth.  

PubMed

Cimetidine, a histamine type-2 receptor antagonist, has been reported to improve survival of patients with cancers. However, the exact mechanisms by which cimetidine suppresses development of cancers remain to be elucidated. Solid tumors require neovascularization for their growth. Here, we investigated the effects of cimetidine on tumor growth and angiogenesis. Syngeneic colon cancer cells, CMT93 cells, were inoculated into the subcutaneous space of C57BL/6 mice. Mice were treated with either saline or cimetidine. Tumor size was measured everyday and angiogenesis was evaluated histologically. Cimetidine markedly suppressed tumor growth with reduced neovascularization in the tumor. Cimetidine had no effect on proliferation of CMT93 cells in vitro. Vascular endothelial growth factor production by cancer cells was not affected by cimetidine, while vascular-like tube formation by endothelial cells in vitro was significantly impaired in the presence of cimetidine. Our findings suggest that cimetidine suppresses tumor growth, at least in part, by inhibiting tumor-associated angiogenesis. PMID:15740937

Natori, Takeshi; Sata, Masataka; Nagai, Ryozo; Makuuchi, Masatoshi

2005-01-01

301

Cancer stem cells and tumor metastasis  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown that tumors can induce angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, which plays an important role in promoting hematogenous and lymphogenous spread. In recent years, the cancer stem cell (CSC) theory has emerged as an attractive hypothesis for tumor development and progression. The theory proposes that one small subset of cancer cells has the characteristics of stem cells. These CSCs have the capability of both self-renewal and differentiation into diverse cancer cells, which play a decisive role in maintaining capacity for malignant proliferation, invasion, metastasis, and tumor recurrence. CSCs are involved in tumor metastasis, however, the details, and the possible relationship of CSCs, angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and tumor metastasis is still ambiguous. The aim of this report is to summarize current studies of CSCs and tumor metastasis at the cellular level, with the goal of bringing new insights into understanding the role of CSCs in tumor metastasis. PMID:24691919

LI, SHUANG; LI, QIN

2014-01-01

302

Bayesian Inference of Tumor Hypoxia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tumor hypoxia is a state of oxygen deprivation in tumors. It has been associated with aggressive tumor phenotypes and with increased resistance to conventional cancer therapies. In this study, we report on the application of Bayesian sequential analysis in estimating the most probable value of tumor hypoxia quantification based on immunohistochemical assays of a biomarker. The `gold standard' of tumor hypoxia assessment is a direct measurement of pO2 in vivo by the Eppendorf polarographic electrode, which is an invasive technique restricted to accessible sites and living tissues. An attractive alternative is immunohistochemical staining to detect proteins expressed by cells during hypoxia. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is an enzyme expressed on the cell membrane during hypoxia to balance the immediate extracellular microenvironment. CAIX is widely regarded as a surrogate marker of chronic hypoxia in various cancers. The study was conducted with two different experimental procedures. The first data set was a group of three patients with invasive cervical carcinomas, from which five biopsies were obtained. Each of the biopsies was fully sectioned and from each section, the proportion of CAIX-positive cells was estimated. Measurements were made by image analysis of multiple deep sections cut through these biopsies, labeled for CAIX using both immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical techniques [1]. The second data set was a group of 24 patients, also with invasive cervical carcinomas, from which two biopsies were obtained. Bayesian parameter estimation was applied to obtain a reliable inference about the proportion of CAIX-positive cells within the carcinomas, based on the available biopsies. From the first data set, two to three biopsies were found to be sufficient to infer the overall CAIX percentage in the simple form: best estimate±uncertainty. The second data-set led to a similar result in 70% of the cases. In the remaining cases Bayes' theorem warned us automatically that the inference from the data could not be summarized by just two numbers, but the full posterior probability density function (pdf) had to be used.

Gunawan, R.; Tenti, G.; Sivaloganathan, S.

2009-12-01

303

Imaging Review of Skeletal Tumors of the Pelvis Malignant Tumors and Tumor Mimics  

PubMed Central

Malignant lesions of the pelvis are not uncommon and need to be differentiated from benign lesions and tumor mimics. Appearances are sometimes nonspecific leading to consideration of a broad differential diagnosis. Clinical history, anatomic location, and imaging characterization can help narrow the differential diagnosis. The focus of this paper is to demonstrate the imaging features and the role of plain films, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging for detecting and characterizing malignant osseous pelvic lesions and their common mimics. PMID:22593667

Girish, Gandikota; Finlay, Karen; Fessell, David; Pai, Deepa; Dong, Qian; Jamadar, David

2012-01-01

304

Collision tumor with inflammatory breast carcinoma and malignant phyllodes tumor: a case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

There have been some reports of coincidental presentation of breast carcinoma and phyllodes tumor in the same breast. Most of the cases were carcinoma that arose from a phyllodes tumor with a histologically identified transitional area, and they behaved less aggressively than the usually encountered carcinoma. Collision tumors are rare clinical entities in which two histologically distinct tumor types show involvement at the same site. The occurrence of these tumors in the breast is extremely rare. Here, we report a case of 45-year-old woman who had both invasive ductal carcinoma as the finding of inflammatory carcinoma and a malignant phyllodes tumor in the same breast. There was no evidence of a transitional area between the phyllodes tumor and the invasive ductal carcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a collision tumor of inflammatory breast carcinoma coincident with a malignant phyllodes tumor in same breast. PMID:24400686

2014-01-01

305

Malignant odontogenic tumors: an update on selected tumors.  

PubMed

This is an update on selected odontogenic malignancies. The article deals with aspects of recognized odontogenic carcinomas, odontogenic sarcoma and a yet unrecognized entity, sclerosing odontogenic carcinoma. Odontogenic malignancies are exceedingly rare, complicating a thorough understanding of the biologic behavior, reproducible standardized diagnostic criteria, appropriate classification and clinical management. Without the knowledge of the tumor's biologic behavior, adequate clinical management is difficult and patient outcomes uncertain. The histopathologic features are emphasized as well as the more recent biomarker findings. These recent advances may facilitate further understanding of this group of malignancies and provide useful stratification to guide patient management. PMID:25409848

Richardson, Mary S; Muller, Susan

2014-12-01

306

[Tumor scintigraphy with cobalt bleomycin in ORL tumors].  

PubMed

Our experiences with cobalt bleomycin scintigraphy in the treatment planning of ORL tumors are described. 142 scintigrams taken from 127 patients have been examined. As is shown by our investigation, cobalt bleomycin scintigraphy is a good examination method, however, too much expenditure is needed to have the necessary data for therapy planning. To our opinion, the information obtained in oto-rhino-laryngology by an exact clinical examination is as good as that of cobalt bleomycin scintigraphy. Our treatment schemes had only to be revised in some exceptional cases. PMID:2431490

Willi, A; Adaman, O; Wespi, H H; Bekier, A; Lütolf, U M

1986-11-01

307

Sciatic nerve tumor and tumor-like lesions - uncommon pathologies.  

PubMed

Sciatic nerve mass-like enlargement caused by peripheral nerve sheath tumors or neurocutaneous syndromes such as neurofibromatosis or schwannomatosis has been widely reported. Other causes of enlargement, such as from perineuroma, fibromatosis, neurolymphoma, amyloidosis, endometriosis, intraneural ganglion cyst, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy are relatively rare. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an excellent non-invasive tool for the evaluation of such lesions. In this article, the authors discuss normal anatomy of the sciatic nerve and MRI findings of the above-mentioned lesions. PMID:22410805

Wadhwa, Vibhor; Thakkar, Rashmi S; Maragakis, Nicholas; Höke, Ahmet; Sumner, Charlotte J; Lloyd, Thomas E; Carrino, John A; Belzberg, Allan J; Chhabra, Avneesh

2012-07-01

308

Plexin D1 is ubiquitously expressed on tumor vessels and tumor cells in solid malignancies  

PubMed Central

Background Plexin D1 is expressed on both tumor-associated endothelium and malignant cells in a number of clinical brain tumors. Recently we demonstrated that Plexin D1 expression is correlated with tumor invasion level and metastasis in a human melanoma progression series. The objective of this study was to examine whether Plexin D1 might be clinically useful as a pan-tumor vessel and pan-tumor cell target in solid tumors. Methods We examined Plexin D1 expression in clinical solid tumors (n = 77) of different origin, a selection of pre-malignant lesions (n = 29) and a variety of non-tumor related tissues (n = 52) by immunohistochemistry. Signals were verified in a selection of tissues via mRNA in situ hybridization. Results Plexin D1 is abundantly expressed on both activated established tumor vasculature and malignant cells in the majority of primary and metastatic clinical tumors, as well as on macrophages and fibroblasts. Importantly, in non-tumor related tissues Plexin D1 expression is restricted to a subset of, presumably activated, fibroblasts and macrophages. Conclusion We demonstrate that Plexin D1 is in general ubiquitously expressed in tumor but not normal vasculature, as well as in malignant cells in a wide range of human tissues. This expression profile highlights Plexin D1 as a potentially valuable therapeutic target in clinical solid tumors, enabling simultaneous targeting of different tumor compartments. PMID:19703316

2009-01-01

309

Development of anti-tumor immunity following thymidine kinase-mediated killing of experimental brain tumors.  

PubMed Central

Using the 9L experimental brain tumor model, we studied long-term tumor regression and immunologic consequences of tumor killing in a model of in vivo gene transfer of the herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) gene and ganciclovir (GCV) treatments. Fibroblasts modified to produce retroviral vectors carrying the HSV-TK gene were implanted into established 9L brain tumors in Fischer 344 rats to carry out gene transfer. Animals were then treated with parenteral GCV. Significant tumor regression was seen following GCV treatments in short-term experiments (17 days) as quantified by measurements of tumor volume. In long-term studies, 7 of 32 (22%) treated animals survived 90 days. Histologic examination of the brains of the successfully treated animals demonstrated residual tumor cells and inflammatory cells consisting predominantly of macrophages/microglia and T cells in the hemisphere with the residual tumor cyst. Rats surviving 90 days rejected repeat tumor injections into the contralateral brain and flank, whereas identical tumor injections in naive animals resulted in both brain and flank tumors. The presence of significant anti-tumor immunity following HSV-TK and GCV treatments suggests that the immune system plays a critical role in the sustained tumor regressions associated with these treatments. These findings show that while HSV-TK and GCV treatments can result in long-term tumor regressions in this model, the success of these treatments could be improved by better understanding the role played by the host's immune systems. Images PMID:8183911

Barba, D; Hardin, J; Sadelain, M; Gage, F H

1994-01-01

310

ROLE OF CHEMOKINES IN TUMOR GROWTH  

PubMed Central

Chemokines play a paramount role in the tumor progression. Chronic inflammation promotes tumor formation. Both tumor cells and stromal cells elaborate chemokines and cytokines. These act either by autocrine or paracrine mechanisms to sustain tumor cell growth, induce angiogenesis and facilitate evasion of immune surveillance through immunoediting. The chemokine receptor CXCR2 and its ligands promote tumor angiogenesis and leukocyte infiltration into the tumor microenvironment. In harsh acidic and hypoxic microenvironmental conditions tumor cells up-regulate their expression of CXCR4, which equips them to migrate up a gradient of CXCL12 elaborated by carcinoma associated fibroblasts (CAFs) to a normoxic microenvironment. The CXCL12-CXCR4 axis facilitates metastasis to distant organs and the CCL21-CCR7 chemokine ligand-receptor pair favors metastasis to lymph nodes. These two chemokine ligand-receptor systems are common key mediators of tumor cell metastasis for several malignancies and as such provide key targets for chemotherapy. In this paper, the role of specific chemokines/chemokine receptor interactions in tumor progression, growth and metastasis and the role of chemokine/chemokine receptor interactions in the stromal compartment as related to angiogenesis, metastasis, and immune response to the tumor are reviewed. PMID:17629396

Raman, Dayanidhi; Baugher, Paige J.; Thu, Yee Mon; Richmond, Ann

2007-01-01

311

Surgical Treatment of Gastric Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal stromal tumor is the most common mesenchymal tumor in the gastrointestinal tract and is most frequently developed in the stomach in the form of submucosal tumor. The incidence of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor is estimated to be as high as 25% of the population when all small and asymptomatic tumors are included. Because gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor is not completely distinguished from other submucosal tumors, a surgical excisional biopsy is recommended for tumors >2 cm. The surgical principles of gastrointestinal stromal tumor are composed of an R0 resection with a normal mucosa margin, no systemic lymph node dissection, and avoidance of perforation, which results in peritoneal seeding even in cases with otherwise low risk profiles. Laparoscopic surgery has been indicated for gastrointestinal stromal tumors <5 cm, and the indication for laparoscopic surgery is expanded to larger tumors if the above mentioned surgical principles can be maintained. A simple exogastric resection and various transgastric resection techniques are used for gastrointestinal stromal tumors in favorable locations (the fundus, body, greater curvature side). For a lesion at the gastroesophageal junction in the posterior wall of the stomach, enucleation techniques have been tried preserve the organ's function. Those methods have a theoretical risk of seeding a ruptured tumor, but this risk has not been evaluated by well-designed clinical trials. While some clinical trials are still on-going, neoadjuvant imatinib is suggested when marginally unresectable or multiorgan resection is anticipated to reduce the extent of surgery and the chance of incomplete resection, rupture or bleeding. PMID:23610714

Kong, Seong-Ho

2013-01-01

312

Morphological Characteristics of Brain Tumors Causing Seizures  

PubMed Central

Objective To quantify size and localization differences between tumors presenting with seizures vs nonseizure neurological symptoms. Design Retrospective imaging survey. We performed magnetic resonance imaging–based morphometric analysis and nonparametric mapping in patients with brain tumors. Setting University-affiliated teaching hospital. Patients or Other Participants One hundred twenty-four patients with newly diagnosed supratentorial glial tumors. Main Outcome Measures Volumetric and mapping methods were used to evaluate differences in size and location of the tumors in patients who presented with seizures as compared with patients who presented with other symptoms. Results In high-grade gliomas, tumors presenting with seizures were smaller than tumors presenting with other neurological symptoms, whereas in low-grade gliomas, tumors presenting with seizures were larger. Tumor location maps revealed that in high-grade gliomas, deep-seated tumors in the pericallosal regions were more likely to present with nonseizure neurological symptoms. In low-grade gliomas, tumors of the temporal lobe as well as the insular region were more likely to present with seizures. Conclusions The influence of size and location of the tumors on their propensity to cause seizures varies with the grade of the tumor. In high-grade gliomas, rapidly growing tumors, particularly those situated in deeper structures, present with non–seizure-related symptoms. In low-grade gliomas, lesions in the temporal lobe or the insula grow large without other symptoms and eventually cause seizures. Quantitative image analysis allows for the mapping of regions in each group that are more or less susceptible to seizures. PMID:20212231

Lee, Jong Woo; Wen, Patrick Y.; Hurwitz, Shelley; Black, Peter; Kesari, Santosh; Drappatz, Jan; Golby, Alexandra J.; Wells, William M.; Warfield, Simon K.; Kikinis, Ron; Bromfield, Edward B.

2010-01-01

313

Proline oxidase promotes tumor cell survival in hypoxic tumor microenvironments.  

PubMed

Proline is a readily released stress substrate that can be metabolized by proline oxidase (POX) to generate either reactive oxygen species (ROS) to induce apoptosis or autophagy or ATP during times of nutrient stress. However, the contribution of proline metabolism to tumorigenesis in hypoxic microenvironments has not been explored. In this study, we investigated the different functions of POX under hypoxia and glucose depletion. We found that hypoxia induced POX expression in cancer cells in vitro and that POX upregulation colocalized with hypoxic tissues in vivo. In addition, the combination of hypoxia and low glucose showed additive effects on POX expression. Similar to conditions of low glucose, hypoxia-mediated POX induction was dependent on AMP-activated protein kinase activation but was independent of HIF-1? and HIF-2?. Under low-glucose and combined low-glucose and hypoxic conditions, proline catabolized by POX was used preferentially for ATP production, whereas under hypoxia, POX mediated autophagic signaling for survival by generating ROS. Although the specific mechanism was different for hypoxia and glucose deprivation, POX consistently contributed to tumor cell survival under these conditions. Together, our findings offer new insights into the metabolic reprogramming of tumor cells present within a hostile microenvironment and suggest that proline metabolism is a potential target for cancer therapeutics. PMID:22609800

Liu, Wei; Glunde, Kristine; Bhujwalla, Zaver M; Raman, Venu; Sharma, Anit; Phang, James M

2012-07-15

314

TUSC1, a Putative Tumor Suppressor Gene, Reduces Tumor Cell Growth In Vitro and Tumor Growth In Vivo  

PubMed Central

We previously reported the identification of TUSC1 (Tumor Suppressor Candidate 1), as a novel intronless gene isolated from a region of homozygous deletion at D9S126 on chromosome 9p in human lung cancer. In this study, we examine the differential expression of TUSC1 in human lung cancer cell lines by western blot and in a primary human lung cancer tissue microarray by immunohistochemical analysis. We also tested the functional activities and mechanisms of TUSC1 as a tumor suppressor gene through growth suppression in vitro and in vivo. The results showed no expression of TUSC1 in TUSC1 homozygously deleted cells and diminished expression in some tumor cell lines without TUSC1 deletion. Interestingly, the results from a primary human lung cancer tissue microarray suggested that higher expression of TUSC1 was correlated with increased survival times for lung cancer patients. Our data demonstrated that growth curves of tumor cell lines transfected with TUSC1 grew slower in vitro than those transfected with the empty vector. More importantly, xenograph tumors in nude mice grew significantly slower in vivo in cells stably transfected with TUSC1 than those transfected with empty vector. In addition, results from confocal microscopy and immunohistochemical analyses show distribution of TUSC1 in the cytoplasm and nucleus in tumor cell lines and in normal and tumor cells in the lung cancer tissue microarray. Taken together, our results support TUSC1 has tumor suppressor activity as a candidate tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome 9p. PMID:23776618

Shan, Zhihong; Shakoori, Abbas; Bodaghi, Sohrab; Goldsmith, Paul; Jin, Jen; Wiest, Jonathan S.

2013-01-01

315

Malignant trigeminal nerve sheath tumor and anaplastic astrocytoma collision tumor with high proliferative activity and tumor suppressor p53 expression.  

PubMed

Background. The synchronous development of two primary brain tumors of distinct cell of origin in close proximity or in contact with each other is extremely rare. We present the first case of collision tumor with two histological distinct tumors. Case Presentation. A 54-year-old woman presented with progressive atypical left facial pain and numbness for 8 months. MRI of the brain showed left middle cranial fossa heterogeneous mass extending into the infratemporal fossa. At surgery, a distinct but intermingled intra- and extradural tumor was demonstrated which was completely removed through left orbitozygomatic-temporal craniotomy. Histopathological examination showed that the tumor had two distinct components: malignant nerve sheath tumor of the trigeminal nerve and temporal lobe anaplastic astrocytoma. Proliferative activity and expressed tumor protein 53 (TP53) gene mutations were demonstrated in both tumors. Conclusions. We describe the first case of malignant trigeminal nerve sheath tumor (MTNST) and anaplastic astrocytoma in collision and discuss the possible hypothesis of this rare occurrence. We propose that MTNST, with TP53 mutation, have participated in the formation of anaplastic astrocytoma, or vice versa. PMID:25386378

Kurdi, Maher; Al-Ardati, Hosam; Baeesa, Saleh S

2014-01-01

316

[Induction chemotherapy for solid tumors].  

PubMed

Surgical treatment for solid malignancies, which is the gold standard for operable tumors, is being combined with nonsurgical modalities with an increasing frequency. Advanced cancers that are not curable by surgery alone are subjected to sophisticated multimodality regimens. Accordingly, the sequence and timing of integrated combined treatment modalities are essential. Traditionally, the common objective of induction chemotherapy has been to reduce the risk of distant disease recurrence. Administration of chemotherapy before other treatment has many theoretical advantages. Induction chemotherapy can result in tumor downstaging, thus increasing the rate of conservative surgery. In cases of more advanced disease, induction chemotherapy can render inoperable tumors resectable. Other advantages of induction chemotherapy include the ability to obtain information about tumor response, which can be used to study the biologic effects of chemotherapy and assess long-term disease-free survival(DFS)and overall survival(OS). Induction chemotherapy as a component of primary treatment has been shown in several studies and meta-analyses to decrease the incidence of metastatic disease. Currently, the terms induction, primary, preoperative, basal and neoadjuvant are all used to describe chemotherapy given as initial treatment. There are 2 methods of induction chemotherapy: intra-arterial induction chemotherapy and induction systemic chemotherapy. The clinical results of several trials of arterial infusion chemotherapy alone as induction chemotherapy for advanced cancer revealed that 20-30% higher response rates can be achieved. However, the benefits of prolonged survival rates and improved quality of life are not consistently realized. Induction arterial infusion chemotherapy did not gain enthusiastic support for several different malignancies. Induction systemic chemotherapy is mainly used in patients with stage II/III disease to improve surgical outcomes and increase the rate of breast-conserving surgery in the breast cancer case, although clinical studies have not revealed a significant improvement in DFS or OS. The favorable response rate and achievement of pathological complete response(pCR)have favorable effects on DFS in breast cancer patients. The available data suggest a minimal benefit for additional chemotherapy after surgery in patients with residual disease. New targets must be identified to develop non-cross-resistant agents for patients with residual disease after prior chemotherapy. New genomic and proteomic tools must be developed to identify predictive markers for response to primary systemic therapy that allow clinicians to develop more personalized therapy, new strategic options, and new biologic agents and avoid unnecessary regimens. The side effects of induction chemotherapy depend on the types of drugs, their doses, and the duration of treatment. PMID:23863642

Taguchi, Tetsuo

2013-06-01

317

Nutrition and gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.  

PubMed

Gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are relatively rare neoplasms that characteristically synthesize and secrete an excess of a variety of regulatory peptides, hormones, and neuroamines, which regulate gut and pancreatic function. This excess can lead to distinct clinical syndromes. Therapeutic strategies include surgery, radiofrequency ablation, chemotherapy, chemoembolization, and biotherapy using somatostatin analogs. The clinical syndromes and the various management strategies can lead to altered gut and pancreatic function with nutritional consequences. Diet and nutritional management is critical for GEP NET patients and is the focus of this article. PMID:21095548

Go, Vay Liang W; Srihari, Priya; Kamerman Burns, Leigh Anne

2010-12-01

318

Tragal reconstruction after tumor excision.  

PubMed

The tragus forms a distinct and important landmark in the overall artistic and anatomical landscape of the ear. Despite its small size, it functions to cover and prevent direct access to the ear canal. Aesthetically, it has an important role in defining the morphology of the auricle in 3 dimensions, not only covering the meatus but also casting a shadow into the conchal bowl that gives the impression of depth. Most of the techniques for tragal reconstruction are associated with creation of a tragus in patients with microtia. We present here a new technique for tragal reconstruction in the setting of tumor ablation. PMID:23788149

Coombs, Christopher J; Lin, Frank

2015-02-01

319

[Hemipelvectomy for a desmoidal tumor].  

PubMed

A case- review describing a desmoid in a young female. The tumor originated at the tendinuous attachment of the m. rectus abdominis on the pubic bone, which had had two relapses. During the third--so far the latest--procedure it required left-sided hemipelvectomy with resection of the rectum and a part of the vagina. The patient was instructed about the serious character of the disease, the requirement for the radical resection and about the requirement for a careful long-term follow-up of the patient after the procedure. PMID:15813455

Pafko, P; Suchý, T; Procke, J; Smejkal, M; Schlegerová, D

2005-01-01

320

Cryosurgical treatment of glomus juglare tumor.  

PubMed

A 35 year-old Japanese female complained of a right-sided pulsation tinnitis, hearing disturbance, and facial weakness. Extensive radiographic studies including angiograms and retrograde juglar venography provided a diagnosis and localization of a tumor. Radical mastoidectomy was performed and a red grape-like glomus juglare tumor along the facial nerve was extirpated as there was a profuse hemorrhage from the tumor mass. Cryosurgery was then performed. Complete surgical removal is possible when the tumor is small, however, when the tumor involves the middle ear and mastoid area, complete extirpation cannot always be done. Radical mastoidectomy plus cryosurgery appears to be the most feasible management in the surgical treatment of glomus juglare tumor. PMID:220945

Izumikawa, F; Yanagihara, N; Matsuoka, I

1978-09-28

321

A Case of Primary Renal Carcinoid Tumor  

PubMed Central

Primary renal carcinoid tumors are extremely rare kidney lesions, with fewer than 100 reported cases previously. We describe a 75-year-old man with an incidentally detected cystic renal mass. Computed tomography showed a 3?cm tumor with a cystic component enhanced with contrast. No evidence of metastasis was detected. We treated the patient with radical nephrectomy. Pathological examinations revealed a cellular arrangement specific to carcinoid tumor and positive for chromogranin A, neural cell adhesion molecule, and somatostatin receptor type 2. The tumor cells had a mitotic count of 4 mitoses/10 high-power fields, and the level of the proliferation marker Ki-67 was 5%. The pathological diagnosis was renal neuroendocrine tumor grade 2. No local recurrence and no systemic metastasis were detected during the 18-month follow-up period. To our knowledge, this is the 6th case of renal neuroendocrine grade 2 tumor reported thus far.

Tanaka, Toshikazu; Yamamoto, Hayato; Imai, Atsushi; Shingo, Hatakeyama; Yoneyama, Takahiro; Koie, Takuya; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Ohyama, Chikara

2015-01-01

322

[Infant rhabdoid tumors: A diagnostic emergency].  

PubMed

Rhabdoid tumors are a heterogeneous family of aggressive tumors affecting young children. Their grouping within a single entity is recent, following the discovery of a bi-allelic inactivation of the hSNF5/INI1 tumor suppressor gene in tumoral cells. This bi-allelic inactivation of the hSNF5/INI1 gene found at the constitutional level in up to one-third of cases has led to the identification of a predisposal syndrome to rhabdoid tumors. Herein we report extrarenal rhabdoid tumors observed in three infants between 3 and 6months of age, underlining the misleading feature of the clinical presentation and the aggressiveness of the disease. Finally, we also report the genetic patient care management strategy. PMID:25267195

Marty, L; Cuinet, A; Roujeau, T; Prodhomme, O; Saumet, L; Coupier, I; Sirvent, N

2014-11-01

323

Solid Pseudopapillary Tumor of the Pancreas  

PubMed Central

Solid pseudopapillary tumors of the pancreas, known as Frantz tumors, are rare pancreatic tumors that occur predominantly in women, with very few cases reported in men. We present the case of a 27-year-old female patient who came to the emergency room with an intense upper abdominal pain associated with nausea and vomiting and a palpable mass in the left upper quadrant. She was initially diagnosed with a post-traumatic pancreatic pseudocyst. The patient underwent distal pancreatectomy with splenic preservation; the histopathological report showed a pseudopapillary solid tumor of the pancreas without malignant cells. In this report, a case of rare solid-pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas is described. Our objective was to report an infrequent case of pancreatic pseudopapillary tumor and to carry out a review of the literature.

Gursan, Nesrin; Yildirgan, M. Ilhan; Atamanalp, S. Selcuk; Sahin, Onder; Gursan, M. Sevki

2009-01-01

324

Tumor Bioengineering Using a Transglutaminase Crosslinked Hydrogel  

PubMed Central

Development of a physiologically relevant 3D model system for cancer research and drug development is a current challenge. We have adopted a 3D culture system based on a transglutaminase-crosslinked gelatin gel (Col-Tgel) to mimic the tumor 3D microenvironment. The system has several unique advantages over other alternatives including presenting cell-matrix interaction sites from collagen-derived peptides, geometry-initiated multicellular tumor spheroids, and metabolic gradients in the tumor microenvironment. Also it provides a controllable wide spectrum of gel stiffness for mechanical signals, and technical compatibility with imaging based screening due to its transparent properties. In addition, the Col-Tgel provides a cure-in-situ delivery vehicle for tumor xenograft formation in animals enhancing tumor cell uptake rate. Overall, this distinctive 3D system could offer a platform to more accurately mimic in vivo situations to study tumor formation and progression both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25133673

Fang, Josephine Y.; Tan, Shih-Jye; Yang, Zhi; Tayag, Charisse; Han, Bo

2014-01-01

325

What underlies the diversity of brain tumors?  

PubMed Central

Glioma and medulloblastoma represent the most commonly occurring malignant brain tumors in adults and in children respectively. Recent genomic and transcriptional approaches present a complex group of diseases, and delineate a number of molecular subgroups within tumors that share a common histopathology. Differences in cells of origin, regional niches, developmental timing and genetic events all contribute to this heterogeneity. In an attempt to recapitulate the diversity of brain tumors, an increasing array of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) has been developed. These models often utilize promoters and genetic drivers from normal brain development, and can provide insight into specific cells from which these tumors originate. GEMMs show promise in both developmental biology and developmental therapeutics. This review describes numerous murine brain tumor models in the context of normal brain development, and the potential for these animals to impact brain tumor research. PMID:23085857

Swartling, Fredrik J.; Hede, Sanna-Maria; Weiss, William A.

2012-01-01

326

Co-prevalence of other tumors in patients harboring pituitary tumors.  

PubMed

Object The cause of most pituitary tumors remains unknown, although a genetic contribution is recognized for some. The prevalence of pituitary tumors in the general population is high. Analyzing the Utah Population Database (UPDB), the authors investigated the co-prevalence of other independent primary tumors in patients with known pituitary tumors, both benign and malignant, and in the relatives of these patients. Methods The authors identified individuals in the Utah Cancer Registry diagnosed with pituitary tumors who also had genealogy data in the UPDB and then calculated relative risks (RRs) of other tumors in these patients and their relatives. Results Among the 591 individuals with pituitary tumors, 16 (2.7%) had a malignant pituitary tumor and 77 (13%) had independent primary tumors of other origin. Overall, this is significantly higher than expected (70.6 expected, p = 0.009) within the general population (RR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.06-1.61). A significant excess for several different cancer sites was observed among the first-, second-, and third-degree relatives of the cases, including prostate and other cancers. Independent primary tumors at other sites have markedly elevated co-prevalence in patients harboring pituitary tumors and among their close and distant relatives. Conclusions This information will prove useful for counseling patients in whom pituitary tumors have been diagnosed and suggests strong genetic or environmental co-risks for the development of other tumors. PMID:25259568

Couldwell, William T; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A

2014-12-01

327

Simulation of complex transport of nanoparticles around a tumor using tumor-microenvironment-on-chip.  

PubMed

Delivery of therapeutic agents selectively to tumor tissue, which is referred as "targeted delivery," is one of the most ardently pursued goals of cancer therapy. Recent advances in nanotechnology enable numerous types of nanoparticles (NPs) whose properties can be designed for targeted delivery to tumors. In spite of promising early results, the delivery and therapeutic efficacy of the majority of NPs are still quite limited. This is mainly attributed to the limitation of currently available tumor models to test these NPs and systematically study the effects of complex transport and pathophysiological barriers around the tumors. In this study, thus, we developed a new in vitro tumor model to recapitulate the tumor microenvironment determining the transport around tumors. This model, named tumor-microenvironment-on-chip (T-MOC), consists of 3-dimensional microfluidic channels where tumor cells and endothelial cells are cultured within extracellular matrix under perfusion of interstitial fluid. Using this T-MOC platform, the transport of NPs and its variation due to tumor microenvironmental parameters have been studied including cut-off pore size, interstitial fluid pressure, and tumor tissue microstructure. The results suggest that T-MOC is capable of simulating the complex transport around the tumor, and providing detailed information about NP transport behavior. This finding confirms that NPs should be designed considering their dynamic interactions with tumor microenvironment. PMID:25194778

Kwak, Bongseop; Ozcelikkale, Altug; Shin, Crystal S; Park, Kinam; Han, Bumsoo

2014-11-28

328

Cancer Nanomedicines Targeting Tumor Extracellular pH  

PubMed Central

Tumors have been a highlight in the research of nanomedicine for decades. Despite all the efforts in the decoration of the nano systems, tumor specific targeting is still an issue due to the heterogeneous nature of tumors. Hypoxia is frequently observed in solid tumors. The consequent acidification of tumor extracellular matrices may bring new insight to tumor targeting. In this review, we present the polymeric nano systems that target tumor extracellular pH (pHe). PMID:22078927

Tian, Li; Bae, You Han

2011-01-01

329

[Mesenchymal gastric tumor - not always GIST.  

PubMed

The correct histopathological classification of a gastric mesenchymal tumor as a schwannoma is essential because in contrast to gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) it is a definitive benign neoplasm which can be sufficiently treated by in sano (R0) resection. A (partial) gastrectomy is unnecessary. A clear radiological or sonographical differentiation between a schwannoma and GIST is not possible. The histomorphological and immunohistochemical features of this tumor entity are described. PMID:25413680

Grosse-Holz, M; Sackmann, M; Seitz, G

2014-11-22

330

[Granulosa cell tumors of the ovary].  

PubMed

Ovarian granulosa cell tumors (TGO) are rare neoplasms. They arise from sex cord stromal cells of the ovaries. They are characterized by their slow natural history, and their tendency to relapse long time after the initial diagnosis. Complete staging surgery of the disease is the cornerstone of treatment. Chemotherapy is indicated for localized tumors with a high risk of recurrence, and for recurrent or advanced tumors. Prolonged follow-up is recommended. PMID:24445864

Sekkate, Sakina; Kairouani, Mouna; Serji, Badr; M'Rabti, Hind; El Ghissassi, Ibrahim; Errihani, Hassan

2014-01-01

331

Rhabdoid tumors of the central nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhabdoid tumors of the central nervous system are rare malignancies with a still almost uniformly fatal outcome. There is\\u000a still no proven curative therapy available. We report our experience with nine patients with central nervous system rhabdoid\\u000a tumors. Gross complete surgical removal of the tumor was achieved in six patients. Seven patients received intensive chemotherapy.\\u000a Four of these were treated

Dirk Reinhardt; Julianne Behnke-Mursch; E. Weiß; H.-J. Christen; J. Kühl; M. Lakomek; A. Pekrun

2000-01-01

332

Management of Rare Central Nervous System Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The management of rare central nervous system (CNS) tumors varies greatly, depending upon several key factors. The location\\u000a of the tumor may be the most important consideration in the management, specifically the neurosurgical management, of any\\u000a intracranial lesion. The location, of course, determines what neurological deficits a patient may have and the degree of resectability\\u000a of the tumor. For instance,

Gery Hsu; Raymond Sawaya

333

Contrast Ultrasound in Imaging Tumor Angiogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a New strategies to detect tumor angiogenesis and monitor response of tumor vasculature to therapy are needed. There are a plethora\\u000a of anti-angiogenic strategies being evaluated pre-clinically and in the clinical setting; however, a ­significant unmet challenge\\u000a is following the response of tumors to anti-angiogenic therapy. Herein we review current modalities being investigated for\\u000a this purpose and highlight the utility of

Grzegorz Korpanty; Rolf A. Brekken

334

Metastasis Suppressors and the Tumor Microenvironment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most dangerous attribute of cancer cells is their ability to metastasize. Throughout the process of metastasis, tumor\\u000a cells interact with other tumor cells, host cells and extracellular molecules. This brief review explores how a new class\\u000a of molecules – metastasis suppressors – regulate tumor cell–microenvironmental interactions. Data are presented which demonstrate\\u000a that metastasis suppressors act at multiple steps of

Thomas M. Bodenstine; Danny R. Welch

2008-01-01

335

Tumor-Stromal Interactions in Bone Metastasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metastasis of tumor cells to distant organs is the primary cause of cancer-related mortality in most cancers. The interaction\\u000a of tumor cells with local stroma at the metastatic site plays a critical role in metastatic dissemination and the establishment\\u000a of metastases. These tumor-stromal interactions regulate several important steps including degradation of extracellular matrix,\\u000a release of sequestered growth factors, and

Kalyan C. Nannuru; Rakesh K. Singh

2010-01-01

336

Interplay between inflammation and tumor angiogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The association of inflammation and neoplasia was first observed when Westphal reported dense areas of mast cells at the periphery\\u000a of tumors in 1891 [1]. These inflammatory cells infiltrating tumor tissues were believed to mediate phagocytic functions to aid in host defense\\u000a against the tumor. Now a new paradigm is being widely accepted that inflammation at the site of a

Yan Li; Xiao-yu R. Song; Marian T. Nakada

337

Multiscale tumor spatiokinetic model for intraperitoneal therapy.  

PubMed

This study established a multiscale computational model for intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy, to depict the time-dependent and spatial-dependent drug concentrations in peritoneal tumors as functions of drug properties (size, binding, diffusivity, permeability), transport mechanisms (diffusion, convection), spatial-dependent tumor heterogeneities (vessel density, cell density, pressure gradient), and physiological properties (peritoneal pressure, peritoneal fluid volume). Equations linked drug transport and clearance on three scales (tumor, IP cavity, whole organism). Paclitaxel was the test compound. The required model parameters (tumor diffusivity, tumor hydraulic conductivity, vessel permeability and surface area, microvascular hydrostatic pressure, drug association with cells) were obtained from literature reports, calculation, and/or experimental measurements. Drug concentration-time profiles in peritoneal fluid and plasma were the boundary conditions for tumor domain and blood vessels, respectively. The finite element method was used to numerically solve the nonlinear partial differential equations for fluid and solute transport. The resulting multiscale model accounted for intratumoral spatial heterogeneity, depicted diffusive and convective drug transport in tumor interstitium and across blood vessels, and provided drug flux and concentration as a function of time and spatial position in the tumor. Comparison of model-predicted tumor spatiokinetics with experimental results (autoradiographic data of 3H-paclitaxel in IP ovarian tumors in mice, 6 h posttreatment) showed good agreement (1% deviation for area under curve and 23% deviations for individual data points, which were several-fold lower compared to the experimental intertumor variations). The computational multiscale model provides a tool to quantify the effects of drug-, tumor-, and host-dependent variables on the concentrations and residence time of IP therapeutics in tumors. PMID:24570339

Au, Jessie L-S; Guo, Peng; Gao, Yue; Lu, Ze; Wientjes, Michael G; Tsai, Max; Wientjes, M Guillaume

2014-05-01

338

Laparoscopic liver resection of benign liver tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility, safety, and outcome of laparoscopic liver resection\\u000a for benign liver tumors in a multicenter setting. Background: Despite restrictive, tailored indications for resection in benign\\u000a liver tumors, an increasing number of articles have been published concerning laparoscopic liver resection of these tumors.\\u000a Methods: A retrospective study was performed in 18

B. Descottes; D. Glineur; F. Lachachi; D. Valleix; J. Paineau; A. Hamy; M. Morino; H. Bismuth; D. Castaing; E. Savier; P. Honore; O. Detry; M. Legrand; J. S. Azagra; M. Goergen; M. Ceuterick; J. Marescaux; D. Mutter; B. Hemptinne; R. Troisi; J. Weerts; B. Dallemagne; C. Jehaes; M. Gelin; V. Donckier; R. Aerts; B. Topal; C. Bertrand; B. Mansvelt; L. Krunckelsven; D. Herman; M. Kint; E. Totte; R. Schockmel; J. F. Gigot

2003-01-01

339

Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors  

PubMed Central

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are uncommon, biologically aggressive soft tissue sarcomas of neural origin that pose tremendous challenges to effective therapy. In 50% of cases, they occur in the context of neurofibromatosis type I, characterized by loss of function mutations to the tumor suppressor neurofibromin; the remainder arise sporadically or following radiation therapy. Prognosis is generally poor, with high rates of relapse following multimodality therapy in early disease, low response rates to cytotoxic chemotherapy in advanced disease, and propensity for rapid disease progression and high mortality. The last few years have seen an explosion in data surrounding the potential molecular drivers and targets for therapy above and beyond neurofibromin loss. These data span multiple nodes at various levels of cellular control, including major signal transduction pathways, angiogenesis, apoptosis, mitosis, and epigenetics. These include classical cancer-driving genetic aberrations such as TP53 and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) loss of function, and upregulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and (mechanistic) target of rapamycin (TOR) pathways, as well as less ubiquitous molecular abnormalities involving inhibitors of apoptosis proteins, aurora kinases, and the Wingless/int (Wnt) signaling pathway. We review the current understanding of MPNST biology, current best practices of management, and recent research developments in this disease, with a view to informing future advancements in patient care. PMID:24470531

Farid, Mohamad; Demicco, Elizabeth G.; Garcia, Roberto; Ahn, Linda; Merola, Pamela R.; Cioffi, Angela

2014-01-01

340

Bone tumor mimickers: A pictorial essay  

PubMed Central

Focal lesions in bone are very common and many of these lesions are not bone tumors. These bone tumor mimickers can include numerous normal anatomic variants and non-neoplastic processes. Many of these tumor mimickers can be left alone, while others can be due to a significant disease process. It is important for the radiologist and clinician to be aware of these bone tumor mimickers and understand the characteristic features which allow discrimination between them and true neoplasms in order to avoid unnecessary additional workup. Knowing which lesions to leave alone or which ones require workup can prevent misdiagnosis and reduce patient anxiety. PMID:25114385

Mhuircheartaigh, Jennifer Ni; Lin, Yu-Ching; Wu, Jim S

2014-01-01

341

Tumor vascular disruption using various radiation types  

PubMed Central

The feasibility of disrupting a tumor’s vascular structure with various radiation types and radionuclides is investigated. Calculated absorbed dose profiles for photons and 4He ions suggest that low-energy beta-gamma and alpha emitting radionuclides can deposit sufficient absorbed dose to disrupt a tumor’s vascular structure while minimizing the dose outside the blood vessel. Candidate radionuclides uniformly distributed in microspheres are theoretically investigated with respect to their vascular disruption potential and to offer an alternative to 90Y microsphere therapy. Requisite activities of candidate low-energy beta-gamma and alpha emitting radionuclides to facilitate vascular disruption are calculated. PMID:24749005

2014-01-01

342

Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Solid Tumors  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Bladder Cancer; Breast Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Kidney Cancer; Lung Cancer; Ovarian Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

2013-07-01

343

Are biomechanical changes necessary for tumor progression?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With an increasing knowledge in tumor biology an overwhelming complexity becomes obvious which roots in the diversity of tumors and their heterogeneous molecular composition. Nevertheless in all solid tumors malignant neoplasia, i.e. uncontrolled growth, invasion of adjacent tissues, and metastasis, occurs. Physics sheds some new light on cancer by approaching this problem from a functional, materials perspective. Recent results indicate that all three pathomechanisms require changes in the active and passive cellular biomechanics. Malignant transformation causes cell softening for small deformations which correlates with an increased rate of proliferation and faster cell migration. The tumor cell's ability to strain harden permits tumor growth against a rigid tissue environment. A highly mechanosensitive, enhanced cell contractility is a prerequisite that tumor cells can cross its tumor boundaries and that this cells can migrate through the extracellular matrix. Insights into the biomechanical changes during tumor progression may lead to selective treatments by altering cell mechanics. Such drugs would not cure by killing cancer cells, but slow down tumor progression with only mild side effects and thus may be an option for older and frail patients.

Kas, Josef A.; Fritsch, Anatol; Kiessling, Tobias; Nnetu, David K.; Pawlizak, Steve; Wetzel, Franziska; Zink, Mareike

2011-03-01

344

Intraarterial chemotherapy of head and neck tumors.  

PubMed

Forty-one patients with advanced recurrent or untreated and neck tumors were treated with intraarterial short-term (1-1 1/2 hr) infusion of cisplatin into the external carotid artery, achieving an immediate tumor response rate of 29.3%. Tumor extent within or beyond the territory of a single external carotid artery was the only significant factor identified affecting the tumor response rate (57.1% vs. 14.8%). Treatment with intraarterial chemotherapy using superselective catheterization before irradiation or surgery is beneficial in some patients. PMID:3082167

Lee, Y Y; Wallace, S; Dimery, I; Goepfert, H

1986-01-01

345

Cellular immunotherapy for pediatric solid tumors.  

PubMed

Substantial progress has been made in the treatment of pediatric solid tumors over the past 4 decades. However, children with metastatic and or recurrent disease continue to do poorly despite the aggressive multi-modality conventional therapies. The increasing understanding of the tumor biology and the interaction between the tumor and the immune system over the recent years have led to the development of novel immune-based therapies as alternative options for some of these high-risk malignancies. The safety and anti-tumor efficacy of various tumor vaccines and tumor-antigen specific immune cells are currently being investigated for various solid tumors. In early clinical trials, most of these cellular therapies have been well tolerated and have shown promising clinical responses. Although substantial work is being done in this field, the available knowledge for pediatric tumors remains limited. We review the contemporary early phase cell-based immunotherapy efforts for pediatric solid tumors and discuss the rationale and the challenges thereof. PMID:25082406

Hegde, Meenakshi; Moll, Alexander J; Byrd, Tiara T; Louis, Chrystal U; Ahmed, Nabil

2015-01-01

346

Giant-cell tumor of the patella.  

PubMed

We report a 38-year old man with a giant-cell tumor in a rare site, the patella. Primary patellar neoplasms are highly unusual. According to a survey by the Bone and Soft Tissue Tumor Committee of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association, of more than 2,126 giant-cell tumors of bone reported since 1972, only 22 were primary patellar neoplasms. We present a case of this rare entity along with its clinical and radiographic features. The first clinical symptom was anterior knee pain. Though anterior knee pain has numerous and varied causes, it is necessary to consider patellar bone tumors in the differential diagnosis. PMID:22358142

Yoshida, Yukihiro; Kojima, Toshio; Taniguchi, Masashi; Osaka, Shunzo; Tokuhashi, Yasuaki

2012-01-01

347

A rare posterior cranial fossa tumor.  

PubMed

Among tumors of the central nervous system, tumors of the mixed glioneuronal type form an important recognized subset. Some of the examples for mixed glioneuronal tumors include gangliocytoma, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT), ganglioglioma, anaplastic ganglioglioma, and central neurocytoma. The rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor (RGNT) of the fourth ventricle is a new entity that has only slowly emerged in the literature due to its prior classification with other low-grade mixed glial and neuronal tumors. These tumors are relatively infrequent lesions, and therefore, they can be challenging to diagnose for the practicing pathologist. This is a rare biphasic tumor with clearly defined neurocytic and glial components. The tumor is found exclusively in the posterior fossa, where it arises in the midline, usually occupying a substantial fraction of the fourth ventricle, and it is observed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a circumscribed, solid mass with heterogeneous contrast enhancement. We describe here a case of RGNT occurring in a 22-year-old male. PMID:23361291

Nandeesh, Bevinahalli N; Chabra, Manmeet Singh; Babu, Manjaly K; Chand, Ashish K

2012-01-01

348

Rectal and appendiceal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors.  

PubMed

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors are neoplasms characterized by spindle cell proliferation and a fiboinflammatory vascular stroma. Herein, we presented the successful treatment of a rectal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor in an 11-year-old boy who presented with diarrhea and abdominal pain of 1(1/2) months duration and an appendiceal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor in a 29-year-old man presented with recurrent abdominal pain of two months duration with associated tenderness and rebound tenderness in the right lower abdomen. Histologically, our cases had inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors very similar to that of other sites; the spindle cells were positive for vimentin and muscle-specific actin. PMID:16859068

Khoddami, Maliheh; Sanae, Shahram; Nikkhoo, Bahram

2006-07-01

349

Maximizing Tumor Immunity With Fractionated Radiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Technologic advances have led to increased clinical use of higher-sized fractions of radiation dose and higher total doses. How these modify the pathways involved in tumor cell death, normal tissue response, and signaling to the immune system has been inadequately explored. Here we ask how radiation dose and fraction size affect antitumor immunity, the suppression thereof, and how this might relate to tumor control. Methods and Materials: Mice bearing B16-OVA murine melanoma were treated with up to 15 Gy radiation given in various-size fractions, and tumor growth followed. The tumor-specific immune response in the spleen was assessed by interferon-{gamma} enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay with ovalbumin (OVA) as the surrogate tumor antigen and the contribution of regulatory T cells (Tregs) determined by the proportion of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup hi}Foxp3{sup +} T cells. Results: After single doses, tumor control increased with the size of radiation dose, as did the number of tumor-reactive T cells. This was offset at the highest dose by an increase in Treg representation. Fractionated treatment with medium-size radiation doses of 7.5 Gy/fraction gave the best tumor control and tumor immunity while maintaining low Treg numbers. Conclusions: Radiation can be an immune adjuvant, but the response varies with the size of dose per fraction. The ultimate challenge is to optimally integrate cancer immunotherapy into radiation therapy.

Schaue, Doerthe, E-mail: dschaue@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ratikan, Josephine A.; Iwamoto, Keisuke S.; McBride, William H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

2012-07-15

350

Imaging Tumor Cell Movement In Vivo  

PubMed Central

This unit describes the methods that we have been developing for analyzing tumor cell motility in mouse and rat models of breast cancer metastasis. Rodents are commonly used both to provide a mammalian system for studying human tumor cells (as xenografts in immunocompromised mice) as well as for following the development of tumors from a specific tissue type in transgenic lines. The Basic Protocol in this unit describes the standard methods used for generation of mammary tumors and imaging them. Additional protocols for labeling macrophages, blood vessel imaging, and image analysis are also included. PMID:23456602

Entenberg, David; Kedrin, Dmitriy; Wyckoff, Jeffrey; Sahai, Erik; Condeelis, John; Segall, Jeffrey E.

2013-01-01

351

Angiogenin antagonists prevent tumor growth in vivo.  

PubMed Central

A noncytotoxic neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb), 26-2F, to human angiogenin (Ang), a potent inducer of neovascularization, has been reported to prevent or delay the establishment of HT-29 human tumor xenografts in athymic mice. In the present study the tumor model was modified to increase sensitivity to Ang antagonists to facilitate further investigations and comparisons of their capacity to inhibit tumor growth. An increase in the percentage of tumor-free mice from 10-25% to 65% is observed in this modified model after treatment with mAb 26-2F. An additional neutralizing mAb, 36u, that interacts with a different epitope on Ang similarly prevents the appearance of tumors, both alone and in combination with mAb 26-2F. In those tumors that develop in mice treated with these agents, the number of vascular elements is reduced. Actin, an Ang antagonist that unlike the mAbs binds both human and mouse Ang, also prevents the establishment of tumors while exhibiting no toxic effects at daily doses > 50 times the molar amount of circulating mouse Ang. Ang antagonists also inhibit the appearance of tumors derived from two other Ang-secreting human tumor cell lines--i.e., A549 lung adenocarcinoma and HT-1080 fibrosarcoma. These results demonstrate that inhibition of the action of Ang is an effective therapeutic approach for the treatment of malignant disease. Images Fig. 2 PMID:7831307

Olson, K A; Fett, J W; French, T C; Key, M E; Vallee, B L

1995-01-01

352

Exploiting tumor epigenetics to improve oncolytic virotherapy.  

PubMed

Oncolytic viruses (OVs) comprise a versatile and multi-mechanistic therapeutic platform in the growing arsenal of anticancer biologics. These replicating therapeutics find favorable conditions in the tumor niche, characterized among others by increased metabolism, reduced anti-tumor/antiviral immunity, and disorganized vasculature. Through a self-amplification that is dependent on multiple cancer-specific defects, these agents exhibit remarkable tumor selectivity. With several OVs completing or entering Phase III clinical evaluation, their therapeutic potential as well as the challenges ahead are increasingly clear. One key hurdle is tumor heterogeneity, which results in variations in the ability of tumors to support productive infection by OVs and to induce adaptive anti-tumor immunity. To this end, mounting evidence suggests tumor epigenetics may play a key role. This review will focus on the epigenetic landscape of tumors and how it relates to OV infection. Therapeutic strategies aiming to exploit the epigenetic identity of tumors in order to improve OV therapy are also discussed. PMID:24062768

Forbes, Nicole E; Abdelbary, Hesham; Lupien, Mathieu; Bell, John C; Diallo, Jean-Simon

2013-01-01

353

Theranostic GO-based nanohybrid for tumor induced imaging and potential combinational tumor therapy.  

PubMed

Graphene oxide (GO)-based theranostic nanohybrid is designed for tumor induced imaging and potential combinational tumor therapy. The anti-tumor drug, Doxorubicin (DOX) is chemically conjugated to the poly(ethylenimine)-co-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEI-PEG) grafted GO via a MMP2-cleavable PLGLAG peptide linkage. The therapeutic efficacy of DOX is chemically locked and its intrinsic fluorescence is quenched by GO under normal physiological condition. Once stimulated by the MMP2 enzyme over-expressed in tumor tissues, the resulting peptide cleavage permits the unloading of DOX for tumor therapy and concurrent fluorescence recovery of DOX for in situ tumor cell imaging. Attractively, this PEI-bearing nanohybrid can mediate efficient DNA transfection and shows great potential for combinational drug/gene therapy. This tumor induced imaging and potential combinational therapy will open a window for tumor treatment by offering a unique theranostic approach through merging the diagnostic capability and pathology-responsive therapeutic function. PMID:24000121

Qin, Si-Yong; Feng, Jun; Rong, Lei; Jia, Hui-Zhen; Chen, Si; Liu, Xiang-Ji; Luo, Guo-Feng; Zhuo, Ren-Xi; Zhang, Xian-Zheng

2014-02-12

354

Eph receptors in breast cancer: roles in tumor promotion and tumor suppression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eph receptor tyrosine kinase signaling regulates cancer initiation and metastatic progression through multiple mechanisms.\\u000a Studies of tumor-cell-autonomous effects of Eph receptors demonstrate their dual roles in tumor suppression and tumor promotion.\\u000a In addition, Eph molecules function in the tumor microenvironment, such as in vascular endothelial cells, influencing the\\u000a ability of these molecules to promote carcinoma progression and metastasis. The complex

David Vaught; Dana M Brantley-Sieders; Jin Chen

2008-01-01

355

Mutations of the p53 Tumor Suppressor Gene Occur Infrequently in Wilms' Tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations of the p53 tumor suppressor gene occur frequently in a variety ofadult-onset tumors, including colon, breast, lung, and brain, yet are infrequently identified In pediatric malignancies. Wilma' tumor, a common solid tumor ofchildhood, can be associated with mutations of the w'ri gene.Alterations of thep53genehavebeenshownto modulate the ability of WT1to transactivate its targets. Although positive p5.3 immu nostaining has been

David Malkin; Elizabeth Sexsmith; Herman Yeger; G. Williams; Max J. Coppes

356

Biochemical prognostic indicators for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and small bowel neuroendocrine tumors  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) and small bowel neuroendocrine tumors (SBNETs) are rare tumors that are frequently diagnosed late in the course of the disease. Several biomarkers have been proposed in the literature as prognostic factors for patients with these tumors. This article discusses a recent publication in Annals of Surgical Oncology from the University of Iowa analyzing the effect of different biomarkers on survival in patients with PNETs and SBNETs. PMID:25493250

Cavaness, Keith; Celinski, Scott; Preskitt, John

2014-01-01

357

Biochemical prognostic indicators for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and small bowel neuroendocrine tumors.  

PubMed

Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) and small bowel neuroendocrine tumors (SBNETs) are rare tumors that are frequently diagnosed late in the course of the disease. Several biomarkers have been proposed in the literature as prognostic factors for patients with these tumors. This article discusses a recent publication in Annals of Surgical Oncology from the University of Iowa analyzing the effect of different biomarkers on survival in patients with PNETs and SBNETs. PMID:25493250

Landry, Christine S; Cavaness, Keith; Celinski, Scott; Preskitt, John

2014-11-01

358

Preconditioning of the Tumor Vasculature and Tumor Cells by Intermittent Hypoxia: Implications for Anticancer Therapies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypoxia is a common feature in tumors associated with an increased resistance of tumor cells to therapies. In addition to O2 diffusion-limited hypoxia, another form of tumor hypoxia characterized by fluctuating changes in pO2 within the disorganized tumor vascular network is described. Here, we postulated that this form of intermittent hypoxia promotes endothelial cell survival, thereby extending the concept of

Philippe Martinive; Florence Defresne; Caroline Bouzin; Julie Saliez; Florence Lair; Vincent Gregoire; Carine Michiels; Chantal Dessy; Olivier Feron

2006-01-01

359

High-Dose Thiotepa Plus Peripheral Stem Cell Transplantation in Treating Patients With Refractory Solid Tumors  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors; Childhood Germ Cell Tumor; Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Cancer; Retinoblastoma; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

2013-03-06

360

Natural selection of tumor variants in the generation of “tumor escape” phenotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea that tumors must “escape” from immune recognition contains the implicit assumption that tumors can be destroyed by immune responses either spontaneously or as the result of immunotherapeutic intervention. Simply put, there is no need for tumor escape without immunological pressure. Here, we review evidence supporting the immune escape hypothesis and critically explore the mechanisms that may allow such

Hung T. Khong; Nicholas P. Restifo

2002-01-01

361

Maspin expression in prostate tumor elicits host anti-tumor immunity  

PubMed Central

The goal of the current study is to examine the biological effects of epithelial-specific tumor suppressor maspin on tumor host immune response. Accumulated evidence demonstrates an anti-tumor effect of maspin on tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. The molecular mechanism underlying these biological functions of maspin is thought to be through histone deacetylase inhibition, key to the maintenance of differentiated epithelial phenotype. Since tumor-driven stromal reactivities co-evolve in tumor progression and metastasis, it is not surprising that maspin expression in tumor cells inhibits extracellular matrix degradation, increases fibrosis and blocks hypoxia-induced angiogenesis. Using the athymic nude mouse model capable of supporting the growth and progression of xenogeneic human prostate cancer cells, we further demonstrate that maspin expression in tumor cells elicits neutrophil- and B cells-dependent host tumor immunogenicity. Specifically, mice bearing maspin-expressing tumors exhibited increased systemic and intratumoral neutrophil maturation, activation and antibody-dependent cytotoxicity, and decreased peritumoral lymphangiogenesis. These results reveal a novel biological function of maspin in directing host immunity towards tumor elimination that helps explain the significant reduction of xenograft tumor incidence in vivo and the clinical correlation of maspin with better prognosis of several types of cancer. Taken together, our data raised the possibility for novel maspin-based cancer immunotherapies. PMID:25373490

Dzinic, Sijana H.; Chen, Kang; Thakur, Archana; Kaplun, Alexander; Daniel Bonfil, R.; Li, Xiaohua; Liu, Jason; Margarida Bernardo, M.; Saliganan, Allen; Back, Jessica B.; Yano, Hiroshi; Schalk, Dana L.; Tomaszewski, Elyse N.; Beydoun, Ahmed S.; Dyson, Gregory; Mujagic, Adelina; Krass, David; Dean, Ivory; Mi, Qing-Sheng; Heath, Elisabeth; Sakr, Wael; Lum, Lawrence G.; Sheng, Shijie

2014-01-01

362

Irradiation and Kidney Tumors. Histopathogenesis of Kidney Tumors in Irradiated Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the histopathologic analysis of some 1000 irradiated mice it was ; concluded that spontaneouslyoccurring kidney tumors in mice are rare. ; Irradiation seems to be responsible for producing kidney tumors in mice ; (proportion 10% of the cases). Radiation-induced kidney tumors are mostly ; papillary cystadenomas, miliary type.'' The glomerular capsule appears to be ; most sensitive to the

Charles C. Berdjis

1959-01-01

363

Contributions of tumor and stromal matrix metalloproteinases to tumor progression, invasion and metastasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The malignant progression of tumors is driven by the expression of oncogenes and loss of expression of tumor suppressor genes; factors that are intrinsic to cancer cells. The phenotypic changes brought about by the gain or loss of expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes lead to the acquisition of malignant traits, namely, the ability to invade into and grow

John R. MacDougall; Lynn M. Matrisian

1995-01-01

364

TLR8 signaling enhances tumor immunity by preventing tumor-induced T-cell senescence  

PubMed Central

Accumulating evidence suggests the immunosuppressive microenvironments created by malignant tumors represent a major obstacle for effective anti-tumor immunity. A better understanding of the suppressive mechanisms mediated by tumor microenvironments and the development of strategies to reverse the immune suppression are major challenges for the success of tumor immunotherapy. Here, we report that human tumor cells can induce senescence in naïve/effector T cells, exhibiting potent suppressive function in vitro and in vivo. We further show that tumor-derived endogenous cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is responsible for the induction of T-cell senescence. Importantly, activation of TLR8 signaling in tumor cells can block the induction and reverse the suppression of senescent naïve and tumor-specific T cells in vitro and in vivo, resulting in enhanced anti-tumor immunity. These studies identify a novel mechanism of human tumor-mediated immune suppression and provide a new strategy to reverse tumor immunosuppressive effects for tumor immunotherapy. PMID:25231413

Ye, Jian; Ma, Chunling; Hsueh, Eddy C; Dou, Jie; Mo, Wei; Liu, Shuai; Han, Bing; Huang, Yi; Zhang, Yanping; Varvares, Mark A; Hoft, Daniel F; Peng, Guangyong

2014-01-01

365

Vascular endothelial growth factor C-induced lymphangiogenesis decreases tumor interstitial fluid pressure and tumor.  

PubMed

Characteristically, most solid tumors exhibit an increased tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP) that directly contributes to the lowered uptake of macromolecular therapeutics into the tumor interstitium. Abnormalities in the tumor-associated lymph vessels are a central brick in the development and prolonged sustaining of an increased TIFP. In the current study, vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) was used to enhance tumor-associated lymphangiogenesis as a new mechanism to actively reduce the TIFP by increased lymphatic drainage of the tumor tissue. Human A431 epidermoid vulva carcinoma cells were inoculated in NMRI nu/nu mice to generate a xenograft mouse model. Seven days after tumor cell injection, VEGF-C was peritumorally injected to induce lymphangiogenesis. Tumor growth and TIFP was lowered significantly over time in VEGF-C-treated tumors in comparison to control or VEGF-A-treated animals. These data demonstrate for the first time that actively induced lymphangiogenesis can lower the TIFP in a xenograft tumor model and apparently reduce tumor growth. This model represents a novel approach to modulate biomechanical properties of the tumor interstitium enabling a lowering of TIFP in vivo. PMID:23908682

Hofmann, Matthias; Pflanzer, Ralph; Zoller, Nadja Nicole; Bernd, August; Kaufmann, Roland; Thaci, Diamant; Bereiter-Hahn, Jurgen; Hirohata, Satoshi; Kippenberger, Stefan

2013-08-01

366

Platelet interaction with a pancreatic ascites tumor.  

PubMed Central

The mechanism leading to the hypercoagulability in pancreatic carcinoma is unclear. The rapid progress of the disease after its diagnosis and the inaccessibility of the tumor make studies on the mechanism difficult in man. With the successful induction of this malignancy and conversion of it into an ascites tumor in Syrian golden hamsters, interactions between isolated tumor cells and individual hemostatic components can be investigated. In this paper, studies on in vitro tumor cell-platelet interactions and some hemostatic changes in hamsters following intravenous injection of isolated tumor cells are described. Freshly isolated tumor cells and tumor-cell sonicates, but not those that had been kept at 4 or -70 C overnight, induced comparable aggregation of human platelets in both heparinized and citrated platelet-rich plasmas (hPRP and cPRP). The aggregation was not followed by clot formation; a specific synthetic thrombin inhibitor had no effect on the aggregation in either hPRP or cPRP. Washed and gel-filtered platelets, even in the presence of 5% of citrated or heparinized platelet-poor plasma (cPPP or hPPP) failed to be aggregated by tumor cells. Tumor-cell-induced platelet aggregation was accompanied by thromboxane formation and serotonin release, both of which were several orders of magnitude greater in cPPP than in hPRP. Aspirin, apyrase, and PGI2 all inhibited tumor-cell-induced platelet aggregation in both PRPs, but the inhibition by aspirin was minimal. Intravenous infusion of isolated tumor cells into normal hamsters resulted in a 50% reduction of platelet count and a 20-30% decline in antithrombin III and fibrinogen. Platelet aggregates and fibrin strands were seen in the lungs of these animals. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 6 PMID:3510553

Hamilton, J.; Subbarao, V.; Granack, K.; Ts'ao, C.

1986-01-01

367

Intraoperative infrared imaging of brain tumors  

PubMed Central

Object Although clinical imaging defines the anatomical relationship between a brain tumor and the surrounding brain and neurological deficits indicate the neurophysiological consequences of the tumor, the effect of a brain tumor on vascular physiology is less clear. Methods An infrared camera was used to measure the temperature of the cortical surface before, during, and after removal of a mass in 34 patients (primary brain tumor in 21 patients, brain metastases in 10 and falx meningioma, cavernous angioma, and radiation necrosis–astrocytosis in one patient each). To establish the magnitude of the effect on blood flow induced by the tumor, the images were compared with those from a group of six patients who underwent temporal lobectomy for epilepsy. In four cases a cerebral artery was temporarily occluded during the course of the surgery and infrared emissions from the cortex before and after occlusion were compared to establish the relationship of local temperature to regional blood flow. Discrete temperature gradients were associated with surgically verified lesions in all cases. Depending on the type of tumor, the cortex overlying the tumor was either colder or warmer than the surrounding cortex. Spatial reorganization of thermal gradients was observed after tumor resection. Temperature gradients of the cortex in patients with tumors exceeded those measured in the cortex of patients who underwent epilepsy surgery. Conclusions Brain tumors induce changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the cortex, which can be made visible by performing infrared imaging during cranial surgery. A reduction in CBF beyond the tumor margin improves after removal of the lesion. PMID:15599965

Gorbach, Alexander M.; Heiss, John D.; Kopylev, Leonid; Oldfield, Edward H.

2014-01-01

368

Molecular genetic studies of sporadic pituitary tumors  

SciTech Connect

Tumor formation may result from the activation of dominant oncogenes or by inactivation of recessive, tumor suppressor genes. The role of such mutations in the development of pituitary tumors has been studied. Tumors from 88 patients, representing the 4 major classes of adenoma, were investigated. In DNA extracted from matched leukocyte and tumor samples, allelic deletions were sought with 15 probes identifying restriction, fragment length polymorphisms on chromosomes 1, 5, 10, 11, 13, 17, 20, and 22. Evidence of amplification or rearrangement of 10 recognized cellular oncogenes (N-ras, mycL1, mycN, myc, H-ras, bcl1, H-stf1, sea, kraS2, and fos) was sought in tumor DNA. Activating dominant mutations of G{sub s{alpha}} were detected using the polymerase chain reaction to amplify exons 7-10 and hybridizing the product to normal and mutant allele-specific oligonucleotides. Allelic deletions on chromosome 11 were identified in 16 tumors (18%) representing all 4 major subtypes. Deletions on other autosomes were observed in less than 6% of tumors. Three adenomas had deletions on multiple autosomes, 2 of these were aggressive and recurrent. Mutations of G{sub s{alpha}} were confirmed to be specific to somatotrophinomas, being identified in 36% of such tumors in this series. No evidence of amplification or rearrangement of other recognized cellular oncogenes was found. Inactivation of a recessive oncogene on chromosome 11 is an important and possibly early event in the development of the four major types of pituitary adenoma, whereas activating mutations of G{sub s{alpha}} are confirmed to be specific to somatotropinomas. Two aggressive tumors were found to have multiple autosomal losses, suggesting a multistep progression in the development of tumors of this phenotype. 30 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Boggild, M.D.; Jenkinson, S.; McTernan, P.; Perrett, C.W.; Clayton, R.N. [Keele Univ., Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom)] [Keele Univ., Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom); Thakker, R.V. [Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom)] [Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Pistorello, M.; Boscaro, M.; Scanarini, M. [Univ. of Padua (Italy)] [Univ. of Padua (Italy)

1994-02-01

369

NORMAS GERAIS PARA INGRESSO COMO PORTADOR DE DIPLOMA DE  

E-print Network

1 NORMAS GERAIS PARA INGRESSO COMO PORTADOR DE DIPLOMA DE GRADUA��O (BRASIL) PERÍODO 2013.2 PRAZO PORTADOR DE DIPLOMA DE GRADUA��O DO BRASIL I­DAS CONDI��ES Portadores de Diploma de Graduação de Cursos; - Certificado de Dispensa de Incorporação; - CPF; Se candidato estrangeiro: - Certificado de Concl

370

El teatro como reflexión colectiva: Conversación con Sergio Corrieri  

E-print Network

SPRING 1983 51 El teatro como reflexión colectiva: Conversación con Sergio Corrieri Gerardo Luzuriaga Sergio Corrieri es el director del renombrado Teatro Escambray, fundado por él y otros teatristas de La Habana en 1968 en la región del... propios del subdesarrollo. La superstición, por ejemplo, muy extendida en nuestras zonas rurales; el reparo del campesino, sus dudas ante la colectivización del trabajo agrícola, ante el hecho de unir sus esfuerzos con los de otros campesinos, y en...

Luzuriaga, Gerardo

1983-04-01

371

Study of the Glutaminase Inhibitor CB-839 in Solid Tumors  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Solid Tumors; Triple-Negative Breast Cancer; Non Small Cell Lung Cancer; Renal Cell Carcinoma; Mesothelioma; Fumarate Hydratase (FH)-Deficient Tumors; Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH)-Deficient Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GIST); Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH)-Deficient Non-gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors; Tumors Harboring Isocitrate Dehydrogenase-1 (IDH1) and IDH2 Mutations

2014-11-13

372

Nonlinear simulation of the effect of microenvironment on tumor growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present and investigate a model for solid tumor growth that incorporates features of the tumor microenvironment. Using analysis and nonlinear numerical simulations, we explore the effects of the interaction between the genetic characteristics of the tumor and the tumor microenvironment on the resulting tumor progression and morphology. We find that the range of morphological responses can

Paul Macklin; John Lowengrub

2007-01-01

373

Three-Dimensional Spheroid Model in Tumor Biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is becoming more and more apparent that monolayer cultures of tumor cells cannot completely represent the characteristics of three-dimensional solid tumors. Consequently, the multicellular tumor spheroid model, which is of intermediate complexity between in vivo tumors and monolayer cultures, was developed. In this review, the major similarities between spheroids and solid tumors are discussed. After a brief survey of

Maria Teresa Santini; Gabriella Rainaldi

1999-01-01

374

Radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of liver tumors in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatoblastoma and liver metastasis of Wilms tumors are rare hepatic tumors in children. Treatment of both tumors consists of a combination of chemotherapy and liver surgery. Radiofrequency ablation is frequently used for the treatment of adult liver tumors, but is rarely mentioned as a treatment option in pediatric liver tumors. We present a patient with hepatoblastoma and one with liver

Stijn van Laarhoven; Robertine van Baren; Rienk Yde Johan Tamminga; Koert Pieter de Jong

375

Delayed Contrast Extravasation MRI for Depicting Tumor and Non-Tumoral Tissues in Primary and Metastatic Brain Tumors  

PubMed Central

The current standard of care for newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is resection followed by radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide. Recent studies suggest that nearly half of the patients with early radiological deterioration post treatment do not suffer from tumor recurrence but from pseudoprogression. Similarly, a significant number of patients with brain metastases suffer from radiation necrosis following radiation treatments. Conventional MRI is currently unable to differentiate tumor progression from treatment-induced effects. The ability to clearly differentiate tumor from non-tumoral tissues is crucial for appropriate patient management. Ten patients with primary brain tumors and 10 patients with brain metastases were scanned by delayed contrast extravasation MRI prior to surgery. Enhancement subtraction maps calculated from high resolution MR images acquired up to 75 min after contrast administration were used for obtaining stereotactic biopsies. Histological assessment was then compared with the pre-surgical calculated maps. In addition, the application of our maps for prediction of progression was studied in a small cohort of 13 newly diagnosed GBM patients undergoing standard chemoradiation and followed up to 19.7 months post therapy. The maps showed two primary enhancement populations: the slow population where contrast clearance from the tissue was slower than contrast accumulation and the fast population where clearance was faster than accumulation. Comparison with histology confirmed the fast population to consist of morphologically active tumor and the slow population to consist of non-tumoral tissues. Our maps demonstrated significant correlation with perfusion-weighted MR data acquired simultaneously, although contradicting examples were shown. Preliminary results suggest that early changes in the fast volumes may serve as a predictor for time to progression. These preliminary results suggest that our high resolution MRI-based delayed enhancement subtraction maps may be applied for clear depiction of tumor and non-tumoral tissues in patients with primary brain tumors and patients with brain metastases. PMID:23251672

Zach, Leor; Guez, David; Last, David; Daniels, Dianne; Grober, Yuval; Nissim, Ouzi; Hoffmann, Chen; Nass, Dvora; Talianski, Alisa; Spiegelmann, Roberto; Cohen, Zvi R.; Mardor, Yael

2012-01-01

376

Radiometallacarboranes as tumor imaging reagents  

SciTech Connect

Monoclonal antibodies (Mab), when conjugated with bifunctional chelation reagents containing a radiometal, have provided sensitive and accurate imaging agents for the detection of cancer and other diseases. The bifunctional chelates presently in use are generally of the aminocarboxylate family and subject to catabolism with release of metal ion in vivo. The authors have now designed, synthesized, and evaluated a functionalized cluster containing a radiotransition metal (venus flytrap cluster, VFC) which makes use of an inorganic ligand set, incorporates exceedingly strong cluster bonding based upon a bridged commo-bis(dicarbollide) structure, and can be prepared in the aqueous media commonly used to supply radiometal salts. The species reported here presages the existence of a large family of functionalized metallacarborane clusters which may serve as biologically inviolable radio-transition-metal carriers for the antibody-mediated {gamma}-imaging or {beta}-therapy of tumors.

Hawthorne, M.F.; Varadarajan, A.; Knobler, C.B.; Chakrabarti, S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA)); Paxton, R.J.; Beatty, B.G.; Curtis, F.L. (Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte, CA (USA))

1990-06-20

377

[Tracheobronchial reconstruction of malignant tumors].  

PubMed

To August, 1988, we performed tracheobronchial reconstruction for 159 patients with malignant tumors. Operative methods in these patients and the operative results studied in the end of March, 1989, was reported. As for adenoid cystic carcinoma, we stressed, by illustrating cases, that postoperative radiation therapy was useful and that it should be given for all patients with this disease. About one half of patients with thyroid carcinoma infiltrating the trachea died of symptoms related with tracheal stenosis. However, tracheobronchial reconstruction improved 10 year survival rate in patients with advanced thyroid carcinoma remarkably, which became close to that in patients with non-infiltrating thyroid carcinoma. As for lung cancer, tracheobronchial reconstruction had good indication for squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:2558247

Ishihara, T; Kato, R; Kobayashi, K; Kikuchi, K; Kawamura, M; Nakayama, M; Horinouchi, H

1989-07-01

378

IL18-producing Salmonella inhibit tumor growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown that intravenously applied bacteria can accumulate in tumors and lead to sporadic tumor regression. Recently, systemic administration of attenuated Salmonella typhimurium was demonstrated to generate no significant side effects in humans, but also no antitumor responses. We report the enhanced antitumor activity in preclinical mouse cancer models of nonvirulent S. typhimurium engineered to synthesize the cytokine

M Loeffler; G Le'Negrate; M Krajewska; J C Reed

2008-01-01

379

Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the pelvis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are well recognized in the pleura, but their occurrence at other sites has only become appreciated in recent years, as a consequence of which extrapleural examples often go unrecognized and misdiagnosed. Because of their rarity, overall experience concerning this tumor has not been significant and reports detailing radiological findings are few. We herein report an unusual

Shiu Yan J. Wat; Monalisa Sur; Kavita Dhamanaskar

2008-01-01

380

MR features of gastrointestinal stromal tumors.  

PubMed

We report on two patients presenting with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). The important tumor size and the marked tissular hypersignal seen on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images (MRI) should be considered as magnetic resonance (MR) features strongly indicating diagnosis of GIST. PMID:15967315

Caramella, T; Schmidt, S; Chevallier, P; Saint Paul, M; Bernard, J L; Bidoli, R; Bruneton, J N

2005-01-01

381

Microfluidic Platforms for Capturing Circulating Tumor Cells  

E-print Network

Microfluidic Platforms for Capturing Circulating Tumor Cells Sweta Gupta, Allison C. Baker-cost microfluidic device that can be used to isolate and capture circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from whole blood. The device was made from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) consisting of a microfluidic channel with microposts

Tang, William C

382

Nogo-A expression in oligodendroglial tumors.  

PubMed

Nogo-A belongs to the reticulon protein family and is expressed in the inner and outer loops of myelin sheaths of oligodendrocytes. We analyzed the patterns of Nogo-A expression in human gliomas in an effort to identify a useful marker for the characterization of oligodendroglial tumors. We determined the expression of Nogo-A in a panel of 58 astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumors using immunohistochemistry and compared the expression of Nogo-A with Olig-2, a recently identified marker for oligodendrogliomas. To localize Nogo-A expression, immunofluorescent staining was performed using other glial markers (MAP-2 and GFAP). We also confirmed the overexpression of the Nogo-A protein in 53 astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumors using Western blot analysis. Based on immunohistochemical analysis, Nogo-A and Olig-2 had specificity in the detection of oligodendroglial tumors from astrocytic tumors (P=0.001). The level of Nogo-A staining was highly correlated with Olig-2 (P=0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of Nogo-A for oligodendroglial tumors was 86.9% and 57.1%, respectively. Nogo-A expression overlapped that of other oligodendroglial markers, but with different patterns of expression. Western blot analysis revealed that Nogo-A is predominantly expressed in 85.7% of oligodendroglioma cells and 93.7% of anaplastic oligodendroglioma cells. Like other oligodendroglial markers, Nogo-A is highly expressed in oligodendroglial tumors; however, it does not serve as a definite marker specific for oligodendroglial tumors. PMID:20487307

Jung, Tae-Young; Jung, Shin; Lee, Kyung-Hwa; Cao, Van Thang; Jin, Shu-Guang; Moon, Kyung-Sub; Kim, In-Young; Kang, Sam-Suk; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Lee, Min-Cheol

2011-02-01

383

Connective tissue growth factor in tumor pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Key roles for connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) are demonstrated in the wound repair process where it promotes myofibroblast differentiation and angiogenesis. Similar mechanisms are active in tumor-reactive stroma where CTGF is expressed. Other potential roles include prevention of hypoxia-induced apoptosis and promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transistion (EMT). CTGF expression in tumors has been associated to both tumor suppression and progression. For example, CTGF expression in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, breast, pancreas and gastric cancer correlates to worse prognosis whereas the opposite is true for colorectal, lung and ovarian cancer. This discrepancy is not yet understood. High expression of CTGF is a hallmark of ileal carcinoids, which are well-differentiated endocrine carcinomas with serotonin production originating from the small intestine and proximal colon. These tumors maintain a high grade of differentiation and low proliferation. Despite this, they are malignant and most patients have metastatic disease at diagnosis. These tumors demonstrate several phenotypes potentially related to CTGF function namely: cell migration, absent tumor cell apoptosis, as well as, reactive and well vascularised myofibroblast rich stroma and fibrosis development locally and in distal organs. The presence of CTGF in other endocrine tumors indicates a role in the progression of well-differentiated tumors. PMID:23259759

2012-01-01

384

Wilms Tumor and the WT1 Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wilms tumor or nephroblastoma is a pediatric kidney cancer arising from pluripotent embryonic renal precursors. Multiple genetic loci have been linked to Wilms tumorigenesis; positional cloning strategies have led to the identification of the WT1 tumor suppressor gene at chromosome 11p13. WT1 encodes a zinc finger transcription factor that is inactivated in the germline of children with genetic predisposition to

Sean Bong Lee; Daniel A Haber

2001-01-01

385

Mechanism of gallium-67 accumulation in tumors  

SciTech Connect

Neoplasms are characterized by increased perfusion, increased permeability of their capillary beds to macromolecules, and a delay in new lymphatic vessel growth. These lead to the increased entry and residency time of macromolecules in the interstitial space of tumors. Multiple factors contribute to the localization of /sup 67/Ga in tumors. Adequate blood supply is essential; at areas with no blood supply such as the necrotic center of a large tumor, there is no /sup 67/Ga accumulation. Gallium-67, mainly in the form of transferrin-67Ga complex, is delivered to the tumor through capillaries with increased permeability. In tumors, some /sup 67/Ga is taken up by tumor cells; some may also be taken up by inflammatory cells when they are present. Gallium-67 binding proteins, such as lactoferrin or ferritin, may also contribute to the accumulation and retention of /sup 67/Ga in tumors; however, their roles are less clear. The intensity of these various factors determine their relative contribution and the degree of /sup 67/Ga accumulation in tumors.56 references.

Tsan, M.F.; Scheffel, U.

1986-07-01

386

Malignant phyllodes tumor of the left atrium  

PubMed Central

Metastatic tumors to the heart usually involve right sided chambers. We report a rare case of malignant phyllodes tumor of breast with metastatic involvement of left atrium occurring through direct invasion from mediastinal micro-metastasis and presenting as a left atrial mass causing arrhythmia. PMID:24814127

Bhambhani, Anupam; Ayyagari, Sudha; Mohapatra, Tushar; Rehman, Syed Abdul; Shah, Milap; Rao, Sudhakar; Rangashamanna, Vital; Rajasekhar, V.; Chittimilla, Santosh

2014-01-01

387

Altered Tumor-Cell Glycosylation Promotes Metastasis  

PubMed Central

Malignant transformation of cells is associated with aberrant glycosylation presented on the cell-surface. Commonly observed changes in glycan structures during malignancy encompass aberrant expression and glycosylation of mucins; abnormal branching of N-glycans; and increased presence of sialic acid on proteins and glycolipids. Accumulating evidence supports the notion that the presence of certain glycan structures correlates with cancer progression by affecting tumor-cell invasiveness, ability to disseminate through the blood circulation and to metastasize in distant organs. During metastasis tumor-cell-derived glycans enable binding to cells in their microenvironment including endothelium and blood constituents through glycan-binding receptors – lectins. In this review, we will discuss current concepts how tumor-cell-derived glycans contribute to metastasis with the focus on three types of lectins: siglecs, galectins, and selectins. Siglecs are present on virtually all hematopoietic cells and usually negatively regulate immune responses. Galectins are mostly expressed by tumor cells and support tumor-cell survival. Selectins are vascular adhesion receptors that promote tumor-cell dissemination. All lectins facilitate interactions within the tumor microenvironment and thereby promote cancer progression. The identification of mechanisms how tumor glycans contribute to metastasis may help to improve diagnosis, prognosis, and aid to develop clinical strategies to prevent metastasis. PMID:24592356

Häuselmann, Irina; Borsig, Lubor

2014-01-01

388

Egfl7 promotes tumor escape from immunity  

PubMed Central

Egfl7 is an endothelial-specific gene which expression is deregulated in human cancers. We showed that Egfl7 promotes tumor escape from immunity by downregulating the expression of leukocyte adhesion molecules in endothelial cells, thus repressing immune cell extravasation into tumors. PMID:22737620

Pinte, Sébastien; Soncin, Fabrice

2012-01-01

389

Matrix metalloproteinases: multifunctional contributors to tumor progression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of extracellular matrix degrading proteinases. Owing to their matrix-degrading abilities and high expression in advanced tumors, MMPs were originally implicated in5invasion and metastasis during cancer progression. However, recent work extends a role for MMPs during multiple stages of tumor progression to include other functions such as growth, angiogenesis and migration. Based on studies in

Lisa J McCawley; Lynn M Matrisian

2000-01-01

390

Tumor cohesion and glioblastoma cell dispersal  

PubMed Central

Patients with glioblastoma typically present when tumors are at an advanced stage. Surgical resection, radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy are currently the standard of care for glioblastoma. However, due to the infiltrative and dispersive nature of the tumor, recurrence rate remains high and typically results in very poor prognosis. Efforts to treat the primary tumor are, therefore, palliative rather than curative. From a practical perspective, controlling growth and dispersal of the recurrence may have a greater impact on disease-free survival, In order for cells to disperse, they must first detach from the mass. Preventing detachment may keep tumors that recur more localized and perhaps more amenable to therapy. Here we introduce a new perspective in which a quantifiable mechanical property, namely tissue surface tension, can provide novel information on tumor behavior. The overall theme of the discussion will attempt to integrate how adhesion molecules can alter a tumor’s mechanical properties and how, in turn, these properties can be modified to prevent tumor cell detachment and dispersal. PMID:23902244

Foty, Ramsey A

2013-01-01

391

Gene Expression Profiling of Childhood Adrenocortical Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pediatric adrenocortical tumors (ACT) are rare and often fatal malignancies; little is known regarding their etiology and biology. To provide additional insight into the nature of ACT, we determined the gene expression profiles of 24 pediatric tumors ( five adenomas, 18 carcinomas, and one undeter- mined) and seven normal adrenal glands. Distinct patterns of gene expression, validated by quantitative real-time

Alina Nico West; Geoffrey A. Neale; Stanley Pounds; Bonald C. Figueredo; Carlos RodriguezGalindo; Antonio G. Oliveira Filho; David Malkin; Enzo Lalli; Raul Ribeiro; Gerard P. Zambetti

2007-01-01

392

High Efficiency Diffusion Molecular Retention Tumor Targeting  

PubMed Central

Here we introduce diffusion molecular retention (DMR) tumor targeting, a technique that employs PEG-fluorochrome shielded probes that, after a peritumoral (PT) injection, undergo slow vascular uptake and extensive interstitial diffusion, with tumor retention only through integrin molecular recognition. To demonstrate DMR, RGD (integrin binding) and RAD (control) probes were synthesized bearing DOTA (for 111 In3+), a NIR fluorochrome, and 5 kDa PEG that endows probes with a protein-like volume of 25 kDa and decreases non-specific interactions. With a GFP-BT-20 breast carcinoma model, tumor targeting by the DMR or IV methods was assessed by surface fluorescence, biodistribution of [111In] RGD and [111In] RAD probes, and whole animal SPECT. After a PT injection, both probes rapidly diffused through the normal and tumor interstitium, with retention of the RGD probe due to integrin interactions. With PT injection and the [111In] RGD probe, SPECT indicated a highly tumor specific uptake at 24 h post injection, with 352%ID/g tumor obtained by DMR (vs 4.14%ID/g by IV). The high efficiency molecular targeting of DMR employed low probe doses (e.g. 25 ng as RGD peptide), which minimizes toxicity risks and facilitates clinical translation. DMR applications include the delivery of fluorochromes for intraoperative tumor margin delineation, the delivery of radioisotopes (e.g. toxic, short range alpha emitters) for radiotherapy, or the delivery of photosensitizers to tumors accessible to light. PMID:23505478

Guo, Yanyan; Yuan, Hushan; Cho, Hoonsung; Kuruppu, Darshini; Jokivarsi, Kimmo; Agarwal, Aayush; Shah, Khalid; Josephson, Lee

2013-01-01

393

Endoscopic management of benign tracheobronchial tumors  

PubMed Central

Even though benign tracheobronchial tumors are quite rare, they still can induce airway obstruction, result in suffocation, and need emergent management to remove the obstructing lesions and make the respiratory tracts unobstructed. Although the preferred therapy is surgery, it is still difficult to deal with the tumors in some cases, and the complications of surgery are common. Therefore, bronchoscopic managements, such as Nd: YAG laser, electrocautery, APC and Cryotherapy, are very important to treat benign tracheobronchial tumors and can cure most of them. The efficacy of therapeutic endoscopy for the treatment of patients with benign airways obstruction has been established. However, in order to maximally eradicate the benign tumors with minimal damage to patients, the success of bronchoscopic managements for the treatment strongly depends on the diligent identification of the various factors, including the location, size, shape of tumor, and the age, status, cardio respiratory function of patients, and full comprehension of the limits and potential of each particular technique. Because the advantages and disadvantages of above mentioned interventional methods, single method can not solve all clinical issues. Therefore, in order to remove benign tracheobronchial tumors completely, and reduce the incidence of recurrence as far as possible, many doctors combine several methods of them to treat complicated benign tracheobronchial tumors. This article reviews the core principles and techniques available to the bronchoscope managing benign tracheobronchial tumors. PMID:22263100

Gao, Hui; Ding, Xin; Wei, Dong; Cheng, Peng; Su, Xiaomei; Liu, Huanyi; Zhang, Tao

2011-01-01

394

[Laser coagulation of benign skin tumors].  

PubMed

Different surgical procedures to suit the type of tumor were used in the treatment of 434 benign cutaneous tumors in 325 patients. The parameters of energy density from the CO2-laser in the range of 0.5 to 5 kWt/cm2 and exposure times are given. Good immediate and distant results were obtained. PMID:3788091

Koshelev, V N; Serebrianik, M N

1986-01-01

395

MONITORING SLOWLY EVOLVING TUMORS E. Konukoglu1  

E-print Network

with known tumor growth as well as ten clinical data sets. We show that the results of our approach highlyMONITORING SLOWLY EVOLVING TUMORS E. Konukoglu1 , W. M. Wells2 , S. Novellas1 , N. Ayache1 , R. Kikinis2 , P. M. Black2 , K. M. Pohl2 1 Asclepios Research Project, INRIA 2 Brigham & Women's Hospital

Pohl, Kilian M.

396

Cytological Aspects of Normal and Tumorous Liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Liver tumors were induced in male rats of the Wistar strain by feeding p-dimethyl- aminoazobenzene mixed into ground rat food. Surgical biopsies were taken before the animals were fed the azo dye, after 18 weeks of feeding, and when the animals were sacrificed. Tumorous liver was classified as cholangioma, trabecula hepatoma, and apparently normal areas. DNA content (by cytophotometry),

SASHA KOULISH; ANDM. A. LESSLER

397

Acinar pancreatic tumor with metastatic fat necrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This report deals with a pancreatic tumor associated with metastatic fat necrosis. Our patient displayed the full gamut of nodular panniculitis, polyarthritis, fever, eosinophilia, hyperlipasemia, lytic bones lesions, and marrow fat necrosis. The rheumatologic features are reviewed. Elevated serum lipase is a most helpful laboratory confirmation. The tumor in our patient presented a difficult problem in classification. Although the

Armin E. Good; Bertram Schnitzer; Hidenori Kawanishi; Kyriakos C. Demetropoulos; Robert Rapp

1976-01-01

398

Chemotherapy for Intramedullary Spinal Cord Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intramedullary tumors are rare, accounting for only about 4% of all CNS neoplasms. Although surgery represents the most effective treatment, recurrence may occur. As a large proportion of intramedullary malignancies occur in children, who are more sensitive to the deleterious effects of irradiation, chemotherapy assumes an important role. This article describes the most common intramedullary tumors and the role of

Casilda Balmaceda

2000-01-01

399

Chemotherapy for intramedullary spinal cord tumors.  

PubMed

Intramedullary tumors are rare, accounting for only about 4% of all CNS neoplasms. Although surgery represents the most effective treatment, recurrence may occur. As a large proportion of intramedullary malignancies occur in children, who are more sensitive to the deleterious effects of irradiation, chemotherapy assumes an important role. This article describes the most common intramedullary tumors and the role of chemotherapy. PMID:11016745

Balmaceda, C

2000-05-01

400

Percutaneous needle treatment of liver tumors  

E-print Network

· Percutaneous needle treatment of liver tumors · Target multiple tumors through a single incisionmm x 90mm x 260mm · Autoclavable I. Free Space III. Bovine Liver · Precurved concentric nitinol tubes.80 Bovine Liver (mm) 3.32 ± 2.66 II. Ethanol Solution Future Work · Human trials with manual unit · Fully

Webster III, Robert James

401

Calcified primary tumors of the gastrointestinal tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dominant pattern and location of calcifications occurring within 23 primary gastrointestinal tumors have been analysed and correlated with the data from the literature. The provided guidelines for radiologic diagnosis of such calcified tumors include: (1) a retrocardiac mass containing amorphous calcifications is typical of leiomyoma of the esophagus; (2) calcific deposits similar to that in uterine fibroids may be

Gary G. Ghahremani; Morton A. Meyers; Ronald B. Port

1977-01-01

402

Cancer-associated fibroblasts in digestive tumors  

PubMed Central

The significant influence of tumor stroma on malignant cells has been extensively investigated in this era of targeted therapy. The tumor microenvironment, as a dynamic system, is orchestrated by various cells including tumor vascular composing cells, inflammatory cells and fibroblasts. As a major and important component in tumor stroma, increasing evidence has shown that spindle-shaped cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are a significant modifier of cancer evolution, and promote tumorigenesis, tumor invasion and metastasis by stimulating angiogenesis, malignant cell survival, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and proliferation via direct cell-to-cell contact or secretion of soluble factors in most digestive solid tumors. CAFs are thought to be activated, characterized by the expression of ?-smooth muscle actin, fibroblast activated protein, fibroblast specific protein, vimentin, fibronectin, etc. They are hypothesized to originate from normal or aged fibroblasts, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells, or vascular endothelial cells. EMT may also be an important process generating CAFs, and most probably, CAFs may originate from multiple cells. A close link exists between EMT, tumor stem cells, and chemo-resistance of tumor cells, which is largely orchestrated by CAFs. CAFs significantly induce immunosuppression, and may be a prognostic marker in various malignancies. Targeted therapy toward CAFs has displayed promising anticancer efficacy, which further reinforces the necessity to explore the relationship between CAFs and their hosts.

Huang, Lei; Xu, A-Man; Liu, Sha; Liu, Wei; Li, Tuan-Jie

2014-01-01

403

Extraosseous Ewing's tumor of lateral abdominal wall  

PubMed Central

Extraosseous Ewings tumor (EES) is a rare entity. Few cases have been reported in literature. There are no specific guidelines for management of this disease. We are reporting a case of EES arising from left lateral abdominal wall. We did wide excision of tumor followed by chemoradiation. Patient is asymptomatic after 8 months of follow up. PMID:24765376

Gupta, Nikhil; Chand, Tirlok; Yadav, Nidhi; Kumar, Rajeev; Chauhan, Devender S.; Chaudhary, Poras; Arora, Mohinder P.

2011-01-01

404

Breast cancer intra-tumor heterogeneity  

PubMed Central

In recent years it has become clear that cancer cells within a single tumor can display striking morphological, genetic and behavioral variability. Burgeoning genetic, epigenetic and phenomenological data support the existence of intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity in breast cancers; however, its basis is yet to be fully defined. Two of the most widely evoked concepts to explain the origin of heterogeneity within tumors are the cancer stem cell hypothesis and the clonal evolution model. Although the cancer stem cell model appeared to provide an explanation for the variability among the neoplastic cells within a given cancer, advances in massively parallel sequencing have provided several lines of evidence to suggest that intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity likely plays a fundamental role in the phenotypic heterogeneity observed in cancers. Many challenges remain, however, in the interpretation of the next generation sequencing results obtained so far. Here we review the models that explain tumor heterogeneity, the causes of intra-tumor genetic diversity and their impact on our understanding and management of breast cancer, methods to study intra-tumor heterogeneity and the assessment of intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity in the clinic.

2014-01-01

405

Urological tumors in renal transplantation.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper was to review the risk and incidence of urological malignancies and the clinical characteristics and outcomes of renal transplant urological malignancies. Medline/PubMed from January 1980 to February 2013 was searched to identify all medical literature about native kidney, graft bladder and prostate cancers. Comparing to general population, risk of kidney cancer was found to be 7 to 10 times greater and most of them are incidental low-stage, low-grade tumors with a good prognosis. Open and laparoscopic radical nephrectomies without lymph nodes dissection were reported to be safe. Incidence of graft RCC was 0.19%. Papillary carcinomas represented more than 50% of de novo graft carcinomas, which seemed to be low-grade carcinomas with good prognosis. Risk of prostate cancer was two times higher. Open or laparoscopic radical prostatectomy is safe and feasible for management of localized prostate cancer in patients with kidney allograft. Upper urinary tract (UUT) transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) incidence was reported between 0.7% and 3.8%. Reports suggested a 3-fold increased risk of developing bladder TCC. Intravesical BCG in superficial bladder cancer and/or CIS is a valid option. For invasive urothelial tumor, radical cystectomy in renal transplant patients remains the best treatment. Oncological outcomes of urological cancers in renal transplant recipients are good and conservative treatment should be preferred each time it is feasible to prevent returning to dialysis following recommendations of urological cancer treatment. Close monitoring of renal transplant recipient must be performed with at least an abdominopelvic US and PSA measurement once a year. PMID:24721941

Tillou, X; Doerfler, A

2014-03-01

406

Temozolomide and O6-benzylguanine in Treating Children With Solid Tumors  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors; Childhood Germ Cell Tumor; Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Kidney Cancer; Liver Cancer; Neuroblastoma; Ovarian Cancer; Sarcoma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

2009-12-01

407

Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the kidney presenting with pulmonary tumor embolism: A case report  

PubMed Central

Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) of the kidney is a rare, aggressive tumor known for its recurrence and metastatic potential. Despite the frequency of venous extension to the renal veins and inferior vena cava, pulmonary tumor embolism at the initial presentation is not common. We report a case of 22-year-old female with PNET of the kidney who presented with tumor embolism in the inferior vena cava (IVC) and bilateral pulmonary artery. The patient underwent surgical resection and histopathological analysis confirmed the presence of tumor within the IVC and pulmonary arteries. The patient received adjuvant chemotherapy and is currently doing well on follow-up. PMID:25349668

Chinnaa, Sathya; Das, Chandan J; Sharma, Sanjay; Singh, Prabhjot; Seth, Amlesh; Purkait, Suvendu; Mathur, Sandeep R

2014-01-01

408

Creating a tumor-resistant microenvironment  

PubMed Central

Here, we provide the necessary proof of concept, that it is possible to metabolically create a non-permissive or “hostile” stromal microenvironment, which actively prevents tumor engraftment in vivo. We developed a novel genetically engineered fibroblast cell line that completely prevents tumor formation in mice, with a 100% protection rate. No host side effects were apparent. This could represent a viable cellular strategy for preventing and treating a variety of human cancers. More specifically, we examined the autocrine and paracrine effects of the cellular delivery of TNF? on breast cancer tumor growth and cancer metabolism. For this purpose, we recombinantly overexpressed TNF? in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) or human immortalized fibroblasts (hTERT-BJ1). Our results directly show that TNF? functions as a potent tumor suppressor. Remarkably, TNF?-expressing breast cancer cells were viable, without any significant increases in their basal apoptotic rate. However, after 4 weeks post-implantation, TNF?-expressing breast cancer cells failed to form any tumors in xenografted mice (0 tumors/10 injections), ultimately conferring 100% protection against tumorigenesis. Similarly, TNF?-overexpressing fibroblasts were also viable, without any increases in apoptosis. Significantly, complete tumor suppression was obtained by co-injecting TNF? expressing stromal fibroblasts with human breast cancer cells, indicating that paracrine cell-mediated delivery of TNF? can also prevent tumor engraftment and growth (0 tumors/10 injections). Mechanistically, TNF? induced autophagy and mitochondrial dysfunction in both epithelial cancer cells and stromal fibroblasts, preventing energy transfer from the tumor microenvironment, likely “starving” the cancer cells to death. In addition, via qRT-PCR analysis of MDA-MB-231 cells, we observed that TNF? mediated the upregulation of gene transcripts associated with inflammation and senescence [IL-1-?, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, COX-2, p21(WAF1/CIP1)] and downregulated known tumor-promoting genes (collagen VI and MMP2). Recombinant overexpression of TNF? receptor(s) in MDA-MB-231 cells also significantly reduced tumor growth, but was not as effective as the TNF? ligand itself in preventing tumor growth. Thus, we propose that stromal cell-mediated delivery of TNF? to human tumors [using transfected fibroblasts or mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs)] may be a novel and effective strategy for the prevention and treatment of human cancers. PMID:23292149

Al-Zoubi, Mazhar; Salem, Ahmed F.; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E.; Whitaker-Menezes, Diana; Lamb, Rebecca; Hulit, James; Howell, Anthony; Gandara, Ricardo; Sartini, Marina; Arafat, Hwyda; Bevilacqua, Generoso; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P.

2013-01-01

409

Tumor Lymphangiogenesis as a Potential Therapeutic Target  

PubMed Central

Metastasis the spread of cancer cells to distant organs, is the main cause of death for cancer patients. Metastasis is often mediated by lymphatic vessels that invade the primary tumor, and an early sign of metastasis is the presence of cancer cells in the regional lymph node (the first lymph node colonized by metastasizing cancer cells from a primary tumor). Understanding the interplay between tumorigenesis and lymphangiogenesis (the formation of lymphatic vessels associated with tumor growth) will provide us with new insights into mechanisms that modulate metastatic spread. In the long term, these insights will help to define new molecular targets that could be used to block lymphatic vessel-mediated metastasis and increase patient survival. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms of embryonic lymphangiogenesis and those that are recapitulated in tumor lymphangiogenesis, with a view to identifying potential targets for therapies designed to suppress tumor lymphangiogenesis and hence metastasis. PMID:22481918

Duong, Tam; Koopman, Peter; Francois, Mathias

2012-01-01

410

Strange Attractor in Immunology of Tumor Growth  

E-print Network

The time delayed cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response on the tumor growth has been developed on the basis of discrete approximation (2-dimensional map). The growth kinetic has been described by logistic law with growth rate being the bifurcation parameter. Increase in the growth rate results in instability of the tumor state and causes period-doubling bifurcations in the immune+tumor system. For larger values of tumor growth rate a strange attractor has been observed. The model proposed is able to describe the metastable-state production when time series data of the immune state and the number of tumor cells are irregular and unpredictable. This metastatic disease may be caused not by exterior (medical) factors, but interior density dependent ones.

Margarita Voitikova

1997-08-21

411

Colorimetric Immunoassay for Detection of Tumor Markers  

PubMed Central

Tumor markers are substances, usually proteins, produced by the body in response to cancer growth, or by the cancer tissue itself. They can be detected in blood, urine, or tissue samples, and the discovery and detection of tumor markers may provide earlier diagnosis of cancer and improved therapeutic intervention. Colorimetric immunoassays for tumor marker detection have attracted considerable attention, due to their simplicity and high efficiency. The traditionally used colorimetric immunoassays for the detection of tumor markers are based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and the great achievement of nanotechnology has further opened opportunities for the development of such kind of immunoassays. This paper will summarize recent advances in the field of colorimetric immunoassays for detecting tumor markers, which is aimed to provide an overview in this field, as well as experimental guidance for the learner. PMID:21614193

Yin, Yongmei; Cao, Ya; Xu, Yuanyuan; Li, Genxi

2010-01-01

412

Imaging Key Biomarkers of Tumor Angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Angiogenesis is a fundamental requirement for tumor growth and therefore it is a primary target for anti-cancer therapy. Molecular imaging of angiogenesis may provide novel opportunities for early diagnostic and for image-guided optimization and management of therapeutic regimens. Here we reviewed the advances in targeted imaging of key biomarkers of tumor angiogenesis, integrins and receptors for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Tracers for targeted imaging of these biomarkers in different imaging modalities are now reasonably well-developed and PET tracers for integrin imaging are currently in clinical trials. Molecular imaging of longitudinal responses to anti-angiogenic therapy in model tumor systems revealed a complex pattern of changes in targeted tracer accumulation in tumor, which reflects drug-induced tumor regression followed by vascular rebound. Further work will define the competitiveness of targeted imaging of key angiogenesis markers for early diagnostic and image-guided therapy. PMID:22737188

Backer, Marina V.; Backer, Joseph M.

2012-01-01

413

Genes Expressed in Human Tumor Endothelium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To gain a molecular understanding of tumor angiogenesis, we compared gene expression patterns of endothelial cells derived from blood vessels of normal and malignant colorectal tissues. Of over 170 transcripts predominantly expressed in the endothelium, 79 were differentially expressed, including 46 that were specifically elevated in tumor-associated endothelium. Several of these genes encode extracellular matrix proteins, but most are of unknown function. Most of these tumor endothelial markers were expressed in a wide range of tumor types, as well as in normal vessels associated with wound healing and corpus luteum formation. These studies demonstrate that tumor and normal endothelium are distinct at the molecular level, a finding that may have significant implications for the development of anti-angiogenic therapies.

St. Croix, Brad; Rago, Carlo; Velculescu, Victor; Traverso, Giovanni; Romans, Katharine E.; Montgomery, Elizabeth; Lal, Anita; Riggins, Gregory J.; Lengauer, Christoph; Vogelstein, Bert; Kinzler, Kenneth W.

2000-08-01

414

Diagnosis and treatment of pineal region tumors  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this volume is to review the pertinent literature dealing with pineal tumors and thus aid in the handling of these rather uncommon lesions. After the first, introductory, chapter, three chapters treat the pathology and diagnosis of pineal tumors. There is also one chapter on intracranial germ cell tumors (natural history and pathogenesis) and one on the normal function of the pineal gland. With the exception of the chapter on diagnostic radiology of pineal tumors, which seems somewhat superficial, these five chapters summarize current knowledge about the nature of these complex lesions and their symptomatology very well. The next nine chapters deal with biopsy and surgery of these tumors and how to manage the patient. The first of these gives a historical review of the development of surgical techniques - from the first attempt by Horsley in 1905 to the microsurgical techniques of today. It is followed by a very important and detailed description of the microsurgical anatomy of the pineal region.

Neuwelt, E.A.

1984-01-01

415

Mechanobiology of tumor invasion: engineering meets oncology  

PubMed Central

The physical sciences and engineering have introduced novel perspectives into the study of cancer through model systems, tools, and metrics that enable integration of basic science observations with clinical data. These methods have contributed to the identification of several overarching mechanisms that drive processes during cancer progression including tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. During tumor cell invasion – the first clinically observable step of metastasis – cells demonstrate diverse and evolving physical phenotypes that cannot typically be defined by any single molecular mechanism, and mechanobiology has been used to study the physical cell behaviors that comprise the “invasive phenotype”. In this review, we discuss the continually evolving pathological characterization and in vitro mechanobiological characterization of tumor invasion, with emphasis on emerging physical biology and mechanobiology strategies that have contributed to a more robust mechanistic understanding of tumor cell invasion. These physical approaches may ultimately help to better predict and identify tumor metastasis. PMID:22178415

Carey, Shawn P.; D’Alfonso, Timothy M.; Shin, Sandra J.; Reinhart-King, Cynthia A.

2011-01-01

416

Targeting Angiogenesis and the Tumor Microenvironment  

PubMed Central

Synopsis The role of the microenvironment during the initiation and progression of malignancy is appreciated to be of critical importance for improved molecular diagnostics and therapeutics. The tumor microenvironment is the product of a crosstalk between different cells types. Critical elements in the microenvironment include tumor associated fibroblasts, which provide an essential communication network via secretion of growth factors and chemokines, inducing an altered extracellular matrix (ECM), thereby providing additional oncogenic signals that enhance cancer-cell proliferation and invasion. Active contribution of tumor-associated stromal cells to cancer progression has been recognized. Stromal elements consist of the ECM, fibroblasts of various phenotypes, and a scaffold composed of immune and inflammatory cells, blood and lymph vessels, and nerves. This review will focus on therapeutic targets in the microenvironment related to tumor endothelium, tumor associated fibroblasts and the extracellular matrix. PMID:24012392

Samples, Jennifer; Willis, Monte; Klauber-DeMore, Nancy

2013-01-01

417

Tumor stroma as targets for cancer therapy  

PubMed Central

Cancer is not only composed malignant epithelial component but also stromal components such as fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and inflammatory cells, by which an appropriate tumor microenvironment (TME) is formed to promote tumorigenesis, progression, and metastasis. As the most abundant component in the TME, cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are involved in multifaceted mechanistic details including remodeling the extracellular matrix, suppressing immune responses, and secreting growth factors and cytokines that mediate signaling pathways to extensively affect tumor cell growth and invasiveness, differentiation, angiogenesis, and chronic inflammatory milieu. Today, more and more therapeutic strategies are purposefully designed to target the TME as well as tumor cells. This review will focus on the role of CAFs in tumor development and the novel strategies to target this component to inhibit the tumor growth. PMID:23064233

Zhang, Jing; Liu, Jinsong

2012-01-01

418

[Cytoreductive surgery for malignant peritoneal tumors].  

PubMed

Cytoreductive surgery is an essential part of a multimodality treatment concept for peritoneal metastases. Indications are primary peritoneal tumors like peritoneal mesothelioma or secondaries from colorectal cancer or pseudomyxoma peritonei. Patients with gastric or ovarian carcinoma or abdominal sarcoma with peritoneal seedings can be treated within studies. Tumor entity, tumor load, and tumor distribution are the most critical issues for patient selection. Complete macroscopic cytoreduction is the strongest prognostic factor and can be achieved by parietal and visceral peritonectomy. The operation should be performed in a standardized manner. Due to possible tumor manifestation in all four quadrants of the abdomen and extensive extraperitoneal dissection, extensive surgical and oncological expertise is prerequisite. Treatment in specialized surgical oncology centers is recommended to minimize morbidity and mortality. The German Society for General and Visceral Surgery is certifying centers of competence for surgical treatment of peritoneal malignancies. Data of all patients are documented in the HIPEC register. The inclusion of patients in studies is recommended. PMID:24722868

Piso, P; Leebmann, H; März, L; Mayr, M

2015-01-01

419

Diagnostic laparoscopic biopsy for intraabdominal tumors.  

PubMed

Improvements in imaging technology have resulted in an increase in the incidental detection of intraabdominal tumors. Diagnostic computed tomography (CT)- and ultrasound (US)-guided biopsy, while minimally invasive, often provides specimens that are insufficient for histological evaluation. Moreover, it can be difficult to perform because the location and size of the tumor. In such cases, laparoscopic biopsy is useful because it is less invasive than laparotomy, but more reliable than imaging-guided biopsy, to obtain a sufficient specimen, regardless of the location and size of the tumor. We report a series of seven patients who underwent laparoscopic biopsy of intraabdominal tumors of unknown origin. There were no cases of conversion to laparotomy and all patients were able to resume oral intake on postoperative day 1. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. Thus, laparoscopic biopsy for a tumor of unknown origin is useful and minimally invasive. PMID:25212568

Sakamoto, Yasuo; Karashima, Ryuichi; Ida, Satoshi; Imamura, Yu; Iwagami, Shiro; Baba, Yoshifumi; Miyamoto, Yuji; Yoshida, Naoya; Baba, Hideo

2015-03-01

420

Segmentation of Ultrasound Images for Tumor Surgery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A surgical navigator for treatment of tumors in the musculoskeletal system is being developed at the Image Analysis and Visualization Lab. of CCADET, UNAM. The navigator is designed to assist the surgeon during radiofrecuency (RF) ablation of the tumors, through real time computer graphics models of the tumor, the adjacent structures (bones), and the active volume of the RF probe. The three dimensional model of the tumor and adjacent structures will be constructed from a preoperative MRI study and then registered intraoperatively to the patient using an optically tracked ultrasound probe. In this paper are reported our preliminary results from the semiautomatic segmentation of the tumor and adjacent bones in ultrasound images. The use of ultrasound for intraoperative registration has many advantages such as relative low cost, portability, avoidance of radiation exposure and fiducial markers.

Gutiérrez Medina, L. R.; Arámbula Cosío, F.; Hazan Lasri, E.

2006-09-01

421

Successful treatment of triple primary tumor???  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION The occurrence of multiple primary tumors is rare. Only limited number of cases with triple malignancy have been reported. We report here a rare case of a woman presented synchronous triple tumors, in her lung, breast, skin. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 56-year-old woman presented with invasive ductal carcinoma of breast, non-small cell lung cancer and malignant melanoma. The patient undergone mastectomy and malignant melanoma tumor excision on-site. After operation stereotactic radiotherapy was given to her lung tumor. Six course of chemotherapy was given to her. She is alive with no progression. DISCUSSION The patient was diagnosed with melanoma and staging by FDG/PET. There is not any study about routine using PET/CT in the melanoma staging. CONCLUSION This is a very rare synchronous triple tumor case. PMID:24091078

Kurul, Sidika; Akgun, Zuleyha; Saglam, Esra Kaytan; Basaran, Mert; Yucel, Serap; Tuzlali, Sitki

2013-01-01

422

Oculomotor disturbances due to granular cell tumor.  

PubMed

Primary granular cell tumor of the orbit is a rare type of neoplasm. The tumor is frequently associated with extraocular muscles, and eye motility limitation is an unavoidable complication after its surgical removal. The objective of the present article is to review the literature on primary granular cell tumors of the orbit and to report a case of this uncommon neoplasia. Granular cell tumor is a benign lesion encountered in most cases (58.3%) in the inferior aspect of the orbit. Extraocular muscle involvement occurs in 72.2% of the patients, and diplopia is present in 77.1% of the cases. The inferior and medial recti are the most affected muscles (38.5% and 26.9%, respectively). Surgical excision is the only modality of treatment, but diplopia persists in 73.3% of the cases. In conclusion, granular cell tumor is a benign lesion but involves a high rate of extraocular muscle morbidity. PMID:21464781

Ribeiro, Sara F T; Chahud, Fernando; Cruz, Antonio A V

2012-01-01

423

Tumor-Associated Macrophages Contribute to Tumor Progression in Ovarian Cancer  

PubMed Central

Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death in women with gynecological malignancy and improvements in current treatments are needed. As with many other solid cancers, the ovarian tumor microenvironment is emerging as a key player in tumor progression and a potential therapeutic target. The tumor microenvironment contains several non-malignant cell types that are known to contribute to tumor progression and metastasis. Included in this population of non-malignant cells are several different types of immune cells, of which tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are the most abundant. An increasing amount of evidence is emerging to suggest that TAMs display a unique activation profile in ovarian tumors and are able to create an immunosuppressive microenvironment, allowing tumors to evade immune detection and promoting tumor progression. Therefore, an increased understanding of how these immune cells interact with tumor cells and the microenvironment will greatly benefit the development of more effective immunotherapies to treat ovarian cancer. This review focuses on the role of TAMs in the ovarian tumor microenvironment and how they promote tumor progression. PMID:24936477

Colvin, Emily K.

2014-01-01

424

The clinical importance of assessing tumor hypoxia: relationship of tumor hypoxia to prognosis and therapeutic opportunities.  

PubMed

Tumor hypoxia is a well-established biological phenomenon that affects the curability of solid tumors, regardless of treatment modality. Especially for head and neck cancer patients, tumor hypoxia is linked to poor patient outcomes. Given the biological problems associated with tumor hypoxia, the goal for clinicians has been to identify moderately to severely hypoxic tumors for differential treatment strategies. The "gold standard" for detecting and characterizing of tumor hypoxia are the invasive polarographic electrodes. Several less invasive hypoxia assessment techniques have also shown promise for hypoxia assessment. The widespread incorporation of hypoxia information in clinical tumor assessment is severely impeded by several factors, including regulatory hurdles and unclear correlation with potential treatment decisions. There is now an acute need for approved diagnostic technologies for determining the hypoxia status of cancer lesions, as it would enable clinical development of personalized, hypoxia-based therapies, which will ultimately improve outcomes. A number of different techniques for assessing tumor hypoxia have evolved to replace polarographic pO2 measurements for assessing tumor hypoxia. Several of these modalities, either individually or in combination with other imaging techniques, provide functional and physiological information of tumor hypoxia that can significantly improve the course of treatment. The assessment of tumor hypoxia will be valuable to radiation oncologists, surgeons, and biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies who are engaged in developing hypoxia-based therapies or treatment strategies. PMID:24512032

Walsh, Joseph C; Lebedev, Artem; Aten, Edward; Madsen, Kathleen; Marciano, Liane; Kolb, Hartmuth C

2014-10-01

425

Ways to Enhance Lymphocyte Trafficking into Tumors and Fitness of Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes  

PubMed Central

The tumor is a hostile microenvironment for T lymphocytes. Indeed, irregular blood flow, and endothelial cell (EC) anergy that characterize most solid tumors hamper leukocyte adhesion, extravasation, and infiltration. In addition, hypoxia and reprograming of energy metabolism within cancer cells transform the tumor mass in a harsh environment that limits survival and effector functions of T cells, regardless of being induced in vivo by vaccination or adoptively transferred. In this review, we will summarize on recent advances in our understanding of the characteristics of tumor-associated neo-angiogenic vessels as well as of the tumor metabolism that may impact on T cell trafficking and fitness of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. In particular, we will focus on how advances in knowledge of the characteristics of tumor ECs have enabled identifying strategies to normalize the tumor-vasculature and/or overcome EC anergy, thus increasing leukocyte-vessel wall interactions and lymphocyte infiltration in tumors. We will also focus on drugs acting on cells and their released molecules to transiently render the tumor microenvironment more suitable for tumor infiltrating T lymphocytes, thus increasing the therapeutic effectiveness of both active and adoptive immunotherapies. PMID:24062984

Bellone, Matteo; Calcinotto, Arianna

2013-01-01

426

Tumor Interstitial Fluid Pressure—A Link between Tumor Hypoxia, Microvascular Density, and Lymph Node Metastasis  

PubMed Central

High microvascular density (MVD) in the primary tumor has been shown to be associated with increased incidence of lymph node metastases and poor clinical outcome. Other investigations have revealed that a large fraction of hypoxic tissue in the primary tumor is associated with metastatic disease and impaired survival. These data are apparently incompatible because tumor hypoxia is primarily a consequence of poor oxygen supply caused by an inadequate vasculature with increased intervessel distances. Here, we provide an explanation of these observations. Human melanoma xenografts were used as preclinical cancer models. Tumors that metastasized to lymph nodes showed higher interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) than those that did not metastasize, and compared with tumors with low IFP, tumors with high IFP showed large hypoxic fractions centrally, high MVD in the periphery, high peritumoral density of lymphatics, and elevated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and VEGF-C. Significant correlations were found between peripheral MVD and central hypoxia, and lymph node metastasis was associated with high values of both parameters. These findings suggest that the outcome of cancer may be associated with both high MVD and extensive hypoxia in the primary tumor. We propose that proangiogenic factors are upregulated in the tumor center and that the outward interstitial fluid flow caused by the elevated IFP transports these factors to the tumor surface where they evoke hemangiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, and consequently, that the IFP serves as a link between tumor hypoxia, peripheral tumor hemangiogenesis, peritumoral lymphangiogenesis, and lymph node metastasis. PMID:25117980

Rofstad, Einar K.; Galappathi, Kanthi; Mathiesen, Berit S.

2014-01-01

427

PG490-88, a derivative of triptolide, causes tumor regression and sensitizes tumors to chemotherapy.  

PubMed

Treatment of solid tumors with combinations of chemotherapeutic agents has not led to significant increases in long-term survival. Recent studies support a role for inhibitors of checkpoint arrest as a means to enhance the cytotoxicity of chemotherapy. We have shown previously that triptolide (PG490), an oxygenated diterpene derived from a Chinese medicinal plant, induces apoptosis in cultured tumor cells and sensitizes tumor cells to topoisomerase inhibitors by blocking p53-mediated induction of p21. Here we extend our studies to a tumor xenograft model and evaluate the efficacy and safety of PG490-88 (14-succinyl triptolide sodium salt), a water-soluble prodrug of PG490. We also look at the combination of PG490 or PG490-88 with CPT-11, a topoisomerase I inhibitor, in cultured cells and in the tumor xenograft model. We show that PG490-88 is a safe and potent antitumor agent when used alone, causing tumor regression of lung and colon tumor xenografts. We also show that PG490-88 acts in synergy with CPT-11 to cause tumor regression. A phase I trial of PG490-88 for solid tumors began recently and safety and optimal dosing data should accrue within the next 12 months. Our findings that PG490-88 causes tumor regression and that it acts in synergy with DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic agents suggest a role as an antineoplastic agent and chemosensitizer for the treatment of patients with solid tumors. PMID:14555704

Fidler, John M; Li, Ke; Chung, Cathie; Wei, Ke; Ross, Jessica A; Gao, Mingxing; Rosen, Glenn D

2003-09-01

428

Morphologic spectrum of glial tumors: an increased trend towards oligodendroglial tumors in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Glial tumors are most common brain tumors in our population. While the exact etiology and pathogenesis is unknown, the evaluation of current trends in the frequency and morphology of glial tumors is imperative to constitute better diagnostic and treatment protocols. Data pertaining to frequency and spectrum of glial tumors is scarcely available in our population. The aim of this study was to determine the morphologic spectrum of glial tumors prevalent in our population. Method 126 cases of glial tumors were retrospectively analyzed over a period of 5 years. Patients from all age groups and both genders were included in this study. Glial tumors were classified and graded according to WHO classification. Results Glial tumors were more common in males with a sex ratio of 2:1 and mean age of 38.26 years. Astrocytomas were most common glial tumors (51.6%) followed by oligodendrogliomas (23%). Glioblastoma was the most frequent astrocytic tumor and was incomparably frequent in older age group. Conclusion In our study, Oligodendrogliomas and mixed oligoastrocytomas represent major pattern of disease in comparison with available regional data. Knowledge of these changing trends and patterns of glial tumor morphology and frequency can help in improvements and applications of newly emerging diagnostic and treatment modalities. PMID:25009580

2014-01-01

429

Pathology of testicular germ cell tumors.  

PubMed

The pathology report on a testicular germ cell tumor should include the following information: Tumor type: The histologic type of tumor present. If the tumor is of mixed type, the components should be listed, in order of relative abundance. The pathologist may endeavor to give a numeric estimate of the percentages of each element. Staging information: The size of the tumor should be listed. Local spread--into rete testis, tunica albuginea, epididymis, and spermatic cord--should be listed. If the cord is involved, possible involvement of its surgical resection margin should be assessed. Vascular/lymphatic invasion should be assessed for its presence or absence. Status of the remainder of the testis: Evidence of cryptorchidism or other dysgenetic features should be mentioned. Such features may imply a greater risk for the development of a contralateral tumor. Also, the presence of normal spermatogenesis elsewhere in the uninvolved testis should be reported. This finding may suggest a relatively decreased risk for contralateral tumor development and is a likely indicator of fertility should the patient consider sperm banking prior to retroperitoneal surgery and chemotherapy. The finding of mature sperm in the epididymis is an easy way to confirm spermatogenesis in the testis. Incidental findings: Lipomas or hydroceles of the cord, adrenal rests, and adnexal cysts may be found. The pathologist plays a crucial role in the diagnosis of germ cell tumors. In addition to elucidating tumor type, the pathologist is relied upon for precise local staging and for the classification of metastases, all of which have important implications in determining optimal therapy. As the clinical management of germ cell tumors evolves, the pathologist will continue to play a role in defining those features that have a bearing on patient outcome. PMID:1663935

Brodsky, G L

1991-12-01

430

Tumor endothelial marker 1 (Tem1) functions in the growth and progression of abdominal tumors  

PubMed Central

Tumor endothelial marker 1 (Tem1; endosialin) is the prototypical member of a family of genes expressed in the stroma of tumors. To assess the functional role of Tem1, we disrupted the Tem1 gene in mice by targeted homologous recombination. Tem1?/? mice were healthy, their wound healing was normal, and tumors grew normally when implanted in s.c. sites. However, there was a striking reduction in tumor growth, invasiveness, and metastasis after transplantation of tumors to abdominal sites in mice without functional Tem1 genes. These data indicate that the stroma can control tumor aggressiveness and that this control varies with anatomic site. Therefore, they have significant implications for the mechanisms underlying tumor invasiveness and for models that evaluate this process. PMID:16492758

Nanda, Akash; Karim, Baktiar; Peng, Zhongsheng; Liu, Guosheng; Qiu, Weiping; Gan, Christine; Vogelstein, Bert; St. Croix, Brad; Kinzler, Kenneth W.; Huso, David L.

2006-01-01

431

Global microRNA depletion suppresses tumor angiogenesis  

E-print Network

MicroRNAs delicately regulate the balance of angiogenesis. Here we show that depletion of all microRNAs suppresses tumor angiogenesis. We generated microRNA-deficient tumors by knocking out Dicer1. These tumors are highly ...

Chen, Sidi

432

On the mechanics of a growing tumor D. Ambrosi a,*  

E-print Network

growth. Ã? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Biomechanics; Growth; Tumor 1 may have for tumor growth and development (for instance shown in [8]) as well as the impact that tumor

Ambrosi, Davide

433

What Are the Key Statistics about Pituitary Tumors?  

MedlinePLUS

... factors for pituitary tumors? What are the key statistics about pituitary tumors? About 10,000 pituitary tumors ... Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects Cancer Facts & Statistics News About Cancer Expert Voices Blog Programs & Services ...

434

What Are the Key Statistics about Wilms Tumor?  

MedlinePLUS

... factors for Wilms tumor? What are the key statistics about Wilms tumor? Each year, about 500 new ... rare in adults, although cases have been reported. Statistics related to survival for Wilms tumors are discussed ...

435

What Are the Key Statistics about Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors?  

MedlinePLUS

... for gastrointestinal stromal tumors? What are the key statistics about gastrointestinal stromal tumors? Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) ... They are slightly more common in men. Survival statistics for GIST are discussed in the section, “ Survival ...

436

Tumor Vascular Permeability to a Nanoprobe Correlates to Tumor-Specific Expression Levels of Angiogenic Markers  

PubMed Central

Background Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor-2 is the major mediator of the mitogenic, angiogenic, and vascular hyperpermeability effects of VEGF on breast tumors. Overexpression of VEGF and VEGF receptor-2 is associated with the degree of pathomorphosis of the tumor tissue and unfavorable prognosis. In this study, we demonstrate that non-invasive quantification of the degree of tumor vascular permeability to a nanoprobe correlates with the VEGF and its receptor levels and tumor growth. Methodology/Principal Findings We designed an imaging nanoprobe and a methodology to detect the intratumoral deposition of a 100 nm-scale nanoprobe using mammography allowing measurement of the tumor vascular permeability in a rat MAT B III breast tumor model. The tumor vascular permeability varied widely among the animals. Notably, the VEGF and VEGF receptor-2 gene expression of the tumors as measured by qRT-PCR displayed a strong correlation to the imaging-based measurements of vascular permeability to the 100 nm-scale nanoprobe. This is in good agreement with the fact that tumors with high angiogenic activity are expected to have more permeable blood vessels resulting in high intratumoral deposition of a nanoscale agent. In addition, we show that higher intratumoral deposition of the nanoprobe as imaged with mammography correlated to a faster tumor growth rate. This data suggest that vascular permeability scales to the tumor growth and that tumor vascular permeability can be a measure of underlying VEGF and VEGF receptor-2 expression in individual tumors. Conclusions/Significance This is the first demonstration, to our knowledge, that quantitative imaging of tumor vascular permeability to a nanoprobe represents a form of a surrogate, functional biomarker of underlying molecular markers of angiogenesis. PMID:19513111

Karathanasis, Efstathios; Chan, Leslie; Karumbaiah, Lohitash; McNeeley, Kathleen; D'Orsi, Carl J.; Annapragada, Ananth V.; Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Bellamkonda, Ravi V.

2009-01-01

437

HPV associated tumor cells control tumor microenvironment and leukocytosis in experimental models  

PubMed Central

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main etiological factor for cervical cancer development. HPV is also associated with other anogenital and oropharyngeal tumors. HPV associated tumors are frequent and constitute a public health problem, mainly in developing countries. Therapy against such tumors is usually excisional, causing iatrogenic morbidity. Therefore, development of strategies for new therapies is desirable. The tumor microenvironment is essential for tumor growth, where inflammation is an important component, displaying a central role in tumor progression. Inflammation may be a causal agent, suppressor of anti-tumor T cell responses, or may have a role in angiogenesis, drug resistance, and metastasis. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of HPV transformed cells in the tumor microenvironment and tumor effects on myeloid populations in lymphoid organs in the host. We used experimental models, where we injected cervical cancer derived cell lines in immunodeficient mice, comparing HPV positive, SiHa, and HeLa cells (HPV 16 and HPV18, respectively), with HPV negative cell line, C33A. Our data shows that HPV positive cell lines were more efficient than the HPV negative cell line in leukocyte recruitment to the tumor microenvironment and increase in myeloid cell proliferation in the bone marrow and spleen. We also observed that HPV positive cells lines expressed significantly higher levels of IL-6 and IL-8, while C33A expressed significantly higher levels of IL-16 and IL-17. Finally, in spite of cytokine secretion by tumor cells, leukocytes infiltrating SiHa and HeLa tumors displayed almost negligible STAT3 and no NF?B phosphorylation. Only the inflammatory infiltrate of C33A tumors had NF?B and STAT3 activated isoforms. Our results indicate that, although from the same anatomical site, the uterine cervix, these cell lines display important differences regarding inflammation. These results are important for the design of immunotherapies against cervical cancer, and possibly against HPV associated tumors in other anatomical sites. PMID:25400927

Stone, Simone Cardozo; Rossetti, Renata Ariza Marques; Lima, Aleida Maria; Lepique, Ana Paula

2014-01-01

438

Tumor Necrosis Factor Induces Tumor Promoting and Anti-Tumoral Effects on Pancreatic Cancer via TNFR1  

PubMed Central

Multiple activities are ascribed to the cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in health and disease. In particular, TNF was shown to affect carcinogenesis in multiple ways. This cytokine acts via the activation of two cell surface receptors, TNFR1, which is associated with inflammation, and TNFR2, which was shown to cause anti-inflammatory signaling. We assessed the effects of TNF and its two receptors on the progression of pancreatic cancer by in vivo bioluminescence imaging in a syngeneic orthotopic tumor mouse model with Panc02 cells. Mice deficient for TNFR1 were unable to spontaneously reject Panc02 tumors and furthermore displayed enhanced tumor progression. In contrast, a fraction of wild type (37.5%), TNF deficient (12.5%), and TNFR2 deficient mice (22.2%) were able to fully reject the tumor within two weeks. Pancreatic tumors in TNFR1 deficient mice displayed increased vascular density, enhanced infiltration of CD4+ T cells and CD4+ forkhead box P3 (FoxP3)+ regulatory T cells (Treg) but reduced numbers of CD8+ T cells. These alterations were further accompanied by transcriptional upregulation of IL4. Thus, TNF and TNFR1 are required in pancreatic ductal carcinoma to ensure optimal CD8+ T cell-mediated immunosurveillance and tumor rejection. Exogenous systemic administration of human TNF, however, which only interacts with murine TNFR1, accelerated tumor progression. This suggests that TNFR1 has basically the capability in the Panc02 model to trigger pro-and anti-tumoral effects but the spatiotemporal availability of TNF seems to determine finally the overall outcome. PMID:24098720

Chopra, Martin; Lang, Isabell; Salzmann, Steffen; Pachel, Christina; Kraus, Sabrina; Bäuerlein, Carina A.; Brede, Christian; Garrote, Ana-Laura Jordán; Mattenheimer, Katharina; Ritz, Miriam; Schwinn, Stefanie; Graf, Carolin; Schäfer, Viktoria; Frantz, Stefan; Einsele, Hermann; Wajant, Harald; Beilhack, Andreas

2013-01-01

439

Understanding Tumor Cell Invasion | Physical Sciences in Oncology  

Cancer.gov

One truism about cancer is that patients rarely die from a single tumor, but rather from the tumors that metastasize, or spread, from the initial tumor. A key early step in metastasis of solid tumors is called collective cell invasion, which is when a group of tumor cells breaks through the dense collagen-based extracellular matrix (ECM) that normally keeps one tissue separate from another. Somehow, metastasizing tumor cells breach this barrier by overcoming its structural and mechanical properties.

440

Valorisation of Como Historical Cadastral Maps Through Modern Web Geoservices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cartographic cultural heritage preserved in worldwide archives is often stored in the original paper version only, thus restricting both the chances of utilization and the range of possible users. The Web C.A.R.T.E. system addressed this issue with regard to the precious cadastral maps preserved at the State Archive of Como. Aim of the project was to improve the visibility and accessibility of this heritage using the latest free and open source tools for processing, cataloguing and web publishing the maps. The resulting architecture should therefore assist the State Archive of Como in managing its cartographic contents. After a pre-processing consisting of digitization and georeferencing steps, maps were provided with metadata, compiled according to the current Italian standards and managed through an ad hoc version of the GeoNetwork Opensource geocatalog software. A dedicated MapFish-based webGIS client, with an optimized version also for mobile platforms, was built for maps publication and 2D navigation. A module for 3D visualization of cadastral maps was finally developed using the NASA World Wind Virtual Globe. Thanks to a temporal slidebar, time was also included in the system producing a 4D Graphical User Interface. The overall architecture was totally built with free and open source software and allows a direct and intuitive consultation of historical maps. Besides the notable advantage of keeping original paper maps intact, the system greatly simplifies the work of the State Archive of Como common users and together widens the same range of users thanks to the modernization of map consultation tools.

Brovelli, M. A.; Minghini, M.; Zamboni, G.

2012-07-01

441

La poesía como elemento de estructura dramática en Alfonsina  

E-print Network

la luz. La ciudad de Mendoza, ubicada a 1.100 km de la capital federal y al pie de la Cordillera de los Andes que la separa de Chile, tiene una larga tradición literaria en general y teatral en particular. Como zona de paso entre Buenos Aires y.... Víctima de una enfermedad incurable, se quitó la vida arrojándose al mar. Su poesía evoluciona desde el modernismo y el parnasianismo hasta los movimientos de vanguardia: La inquietud del rosal, El dulce daño, Irremediablemente, Languidez, Ocre y...

Navarette, José Francisco

1990-10-01

442

An overview of therapeutic approaches to brain tumor stem cells  

PubMed Central

Primary and secondary malignant central nervous system (CNS) tumors are devastating invasive tumors able to give rise to many kinds of differentiated tumor cells. Glioblastoma multiform (GBM), is the most malignant brain tumor, in which its growth and persistence depend on cancer stem cells with enhanced DNA damage repair program that also induces recurrence and resists current chemo- and radiotherapies. Unlike non-tumor stem cells, tumor stem cells lack the normal mechanisms that regulate proliferation and differentiation, resulting in uncontrolled production and incomplete differentiation of tumor cells. In current paper recent developments and new researches in the field of brain tumor stem cells have been reviewed. PMID:23483074

2012-01-01

443

New diagnostic markers in salivary gland tumors.  

PubMed

Parotid gland tumors are a rare and heterogeneous entity. Molecular markers are sparse. The aim of the study was to identify new diagnostic markers in benign and malignant salivary tumors. A tissue microarray was constructed with 158 tumor samples. Expression of 21 tumor antigens involved in tumor cell survival and known for prognostic potential was assessed immunohistochemically in all parotid gland samples. CEA, Cox-1, Cox-2, Sigma, beta-Catenin, WISP-1 and PDGF-beta were differently regulated in benign and malignant parotid tumors. Subsequently, these seven proteins entered the step-wise logistic regression analysis. As a second step, we defined a score for differentiating benign versus malignant parotid lesions: 4*CEA+15*Cox-1+4*Cox-2+4*Sigma+3*PDGF-beta+10*beta-Catenin+14*Wisp1. Sensitivity and specificity of 94 and 83% were reached. Besides routine hematoxylin and eosin staining, definition of new diagnostic markers and subsequently a new diagnostic score are an attempt to create an additional tool for the diagnosis of parotid gland tumors. PMID:24091559

Schneider, Sven; Kloimstein, Philipp; Pammer, Johannes; Brannath, Werner; Grasl, Matthaeus Ch; Erovic, Boban M

2014-07-01

444

Changes in lung tumor shape during respiration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence that some lung tumors change shape during respiration is derived from respiratory gated CT data by statistical shape modeling and image manipulation. Some tumors behave as rigid objects while others show systematic shape changes. Two views of lung motion are presented to allow analysis of the results. In the first, lung motion is viewed as a wave motion in which inertial effects arising from mass are present and in the second it is a quasistatic motion in which the mass of the lung tissues is neglected. In the first scenario, the extremes of tumor compression and expansion are expected to correlate with maximum upward and downward velocity of the tumor, respectively. In the second, they should occur at end exhale and end inhale, respectively. An observed correlation between tumor strain and tumor velocity provides more support for the first view of lung motion and may explain why previous attempts at observing tumor shape changes during respiration have largely failed. The implications for the optimum gating of radiation therapy are discussed.

Kyriakou, E.; McKenzie, D. R.

2012-02-01

445

Fhit regulates invasion of lung tumor cells.  

PubMed

In many types of cancers, the fragile histidine triad (Fhit) gene is frequently targeted by genomic alterations leading to a decrease or loss of gene and protein expression. Fhit has been described as a tumor suppressor gene because of its ability to induce apoptosis and to inhibit proliferation of tumor cells. Moreover, several studies have shown a correlation between the lack of Fhit expression and tumor aggressiveness, thus suggesting that Fhit could be involved in tumor progression. In this study, we explored the potential role of Fhit during tumor cell invasion. We first showed that a low Fhit expression is associated with in vivo and in vitro invasiveness of tumor cells. Then, we showed that Fhit overexpression in Fhit-negative highly invasive NCI-H1299 cells by transfection of Fhit cDNA and Fhit inhibition in Fhit-positive poorly invasive HBE4-E6/E7 cells by transfection of Fhit small interfering RNA induce, respectively, a decrease and an increase in migratory/invasive capacities. These changes in cell behavior were associated with a reorganization of tight and adherens junction molecules and a regulation of matrix metalloproteinase and vimentin expression. These results show that Fhit controls the invasive phenotype of lung tumor cells by regulating the expression of genes associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition. PMID:19935706

Joannes, A; Bonnomet, A; Bindels, S; Polette, M; Gilles, C; Burlet, H; Cutrona, J; Zahm, J-M; Birembaut, P; Nawrocki-Raby, B

2010-02-25

446

New approach to optical imaging of tumors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Site specific delivery of drugs and contrast agents to tumors protects normal tissues from the cytotoxic effect of drugs, and enhances the contrast between normal and diseased tissues. In optical medicine, biocompatible dyes can be used as phototherapeutics or as contrast agents. Previous studies have shown that the use of covalent or non-covalent dye conjugates of carriers such as antibiodies, liposomes, and polysaccharides improves the delivery of such molecules to tumors. However, large biomolecules can elicit adverse immunogenic reactions and also result in long blood clearance times, delaying visualization of target tissues. A viable alternative to this strategy is to use small bioactive molecule-dye conjugates. These molecules have several advantages over large biomolecules, including ease of synthesis of a variety of high purity compounds for combinatorial screening of new targets, enhanced diffusivity to solid tumors, and the ability to affect the pharmacokinetics of the conjugates by minor structural changes. Thus, we conjugated a near infrared absorbing dye to several bioactive peptides that specifically target overexpressed tumor receptors in established rat tumor lines. High tumor uptake of the conjugates was obtained without loss of either the peptide receptor affinity or the dye fluorescence. These findings demonstrate the efficacy of a small peptide-dye conjugate strategy for in vivo tumor imaging. Site-specific delivery of photodynamic therapy agents may also benefit from this approach.

Achilefu, Samuel I.; Bugaj, Joseph E.; Dorshow, Richard B.; Jimenez, Hermo N.; Rajagopalan, Raghavan

2001-07-01

447

Tumor margin detection using optical biopsy techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to use the Resonance Raman (RR) and fluorescence spectroscopic technique for tumor margin detection with high accuracy based on native molecular fingerprints of breast and gastrointestinal (GI) tissues. This tumor margins detection method utilizes advantages of RR spectroscopic technique in situ and in real-time to diagnose tumor changes providing powerful tools for clinical guiding intraoperative margin assessments and postoperative treatments. The tumor margin detection procedures by RR spectroscopy were taken by scanning lesion from center or around tumor region in ex-vivo to find the changes in cancerous tissues with the rim of normal tissues using the native molecular fingerprints. The specimens used to analyze tumor margins include breast and GI carcinoma and normal tissues. The sharp margin of the tumor was found by the changes of RR spectral peaks within 2 mm distance. The result was verified using fluorescence spectra with 300 nm, 320 nm and 340 nm excitation, in a typical specimen of gastric cancerous tissue within a positive margin in comparison with normal gastric tissues. This study demonstrates the potential of RR and fluorescence spectroscopy as new approaches with labeling free to determine the intraoperative margin assessment.

Zhou, Yan; Liu, Cheng-hui; Li, Jiyou; Li, Zhongwu; Zhou, Lixin; Chen, Ke; Pu, Yang; He, Yong; Zhu, Ke; Li, Qingbo; Alfano, Robert R.

2014-03-01

448

Bone Marrow Microenvironment and Tumor Progression  

PubMed Central

The bone marrow constitutes an unique microenvironment for cancer cells in three specific aspects. First, the bone marrow actively recruits circulating tumor cells where they find a sanctuary rich in growth factors and cytokines that promote their proliferation and survival. When in the bone marrow, tumor cells profoundly affect the homeostasis of the bone and the balance between osteogenesis and osteolysis. As a consequence, growth and survival factors normally sequestered into the bone matrix are released, further fueling cancer progression. Second, tumor cells actively recruit bone marrow-derived precursor cells into their own microenvironment. When in the tumors, these bone marrow-derived cells contribute to an inflammatory reaction and to the formation of the tumor vasculature. Third, bone marrow-derived cells can home in distant organs, where they form niches that attract circulating tumor cells. Our understanding of the contribution of the bone marrow microenvironment to cancer progression has therefore dramatically improved over the last few years. The importance of this new knowledge cannot be underestimated considering that the vast majority of cancer treatments such as cytotoxic and myeloablative chemotherapy, bone marrow transplantation and radiation therapy inflict a trauma to the bone marrow microenvironment. How such trauma affects the influence that the bone marrow microenvironment exerts on cancer is still poorly understood. In this article, the reciprocal relationship between the bone marrow microenvironment and tumor cells is reviewed, and its potential impact on cancer therapy is discussed. PMID:19308682

Chantrain, Christophe F.; Feron, Olivier; Marbaix, Etienne

2008-01-01

449

Malignant rhabdoid tumor of the parapharyngeal space.  

PubMed

Malignant rhabdoid tumor has been a somewhat controversial entity since it was first described in 1978 as a possible sarcomatous variant of Wilms tumor. Eventually, however, it was found to be a distinct neoplastic tumor with histologic characteristics similar to those of rhabdomyosarcoma. Malignant rhabdoid tumors affect children. Clinically, they occur primarily in the kidney, and they behave aggressively. Associated mortality is significant, even with combined-modality treatment regimens. We describe the case of a large extrarenal malignant rhabdoid tumor of the parapharyngeal space with extension to the infratemporal fossa and skull base in a previously healthy 2-year-old girl who had presented with a cervical mass and ipsilateral Horner syndrome. The patient underwent complete surgical extirpation of the lesion and received adjunctive cisplatin chemotherapy and radiation therapy, and she remained disease-free at 9 months of follow-up. Given the age group of the patients that these neoplasms most commonly affect and given the neoplasms' resemblance to rhabdomyosarcoma and other small round-cell tumors of the head and neck, discussion of the associated clinical pathology, imaging characteristics, histopathologic features, and mode of management are of particular importance, especially so in view of the uncommon location of the tumor in this specific case. Such a discussion may help lead to minimization of misdiagnosis and maximization of therapeutic benefit. PMID:19291622

Sparano, Anthony; Kreiger, Portia; Kazahaya, Ken

2009-03-01

450

Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent or Resistant Malignant Germ Cell Tumors  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Malignant Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Testicular Choriocarcinoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Yolk Sac Tumor

2014-03-18

451

[Treatment of superficial tumors of the bladder].  

PubMed

Superficial bladder cancer includes T1, Ta, TIS transitional cell carcinomas of the TNM classification. These tumors represent a spectrum disease with different biological behavior. Some tumors may recur on the same mode for years, others have a definite metastatic risk in the short range. The main difficulty in the management of these tumors is to predict their potential aggressiveness based on clinicopathological parameters. Their management is based on the initial endoscopy and histopathological analysis. Molecular markers will reach the clinical level in order to better predict the prognosis and improved the non invasive tools for follow-up. For low risk tumors, transurethral resection (TUR) and surveillance allow an adequate tumor control. For high risk tumors, conservative treatment is based on a complete transurethral resection which need confirmation by a second look TUR and prophylactic endovesical instillations of bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG). The response to the first BCG cycle represent a crucial indicator of tumor behavior. For intermediate risk lesions, the advantage of prophylactic endovesical instillations have been finally established either using BCG or chemotherapy (Mitomycine C). However in this setting, various therapeutic modalities (maintenance therapy, dose, repeat cycles) are proposed and their relative efficacy remain to be established. For this later group of tumor it is more likely that the use of maintenance therapy or repeated courses increase the chance of conservative treatment. Other therapeutic modalities exist (oral interferon inductors, photochemotherapy) but remain second line or investigative therapies. In conclusion, progress in the understanding of the natural history of bladder cancer allow a better management of these tumor in order to optimize the ratio between the oncologic efficacy and quality of life. PMID:9749073

Patard, J J; Chopin, D; Abbou, C C

1998-04-01

452

Molecular Imaging System for Monitoring Tumor Angiogenesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In cancer, non-invasive imaging techniques that monitor molecular processes associated with the tumor angiogenesis could have a central role in the evaluation of novel antiangiogenic and proangiogenic therapies as well as early detection of the disease. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) can serve as specific biological targets for imaging of angiogenesis since expression of MMPs is required for angiogenesis and has been found to be upregulated in every type of human cancer and correlates with stage, invasive, metastatic properties and poor prognosis. However, for most cancers it is still unknown when, where and how MMPs are involved in the tumor angiogenesis [1]. Development of high-resolution, high sensitivity imaging techniques in parallel with the tumor models could prove invaluable for assessing the physical location and the time frame of MMP enzymatic acitivity. The goal of this study is to understand where, when and how MMPs are involved in the tumor angiogenesis. We will accomplish this goal by following two objectives: to develop a high sensitivity, high resolution molecular imaging system, to develop a virtual tumor simulator that can predict the physical location and the time frame of the MMP activity. In order to achieve our objectives, we will first develop a PAM system and develop a mathematical tumor model in which the quantitative data obtained from the PAM can be integrated. So, this work will develop a virtual tumor simulator and a molecular imaging system for monitoring tumor angiogenesis. 1.Kessenbrock, K., V. Plaks, and Z. Werb, MMP:regulators of the tumor microenvironment. Cell, 2010. 141(1)

Aytac, Esra; Burcin Unlu, Mehmet

2012-02-01

453

Orbital tumors: operative and therapeutic strategies.  

PubMed

The term "orbital tumors" includes diverse benign or malignant space-occupying lesions of the orbit, often leading to dystopia of the eyeball, motility disturbances, diplopia, visual field defects, and sometimes a complete loss of vision. Removing these tumors in a limited surgical field is challenging. Therefore, the preservation of function is a primary concern. We retrospectively reviewed 671 patients with orbital tumors from October 1999 to June 2014. Diagnosis on referral, presenting symptoms, radiological records, histology of the primary tumor or orbital metastasis, and treatment choice were analyzed. Among the 671 orbital tumors, 40% were accessed anteriorly, 36% via an orbitotomy with temporary osteotomy, and 23.9% underwent an orbital exenteration. As an illustration of the operative strategies with subsequent reconstructions, a distinction was made among the main indication groups: (1) function-preserving therapy for retrobulbar tumors, (2) malignant tumors of the conjunctiva and the eyelids, (3) exenteration of the orbit and subsequent reconstruction, and (4) operative and therapeutic strategy for orbital metastases. Adequate preoperative use of modern imaging techniques and thorough planning of the operation are crucial. Accurate histopathological diagnosis is crucial for planning appropriate therapeutic and surgical interventions. New innovative treatment concepts and surgical techniques arise from the close cooperation of related disciplines such as ophthalmology and neurosurgery. Although an orbital exenteration in patients with eyelid and conjunctival carcinomas can now often be avoided, eye-preserving treatment for locally advanced carcinomas of the conjunctiva and eyelid must be attempted. For extensive orbital malignancies, orbital exenteration is curative. In this context, primary closure of the orbit can improve the patient's quality of life and avoid subsequent complications. Concerning orbital metastasis, early diagnosis can preserve function and fulfil the esthetic demands of the patients. In palliative tumor disease, operative procedures such as orbital decompression or tumor debulking can reduce patient complaints and contribute to improved quality of life. PMID:25397713

Pförtner, R; Mohr, C; Daamen, J; Metz, A

2014-10-01

454

Ovarian sex cord–stromal tumors—a clinicopathological study of 72 cases from the Kiel Pediatric Tumor Registry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed 72 patients with ovarian sex cord–stromal tumors (OSCST) registered at the German Pediatric Tumor Registry in Kiel over a 20-year period. Juvenile granulosa cell tumors (JGCT, n=48) were the most frequent histological subtype. In addition, there were 14 Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, 5 sclerosing stromal tumors, 2 sex cord tumors with annular tubules, 2 thecomas and 1 steroid cell

Dominik T. Schneider; Ute Jänig; Gabriele Calaminus; Ulrich Göbel; Dieter Harms

2003-01-01

455

Tumor-Associated Macrophages as Major Players in the Tumor Microenvironment  

PubMed Central

During tumor progression, circulating monocytes and macrophages are actively recruited into tumors where they alter the tumor microenvironment to accelerate tumor progression. Macrophages shift their functional phenotypes in response to various microenvironmental signals generated from tumor and stromal cells. Based on their function, macrophages are divided broadly into two categories: classical M1 and alternative M2 macrophages. The M1 macrophage is involved in the inflammatory response, pathogen clearance, and antitumor immunity. In contrast, the M2 macrophage influences an anti-inflammatory response, wound healing, and pro-tumorigenic properties. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) closely resemble the M2-polarized macrophages and are critical modulators of the tumor microenvironment. Clinicopathological studies have suggested that TAM accumulation in tumors correlates with a poor clinical outcome. Consistent with that evidence, experimental and animal studies have supported the notion that TAMs can provide a favorable microenvironment to promote tumor development and progression. In this review article, we present an overview of mechanisms responsible for TAM recruitment and highlight the roles of TAMs in the regulation of tumor angiogenesis, invasion, metastasis, immunosuppression, and chemotherapeutic resistance. Finally, we discuss TAM-targeting therapy as a promising novel strategy for an indirect cancer therapy. PMID:25125485

Chanmee, Theerawut; Ontong, Pawared; Konno, Kenjiro; Itano, Naoki

2014-01-01

456

PDE5 Inhibitors Enhance Tumor Permeability and Efficacy of Chemotherapy in a Rat Brain Tumor Model  

PubMed Central

The blood-brain tumor barrier (BTB) significantly limits delivery of therapeutic concentrations of chemotherapy to brain tumors. A novel approach to selectively increase drug delivery is pharmacologic modulation of signaling molecules that regulate BTB permeability, such as those in cGMP signaling. Here we show that oral administration of sildenafil (Viagra) and vardenafil (Levitra), inhibitors of cGMP-specific PDE5, selectively increased tumor capillary permeability in 9L gliosarcoma-bearing rats with no significant increase in normal brain capillaries. Tumor-bearing rats treated with the chemotherapy agent, adriamycin, in combination with vardenafil survived significantly longer than rats treated with adriamycin alone. The selective increase in tumor capillary permeability appears to be mediated by a selective increase in tumor cGMP levels and increased vesicular transport through tumor capillaries, and could be attenuated by iberiotoxin, a selective inhibitor for calcium-dependent potassium (KCa) channels, that are effectors in cGMP signaling. The effect by sildenafil could be further increased by simultaneously using another BTB “opener”, bradykinin. Collectively, this data demonstrates that oral administration of PDE5 inhibitors selectively increases BTB permeability and enhance anti-tumor efficacy for a chemotherapeutic agent. These findings have significant implications for improving delivery of anti-tumor agents to brain tumors. PMID:18674521

Black, Keith L.; Yin, Dali; Ong, John M.; Hu, Jinwei; Konda, Bindu M.; Wang, Xiao; Ko, MinHee K.; Bayan, Jennifer-Ann; Sacapano, Manuel R.; Espinoza, Andreas; Morris-Irvin, Dwain K; Shu, Yan

2008-01-01

457

Giant Pindborg Tumor (Calcifying Epithelial Odontogenic Tumor): An Unusual Case Report with Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation  

PubMed Central

Odontogenic tumors develop in the jaws from odontogenic tissues such as enamel organ, Hertwig epithelial root sheath, dental lamina, and so on. A variety of tumors unique to the maxilla and mandible are therefore seen. Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is a rare, aggressive, benign odontogenic tumor of epithelial origin accounting for only about 1% of all odontogenic tumors. It is eponymously called “Pindborg tumor”, as it was first described by Pindborg in 1955. The origin of this locally invasive tumor remains unknown. It is thought to arise from stratum intermedium. It commonly affects the posterior mandible manifesting as a slow-growing asymptomatic swelling often associated with an impacted tooth. We report a case of CEOT, for which, owing to its huge size we have proposed the term “giant” Pindborg tumor (CEOT). This is probably the largest case of this tumor reported so far in the English literature. The present case also has the classic yet rare “driven snow” appearance of the tumor on radiographs. PMID:24516774

Misra, Satya Ranjan; Lenka, Sthitaprajna; Sahoo, Sujit Ranjan; Mishra, Sobhan

2013-01-01

458

Primary malignant giant cell tumor of bone: "dedifferentiated" giant cell tumor.  

PubMed

Well documented examples of primary malignant giant cell tumor of bone (giant cell tumor and concurrent sarcoma arising de novo) are exceedingly rare in the literature. We report a case arising in the left ischium of a 44-yr-old man. He had no previous history of radiation therapy or multiple resections. Histologically, the tumor was a typical giant cell tumor of bone juxtaposed to a malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH). The juxtaposition of a high grade sarcoma (MFH) and a locally aggressive nonmalignant neoplasm such as giant cell tumor is analogous to several other tumors of bone and soft tissue in which a low grade malignant or locally aggressive tumor can be associated with MFH or fibrosarcoma de novo, namely chondrosarcoma, chordoma, liposarcoma, and well differentiated intraosseous and parosteal osteosarcoma. The presence of a high grade malignant component in each of the aforementioned neoplasms generally portends a more ominous prognosis, although this is not invariably true. Recognition of the phenomenon of "dedifferentiation" (or tumor progression) in some bone tumors and sarcomas is important to ensure appropriate treatment. Distinction from secondary malignant giant cell tumors which are usually radiation induced is also important, since the latter have a much worse prognosis than those with dedifferentiation occurring de novo. PMID:2554283

Meis, J M; Dorfman, H D; Nathanson, S D; Haggar, A M; Wu, K K

1989-09-01

459

EPR oxygen images predict tumor control by a 50 percent tumor control radiation dose  

PubMed Central

Clinical trials to ameliorate hypoxia as a strategy to relieve the radiation resistance it causes have prompted a need to assay the precise extent and location of hypoxia in tumors. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance oxygen imaging (EPR O2 imaging) provides a non-invasive means to address this need. To obtain a preclinical proof of principle that EPR O2 images could predict radiation control, we treated mouse tumors at or near doses required to achieve 50 percent control (TCD50). Mice with FSa fibrosarcoma or MCa4 carcinoma were subjected to EPR O2 imaging and immediately radiated to a TCD50 or TCD50 ±10 Gy.. Statistical analysis was permitted by collection of ~ 1300 tumor pO2 image voxels, including the fraction of tumor voxels with pO2 less than 10 mm Hg (HF10). Tumors were followed for 90 days (FSa) or 120 days (MCa4) to determine local control or failure. HF10 obtained from EPR images showed statistically significant differences between tumors that were controlled by the TCD50 and those that were not controlled for both FSa and MCa4. Kaplan-Meier analysis of both types of tumors showed ~90% of mildly hypoxic tumors were controlled (HF10<10%), and only 37% (FSA) and 23% (MCa4) tumors controlled if hypoxic. EPR pO2 image voxel distributions in these ~0.5 ml tumors provide a prediction of radiation curability independent of radiation dose. These data confirm the significance of EPR pO2 hypoxic fractions. The ~90% control of low HF10 tumors argue that ½ ml subvolumes of tumors may be more sensitive to radiation and may need less radiation for high tumor control rates. PMID:23861469

Elas, Martyna; Magwood, Jessica M.; Butler, Brandi; Li, Chanel; Wardak, Rona; Barth, Eugene D.; Epel, Boris; Rubinstein, Samuel; Pelizzari, Charles A.; Weichselbaum, Ralph R.; Halpern, Howard J.

2013-01-01

460

Chemokines in tumor development and progression  

SciTech Connect

Chemokines were originally identified as mediators of the inflammatory process and regulators of leukocyte trafficking. Subsequent studies revealed their essential roles in leukocyte physiology and pathology. Moreover, chemokines have profound effects on other types of cells associated with the inflammatory response, such as endothelial cells and fibroblasts. Thus, chemokines are crucial for cancer-related inflammation, which can promote tumor development and progression. Increasing evidence points to the vital effects of several chemokines on the proliferative and invasive properties of tumor cells. The wide range of activities of chemokines in tumorigenesis highlights their roles in tumor development and progression.

Mukaida, Naofumi, E-mail: naofumim@kenroku.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Division of Molecular Bioregulation, Cancer Research Institute, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan) [Division of Molecular Bioregulation, Cancer Research Institute, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Baba, Tomohisa [Division of Molecular Bioregulation, Cancer Research Institute, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan)] [Division of Molecular Bioregulation, Cancer Research Institute, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan)

2012-01-15

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Hyperthermia and the therapy of malignant tumors  

SciTech Connect

Recent biological research with cells in vitro and experimental tumors shows that hyperthermia has an important role to play in cancer therapy. Hyperthermia induces a number of physiological and biological changes whereby damage is higher in the tumor than in the normal tissue. Used in conjunction with radio- or chemotherapy, it could therefore be a potent modality for tumor management. The first clinical data on the application of hyperthermia plus radio- and chemotherapy support these expectations, despite a number of technical problems regarding heat application and measurement of heat temperature distribution in the tissues.

Streffer, C.

1987-01-01