Science.gov

Sample records for como marcador tumoral

  1. Wilms Tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    Wilms tumor is a rare type of kidney cancer. It causes a tumor on one or both kidneys. It usually affects ... are at risk should be screened for Wilms tumor every three months until they turn eight. Symptoms ...

  2. Wilms tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    Nephroblastoma; Kidney tumor ... tumor is the most common form of childhood kidney cancer. The exact cause of this tumor in ... Other birth defects linked to this type of kidney cancer include certain urinary tract problems and swelling ...

  3. Spinal tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    Tumor - spinal cord ... spinal tumors occur in the nerves of the spinal cord itself. Most often these are ependymomas and other ... gene mutations. Spinal tumors can occur: Inside the spinal cord (intramedullary) In the membranes (meninges) covering the spinal ...

  4. Brain tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Black, K. L.; Mazziotta, J. C.; Becker, D. P.

    1991-01-01

    Recent advances in experimental tumor biology are being applied to critical clinical problems of primary brain tumors. The expression of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors, which are sparse in normal brain, is increased as much as 20-fold in brain tumors. Experimental studies show promise in using labeled ligands to these receptors to identify the outer margins of malignant brain tumors. Whereas positron emission tomography has improved the dynamic understanding of tumors, the labeled selective tumor receptors with positron emitters will enhance the ability to specifically diagnose and greatly aid in the pretreatment planning for tumors. Modulation of these receptors will also affect tumor growth and metabolism. Novel methods to deliver antitumor agents to the brain and new approaches using biologic response modifiers also hold promise to further improve the management of brain tumors. Images PMID:1848735

  5. Tumor Grade

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Richardson grading system) for breast cancer ( 1 ). This system grades breast tumors based on the following features: Tubule formation: how much of the tumor tissue has normal breast (milk) duct structures Nuclear grade : an evaluation of the size and shape ...

  6. Brain Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  7. Urogenital tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    An overview is provided for veterinary care of urogenital tumors in companion animals, especially the dog. Neoplasms discussed include tumors of the kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, testis, ovary, vagina, vulva and the canine transmissible venereal tumor. Topics addressed include description, diagnosis and treatment.

  8. Kidney Tumors

    Cancer.gov

    Kidney tumors are rare and generally curable in children. However, there are subsets of patients afflicted with these diseases that do not respond to treatment or eventually relapse. These patients usually have poor clinical outcomes as compared with the majority of children diagnosed with kidney tumors. All patients undergo therapy regimens that can be detrimental later in life. Through genome-wide characterization, TARGET investigators are identifying critical molecular alterations in these tumors, mostly from relapsed patients.

  9. Reconocimiento robusto de marcadores artificiales para la navegacion de robots

    E-print Network

    Escolano, Francisco

    ´on del medio permiten a~nadir al sistema un alto grado de flexibilidad, ayudando al robot a tomar pueden comparar distintos histogramas de este tipo para poder llevar a cabo un proceso de reconocimiento experimentos. 2 Histogramas polares Los histogramas polares son definidos como un medio para comparar s

  10. Tumores de hipófisis—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del tumor de hipófisis, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados.

  11. Tumores carcinoides gastrointestinales—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del tumor carcinoide gastrointestinal, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

  12. Hypothalamic tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... at any age, but they are often more aggressive in adults than in children. In adults, tumors ... The treatment depends on how aggressive the tumor is, and whether it is a glioma or another type of cancer. Treatment may involve combinations of surgery, radiation , ...

  13. Carcinoid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Pinchot, Scott N.; Holen, Kyle; Sippel, Rebecca S.; Chen, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    Carcinoid tumors are rare, slow-growing neuroendocrine tumors arising from the enterochromaffin cells disseminated throughout the gastrointestinal and bronchopulmonary systems. Though they have been traditionally classified based upon the embryologic site of origin, morphologic pattern, and silver affinity, newer classification systems have been developed to emphasize the considerable clinical and histopathologic variability of carcinoid tumors found within each embryologic site of origin. These neoplasms pose a diagnostic challenge because they are often innocuous at the time of presentation, emphasizing the need for a multidisciplinary diagnostic approach utilizing biochemical analysis, standard cross-sectional imaging, and newer advances in nuclear medicine. Similarly, treatment of both primary and disseminated carcinoid disease reflects the need for a multidisciplinary approach, with surgery remaining the only curative modality. The prognosis for patients with these tumors is generally favorable, however can be quite variable and is related to the location of the primary tumor, extent of metastatic disease at initial presentation, and the time of diagnosis. PMID:19091780

  14. Tumores cerebrales—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre el tratamiento de los tumores cerebrales, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con estos tipos de cáncer.

  15. Mediastinal tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lungs. This area contains the heart, large blood vessels, windpipe (trachea), thymus gland, esophagus, and connective tissues. The mediastinum is divided into three sections: Anterior (front) Middle Posterior (back) Mediastinal tumors are rare. The most ...

  16. Tumor Markers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... types: Germ cell tumors, lymphoma, leukemia, melanoma, and neuroblastoma Tissue analyzed: Blood How used: To assess stage, ... NSE) Cancer types: Small cell lung cancer and neuroblastoma Tissue analyzed: Blood How used: To help in ...

  17. Endocrine Tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer.Net Editorial Board , which is composed of medical, surgical, radiation, gynecologic, and pediatric oncologists, oncology nurses, physician assistants, social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Endocrine Tumor ...

  18. Bone tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bone metastases. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Doroshow JH, et al., eds. Abeloff's Clinical Oncology . 5th ed. ... aggressive tumors of bone. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Mosby; ...

  19. Understanding Brain Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to Know About Brain Tumors . What is a Brain Tumor? A brain tumor is an abnormal growth? ... Tumors” from Frankly Speaking Frankly Speaking About Cancer: Brain Tumors Download the full book Questions to ask ...

  20. Tumor Lymphangiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Dadras, Soheil S.; Paul, Thomas; Bertoncini, Jennifer; Brown, Lawrence F.; Muzikansky, Alona; Jackson, David G.; Ellwanger, Ulf; Garbe, Claus; Mihm, Martin C.; Detmar, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Malignant melanomas of the skin are distinguished by their propensity for early metastatic spread via lymphatic vessels to regional lymph nodes, and lymph node metastasis is a major determinant for the staging and clinical management of melanoma. However, the importance of tumor-induced lymphangiogenesis for lymphatic melanoma spread has remained unclear. We investigated whether tumor lymphangiogenesis occurs in human malignant melanomas of the skin and whether the extent of tumor lymphangiogenesis may be related to the risk for lymph node metastasis and to patient survival, using double immunostains for the novel lymphatic endothelial marker LYVE-1 and for the panvascular marker CD31. Tumor samples were obtained from clinically and histologically closely matched cases of primary melanomas with early lymph node metastasis (n = 18) and from nonmetastatic melanomas (n = 19). Hot spots of proliferating intratumoral and peritumoral lymphatic vessels were detected in a large number of melanomas. The incidence of intratumoral lymphatics was significantly higher in metastatic melanomas and correlated with poor disease-free survival. Metastatic melanomas had significantly more and larger tumor-associated lymphatic vessels, and a relative lymphatic vessel area of >1.5% was significantly associated with poor disease-free and overall survival. In contrast, no differences in the density of tumor-associated blood vessels were found. Vascular endothelial growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor-C expression was equally detected in a minority of cases in both groups. Our results reveal tumor lymphangiogenesis as a novel prognostic indicator for the risk of lymph node metastasis in cutaneous melanoma. PMID:12759251

  1. TUBERCULOSIS COMO ENFERMEDAD OCUPACIONAL

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Ticona, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Existe evidencia suficiente para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en diversos profesionales especialmente entre los trabajadores de salud. En el Perú están normados y reglamentados los derechos laborales inherentes a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional, como la cobertura por discapacidad temporal o permanente. Sin embargo, estos derechos aún no han sido suficientemente socializados. En este trabajo se presenta información sobre el riesgo de adquirir tuberculosis en el lugar de trabajo, se revisan las evidencias para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en trabajadores de salud y se presenta la legislación peruana vigente al respecto. PMID:22858771

  2. What Is Wilms Tumor?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... they look under a microscope (their histology): Favorable histology: Although the cancer cells in these tumors don’ ... children with these tumors is very good. Unfavorable histology (anaplastic Wilms tumor): In these tumors, the look ...

  3. Brain Tumor Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Headaches Seizures Memory Depression Mood Swings & Cognitive Changes Fatigue Other Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Risk Factors Brain Tumor Statistics Brain Tumor Dictionary Webinars Anytime Learning About Us ...

  4. Teratoid Wilms’ tumor – A rare renal tumor

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Biswanath; Shukla, Ram Mohan; Mukhopadhyay, Madhumita; Mandi, Sabitri; Roy, Dipankar; Bhattacharya, Malay K.

    2011-01-01

    Teratoid Wilms’ tumor is an extremely rare renal tumor. We report a case of unilateral teratoid Wilms’ tumor in a 4-year-old girl. The patient was admitted with a right-sided abdominal mass. The mass was arising from the right kidney. Radical nephrectomy was done and the patient had an uneventful recovery. Histopathology report showed teratoid Wilms’ tumor. PMID:21976930

  5. Overview of Heart Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the heart. Most heart tumors are metastatic cancer. Did You Know... Noncancerous tumors can be as deadly ... slow the tumor's growth. Resources In This Article Did You Know 1 Did You Know... Table 2 ...

  6. Childhood Brain Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  7. Brain and Spinal Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Brain and Spinal Tumors Information Page Synonym(s): Spinal Cord ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What are Brain and Spinal Tumors? Brain and spinal cord tumors ...

  8. Pancreatic islet cell tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    Islet cell tumors; Islet of Langerhans tumor; Neuroendocrine tumors ... In the healthy pancreas, cells called islet cells produce hormones that regulate a several bodily functions. These include blood sugar level and the production of ...

  9. Tumors and Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    Tumors during pregnancy are rare, but they can happen. Tumors can be either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. The most common cancers in pregnancy are breast cancer, cervical cancer, lymphoma, and melanoma. ...

  10. Metastatic brain tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... these tumors also causes increased pressure within the skull . Brain tumors that spread are classified based on ... the brain. Signs of increased pressure in the skull are also common. Some tumors may not show ...

  11. Tumores cerebrales—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento de los tumores cerebrales, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con estos tipos de cáncer.

  12. [Mesenchymal orbital tumors].

    PubMed

    Civit, T; Klein, O; Freppel, S; Baylac, F

    2010-01-01

    Mesenchymal tumors grow from pluripotent mesenchymal cells that form the soft orbital tissue. Primary tumors of the orbital walls are discussed in another section. Tumors from muscle and adipose tissue are rare or exceptional, except rhabdomyosarcoma, described in the section dedicated to pediatric tumors. Most frequent tumors are fibrous histiocytomas and solitary fibrous tumors, which often have a retrobulbar location. Fibrous histiocytoma is benign in only 65 % of cases. Fibrous solitary tumor is now better known (Ag CD34): this tumor is generally benign but frequently recurs. PMID:20227093

  13. Pediatric Odontogenic Tumors.

    PubMed

    Abrahams, Joshua M; McClure, Shawn A

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric odontogenic tumors are rare, and are often associated with impacted teeth. Although they can develop anywhere in the jaws, odontogenic tumors mainly occur in the posterior mandible. This article discusses the diagnosis and treatment of the most common pediatric odontogenic tumors, such as ameloblastoma, keratocystic odontogenic tumor, odontoma, and cementoblastoma. PMID:26614700

  14. Whole Tumor Antigen Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Cheryl Lai-Lai; Benencia, Fabian; Coukos, George

    2011-01-01

    Although cancer vaccines with defined antigens are commonly used, the use of whole tumor cell preparations in tumor immunotherapy is a very promising approach and can obviate some important limitations in vaccine development. Whole tumor cells are a good source of TAAs and can induce simultaneous CTLs and CD4+ T helper cell activation. We review current approaches to prepare whole tumor cell vaccines, including traditional methods of freeze-thaw lysates, tumor cells treated with ultraviolet irradiation, and RNA electroporation, along with more recent methods to increase tumor cell immunogenicity with HOCl oxidation or infection with replication-incompetent herpes simplex virus. PMID:20356763

  15. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Kids Deal With Bullies Pregnant? What to Expect Brain Tumors KidsHealth > Parents > Diseases & Conditions > Brain & Nervous System > ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  16. Children's Brain Tumor Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... CBTF Justin's Hope Fund Grant Recipients Grants Children’s Brain Tumor Foundation, A non-profit organization, was founded ... and the long term outlook for children with brain and spinal cord tumors through research, support, education, ...

  17. Lung Carcinoid Tumor: Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for lung carcinoid tumor symptoms Surgery to treat lung carcinoid tumors Surgery is the main treatment for ... often be cured by surgery alone. Types of lung surgery Different operations can be used to treat ( ...

  18. Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... funder of childhood brain tumor research in the world We fund innovative research to improve treatments and ... support programs Your donations help us make the world a brighter place for children with brain tumors. ...

  19. Treatment Option Overview (Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors / Islet Cell Tumors)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the tumor and a special camera that detects radioactivity is used to show where the tumors are ... the tumor and a special camera that detects radioactivity is used to show where the tumors are ...

  20. General Information about Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (Islet Cell Tumors)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the tumor and a special camera that detects radioactivity is used to show where the tumors are ... the tumor and a special camera that detects radioactivity is used to show where the tumors are ...

  1. [Intrapulmonary Solitary Fibrous Tumor].

    PubMed

    Komori, Kazuyuki; Tabata, Toshiharu; Katsumata, Hiroshi; Minowa, Muneo; Fujimura, Shigefumi

    2015-08-01

    We report a case of intrapulmonary solitary fibrous tumor( SFT). A 34-year-old woman was referred to our hospital due to an abnormal shadow on a chest roentgenogram without symptom. Computed tomography showed a circumscribed intrapulmonary tumor with mild uptake on fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography( PET) in the left lower lobe( S6). Frozen examination revealed a mesenchymal tumor. Based on the pathological and immunohistochemical findings, the tumor was diagnosed as intrapulmonary SFT. PMID:26329708

  2. Malignant tumors of childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, B.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 34 papers about malignant tumors. some of the titles are: Invasive Cogenital Mesoblastic Nephroma, Leukemia Update, Unusual Perinatal Neoplasms, Lymphoma Update, Gonadal Germ Cell Tumors in Children, Nutritional Status and Cancer of Childhood, and Chemotherapy of Brain tumors in Children.

  3. NCI Rare Tumor Initiative

    Cancer.gov

    The mission of the Rare Tumors Initiative is to better leverage existing NCI expertise in basic and clinical science studies of rare tumors to identify and more effectively translate potential new therapies. The NCI Rare Tumor Initiative was launched in 2

  4. Benign ear cyst or tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    Osteomas; Exostoses; Tumor - ear; Cysts - ear; Ear cysts; Ear tumors; Bony tumor of the ear canal ... can be released from the gland. Benign bony tumors of the ear canal (exostoses and osteomas) are ...

  5. Stages of Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the tumor and a special camera that detects radioactivity is used to show where the tumors are ... the tumor and a special camera that detects radioactivity is used to show where the tumors are ...

  6. Bronchial carcinoid tumors.

    PubMed

    Salyer, D C; Salyer, W R; Eggleston, J C

    1975-10-01

    Twenty-eight pulmonary carcinoid tumors were reviewed histologically and clinically. Hematoxylin-and-eosin-stained sections were utilized, as well as special stains, including the argyrophil and argentaffin reactions. The 22 tumors located centrally, at the level of primary or segmental bronchi, had a microscopic appearance distinct from those located more peripherally. One peripheral tumor that was large in size appeared much more aggressive histologically, and was designated an atypical carcinoid. The origin of carcinoid tumors from Kulchitsky cells in the lung, the distinction of peripheral tumors from chemodectomas, and the relationship of bronchial carcinoids to bronchial epithelial hyperplasias and oat cell carcinomas are discussed. PMID:51682

  7. Tumors as chaotic attractors.

    PubMed

    Nikolov, Svetoslav; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Vera, Julio

    2014-02-01

    Malignant tumor growth, progression and evolution share several of the features associated with strange attractors, a special type of dynamical behavior of non-linear systems. In this framework, the genetic instability of tumor cells represents a local-scale driving force for instability that lets the tumor evolve with time, while selective pressures discarding inefficient cell clones play the role of a dissipative process, providing the tumor with global stability and robustness with respect to perturbations. This setup induces global stability combined with local instability, and is in our opinion the real source of tumor robustness and plasticity, and ultimately the origin of the remarkable resistance of many tumors to anti-cancer therapies. A scientific program taking into consideration the vision of tumors as strange attractors requires the development of experimental and computational tools to link the micro- and mesoscopic perspectives of tumor biology. We here develop the idea of a tumor as a dynamical system, sharing characteristics with strange attractors and investigate several features of such systems, including: (a) local instability combined with global stability, a property inherent to the tremendous non-linearity of the biochemical regulatory circuits governing the individual fate and the interactions between tumor cells; (b) self-similarity at different levels; (c) and strong sensitivity to initial conditions in the composition and features of the tumor and its microenvironment. PMID:24257651

  8. Tumor-derived exosomes

    PubMed Central

    Atay, Safinur; Godwin, Andrew K

    2014-01-01

    Intercellular communication is a key process in the development and progression of cancer. The dynamic and reciprocal interplays between the tumor and its microenvironment orchestrate events critical to the establishment of primary and metastatic niches and maintenance of a permissive environment at the tumor?stroma interface. Atay and colleagues found that gastrointestinal stromal tumor cells secrete vesicles known as exosomes. These exosomes contain oncogenic KIT and their transfer and uptake by surrounding smooth muscle cells lead to enhanced AKT and MAPK signaling and phenotypic modulation of several cellular processes, including morphological changes, expression of tumor-associated markers, secretion of matrix metalloproteinases, and enhanced tumor cell invasion. This provocative study emphasizes that exosome-mediated signaling within the tumor microenvironment acts as a positive feedback loop that contributes to invasiveness and that interfering with this message delivery system may represent promising therapeutic approaches, not only for GIST, but for other types of cancer. PMID:24778765

  9. Intrapulmonary solitary fibrous tumor.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Koji; Taniguchi, Tetsuo; Usami, Noriyasu; Yokoi, Kohei

    2011-01-01

    Solitary pulmonary nodules are sometimes detected by routine chest radiography. Although many of them are suspected to be benign tumors following noninvasive examinations including computed tomography and positron emission tomography, it is difficult to diagnose them accurately. This report presents a rare case of a solitary fibrous tumor located in the lung that could not be diagnosed preoperatively. More information must be accumulated concerning such rare cases of intrapulmonary solitary fibrous tumors. PMID:21225405

  10. Tumor Microenvironment and Progression

    PubMed Central

    Dvorak, Harold F.; Weaver, Valerie M.; Tlsty, Thea D.; Bergers, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Tumor blood vessels are heterogeneous, of at least six distinct types, are induced primarily by VEGF-A, and provide a potentially useful therapeutic target. Breast cancer is characterized by changes in the microenvironment that result in altered tensional homeostasis. Also, breast cancers arise as the result of epigenetic as well as genetic changes. Tumor blood vessel pericytes result, in part, from bone marrow precursor cells, and VEGF is a negative regulator of glioblastoma tumor cell invasion. PMID:21480238

  11. Tumor Ablation and Nanotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Manthe, Rachel L.; Foy, Susan P.; Krishnamurthy, Nishanth; Sharma, Blanka; Labhasetwar, Vinod

    2010-01-01

    Next to surgical resection, tumor ablation is a commonly used intervention in the treatment of solid tumors. Tumor ablation methods include thermal therapies, photodynamic therapy, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) producing agents. Thermal therapies induce tumor cell death via thermal energy and include radiofrequency, microwave, high intensity focused ultrasound, and cryoablation. Photodynamic therapy and ROS producing agents cause increased oxidative stress in tumor cells leading to apoptosis. While these therapies are safe and viable alternatives when resection of malignancies is not feasible, they do have associated limitations that prevent their widespread use in clinical applications. To improve the efficacy of these treatments, nanoparticles are being studied in combination with nonsurgical ablation regimens. In addition to better thermal effect on tumor ablation, nanoparticles can deliver anticancer therapeutics that show synergistic anti-tumor effect in the presence of heat and can also be imaged to achieve precision in therapy. Understanding the molecular mechanism of nanoparticle-mediated tumor ablation could further help engineer nanoparticles of appropriate composition and properties to synergize the ablation effect. This review aims to explore the various types of nonsurgical tumor ablation methods currently used in cancer treatment and potential improvements by nanotechnology applications. PMID:20866097

  12. Tumor cell metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Garcia, Susana; Lopez-Gonzalez, Jose Sullivan; B´ez-Viveros, José Luis; Aguilar-Cazares, Dolores

    2011-01-01

    Cancer is a genetic disease that is caused by mutations in oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and stability genes. The fact that the metabolism of tumor cells is altered has been known for many years. However, the mechanisms and consequences of metabolic reprogramming have just begun to be understood. In this review, an integral view of tumor cell metabolism is presented, showing how metabolic pathways are reprogrammed to satisfy tumor cell proliferation and survival requirements. In tumor cells, glycolysis is strongly enhanced to fulfill the high ATP demands of these cells; glucose carbons are the main building blocks in fatty acid and nucleotide biosynthesis. Glutaminolysis is also increased to satisfy NADPH regeneration, whereas glutamine carbons replenish the Krebs cycle, which produces metabolites that are constantly used for macromolecular biosynthesis. A characteristic feature of the tumor microenvironment is acidosis, which results from the local increase in lactic acid production by tumor cells. This phenomenon is attributed to the carbons from glutamine and glucose, which are also used for lactic acid production. Lactic acidosis also directs the metabolic reprogramming of tumor cells and serves as an additional selective pressure. Finally, we also discuss the role of mitochondria in supporting tumor cell metabolism. PMID:22057267

  13. Brain tumor - children

    MedlinePLUS

    Glioblastoma multiforme - children; Ependymoma - children; Glioma - children; Brain stem glioma - children; Astrocytoma - children; Medulloblastoma - children; Germ cell tumors; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - ...

  14. Tumor stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kopper, László; Hajdú, Melinda

    2004-01-01

    Stem cells possess two basic characteristics: they are able to renew themselves and to develop into different cell types. The link between normal stem cells and tumor cells could be examined in three aspects: what are the differences and similarities in the control of self-renewal capacity between stem cells and tumor cells; whether tumor cells arise from stem cells; do tumorous stem cells exist? Since tumor cells also exhibit self-renewal capacity, it seems plausible that their regulation is similar to that of the stem cells. The infinite self-renewal ability (immortalization) is assured by several, so far only partly known, mechanisms. One of these is telomerase activity, another important regulatory step for survival is the inhibition of apoptosis. Other signal transduction pathways in stem cell regulation may also play certain roles in carcinogenesis: e.g. Notch, Sonic hedgehog (SHH), and Wnt signals. Existence of tumor stem cells was suggested since it is simpler to retain the self-renewal capacity than to reactivate the immortality program in an already differentiated cell. Moreover, stem cells live much longer than the differentiated ones, and so they are exposed for a long period of time to impairments, collecting gene errors leading to the breakdown of the regulation. However, it is still an open question whether all cells in the tumor possess the capacity that produces this tissue or not, that is: are there tumor stem cells or there are not. If tumor stem cells exist, they would be the main target for therapy: only these must be killed since the other tumor cells possess limited proliferative capacity, therefore limited life span. The only problem is that during tumor progression stem-like cells can develop continuously and the identification but mainly the prevention of their formation is still a great challenge. PMID:15188021

  15. General Information about Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Professional Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors Treatment Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®) General Information About Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors Key Points Extragonadal germ cell tumors form ...

  16. Treatment Option Overview (Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Professional Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors Treatment Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®) General Information About Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors Key Points Extragonadal germ cell tumors form ...

  17. Skull Base Tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz-Ertner, Daniela

    In skull base tumors associated with a low radiosensitivity for conventional radiotherapy (RT), irradiation with proton or carbon ion beams facilitates a safe and accurate application of high tumor doses due to the favorable beam localization properties of these particle beams. Cranial nerves, the brain stem and normal brain tissue can at the same time be optimally spared.

  18. Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Brenda L.

    2009-01-01

    The keratocystic odontogenic tumor is a benign developmental tumor with many distinguishing clinical and histologic features. These characteristics are reviewed in the setting of a typical presentation. The newly acknowledged neoplastic potential and its implications for treatment strategies are also discussed. PMID:20237995

  19. NCI Rare Tumor Initiative

    Cancer.gov

    Contact Information   For more information on the Rare Tumors Initiative or to become a member please contact:   Abby Sandler, Ph.D. Special Assistant to the Director, Rare Tumors Initiative, OD, CCR, NCI 301-496-9983 sandlera@mail.nih.gov Karlyne Reilly,

  20. Modern Brain Tumor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Barajas, Ramon F.; Cha, Soonmee

    2015-01-01

    The imaging and clinical management of patients with brain tumor continue to evolve over time and now heavily rely on physiologic imaging in addition to high-resolution structural imaging. Imaging remains a powerful noninvasive tool to positively impact the management of patients with brain tumor. This article provides an overview of the current state-of-the art clinical brain tumor imaging. In this review, we discuss general magnetic resonance (MR) imaging methods and their application to the diagnosis of, treatment planning and navigation, and disease monitoring in patients with brain tumor. We review the strengths, limitations, and pitfalls of structural imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging techniques, MR spectroscopy, perfusion imaging, positron emission tomography/MR, and functional imaging. Overall this review provides a basis for understudying the role of modern imaging in the care of brain tumor patients. PMID:25977902

  1. Tumor microenvironment indoctrination

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Nastiness of cancer does not only reside in the corruption of cancer cells by genetic aberrations that drive their sustained proliferative power—the roots of malignancy—but also in its aptitude to reciprocally sculpt its surrounding environment and cellular stromal ecosystem, in such a way that the corrupted tumor microenvironment becomes a full pro-tumorigenic entity. Such a contribution had been appreciated three decades ago already, with the discovery of tumor angiogenesis and extracellular matrix remodeling. Nevertheless, the recent emergence of the tumor microenvironment as the critical determinant in cancer biology is paralleled by the promising therapeutic potential it carries, opening alternate routes to fight cancer. The study of the tumor microenvironment recruited numerous lead-scientists over the years, with distinct perspectives, and some of them have kindly accepted to contribute to the elaboration of this special issue entitled Tumor microenvironment indoctrination: An emerging hallmark of cancer. PMID:22863738

  2. Method of treating tumors

    DOEpatents

    DeNardo, Sally J.; Burke, Patricia A.; DeNardo, Gerald L.; Goodman, Simon; Matzku, legal representative, Kerstin; Matzku, Siegfried

    2006-04-18

    A method of treating tumors, such as prostate tumors, breast tumors, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and the like, includes the sequential steps of administering to the patient at least one dose of an antiangiogenic cyclo-arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-containing pentapeptide (cRGD pentapeptide); administering to the patient an anti-tumor effective amount of a radioimmunotherapeutic agent (RIT); and then administering to the patient at least one additional dose of cRGD pentapeptide. The cRGD pentapeptide is preferably cyclo-(Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe-[N-Me]-Val), and the RIT is preferably a radionuclide-labeled chelating agent-ligand complex in which chelating agent is chemically bonded to a tumor-targeting molecule, such as a monoclonal antibody.

  3. Pazopanib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Progressive Carcinoid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-07

    Atypical Carcinoid Tumor; Foregut Carcinoid Tumor; Hindgut Carcinoid Tumor; Lung Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Midgut Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Regional Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1

  4. Drugs Approved for Brain Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Brain Tumors This page lists cancer drugs approved by ... Combinations Used in Brain Tumors Drugs Approved for Brain Tumors Afinitor (Everolimus) Afinitor Disperz (Everolimus) Avastin (Bevacizumab) ...

  5. LA BIOÉTICA COMO QUEHACER FILOSÓFICO

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Jorge José

    2009-01-01

    El artículo examina el estatuto epistemológico de la bioética como disciplina académica. El autor sostiene que el estatuto epistemológico de un discurso lo determina la pregunta fundamental que se plantea y la respuesta que se busca, focos integradores del discurso. En el caso de la bioética, la pregunta fundamental es de índole moral. La bioética es pues una disciplina ética que tiene su hogar epistemológico en la filosofía. El autor también defiende el concepto de “éticas aplicadas”. Sugiere finalmente que el método de la bioética, sobre todo la que se hace desde nuestras latitudes, debería adoptar el círculo hermenéutico como metodología para su filosofar. PMID:20463860

  6. Tumores extracraneales de células germinativas—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del tumor extracraneal de células germinativas en los niños, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

  7. Carcinoma de tumor primario desconocido—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del carcinoma de tumor primario desconocido, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

  8. Benign follicular tumors*

    PubMed Central

    Tellechea, Oscar; Cardoso, José Carlos; Reis, José Pedro; Ramos, Leonor; Gameiro, Ana Rita; Coutinho, Inês; Baptista, António Poiares

    2015-01-01

    Benign follicular tumors comprise a large and heterogeneous group of neoplasms that share a common histogenesis and display morphological features resembling one or several portions of the normal hair follicle, or recapitulate part of its embryological development. Most cases present it as clinically nondescript single lesions and essentially of dermatological relevance. Occasionally, however, these lesions be multiple and represent a cutaneous marker of complex syndromes associated with an increased risk of visceral neoplasms. In this article, the authors present the microscopic structure of the normal hair follicle as a basis to understand the type and level of differentiation of the various follicular tumors. The main clinicopathological features and differential diagnosis of benign follicular tumors are then discussed, including dilated pore of Winer, pilar sheath acanthoma, trichoadenoma, trichilemmoma, infundibuloma, proliferating trichilemmal cyst/tumor, trichoblastoma and its variants, pilomatricoma, trichodiscoma/fibrofolliculoma, neurofollicular hamartoma and trichofolliculoma. In addition, the main syndromes presenting with multiple follicular tumors are also discussed, namely Cowden, Birt-Hogg-Dubé, Rombo and Bazex-Dupré-Christol syndromes, as well as multiple tumors of follicular infundibulum (infundibulomatosis) and multiple trichoepitheliomas. Although the diagnosis of follicular tumors relies on histological examination, we highlight the importance of their knowledge for the clinician, especially when in presence of patients with multiple lesions that may be the cutaneous marker of a cancer-prone syndrome. The dermatologist is therefore in a privileged position to recognize these lesions, which is extremely important to provide further propedeutic, appropriate referral and genetic counseling for these patients.

  9. Targeting the tumor microenvironment

    SciTech Connect

    Kenny, P.A.; Lee, G.Y.; Bissell, M.J.

    2006-11-07

    Despite some notable successes cancer remains, for the most part, a seemingly intractable problem. There is, however, a growing appreciation that targeting the tumor epithelium in isolation is not sufficient as there is an intricate mutually sustaining synergy between the tumor epithelial cells and their surrounding stroma. As the details of this dialogue emerge, new therapeutic targets have been proposed. The FDA has already approved drugs targeting microenvironmental components such as VEGF and aromatase and many more agents are in the pipeline. In this article, we describe some of the 'druggable' targets and processes within the tumor microenvironment and review the approaches being taken to disrupt these interactions.

  10. Waking up dormant tumors

    E-print Network

    Tse, Joyce C.

    As appreciation grows for the contribution of the tumor microenvironment to the progression of cancer, new evidence accumulates to support that the participation of stromal cells can extend beyond the local environment. ...

  11. Skin tumors on squirrels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Reilly, J.R.

    1955-01-01

    Skin tumors having the gross appearance of previously reported fibromas are reported on gray squirrels from N. Y., Md., Va., N. C., and W. Va. and from a fox squirrel from W. Va. and a porcupine from Pa.

  12. Stages of Pituitary Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... signs or symptoms of disease. The pituitary gland hormones control many other glands in the body. Hormones ... A clinical trial of stereotactic radiation surgery . Growth Hormone–Producing Pituitary Tumors Treatment may include the following: ...

  13. Tumor Microenvironment Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    Tumor Microenvironment Network (TMEN) Dinah Singer, Ph.D. Director Suresh Mohla, Ph.D. TMEN Program Director Division of Cancer Biology TMEN 2006-2011: Goals – Generate a comprehensive understanding of the composition of the normal stroma

  14. Allogeneic tumor cell vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Srivatsan, Sanjay; Patel, Jaina M; Bozeman, Erica N; Imasuen, Imade E; He, Sara; Daniels, Danielle; Selvaraj, Periasamy

    2014-01-01

    The high mortality rate associated with cancer and its resistance to conventional treatments such as radiation and chemotherapy has led to the investigation of a variety of anti-cancer immunotherapies. The development of novel immunotherapies has been bolstered by the discovery of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), through gene sequencing and proteomics. One such immunotherapy employs established allogeneic human cancer cell lines to induce antitumor immunity in patients through TAA presentation. Allogeneic cancer immunotherapies are desirable in a clinical setting due to their ease of production and availability. This review aims to summarize clinical trials of allogeneic tumor immunotherapies in various cancer types. To date, clinical trials have shown limited success due potentially to extensive degrees of inter- and intra-tumoral heterogeneity found among cancer patients. However, these clinical results provide guidance for the rational design and creation of more effective allogeneic tumor immunotherapies for use as monotherapies or in combination with other therapies. PMID:24064957

  15. American Brain Tumor Association

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Outcomes of Previously Funded ABTA Research Other Funding Sources Scientific Advisory Council & Reviewers Get Involved Breakthrough for ... the U.S. living with a brain tumor. The Power of Donations Trial Connect A clinical trial matching ...

  16. Ovarian tumors secreting insulin.

    PubMed

    Battocchio, Marialberta; Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Chiarelli, Silvia; Trento, Mariangela; Ambrosio, Maria Rosaria; Pasquali, Claudio; De Carlo, Eugenio; Dassie, Francesca; Mioni, Roberto; Rebellato, Andrea; Fallo, Francesco; Degli Uberti, Ettore; Martini, Chiara; Vettor, Roberto; Maffei, Pietro

    2015-08-01

    Combined ovarian germ cell and neuroendocrine tumors are rare. Only few cases of hyperinsulinism due to ovarian ectopic secretion have been hypothesized in the literature. An ovarian tumor was diagnosed in a 76-year-old woman, referred to our department for recurrent hypoglycemia with hyperinsulinism. In vivo tests, in particular fasting test, rapid calcium infusion test, and Octreotide test were performed. Ectopic hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia was demonstrated in vivo and hypoglycemia disappeared after hysteroadnexectomy. Histological exam revealed an ovarian germ cell tumor with neuroendocrine and Yolk sac differentiation, while immunostaining showed insulin positivity in neuroendocrine cells. A cell culture was obtained by tumoral cells, testing Everolimus, and Pasireotide. Insulin was detected in cell culture medium and Everolimus and Pasireotide demonstrated their potentiality in reducing insulin secretion, more than controlling cell viability. Nine cases of hyperinsulinism due to ovarian ectopic secretion reported in literature have been reviewed. These data confirm the ovarian tissue potentiality to induce hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic syndrome after neoplastic transformation. PMID:25896552

  17. Four bovine meningeal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Josephson, Gaylan K.A.; Little, Peter B.

    1990-01-01

    Four bovine meningeal tumors from a total of 14 brain tumors were recorded in the files of the Ontario Veterinary College and the Ontario Veterinary Laboratory Services Branch from the years 1966 to 1984. The affected cattle ranged in age from 10 months to adult. They exhibited various nervous signs and, in each case, the animals became recumbent. Tumors were located in various areas of the central nervous system. Neoplastic cells had oval vesicular nuclei containing numerous cytoplasmic invaginations. Virus particles were not observed. A fibroblastic appearance, with the presence of loose whorls or bundles, was present in all. Three of the tumors were invasive and were classified as a fibroblastic meningioma. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:17423678

  18. Cirugía transnasal endoscópica para tumores de hipófisis

    PubMed Central

    Ajler, Pablo; Hem, Santiago; Goldschmidt, Ezequiel; Landriel, Federico; Campero, Alvaro; Yampolsky, Claudio; Carrizo, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: Exponer la técnica utilizada y los resultados obtenidos en los primeros 52 pacientes portadores de tumores hipofisarios tratados por la vía endoscópica transnasal en el Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires Métodos: Se llevó a cabo un análisis retrospectivo de 52 cirugías endoscópicas transnasales utilizadas en el tratamiento de tumores hipofisários. Las mismas fueron realizadas en el Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires durante el período junio del 2011 a junio del 2012. Se analizaron las características demográficas de los pacientes, la patología de base y la morbimortalidad asociada a la cirugía. Resultados: La edad media de los pacientes fue de 41,52 años con un rango de 18-79. La distribución fue similar entre hombres y mujeres. Las patologías más frecuentes fueron: adenomas no funcionantes (40.4%), tumores productores de GH/Acromegalia (25%) y tumores productores de ACTH/Enfermedad de Cushing (23.1%). Aproximadamente el 70 % correspondieron a macroadenomas. Sólo un paciente presentó complicaciones. No se registro ningún óbito. Conclusión: Si bien podremos objetivar fehacientemente resultados más concluyentes en futuros trabajos, podemos decir a priori que, en la endoscopía el detalle anatómico es claramente superior al microscópico y que la posibilidad de la introducción del endoscopio en la silla turca permite la visualización directa de remanentes tumorales, de sitios de fístula y como así también de la glándula normal, ventajas que potencialmente podrían permitir obtener mejores resultados quirúrgicos, en términos de control de la enfermedad y tasa de complicaciones. PMID:23596553

  19. [Endocrine tumors: clinical overview].

    PubMed

    Leidig-Bruckner, G

    2014-10-01

    The term endocrine tumor incorporates all neoplasms which originate from the various endocrine organs. Endocrine tumors can be characterized by different criteria: localization, endocrine function, dignity (i.e. tumorigenesis, sporadic or hereditary). These characteristics also determine the clinical outcome. The clinical history, symptoms and physical examination findings (e.g. amenorrhea, skin alterations, striae, virilization, increased blood pressure and flush) direct the diagnostic process of functioning endocrine tumors. Laboratory findings (endocrine parameters) are needed to establish a diagnosis supplemented by imaging for localization and special investigations (ophthalmological examination). In hereditary tumor syndromes, the familial history and molecular genetic testing and screening of family members are essential for establishing the diagnosis and achieve optimal and early treatment. Ideally, affected family members can be treated before clinical symptoms or metastatic disease occurs, improving outcome and prognosis. Incidentalomas are increasingly found due to widespread use of imaging techniques, especially in the thyroid, adrenal glands, pancreas and pituitary gland. In incidentalomas the functional status and risk of malignancy has to be evaluated as both parameters determine therapy decisions. The aim of this introductory article is to give an overview about particular features of endocrine tumors, clinical and related aspects for the diagnostic and therapeutic approach. The clinical features of tumors of the pituitary, parathyroid and adrenal glands and the gastroenteropancreatic system are summarized according to localization. PMID:25269723

  20. Pediatric brain tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jingying; Margol, Ashley; Asgharzadeh, Shahab; Erdreich-Epstein, Anat

    2015-02-01

    Pediatric brain tumors as a group, including medulloblastomas, gliomas, and atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRT) are the most common solid tumors in children and the leading cause of death from childhood cancer. Brain tumor-derived cell lines are critical for studying the biology of pediatric brain tumors and can be useful for initial screening of new therapies. Use of appropriate brain tumor cell lines for experiments is important, as results may differ depending on tumor properties, and can thus affect the conclusions and applicability of the model. Despite reports in the literature of over 60 pediatric brain tumor cell lines, the majority of published papers utilize only a small number of these cell lines. Here we list the approximately 60 currently-published pediatric brain tumor cell lines and summarize some of their central features as a resource for scientists seeking pediatric brain tumor cell lines for their research. PMID:25211508

  1. Optical imaging of tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yihan; Zhang, Wenjie; Li, Jinbo; Zhang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Tumor microenvironment plays important roles in tumor development and metastasis. Features of the tumor microenvironment that are significantly different from normal tissues include acidity, hypoxia, overexpressed proteases and so on. Therefore, these features can serve as not only biomarkers for tumor diagnosis but also theraputic targets for tumor treatment. Imaging modalities such as optical, positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been intensively applied to investigate tumor microenvironment. Various imaging probes targeting pH, hypoxia and proteases in tumor microenvironment were thus well developed. In this review, we will focus on recent examples on fluorescent probes for optical imaging of tumor microenvironment. Construction of these fluorescent probes were based on characteristic feature of pH, hypoxia and proteases in tumor microenvironment. Strategies for development of these fluorescent probes and applications of these probes in optical imaging of tumor cells or tissues will be discussed in this review paper. PMID:23342297

  2. Como Lo Hago Yo: Myelomeningocele

    PubMed Central

    Lazareff, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Fortificación con ádico fólico es efectiva, pero aún falta conciencia en los jóvenes. La legalidad del aborto aumenta la importancia de la consulta prenatal. Realizo la cirugía bajo microcoscopio por razones didácticas. Irrigación continua para reducir la temperatura del tejido. Trato a la plaqueta como tejido viable. No suturo la plaqueta. No cierro músculo. ATB por una semana después de cirugía. Hidrocefalia: Válvula en todos los casos de ventriculomegalia. Médula anclada: Desanclar una sola vez. Chiari II: Revisar la válvula. Incluir en el seguimiento rendimiento escolar, puede indicar obstrucción de la válvula o médula anclada. PMID:24791217

  3. Liver tumors: Multidisciplinary management

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, W.J.B.

    1987-01-01

    This volume is based on an aggressive, multidisciplinary approach toward patients with liver tumors. It was written in response to the recognition that a greater range of therapeutic management is being offered. Management of such tumors involve more than one individual - included is the primary physician first contacted by the patient, the diagnostician and finally the group of individuals that actually treats the disease. Either intermittent systemic chemotherapy is given, or a few highly selected cases have massive hepatic resections in a very few major medical centers. Further, the perception has been clouded by a combination of high surgical mortality and poor results obtainable with conventional systemic chemotherapy. For this reason, the authors have undertaken a study of liver tumors. Their major objective is to show that it is possible to obtain superior results by presenting a range of options.

  4. Cerebral tumor or pseudotumor?

    PubMed

    Leclercq, D; Trunet, S; Bertrand, A; Galanaud, D; Lehéricy, S; Dormont, D; Drier, A

    2014-10-01

    Pseudotumoral lesions are uncommon but important to identity lesions. They can occur during inflammatory diseases (systemic diseases, vasculitis, demyelinating diseases), infectious, and vascular diseases. Also, in a patient with a treated tumor, pseudo-progression and radionecrosis must be differentiated from the tumoral development. Diagnosis can be difficult on an MRI scan, but some MRI aspects in conventional sequences, diffusion, perfusion and spectroscopy can suggest the pseudotumoral origin of a lesion. Imaging must be interpreted according to the context, the clinic and the biology. The presence of associated intracranial lesions can orientate towards a systemic or infectious disease. A T2 hyposignal lesion suggests granulomatosis or histiocytosis, especially if a meningeal or hypothalamic-pituitary involvement is associated. Non-tumoral lesions are generally not hyperperfused. In the absence of a definitive diagnosis, the evolution of these lesions, whether under treatment or spontaneous, is fundamental. PMID:25260711

  5. Tumor-induced osteomalacia

    PubMed Central

    Farrow, Emily G; White, Kenneth E

    2009-01-01

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is an acquired disorder of isolated renal phosphate wasting associated with tumors, typically of mesenchymal origin. Patients with TIO share similar biochemical and skeletal phenotypes with patients who have autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (ADHR) and X-linked hypophosphatemia. The study of TIO introduced the idea of the existence of circulating factors, referred to as ‘phosphatonins’, produced by the tumor, which act upon the kidney to reduce phosphate reabsorption. Although several factors have been identified, the phosphatonin FGF-23, also identified as the causative factor in ADHR, is currently the best characterized of these factors relative to phosphate handling. This review describes the importance of TIO in understanding phosphate homeostasis in the context of new endocrine interactions between the skeleton and the kidney. PMID:20228870

  6. Poorly Differentiated Neuroendocrine Tumors.

    PubMed

    Eads, Jennifer R

    2016-02-01

    Poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract are rare and limited data are available to guide treatment. These tumors have been treated akin to small cell lung cancer given the histologic similarities. Their pathology is complex. Over the last decade, these tumors are shown as likely a distinct disease entity that is more heterogeneous than accounted for by the current classification system. This article discusses the epidemiology, prognosis, clinical presentation and pathologic nuances and provides a review of the existing clinical data in poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas and small cell lung cancers. PMID:26614374

  7. Innovations in Intraoperative Tumor Visualization.

    PubMed

    Visgauss, Julia D; Eward, William C; Brigman, Brian E

    2016-01-01

    In the surgical management of solid tumors, adequacy of tumor resection has implications for local recurrence and survival. The standard method of intraoperative identification of tumor margin is frozen section pathologic analysis, which is time-consuming with potential for sampling error. Intraoperative tumor visualization has the potential to significantly improve surgical cancer care across disciplines, by guiding accuracy of biopsies, increasing adequacy of resections, directing adjuvant therapy, and even providing diagnostic information. We provide an outline of various methods of intraoperative tumor visualization developed to aid in the real-time assessment of tumor extent and adequacy of resection. PMID:26614939

  8. Immunoreactive somatostatin in Warthin's tumor.

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Y.; Saito, H.; Saito, S.; Yanagawa, T.; Yoshida, H.; Yura, Y.; Sato, M.

    1986-01-01

    The presence of somatostatin (SRIF) in the neoplastic epithelial cells of certain Warthin's tumors arising in the human parotid gland was found immunohistochemically, whereas the other parotid gland tumors, such as pleomorphic adenoma, oxyphilic adenoma, mucoepidermoid tumor, adenocarcinoma, and adenoid cystic carcinoma, did not show positive immunoreactivity for SRIF. The SRIF-positive Warthin's tumor had dense core granules immunoreactive with anti-SRIF serum. Moreover, a comparatively high concentration of immunoreactive SRIF was detected by radioimmunoassay in an SRIF-positive Warthin's tumor, although the other tumors also contained low levels of immunoreactive SRIF. Images Figure 2 Figure 1 PMID:2871759

  9. Childhood Brain Tumor Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... related fundraising projects go to the Childhood Brain… Amazon Smile When you shop at AmazonSmile, Amazon donates 0.5% of the purchase price to ... Brain Tumor Foundation. Bookmark the link http://smile.amazon.com/ch/52-2122976 and support us every ...

  10. Tumor-induced osteomalacia

    PubMed Central

    Chong, William H; Molinolo, Alfredo A; Chen, Clara C; Collins, Michael T

    2012-01-01

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare and fascinating paraneoplastic syndrome in which patients present with bone pain, fractures, and muscle weakness. The cause is high blood levels of the recently identified phosphate and vitamin D-regulating hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). In TIO, FGF23 is secreted by mesenchymal tumors that are usually benign, but are typically very small and difficult to locate. FGF23 acts primarily at the renal tubule and impairs phosphate reabsorption and 1?-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, leading to hypophosphatemia and low levels of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D. A step-wise approach utilizing functional imaging (F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and octreotide scintigraphy) followed by anatomical imaging (computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging), and, if needed, selective venous sampling with measurement of FGF23 is usually successful in locating the tumors. For tumors that cannot be located, medical treatment with phosphate supplements and active vitamin D (calcitriol or alphacalcidiol) is usually successful; however, the medical regimen can be cumbersome and associated with complications. This review summarizes the current understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease and provides guidance in evaluating and treating these patients. Novel imaging modalities and medical treatments, which hold promise for the future, are also reviewed. PMID:21490240

  11. Brain Tumor Risk Factors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... have been performed on a number of potential environmental risk factors. Of the many factors studied, only one—exposure to ionizing radiation—has been clearly shown to increase the risk of developing brain tumors. Some studies have shown that a history of allergies as an adult, a mother eating ...

  12. Preoperative tumor embolization.

    PubMed

    Ashour, Ramsey; Aziz-Sultan, Ali

    2014-07-01

    In this article, the authors review general principles and technical details of preoperative embolization of various hypervascular head, neck, and spinal tumors encountered in contemporary neuroendovascular practice. Indications, treatment goals, techniques, outcomes, and complications are discussed, and illustrative case examples are presented. PMID:24994094

  13. Genetics Home Reference: Desmoid tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with an inherited form of colon cancer called familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). These individuals typically develop intra-abdominal desmoid ... condition are described as sporadic. Read more about familial adenomatous polyposis . How common is desmoid tumor? Desmoid tumors are ...

  14. Pindborg Tumor in an Adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Kafil; Khan, Nazoora; Zaheer, Sufian; Sherwani, Rana; Hasan, Abrar

    2010-01-01

    Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (Pindborg tumor), is a rare benign odontogenic neoplasm representing about 0.4-3% of all odontogenic tumors. This tumor more frequently affects adults in the age range of 20-60 years, with a peak incidence in the 5th decade of life. Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour has a much lower recurrence rate than ameloblastoma and malignant transformation, and metastasis is rare. PMID:22125699

  15. Monoclonal Antibodies Targeting Tumor Growth

    Cancer.gov

    The type 1 insulin-like growth factor (IGF) receptor (IGF1R) is over-expressed by many tumors and mediates proliferation, motility, and protection from apoptosis. Agents that inhibit IGF1R expression or function can potentially block tumor growth and metastasis. Its major ligands, IGF-I, and IGF-II are over-expressed by multiple tumor types.

  16. Nonodontogenic Tumors of the Jaws.

    PubMed

    Dyalram, Donita; Aslam-Pervez, Nawaf; Lubek, Joshua E

    2016-02-01

    Nonodontogenic tumors of the jaws are common in the pediatric population, accounting for approximately 70% of pediatric jaw tumors. This article focuses on the clinical characteristics and management of the benign nonodontogenic tumors (nonaggressive and aggressive) of the jaws most commonly encountered in children. PMID:26614701

  17. Tumor Microenvironment in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Lorger, Mihaela

    2012-01-01

    In addition to malignant cancer cells, tumors contain a variety of different stromal cells that constitute the tumor microenvironment. Some of these cell types provide crucial support for tumor growth, while others have been suggested to actually inhibit tumor progression. The composition of tumor microenvironment varies depending on the tumor site. The brain in particular consists of numerous specialized cell types such as microglia, astrocytes, and brain endothelial cells. In addition to these brain-resident cells, primary and metastatic brain tumors have also been shown to be infiltrated by different populations of bone marrow-derived cells. The role of different cell types that constitute tumor microenvironment in the progression of brain malignancies is only poorly understood. Tumor microenvironment has been shown to be a promising therapeutic target and diagnostic marker in extracranial malignancies. A better understanding of tumor microenvironment in the brain would therefore be expected to contribute to the development of improved therapies for brain tumors that are urgently required due to a poor availability of treatments for these malignancies. This review summarizes some of the known interactions between brain tumors and different stromal cells, and also discusses potential therapeutic approaches within this context. PMID:24213237

  18. Treatment Options for Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the tumor and a special camera that detects radioactivity is used to show where the tumors are ... the tumor and a special camera that detects radioactivity is used to show where the tumors are ...

  19. Immunotherapy and tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Tang, Haidong; Qiao, Jian; Fu, Yang-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Recent exciting progress in cancer immunotherapy has ushered in a new era of cancer treatment. Immunotherapy can elicit unprecedented durable responses in advanced cancer patients that are much greater than conventional chemotherapy. However, such responses only occur in a relatively small fraction of patients. A positive response to immunotherapy usually relies on dynamic interactions between tumor cells and immunomodulators inside the tumor microenvironment (TME). Depending on the context of these interactions, the TME may play important roles to either dampen or enhance immune responses. Understanding the interactions between immunotherapy and the TME is not only critical to dissect the mechanisms of action but also important to provide new approaches in improving the efficiency of current immunotherapies. In this review, we will highlight recent work on how the TME can influence the efficacy of immunotherapy as well as how manipulating the TME can improve current immunotherapy regimens in some cases. PMID:26477683

  20. Cervicomedullary tumors in children.

    PubMed

    McAbee, Joseph H; Modica, Joseph; Thompson, Clinton J; Broniscer, Alberto; Orr, Brent; Choudhri, Asim F; Boop, Frederick A; Klimo, Paul

    2015-10-01

    OBJECT Cervicomedullary tumors (CMTs) represent a heterogeneous group of intrinsic neoplasms that are typically low grade and generally carry a good prognosis. This single-institution study was undertaken to document the outcomes and current treatment philosophy for these challenging neoplasms. METHODS The charts of all pediatric patients with CMTs who received treatment at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital between January 1988 and May 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic, surgical, clinical, radiological, pathological, and survival data were collected. Treatment-free survival and overall survival were estimated, and predictors of recurrence were analyzed. RESULTS Thirty-one children (16 boys, 15 girls) with at least 12 months of follow-up data were identified. The median age at diagnosis was 6 years (range 7 months-17 years) and the median follow-up was 4.3 years. Low-grade tumors (Grade I or II) were present in 26 (84%) patients. Thirty patients underwent either a biopsy alone or resection, with the majority of patients undergoing biopsy only (n = 12, 39%) or subtotal resection (n = 14, 45%). Only 4 patients were treated solely with resection; 21 patients received radiotherapy alone or in combination with other treatments. Recurrent tumor developed in 14 children (45%) and 4 died as a result of their malignancy. A high-grade pathological type was the only independent variable that predicted recurrence. The 5- and 10-year treatment-free survival estimates are 64.7% and 45.3%, respectively. The 5- and 10-year overall survival estimate is 86.7%. CONCLUSIONS Children with CMTs typically have low-grade neoplasms and consequently long-term survival, but high risk of recurrence. Therapy should be directed at achieving local tumor control while preserving and even restoring neurological function. PMID:26114990

  1. Seizures in oligodendroglial tumors.

    PubMed

    Kerkhof, Melissa; Benit, Christa; Duran-Pena, Alberto; Vecht, Charles J

    2015-10-01

    Epilepsy develops in more than 70-90% of oligodendroglial tumors and represents a favorable indicator for long-term survival if present as the first clinical sign. Presence of IDH1 mutation is frequently associated with seizures in oligodendrogliomas, next to alterations of glutamate and GABA metabolism in the origin of glioma-associated epilepsy. Treatment by surgery or radiotherapy results in seizure freedom in about two-thirds of patients, and chemotherapy to a seizure reduction in about 50%. Symptomatic anticonvulsive therapy with levetiracetam and valproic acid as monotherapy are both evidence-based drugs for the partial epilepsies, and their effective use in brain tumors is supported by a large amount of additional data. Pharmacoresistance against anticonvulsants is more prevalent among oligodendrogliomas, occurring in about 40% despite polytherapy with two anticonvulsants or more. Toxic signs of anticonvulsants in brain tumors involve cognition, bone marrow and skin. Previous neurosurgery, radiation therapy or chemotherapy add to the risks of cognitive dysfunction. PMID:26478444

  2. Odontogenic Tumor Markers - An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Premalatha, B R; Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S; Reddy, Narendranatha P; Indu, M

    2013-01-01

    The practice of pathology is currently undergoing significant change, due to advances in the field of molecular pathology. Tumor markers are molecules that help the pathologists for confirmatory diagnosis of histopathologically confounding lesions. Odontogenic tumors are relatively rare with estimated incidence of less than 0.5 cases/ 100,000 population per year. Odontogenic tumors can pose diagnostic challenges because of overlapping histology. But, appropriate diagnosis is crucial as their treatment modality and prognosis differ; in these situations tumor markers can be helpful. But lack of comprehensive literature on specific markers for odontogenic tumors imposes pathologists to think aimlessly about various markers to arrive at an appropriate diagnosis. With this background, it is our attempt at compiling diagnostically important odontogenic tumor markers. Also, a note is added on tumor behaviour studies in common clinically important odontogenic tumors: Ameloblastoma and Keratocystic odontogenic tumor. How to cite this article: Premalatha B R, Patil S, Rao R S, Reddy N P, Indu M. Odontogenic Tumor Markers - An Overview. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(2):65-75. How to cite this article: Premalatha B R, Patil S, Rao R S, Reddy N P, Indu M. Odontogenic Tumor Markers - An Overview. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(2):65-75 PMID:24155593

  3. Study of Kidney Tumors in Younger Patients

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-16

    Clear Cell Sarcoma of the Kidney; Congenital Mesoblastic Nephroma; Diffuse Hyperplastic Perilobar Nephroblastomatosis; Rhabdoid Tumor of the Kidney; Stage I Renal Cell Cancer; Stage I Wilms Tumor; Stage II Renal Cell Cancer; Stage II Wilms Tumor; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage III Wilms Tumor; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IV Wilms Tumor; Stage V Wilms Tumor

  4. Mesenchymal tumors of adult kidney.

    PubMed

    Samaratunga, Hemamali; Delahunt, Brett

    2015-03-01

    Mesenchymal tumors of the kidney, although infrequently encountered, constitute a wide spectrum of lesions. The relative rarity of these tumors means that in some instances criteria to differentiate between benign and malignancy are currently incompletely defined. More recently a variety of novel stromal tumors have been characterized, with hemangioblastoma and myopericytoma being notable examples. The identification of a subset of spindle cell tumors as synovial sarcoma, on the basis of the presence of a characteristic genetic translocation, has facilitated the correct classification of a number of tumors previously labeled as fibrosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, or more recently cystic embryonal sarcoma. In this review, we have detailed the spectrum of both benign and malignant stromal tumors of the adult kidney, described the gross and microscopic features, with an emphasis on immunoexpression and the differential diagnosis of each tumor type. PMID:25773128

  5. Tumor-colonizing bacteria: a potential tumor targeting therapy.

    PubMed

    Zu, Chao; Wang, Jiansheng

    2014-08-01

    In 1813, Vautier published his observation of tumor regression in patients who had suffered from gas gangrene. Since then, many publications have described the use of bacteria as antitumor therapy. For example, Bifidobacterium and Clostridium have been shown to selectively colonize tumors and to reduce tumor size. In addition, recent studies have focused on the use of genetic engineering to induce the expression of pro-drug converting enzymes, cytokines, specific antibodies, or suicide genes in tumor-colonizing bacteria. Moreover, some animal experiments have reported the treatment of tumors with engineered bacteria, and few side effects were observed. Therefore, based on these advances in tumor targeting therapy, bacteria may represent the next generation of cancer therapy. PMID:23964706

  6. Cystic tumors of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Morana, Giovanni; Guarise, Alessandro

    2006-01-01

    Cystic tumors of the pancreas are less frequent than solid lesions and are often detected incidentally, as many of these lesions are small and asymptomatic. However, they may be associated with pancreatitis or have malignant potential. With advancements in diagnostic imaging, cystic lesions of the pancreas are being detected with increasing frequency. Many lesions can cause a pancreatic cyst, most being non-neoplastic while approximately 10% are cystic tumors, ranging from benign to highly malignant tumors. With increasing experience it is becoming clear that the prevalence of pseudocyst among cystic lesions of the pancreas is lower than usually presumed. A presumptive diagnosis of pseudocyst based on imaging appearance alone can cause a diagnostic error, and neoplastic cysts of the pancreas are particularly susceptible to this misdiagnosis, which can result in inappropriate treatment. Cystic tumors of the pancreas are formed by serous or mucinous structures showing all stages of cellular differentiation. According to the WHO classification, they can be subdivided on the basis of their histological type and biological behavior into benign tumors, borderline tumors, and malignant tumors. Cystic pancreatic tumors can be subdivided into peripheral (serous cystadenomas, mucinous cystic tumors, solid and papillary epithelial neoplasms, cystic islet cell tumors), which do not communicate with the main pancreatic duct, and ductal tumors (mucinous tumor), according to their site of origin. On the basis of imaging criteria alone, it can be very difficult to differentiate non-tumoral cystic lesions from neoplastic ones. The management of these patients is complex, and it is important to correlate imaging findings with knowledge of the patient’s symptoms and of the natural history and predictors of malignancy in pancreatic cysts. PMID:16861136

  7. Role of tumor associated macrophages in tumor angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Riabov, Vladimir; Gudima, Alexandru; Wang, Nan; Mickley, Amanda; Orekhov, Alexander; Kzhyshkowska, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Tumor angiogenesis is an essential process for supplying rapidly growing malignant tissues with essential nutrients and oxygen. An angiogenic switch allows tumor cells to survive and grow, and provides them access to vasculature resulting in metastatic disease. Monocyte-derived macrophages recruited and reprogrammed by tumor cells serve as a major source of angiogenic factors boosting the angiogenic switch. Tumor endothelium releases angiopoietin-2 and further facilitates recruitment of TIE2 receptor expressing monocytes (TEM) into tumor sites. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) sense hypoxia in avascular areas of tumors, and react by production of angiogenic factors such as VEGFA. VEGFA stimulates chemotaxis of endothelial cells (EC) and macrophages. In some tumors, TAM appeared to be a major source of MMP9. Elevated expression of MMP9 by TAM mediates extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and the release of bioactive VEGFA. Other angiogenic factors released by TAM include basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), thymidine phosphorylase (TP), urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), and adrenomedullin (ADM). The same factors used by macrophages for the induction of angiogenesis [like vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and MMP9] support lymphangiogenesis. TAM can express LYVE-1, one of the established markers of lymphatic endothelium. TAM support tumor lymphangiogenesis not only by secretion of pro-lymphangiogenic factors but also by trans-differentiation into lymphatic EC. New pro-angiogenic factor YKL-40 belongs to a family of mammalian chitinase-like proteins (CLP) that act as cytokines or growth factors. Human CLP family comprises YKL-40, YKL-39, and SI-CLP. Production of all three CLP in macrophages is antagonistically regulated by cytokines. It was recently established that YKL-40 induces angiogenesis in vitro and in animal tumor models. YKL-40-neutralizing monoclonal antibody blocks tumor angiogenesis and progression. The role of YKL-39 and SI-CLP in tumor angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis remains to be investigated. PMID:24634660

  8. Multiparametric Classification Links Tumor Microenvironments with Tumor Cell Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Gligorijevic, Bojana; Bergman, Aviv; Condeelis, John

    2014-01-01

    While it has been established that a number of microenvironment components can affect the likelihood of metastasis, the link between microenvironment and tumor cell phenotypes is poorly understood. Here we have examined microenvironment control over two different tumor cell motility phenotypes required for metastasis. By high-resolution multiphoton microscopy of mammary carcinoma in mice, we detected two phenotypes of motile tumor cells, different in locomotion speed. Only slower tumor cells exhibited protrusions with molecular, morphological, and functional characteristics associated with invadopodia. Each region in the primary tumor exhibited either fast- or slow-locomotion. To understand how the tumor microenvironment controls invadopodium formation and tumor cell locomotion, we systematically analyzed components of the microenvironment previously associated with cell invasion and migration. No single microenvironmental property was able to predict the locations of tumor cell phenotypes in the tumor if used in isolation or combined linearly. To solve this, we utilized the support vector machine (SVM) algorithm to classify phenotypes in a nonlinear fashion. This approach identified conditions that promoted either motility phenotype. We then demonstrated that varying one of the conditions may change tumor cell behavior only in a context-dependent manner. In addition, to establish the link between phenotypes and cell fates, we photoconverted and monitored the fate of tumor cells in different microenvironments, finding that only tumor cells in the invadopodium-rich microenvironments degraded extracellular matrix (ECM) and disseminated. The number of invadopodia positively correlated with degradation, while the inhibiting metalloproteases eliminated degradation and lung metastasis, consistent with a direct link among invadopodia, ECM degradation, and metastasis. We have detected and characterized two phenotypes of motile tumor cells in vivo, which occurred in spatially distinct microenvironments of primary tumors. We show how machine-learning analysis can classify heterogeneous microenvironments in vivo to enable prediction of motility phenotypes and tumor cell fate. The ability to predict the locations of tumor cell behavior leading to metastasis in breast cancer models may lead towards understanding the heterogeneity of response to treatment. PMID:25386698

  9. A rare tumor of the lung: inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is a rare benign lesion whose tumor origin is now proven. It represents 0.7% of all lung tumors. We report the case of a three-year-old child who suffered from a chronic cough with recurrent respiratory infections. Chest X-ray and computed tomography revealed the presence of a left lower lobe lung mass. After pneumonectomy, histological examination combined with immunohistochemical study discovered an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/8722069326962972. PMID:22805416

  10. Imaging Tumor Necrosis with Ferumoxytol

    PubMed Central

    Aghighi, Maryam; Golovko, Daniel; Ansari, Celina; Marina, Neyssa M.; Pisani, Laura; Kurlander, Lonnie; Klenk, Christopher; Bhaumik, Srabani; Wendland, Michael; Daldrup-Link, Heike E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIO) are promising contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). USPIO mediated proton relaxation rate enhancement is strongly dependent on compartmentalization of the agent and can vary depending on their intracellular or extracellular location in the tumor microenvironment. We compared the T1- and T2-enhancement pattern of intracellular and extracellular USPIO in mouse models of cancer and pilot data from patients. A better understanding of these MR signal effects will enable non-invasive characterizations of the composition of the tumor microenvironment. Materials and Methods Six 4T1 and six MMTV-PyMT mammary tumors were grown in mice and imaged with ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI. R1 relaxation rates were calculated for different tumor types and different tumor areas and compared with histology. The transendothelial leakage rate of ferumoxytol was obtained by our measured relaxivity of ferumoxytol and compared between different tumor types, using a t-test. Additionally, 3 patients with malignant sarcomas were imaged with ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI. T1- and T2-enhancement patterns were compared with histopathology in a descriptive manner as a proof of concept for clinical translation of our observations. Results 4T1 tumors showed central areas of high signal on T1 and low signal on T2 weighted MR images, which corresponded to extracellular nanoparticles in a necrotic core on histopathology. MMTV-PyMT tumors showed little change on T1 but decreased signal on T2 weighted images, which correlated to compartmentalized nanoparticles in tumor associated macrophages. Only 4T1 tumors demonstrated significantly increased R1 relaxation rates of the tumor core compared to the tumor periphery (p<0.001). Transendothelial USPIO leakage was significantly higher for 4T1 tumors (3.4±0.9x10-3 mL/min/100cm3) compared to MMTV-PyMT tumors (1.0±0.9x10-3 mL/min/100 cm3). Likewise, ferumoxytol imaging in patients showed similar findings with high T1 signal in areas of tumor necrosis and low signal in areas of intracellularly compartmentalized iron. Conclusion Differential T1- and T2-enhancement patterns of USPIO in tumors enable conclusions about their intracellular and extracellular location. This information can be used to characterize the composition of the tumor microenvironment. PMID:26569397

  11. Targeting thapsigargin towards tumors

    PubMed Central

    Doan, Nhu Thi Quynh; Paulsen, Eleonora Sandholdt; Sehgal, Pankaj; Møller, Jesper Vuust; Nissen, Poul; Denmeade, Samuel R.; Isaacs, John T.; Dionne, Craig A.; Christensen, Søren Brøgger

    2015-01-01

    The skin irritating principle from Thapsia garganica was isolated, named thapsigargin and the structure elucidated. By inhibiting the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) thapsigargin provokes apoptosis in almost all cells. By conjugating thapsigargin to peptides, which are only substrates for either prostate specific antigen (PSA) or prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) prodrugs were created, which selectively affect prostate cancer cells or neovascular tissue in tumors. One of the prodrug is currently tested in clinical phase II. The prodrug under clinical trial has been named mipsagargin. PMID:25065587

  12. Therapeutic Trial for Patients With Ewing Sarcoma Family of Tumor and Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-01

    Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor; Ewing Sarcoma of Bone or Soft Tissue; Localized Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  13. Proton Therapy for Thoracoabdominal Tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Hideyuki; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Sugahara, Shinji; Nakayama, Hidetsugu; Tokuuye, Koichi

    In advanced-stage disease of certain thoracoabdominal tumors, proton therapy (PT) with concurrent chemotherapy may be an option to reduce side effects. Several technological developments, including a respiratory gating system and implantation of fiducial markers for image guided radiation therapy (IGRT), are necessary for the treatment in thoracoabdominal tumors. In this chapter, the role of PT for tumors of the lung, the esophagus, and liver are discussed.

  14. [Cerebral nerves - perineural tumor spread].

    PubMed

    Bisdas, S; Mack, M G

    2009-07-01

    Perineural tumor spread in the course of head and neck tumors is a form of metastatic disease in which the tumor disseminates centrifugally or centripetally along the nerve to (non)contiguous regions. Perineural tumor spread is a potentially devastating complication and has a high impact on the therapeutic management and overall prognosis. In a large proportion of patients the disease remains asymptomatic and imaging (especially MRI) plays a crucial role in the detection of lesions. Familiarity with the pertinent anatomy, knowledge of the common spread pathways and an appropriate imaging strategy allow detection of the perineural spread of the disease in the majority of the cases. PMID:19424678

  15. Living with a Brain Tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Newly Diagnosed Continuum of Care Brain Tumor Treatments Treatment Side Effects & their Management Support and Resources Support Groups Request a Mentor The ABTA's Online Support Community Understanding ...

  16. Vasculogenic Mimicry and Tumor Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Folberg, Robert; Hendrix, Mary J. C.; Maniotis, Andrew J.

    2000-01-01

    Tumors require a blood supply for growth and hematogenous dissemination. Much attention has been focused on the role of angiogenesis—the recruitment of new vessels into a tumor from pre-existing vessels. However, angiogenesis may not be the only mechanism by which tumors acquire a microcirculation. Highly aggressive and metastatic melanoma cells are capable of forming highly patterned vascular channels in vitro that are composed of a basement membrane that stains positive with the periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) reagent in the absence of endothelial cells and fibroblasts. These channels formed in vitro are identical morphologically to PAS-positive channels in histological preparations from highly aggressive primary uveal melanomas, in the vertical growth phase of cutaneous melanomas, and in metastatic uveal and cutaneous melanoma. The generation of microvascular channels by genetically deregulated, aggressive tumor cells was termed “vasculogenic mimicry” to emphasize their de novo generation without participation by endothelial cells and independent of angiogenesis. Techniques designed to identify the tumor microcirculation by the staining of endothelial cells may not be applicable to tumors that express vasculogenic mimicry. Although it is not known if therapeutic strategies targeting endothelial cells will be effective in tumors whose blood supply is formed by tumor cells in the absence of angiogenesis, the biomechanical and molecular events that regulate vasculogenic mimicry provide opportunities for the development of novel forms of tumor-targeted treatments. The unique patterning characteristic of vasculogenic mimicry provides an opportunity to design noninvasive imaging techniques to detect highly aggressive neoplasms and their metastases. PMID:10666364

  17. Growth factors in tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuejing; Nie, Daotai; Chakrabarty, Subhas

    2012-01-01

    Tumor microenvironment plays a critical role in tumor initiation and progression. Components in the microenvironment can modulate the growth of tumor cells, their ability to progress and metastasize. A major venue of communication between tumor cells and their microenvironment is through polypeptide growth factors and receptors for these growth factors. This article discusses three major classes of growth-stimulatory polypeptide growth factors and receptors for these growth factors. It also discusses how deregulation of these growth factors or their receptors can drive malignant transformation and progression. PMID:20036812

  18. Childhood Brain Tumor Epidemiology: A Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium Review

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kimberly J.; Cullen, Jennifer; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.; Ostrom, Quinn T.; Langer, Chelsea E.; Turner, Michelle C.; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Fisher, James L.; Lupo, Philip J.; Partap, Sonia; Schwartzbaum, Judith A.; Scheurer, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood brain tumors are the most common pediatric solid tumor and include several histological subtypes. Although progress has been made in improving survival rates for some subtypes, understanding of risk factors for childhood brain tumors remains limited to a few genetic syndromes and ionizing radiation to the head and neck. In this report, we review descriptive and analytical epidemiology childhood brain tumor studies from the past decade and highlight priority areas for future epidemiology investigations and methodological work that is needed to advance our understanding of childhood brain tumor causes. Specifically, we summarize the results of a review of studies published since 2004 that have analyzed incidence and survival in different international regions and that have examined potential genetic, immune system, developmental and birth characteristics, and environmental risk factors. PMID:25192704

  19. TUMOR BOARD 20142015 LOCATION: LH3

    E-print Network

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    TUMOR BOARD 20142015 LOCATION: LH3 DATE and Time MODERATOR TOPIC Sept 19th 8am E. BehlingKelly Canine adrenal tumors Oct 17th 8am R. Ossiboff Tumor diagnosis in zoo species Nov 21st 8am K. Hume Histiocytic tumors Dec 19th 12:15** S. Peralta Odontogenic tumors Jan 16th 8am G

  20. Putting Tumors in Context

    SciTech Connect

    Bissell, Mina; Radisky, Derek

    2001-10-01

    The interactions between cancer cells and their micro- and macroenvironment create a context that promotes tumor growth and protects it from immune attack. The functional association of cancer cells with their surrounding tissues forms a new 'organ' that changes as malignancy progresses. Investigation of this process might provide new insights into the mechanisms of tumorigenesis and could also lead to new therapeutic targets. Under normal conditions, ORGANS are made up of TISSUES that exchange information with other cell types via cell-cell contact, cytokines and the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM). The ECM, which is produced by collaboration between STROMAL fibroblasts and EPITHELIAL cells, provides structural scaffolding for cells, as well as contextual information. The endothelial vasculature provides nutrients and oxygen, and cells of the immune system combat pathogens and remove apoptotic cells. Epithelial cells associate into intact, polarized sheets. These tissues communicate through a complex network of interactions: physically, through direct contact or through the intervening ECM, and biochemically, through both soluble and insoluble signalling molecules. In combination, these interactions provide the information that is necessary to maintain cellular differentiation and to create complex tissue structures. Occasionally, the intercellular signals that define the normal context become disrupted. Alterations in epithelial tissues can lead to movement of epithelial sheets and proliferation - for example, after activation of mesenchymal fibroblasts due to wounding.Normally, these conditions are temporary and reversible, but when inflammation is sustained, an escalating feedback loop ensues.Under persistent inflammatory conditions, continual upregulation of enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by stromal fibroblasts can disrupt the ECM, and invading immune cells can overproduce factors that promote abnormal proliferation. As this process progresses, the normal organization of the organ is replaced by a functional disorder. If there are pre-existing epithelial cells within this changing context that possess tumorigenic potential, they can start to proliferate. Alternatively, the abnormal interactions might lead to genomic instability within the epithelial cells and the acquisition of tumorigenic potential. The proliferating cancer cells can then interact with their microenvironment and enhance the abnormal interactions. At this point, the tumor has become its own organ, with a distinct context that now defines all its cellular responses. Here, we will examine how the mechanisms that contribute to the normal context also act to suppress developing tumors, how disruption of this context initiates and supports the process of tumorigenicity, and how some cells with a tumorigenic genotype can become phenotypically normal if the context is appropriately manipulated.

  1. Cystic Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sonal; Rahim, Ahmed Mujib Bangalore; Parakkat, Nithin Kavassery; Kapoor, Shekhar; Mittal, Kumud; Sharma, Bhushan; Shivappa, Anil Bangalore

    2015-01-01

    Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor (AOT) is a well-established benign epithelial lesion of odontogenic origin. Rightfully called “the master of disguise,” this lesion has been known for its varied clinical and histoarchitectural patterns. Not only does AOT predominantly present radiologically as a unilocular cystic lesion enclosing the unerupted tooth (which is commonly mistaken as a dentigerous cyst) but the lesion also presents rarely with a cystic component histopathologically. We present one such unusual case of cystic AOT associated with an impacted canine, mimicking a dentigerous cyst. The present case aims to highlight the difference between cystic AOT and dentigerous cyst radiographically. The exact histogenesis of AOT and its variants still remains obscure. An attempt has been made to hypothesize the new school of thought regarding the origin of AOT. PMID:26579317

  2. Hyperphosphatemic tumoral calcinosis

    PubMed Central

    Mallick, Saumyaranjan; Ahmad, Zohra; Gupta, Arun K; Mathur, Sandeep R

    2013-01-01

    Tumoral calcinosis (TC) is a rare locally aggressive lesion characterised by extra-articular soft tissue deposition of the calcium phosphate around large joints. The exact aetiology is not known. A 19–year–old boy presented with a painful progressive swelling around the bilateral elbow and left hip joints over a 6–month duration. Routine laboratory results showed a normal haemogram, and normal calcium and high phosphate levels. Imaging showed a soft tissue calcified mass around these joints. The cut surface of the excised mass showed myxoid material with areas of calcification. On microscopy, there were typical features of TC. Our case is being presented due to the rarity of the entity and the peculiar dual energy CT (DECT) finding which are being described for the first time in this pathology. PMID:23645700

  3. Regorafenib in Treating Patients With Advanced or Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-29

    Gastrinoma; Glucagonoma; Insulinoma; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Pulmonary Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma; Somatostatinoma

  4. ABT-751 in Treating Young Patients With Refractory Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-03-14

    Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors; Childhood Germ Cell Tumor; Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Kidney Cancer; Liver Cancer; Neuroblastoma; Ovarian Cancer; Sarcoma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  5. Feminizing adrenocortical tumors: Literature review

    PubMed Central

    Chentli, Farida; Bekkaye, Ilyes; Azzoug, Said

    2015-01-01

    Feminizing adrenal tumors (FAT) are extremely rare tumors prevailing in males. Clinical manifestations are gynecomastia and/or other hypogonadism features in adults. They are rarer in pediatric population and their main manifestation is peripheral sexual precocity. In women genital bleeding, uterus hypertrophy, high blood pressure and/or abdomen mass may be the only manifestations. On the biological point, estrogen overproduction with or without increase in other adrenal hormones are the main abnormalities. Radiological examination usually shows the tumor, describes its limits and its eventual metastases. Adrenal and endocrine origins are confirmed by biochemical assessments and histology, but that one is unable to distinguish between benign and malignant tumors, except if metastases are already present. Immunostaining using anti-aromatase antibodies is the only tool that distinguishes FAT from other adrenocortical tumors. Abdominal surgery is the best and the first line treatment. For large tumors (?10 cm), an open access is preferred to coeliosurgery, but for the small ones, or when the surgeon is experienced, endoscopic surgery seems to give excellent results. Surgery can be preceded by adrenolytic agents such as ortho paraprime dichloro diphenyl dichloroethane (Mitotane), ketoconazole or by aromatase inhibitors, but till now there is not any controlled study to compare the benefit of different drugs. New anti-estrogens can be used too, but their results need to be confirmed in malignant tumors resistant to classical chemotherapy and to conventional radiotherapy. Targeted therapy can be used too, as in other adrenocortical tumors, but the results need to be confirmed. PMID:25932386

  6. Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC)

    Cancer.gov

    The Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium is an open scientific forum organized to foster the development of multi-center, international and inter-disciplinary collaborations that will lead to a better understanding of the etiology, outcomes, and prevention of brain tumors.

  7. [Recent advances in transmissible tumors].

    PubMed

    Tingting, Yin; Lu, Wang; Guodong, Wang

    2015-11-01

    Transmissible tumors are a class of tumor that can be transmitted between individuals through living cells. So far, four types of transmissible tumors including canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT),Tasmanian devil facial tumor disease (DFTD), soft-shell clams leukemia (SSCL), and hamsters reticulum cell sarcoma (HRCS)have been discovered and identified. In the last decades, these transmissible tumors have been proved to be transmitted through living cells by cytological, histological and genetic studies. CTVT, the oldest mammalian somatic cell line, and DFTD originated from Schwann cell have been reported to avoid immunological recognition by down-regulating MHC expression, while a high copy number of Steamer retrotransposon is commonly exist in SSCL. In recent years, the whole-genome sequencing of CTVT and DFTD have been completed which facilitates studies on the mechanisms of tumorigenesis, transmission and evolution of transmissible tumors at the whole-genome level. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in transmissible tumors and discuss the research focus in next decade. PMID:26582522

  8. [Differential diagnosis of pigmented tumors].

    PubMed

    Hundeiker, M

    1979-05-10

    Some frequent diagnostic problems and the most important clinical and histologic criteria in differential diagnosis of malignant melanomas, benign pigment cell nevi, melanotic epithelial neoplastic lesions and frequent haemosiderotic tumors are delineated in a condensed survey. Considering the variety of diagnostic errors, one should never treat respectively destroy pigmented tumors of the skin without histologic investigation. PMID:218872

  9. Chemotherapy for Malignant Intraocular Tumors.

    PubMed

    Shah, Chirag P; Shields, Carol L; Shields, Jerry A

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapeutic approaches, including chemoreduction (CRD), chemothermotherapy, as well as periocular, intravitreal, and intra-arterial chemotherapy, are effective tools in managing different types of ocular tumors. Treatments are often individualized to patient and tumor types to yield best possible outcomes. Due to space limitations, this chapter will focus on CRD and intra-arterial chemotherapy for retinoblastoma. PMID:26501748

  10. Feminizing adrenocortical tumors: Literature review.

    PubMed

    Chentli, Farida; Bekkaye, Ilyes; Azzoug, Said

    2015-01-01

    Feminizing adrenal tumors (FAT) are extremely rare tumors prevailing in males. Clinical manifestations are gynecomastia and/or other hypogonadism features in adults. They are rarer in pediatric population and their main manifestation is peripheral sexual precocity. In women genital bleeding, uterus hypertrophy, high blood pressure and/or abdomen mass may be the only manifestations. On the biological point, estrogen overproduction with or without increase in other adrenal hormones are the main abnormalities. Radiological examination usually shows the tumor, describes its limits and its eventual metastases. Adrenal and endocrine origins are confirmed by biochemical assessments and histology, but that one is unable to distinguish between benign and malignant tumors, except if metastases are already present. Immunostaining using anti-aromatase antibodies is the only tool that distinguishes FAT from other adrenocortical tumors. Abdominal surgery is the best and the first line treatment. For large tumors (?10 cm), an open access is preferred to coeliosurgery, but for the small ones, or when the surgeon is experienced, endoscopic surgery seems to give excellent results. Surgery can be preceded by adrenolytic agents such as ortho paraprime dichloro diphenyl dichloroethane (Mitotane), ketoconazole or by aromatase inhibitors, but till now there is not any controlled study to compare the benefit of different drugs. New anti-estrogens can be used too, but their results need to be confirmed in malignant tumors resistant to classical chemotherapy and to conventional radiotherapy. Targeted therapy can be used too, as in other adrenocortical tumors, but the results need to be confirmed. PMID:25932386

  11. Carcinoid tumors and morbid obesity.

    PubMed

    Mottin, Cláudio Corá; Cruz, Ricardo Pedrini; Gomes Thomé, Gustavo; Padoin, Alexandre Vontobel

    2009-02-01

    Carcinoid is a rare gastrointestinal tumor, with an incidence varying from 1 to 2.5 per 100,000 in the general population. In this article, we report an elevated incidence of carcinoid tumor in an obese population, showing the importance of performing an endoscopic procedure before bariatric surgery. PMID:18506551

  12. Carcinoid tumors of the thymus.

    PubMed

    Salyer, W R; Salyer, D C; Eggleston, J C

    1976-02-01

    Three patients with carcinoid tumors of the anterior mediastinum are described. Study of these patients and an analysis of previously reported cases indicates that the thymus is the primary site of these tumors, which are probably related to the presence of Kulchitsky cells in normal thymus. These neoplasms differ clinically and anatomically from conventional thymomas. They occur predominantly in men, are not associated with myasthenia gravis or red-cell hypoplasia, and are more aggressive tumors than thymomas. Histologically, they are similar to carcinoid tumors of other organs and differ from the variable combination of epithelial cells and lymphocytes of thymomas. Although they are usually locally invasive and frequently metastasize, the clinical course is usually protracted. It is probable that the reported examples of Cushing's syndrome related to thymomas were actually associated with thymic carcinoid tumors. PMID:3280

  13. The History of Tumor Virology

    PubMed Central

    Javier, Ronald T.; Butel, Janet S.

    2012-01-01

    In the century since its inception, the field of tumor virology has provided groundbreaking insights into the causes of human cancer. Peyton Rous founded this scientific field in 1911 by discovering an avian virus that induced tumors in chickens; however, it took 40 years for the scientific community to comprehend the effect of this seminal finding. Later identification of mammalian tumor viruses in the 1930s by Richard Shope and John Bittner, and in the 1950s by Ludwik Gross, sparked the first intense interest in tumor virology by suggesting the possibility of a similar causal role for viruses in human cancers. This change in attitude opened the door in the 1960s and 1970s for the discovery of the first human tumor viruses—EBV, hepatitis B virus, and the papillomaviruses. Such knowledge proved instrumental to the development of the first cancer vaccines against cancers having an infectious etiology. Tumor virologists additionally recognized that viruses could serve as powerful discovery tools, leading to revolutionary breakthroughs in the 1970s and 1980s that included the concept of the oncogene, the identification of the p53 tumor suppressor, and the function of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor. The subsequent availability of more advanced molecular technologies paved the way in the 1980s and 1990s for the identification of additional human tumor viruses—human T-cell leukemia virus type 1, hepatitis C virus, and Kaposi’s sarcoma virus. In fact, current estimates suggest that viruses are involved in 15% to 20% of human cancers worldwide. Thus, viruses not only have been shown to represent etiologic agents for many human cancers but have also served as tools to reveal mechanisms that are involved in all human malignancies. This rich history promises that tumor virology will continue to contribute to our understanding of cancer and to the development of new therapeutic and preventive measures for this disease in the 21st century. PMID:18829521

  14. Advances in understanding pituitary tumors

    PubMed Central

    Renner, Ulrich; Karl Stalla, Günter

    2014-01-01

    Pituitary tumors are common in the general population. Since neuroimaging techniques have improved, pituitary tumors are more often diagnosed incidentally. About 16.7% of the general population show changes in the pituitary gland. Predominantly, pituitary tumors are benign pituitary adenomas. Pituitary carcinomas or aggressive pituitary tumors are extremely rare. They might develop from benign adenomas. New genetic and epigenetic abnormalities help us to understand pituitary tumorigenesis and might lead to therapeutical targeting drugs in the future. Macroadenomas (>1 cm) can lead to visual field disturbances, compression of cranial nerves, hypopituitarism, and infiltration of the cavernous sinuses. The functional status of the pituitary tumor is important. About half to one third of all pituitary tumors are non-functioning pituitary adenomas. The other pituitary tumors show a specific pattern of hormone secretion. About 25% to 41% of all pituitary tumors are prolactinomas, acromegaly with production of growth hormone represents 10% to 15% of adenomas, Cushing's disease with production of adrenocorticotropic hormone accounts for 10%, and other hormonal characteristics are less common. Transsphenoidal resection and total adenomectomy are desirable. Radiosurgery has enriched the surgical treatment options. Surgical treatment is the intervention of choice except for prolactinomas, where pharmaceutical treatment is recommended. Pharmaceutical treatment consists of dopamine agonists such as cabergoline and somatostatin analogues that include octreotide and pasireotide; retinoic acid is of theoretical interest while peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma-ligands are not clinically useful. In acromegaly, pegvisomant is a further treatment option. Temozolomide should be considered in aggressive pituitary tumors. In general, pharmaceutical options developed recently have extended the repertoire of treatment possibilities of pituitary tumors. PMID:24592317

  15. Can Wilms Tumor Be Found Early?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Tumor + - Text Size Download Printable Version [PDF] » Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging TOPICS Document Topics GO » SEE ... Wilms Tumor? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Wilms Tumor Talking With ...

  16. What Happens After Treatment for Pituitary Tumors?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... tumors? Keeping medical insurance and copies of your medical records Lifestyle changes after having a pituitary tumor How ... Topic Keeping medical insurance and copies of your medical records What happens after treatment for pituitary tumors? For ...

  17. Diagnostically Challenging Epithelioid Soft Tissue Tumors.

    PubMed

    James, Aaron W; Dry, Sarah M

    2015-09-01

    In this article, we focus on the histologic features, differential diagnosis, and potential pitfalls in the diagnosis of epithelioid sarcoma, alveolar soft part sarcoma, clear-cell sarcoma, ossifying fibromyxoid tumor, and malignant extrarenal rhabdoid tumor. Numerous other soft tissue tumors also may have epithelioid variants or epithelioid features. Examples include epithelioid angiosarcoma, epithelioid malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, epithelioid gastrointestinal stromal tumor, and perivascular epithelioid cell tumor, among others. PMID:26297059

  18. Gene Expression in Oligodendroglial Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Elisabeth J.; Haylock, Brian; Husband, David; du Plessis, Daniel; Sibson, D. Ross; Warnke, Peter C.; Walker, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Background: Oligodendroglial tumors with 1p/19q loss are more likely to be chemosensitive and have longer survival than those with intact 1p/19q, but not all respond to chemotherapy, warranting investigation of the biological basis of chemosensitivity. Methods: Gene expression profiling was performed using amplified antisense RNA from 28 oligodendroglial tumors treated with chemotherapy (26 serial stereotactic biopsy, 2 resection). Expression of differentially expressed genes was validated by real-time PCR. Results: Unsupervised hierarchical clustering showed clustering of multiple samples from the same case in 14/17 cases and identified subgroups associated with tumor grade and 1p/19q status. 176 genes were differentially expressed, 164 being associated with 1p/19q loss (86% not on 1p or 19q). 94 genes differed between responders and non-responders to chemotherapy; 12 were not associated with 1p/19q loss. Significant differential expression was confirmed in 11/13 selected genes. Novel genes associated with response to therapy included SSBP2, GFRA1, FAP and RASD1. IQGAP1, INA, TGIF1, NR2F2 and MYCBP were differentially expressed in oligodendroglial tumors with 1p/19q loss. Conclusion: Gene expression profiling using serial stereotactic biopsies indicated greater homogeneity within tumors than between tumors. Genes associated with 1p/19q status or response were identified warranting further elucidation of their role in oligodendroglial tumors. PMID:20966545

  19. Tumor Targeting via Integrin Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Marelli, Udaya Kiran; Rechenmacher, Florian; Sobahi, Tariq Rashad Ali; Mas-Moruno, Carlos; Kessler, Horst

    2013-01-01

    Selective and targeted delivery of drugs to tumors is a major challenge for an effective cancer therapy and also to overcome the side-effects associated with current treatments. Overexpression of various receptors on tumor cells is a characteristic structural and biochemical aspect of tumors and distinguishes them from physiologically normal cells. This abnormal feature is therefore suitable for selectively directing anticancer molecules to tumors by using ligands that can preferentially recognize such receptors. Several subtypes of integrin receptors that are crucial for cell adhesion, cell signaling, cell viability, and motility have been shown to have an upregulated expression on cancer cells. Thus, ligands that recognize specific integrin subtypes represent excellent candidates to be conjugated to drugs or drug carrier systems and be targeted to tumors. In this regard, integrins recognizing the RGD cell adhesive sequence have been extensively targeted for tumor-specific drug delivery. Here we review key recent examples on the presentation of RGD-based integrin ligands by means of distinct drug-delivery systems, and discuss the prospects of such therapies to specifically target tumor cells. PMID:24010121

  20. Comprehensive management of head and neck tumors, volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Thawley, S.E.; Panje, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    This book consists of 14 parts, each containing several papers. The parts are: General Considerations in the Management of Patients with Head and Neck Tumors, Tumors of the Ear, Tumors of the Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinuses, Tumors of the Oral Cavity, Tumors of the Pharynx, Tumors of the Larynx, Tumors of the Skin, Dental and Jaw Tumors, Tumors of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands, Tumors of the Trachea, Tumors of the Eye, Orbit, and Lacrimal Apparatus, and Special Topics.

  1. Phyllodes tumor of the breast

    PubMed Central

    Herazo, Fernando; Gil, Monica; Echeverri, Carolina; Ángel, Gonzalo; Borrero, Mauricio; Madrid, Jorge; Jaramillo, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Breast Phyllodes tumors are rare breast tumors present in less than 1% of new cases of breast cancer, usually occurring among middle-aged women (40-50 yrs). Objective: This study shows diagnostic experience, surgical management and follows up of patients with this disease during a period of ten years in a oncology referral center. Methods: Retrospectively, breast cancer registries at the institution were reviewed, identifying 77 patients with Phyllodes tumors between 2002 and 2012, who had been operated on at the Instituto de Cancerología - Clínica Las Américas, in Medellín (Colombia). Clinical and histopathological data belonging to these cases was captured and analyzed and descriptive statistics were used. Results: The follow up median was 22.5 months (IQR: 10.5-60.0), average age was 47.2 yrs (SD: 12.4), mean tumor size was 3.6 cm (SD: 4.6), 88.3% of the patients (68 cases) presented negative margins and none of them received adjuvant chemotherapy. Of the patients with Phyllodes tumors; 33.8% had benign, 31.2% had borderline and 35.0% had malignant tumor. Disease-free survival was 85.8% and overall survival was 94.5%. Discussion: Reported data in this article is in accordance with what has been reported in worldwide literature. In our cohort even the high mean size of the tumors, the risk of local relapse and metastatic disease is low than previously reported in literature. Trials with longer follow up and molecular trials in Phyllodes tumors are necessary to understand the behavior of these tumors in Hispanics population.

  2. Tumor growth modeling based on cell and tumor lifespans.

    PubMed

    Keinj, R; Bastogne, T; Vallois, P

    2012-11-01

    This paper deals with the lifespan modeling of heterogenous tumors treated by radiotherapy. A bi-scale model describing the cell and tumor lifespans by random variables is proposed. First- and second-order moments as well as the cumulative distribution functions and confidence intervals are expressed for the two lifespans with respect to the model parameters. One interesting result is that the mean value of the tumor lifespan can be approached by a logarithmic function of the initial cancer cell number. Moreover, we show that TCP and NTCP, used in radiotherapy to evaluate, optimize and compare treatment plans, can be derived from the tumor lifespan and the surrounding healthy tissue, respectively. Finally, we propose a ROC curve, entitled ECT (Efficiency-Complication Trade-off), suited to the selection by clinicians of the appropriate treatment planning. PMID:22820494

  3. Brain tumors in irradiated monkeys.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haymaker, W.; Miquel, J.; Rubinstein, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    A study was made of 32 monkeys which survived one to seven years after total body exposure to protons or to high-energy X rays. Among these 32 monkeys there were 21 which survived two years or longer after exposure to 200 to 800 rad. Glioblastoma multiforme developed in 3 of the 10 monkeys surviving three to five years after receiving 600 or 800 rad 55-MeV protons. Thus, the incidence of tumor development in the present series was far higher than the incidence of spontaneously developing brain tumors in monkeys cited in the literature. This suggests that the tumors in the present series may have been radiation-induced.

  4. The genetics of adrenocortical tumors.

    PubMed

    Espiard, Stéphanie; Bertherat, Jérôme

    2015-06-01

    Advances in genomics accelerated greatly progress in the study of the genetics adrenocortical tumors. Bilateral nodular hyperplasias causing Cushing's syndrome are frequently caused by germline alterations leading to cAMP/PKA pathway activation (micronodular) and ARMC5 inactivation (macronodular). Somatic mutations of ?-catenin and PRKACA are observed in non secreting or cortisol producing adenomas, respectively. Alterations of the ?-catenin (CTNN1B, ZNFR3) or TP53 pathways are found in carcinomas. Mutations in cancers are more common in aggressive tumors and correlate with transcriptome or methylation profiles. Identification of these alterations helps to refine the molecular classification of these tumors and to develop molecular diagnostic tools. PMID:26038203

  5. Tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas

    PubMed Central

    Tornero, O. Berbel; García, J.A. Ortega; Tortajada, J. Ferrís i; Castell, J. García; Colomer, J. Donat i; Soldin, O.P.; Soler, J.L. Fuster

    2013-01-01

    Introducción La asociación entre tumores y malformaciones congénitas está bien establecida, pero no existen datos exclusivos en el período neonatal y se desconocen los mecanismos subyacentes que generan dicha relación. Objetivos Este trabajo tiene dos objetivos: primero, analizar la frecuencia de los tumores neonatales asociados a malformaciones congénitas, y segundo, comentar las posibles hipótesis etiopatogénicas de la relación entre ambas entidades. Materiales y método Estudio retrospectivo de las historias clínicas de los tumores neonatales, en el Hospital Universitario Materno- Infantil La Fe de Valencia, desde enero de 1990 hasta diciembre de 1999. Selección y descripción de las variedades histológicas asociadas a malformaciones congénitas. Éstas se han agrupado siguiendo los criterios de la Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades CIE-9, códigos 740.0–759.9. Revisión sistemática bibliográfica de los últimos 25 años, obtenida del Medline, Cancerlit, Index Citation Science y Embase. El perfil de búsqueda utilizado fue la combinación de “neonatal/congenital-tumors/cancer/neoplasms” y “congenital malformations/birth defects”. Resultados Se identificaron 72 tumores neonatales (2,8 % del total de tumores pediátricos diagnosticados en dichos años) y 15 de ellos (20,8 %) asociados a malformaciones congénitas, enfermedades o síndromes congénitos. Las asociaciones entre tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas fueron las siguientes: a) angioma en 3 pacientes: con dos cardiopatías congénitas y una atresia de coanas-laringomalacia; b) neuroblastoma en 2 pacientes: uno con riñón en herradura y anomalías vertebrales, y otro con cardiopatía congénita; c) teratoma en 2 pacientes: uno con fisura palatina y anomalías vertebrales, y otro con metatarso varo; d) tumor del sistema nervioso central en un paciente con hernia de Bochdaleck; e) tumor cardíaco en 4 pacientes con esclerosis tuberosa; f) leucemia aguda en un paciente con síndrome de Down y cardiopatía congénita; g) tumor renal en un caso con hidrocefalia triventricular, y h) tumor adrenal en un caso con hemihipertrofia. En la bibliografía específica, las publicaciones engloban tumores de diferentes épocas pediátricas y sin unanimidad de criterios para clasificar las malformaciones congénitas. Apenas existen datos en el período neonatal y la asociación entre ambas entidades se obtiene de registros de instituciones médicas. La prevalencia oscila entre el 15 y el 31,6 %. Las hipótesis etiopatogénicas que explican la asociación entre tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas están basadas en las exposiciones prenatales (preconcepcionales y transplacentarias) a factores de riesgo potencialmente mutagénicos y carcinogénicos. Conclusiones Probablemente, los tumores neonatales se asocian con mayor frecuencia a malformaciones congénitas que los tumores diagnosticados en épocas posteriores de la vida. Para conocer la prevalencia real de la asociación entre tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas, es necesario unificar los criterios de inclusión y definición de ambas entidades. La obtención de una minuciosa historia medioambiental en todos los tumores neonatales asociados a malformaciones congénitas, donde se detallen y registren todos los factores de riesgo constitucionales y ambientales, es fundamental para mejorar nuestros escasos conocimientos de los mecanismos prenatales subyacentes y avanzar en su prevención. PMID:18559198

  6. Brain tumor-targeted drug delivery strategies

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaoli; Chen, Xishan; Ying, Man; Lu, Weiyue

    2014-01-01

    Despite the application of aggressive surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy in clinics, brain tumors are still a difficult health challenge due to their fast development and poor prognosis. Brain tumor-targeted drug delivery systems, which increase drug accumulation in the tumor region and reduce toxicity in normal brain and peripheral tissue, are a promising new approach to brain tumor treatments. Since brain tumors exhibit many distinctive characteristics relative to tumors growing in peripheral tissues, potential targets based on continuously changing vascular characteristics and the microenvironment can be utilized to facilitate effective brain tumor-targeted drug delivery. In this review, we briefly describe the physiological characteristics of brain tumors, including blood–brain/brain tumor barriers, the tumor microenvironment, and tumor stem cells. We also review targeted delivery strategies and introduce a systematic targeted drug delivery strategy to overcome the challenges.

  7. Cytogenetics of human brain tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Finkernagel, S.W.; Kletz, T.; Day-Salvatore, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    Chromosome studies of 55 brain tumors, including meningiomas, gliomas, astrocyomas and pituatary adenomas, were performed. Primary and first passage cultures were successfully obtained in 75% of these samples with an average of 18 G-banded metaphases analyzed per tumor. 44% of all the brain tumors showed numerical and or structural abnormalities. 46% of the primary and 38% of the first passage cultures showed similar numerical gains/losses and complex karyotypic changes. The most frequent numerical abnormalities (n {ge} 5) included loss of chromosomes 10, 22, and Y. The structural abnormalities most often seen involved 1p, 2, 5, 7, 17q and 19. This is an ongoing study which will attempt to correlate tumor type with specific karyotypic changes and to see if any of the observed chromosomal abnormalities provide prognostic indicators.

  8. Delivering nanomedicine to solid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Rakesh K.; Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in nanotechnology have offered new hope for cancer detection, prevention, and treatment. While the enhanced permeability and retention effect has served as a key rationale for using nanoparticles to treat solid tumors, it does not enable uniform delivery of these particles to all regions of tumors in sufficient quantities. This heterogeneous distribution of therapeutics is a result of physiological barriers presented by the abnormal tumor vasculature and interstitial matrix. These barriers are likely to be responsible for the modest survival benefit offered by many FDA-approved nanotherapeutics and must be overcome for the promise of nanomedicine in patients to be realized. Here, we review these barriers to the delivery of cancer therapeutics and summarize strategies that have been developed to overcome these barriers. Finally, we discuss design considerations for optimizing the delivery of nanoparticles to tumors. PMID:20838415

  9. Treatment Options for Pituitary Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... signs or symptoms of disease. The pituitary gland hormones control many other glands in the body. Hormones ... A clinical trial of stereotactic radiation surgery . Growth Hormone–Producing Pituitary Tumors Treatment may include the following: ...

  10. General Information about Pituitary Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... signs or symptoms of disease. The pituitary gland hormones control many other glands in the body. Hormones ... A clinical trial of stereotactic radiation surgery . Growth Hormone–Producing Pituitary Tumors Treatment may include the following: ...

  11. Treatment Option Overview (Pituitary Tumors)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... signs or symptoms of disease. The pituitary gland hormones control many other glands in the body. Hormones ... A clinical trial of stereotactic radiation surgery . Growth Hormone–Producing Pituitary Tumors Treatment may include the following: ...

  12. Radiation therapy for brain tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Wara, W.M.

    1985-05-01

    Results of radiation therapy obtained at the University of California, San Francisco over the last 25 years for various adult types of brain tumors are presented. Included are astrocytomas, ependymomas, pineal and suprasellar tumors, meningiomas, and malignant gliomas. For each tumor type considered, the disease-free survival rate appeared to be improved when subtotal resection was followed by irradiation. The lack of improvement in survival with malignant gliomas has prompted investigation into more aggressive multimodality therapies. These are discussed along with a new program using high-activity iodine 125 sources to deliver high-dose radiotherapy to malignant gliomas. It is possible that this new approach will lead to improved survival rates and be applicable to many tumors within the central nervous system.

  13. Beet Tumor or Crown Wart

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beet tumor or crown wart has been reported from most beet growing areas, but is not considered an economic problem. This chapter describes the disease and the chytrid pathogen, Physoderma leproides....

  14. Drugs Approved for Wilms Tumor

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for Wilms tumor and other childhood kidney cancers. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  15. Metastasis: tumor cells becoming MENAcing

    E-print Network

    Gertler, Frank

    During breast cancer metastasis cells emigrate from the primary tumor to the bloodstream, and this carries them to distant sites where they infiltrate and sometimes form metastases within target organs. These cells must ...

  16. Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) is a comprehensive and coordinated effort to accelerate the understanding of the molecular basis of cancer through the application of robust, quantitative, proteomic technologies and workflows.

  17. Diffusion Imaging of Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Stephan E.; Sun, Yanping; Mulkern, Robert V.

    2010-01-01

    MR imaging offers a tremendous armamentarium of different methods that can be employed in brain tumor characterization. MR diffusion imaging has become a widely accepted method for probing the presence of fluid pools and molecular tissue water mobility. For most clinical applications of diffusion imaging, it is assumed that the diffusion signal vs diffusion weighting factor b decays monoexponentially. Within this framework, measurement of a single diffusion coefficient in brain tumors permits an approximate categorization of tumor type and for some tumors definitive diagnosis. In most brain tumors, when compared to normal brain tissue, the diffusion coefficient is elevated. The presence of peritumoral edema, which also exhibits an elevated diffusion coefficient, often precludes delineation of the tumor based on diffusion information alone. Serially obtained diffusion data is useful to document and even predict cellular response to drug or radiation therapy. Diffusion measurements in tissues over an extended range of b-factors have clearly shown that the mono-parametric description of the MR diffusion signal decay is incomplete. Very high diffusion weighting on clinical systems requires substantial compromise in spatial resolution. But after suitable analysis, superior separation of malignant brain tumors, peritumoral edema, and normal brain tissue can be achieved. These findings are also discussed in light of tissue-specific differences in membrane structure and the restrictions membranes exert on diffusion. Finally, measurement of the directional dependence of diffusion permits assessment of white matter integrity and dislocation. Such information, particularly in conjunction with advanced post-processing, is considered immensely useful for therapy planning. Diffusion imaging, which permits monoexponential analysis and provides directional diffusion information, is performed routinely in brain tumor patients. More advanced methods require improvement in acquisition speed and spatial resolution to gain clinical acceptance. PMID:20886568

  18. Translational progress on tumor biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hongwei; Zhou, Xiaolin; Lu, Yi; Xie, Liye; Chen, Qian; Keller, Evan T; Liu, Qian; Zhou, Qinghua; Zhang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need to apply basic research achievements to the clinic. In particular, mechanistic studies should be developed by bench researchers, depending upon clinical demands, in order to improve the survival and quality of life of cancer patients. To date, translational medicine has been addressed in cancer biology, particularly in the identification and characterization of novel tumor biomarkers. This review focuses on the recent achievements and clinical application prospects in tumor biomarkers based on translational medicine. PMID:26557902

  19. Tumor formations in scleractinian corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loya, Y.; Bull, G.; Pichon, M.

    1984-03-01

    A highly localized incidence of skeletal malformations (tumors) in the scleractinian corals Platygyra pini and P. sinensis on an inshore fringing reef at Cockle Bay, Magnetic Island within the Great Barrier Reef province is reported. These tumors are typified by a localized area of increased growth rate resulting in roughly circular protuberances extending up to 4.5 cm above the colony's surface. In both species, similar proportions of their populations carried tumors (24.1 % in P. pini and 18.7 % in P. sinensis). Larger colonies (>80 cm in diameter) are at least 7 times more likely to possess tumors than smaller colonies (<40 cm in diameter). X-radiographs of the skeletal malformations indicate a point of origin, presumably from a single budded polyp with subsequent, localized, accelerated growth. The mean radial growth rate of the tumorous area was 29 % greater than that of the surrounding normal regions. In contrast to the normal tissue, the tumorous tissue exhibited proliferation of cells, atrophied gastrodermal cells and mesenterial filaments which were larger and disordered in structure. The environmental conditions at Cockle Bay are relatively extreme with high turbidity, periodic exposure of the reef flat, abrupt changes in salinity during the wet season and mechanical damage to corals caused by unpredictable cyclonic storms. It is suggested that a combination of environmental stresses coupled with an injury inflicted on the corals are possible stimuli that initiate the development of these abnormal growth through either bacterial attack or the development of an aberrant polyp during tissue repair.

  20. Current standards of care and future directions for "high-risk" pediatric renal tumors: Anaplastic Wilms tumor and Rhabdoid tumor.

    PubMed

    Geller, James I

    2016-01-01

    'High risk' renal tumors of childhood generally includes anaplastic Wilms tumor, rhabdoid tumor, and metastatic renal sarcomas and carcinomas. In this review, the epidemiology, biology, treatment and prognosis of anaplastic Wilms tumor and rhabdoid tumor are presented. Future directions related to management of such cancers are discussed, with insights provided into possible clinical trials in development that consider integration of novel targeted therapies. PMID:26612481

  1. Kidney Tumors | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Pediatric kidney tumors fall into four primary categories: Wilms tumors (~85% of all cases), clear cell sarcomas of the kidney (~5%), congenital mesoblastic nephromas (~4%), and rhabdoid tumors of the kidney (~3%). The TARGET initiative is investigating three of these tumor types.

  2. What Happens After Treatment for Wilms Tumor?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... treatment for Wilms tumor? Late and long-term effects of treatment for Wilms tumor Emotional and social issues for Wilms tumor survivors and their families Previous Topic What should you ask your child’s doctor about Wilms ... Topic Late and long-term effects of treatment for Wilms tumor What happens after ...

  3. Tumor suppressor molecules and methods of use

    DOEpatents

    Welch, Peter J.; Barber, Jack R.

    2004-09-07

    The invention provides substantially pure tumor suppressor nucleic acid molecules and tumor suppressor polypeptides. The invention also provides hairpin ribozymes and antibodies selective for these tumor suppressor molecules. Also provided are methods of detecting a neoplastic cell in a sample using detectable agents specific for the tumor suppressor nucleic acids and polypeptides.

  4. CD44 enhances tumor aggressiveness by promoting tumor cell plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Soetekouw, Patricia M.M.B.; Pauwels, Patrick; Tjan-Heijnen, Vivianne C.G.; Griffioen, Arjan W.

    2015-01-01

    Aggressive tumor cells can obtain the ability to transdifferentiate into cells with endothelial features and thus form vasculogenic networks. This phenomenon, called vasculogenic mimicry (VM), is associated with increased tumor malignancy and poor clinical outcome. To identify novel key molecules implicated in the process of vasculogenic mimicry, microarray analysis was performed to compare gene expression profiles of aggressive (VM+) and non-aggressive (VM?) cells derived from Ewing sarcoma and breast carcinoma. We identified the CD44/c-Met signaling cascade as heavily relevant for vasculogenic mimicry. CD44 was at the center of this cascade, and highly overexpressed in aggressive tumors. Both CD44 standard isoform and its splice variant CD44v6 were linked to increased aggressiveness in VM. Since VM is most abundant in Ewing sarcoma tumors functional analyses were performed in EW7 cells. Overexpression of CD44 allowed enhanced adhesion to its extracellular matrix ligand hyaluronic acid. CD44 expression also facilitated the formation of vasculogenic structures in vitro, as CD44 knockdown experiments repressed migration and vascular network formation. From these results and the observation that CD44 expression is associated with vasculogenic structures and blood lakes in human Ewing sarcoma tissues, we conclude that CD44 increases aggressiveness in tumors through the process of vasculogenic mimicry. PMID:26189059

  5. Tumor Stroma, Tumor Blood Vessels, and Antiangiogenesis Therapy.

    PubMed

    Dvorak, Harold F

    2015-01-01

    Solid tumors generally require a vascularized connective tissue stroma if they are to grow beyond minimal size. They generate that stroma in part by secreting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a potent vascular permeability and angiogenic factor. Increased vascular permeability leads to deposition of a provisional fibrin stroma, which supports tumor, connective tissue, and inflammatory cell migration and plays an active role in the formation of mature vascularized stroma. Vascular endothelial growth factor-induced tumor blood vessels are heterogeneous, of at least 6 distinct types, and develop linearly over time. They include both angiogenic (mother vessels, glomeruloid microvascular proliferations, vascular malformations, capillaries) and arteriovenogenic (feeding arteries, draining veins) blood vessels. Attacking the tumor vasculature with drugs that target VEGF or its receptors (VEGFR) has come into vogue but has been less effective than had been hope for. One reason for this is that anti-VEGF/VEGFR therapy attacks only a subset of tumor blood vessels, the earliest to form. New targets on late-forming blood vessels such as feeding arteries would be useful in helping antivascular cancer therapy fulfill its promise. PMID:26222073

  6. Interfractional Variations of Tumor Centroid Position and Tumor Regression during Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Lung Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yanan; Lu, Yufei; Cheng, Siguo; Guo, Wei; Ye, Ke; Zhao, Huiyun; Zheng, Xiaoli; Li, Dingjie; Wang, Shujuan; Yang, Chengliang; Ge, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To determine interfractional changes of lung tumor centroid position and tumor regression during stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials. 34 patients were treated by SBRT in 4-5 fractions to a median dose of 50?Gy. The CT scans acquired for verification were registered with simulation CT scans. The gross target volume (GTV) was contoured on all verification CT scans and compared to the initial GTV in treatment plan system. Results. The mean (±standard deviation, SD) three-dimension vector shift was 5.2 ± 3.1?mm. The mean (±SD) interfractional variations of tumor centroid position were ?0.7 ± 4.5?mm in anterior-posterior (AP) direction, 0.2 ± 3.1?mm in superior-inferior (SI) direction, and 0.4 ± 2.4?mm in right-left (RL) direction. Large interfractional variations (?5?mm) were observed in 5 fractions (3.3%) in RL direction, 16 fractions (10.5%) in SI direction, and 36 fractions (23.5%) in AP direction. Tumor volume did not decrease significantly during lung SBRT. Conclusions. Small but insignificant tumor volume regression was observed during lung SBRT. While the mean interfractional variations of tumor centroid position were minimal in three directions, variations more than 5?mm account for approximately a third of all, indicating additional margin for PTV, especially in AP direction. PMID:25548770

  7. Metastasis Suppressors and the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Leah M.; Hurst, Douglas R.; Welch, Danny R.

    2011-01-01

    The most lethal and debilitating attribute of cancer cells is their ability to metastasize. Throughout the process of metastasis, tumor cells interact with other tumor cells, host cells and a variety of molecules. Tumor cells are also faced with a number of insults, such as hemodynamic sheer pressure and immune selection. This brief review explores how metastasis suppressor proteins regulate interactions between tumor cells and the microenvironments in which tumor cells find themselves. PMID:21168504

  8. Multiple Glomus Tumors of the Omentum

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Won Beom; Park, In Ja; Song, Joon Seon; Cho, Kyung-Ja

    2015-01-01

    A glomus tumor is a very rare neoplasm consisting of cells that resemble the modified smooth muscle cells of normal glomus bodies. Here, we report a case of a 39-year-old male with multiple omental glomus tumors. The patient underwent a complete resection of the glomus tumors. This is a rare case of omental glomus tumors, and to our knowledge, this patient is the first with multiple omental glomus tumors to be described. PMID:26361617

  9. Biomarkers in Tissue Samples From Patients With High-Risk Wilms Tumor

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-05

    Clear Cell Sarcoma of the Kidney; Recurrent Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors; Rhabdoid Tumor of the Kidney; Stage I Wilms Tumor; Stage II Wilms Tumor; Stage III Wilms Tumor; Stage IV Wilms Tumor; Stage V Wilms Tumor

  10. Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Fisseler-Eckhoff, Annette; Demes, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors may develop throughout the human body with the majority being found in the gastrointestinal tract and bronchopulmonary system. Neuroendocrine tumors are classified according to the grade of biological aggressiveness (G1–G3) and the extent of differentiation (well-differentiated/poorly-differentiated). The well-differentiated neoplasms comprise typical (G1) and atypical (G2) carcinoids. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas as well as small cell carcinomas (G3) are poorly-differentiated. The identification and differentiation of atypical from typical carcinoids or large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas and small cell carcinomas is essential for treatment options and prognosis. Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors are characterized according to the proportion of necrosis, the mitotic activity, palisading, rosette-like structure, trabecular pattern and organoid nesting. The given information about the histopathological assessment, classification, prognosis, genetic aberration as well as treatment options of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors are based on own experiences and reviewing the current literature available. Most disagreements among the classification of neuroendocrine tumor entities exist in the identification of typical versus atypical carcinoids, atypical versus large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas versus small cell carcinomas. Additionally, the classification is restricted in terms of limited specificity of immunohistochemical markers and possible artifacts in small biopsies which can be compressed in cytological specimens. Until now, pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors have been increasing in incidence. As compared to NSCLCs, only little research has been done with respect to new molecular targets as well as improving the classification and differential diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors of the lung. PMID:24213466

  11. WWOX: a fragile tumor suppressor

    PubMed Central

    Schrock, Morgan S.; Huebner, Kay

    2015-01-01

    WWOX, the WW domain-containing oxidoreductase gene at chromosome region 16q23.3-q24.1, spanning chromosomal fragile site FRA16D, encodes the 46 kDa Wwox protein. WWOX is a tumor suppressor that is lost or reduced in expression in a wide variety of cancers, including breast, prostate, ovarian, and lung. The function of WWOX as a tumor suppressor implies that it serves an essential function in the prevention of carcinogenesis. Indeed, in vitro studies show that Wwox protein interacts with many binding partners to regulate cellular apoptosis, proliferation and/or maturation. It has been reported that newborn Wwox knockout mice exhibit nascent osteosarcomas while Wwox+/- mice exhibit increased incidence of spontaneous and induced tumors. Furthermore, absence or reduction of Wwox expression in mouse xenograft models results in increased tumorigenesis, which can be rescued by Wwox re-expression, though there is not universal agreement among investigators regarding the role of Wwox loss in these experimental models. Despite this proposed tumor suppressor function, the overlap of WWOX with FRA16D sensitizes the gene to protein-inactivating deletions caused by replication stress. The high frequency of deletions within the WWOX locus in cancers of various types, without the hallmark protein inactivation-associated mutations of ‘classical’ tumor suppressors, has led to the proposal that WWOX deletions in cancers are passenger events that occur in early cancer progenitor cells due to fragility of the genetic locus, rather than driver events which provide the cancer cell a selective advantage. Recently, a proposed epigenetic cause of chromosomal fragility has suggested a novel mechanism for early fragile site instability and has implications regarding the involvement of tumor suppressor genes at CFSs in cancer. In this review, we provide an overview of the evidence for WWOX as a tumor suppressor gene and put this into the context of fragility associated with the FRA16D locus. PMID:25538133

  12. Phyllodes Tumor of the Breast

    SciTech Connect

    Belkacemi, Yazid Bousquet, Guilhem; Marsiglia, Hugo; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Magne, Nicolas; Malard, Yann; Lacroix, Magalie; Gutierrez, Cristina; Senkus, Elzbieta; Christie, David; Drumea, Karen; Lagneau, Edouard; Kadish, Sidney P.; Scandolaro, Luciano; Azria, David; Ozsahin, Mahmut

    2008-02-01

    Purpose: To better identify prognostic factors for local control and survival, as well as the role of different therapeutic options, for phyllodes tumors, a rare fibroepithelial neoplasm of the breast. Methods and Materials: Data from 443 women treated between 1971 and 2003 were collected from the Rare Cancer Network. The median age was 40 years (range, 12-87 years). Tumors were benign in 284 cases (64%), borderline in 80 cases (18%), and malignant in 79 cases (18%). Surgery consisted of breast-conserving surgery (BCS) in 377 cases (85%) and total mastectomy (TM) in 66 cases (15%). Thirty-nine patients (9%) received adjuvant radiotherapy (RT). Results: After a median follow-up of 106 months, local recurrence (LR) and distant metastases rates were 19% and 3.4%, respectively. In the malignant and borderline group (n = 159), RT significantly decreased LR (p = 0.02), and TM had better results than BCS (p = 0.0019). Multivariate analysis revealed benign histology, negative margins, and no residual disease (no RD) after initial treatment and RT delivery as independent favorable prognostic factors for local control; benign histology and low number of mitosis for disease-free survival; and pathologic tumor size tumor necrosis for overall survival. In the malignant and borderline subgroup multivariate analysis TM was the only favorable independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival. Conclusions: This study showed that phyllodes tumor patients with no RD after treatment have better local control. Benign tumors have a good prognosis after surgery alone. In borderline and malignant tumors, TM had better results than BCS. Thus, in these forms adjuvant RT should be considered according to histologic criteria.

  13. Cellular Potts Modeling of Tumor Growth, Tumor Invasion, and Tumor Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Szabó, András; Merks, Roeland M. H.

    2013-01-01

    Despite a growing wealth of available molecular data, the growth of tumors, invasion of tumors into healthy tissue, and response of tumors to therapies are still poorly understood. Although genetic mutations are in general the first step in the development of a cancer, for the mutated cell to persist in a tissue, it must compete against the other, healthy or diseased cells, for example by becoming more motile, adhesive, or multiplying faster. Thus, the cellular phenotype determines the success of a cancer cell in competition with its neighbors, irrespective of the genetic mutations or physiological alterations that gave rise to the altered phenotype. What phenotypes can make a cell “successful” in an environment of healthy and cancerous cells, and how? A widely used tool for getting more insight into that question is cell-based modeling. Cell-based models constitute a class of computational, agent-based models that mimic biophysical and molecular interactions between cells. One of the most widely used cell-based modeling formalisms is the cellular Potts model (CPM), a lattice-based, multi particle cell-based modeling approach. The CPM has become a popular and accessible method for modeling mechanisms of multicellular processes including cell sorting, gastrulation, or angiogenesis. The CPM accounts for biophysical cellular properties, including cell proliferation, cell motility, and cell adhesion, which play a key role in cancer. Multiscale models are constructed by extending the agents with intracellular processes including metabolism, growth, and signaling. Here we review the use of the CPM for modeling tumor growth, tumor invasion, and tumor progression. We argue that the accessibility and flexibility of the CPM, and its accurate, yet coarse-grained and computationally efficient representation of cell and tissue biophysics, make the CPM the method of choice for modeling cellular processes in tumor development. PMID:23596570

  14. Tumor Targeting, Trifunctional Dendritic Wedge

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report in vitro and in vivo evaluation of a newly designed trifunctional theranostic agent for targeting solid tumors. This agent combines a dendritic wedge with high boron content for boron neutron capture therapy or boron MRI, a monomethine cyanine dye for visible-light fluorescent imaging, and an integrin ligand for efficient tumor targeting. We report photophysical properties of the new agent, its cellular uptake and in vitro targeting properties. Using live animal imaging and intravital microscopy (IVM) techniques, we observed a rapid accumulation of the agent and its retention for a prolonged period of time (up to 7 days) in fully established animal models of human melanoma and murine mammary adenocarcinoma. This macromolecular theranostic agent can be used for targeted delivery of high boron load into solid tumors for future applications in boron neutron capture therapy. PMID:25350602

  15. Epilepsy associated tumors: Review article

    PubMed Central

    Giulioni, Marco; Marucci, Gianluca; Martinoni, Matteo; Marliani, Anna Federica; Toni, Francesco; Bartiromo, Fiorina; Volpi, Lilia; Riguzzi, Patrizia; Bisulli, Francesca; Naldi, Ilaria; Michelucci, Roberto; Baruzzi, Agostino; Tinuper, Paolo; Rubboli, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Long-term epilepsy associated tumors (LEAT) represent a well known cause of focal epilepsies. Glioneuronal tumors are the most frequent histological type consisting of a mixture of glial and neuronal elements and most commonly arising in the temporal lobe. Cortical dysplasia or other neuronal migration abnormalities often coexist. Epilepsy associated with LEAT is generally poorly controlled by antiepileptic drugs while, on the other hand, it is high responsive to surgical treatment. However the best management strategy of tumor-related focal epilepsies remains controversial representing a contemporary issues in epilepsy surgery. Temporo-mesial LEAT have a widespread epileptic network with complex epileptogenic mechanisms. By using an epilepsy surgery oriented strategy LEAT may have an excellent seizure outcome therefore surgical treatment should be offered early, irrespective of pharmacoresistance, avoiding both the consequences of uncontrolled seizures as well as the side effects of prolonged pharmacological therapy and the rare risk of malignant transformation. PMID:25405186

  16. Histones: Controlling Tumor Signaling Circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Manoela D.; Castilho, Rogerio M.

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications constitute the next frontier in tumor biology research. Post-translation modification of histones dynamically influences gene expression independent of alterations to the DNA sequence. These mechanisms are often mediated by histone linkers or by proteins associated with the recruitment of DNA-binding proteins, HDAC I and II interacting proteins and transcriptional activators, coactivators or corepressors. Early evidence suggested that histones and their modifiers are involved in sophisticated processes that modulate tumor behavior and cellular phenotype. In this review, we discuss how recent discoveries about chromatin modifications, particularly histone acetylation, are shaping our knowledge of cell biology and our understanding of the molecular circuitry governing tumor progression and consider whether recent insights may extend to novel therapeutic approaches. Furthermore, we discuss the latest oncogenomic findings in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) from studies using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology and highlight the impact of mutations identified in histones and their modifiers. PMID:25177526

  17. Update on pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors

    PubMed Central

    McKenna, Logan R.

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) are relatively rare tumors comprising 1-2% of all pancreas neoplasms. In the last 10 years our understanding of this disease has increased dramatically allowing for advancements in the treatment of pNETs. Surgical excision remains the primary therapy for localized tumors and only potential for cure. New surgical techniques using laparoscopic approaches to complex pancreatic resections are a major advancement in surgical therapy and increasingly possible. With early detection being less common, most patients present with metastatic disease. Management of these patients requires multidisciplinary care combining the best of surgery, chemotherapy and other targeted therapies. In addition to surgical advances, recently, there have been significant advances in systemic therapy and targeted molecular therapy. PMID:25493258

  18. Tumoral calcinosis of the hand

    PubMed Central

    Amati, Carlo; Pesce, Vito; Armenio, Andrea; Solarino, Giuseppe; Moretti, Biagio

    2015-01-01

    Tumoral calcinosis is a rare condition described in literature as a deposition of calcium salts in soft tissues. We here report a rare case of Tumoral calcinosis in the index finger of a hand in a 22-year-old woman. Because of the absence of any trauma, normal serum phosphate and calcium levels and no symptoms but a cosmetic defect, our case is classified as a primary tumoral calcinosis. As well as described in literature, also in this case the surgical excision was the mainstay treatment for this benign pathology. For the particular area involved we performed a radical excision followed by an interesting reverse homodigital artery flap from the ulnar side of the index. PMID:25858267

  19. Tumor targeting, trifunctional dendritic wedge.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Ramin; Kushal, Swati; Mollard, Alexis; Vojtovich, Lesya; Oh, Philip; Levin, Michael D; Schnitzer, Jan E; Zharov, Ilya; Olenyuk, Bogdan Z

    2015-01-21

    We report in vitro and in vivo evaluation of a newly designed trifunctional theranostic agent for targeting solid tumors. This agent combines a dendritic wedge with high boron content for boron neutron capture therapy or boron MRI, a monomethine cyanine dye for visible-light fluorescent imaging, and an integrin ligand for efficient tumor targeting. We report photophysical properties of the new agent, its cellular uptake and in vitro targeting properties. Using live animal imaging and intravital microscopy (IVM) techniques, we observed a rapid accumulation of the agent and its retention for a prolonged period of time (up to 7 days) in fully established animal models of human melanoma and murine mammary adenocarcinoma. This macromolecular theranostic agent can be used for targeted delivery of high boron load into solid tumors for future applications in boron neutron capture therapy. PMID:25350602

  20. Pericyte Antigens in Perivascular Soft Tissue Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jia; Shrestha, Swati; Yen, Yu-Hsin; Asatrian, Greg; Mravic, Marco; Soo, Chia; Ting, Kang; Dry, Sarah M.; Peault, Bruno; James, Aaron W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Perivascular soft tissue tumors are relatively uncommon neoplasms of unclear line of differentiation, although most are presumed to originate from pericytes or modified perivascular cells. Among these, glomus tumor, myopericytoma, and angioleiomyoma share a spectrum of histologic findings and a perivascular growth pattern. In contrast, solitary fibrous tumor (previously termed hemangiopericytoma) was once hypothesized to have pericytic differentiation. Methods Here, we systematically examine pericyte immunohistochemical markers among glomus tumor (including malignant glomus tumor), myopericytoma, angioleiomyoma, and solitary fibrous tumor. Immunohistochemical staining and semiquantification was performed using well-defined pericyte antigens, including ?SMA, CD146, and PDGFR?. Results Glomus tumor and myopericytoma demonstrate diffuse staining for all pericyte markers, including immunohistochemical reactivity for ?SMA, CD146, and PDGFR?. Malignant glomus tumors all showed some degree of pericyte marker immunoreactivity, although it was significantly reduced. Angioleiomyoma shared a similar ?SMA + CD146 + PDGFR?+ immunophenotype; however, this was predominantly seen in the areas of perivascular tumor growth. Solitary fibrous tumors showed patchy PDGFR? immunoreactivity only. Discussion In summary, pericyte marker expression is a ubiquitous finding in glomus tumor, myopericytoma, and angioleiomyoma. Malignant glomus tumor shows a comparative reduction in pericyte marker expression, which may represent partial loss of pericytic differentiation. Pericyte markers are essentially not seen in solitary fibrous tumor. The combination of ?SMA, CD146, and PDGFR? immunohistochemical stainings may be of utility for the evaluation of pericytic differentiation in soft tissue tumors. PMID:26085647

  1. Palifosfamide in Treating Patients With Recurrent Germ Cell Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-11

    Adult Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Adult Teratoma; Malignant Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Malignant Extragonadal Non-Seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor; Extragonadal Seminoma; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Extragonadal Non-Seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Extragonadal Seminoma; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor

  2. Diagnostically Challenging "Fatty" Retroperitoneal Tumors.

    PubMed

    Fritchie, Karen J

    2015-09-01

    A variety of benign and malignant retroperitoneal mesenchymal lesions may have a component of adipose tissue, including entities such as lipoma, myolipoma, angiomyolipoma, solitary fibrous tumor, genital stromal tumors, and well-differentiated/dedifferentiated liposarcoma. Although definitive diagnosis is usually straightforward on the complete resection specimen, it is often more difficult to workup these lesions on small biopsy samples. This review focuses on challenging diagnostic scenarios of retroperitoneal lesions with a "fatty" component and provides major differential diagnoses for commonly encountered morphologic patterns, clinicopathologic features of the various entities, and strategy for use of ancillary techniques, such as immunohistochemistry and cytogenetic studies. PMID:26297062

  3. Adaptive (TINT) Changes in the Tumor Bearing Organ Are Related to Prostate Tumor Size and Aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Adamo, Hanibal Hani; Strömvall, Kerstin; Nilsson, Maria; Halin Bergström, Sofia; Bergh, Anders

    2015-01-01

    In order to grow, tumors need to induce supportive alterations in the tumor-bearing organ, by us named tumor instructed normal tissue (TINT) changes. We now examined if the nature and magnitude of these responses were related to tumor size and aggressiveness. Three different Dunning rat prostate tumor cells were implanted into the prostate of immune-competent rats; 1) fast growing and metastatic MatLyLu tumor cells 2) fast growing and poorly metastatic AT-1 tumor cells, and 3) slow growing and non-metastatic G tumor cells. All tumor types induced increases in macrophage, mast cell and vascular densities and in vascular cell-proliferation in the tumor-bearing prostate lobe compared to controls. These increases occurred in parallel with tumor growth. The most pronounced and rapid responses were seen in the prostate tissue surrounding MatLyLu tumors. They were, also when small, particularly effective in attracting macrophages and stimulating growth of not only micro-vessels but also small arteries and veins compared to the less aggressive AT-1 and G tumors. The nature and magnitude of tumor-induced changes in the tumor-bearing organ are related to tumor size but also to tumor aggressiveness. These findings, supported by previous observation in patient samples, suggest that one additional way to evaluate prostate tumor aggressiveness could be to monitor its effect on adjacent tissues. PMID:26536349

  4. Therapeutic Targeting of Tumor Suppressor Genes

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Luc G. T.; Chan, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    Carcinogenesis is a multistep process attributable to both gain-of-function mutations in oncogenes and loss-of-function mutations in tumor suppressor genes. Currently, most molecular targeted therapies are inhibitors of oncogenes, because inactivated tumor suppressor genes have proven harder to “drug.” Nevertheless, in cancers, tumor suppressor genes undergo alteration more frequently than do oncogenes. In recent years, several promising strategies directed at tumor suppressor genes, or the pathways controlled by these genes, have emerged. Here, we describe advances in a number of different methodologies aimed at therapeutically targeting tumors driven by inactivated tumor suppressor genes. PMID:25557041

  5. Immunohistochemical features of the gastrointestinal tract tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Hannah H.

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal tract tumors include a wide variety of vastly different tumors and on a whole are one of the most common malignancies in western countries. These tumors often present at late stages as distant metastases which are then biopsied and may be difficult to differentiate without the aid of immunohistochemical stains. With the exception of pancreatic and biliary tumors where there are no distinct immunohistochemical patterns, most gastrointestinal tumors can be differentiated by their unique immunohistochemical profile. As the size of biopsies decrease, the role of immunohistochemical stains will become even more important in determining the origin and differentiation of gastrointestinal tract tumors. PMID:22943017

  6. Targeting tumor microenvironment: crossing tumor interstitial fluid by multifunctional nanomedicines

    PubMed Central

    Omidi, Yadollah; Barar, Jaleh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The genesis of cancer appears to be a complex matter, which is not simply based upon few genetic abnormalities/alteration. In fact, irregular microvasculature and aberrant interstitium of solid tumors impose significant pathophysiologic barrier functions against cancer treatment modalities, hence novel strategies should holistically target bioelements of tumor microenvironment (TME). In this study, we provide some overview and insights on TME and important strategies used to control the impacts of such pathophysiologic barriers. Methods: We reviewed all relevant literature for the impacts of tumor interstitium and microvasculature within the TME as well as the significance of the implemented strategies. Results: While tumorigenesis initiation seems to be in close relation with an emergence of hypoxia and alterations in epigenetic/genetic materials, large panoplies of molecular events emerge as intricate networks during oncogenesis to form unique lenient TME in favor of tumor progression. Within such irregular interstitium, immune system displays defective surveillance functionalities against malignant cells. Solid tumors show multifacial traits with coadaptation and self-regulation potentials, which bestow profound resistance against the currently used conventional chemotherapy and immunotherapy agents that target solely one face of the disease. Conclusion: The cancerous cells attain unique abilities to form its permissive microenvironment, wherein (a) extracellular pH is dysregulated towards acidification, (b) extracellular matrix (ECM) is deformed, (c) stromal cells are cooperative with cancer cells, (d) immune system mechanisms are defective, (e) non-integrated irregular microvasculature with pores (120-1200 nm) are formed, and (h) interstitial fluid pressure is high. All these phenomena are against cancer treatment modalities. As a result, to control such abnormal pathophysiologic traits, novel cancer therapy strategies need to be devised using multifunctional nanomedicines and theranostics. PMID:25035848

  7. Diagnostic Study of Tumor Characteristics in Patients With Ewing's Sarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-20

    Localized Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  8. Pediatric maxillary and mandibular tumors.

    PubMed

    Trosman, Samuel J; Krakovitz, Paul R

    2015-02-01

    Pediatric maxillary and mandibular tumors offer considerable challenges to otolaryngologists, oral surgeons, pathologists, and radiologists alike. Because of the close proximity to vital structures, appropriate steps toward a definitive diagnosis and treatment plan are of paramount importance. This article reviews the most common causes of pediatric jaw masses and discusses diagnostic and therapeutic considerations and recommendations. PMID:25442129

  9. Laser application in tracheobronchial tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, B. Krishna; Krishna, Sharon

    2004-09-01

    Ninety three patients with obstructing tracheobronchial tumors were treated with Neodymium: Yttrium - Aluminum - Garnet (Nd:YAG) laser photocoagulation over a period of six years. There were sixty seven Males and 26 Females with a mean age of 44.3 years (range 6- 79 years). 21 benign and 72 malignant lesions were treated with a total 212 sessions of laser photocoagulation (mean 2.4 sessions). The anatomical distribution of lesions were as follows; larynx 9 (three benign and 6 malignant) trachea 39 (27 benign and 12 malignant) left main bronchus 27 (14 malignant) right main bronchus 24 (14 malignant) and vocal cords - 9 (three malignant). There were 21 patients with squamous cell carcinoma, two adenocarcinomas, one adenoid cystic carcinoma, 7 cases of locally infiltrating tumors from thyroid and esophagus, 6 cases of carcinoid tumor and 16 benign lesions. Twenty one patients had a tracheostomy tube in place when treatment was started. Eighteen of the 21 patients with tracheostomy were weaned off the tube in a mean of 5.5 days from the start of treatment. Lumen was restored in 31 (79.4%) patients. In the other eight (20.6%), lumen was achieved, but not sustained. Complications included bleeding in three cases which were managed conservatively, two cases of pneumothorax, and four cases of bronchospasm. There were six deaths during the follow up but none attributable to the procedure. Laser photocoagulation offered effective treatment in the majority of patients with obstructing tracheobronchial tumors, with acceptable morbidity.

  10. How Are Pituitary Tumors Diagnosed?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for another reason may detect a pituitary tumor. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan MRI scans use radio waves and strong magnets to create ... vein to improve the quality of the image. MRI scans are very helpful in looking at the brain ...

  11. Tumor immunotargeting using innovative radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Rousseau, Caroline; Bodet-Milin, Caroline; Mathieu, Cédric; Guérard, François; Frampas, Eric; Carlier, Thomas; Chouin, Nicolas; Haddad, Ferid; Chatal, Jean-François; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Chérel, Michel; Barbet, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality. PMID:25679452

  12. Tumor Immunotargeting Using Innovative Radionuclides

    PubMed Central

    Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Rousseau, Caroline; Bodet-Milin, Caroline; Mathieu, Cédric; Guérard, François; Frampas, Eric; Carlier, Thomas; Chouin, Nicolas; Haddad, Ferid; Chatal, Jean-François; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Chérel, Michel; Barbet, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality. PMID:25679452

  13. Molecular Imaging of Neuroendocrine Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Carrasquillo, Jorge A.; Chen, Clara C.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are a heterogeneous group of tumors that arise from neuroendocrine cells. These tumors may arise from various organs, including lung, thymus, thyroid, stomach, duodenum, small bowel, large bowel, appendix, pancreas, adrenal, and skin. Most are well differentiated and have the ability to produce biogenic amines and various hormones. NET usually occur sporadically but they also be associated with various familial syndromes. For the vast majority of NET, surgical resection is the treatment of choice whenever feasible. Localization of NET prior to surgery and for staging and follow-up relies on both anatomic and functional imaging modalities. In fact, the unique secretory characteristics of these tumors lend themselves to imaging by molecular imaging modalities, which can target specific metabolic pathways or receptors. Neuroendocrine cells have a variety of such target receptors and pathways for which radiopharmaceuticals have been developed, including [123I/131I]-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), [ 111In]pentetreotide, [68Ga] somatostatin analogs, [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), [11C/18F] dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), [11C] 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) 99mTc pentavalent dimercaptosuccinic acid ([99mTc] (V) DMSA, and [18F] fluorodopamine (FDA). Here, we review the molecular imaging approaches for NET using various radiopharmaceuticals. PMID:21167384

  14. Evolution of Avian Tumor Viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virus-induced neoplastic diseases of poultry, namely Marek’s disease (MD), induced by a herpesvirus, and the avian leukosis and reticuloendotheliosis induced by retroviruses, can cause significant economic losses from tumor mortality as well as poor performance. Successful control of MD is and has ...

  15. Paxillin-dependent control of tumor angiogenesis

    E-print Network

    German, Alexandra Elisa

    2014-01-01

    Angiogenesis- the growth of new capillaries from existing vessels- is required for tumor growth; however, tumor vessels exhibit abnormal structure and function, which impairs the targeted delivery of anti-cancer agents. ...

  16. Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium Working Groups

    Cancer.gov

    Childhood Brain Tumor Working Group - This Working Group focuses on epidemiologic studies of childhood brain tumors. We will focus on establishing research questions of interest in order to plan appropriate studies to address these questions.

  17. Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults Download Printable ... the topics below to get started. What Is Brain/CNS Tumors In Adults? What is cancer? What ...

  18. Acoustic separation of circulating tumor cells

    E-print Network

    Li, Peng

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are important targets for cancer biology studies. To further elucidate the role of CTCs in cancer metastasis and prognosis, effective methods for isolating extremely rare tumor cells from ...

  19. Key roles of aquaporins in tumor biology.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Marios C; Saadoun, Samira

    2015-10-01

    Aquaporins are protein channels that facilitate the flow of water across plasma cell membranes in response to osmotic gradients. This review summarizes the evidence that aquaporins play key roles in tumor biology including tumor-associated edema, tumor cell migration, tumor proliferation and tumor angiogenesis. Aquaporin inhibitors may thus be a novel class of anti-tumor agents. However, attempts to produce small molecule aquaporin inhibitors have been largely unsuccessful. Recently, monoclonal human IgG antibodies against extracellular aquaporin-4 domains have become available and could be engineered to kill aquaporin-4 over-expressing cells in the malignant brain tumor glioblastoma. We conclude this review by discussing future directions in aquaporin tumor research. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane channels and transporters in cancers. PMID:25204262

  20. Brain and Spinal Tumors: Hope through Research

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of a CNS tumor to a particular treatment. Biological therapy involves enhancing the body’s overall immune response ... and injected directly into the brain following surgery. Biological therapies to fight CNS tumors include vaccines, gene ...

  1. Tumor cell deformability in the metastatic cascade

    E-print Network

    Bagnall, Josephine W. (Josephine Wen-yu Shaw)

    2015-01-01

    During the process of metastasis, tumor cells must undergo changes that enable them to detach from a tumor, exit surrounding tissue during intravasation, enter into circulation and eventually stop at a distant site for ...

  2. Tumor cell migration in complex microenvironments

    E-print Network

    Polacheck, William Joseph

    Tumor cell migration is essential for invasion and dissemination from primary solid tumors and for the establishment of lethal secondary metastases at distant organs. In vivo and in vitro models enabled identification of ...

  3. Estrogen's Impact on Colon Tumor Formation 

    E-print Network

    Tinsley, Kirby

    2010-07-14

    One hundred thirty six men and women die every day from colon cancer in the United States (2008 statistics). Estrogen has been shown to reduce colonic tumor inflammation; however, it is unclear in the tumor development and growth process what...

  4. Primary Epithelial Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Retroperitoneum.

    PubMed

    Dehal, Ahmed; Kim, Sean; Ali, Aamna; Walbolt, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors are either epithelial or neural in origin. Neuroendocrine tumors of the retroperitoneum are mostly metastatic. Primary epithelial neuroendocrine tumors of the retroperitoneum are exceedingly rare. The authors describe the case of a retroperitoneal tumor that was discovered incidentally during exploratory laparotomy for small-bowel obstruction. The literature is reviewed and discussed. To date, this is only the fifth reported case. PMID:26517438

  5. Tumors of the ocular surface: A review

    PubMed Central

    Honavar, Santosh G; Manjandavida, Fairooz P

    2015-01-01

    Tumors of the Ocular Surface clinically manifest with a very wide spectrum and include several forms of epithelial, stromal, caruncular, and secondary tumors. As a group, these tumors are seen commonly in the clinical practice of a comprehensive ophthalmologist, cornea specialist, and an ocular oncologist. This review is aimed to discuss the common tumors of the ocular surface and emphasize on their clinical diagnosis and appropriate management. PMID:25971163

  6. Esophageal carcinoid tumor treated by endoscopic resection.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Makoto; Abe, Yasuhiko; Sasaki, Yu; Nomura, Eiki; Sato, Takeshi; Iwano, Daisuke; Yoshizawa, Kazuya; Sakuta, Kazuhiro; Kanno, Nana; Nishise, Syouichi; Ueno, Yoshiyuki

    2015-05-01

    The present report describes a rare case of esophageal carcinoid tumor that was treated by endoscopic resection. A 43-year-old woman underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy at her family clinic for screening of the upper digestive tract and a small lesion resembling a submucosal tumor was detected in the lower esophagus. A biopsy sample from the lesion was diagnosed as esophageal carcinoid tumor and the patient visited our hospital for detailed examination. The tumor was approximately 3?mm in diameter and its surface appeared to be covered with normal squamous epithelium. The tumor had a shiny reddish surface without ulceration or erosion. Magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging showed structures resembling reticular vessels under the epithelium. Endoscopic ultrasonography depicted the tumor as a low-echoic mass within the lamina propria. Computed tomography did not detect the tumor and no metastatic lesions were evident in other organs. With the patient's informed consent, the tumor was resected using endoscopic submucosal dissection, with a sufficient free margin in both the vertical and horizontal directions. Magnifying endoscopic examination showed the resected tumor to have abundant reticular vessels. Finally, the tumor was diagnosed immunopathologically as an esophageal carcinoid tumor (neuroendocrine cell tumor, grade 1), without lymphatic or vascular invasion. PMID:25283957

  7. 9 CFR 381.87 - Tumors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tumors. 381.87 Section 381.87 Animals...of Carcasses and Parts § 381.87 Tumors. Any organ or other part of a carcass which is affected by a tumor shall be condemned and when there...

  8. 9 CFR 381.87 - Tumors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tumors. 381.87 Section 381.87 Animals...of Carcasses and Parts § 381.87 Tumors. Any organ or other part of a carcass which is affected by a tumor shall be condemned and when there...

  9. 9 CFR 381.87 - Tumors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tumors. 381.87 Section 381.87 Animals...of Carcasses and Parts § 381.87 Tumors. Any organ or other part of a carcass which is affected by a tumor shall be condemned and when there...

  10. 9 CFR 381.87 - Tumors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tumors. 381.87 Section 381.87 Animals...of Carcasses and Parts § 381.87 Tumors. Any organ or other part of a carcass which is affected by a tumor shall be condemned and when there...

  11. 9 CFR 381.87 - Tumors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tumors. 381.87 Section 381.87 Animals...of Carcasses and Parts § 381.87 Tumors. Any organ or other part of a carcass which is affected by a tumor shall be condemned and when there...

  12. CHAPTER TEN Matrix Regulation of Tumor-

    E-print Network

    Kumar, Sanjay

    CHAPTER TEN Matrix Regulation of Tumor- Initiating Cells Sophie Y. Wong, Sanjay Kumar Department.1 What are tumor-initiating cells? 244 1.2 Significance of TICs 245 2. Identification and Isolation of mechanotransduction 250 4. Conclusion 251 References 252 Abstract The recognition that the progression of many tumors

  13. Rare tumors of the rectum. Narrative review.

    PubMed

    Errasti Alustiza, José; Espín Basany, Eloy; Reina Duarte, Angel

    2014-11-01

    Most rectal neoplasms are adenocarcinomas, but there is a small percentage of tumors which are of other histological cell lines such as neuroendocrine tumors, sarcomas, lymphomas and squamous cell carcinomas, which have special characteristics and different treatments. We have reviewed these rare tumors of the rectum from a clinical and surgical point of view. PMID:24629769

  14. Tumor size and prognosis in patients with Wilms tumor

    PubMed Central

    Provenzi, Valentina Oliveira; Rosa, Rafael Fabiano Machado; Rosa, Rosana Cardoso Manique; Roehe, Adriana Vial; dos Santos, Pedro Paulo Albino; Faulhaber, Fabrízia Rennó Sodero; de Oliveira, Ceres Andréia Vieira; Zen, Paulo Ricardo Gazzola

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Investigate the relationship of the tumor volume after preoperative chemotherapy (TVAPQ) and before preoperative chemotherapy (TVBPQ) with overall survival at two and at five years, and lifetime. METHODS: Our sample consisted of consecutive patients evaluated in the period from 1989 to 2009 in an Onco-Hematology Service. Clinical, histological and volumetric data were collected from the medical records. For analysis, chi-square, Kaplan-Meier, log-rank and Cox regression tests were used. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 32 patients, 53.1% were male with a median age at diagnosis of 43 months. There was a significant association between TVAPQ>500mL and the difference between the TVBPQ and TVAPQ (p=0.015) and histologic types of risk (p=0.008). It was also verified an association between the difference between the TVBPQ and TVAPQ and the predominant stromal tumor (p=0.037). When assessing the TVAPQ of all patients, without a cutoff, there was an association of the variable with lifetime (p=0.013), i.e., for each increase of 10mL in TVAPQ there was an average increase of 2% in the risk of death. CONCLUSIONS: Although our results indicate that the TVAPQ could be considered alone as a predictor of poor prognosis regardless of the cutoff suggested in the literature, more studies are needed to replace the histology and staging by tumor size as best prognostic variable. PMID:25623730

  15. Aflac ST0901 CHOANOME - Sirolimus in Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-04

    Ewing's Sarcoma; Osteosarcoma; Astrocytoma; Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Ependymoma; Germ Cell Tumor; Glioma; Medulloblastoma; Rhabdoid Tumor; Retinoblastoma; Clear Cell Sarcoma; Renal Cell Carcinoma; Wilms Tumor; Hepatoblastoma; Neuroblastoma; Rhabdomyosarcoma

  16. A new ODE tumor growth modeling based on tumor population dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oroji, Amin; Omar, Mohd bin; Yarahmadian, Shantia

    2015-10-01

    In this paper a new mathematical model for the population of tumor growth treated by radiation is proposed. The cells dynamics population in each state and the dynamics of whole tumor population are studied. Furthermore, a new definition of tumor lifespan is presented. Finally, the effects of two main parameters, treatment parameter (q), and repair mechanism parameter (r) on tumor lifespan are probed, and it is showed that the change in treatment parameter (q) highly affects the tumor lifespan.

  17. Genetically Engineered Mouse Models of Pituitary Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Cano, David A.; Soto-Moreno, Alfonso; Leal-Cerro, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Animal models constitute valuable tools for investigating the pathogenesis of cancer as well as for preclinical testing of novel therapeutics approaches. However, the pathogenic mechanisms of pituitary-tumor formation remain poorly understood, particularly in sporadic adenomas, thus, making it a challenge to model pituitary tumors in mice. Nevertheless, genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) of pituitary tumors have provided important insight into pituitary tumor biology. In this paper, we review various GEMMs of pituitary tumors, highlighting their contributions and limitations, and discuss opportunities for research in the field. PMID:25136513

  18. Desmoid Tumors in the Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Honeyman, Joshua N.; La Quaglia, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Desmoid tumors are benign soft tissue tumors associated with locally aggressive growth and high rates of morbidity, but they do not metastasize via lymphatic or hematogenous routes. While most of the data on desmoid tumors originates in the adult literature, many of the findings have been applied to the management of pediatric patients. This article discusses the epidemiology, etiology, clinical presentation, pathology, and treatment of this rare tumor in the pediatric population and includes a literature review of the most recent large series of pediatric patients with desmoid tumors. PMID:24213241

  19. Senescent cells in growing tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapperi, Stefano; La Porta, Caterina A. M.; Sethna, James P.

    2012-02-01

    Tumors are defined by their intense proliferation, but sometimes cancer cells turn senescent and stop replicating. In the stochastic cancer model in which all cells are tumorigenic, senescence is seen as the result of random mutatations, suggesting that it could represent a barrier to tumor growth. In the hierarchical cancer model a subset of the cells, the cancer stem cells, divide indefinitely while other cells eventually turn senescent. Here we formulate cancer growth in mathematical terms and obtain distinct predictions for the evolution of senescence in the two models. We perform experiments in human melanoma cells which confirm the predictions of the hierarchical model and show that senescence is a reversible process controlled by survivin. We conclude that enhancing senescence is unlikely to provide a useful therapeutic strategy to fight cancer, unless the cancer stem cells are specifically targeted.

  20. Endoscopic treatment of orbital tumors

    PubMed Central

    Signorelli, Francesco; Anile, Carmelo; Rigante, Mario; Paludetti, Gaetano; Pompucci, Angelo; Mangiola, Annunziato

    2015-01-01

    Different orbital and transcranial approaches are performed in order to manage orbital tumors, depending on the location and size of the lesion within the orbit. These approaches provide a satisfactory view of the superior and lateral aspects of the orbit and the optic canal but involve risks associated with their invasiveness because they require significant displacement of orbital structures. In addition, external approaches to intraconal lesions may also require deinsertion of extraocular muscles, with subsequent impact on extraocular mobility. Recently, minimally invasive techniques have been proposed as valid alternative to external approaches for selected orbital lesions. Among them, transnasal endoscopic approaches, “pure” or combined with external approaches, have been reported, especially for intraconal lesions located inferiorly and medially to the optic nerve. The avoidance of muscle detachment and the shortness of the surgical intraorbital trajectory makes endoscopic approach less invasive, thus minimizing tissue damage. Endoscopic surgery decreases the recovery time and improves the cosmetic outcome not requiring skin incisions. The purpose of this study is to review and discuss the current surgical techniques for orbital tumors removal, focusing on endoscopic approaches to the orbit and outlining the key anatomic principles to follow for safe tumor resection. PMID:25789299

  1. Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Ehehalt, Florian; Saeger, Hans D; Schmidt, C Max; Grützmann, Robert

    2009-05-01

    This literature review briefly summarizes the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical management, and outcomes of patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) and highlights recent advances in PNET research. PNETs are rare neoplasms, compared with carcinomas arising from pancreatic exocrine tissue. They, like other neuroendocrine tumor types, display variable malignant potential, hormone-related syndromes (functionality), localization, and genetic background. Although tumor origin and molecular pathogenesis remain poorly understood, recently established grading and staging systems facilitate patient risk stratification, and thereby directly impact clinical decision making. Although the optimal clinical management of PNETs involves a multidisciplinary approach, surgery remains the only curative treatment for early-stage disease. Surgery may also have a role in patients with advanced-stage disease, including those with hepatic metastases. Alternative therapeutic approaches applied to PNETs, including chemotherapy, radiofrequency ablation, transarterial chemoembolization, biotherapy, polypeptide radionuclide receptor therapy, antiangiogenic therapy, and selective internal radiotherapy, have failed to demonstrate a long-term survival benefit. Surgery remains the primary therapeutic option for patients with PNETs. Research on PNETs is desperately needed to improve the therapeutic options for patients with this disease. PMID:19411317

  2. MicroRNA regulons in tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, H I; Katsura, A; Matsuyama, H; Miyazono, K

    2015-06-11

    Cancer initiation and progression are defined by the behavior of cancer cells per se and the development of tumor tissues, both of which are modulated by crosstalk between cancer cells and the surrounding microenvironment. Advances in cancer research have highlighted the significance of constant evolution of the tumor microenvironment, leading to tumor formation, metastasis and refractoriness to therapy. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that function as major players of posttranscriptional gene regulation in diverse biological processes. They function as both tumor suppressors and promoters in many aspects of the autonomous behavior of cancer cells. Theoretically, dysfunction in the gene regulatory networks of cancer cells is one of the major driving forces for alterations of ostensibly normal surrounding cells. In this context, the core targets of miRNAs, termed miRNA regulons, are currently being expanded to include various modulators of the tumor microenvironment. Recent advances have highlighted two important roles played by miRNAs in the evolution of tumor microenvironments: miRNAs in tumor cells transform the microenvironment via non-cell-autonomous mechanisms, and miRNAs in neighboring cells stabilize cancer hallmark traits. These observations epitomize the distal and proximal functions of miRNAs in tumor microenvironments, respectively. Such regulation by miRNAs affects tumor angiogenesis, immune invasion and tumor-stromal interactions. This review summarizes recent findings on the mechanisms of miRNA-mediated regulation of tumor microenvironments, with a perspective on the design of therapeutic interventions. PMID:25132266

  3. Sunitinib in Treating Young Patients With Refractory Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-01-27

    Central Nervous System Metastases; Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  4. Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Young Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-05-01

    Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  5. Bayesian Inference of Tumor Hypoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawan, R.; Tenti, G.; Sivaloganathan, S.

    2009-12-01

    Tumor hypoxia is a state of oxygen deprivation in tumors. It has been associated with aggressive tumor phenotypes and with increased resistance to conventional cancer therapies. In this study, we report on the application of Bayesian sequential analysis in estimating the most probable value of tumor hypoxia quantification based on immunohistochemical assays of a biomarker. The `gold standard' of tumor hypoxia assessment is a direct measurement of pO2 in vivo by the Eppendorf polarographic electrode, which is an invasive technique restricted to accessible sites and living tissues. An attractive alternative is immunohistochemical staining to detect proteins expressed by cells during hypoxia. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is an enzyme expressed on the cell membrane during hypoxia to balance the immediate extracellular microenvironment. CAIX is widely regarded as a surrogate marker of chronic hypoxia in various cancers. The study was conducted with two different experimental procedures. The first data set was a group of three patients with invasive cervical carcinomas, from which five biopsies were obtained. Each of the biopsies was fully sectioned and from each section, the proportion of CAIX-positive cells was estimated. Measurements were made by image analysis of multiple deep sections cut through these biopsies, labeled for CAIX using both immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical techniques [1]. The second data set was a group of 24 patients, also with invasive cervical carcinomas, from which two biopsies were obtained. Bayesian parameter estimation was applied to obtain a reliable inference about the proportion of CAIX-positive cells within the carcinomas, based on the available biopsies. From the first data set, two to three biopsies were found to be sufficient to infer the overall CAIX percentage in the simple form: best estimate±uncertainty. The second data-set led to a similar result in 70% of the cases. In the remaining cases Bayes' theorem warned us automatically that the inference from the data could not be summarized by just two numbers, but the full posterior probability density function (pdf) had to be used.

  6. Patient-Derived Tumor Xenografts Are Susceptible to Formation of Human Lymphocytic Tumors1

    PubMed Central

    Bondarenko, Gennadiy; Ugolkov, Andrey; Rohan, Stephen; Kulesza, Piotr; Dubrovskyi, Oleksii; Gursel, Demirkan; Mathews, Jeremy; O’Halloran, Thomas V.; Wei, Jian J.; Mazar, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) tumor models have emerged as a new approach to evaluate the effects of cancer drugs on patients’ personalized tumor grafts enabling to select the best treatment for the cancer patient and providing a new tool for oncology drug developers. Here, we report that human tumors engrafted in immunodeficient mice are susceptible to formation of B-and T-cell PDX tumors. We xenografted human primary and metastatic tumor samples into immunodeficient mice and found that a fraction of PDX tumors generated from patients’ samples of breast, colon, pancreatic, bladder and renal cancer were histologically similar to lymphocytic neoplasms. Moreover, we found that the first passage of breast and pancreatic cancer PDX tumors after initial transplantation of the tumor pieces from the same human tumor graft could grow as a lymphocytic tumor in one mouse and as an adenocarcinoma in another mouse. Whereas subcutaneous PDX tumors resembling human adenocarcinoma histology were slow growing and non-metastatic, we found that subcutaneous PDX lymphocytic tumors were fast growing and formed large metastatic lesions in mouse lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and spleen. PDX lymphocytic tumors were comprised of B-cells which were Epstein-Barr virus positive and expressed CD45 and CD20. Because B-cells are typically present in malignant solid tumors, formation of B-cell tumor may evolve in a wide range of PDX tumor models. Although PDX tumor models show great promise in the development of personalized therapy for cancer patients, our results suggest that confidence in any given PDX tumor model requires careful screening of lymphocytic markers. PMID:26476081

  7. NMR characteristics of rat mammary tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Osbakken, M.; Kreider, J.; Taczanowsky, P.

    1984-01-01

    12 rats were injected intradermally with 13762A rat mammary adenocarcinoma (1 x 10/sup 6/ cells). 3 rats died before completion of the study and 2 rat had tumor regression; the first 3 were excluded from data analysis. NMR imaging with a 1.5K gauss resistive magnet at 2, 3, 4, and 5 weeks after injection demonstrated increasing tumor mass. Saturation recovery (SR), inversion recovery (IR), and spin echo (SE) pulse sequence images and T/sub 1/ calculation were done for tumor characterization. (Tumor size was too small to identify at 2 weeks.) 3 rats were sacrificed after the last 3 imaging periods for histological studies, done to distinguish solid tumor mass from necrosis. Planimetry of tumor areas showed that as tumors grew in size, the ratio of necrotic area to area of solid tumor increased (week 3 = .3 +- .11; week 4 = .45 +- .07; week 5 = .51 +- 05); simultaneous calculated T/sub 1/ values also increased (week 3 = .35 +- .15; week 4 = .45 +- .06; week 5 = .42 +- 03). Qualitative NMR image T/sub 1/ values also increased as evidenced by progression of SR and IR tumor image intensity from very bright compared to the rest of the body at week 3 to less intense than other structures at week 5. These findings indicate that change in T/sub 1/ may be secondary to the pathophysiological change in the tumor (the increasing in necrosis, associated with increased free water). Thus, the range of T/sub 1/ values obtained in tumors in this study (and in previous studies) may be due to change in tumor physiology and anatomy. Careful correlation of histological with NMR data may allow ultimate use of NMR relaxation characteristics for determination of the physiological state of tumors.

  8. Dirio Econmico -Universidades Como ser investigador em Portugal

    E-print Network

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    Diário Económico - Universidades Como é ser investigador em Portugal Autor: N.D. Editora: ST e SF - Universidades Como é ser investigador em Portugal Autor: N.D. Editora: ST e SF Id: 1646658 Data Publicação: 19

  9. Improving delivery and efficacy of nanomedicines in solid tumors: Role of tumor priming

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Lu, Ze; Gao, Yue; Wientjes, M. Guillaume; Au, Jessie L.-S.

    2013-01-01

    Effectiveness of nanomedicines in cancer therapy is limited in part by inadequate delivery and transport in tumor interstitium. This report reviews the experimental approaches to improve nanomedicines delivery and transport in solid tumors. These approaches include tumor vasculature normalization, interstitial fluid pressure modulation, enzymatic extracellular matrix degradation, and apoptosis-inducing tumor priming technology. We advocate the latter approach due to its ease and practicality (accomplished with standard-of-care chemotherapy such as paclitaxel) and tumor selectivity. Examples of applying tumor priming to deliver nanomedicines and to design drug/RNAi-loaded carriers are discussed. PMID:22077464

  10. Tumor-Associated Endothelial Cells Promote Tumor Metastasis by Chaperoning Circulating Tumor Cells and Protecting Them from Anoikis

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Arti; Kumar, Bhavna; Yu, Jun-Ge; Old, Matthew; Teknos, Theodoros N.; Kumar, Pawan

    2015-01-01

    Tumor metastasis is a highly inefficient biological process as millions of tumor cells are released in circulation each day and only a few of them are able to successfully form distal metastatic nodules. This could be due to the fact that most of the epithelial origin cancer cells are anchorage-dependent and undergo rapid anoikis in harsh circulating conditions. A number of studies have shown that in addition to tumor cells, activated endothelial cells are also released into the blood circulation from the primary tumors. However, the precise role of these activated circulating endothelial cells (CECs) in tumor metastasis process is not known. Therefore, we performed a series of experiments to examine if CECs promoted tumor metastasis by chaperoning the tumor cells to distal sites. Our results demonstrate that blood samples from head and neck cancer patients contain significantly higher Bcl-2-positive CECs as compared to healthy volunteers. Technically, it is challenging to know the origin of CECs in patient blood samples, therefore we used an orthotopic SCID mouse model and co-implanted GFP-labeled endothelial cells along with tumor cells. Our results suggest that activated CECs (Bcl-2-positive) were released from primary tumors and they co-migrated with tumor cells to distal sites. Bcl-2 overexpression in endothelial cells (EC-Bcl-2) significantly enhanced adhesion molecule expression and tumor cell binding that was predominantly mediated by E-selectin. In addition, tumor cells bound to EC-Bcl-2 showed a significantly higher anoikis resistance via the activation of Src-FAK pathway. In our in vivo experiments, we observed significantly higher lung metastasis when tumor cells were co-injected with EC-Bcl-2 as compared to EC-VC. E-selectin knockdown in EC-Bcl-2 cells or FAK/FUT3 knockdown in tumor cells significantly reversed EC-Bcl-2-mediated tumor metastasis. Taken together, our results suggest a novel role for CECs in protecting the tumor cells in circulation and chaperoning them to distal sites. PMID:26509633

  11. Ablative therapies for renal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Rajan; Leveillee, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    Owing to an increased use of diagnostic imaging for evaluating patients with other abdominal conditions, incidentally discovered kidney masses now account for a majority of renal tumors. Renal ablative therapy is assuming a more important role in patients with borderline renal impairment. Renal ablation uses heat or cold to bring about cell death. Radiofrequency ablation and cryoablation are two such procedures, and 5-year results are now emerging from both modalities. Renal biopsy at the time of ablation is extremely important in order to establish tissue diagnosis. Real-time temperature monitoring at the time of radiofrequency ablation is very useful to ensure adequacy of ablation. PMID:21789083

  12. [Diagnostic problems in skin tumors].

    PubMed

    Hundeiker, M

    1979-09-15

    Several starting-points for improvement of diagnostic accuracy in skin tumors are illustrated by examples: Frequencies and direction of diagnostic errors, as well as the value of diagnostic criteria need further investigations. Frequent "customary" diseases need more attention in medical textbooks, compared with less frequent "interesting" syndromes. Erroneous denominations and historical false classifications which are handed down in the literature demand correction. The possibility continues, that apparently clearly defined entities may decay; they may be replaced by new entities in consequence of new perceptions. PMID:539026

  13. [Neuroendocrine system and its tumors].

    PubMed

    Schulz, H J; Ladhoff, A

    1993-06-01

    The original classification of neuroendocrine tumours proposed by Pearse was based on a common embryologic origin in the neuroectoderm. The term, carcinoid, literally means carcinoma-like, was coined in 1907 to describe the histologic similarity of these tumors to carcinomas on the one hand and their generally indolent biologic behaviour on the other hand. Neuroendocrine tumours represent a group with complex biological, histological, ultrastructural and immunocytochemical properties. This concept was replaced by another classification based on results of modern techniques (electron microscopy, immunocytochemistry, molecular and DNA analyses). This permits a more reliable classification of tumours, that can be used to determine their biological behaviour and prognosis. PMID:8103675

  14. Bronchial and Thymic Carcinoid Tumors.

    PubMed

    Litvak, Anya; Pietanza, M Catherine

    2016-02-01

    Bronchial and thymic carcinoids are rare. We present epidemiologic data and potential risk factors. The approach to bronchial and thymic carcinoid patients is discussed, from the initial diagnosis and evaluations to treatment. These malignancies follow staging systems of their site of origin. Because bronchial and thymic carcinoids are rare, we use many treatment strategies that have been demonstrated in gastrointestinal and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. The lack of information regarding efficacy in bronchial and thymic carcinoids, as well as the scarcity of therapeutic options available, demands the importance of clinical trials that include these patients. PMID:26614370

  15. Radiation-induced nitric oxide mitigates tumor hypoxia and radioresistance in a murine SCCVII tumor model

    SciTech Connect

    Nagane, Masaki; Yasui, Hironobu; Yamamori, Tohru; Zhao, Songji; Kuge, Yuji; Tamaki, Nagara; Kameya, Hiromi; Nakamura, Hideo; Fujii, Hirotada; Inanami, Osamu

    2013-08-02

    Highlights: •IR-induced NO increased tissue perfusion and pO{sub 2}. •IR increased NO production in tumors without changes in the mRNA and protein levels of NOS isoforms. •NOS activity assay showed that IR upregulated eNOS activity in tumors. •IR-induced NO decreased tumor hypoxia and altered tumor radiosensitivity. -- Abstract: Tumor hypoxia, which occurs mainly as a result of inadequate tissue perfusion in solid tumors, is a well-known challenge for successful radiotherapy. Recent evidence suggests that ionizing radiation (IR) upregulates nitric oxide (NO) production and that IR-induced NO has the potential to increase intratumoral circulation. However, the kinetics of NO production and the responsible isoforms for NO synthase in tumors exposed to IR remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the mechanism by which IR stimulates NO production in tumors and the effect of IR-induced NO on tumor radiosensitivity. Hoechst33342 perfusion assay and electron spin resonance oxymetry showed that IR increased tissue perfusion and pO{sub 2} in tumor tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis using two different hypoxic probes showed that IR decreased hypoxic regions in tumors; treatment with a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, L-NAME, abrogated the effects of IR. Moreover, IR increased endothelial NOS (eNOS) activity without affecting its mRNA or protein expression levels in SCCVII-transplanted tumors. Tumor growth delay assay showed that L-NAME decreased the anti-tumor effect of fractionated radiation (10 Gy × 2). These results suggested that IR increased eNOS activity and subsequent tissue perfusion in tumors. Increases in intratumoral circulation simultaneously decreased tumor hypoxia. As a result, IR-induced NO increased tumor radiosensitivity. Our study provides a new insight into the NO-dependent mechanism for efficient fractionated radiotherapy.

  16. Evolutionarily new sequences expressed in tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kozlov, Andrei P; Galachyants, Yuri P; Dukhovlinov, Ilya V; Samusik, Nickolai A; Baranova, Ancha V; Polev, Dmitry E; Krukovskaya, Larisa L

    2006-01-01

    Background Earlier we suggested the concept of the positive evolutionary role of tumors. According to this concept, tumors provide conditions for the expression of evolutionarily new and/or sleeping genes in their cells. Thus, tumors are considered as evolutionary proving ground or reservoir of expression. To support this concept we have previously characterized in silico and experimentally a new class of human tumor-related transcribed sequences. Results In this article we describe results of further studies of previously described tumor-related sequences. The results of molecular phylogeny studies, Southern hybridization experiments and computational comparison with genomes of other species are presented. Conclusion These results suggest that these previously described tumor-related human transcripts are also relatively evolutionarily new. PMID:17189608

  17. Tumor Bioengineering Using a Transglutaminase Crosslinked Hydrogel

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Josephine Y.; Tan, Shih-Jye; Yang, Zhi; Tayag, Charisse; Han, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Development of a physiologically relevant 3D model system for cancer research and drug development is a current challenge. We have adopted a 3D culture system based on a transglutaminase-crosslinked gelatin gel (Col-Tgel) to mimic the tumor 3D microenvironment. The system has several unique advantages over other alternatives including presenting cell-matrix interaction sites from collagen-derived peptides, geometry-initiated multicellular tumor spheroids, and metabolic gradients in the tumor microenvironment. Also it provides a controllable wide spectrum of gel stiffness for mechanical signals, and technical compatibility with imaging based screening due to its transparent properties. In addition, the Col-Tgel provides a cure-in-situ delivery vehicle for tumor xenograft formation in animals enhancing tumor cell uptake rate. Overall, this distinctive 3D system could offer a platform to more accurately mimic in vivo situations to study tumor formation and progression both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25133673

  18. What underlies the diversity of brain tumors?

    PubMed Central

    Swartling, Fredrik J.; Hede, Sanna-Maria; Weiss, William A.

    2012-01-01

    Glioma and medulloblastoma represent the most commonly occurring malignant brain tumors in adults and in children respectively. Recent genomic and transcriptional approaches present a complex group of diseases, and delineate a number of molecular subgroups within tumors that share a common histopathology. Differences in cells of origin, regional niches, developmental timing and genetic events all contribute to this heterogeneity. In an attempt to recapitulate the diversity of brain tumors, an increasing array of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) has been developed. These models often utilize promoters and genetic drivers from normal brain development, and can provide insight into specific cells from which these tumors originate. GEMMs show promise in both developmental biology and developmental therapeutics. This review describes numerous murine brain tumor models in the context of normal brain development, and the potential for these animals to impact brain tumor research. PMID:23085857

  19. Options for management of intra ocular tumors

    PubMed Central

    Lingam, Gopal

    2015-01-01

    The management of intra ocular tumors has undergone a sea change from the era of enucleation or external beam radiation. With the advent of new chemotherapy protocols, globe and vision salvage have become possible in a majority of cases of retinoblastoma. This article is an overview of the various modalities available for the management of intra ocular tumors and their indications. Chemotherapy has been covered elsewhere in this series of articles on ocular oncology. Photocoagulation and cryopexy are easily administered modalities of treatment for small tumors and totally within the ophthalmologist's domain. Slightly larger tumors are treatable with brachytherapy. The susceptibility of the tumors to chemotherapy and radiation decide the choice of treatment and the dosage. Management of intra ocular tumors very often needs a multidisciplinary approach including ophthalmologist, oncologist, radiation physicist, and radiotherapist. PMID:25971164

  20. Carcinoid tumor with uterine location. Case report.

    PubMed

    Laz?r, E; Tudose, N; Potencz, E; Cornianu, M

    1996-01-01

    A carcinoid is defined as a tumor arising from endocrine cells with neurosecretory characteristics belonging to the APUD system. These cells are most frequently observed in the digestive tract and lungs. Uterine location is rare. This paper presents the case of a 21-year old patient with uterine carcinoid tumor. In order to establish the histopathologic diagnosis of the carcinoid tumor, we used optical microscopy examination in haematoxylin-eosin, argentic impregnation in Fontana-Masson staining and an immunohistochemical reaction using monoclonal antibody to the S100 protein. Due to the intracytoplasmatic granulations shown in Fontana-Masson staining and in the immunohistochemical reaction to S100 protein which confirm the neurosecretory character of the tumoral cells, we included this tumor in the group of tumors with neuroendocrine differentiation. PMID:9038391

  1. Tumor lysis syndrome: A clinical review

    PubMed Central

    Mirrakhimov, Aibek E; Voore, Prakruthi; Khan, Maliha; Ali, Alaa M

    2015-01-01

    Tumor lysis syndrome is an oncometabolic emergency resulting from rapid cell death. Tumor lysis syndrome can occur as a consequence of tumor targeted therapy or spontaneously. Clinicians should stratify every hospitalized cancer patient and especially those receiving chemotherapy for the risk of tumor lysis syndrome. Several aspects of prevention include adequate hydration, use of uric acid lowering therapies, use of phosphate binders and minimization of potassium intake. Patients at high risk for the development of tumor lysis syndrome should be monitored in the intensive care unit. Established tumor lysis syndrome should be treated in the intensive care unit by aggressive hydration, possible use of loop diuretics, possible use of phosphate binders, use of uric acid lowering agents and dialysis in refractory cases. PMID:25938028

  2. Simulation of Complex Transport of Nanoparticles around a Tumor Using Tumor-Microenvironment-on-Chip

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Bongseop; Ozcelikkale, Altug; Shin, Crystal S.; Park, Kinam; Han, Bumsoo

    2014-01-01

    Delivery of therapeutic agents selectively to tumor tissue, which is referred as “targeted delivery,” is one of the most ardently pursued goals of cancer therapy. Recent advances in nanotechnology enable numerous types of nanoparticles (NPs) whose properties can be designed for targeted delivery to tumors. In spite of promising early results, the delivery and therapeutic efficacy of the majority of NPs are still quite limited. This is mainly attributed to the limitation of currently available tumor models to test these NPs and systematically study the effects of complex transport and pathophysiological barriers around the tumors. In this study, thus, we developed a new in vitro tumor model to recapitulate the tumor microenvironment determining the transport around tumors. This model, named tumor-microenvironment-on-chip (T-MOC), consists of 3-dimensional microfluidic channels where tumor cells and endothelial cells are cultured within extracellular matrix under perfusion of interstitial fluid. Using this T-MOC platform, the transport of NPs and its variation due to tumor microenvironmental parameters have been studied including cut-off pore size, interstitial fluid pressure, and tumor tissue microstructure. The results suggest that T-MOC is capable of simulating the complex transport around the tumor, and providing detailed information about NP transport behavior. This finding confirms that NPs should be designed considering their dynamic interactions with tumor microenvironment. PMID:25194778

  3. Simulation of complex transport of nanoparticles around a tumor using tumor-microenvironment-on-chip.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Bongseop; Ozcelikkale, Altug; Shin, Crystal S; Park, Kinam; Han, Bumsoo

    2014-11-28

    Delivery of therapeutic agents selectively to tumor tissue, which is referred as "targeted delivery," is one of the most ardently pursued goals of cancer therapy. Recent advances in nanotechnology enable numerous types of nanoparticles (NPs) whose properties can be designed for targeted delivery to tumors. In spite of promising early results, the delivery and therapeutic efficacy of the majority of NPs are still quite limited. This is mainly attributed to the limitation of currently available tumor models to test these NPs and systematically study the effects of complex transport and pathophysiological barriers around the tumors. In this study, thus, we developed a new in vitro tumor model to recapitulate the tumor microenvironment determining the transport around tumors. This model, named tumor-microenvironment-on-chip (T-MOC), consists of 3-dimensional microfluidic channels where tumor cells and endothelial cells are cultured within extracellular matrix under perfusion of interstitial fluid. Using this T-MOC platform, the transport of NPs and its variation due to tumor microenvironmental parameters have been studied including cut-off pore size, interstitial fluid pressure, and tumor tissue microstructure. The results suggest that T-MOC is capable of simulating the complex transport around the tumor, and providing detailed information about NP transport behavior. This finding confirms that NPs should be designed considering their dynamic interactions with tumor microenvironment. PMID:25194778

  4. [Cardiac tumors: CT and MR imaging features].

    PubMed

    Moskovitch, G; Chabbert, V; Escourrou, G; Desloques, L; Otal, P; Glock, Y; Rousseau, H

    2010-09-01

    The CT and MR imaging features of the main cardiac tumors will be reviewed. Cross-sectional imaging features may help differentiate between cardiac tumors and pseudotumoral lesions and identify malignant features. Based on clinical features, imaging findings are helpful to further characterize the nature of the lesion. CT and MR imaging can demonstrate the relationship of the tumor with adjacent anatomical structures and are invaluable in the presurgical work-up and postsurgical follow-up. PMID:20814374

  5. Kidney Tumors | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Kidney tumors are rare and generally curable in children. However, there are subsets of patients afflicted with these diseases that do not respond to treatment or eventually relapse. These patients usually have poor clinical outcomes as compared with the majority of children diagnosed with kidney tumors. All patients undergo therapy regimens that can be detrimental later in life. Through genome-wide characterization, TARGET investigators are identifying critical molecular alterations in these tumors, mostly from relapsed patients.

  6. Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-07-01

    Bladder Cancer; Breast Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Kidney Cancer; Lung Cancer; Ovarian Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  7. Maximizing Tumor Immunity With Fractionated Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Schaue, Doerthe; Ratikan, Josephine A.; Iwamoto, Keisuke S.; McBride, William H.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Technologic advances have led to increased clinical use of higher-sized fractions of radiation dose and higher total doses. How these modify the pathways involved in tumor cell death, normal tissue response, and signaling to the immune system has been inadequately explored. Here we ask how radiation dose and fraction size affect antitumor immunity, the suppression thereof, and how this might relate to tumor control. Methods and Materials: Mice bearing B16-OVA murine melanoma were treated with up to 15 Gy radiation given in various-size fractions, and tumor growth followed. The tumor-specific immune response in the spleen was assessed by interferon-{gamma} enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay with ovalbumin (OVA) as the surrogate tumor antigen and the contribution of regulatory T cells (Tregs) determined by the proportion of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup hi}Foxp3{sup +} T cells. Results: After single doses, tumor control increased with the size of radiation dose, as did the number of tumor-reactive T cells. This was offset at the highest dose by an increase in Treg representation. Fractionated treatment with medium-size radiation doses of 7.5 Gy/fraction gave the best tumor control and tumor immunity while maintaining low Treg numbers. Conclusions: Radiation can be an immune adjuvant, but the response varies with the size of dose per fraction. The ultimate challenge is to optimally integrate cancer immunotherapy into radiation therapy.

  8. Anatomical basis for Wilms tumor surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tröbs, R. B.

    2009-01-01

    Wilms tumor surgery requires meticulous planning and sophisticated surgical technique. Detailed anatomical knowledge can facilitate the uneventful performance of tumor nephrectomy and cannot be replaced by advanced and sophisticated imaging techniques. We can define two main goals for surgery: (1) exact staging as well as (2) safe and complete resection of tumor without spillage. This review aims to review the anatomical basis for Wilms tumor surgery. It focuses on the surgical anatomy of retroperitoneal space, aorta, vena cava and their large branches with lymphatics. Types and management of vascular injuries are discussed. PMID:20671845

  9. Are biomechanical changes necessary for tumor progression?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kas, Josef A.; Fritsch, Anatol; Kiessling, Tobias; Nnetu, David K.; Pawlizak, Steve; Wetzel, Franziska; Zink, Mareike

    2011-03-01

    With an increasing knowledge in tumor biology an overwhelming complexity becomes obvious which roots in the diversity of tumors and their heterogeneous molecular composition. Nevertheless in all solid tumors malignant neoplasia, i.e. uncontrolled growth, invasion of adjacent tissues, and metastasis, occurs. Physics sheds some new light on cancer by approaching this problem from a functional, materials perspective. Recent results indicate that all three pathomechanisms require changes in the active and passive cellular biomechanics. Malignant transformation causes cell softening for small deformations which correlates with an increased rate of proliferation and faster cell migration. The tumor cell's ability to strain harden permits tumor growth against a rigid tissue environment. A highly mechanosensitive, enhanced cell contractility is a prerequisite that tumor cells can cross its tumor boundaries and that this cells can migrate through the extracellular matrix. Insights into the biomechanical changes during tumor progression may lead to selective treatments by altering cell mechanics. Such drugs would not cure by killing cancer cells, but slow down tumor progression with only mild side effects and thus may be an option for older and frail patients.

  10. Measurement of telomerase activity in dog tumors.

    PubMed

    Yazawa, M; Okuda, M; Setoguchi, A; Nishimura, R; Sasaki, N; Hasegawa, A; Watari, T; Tsujimoto, H

    1999-10-01

    Telomeres are specific structures present at the end of liner chromosomes. DNA polymerase can not synthesize the end of liner DNA and, as a result, the telomeres become progressively shortened by successive cell divisions. To overcome the end replication problem, telomerase adds new telomeric sequences to the end of chromosomal DNA. The enzyme activity is undetectable in most normal human adult somatic cells, in which shortening of the telomere is thought to limit the somatic-cell life span. In contrast to normal somatic cells, many human tumors possess telomerase activity. The present study looked at whether telomerase activity might serve as a marker for canine tumors. Telomerase activity was measured using the telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay. Normal dog somatic tissues showed little or no telomerase activity, while normal testis exhibited a high level of telomerase activity. We measured telomerase activity in tumor samples from 45 dogs; 21 mammary gland tumors, 16 tumors developed in the skin and oral cavity, 7 vascular tumors and 1 Sertoli cell tumor. Greater than 95% of the tumor samples contained telomerase activity (3-924 U/2 micrograms protein). The results obtained in this study indicated that telomerase should be a useful diagnostic marker for a variety of dog tumors, and it may serve as a target for antitumor chemotherapy. PMID:10563290

  11. Tumor cell metabolism: an integral view.

    PubMed

    Romero-Garcia, Susana; Lopez-Gonzalez, Jose Sullivan; Báez-Viveros, José Luis; Aguilar-Cazares, Dolores; Prado-Garcia, Heriberto

    2011-12-01

    Cancer is a genetic disease that is caused by mutations in oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and stability genes. The fact that the metabolism of tumor cells is altered has been known for many years. However, the mechanisms and consequences of metabolic reprogramming have just begun to be understood. In this review, an integral view of tumor cell metabolism is presented, showing how metabolic pathways are reprogrammed to satisfy tumor cell proliferation and survival requirements. In tumor cells, glycolysis is strongly enhanced to fulfill the high ATP demands of these cells; glucose carbons are the main building blocks in fatty acid and nucleotide biosynthesis. Glutaminolysis is also increased to satisfy NADPH regeneration, whereas glutamine carbons replenish the Krebs cycle, which produces metabolites that are constantly used for macromolecular biosynthesis. A characteristic feature of the tumor microenvironment is acidosis, which results from the local increase in lactic acid production by tumor cells. This phenomenon is attributed to the carbons from glutamine and glucose, which are also used for lactic acid production. Lactic acidosis also directs the metabolic reprogramming of tumor cells and serves as an additional selective pressure. Finally, we also discuss the role of mitochondria in supporting tumor cell metabolism. PMID:22057267

  12. Proliferating trichilemmal tumor of the nose*

    PubMed Central

    Rosmaninho, Aristóteles; Caetano, Mónica; Oliveira, Ana; de Almeida, Teresa Pinto; Selores, Manuela; Alves, Rosário

    2012-01-01

    Proliferating trichilemmal tumor is a rare tumor originating in the external root sheath, that is usually found in the scalp of middle-aged or elderly females. Its histologic appearance may not correlate with its clinical behavior. In addition, there are no guidelines available for the treatment of these tumors, making its management a challenge for physicians. We report the case of a 53 year-old woman with a proliferating trichilemmal tumor on her nose, which is a very uncommon location for these lesions. PMID:23197215

  13. Anti-tumor activity of squid ink.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, J; Ishita, K; Takaya, Y; Uchisawa, H; Matsue, H

    1997-08-01

    The anti-tumor activity of a new type of peptidoglycan isolated from squid ink was shown to have a cure rate of 64% for Meth A tumor from BALB/c mice. The ink delipidated in acetone, which contained the peptidoglycan at 0.1% (w/w), was administered to tumor-transplanted mice so as to examine the anti-tumor activity. One-fifth of the tumor-bearing mice was cured with 3 injections (1 mg/head) of the acetone delipidated squid ink or a prolongation of survival was observed in the treated animals. Heat treatment at 100 degrees C for 10 min did not affect the anti-tumor activity of the delipidated ink, its potentiality being preserved. The acetone-extractable fraction of the ink also brought about a similar cure rate for Meth A tumor. The delipidated ink enhanced the phagocytic activity of macrophages but no direct cytotoxicity was observed for the Meth A tumor cells. Hence it may be said that the anti-tumor activity of the delipidated ink was mainly due to the augmented cellular immunity in vivo. PMID:9328864

  14. Systemic Therapies for Advanced Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors.

    PubMed

    Raj, Nitya; Reidy-Lagunes, Diane

    2016-02-01

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors are an uncommon tumor type and compose 1% to 2% of all pancreatic neoplasms. They are rarely localized at presentation and are typically diagnosed in the presence of metastatic disease. The management poses a significant challenge because of the heterogeneous clinical presentations and varying degrees of aggressiveness. A variety of systemic therapies have been developed for the management of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, including somatostatin analogues, a select group of cytotoxic chemotherapy agents, and targeted or biological agents. This article reviews the available systemic therapy options for advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. PMID:26614372

  15. Holographic optical coherence imaging of tumor spheroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, P.; Mustata, M.; Turek, J. J.; French, P. M. W.; Melloch, M. R.; Nolte, D. D.

    2003-07-01

    We present depth-resolved coherence-domain images of living tissue using a dynamic holographic semiconductor film. An AlGaAs photorefractive quantum-well device is used in an adaptive interferometer that records coherent backscattered (image-bearing) light from inside rat osteogenic sarcoma tumor spheroids up to 1 mm in diameter in vitro. The data consist of sequential holographic image frames at successive depths through the tumor represented as a visual video "fly-through." The images from the tumor spheroids reveal heterogeneous structures presumably caused by necrosis and microcalcifications characteristic of human tumors in their early avascular growth.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gastrointestinal stromal tumor? gastrointestinal stromal neoplasm gastrointestinal stromal sarcoma GIST For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming ...

  17. Somatostatin receptors in differentiated ovarian tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Reubi, J. C.; Horisberger, U.; Klijn, J. G.; Foekens, J. A.

    1991-01-01

    The presence of somatostatin receptors was investigated in 57 primary human ovarian tumors using in vitro receptor autoradiography with three different somatostatin radioligands, 125I-[Tyr11]-somatostatin-14, 125I-[Leu8, D-Trp22, Tyr25]-somatostatin-28, or 125I-[Tyr3]-SMS 201-995. Three cases, all belonging to epithelial tumors, were receptor positive; specifically 1 of 42 adenocarcinomas, 1 of 3 borderline malignancies, and 1 of 2 cystadenomas. Four other epithelial tumors (3 fibroadenomas, 1 Brenner tumor), 4 sex cord-stromal tumors (2 fibrothecomas, 2 granulosa cell tumors), and 2 germ cell tumors (1 dysgerminoma, 1 teratoma) were receptor negative. In the positive cases, the somatostatin receptors were localized on epithelial cells exclusively, were of high affinity (KD = 4.6 nmol/l [nanomolar]), and specific for somatostatin analogs. These receptors bound somatostatin-14 and somatostatin-28 radioligands with a higher affinity than the octapeptide [Tyr3]-SMS 201-995. Healthy ovarian tissue had no somatostatin receptors. A subpopulation of relatively well-differentiated ovarian tumors, therefore, was identified pathobiochemically on the basis of its somatostatin receptor content. This small group of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors may be a target for in vivo diagnostic imaging with somatostatin ligands. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1850962

  18. Diagnosing Common Benign Skin Tumors.

    PubMed

    Higgins, James C; Maher, Michael H; Douglas, Mark S

    2015-10-01

    Patients will experience a wide range of skin growths and changes over their lifetime. Family physicians should be able to distinguish potentially malignant from benign skin tumors. Most lesions can be diagnosed on the basis of history and clinical examination. Lesions that are suspicious for malignancy, those with changing characteristics, symptomatic lesions, and those that cause cosmetic problems may warrant medical therapy, a simple office procedure (e.g., excision, cryosurgery, laser ablation), or referral. Acrochordons are extremely common, small, and typically pedunculated benign neoplasms. Simple scissor or shave excision, electrodesiccation, or cryosurgery can be used for treatment. Sebaceous hyperplasia presents as asymptomatic, discrete, soft, pale yellow, shiny bumps on the forehead or cheeks, or near hair follicles. Except for cosmesis, they have no clinical significance. Lipomas are soft, flesh-colored nodules that are easily moveable under the overlying skin. Keratoacanthomas are rapidly growing, squamoproliferative benign tumors that resemble squamous cell carcinomas. Early simple excision is recommended. Pyogenic granuloma is a rapidly growing nodule that bleeds easily. Treatment includes laser ablation or shave excision with electrodesiccation of the base. Dermatofibromas are an idiopathic benign proliferation of fibroblasts. No treatment is required unless there is a change in size or color, bleeding, or irritation from trauma. Epidermal inclusion cysts can be treated by simple excision with removal of the cyst and cyst wall. Seborrheic keratoses and cherry angiomas generally do not require treatment. PMID:26447443

  19. Phyllodes tumor of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Tomomi; Shimada, Keiji; Tanaka, Nobumichi; Fujimoto, Kiyohide; Konishi, Noboru

    2012-03-01

    In this report, we describe a case of phyllodes tumor of the prostate with a high value of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). A 47-year-old man with symptoms of hematospermia presented with a steadily elevated serum PSA value of 60.76 ng/mL (normal range, < 4 ng/mL). A needle biopsy revealed atypical stromal cells without any evidence of malignancy. After radical prostatectomy, the tumor measured 2.9 cm in diameter and consisted of a single nodule composed of irregular, elongated epithelial ducts and atypical stromal cells with enlarged, occasionally multinucleated, pleomorphic, or hyperchromatic nuclei. Immunohistochemistry showed that the atypical stromal cells were positive for vimentin, androgen receptor, estrogen receptor, progesterone, and 5?-reductase, but negative for MIB-1, PSA, SMA, p53, desmin, CD34, c-kit, CD10, S-100, and EGFR. Excess PSA might be secreted by hyperplastic luminal cells driven by 5?-reductase-positive stromal and epithelial cells. Array-comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) for genomic alterations revealed a gain of 11p13, which includes the WT1 gene, and a loss of 1p36.23 and 12p12.1. After surgery, the serum PSA value rapidly decreased to within the normal range; no recurrence or distant metastasis was noted after 2 years of follow up. PMID:22360509

  20. A rare case of hybrid odontogenic tumor: Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor combined with ameloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Wadhwan, Vijay; Sharma, Preeti; Bansal, Vishal

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid odontogenic tumor comprising two distinct lesions is extremely rare. Nevertheless, such tumors have been reported in the literature for academic and research interest. However, it is still obscure whether they behave as a new entity or they solely present separate histopathologic patterns. Here, we present a true hybrid neoplasm of combined ameloblastoma and calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor showing intermixed histopathologic patterns of both the tumors. PMID:26604514

  1. High-Dose Thiotepa Plus Peripheral Stem Cell Transplantation in Treating Patients With Refractory Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-03-06

    Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors; Childhood Germ Cell Tumor; Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Cancer; Retinoblastoma; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  2. Como Lo Hago Yo: Mielomeningocele En Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Dabdoub, Carlos F.; Dabdoub, Carlos B.; Villavicencio, Ramiro; Quevedo, Germán

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: Las malformaciones del tubo neural (MTN) representan la segunda causa más frecuente de anomalías congénitas, luego de las cardiopatías. En este grupo se destaca el mielomeningocele (MMC) por su mayor incidencia, y por ser la más incapacitante y la más compleja entre todas las demás malformaciones del sistema nervioso c`entral (SNC). En Bolivia, como en muchos países de Sudamérica, los bajos niveles socio-culturales y la debilidad en el sistema sanitario, hacen que su incidencia y su morbilidad, sean mayores que en las naciones más desarrolladas. Material y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo y descriptivo de 70 casos de MMC, atendidos por un equipo multidisciplinario en el Hospital Universitario Japonés (HUJ) de Santa Cruz de la Sierra, entre 2008-2011. De ellos, 60 fueron intervenidos quirúrgicamente. Resultados: Se realizaron controles prenatales sólo en 27 mujeres (38.6%), diagnosticándose una disrafia espinal en apenas dos casos (7.4%). La edad de ingreso del MMC en su mayoría fue después de las 24 horas (65.6%), predominando su localización en la región lumbosacra (64.3%). De ellos, 67.2% eran abiertos, presentando un 32.9% un daño neurológico motor parcial mientras que 47.1% tenían paraplejia por debajo de la lesión. De los 70 casos, tres (4.3%) no fueron intervenidos, por presentar defectos congénitos severos o estado general grave. Las principales complicaciones posoperatorias inmediatas fueron: dehiscencia de sutura y/o infección de la herida (16.6%), fístula de líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) (10%) e infección del SNC (11.7%). La mortalidad general y postoperatoria fue de 7.1% y 3.3%, respectivamente. Al mes de vida presentaban hidrocefalia un 80% de los pacientes operados, colocándose una derivación ventriculoperitoneal (DVP) de presión media. De 9 pacientes que tuvieron un acompanamiento de dos o más años, seis presentaron una médula anclada, que fueron intervenidas quirúrgicamente. Conclusión: En esta serie, el diagnóstico prenatal del MMC fue ocasional y la derivación al HUJ de los recién nacidos con esta malformación fue generalmente tardía. No hubo predominio de género y la mayoría de los casos presentaron sus lesiones en la región lumbar y lumbosacra. La mortalidad general y postoperatoria fue similar a la reportada en la literatura. Pocos enfermos realizaron controles posteriores al alta hospitalaria. Igual que otros países de Sudamérica, las falencias en el sistema público de salud y el nivel sociocultural, son factores determinantes para un mal pronóstico en estos niños. Por sus múltiples complicaciones, el MMC requiere de una especial atención gubernamental, sobre todo de carácter preventivo mediante el uso de ácido fólico en mujeres fértiles, como también de un equipo profesional multidisciplinario, a fin de realizar un tratamiento adecuado y oportuno. Al mismo tiempo, trabajos multicéntricos en hospitales de América Latina, ayudarán al mejor manejo de estos pacientes. PMID:24791220

  3. TLR8 signaling enhances tumor immunity by preventing tumor-induced T-cell senescence

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Jian; Ma, Chunling; Hsueh, Eddy C; Dou, Jie; Mo, Wei; Liu, Shuai; Han, Bing; Huang, Yi; Zhang, Yanping; Varvares, Mark A; Hoft, Daniel F; Peng, Guangyong

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests the immunosuppressive microenvironments created by malignant tumors represent a major obstacle for effective anti-tumor immunity. A better understanding of the suppressive mechanisms mediated by tumor microenvironments and the development of strategies to reverse the immune suppression are major challenges for the success of tumor immunotherapy. Here, we report that human tumor cells can induce senescence in naïve/effector T cells, exhibiting potent suppressive function in vitro and in vivo. We further show that tumor-derived endogenous cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is responsible for the induction of T-cell senescence. Importantly, activation of TLR8 signaling in tumor cells can block the induction and reverse the suppression of senescent naïve and tumor-specific T cells in vitro and in vivo, resulting in enhanced anti-tumor immunity. These studies identify a novel mechanism of human tumor-mediated immune suppression and provide a new strategy to reverse tumor immunosuppressive effects for tumor immunotherapy. PMID:25231413

  4. TLR8 signaling enhances tumor immunity by preventing tumor-induced T-cell senescence.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jian; Ma, Chunling; Hsueh, Eddy C; Dou, Jie; Mo, Wei; Liu, Shuai; Han, Bing; Huang, Yi; Zhang, Yanping; Varvares, Mark A; Hoft, Daniel F; Peng, Guangyong

    2014-10-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests the immunosuppressive microenvironments created by malignant tumors represent a major obstacle for effective anti-tumor immunity. A better understanding of the suppressive mechanisms mediated by tumor microenvironments and the development of strategies to reverse the immune suppression are major challenges for the success of tumor immunotherapy. Here, we report that human tumor cells can induce senescence in naïve/effector T cells, exhibiting potent suppressive function in vitro and in vivo. We further show that tumor-derived endogenous cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is responsible for the induction of T-cell senescence. Importantly, activation of TLR8 signaling in tumor cells can block the induction and reverse the suppression of senescent naïve and tumor-specific T cells in vitro and in vivo, resulting in enhanced anti-tumor immunity. These studies identify a novel mechanism of human tumor-mediated immune suppression and provide a new strategy to reverse tumor immunosuppressive effects for tumor immunotherapy. PMID:25231413

  5. A rare case report of rib hemangioma mimicking a malignant bone tumor or metastatic tumor

    PubMed Central

    Haro, Akira; Nagashima, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Hemangioma of the rib is a rare benign vascular tumor. This benign disease induces osteolytic changes, and must be distinguished from a malignant bone tumor or metastatic tumor. Definitive diagnosis is achieved by excision biopsy or histological examination after surgical resection in many cases. We here in present a rare case of hemangioma of the rib. PMID:26454500

  6. Maspin expression in prostate tumor elicits host anti-tumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Dzinic, Sijana H; Chen, Kang; Thakur, Archana; Kaplun, Alexander; Bonfil, R Daniel; Li, Xiaohua; Liu, Jason; Bernardo, M Margarida; Saliganan, Allen; Back, Jessica B; Yano, Hiroshi; Schalk, Dana L; Tomaszewski, Elyse N; Beydoun, Ahmed S; Dyson, Gregory; Mujagic, Adelina; Krass, David; Dean, Ivory; Mi, Qing-Sheng; Heath, Elisabeth; Sakr, Wael; Lum, Lawrence G; Sheng, Shijie

    2014-11-30

    The goal of the current study is to examine the biological effects of epithelial-specific tumor suppressor maspin on tumor host immune response. Accumulated evidence demonstrates an anti-tumor effect of maspin on tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. The molecular mechanism underlying these biological functions of maspin is thought to be through histone deacetylase inhibition, key to the maintenance of differentiated epithelial phenotype. Since tumor-driven stromal reactivities co-evolve in tumor progression and metastasis, it is not surprising that maspin expression in tumor cells inhibits extracellular matrix degradation, increases fibrosis and blocks hypoxia-induced angiogenesis. Using the athymic nude mouse model capable of supporting the growth and progression of xenogeneic human prostate cancer cells, we further demonstrate that maspin expression in tumor cells elicits neutrophil- and B cells-dependent host tumor immunogenicity. Specifically, mice bearing maspin-expressing tumors exhibited increased systemic and intratumoral neutrophil maturation, activation and antibody-dependent cytotoxicity, and decreased peritumoral lymphangiogenesis. These results reveal a novel biological function of maspin in directing host immunity towards tumor elimination that helps explain the significant reduction of xenograft tumor incidence in vivo and the clinical correlation of maspin with better prognosis of several types of cancer. Taken together, our data raised the possibility for novel maspin-based cancer immunotherapies. PMID:25373490

  7. Sleeping Parathyroid Tumor: Rapid Hyperfunction after Removal of the Dominant Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Simonds, William F.; Weinstein, Lee S.; Collins, Michael T.; Kebebew, Electron; Nilubol, Naris; Phan, Giao Q.; Libutti, Steven K.; Remaley, Alan T.; Van Deventer, Manuel; Marx, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Due to frequent multiplicity of tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, it may be difficult to decide when to stop a parathyroid exploration. A fall of intraoperative serum PTH by a certain percentage during parathyroid surgery is often used as one criterion for ending the operation. Results: We report two patients with primary hyperparathyroidism due to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 who had their first parathyroidectomy at the National Institutes of Health. In both cases, two and a half glands were removed, an extensive search was done for an occult parathyroid tumor, and intraoperative PTH decreased markedly to the lower limits of normal, suggesting a successful operation. Despite this, both patients became hypercalcemic within 3 d after the operation and showed persistent primary hyperparathyroidism. Detailed findings suggest the following course: chronic hypercalcemia had caused near total suppression of PTH secretion by an undiscovered parathyroid tumor (sleeping parathyroid tumor). When the hypercalcemia decreased after surgery due to the removal of the dominant parathyroid tumor(s), the abnormal yet previously suppressed tumor rapidly began to oversecrete PTH and thus caused postoperative hypercalcemia. Conclusions: Even a fall of the intraoperative PTH to the lower limits of the normal range cannot guarantee that removal of all parathyroid tumors has been complete in cases with multiple tumors. These findings likely reflect strikingly differing PTH secretory functions among distinct tumors in the same patient, with hypercalcemia at least from a dominant tumor suppressing PTH secretion by one or more other parathyroid tumors. PMID:22508712

  8. Gonadotropin-positive pituitary tumors accompanied by ovarian tumors in aging female ER??/? mice

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiaotang; Gabbi, Chiara; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Cheng, Guojun; Andersson, Leif C.; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2010-01-01

    At 2 years of age, 100% (23/23) of ER??/? female mice have developed large pituitary and ovarian tumors. The pituitary tumors are gonadotropin-positive and the ovarian tumors are sex cord (less differentiated) and granulosa cell tumors (differentiated and estrogen secreting). No male mice had pituitary tumors and no pituitary or ovarian tumors developed in ER??/? mice or in ER???/? double knockout mice. The tumors have high proliferation indices, are ER?-positive, ER?-negative, and express high levels of nuclear phospho-SMAD3. Mice with granulosa cell tumors also had hyperproliferative endometria. The cause of the pituitary tumors appeared to be excessive secretion of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus resulting from high expression of NPY. The ovarian phenotype is similar to that seen in mice where inhibin is ablated. The data indicate that ER? plays an important role in regulating GnRH secretion. We suggest that in the absence of ER?, the proliferative action of FSH/SMAD3 is unopposed and the high proliferation leads to the development of ovarian tumors. The absence of tumors in the ER???/? mice suggests that tumor development requires the presence of ER?. PMID:20308571

  9. Intraoperative infrared imaging of brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Gorbach, Alexander M.; Heiss, John D.; Kopylev, Leonid; Oldfield, Edward H.

    2014-01-01

    Object Although clinical imaging defines the anatomical relationship between a brain tumor and the surrounding brain and neurological deficits indicate the neurophysiological consequences of the tumor, the effect of a brain tumor on vascular physiology is less clear. Methods An infrared camera was used to measure the temperature of the cortical surface before, during, and after removal of a mass in 34 patients (primary brain tumor in 21 patients, brain metastases in 10 and falx meningioma, cavernous angioma, and radiation necrosis–astrocytosis in one patient each). To establish the magnitude of the effect on blood flow induced by the tumor, the images were compared with those from a group of six patients who underwent temporal lobectomy for epilepsy. In four cases a cerebral artery was temporarily occluded during the course of the surgery and infrared emissions from the cortex before and after occlusion were compared to establish the relationship of local temperature to regional blood flow. Discrete temperature gradients were associated with surgically verified lesions in all cases. Depending on the type of tumor, the cortex overlying the tumor was either colder or warmer than the surrounding cortex. Spatial reorganization of thermal gradients was observed after tumor resection. Temperature gradients of the cortex in patients with tumors exceeded those measured in the cortex of patients who underwent epilepsy surgery. Conclusions Brain tumors induce changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the cortex, which can be made visible by performing infrared imaging during cranial surgery. A reduction in CBF beyond the tumor margin improves after removal of the lesion. PMID:15599965

  10. Enhanced delivery of liposomes to lung tumor through targeting interleukin-4 receptor on both tumor cells and tumor endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chi, Lianhua; Na, Moon-Hee; Jung, Hyun-Kyung; Vadevoo, Sri Murugan Poongkavithai; Kim, Cheong-Wun; Padmanaban, Guruprasath; Park, Tae-In; Park, Jae-Yong; Hwang, Ilseon; Park, Keon Uk; Liang, Frank; Lu, Maggie; Park, Jiho; Kim, In-San; Lee, Byung-Heon

    2015-07-10

    A growing body of evidence suggests that pathological lesions express tissue-specific molecular targets or biomarkers within the tissue. Interleukin-4 receptor (IL-4R) is overexpressed in many types of cancer cells, including lung cancer. Here we investigated the properties of IL-4R-binding peptide-1 (IL4RPep-1), a CRKRLDRNC peptide, and its ability to target the delivery of liposomes to lung tumor. IL4RPep-1 preferentially bound to H226 lung tumor cells which express higher levers of IL-4R compared to H460 lung tumor cells which express less IL-4R. Mutational analysis revealed that C1, R2, and R4 residues of IL4RPep-1 were the key binding determinants. IL4RPep-1-labeled liposomes containing doxorubicin were more efficiently internalized in H226 cells and effectively delivered doxorubicin into the cells compared to unlabeled liposomes. In vivo fluorescence imaging of nude mice subcutaneously xenotransplanted with H226 tumor cells indicated that IL4RPep-1-labeled liposomes accumulate more efficiently in the tumor and inhibit tumor growth more effectively compared to unlabeled liposomes. Interestingly, expression of IL-4R was high in vascular endothelial cells of tumor, while little was detected in vascular endothelial cells of control organs including the liver. IL-4R expression in cultured human vascular endothelial cells was also up-regulated when activated by a pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-?. Moreover, the up-regulation of IL-4R expression was observed in primary human lung cancer tissues. These results indicate that IL-4R-targeting nanocarriers may be a useful strategy to enhance drug delivery through the recognition of IL-4R in both tumor cells and tumor endothelial cells. PMID:25979323

  11. Natural history of tumor growth and immune modulation in common spontaneous murine mammary tumor models

    PubMed Central

    Gad, Ekram; Rastetter, Lauren; Slota, Meredith; Koehnlein, Marlese; Treuting, Piper M.; Dang, Yushe; Stanton, Sasha; Disis, Mary L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Recent studies in patients with breast cancer suggest the immune microenvironment influences response to therapy. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between growth rates of tumors in common spontaneous mammary tumor models and immune biomarkers evaluated in the tumor and blood. Methods TgMMTV-neu and C3(1)-Tag transgenic mice were followed longitudinally from birth, and MPA-DMBA treated mice from the time of carcinogen administration, for the development of mammary tumors. Tumor infiltrating CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, FOXP3+ T-regulatory cells, and myeloid derived suppressor cells were assessed by flow cytometry. Serum cytokines were evaluated in subsets of mice. Fine needle aspirates of tumors were collected and RNA isolated to determine levels of immune and proliferation markers. Results Age of tumor onset and kinetics of tumor growth were significantly different among the models. Mammary tumors from TgMMTV-neu contained a lower CD8/CD4 ratio than other models (p<0.05). MPA-DMBA induced tumors contained a higher percentage of FOXP3+ CD4+ T-cells (p<0.01) and MDSC (p<0.001) as compared to the other models. Individuals with significantly slower tumor growth demonstrated higher levels of Type I serum cytokines prior to the development of lesions as compared to those with rapid tumor growth. Moreover, the tumors of animals with more rapid tumor growth demonstrated a significant increase in expression of genes associated with Type II immunity than those with slower progressing tumors. Conclusions These data provide a foundation for the development of in vivo models to explore the relationship between endogenous immunity and response to standard therapies for breast cancer. PMID:25395320

  12. [Vascular tumors in the aged].

    PubMed

    Hundeiker, M

    1989-11-15

    In elderly people, we find other vascular malformations and neoplasms to be frequent and important than during the first decades of life. The features of malformations change in the course of the years due to degenerative processes (e.g., venous lakes in solar degeneration, Pasini's ectasias of the lower lip). True angiomas are relatively rare in old people (except "senile" or tardive angiomas). Most of the malignant vascular tumors do not develop until very late in life (e.g., the sporadic type of Kaposi's sarcoma, Stewart-Treves syndrome, multicentric angiosarcoma of the scalp). Except for these malignancies, there is a greater range of therapeutic means in the elderly, since aged skin is more extensible and late sequelae of X-ray therapy are of minor importance. PMID:2692331

  13. Controversies in borderline ovarian tumors

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Seok Ju; Kim, Mi Kyoung; Song, Taejong

    2015-01-01

    Borderline ovarian tumors (BOTs) represent about 15% to 20% of all ovarian malignancies and differ from invasive ovarian cancers (IOCs) by many characters. Historically, standard management of BOT is peritoneal washing cytology, hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, omentectomy, complete peritoneal resection of macroscopic lesions; in case of mucinous BOTs, appendectomy should be performed. Because BOTs are often diagnosed at earlier stage, in younger age women and have better prognosis, higher survival rate than IOCs, fertility-sparing surgery is one of the option to preserve childbearing capacity. The study of such conservative surgery is being released, and still controversial. After surgery, pregnancy and ovarian induction followed by in vitro fertilization are also significant issues. In surgery, laparoscopic technique can be used by a gynecologic oncology surgeon. So far postoperative chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormone therapy are not recommended. We will discuss controversial issues of BOTs on this review and present the outline of the management of BOTs. PMID:26404125

  14. Controversies in borderline ovarian tumors.

    PubMed

    Seong, Seok Ju; Kim, Da Hee; Kim, Mi Kyoung; Song, Taejong

    2015-10-01

    Borderline ovarian tumors (BOTs) represent about 15% to 20% of all ovarian malignancies and differ from invasive ovarian cancers (IOCs) by many characters. Historically, standard management of BOT is peritoneal washing cytology, hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, omentectomy, complete peritoneal resection of macroscopic lesions; in case of mucinous BOTs, appendectomy should be performed. Because BOTs are often diagnosed at earlier stage, in younger age women and have better prognosis, higher survival rate than IOCs, fertility-sparing surgery is one of the option to preserve childbearing capacity. The study of such conservative surgery is being released, and still controversial. After surgery, pregnancy and ovarian induction followed by in vitro fertilization are also significant issues. In surgery, laparoscopic technique can be used by a gynecologic oncology surgeon. So far postoperative chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormone therapy are not recommended. We will discuss controversial issues of BOTs on this review and present the outline of the management of BOTs. PMID:26404125

  15. Retroperitoneal Extragastrointestinal Stromal Tumor: Radiologic Pathologic Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Watal, Pankaj; Brahmbhatt, Swetang G.; Thoriya, Prashant J.; Bahri, Nandini U.

    2014-01-01

    Neoplasms with histology and immunohistochemistry similar to gastrointestinal stromal tumors may occur primarily outside the gastrointestinal tract, usually in the omentum and mesentery. These are referred to as extragastrointestinal stromal tumors (EGISTs). Retroperitoneum is a very rare site for such neoplasms. We report a patient with EGIST in the retroperitoneum, elaborating the cross-sectional imaging and histopathologic findings. PMID:25161803

  16. Retroperitoneal extragastrointestinal stromal tumor: radiologic pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Watal, Pankaj; Brahmbhatt, Swetang G; Thoriya, Prashant J; Bahri, Nandini U

    2014-01-01

    Neoplasms with histology and immunohistochemistry similar to gastrointestinal stromal tumors may occur primarily outside the gastrointestinal tract, usually in the omentum and mesentery. These are referred to as extragastrointestinal stromal tumors (EGISTs). Retroperitoneum is a very rare site for such neoplasms. We report a patient with EGIST in the retroperitoneum, elaborating the cross-sectional imaging and histopathologic findings. PMID:25161803

  17. An overview of tumorous diseases of turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This overview is primarily aimed at addressing various aspects of virus-induced tumorous diseases of turkeys including review of current methods for diagnosis and control of these diseases of turkeys. Virus-induced tumorous diseases of turkeys are caused primarily by retroviruses, namely reticuloend...

  18. Discovery of Tumor Suppressor Gene Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheimer, Steven B.

    1995-01-01

    This is an update of a 1991 review on tumor suppressor genes written at a time when understanding of how the genes work was limited. A recent major breakthrough in the understanding of the function of tumor suppressor genes is discussed. (LZ)

  19. Dependence of FDG uptake on tumor microenvironment

    SciTech Connect

    Pugachev, Andrei . E-mail: pugachea@mskcc.org; Ruan, Shutian; Carlin, Sean; Larson, Steven M.; Campa, Jose; Ling, C. Clifton; Humm, John L.

    2005-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the factors affecting the {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) uptake in tumors at a microscopic level, by correlating it with tumor hypoxia, cellular proliferation, and blood perfusion. Methods and Materials: Nude mice bearing Dunning prostate tumors (R3327-AT) were injected with {sup 18}F-FDG and pimonidazole, bromodeoxyuridine, and, 1 min before sacrifice, with Hoechst 33342. Selected tumor sections were imaged by phosphor plate autoradiography, while adjacent sections were used to obtain the images of the spatial distribution of Hoechst 33342, pimonidazole, and bromodeoxyuridine. The images were co-registered and analyzed on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Results: Statistical analysis of the data obtained from these tumors demonstrated that {sup 18}F-FDG uptake was positively correlated with pimonidazole staining intensity in each data set studied. Correlation of FDG uptake with bromodeoxyuridine staining intensity was always negative. In addition, FDG uptake was always negatively correlated with the staining intensity of Hoechst 33342. Conclusions: For the Dunning prostate tumors studied, FDG uptake was always positively correlated with hypoxia and negatively correlated with both cellular proliferation and blood flow. Therefore, for the tumor model studied, higher FDG uptake is indicative of tumor hypoxia, but neither blood flow nor cellular proliferation.

  20. Evolutionary dynamics of tumor suppressor gene inactivation

    E-print Network

    Evolutionary dynamics of tumor suppressor gene inactivation Martin A. Nowak*§ , Franziska Michor, and approved May 27, 2004 (received for review February 3, 2004) Tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) are important, and zero rate-limiting steps to inactivate a TSG. We also study the effect of chromosomal and other genetic

  1. Towards the Standardization of Tumor Diagnosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The differential diagnosis of chicken tumors is important but has been difficult in practice for a variety of reasons. Methods and criteria have varied among laboratories. This poster is based on a new publication (1) designed to encourage greater standardization of tumor diagnosis. The use of a...

  2. Percutaneous needle treatment of liver tumors

    E-print Network

    · Percutaneous needle treatment of liver tumors · Target multiple tumors through a single incisionmm x 90mm x 260mm · Autoclavable I. Free Space III. Bovine Liver · Precurved concentric nitinol tubes.80 Bovine Liver (mm) 3.32 ± 2.66 II. Ethanol Solution Future Work · Human trials with manual unit · Fully

  3. Transmissible Tumors: Breaking the Cancer Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Ostrander, Elaine A; Davis, Brian W; Ostrander, Gary K

    2016-01-01

    Transmissible tumors are those that have transcended the bounds of their incipient hosts by evolving the ability to infect another individual through direct transfer of cancer cells, thus becoming parasitic cancer clones. Coitus, biting, and scratching are transfer mechanisms for the two primary species studied, the domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) and the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii). Canine transmissible venereal tumors (CTVT) are likely thousands of years old, and have successfully travelled from host to host around the world, while the Tasmanian devil facial tumor disease (DFTD) is much younger and geographically localized. The dog tumor is not necessarily lethal, while the devil tumor has driven the population to near extinction. Transmissible tumors are uniform in that they have complex immunologic profiles, which allow them to escape immune detection by their hosts, sometimes for long periods of time. In this review, we explore how transmissible tumors in CTVT, DFTD, and as well as the soft-shell clam and Syrian hamster, can advance studies of tumor biology. PMID:26686413

  4. Tumorous diseases of turkeys - an update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This update is primarily focused on addressing various aspects of virus-induced tumorous diseases of turkeys including review of current methods for diagnosis and control of these diseases of turkeys. Virus-induced tumorous diseases of turkeys are caused primarily by retroviruses, namely reticuloend...

  5. Vascular tumors of the choroid and retina

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugam, P Mahesh; Ramanjulu, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Vascular tumors of the retina and choroid can be seen occasionally. In the following article, the key clinical and diagnostic features of the major retinal and choroidal vascular tumors, their systemic associations, and the literature pertaining to the most currently available treatment strategies are reviewed. PMID:25827544

  6. Epigenetic alterations in human parathyroid tumors.

    PubMed

    Verdelli, Chiara; Forno, Irene; Vaira, Valentina; Corbetta, Sabrina

    2015-06-01

    Epigenetics alterations are involved in tumorigenesis and have been identified in endocrine neoplasia. In particular, DNA methylation, microRNAs deregulations and histone methylation impairment are detected in tumors of the parathyroid glands. Parathyroid tumors are the second most common endocrine neoplasia following thyroid cancer in women, and it is associated with primary hyperparathyroidism, a disease sustained by PTH hypersecretion. Despite the hallmark of global promoter hypomethylations was not detectable in parathyroid tumors, increase of hypermethylation in specific CpG islands was detected in the progression from benign to malignant parathyroid tumors. Furthermore, deregulation of a panel of embryonic-related microRNAs (miRNAs) was documented in parathyroid tumors compared with normal glands. Impaired expression of the histone methyltransferases EZH2, BMI1, and RIZ1 have been described in parathyroid tumors. Moreover, histone methyltransferases have been shown to be modulated by the oncosuppressors HIC1, MEN1, and HRPT2/CDC73 gene products that characterize tumorigenesis of parathyroid adenomas and carcinomas, respectively. The epigenetic scenario in parathyroid tumors have just began to be decoded but emerging data highlight the involvement of an embryonic gene signature in parathyroid tumor development. PMID:25722013

  7. The biological relevance of gastric neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Klöppel, G.; Clemens, A.

    1996-01-01

    Gastric neuroendocrine tumors were originally thought to have a low incidence (three percent). Since endoscopic diagnostic procedures have become clinical routine, they are now found more frequently (relative incidence up to 41 percent). In recent years, classifications have been developed that attempt to consider the biological relevance of these tumors. Four types of gastric neuroendocrine tumor may be distinguished: Type 1 gastric neuroendocrine tumor is most common. It is associated with chronic atrophic fundus gastritis, hypergastrinemia and often with pernicious anemia. Usually it is multicentric and smaller than one cm, does not produce any symptoms and has an excellent prognosis. Type 2 gastric neuroendocrine tumor is second in frequency. It has no association with other diseases, is solitary and has no predilection for a particular localization. It may be larger than 1 cm, produce a carcinoid syndrome or Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and have a metastasis rate of up to 30 percent. Type 3 gastric neuroendocrine tumor is rare and always associated with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and multiple endocrine neoplasia type I. It occurs as multiple lesions in the gastric body fundus and has a lower metastatic rate than type 2 gastric neuroendocrine tumor. Type 4 gastric neuroendocrine tumor corresponds to a small-cell carcinoma. PMID:9041691

  8. Whole Tumor Antigen Vaccines: Where Are We?

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Cheryl Lai-Lai; Coukos, George; Kandalaft, Lana E.

    2015-01-01

    With its vast amount of uncharacterized and characterized T cell epitopes available for activating CD4+ T helper and CD8+ cytotoxic lymphocytes simultaneously, whole tumor antigen represents an attractive alternative source of antigens as compared to tumor-derived peptides and full-length recombinant tumor proteins for dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy. Unlike defined tumor-derived peptides and proteins, whole tumor lysate therapy is applicable to all patients regardless of their HLA type. DCs are essentially the master regulators of immune response, and are the most potent antigen-presenting cell population for priming and activating naïve T cells to target tumors. Because of these unique properties, numerous DC-based immunotherapies have been initiated in the clinics. In this review, we describe the different types of whole tumor antigens that we could use to pulse DCs ex vivo and in vivo. We also discuss the different routes of delivering whole tumor antigens to DCs in vivo and activating them with toll-like receptor agonists. PMID:26343191

  9. High Efficiency Diffusion Molecular Retention Tumor Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanyan; Yuan, Hushan; Cho, Hoonsung; Kuruppu, Darshini; Jokivarsi, Kimmo; Agarwal, Aayush; Shah, Khalid; Josephson, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Here we introduce diffusion molecular retention (DMR) tumor targeting, a technique that employs PEG-fluorochrome shielded probes that, after a peritumoral (PT) injection, undergo slow vascular uptake and extensive interstitial diffusion, with tumor retention only through integrin molecular recognition. To demonstrate DMR, RGD (integrin binding) and RAD (control) probes were synthesized bearing DOTA (for 111 In3+), a NIR fluorochrome, and 5 kDa PEG that endows probes with a protein-like volume of 25 kDa and decreases non-specific interactions. With a GFP-BT-20 breast carcinoma model, tumor targeting by the DMR or IV methods was assessed by surface fluorescence, biodistribution of [111In] RGD and [111In] RAD probes, and whole animal SPECT. After a PT injection, both probes rapidly diffused through the normal and tumor interstitium, with retention of the RGD probe due to integrin interactions. With PT injection and the [111In] RGD probe, SPECT indicated a highly tumor specific uptake at 24 h post injection, with 352%ID/g tumor obtained by DMR (vs 4.14%ID/g by IV). The high efficiency molecular targeting of DMR employed low probe doses (e.g. 25 ng as RGD peptide), which minimizes toxicity risks and facilitates clinical translation. DMR applications include the delivery of fluorochromes for intraoperative tumor margin delineation, the delivery of radioisotopes (e.g. toxic, short range alpha emitters) for radiotherapy, or the delivery of photosensitizers to tumors accessible to light. PMID:23505478

  10. Genomic tumor evolution of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sato, Fumiaki; Saji, Shigehira; Toi, Masakazu

    2016-01-01

    Owing to recent technical development of comprehensive genome-wide analysis such as next generation sequencing, deep biological insights of breast cancer have been revealed. Information of genomic mutations and rearrangements in patients' tumors is indispensable to understand the mechanism in carcinogenesis, progression, metastasis, and resistance to systemic treatment of breast cancer. To date, comprehensive genomic analyses illustrate not only base substitution patterns and lists of driver mutations and key rearrangements, but also a manner of tumor evolution. Breast cancer genome is dynamically changing and evolving during cancer development course from non-invasive disease via invasive primary tumor to metastatic tumor, and during treatment exposure. The accumulation pattern of base substitution and genomic rearrangement looks gradual and punctuated, respectively, in analogy with contrasting theories for evolution manner of species, Darwin's phyletic gradualism, and Eldredge and Gould's "punctuated equilibrium". Liquid biopsy is a non-invasive method to detect the genomic evolution of breast cancer. Genomic mutation patterns in circulating tumor cells and circulating cell-free tumor DNA represent those of tumors existing in patient body. Liquid biopsy methods are now under development for future application to clinical practice of cancer treatment. In this article, latest knowledge regarding breast cancer genome, especially in terms of 'tumor evolution', is summarized. PMID:25998191

  11. Why should we care about fly tumors?

    PubMed Central

    Hombría, James Castelli-Gair; Serras, Florenci

    2013-01-01

    Drosophila is proving to be a valuable model for studying aggressive tumors induced by the combined activation of EGFR and JAK-STAT signaling. Here we summarize some of the most recent data showing that tissue damage and the modulation of common pathway regulators are at the heart tumor progression and metastasis. PMID:24058803

  12. Deformability of Tumor Cells versus Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shaw Bagnall, Josephine; Byun, Sangwon; Begum, Shahinoor; Miyamoto, David T.; Hecht, Vivian C.; Maheswaran, Shyamala; Stott, Shannon L.; Toner, Mehmet; Hynes, Richard O.; Manalis, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    The potential for circulating tumor cells (CTCs) to elucidate the process of cancer metastasis and inform clinical decision-making has made their isolation of great importance. However, CTCs are rare in the blood, and universal properties with which to identify them remain elusive. As technological advancements have made single-cell deformability measurements increasingly routine, the assessment of physical distinctions between tumor cells and blood cells may provide insight into the feasibility of deformability-based methods for identifying CTCs in patient blood. To this end, we present an initial study assessing deformability differences between tumor cells and blood cells, indicated by the length of time required for them to pass through a microfluidic constriction. Here, we demonstrate that deformability changes in tumor cells that have undergone phenotypic shifts are small compared to differences between tumor cell lines and blood cells. Additionally, in a syngeneic mouse tumor model, cells that are able to exit a tumor and enter circulation are not required to be more deformable than the cells that were first injected into the mouse. However, a limited study of metastatic prostate cancer patients provides evidence that some CTCs may be more mechanically similar to blood cells than to typical tumor cell lines. PMID:26679988

  13. Visualizing extravasation dynamics of metastatic tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Stoletov, Konstantin; Kato, Hisashi; Zardouzian, Erin; Kelber, Jonathan; Yang, Jing; Shattil, Sanford; Klemke, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about how metastatic cancer cells arrest in small capillaries and traverse the vascular wall during extravasation in vivo. Using real-time intravital imaging of human tumor cells transplanted into transparent zebrafish, we show here that extravasation of cancer cells is a highly dynamic process that involves the modulation of tumor cell adhesion to the endothelium and intravascular cell migration along the luminal surface of the vascular wall. Tumor cells do not damage or induce vascular leak at the site of extravasation, but rather induce local vessel remodeling characterized by clustering of endothelial cells and cell-cell junctions. Intravascular locomotion of tumor cells is independent of the direction of blood flow and requires ?1-integrin-mediated adhesion to the blood-vessel wall. Interestingly, the expression of the pro-metastatic gene Twist in tumor cells increases their intravascular migration and extravasation through the vessel wall. However, in this case, Twist expression causes the tumor cells to switch to a ?1-integrin-independent mode of extravasation that is associated with the formation of large dynamic rounded membrane protrusions. Our results demonstrate that extravasation of tumor cells is a highly dynamic process influenced by metastatic genes that target adhesion and intravascular migration of tumor cells, and induce endothelial remodeling. PMID:20530574

  14. Radiotherapy for Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Contessa, Joseph N.; Griffith, Kent A.; Wolff, Elizabeth; Ensminger, William; Zalupski, Mark; Ben-Josef, Edgar

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNTs) are rare malignant neoplasms considered to be resistant to radiotherapy (RT), although data on efficacy are scarce. We reviewed our institutional experience to further delineate the role of RT for patients with PNTs. Methods and Materials: Between 1986 and 2006, 36 patients with PNTs were treated with RT to 49 sites. Of these 36 patients, 23 had radiographic follow-up data, which were used to determine the tumor response rate and freedom from local progression. Long-term toxicity was graded according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Results: The overall response rate to RT was 39% (13% complete response, 26% partial response, 56% stable disease, and 4% progressive disease). A significant difference in the freedom from local progression between the groups receiving either greater than or less than the median 2 Gy/fraction biologically equivalent dose of 49.6 Gy was found, with all radiographic progression occurring in patients who had received <=32 Gy. The actuarial 3-year local freedom from progression rate was 49%. Palliation was achieved in 90% of patients, with either improvement or resolution of symptoms after RT. Of 35 patients, 33 had metastatic disease at their referral for RT, and the median overall survival for this patient population was 2 years. Three long-term Grade 3 or greater toxicities were recorded. Conclusion: RT is an effective modality for achieving local control in patients with PNTs. RT produces high rates of symptomatic palliation and freedom from local progression. Prospective trials of radiotherapy for PNTs are warranted.

  15. Thermal Ablation of Lung Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sonntag, P. David; Hinshaw, J. Louis; Lubner, Meghan G.; Brace, Christopher L.; Lee, Fred T.

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death in the United States, accounting for an estimated 29% of cancer deaths in 2009.1 Pneumonectomy or lobectomy with hilar and mediastinal lymph node sampling is the gold standard treatment and offers the best option for cure of stage 1/2 nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC).2 Unfortunately, only 15% of patients present with stage 1/2 disease, and many of these patients do not meet the pulmonary physiologic guidelines for lobar resection.3 In addition to lung cancer, pulmonary metastases are present in 25% to 30% of patients dying from all types of cancer.4 For some patients with oligometastatic pulmonary disease, metastectomy is associated with an improvement in survival.5 External beam radiation traditionally has been offered as the alternative to surgical resection for NSCLC or pulmonary metastatic disease. Unfortunately, the 5-year survival following radiation for stage 1 and 2 NSCLC remains low at 15% to 20%, with local recurrence being the most common mode of failure.6,7 Thermal ablation offers an intriguing therapeutic option to increase local tumor control and survival in patients with early stage NSCLC or with limited metastatic disease from nonlung primaries who are not surgical candidates because of poor cardiopulmonary reserve, anatomic constraints limiting resection, failure of traditional therapies, or refusal of operative approaches. Thermal ablation has been shown to be effective in treating tumors in bone, kidney, and liver.8–11 Most preclinical and clinical trials have focused on demonstrating the feasibility of three modalities for pulmonary thermal ablation, namely radiofrequency (RF) ablation, microwave (MW) ablation, and cryoablation. This article discusses the unique challenges of performing thermal ablation in lung tissue and reviews the current literature regarding RF, MW, and cryoablation in the lung. PMID:21377589

  16. Spinal and Paraspinal Ewing Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Indelicato, Daniel J.; Keole, Sameer R.; Shahlaee, Amir H.; Morris, Christopher G.; Gibbs, C. Parker; Scarborough, Mark T.; Pincus, David W.; Marcus, Robert B.

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: To perform a review of the 40-year University of Florida experience treating spinal and paraspinal Ewing tumors. Patients and Methods: A total of 27 patients were treated between 1965 and 2007. For local management, 21 patients were treated with radiotherapy (RT) alone and 6 with surgery plus RT. All patients with metastatic disease were treated with RT alone. The risk profiles of each group were otherwise similar. The median age was 17 years, and the most frequent subsite was the sacral spine (n = 9). The median potential follow-up was 16 years. Results: The 5-year actuarial overall survival, cause-specific survival, and local control rate was 62%, 62%, and 90%, respectively. For the nonmetastatic subset (n = 22), the 5-year overall survival, cause-specific survival, and local control rate was 71%, 71%, and 89%, respectively. The local control rate was 84% for patients treated with RT alone vs. 100% for those treated with surgery plus RT. Patients who were >14 years old and those who were treated with intensive therapy demonstrated superior local control. Of 9 patients in our series with Frankel C or greater neurologic deficits at presentation, 7 experienced a full recovery with treatment. Of the 27 patients, 37% experienced Common Toxicity Criteria Grade 3 or greater toxicity, including 2 deaths from sepsis. Conclusion: Aggressive management of spinal and paraspinal Ewing tumors with RT with or without surgery results in high toxicity but excellent local control and neurologic outcomes. Efforts should be focused on identifying disease amenable to combined modality local therapy and improving RT techniques.

  17. [Glomus tumor of kidney: Unusual location of a rare mesenchymal tumor].

    PubMed

    Gravet, Claire; Roquet, Laurence; Rioux-Leclercq, Nathalie; Marguet, Florent; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe

    2015-10-01

    Glomus tumors are rare mesenchymal tumors, mostly cutaneous or subcutaneous, for which visceral locations have been described. We report the case of a solid renal glomus tumor incidentally discovered in a 60-year-old patient. The tumor was 25mm wide and was mainly composed of glomus cells expressing smooth muscle actin and vimentin. These cells were negative for cytokeratin, neuroendocrine markers and renin. Glomus cells were associated with blood vessels and bundles of smooth muscle fibers. The purpose of this work is to report the diagnostic criteria, signs of malignancy and main differential diagnosis of these rare tumors whose prognosis is usually excellent after complete surgical resection. PMID:26383552

  18. Segmentation of Ultrasound Images for Tumor Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez Medina, L. R.; Arámbula Cosío, F.; Hazan Lasri, E.

    2006-09-01

    A surgical navigator for treatment of tumors in the musculoskeletal system is being developed at the Image Analysis and Visualization Lab. of CCADET, UNAM. The navigator is designed to assist the surgeon during radiofrecuency (RF) ablation of the tumors, through real time computer graphics models of the tumor, the adjacent structures (bones), and the active volume of the RF probe. The three dimensional model of the tumor and adjacent structures will be constructed from a preoperative MRI study and then registered intraoperatively to the patient using an optically tracked ultrasound probe. In this paper are reported our preliminary results from the semiautomatic segmentation of the tumor and adjacent bones in ultrasound images. The use of ultrasound for intraoperative registration has many advantages such as relative low cost, portability, avoidance of radiation exposure and fiducial markers.

  19. Strange Attractor in Immunology of Tumor Growth

    E-print Network

    Margarita Voitikova

    1997-08-21

    The time delayed cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response on the tumor growth has been developed on the basis of discrete approximation (2-dimensional map). The growth kinetic has been described by logistic law with growth rate being the bifurcation parameter. Increase in the growth rate results in instability of the tumor state and causes period-doubling bifurcations in the immune+tumor system. For larger values of tumor growth rate a strange attractor has been observed. The model proposed is able to describe the metastable-state production when time series data of the immune state and the number of tumor cells are irregular and unpredictable. This metastatic disease may be caused not by exterior (medical) factors, but interior density dependent ones.

  20. Metastatic Spermatic Cord Tumor From Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ji Geon; Jeong, Hye Yun; Kim, Ki Soo; Lee, Jin Sook; Kim, Sang Su; Kim, Ho Young

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic tumors of the spermatic cord are extremely rare, and the prognosis for patients is typically poor. In the majority of cases, the primary tumor occurs in the gastrointestinal tract. We report a case of a 62-year-old man with a metastatic spermatic cord tumor. The patient complained of groin discomfort with a tender mass in the right inguinal area. An excisional biopsy was performed, and the pathologic finding was a metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma. We performed a systemic evaluation including colonoscopy, abdominal computed tomography, and total-body positron emission tomography, and the primary tumor was confirmed to involve the total colon, including the cecum, sigmoid colon, and rectum. The pathologic finding for rectum revealed a mucinous adenocarcinoma compatible with a metastatic spermatic cord tumor. PMID:26576400

  1. Targeting Angiogenesis and the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Samples, Jennifer; Willis, Monte; Klauber-DeMore, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis The role of the microenvironment during the initiation and progression of malignancy is appreciated to be of critical importance for improved molecular diagnostics and therapeutics. The tumor microenvironment is the product of a crosstalk between different cells types. Critical elements in the microenvironment include tumor associated fibroblasts, which provide an essential communication network via secretion of growth factors and chemokines, inducing an altered extracellular matrix (ECM), thereby providing additional oncogenic signals that enhance cancer-cell proliferation and invasion. Active contribution of tumor-associated stromal cells to cancer progression has been recognized. Stromal elements consist of the ECM, fibroblasts of various phenotypes, and a scaffold composed of immune and inflammatory cells, blood and lymph vessels, and nerves. This review will focus on therapeutic targets in the microenvironment related to tumor endothelium, tumor associated fibroblasts and the extracellular matrix. PMID:24012392

  2. Tumor stroma as targets for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Liu, Jinsong

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is not only composed malignant epithelial component but also stromal components such as fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and inflammatory cells, by which an appropriate tumor microenvironment (TME) is formed to promote tumorigenesis, progression, and metastasis. As the most abundant component in the TME, cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are involved in multifaceted mechanistic details including remodeling the extracellular matrix, suppressing immune responses, and secreting growth factors and cytokines that mediate signaling pathways to extensively affect tumor cell growth and invasiveness, differentiation, angiogenesis, and chronic inflammatory milieu. Today, more and more therapeutic strategies are purposefully designed to target the TME as well as tumor cells. This review will focus on the role of CAFs in tumor development and the novel strategies to target this component to inhibit the tumor growth. PMID:23064233

  3. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging of chest tumors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This review provides an overview of the current status of the published data on diffusion magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of chest tumors. Diffusion MR imaging is a non-invasive imaging technique that measures the differences in water mobility in different tissue microstructures and quantifies them based on the apparent diffusion coefficient. Diffusion MR imaging has been used for the characterization, grading and staging of lung cancer as well as for differentiating central tumors from post-obstructive consolidation. In addition, this technique helps in differentiating malignant from benign pulmonary and mediastinal tumors as well as in the characterization of pleural mesothelioma and effusion. Diffusion MR imaging can be incorporated into routine morphological MR imaging to improve radiologist confidence in image interpretation and to provide functional assessments of chest tumors during the same examination. Diffusion MR imaging could be used in the future as a functional imaging technique for tumors of the chest. PMID:23108223

  4. [Testicular and paratesticular tumors in children].

    PubMed

    Fabbro, M A; Costa, L; Cimaglia, M L; Donadio, P; Spata, E

    1995-01-01

    Testis tumors in children occur infrequently and exibit differences in their histopathology, clinical behaviour and therapy from their adult counterparts. From 1979 to 1994, 17 children and adolescent with testicular tumors were treated at the Pediatric Surgical Department of Vicenza Regional Hospital. Paratesticular rabdomiosarcoma were present in 3 cases, 4 patients had embrional carcinoma, 1 Sertoli cell tumor, 2 Leydig cell gonadal stromal tumor, and leukemic infiltrates of the testis were clinically evident in 7 patients. We report our clinical series and discuss in relation to clinical characteristic, histopathology and therapy and conclude that the improved survival during the past decade is attributable to better diagnostic imaging thecniques, the availability of serum tumor markers to monitor disease activity and more effective chemotherapy. PMID:8668584

  5. Ethanol ablation of extradigital solid glomus tumors.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Paul; Spouge, Rebecca J; Akbari, Majid; Spouge, David J

    2014-12-01

    Glomus tumors are predominantly benign neoplasms accounting for less than 2% of all soft tissue tumors. While generally solitary, multiple lesions have been reported in approximately 10% of cases. Glomus tumors are typically under 1 cm in dimension accompanied by the classic triad of symptoms: debilitating pain, pinpoint tenderness, and hypersensitivity to cold temperatures. Excisional therapy is the accepted standard of care, however, past reports of non-invasive treatments for multiple glomangiomata variant tumors include laser therapy, irradiation, and sclerotherapy with STS and hypertonic saline. We present a case of a patient with multiple subcutaneous and intramuscular, lower-extremity benign solid glomus tumors treated successfully utilizing ethanol ablation, which has not been previously reported. This minimally invasive treatment allowed for control of symptoms from a benign condition previously requiring multiple invasive surgeries. PMID:25022808

  6. Diagnosis and treatment of pineal region tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Neuwelt, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this volume is to review the pertinent literature dealing with pineal tumors and thus aid in the handling of these rather uncommon lesions. After the first, introductory, chapter, three chapters treat the pathology and diagnosis of pineal tumors. There is also one chapter on intracranial germ cell tumors (natural history and pathogenesis) and one on the normal function of the pineal gland. With the exception of the chapter on diagnostic radiology of pineal tumors, which seems somewhat superficial, these five chapters summarize current knowledge about the nature of these complex lesions and their symptomatology very well. The next nine chapters deal with biopsy and surgery of these tumors and how to manage the patient. The first of these gives a historical review of the development of surgical techniques - from the first attempt by Horsley in 1905 to the microsurgical techniques of today. It is followed by a very important and detailed description of the microsurgical anatomy of the pineal region.

  7. Morphogenesis and Complexity of the Tumor Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izquierdo-Kulich, E.; Nieto-Villar, J. M.

    A mechanism to describe the apoptosis process at mesoscopic level through p53 is proposed in this paper. A deterministic model given by three differential equations is deduced from the mesoscopic approach, which exhibits sustained oscillations caused by a supercritical Andronov-Hopf bifurcation. Taking as hypothesis that the p53 sustained oscillation is the fundamental mechanism for apoptosis regulation; the model predicts that it is necessary a strict control of p53 to stimulated it, which is an important consideration to established new therapy strategy to fight cancer. The mathematical modeling of tumor growth allows us to describe the most important regularities of these systems. A stochastic model, based on the most important processes that take place at the level of individual cells, is proposed to predict the dynamical behavior of the expected radius of the tumor and its fractal dimension. It was found that the tumor has a characteristic fractal dimension, which contains the necessary information to predict the tumor growth until it reaches a stationary state. The mathematical modeling of tumor growth is an approach to explain the complex nature of these systems. A model that describes tumor growth was obtained by using a mesoscopic formalism and fractal dimension. This model theoretically predicts the relation between the morphology of the cell pattern and the mitosis/apoptosis quotient that helps to predict tumor growth from tumoral cells fractal dimension. The relation between the tumor macroscopic morphology and the cell pattern morphology is also determined. This could explain why the interface fractal dimension decreases with the increase of the cell pattern fractal dimension and consequently with the increase of the mitosis/apoptosis relation. Indexes to characterize tumoral cell proliferation and invasion capacities are proposed and used to predict the growth of different types of tumors. These indexes also show that the proliferation capacity is directly proportional to the invasion capacity. The proposed model assumes: i) only interface cells proliferate and invade the host, and ii) the fractal dimension of tumoral cell patterns, can reproduce the Gompertzian growth law. A mathematical model was obtained to describe the relation between the tissue morphology of cervix carcinoma and both dynamic processes of mitosis and apoptosis, and an expression to quantify the tumor aggressiveness, which in this context is associated with the tumor growth rate. The proposed model was applied to Stage III cervix carcinoma in vivo studies. In this study we found that the apoptosis rate was significantly smaller in the tumor tissues and both the mitosis rate and aggressiveness index decrease with Stage III patient's age. These quantitative results correspond to observed behavior in clinical and genetics studies. Finally, the entropy production rate was determined for avascular tumor growth. The proposed formula relates the fractal dimension of the tumor contour with the quotient between mitosis and apoptosis rate, which can be used to characterize the degree of proliferation of tumor cells. The entropy production rate was determined for fourteen tumor cell lines as a physical function of cancer robustness. The entropy production rate is a hallmark that allows us the possibility of prognosis of tumor proliferation and invasion capacities, key factors to improve cancer therapy.

  8. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: biology, diagnosis, and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ro, Cynthia; Chai, Wanxing; Yu, Victoria E.; Yu, Run

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs), a group of endocrine tumors arising in the pancreas, are among the most common neuroendocrine tumors. The genetic causes of familial and sporadic PNETs are somewhat understood, but their molecular pathogenesis remains unknown. Most PNETs are indolent but have malignant potential. The biological behavior of an individual PNET is unpredictable; higher tumor grade, lymph node and liver metastasis, and larger tumor size generally indicate a less favorable prognosis. Endocrine testing, imaging, and histological evidence are necessary to accurately diagnose PNETs. A 4-pronged aggressive treatment approach consisting of surgery, locoregional therapy, systemic therapy, and complication control has become popular in academic centers around the world. The optimal application of the multiple systemic therapeutic modalities is under development; efficacy, safety, availability, and cost should be considered when treating a specific patient. The clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of specific types of PNETs and familial PNET syndromes, including the novel Mahvash disease, are summarized. PMID:23237225

  9. Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor of the Nasal Septum

    PubMed Central

    Oshima, Takeshi; Suzuki, Takahiro; Ishida, Eichi

    2013-01-01

    We report an extremely rare case of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the posterior edge of the nasal septum. An 11-year-old boy presented with frequent epistaxis and nasal obstruction persisting for one year. Based on the clinical presentation and imaging studies, juvenile angiofibroma was suspected, but angiography suggested the possibility of another type of tumor. Transnasal endoscopic surgery found that the tumor protruded into the nasopharynx from the posterior end of the nasal septum. Histological examination identified spindle cells with immunoreaction for vimentin, smooth muscle actin, and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), but not for desmin and cytokeratin. This is a report of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor mimicking juvenile angiofibroma. This case suggests that angiography is helpful in the differential diagnosis of epipharyngeal tumor in adolescence. PMID:23936706

  10. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the nasal septum.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Yuri; Nomura, Kazuhiro; Oshima, Takeshi; Kasajima, Atsuko; Suzuki, Takahiro; Ishida, Eichi; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu

    2013-01-01

    We report an extremely rare case of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the posterior edge of the nasal septum. An 11-year-old boy presented with frequent epistaxis and nasal obstruction persisting for one year. Based on the clinical presentation and imaging studies, juvenile angiofibroma was suspected, but angiography suggested the possibility of another type of tumor. Transnasal endoscopic surgery found that the tumor protruded into the nasopharynx from the posterior end of the nasal septum. Histological examination identified spindle cells with immunoreaction for vimentin, smooth muscle actin, and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), but not for desmin and cytokeratin. This is a report of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor mimicking juvenile angiofibroma. This case suggests that angiography is helpful in the differential diagnosis of epipharyngeal tumor in adolescence. PMID:23936706

  11. Mechanobiology of tumor invasion: engineering meets oncology

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Shawn P.; D’Alfonso, Timothy M.; Shin, Sandra J.; Reinhart-King, Cynthia A.

    2011-01-01

    The physical sciences and engineering have introduced novel perspectives into the study of cancer through model systems, tools, and metrics that enable integration of basic science observations with clinical data. These methods have contributed to the identification of several overarching mechanisms that drive processes during cancer progression including tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. During tumor cell invasion – the first clinically observable step of metastasis – cells demonstrate diverse and evolving physical phenotypes that cannot typically be defined by any single molecular mechanism, and mechanobiology has been used to study the physical cell behaviors that comprise the “invasive phenotype”. In this review, we discuss the continually evolving pathological characterization and in vitro mechanobiological characterization of tumor invasion, with emphasis on emerging physical biology and mechanobiology strategies that have contributed to a more robust mechanistic understanding of tumor cell invasion. These physical approaches may ultimately help to better predict and identify tumor metastasis. PMID:22178415

  12. Carcinoid tumors of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Ghevariya, Vishal; Malieckal, Anju; Ghevariya, Nehal; Mazumder, Mohammed; Anand, Sury

    2009-10-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is the largest neuroendocrine system in the body. Carcinoid tumors are amine precursor uptake decarboxylase (APUD) omas that arise from enterochromaffin cells throughout the gut. These tumors secrete discrete bioactive substances producing characteristic immunohistochemical patterns. Most tumors are asymptomatic and detected at late stages. Hepatic metastases are commonly responsible for carcinoid syndrome. The small bowel is the most common location of carcinoids. Computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging are useful in the detection of these tumors. The measurement of bioactive amines is the initial diagnostic test. Various treatment options, including somatostatin analogs, interferon, chemotherapy, surgery, hepatic artery chemoembolization, and surgery have emerged in the past two decades. However, the incidence and prevalence of carcinoid tumors has increased, while mean survival time has not changed significantly. The lack of standardized classification, federal support, and an incomplete understanding of the complications of this disease are some of the impediments to progress in treatment. PMID:19738517

  13. Tumor suppressors: enhancers or suppressors of regeneration?

    PubMed Central

    Pomerantz, Jason H.; Blau, Helen M.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor suppressors are so named because cancers occur in their absence, but these genes also have important functions in development, metabolism and tissue homeostasis. Here, we discuss known and potential functions of tumor suppressor genes during tissue regeneration, focusing on the evolutionarily conserved tumor suppressors pRb1, p53, Pten and Hippo. We propose that their activity is essential for tissue regeneration. This is in contrast to suggestions that tumor suppression is a trade-off for regenerative capacity. We also hypothesize that certain aspects of tumor suppressor pathways inhibit regenerative processes in mammals, and that transient targeted modification of these pathways could be fruitfully exploited to enhance processes that are important to regenerative medicine. PMID:23715544

  14. Decreased decorin expression in the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Bozoky, Benedek; Savchenko, Andrii; Guven, Hayrettin; Ponten, Fredrik; Klein, George; Szekely, Laszlo

    2014-06-01

    Decorin is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan, synthesized and deposited by fibroblasts in the stroma where it binds to collagen I. It sequesters several growth factors and antagonizes numerous members of the receptor tyrosine kinase family. In experimental murine systems, it acted as a potent tumor suppressor. Examining the Human Protein Atlas online database of immunostained tissue samples we have surveyed decorin expression in silico in several different tumor types, comparing them with corresponding normal tissues. We found that decorin is abundantly secreted and deposited in normal connective tissue but its expression is consistently decreased in the tumor microenvironment. We developed a software to quantitate the difference in expression. The presence of two closely related proteoglycans in the newly formed tumor stroma indicated that the decreased decorin expression was not caused by the delay in proteoglycan deposition in the newly formed connective tissue surrounding the tumor. PMID:24634138

  15. AIP1 Expression in Tumor Niche Suppresses Tumor Progression and Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Ji, Weidong; Li, Yonghao; He, Yun; Yin, Mingzhu; Zhou, Huanjiao Jenny; Boggon, Titus J; Zhang, Haifeng; Min, Wang

    2015-09-01

    Studies from tumor cells suggest that tumor-suppressor AIP1 inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the role of AIP1 in the tumor microenvironment has not been examined. We show that a global or vascular endothelial cell (EC)-specific deletion of the AIP1 gene in mice augments tumor growth and metastasis in melanoma and breast cancer models. AIP1-deficient vascular environment not only enhances tumor neovascularization and increases premetastatic niche formation, but also secretes tumor EMT-promoting factors. These effects from AIP1 loss are associated with increased VEGFR2 signaling in the vascular EC and could be abrogated by systemic administration of VEGFR2 kinase inhibitors. Mechanistically, AIP1 blocks VEGFR2-dependent signaling by directly binding to the phosphotyrosine residues within the activation loop of VEGFR2. Our data reveal that AIP1, by inhibiting VEGFR2-dependent signaling in tumor niche, suppresses tumor EMT switch, tumor angiogenesis, and tumor premetastatic niche formation to limit tumor growth and metastasis. PMID:26139244

  16. Role of tumor-host interactions in interstitial diffusion of macromolecules: cranial vs. subcutaneous tumors.

    PubMed

    Pluen, A; Boucher, Y; Ramanujan, S; McKee, T D; Gohongi, T; di Tomaso, E; Brown, E B; Izumi, Y; Campbell, R B; Berk, D A; Jain, R K

    2001-04-10

    The large size of many novel therapeutics impairs their transport through the tumor extracellular matrix and thus limits their therapeutic effectiveness. We propose that extracellular matrix composition, structure, and distribution determine the transport properties in tumors. Furthermore, because the characteristics of the extracellular matrix largely depend on the tumor-host interactions, we postulate that diffusion of macromolecules will vary with tumor type as well as anatomical location. Diffusion coefficients of macromolecules and liposomes in tumors growing in cranial windows (CWs) and dorsal chambers (DCs) were measured by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. For the same tumor types, diffusion of large molecules was significantly faster in CW than in DC tumors. The greater diffusional hindrance in DC tumors was correlated with higher levels of collagen type I and its organization into fibrils. For molecules with diameters comparable to the interfibrillar space the diffusion was 5- to 10-fold slower in DC than in CW tumors. The slower diffusion in DC tumors was associated with a higher density of host stromal cells that synthesize and organize collagen type I. Our results point to the necessity of developing site-specific drug carriers to improve the delivery of molecular medicine to solid tumors. PMID:11274375

  17. How Are Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Children Diagnosed?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... spinal cord tumors in children staged? How are brain and spinal cord tumors diagnosed in children? Brain ... resonance angiography (MRA) or computerized tomographic angiography (CTA). Brain or spinal cord tumor biopsy Imaging tests such ...

  18. Inference of Tumor Phylogenies with Improved Somatic Mutation Discovery

    E-print Network

    Sidow, Arend

    Inference of Tumor Phylogenies with Improved Somatic Mutation Discovery RAHELEH SALARI,1 SYED tumors, current methods do not exploit available phylogenetic infor- mation to improve the accuracy words: cancer evolution, genetic variations, tumor phylogeny. 1. INTRODUCTION Next-generation genome

  19. Model-Based Brain and Tumor Segmentation Nathan Moon, 2

    E-print Network

    Gerig, Guido

    method handles both phenomena, space-occupying mass tumors and infiltrating changes like edema. Prelimi intensity distri- butions of healthy tissue, tumor, and surrounding edema. Often, lesions or tumors were

  20. Global microRNA depletion suppresses tumor angiogenesis

    E-print Network

    Chen, Sidi

    MicroRNAs delicately regulate the balance of angiogenesis. Here we show that depletion of all microRNAs suppresses tumor angiogenesis. We generated microRNA-deficient tumors by knocking out Dicer1. These tumors are highly ...

  1. What's New in Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Topic Additional resources for gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors What’s new in gastrointestinal carcinoid tumor research and treatment? There ... for the causes of , ways to prevent , and new approaches to diagnose and treat GI carcinoid tumors. ...

  2. What's New in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Topic Additional resources for gastrointestinal stromal tumor What’s new in gastrointestinal stromal tumor research and treatment? There ... GIST) Talking With Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST) Research? Other Resources ...

  3. What's New in Pituitary Tumor Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Next Topic Additional resources for pituitary tumors What’s new in pituitary tumor research and treatment? Research into ... of non-functioning adenomas, which may lead to new medical therapies for these tumors. Imaging tests such ...

  4. What Are the Key Statistics about Pituitary Tumors?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Article Close Push escape to close saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS ... tumors? What are the key statistics about pituitary tumors? About 10,000 pituitary tumors are diagnosed each year in ...

  5. What Are Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Children?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cord tumors in children What are brain and spinal cord tumors in children? Brain and spinal cord tumors ... filled with CSF. Parts of the brain and spinal cord The main areas of the brain include the ...

  6. Lapatinib Plasma and Tumor Concentrations and Effects on HER Receptor Phosphorylation in Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Bacus, Sarah; Blackwell, Kimberly; Smith, Deborah A.; Glenn, Kelli; Cartee, Leanne; Harris, Jennifer; Kimbrough, Carie L.; Gittelman, Mark; Avisar, Eli; Beitsch, Peter; Koch, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The paradigm shift in cancer treatment from cytotoxic drugs to tumor targeted therapies poses new challenges, including optimization of dose and schedule based on a biologically effective dose, rather than the historical maximum tolerated dose. Optimal dosing is currently determined using concentrations of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in plasma as a surrogate for tumor concentrations. To examine this plasma-tumor relationship, we explored the association between lapatinib levels in tumor and plasma in mice and humans, and those effects on phosphorylation of human epidermal growth factor receptors (HER) in human tumors. Experimental Design Mice bearing BT474 HER2+ human breast cancer xenografts were dosed once or twice daily (BID) with lapatinib. Drug concentrations were measured in blood, tumor, liver, and kidney. In a randomized phase I clinical trial, 28 treatment-naïve female patients with early stage HER2+ breast cancer received lapatinib 1000 or 1500 mg once daily (QD) or 500 mg BID before evaluating steady-state lapatinib levels in plasma and tumor. Results In mice, lapatinib levels were 4-fold higher in tumor than blood with a 4-fold longer half-life. Tumor concentrations exceeded the in vitro IC90 (~ 900 nM or 500 ng/mL) for inhibition of HER2 phosphorylation throughout the 12-hour dosing interval. In patients, tumor levels were 6- and 10-fold higher with QD and BID dosing, respectively, compared to plasma trough levels. The relationship between tumor and plasma concentration was complex, indicating multiple determinants. HER receptor phosphorylation varied depending upon lapatinib tumor concentrations, suggestive of changes in the repertoire of HER homo- and heterodimers. Conclusion Plasma lapatinib concentrations underestimated tumor drug levels, suggesting that optimal dosing should be focused on the site of action to avoid to inappropriate dose escalation. Larger clinical trials are required to determine optimal dose and schedule to achieve tumor concentrations that maximally inhibit HER receptors. Trial Registration Clinical Trial Registration: NCT00359190 PMID:26571496

  7. Nanoelectroablation of Murine Tumors Triggers a CD8-Dependent Inhibition of Secondary Tumor Growth.

    PubMed

    Nuccitelli, Richard; Berridge, Jon Casey; Mallon, Zachary; Kreis, Mark; Athos, Brian; Nuccitelli, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    We have used both a rat orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma model and a mouse allograft tumor model to study liver tumor ablation with nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF). We confirm that nsPEF treatment triggers apoptosis in rat liver tumor cells as indicated by the appearance of cleaved caspase 3 and 9 within two hours after treatment. Furthermore we provide evidence that nsPEF treatment leads to the translocation of calreticulin (CRT) to the cell surface which is considered a damage-associated molecular pattern indicative of immunogenic cell death. We provide direct evidence that nanoelectroablation triggers a CD8-dependent inhibition of secondary tumor growth by comparing the growth rate of secondary orthotopic liver tumors in nsPEF-treated rats with that in nsPEF-treated rats depleted of CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells. The growth of these secondary tumors was severely inhibited as compared to tumor growth in CD8-depleated rats, with their average size only 3% of the primary tumor size after the same one-week growth period. In contrast, when we depleted CD8+ T-cells the second tumor grew more robustly, reaching 54% of the size of the first tumor. In addition, we demonstrate with immunohistochemistry that CD8+ T-cells are highly enriched in the secondary tumors exhibiting slow growth. We also showed that vaccinating mice with nsPEF-treated isogenic tumor cells stimulates an immune response that inhibits the growth of secondary tumors in a CD8+-dependent manner. We conclude that nanoelectroablation triggers the production of CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells resulting in the inhibition of secondary tumor growth. PMID:26231031

  8. Nanoelectroablation of Murine Tumors Triggers a CD8-Dependent Inhibition of Secondary Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Nuccitelli, Richard; Berridge, Jon Casey; Mallon, Zachary; Kreis, Mark; Athos, Brian; Nuccitelli, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    We have used both a rat orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma model and a mouse allograft tumor model to study liver tumor ablation with nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF). We confirm that nsPEF treatment triggers apoptosis in rat liver tumor cells as indicated by the appearance of cleaved caspase 3 and 9 within two hours after treatment. Furthermore we provide evidence that nsPEF treatment leads to the translocation of calreticulin (CRT) to the cell surface which is considered a damage-associated molecular pattern indicative of immunogenic cell death. We provide direct evidence that nanoelectroablation triggers a CD8-dependent inhibition of secondary tumor growth by comparing the growth rate of secondary orthotopic liver tumors in nsPEF-treated rats with that in nsPEF-treated rats depleted of CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells. The growth of these secondary tumors was severely inhibited as compared to tumor growth in CD8-depleated rats, with their average size only 3% of the primary tumor size after the same one-week growth period. In contrast, when we depleted CD8+ T-cells the second tumor grew more robustly, reaching 54% of the size of the first tumor. In addition, we demonstrate with immunohistochemistry that CD8+ T-cells are highly enriched in the secondary tumors exhibiting slow growth. We also showed that vaccinating mice with nsPEF-treated isogenic tumor cells stimulates an immune response that inhibits the growth of secondary tumors in a CD8+-dependent manner. We conclude that nanoelectroablation triggers the production of CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells resulting in the inhibition of secondary tumor growth. PMID:26231031

  9. Should mesenteric tumor deposits be included in staging of well-differentiated small intestine neuroendocrine tumors?

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Raul S; Liu, Eric H; Alvarez, JoAnn R; Ayers, Gregory D; Washington, M Kay; Shi, Chanjuan

    2014-09-01

    Well-differentiated small intestine neuroendocrine tumors can give rise to mesenteric tumor deposits, which are not included in the current American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system for small intestine neuroendocrine tumors, and their impact on patient prognosis is unknown. Seventy-two small intestine neuroendocrine tumors resections were identified in our files with slides, reports, and follow-up data available. Cases were assessed for T-category and for the presence of mesenteric tumor deposits, lymph node metastases, lymphovascular invasion, and liver metastases. Mesenteric tumor deposits were defined as discrete mesenteric tumor nodules ?1?mm with an irregular growth profile. Similar lesions clearly resulting from extranodal extension or direct contiguous spread by the primary lesion were excluded. Forty-three of the 72 cases had mesenteric tumor deposits (60%). The deposits were significantly associated with lymphovascular invasion (P=0.001), pT3 or pT4 disease (P=0.001), nodal metastases (P=0.040), and liver metastases (P<0.001) at the time of surgery. In addition, four of six cases with tumor deposits and no nodal disease had liver disease. Tumor deposits were associated with an increased incidence of disease progression and death due to the disease (P=0.001). Finally, the presence of tumor deposits at the time of surgery was associated with an increase in hazard of progression or death due to disease (hazard ratio: 4.0; 95% confidence interval: 1.3, 12.5; P=0.016). Mesenteric tumor deposits are present in the majority of cases of small intestine neuroendocrine tumors and are indicators of poor prognosis for this disease. Therefore, they may have a place in staging of small intestine neuroendocrine tumors, perhaps as analogous to lymph node disease. PMID:24457461

  10. Integrin-mediated active tumor targeting and tumor microenvironment response dendrimer-gelatin nanoparticles for drug delivery and tumor treatment.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guanlian; Zhang, Huiqing; Zhang, Li; Ruan, Shaobo; He, Qin; Gao, Huile

    2015-12-30

    Due to the high morbidity and mortality of cancer, it has become an urgent matter to develop an effective and a safe treatment strategy. Nanoparticles (NP) based drug delivery systems have gained much attention nowadays but they faced a paradoxical issue in delivering drugs into tumors: NP with large size were characterized with weak tumor penetration, meanwhile NP with small size resulted in poor tumor retention. To solve this problem, we proposed a multistage drug delivery system which could intelligently shrink its size from large size to small size in the presence of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) which were highly expressed in tumor tissues, therefore the multistage system could benefit from its large size for better retention effect in tumor and then shrunk to small size to contribute to better penetration efficiency. The multistage drug delivery system, RGD-DOX-DGL-GNP, was constructed by 155.4nm gelatin NP core (the substrate of MMP-2) and surface decorated with doxorubicin (DOX) and RGD peptide conjugated dendritic poly-l-lysine (DGL, 34.3nm in diameter). In vitro, the size of multistage NP could effectively shrink in the presence of MMP-2. Thus, the RGD-DOX-DGL-GNP could penetrate deep into tumor spheroids. In vivo, this multistage drug delivery system showed higher tumor retention and deeper penetration than both DOX-DGL and DOX-GNP. Consequently, RGD-DOX-DGL-GNP successfully combined the advantages of dendrimers and GNP in vivo, resulting in an outstanding anti-tumor effect. In conclusion, the multistage drug delivery system could intelligently shrink from large size to small size in the tumor microenvironment and displayed better retention and penetration efficiency, making it an impressing system for cancer treatment. PMID:26598487

  11. Bone tumors: Diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Huvos, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents treatment modalities of all skeletal neoplasms with special emphasis on clinicopathologic correlations and differential diagnosis. This describes the clinical, radiographic, and pathologic features, plus interdisciplinary approaches to treatment for each tumor type and also covers benign and malignant bone-forming and cartilage-forming tumors, tumors of connective tissue origin, tumors of histoiocytic or fibrohistiocytic origin, and tumors and tumor-like lesions of blood vessels arising in the skeletal system.

  12. Understanding Tumor Cell Invasion | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    One truism about cancer is that patients rarely die from a single tumor, but rather from the tumors that metastasize, or spread, from the initial tumor. A key early step in metastasis of solid tumors is called collective cell invasion, which is when a group of tumor cells breaks through the dense collagen-based extracellular matrix (ECM) that normally keeps one tissue separate from another. Somehow, metastasizing tumor cells breach this barrier by overcoming its structural and mechanical properties.

  13. Tumor-targeted delivery of liposome-encapsulated doxorubicin by use of a peptide that selectively binds to irradiated tumors

    PubMed Central

    Lowery, Amanda; Onishko, Halina; Hallahan, Dennis E.; Han, Zhaozhong

    2010-01-01

    Tumor-targeted drug delivery improves anti-tumor efficacy and reduces systemic toxicity by limiting bioavailability of cytotoxic drugs to within tumors. Targeting reagents, such as peptides or antibodies recognizing molecular targets over-expressed within tumors, have been used to improve liposome-encapsulated drug accumulation within tumors and resulted in enhanced tumor growth control. In this report, we expand the scope of targeting reagents by showing that one peptide, HVGGSSV which was isolated from an in vivo screening of phage-displayed peptide library due to its selective binding within irradiated tumors, enabled highly selective tumor-targeted delivery of liposome-encapsulated doxorubicin and resulted in enhanced cytotoxicity within tumors. Targeting liposomes (TL) and non-targeting liposomes (nTL) were labeled with Alexa Fluor 750. Biodistribution of the liposomes within tumor-bearing mice was studied with near infrared (NIR) imaging. In the single dose pharmacokinetic study, the liposomal doxorubicin has an extended circulation half life as compared to the free doxorubicin. Targeting liposomes partitioned to the irradiated tumors and improved drug deposition and retention within tumors. The tumor-targeted delivery of doxorubicin improved tumor growth control as indicated with reduced tumor growth rate and tumor cell proliferation, enhanced tumor blood vessel destruction, and increased treatment-associated apoptosis and necrosis of tumor cells. Collectively, the results demonstrated the remarkable capability of the HVGGSSV peptide in radiation-guided drug delivery to tumors. PMID:21075152

  14. Persistence of tumor-infiltrating CD8 T cells is tumor-dependent but antigen-independent

    E-print Network

    Olurinde, Mobolaji O.

    How tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) that are tumor-specific but functionally tolerant persist in the antigen-expressing tumor tissue is largely unknown. We have previously developed a modified TRansgenic Adenocarcinoma ...

  15. Changes in lung tumor shape during respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyriakou, E.; McKenzie, D. R.

    2012-02-01

    Evidence that some lung tumors change shape during respiration is derived from respiratory gated CT data by statistical shape modeling and image manipulation. Some tumors behave as rigid objects while others show systematic shape changes. Two views of lung motion are presented to allow analysis of the results. In the first, lung motion is viewed as a wave motion in which inertial effects arising from mass are present and in the second it is a quasistatic motion in which the mass of the lung tissues is neglected. In the first scenario, the extremes of tumor compression and expansion are expected to correlate with maximum upward and downward velocity of the tumor, respectively. In the second, they should occur at end exhale and end inhale, respectively. An observed correlation between tumor strain and tumor velocity provides more support for the first view of lung motion and may explain why previous attempts at observing tumor shape changes during respiration have largely failed. The implications for the optimum gating of radiation therapy are discussed.

  16. Malignant solitary fibrous tumor involving the liver.

    PubMed

    Jakob, Manuel; Schneider, Matthias; Hoeller, Ingo; Laffer, Urban; Kaderli, Reto

    2013-06-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors are predominantly benign and are most commonly found in the thoracic cavity and pleura; while reports exist in the literature of malignant solitary fibrous tumors and those located in extrathoracic organs, these cases are considered extremely rare. Herein, a case is reported of a malignant solitary fibrous tumor involving the liver that was diagnosed and treated in a 62-year-old woman. The patient presented with complaints of upper abdominal pain and unintentional weight loss. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen revealed a remarkably large mass, measuring 15 cm × 10 cm × 20 cm, which appeared to be unrelated to any particular organ. The intraoperative finding of a wide communication with the left liver suggested hepatic origin, and served as an indicator for tumor resection via left hemihepatectomy. The diagnosis of solitary fibrous tumor and its malignant nature was confirmed by histological and immunohistochemical examination of the resected tissues. Hepatic solitary fibrous tumor is very rare, and surgery remains the mainstay of treatment. Due to limited reports of such tumors in the literature, little can be said about the benefit of adjuvant therapy and prognosis for the rare cases with malignant histological findings. PMID:23745040

  17. Malignant solitary fibrous tumor involving the liver

    PubMed Central

    Jakob, Manuel; Schneider, Matthias; Hoeller, Ingo; Laffer, Urban; Kaderli, Reto

    2013-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors are predominantly benign and are most commonly found in the thoracic cavity and pleura; while reports exist in the literature of malignant solitary fibrous tumors and those located in extrathoracic organs, these cases are considered extremely rare. Herein, a case is reported of a malignant solitary fibrous tumor involving the liver that was diagnosed and treated in a 62-year-old woman. The patient presented with complaints of upper abdominal pain and unintentional weight loss. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen revealed a remarkably large mass, measuring 15 cm × 10 cm × 20 cm, which appeared to be unrelated to any particular organ. The intraoperative finding of a wide communication with the left liver suggested hepatic origin, and served as an indicator for tumor resection via left hemihepatectomy. The diagnosis of solitary fibrous tumor and its malignant nature was confirmed by histological and immunohistochemical examination of the resected tissues. Hepatic solitary fibrous tumor is very rare, and surgery remains the mainstay of treatment. Due to limited reports of such tumors in the literature, little can be said about the benefit of adjuvant therapy and prognosis for the rare cases with malignant histological findings. PMID:23745040

  18. Eicosanoid regulation of angiogenesis in tumors.

    PubMed

    Nie, Daotai; Honn, Kenneth V

    2004-02-01

    Tumor angiogenesis, the formation of new capillary blood vessels in tumors from pre-existing vasculature, is required for tumor growth and progression. Eicosanoids, the bioactive lipids derived from arachidonic acid, possess potent and diverse biological activities. In response to stimuli, arachidonic acid is mobilized from phospholipid pools and metabolized by cyclooxygenases (COX), lipoxygenases (LOX), and p450 epoxygenases (EOX) to form a variety of eicosanoids. The involvement of eicosanoids in tumor angiogenesis and progression is implicated by the observations that nonsteroidal anti-inflammation drugs (NSAIDs) reduce tumor growth and angiogenesis. Subsequently, it is found that the levels of COX-2 and/or 12-LOX are frequently increased in various cancers. Further studies using molecular and pharmacological approaches have found that COX-2 and 12-LOX, when overexpressed in carcinoma cells, enhance their angiogenic potential and stimulate tumor growth. In this article, we discuss how COX and LOX in cancer cells modulate tumor angiogenesis and present the possibility of using NSAIDs and LOX inhibitors as antiangiogenesis agents. PMID:15034803

  19. Multistep, effective drug distribution within solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Shemi, Amotz; Khvalevsky, Elina Zorde; Gabai, Rachel Malka; Domb, Abraham; Barenholz, Yechezkel

    2015-11-24

    The distribution of drugs within solid tumors presents a long-standing barrier for efficient cancer therapies. Tumors are highly resistant to diffusion, and the lack of blood and lymphatic flows suppresses convection. Prolonged, continuous intratumoral drug delivery from a miniature drug source offers an alternative to both systemic delivery and intratumoral injection. Presented here is a model of drug distribution from such a source, in a multistep process. At delivery onset the drug mainly affects the closest surroundings. Such 'priming' enables drug penetration to successive cell layers. Tumor 'void volume' (volume not occupied by cells) increases, facilitating lymphatic perfusion. The drug is then transported by hydraulic convection downstream along interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) gradients, away from the tumor core. After a week tumor cell death occurs throughout the entire tumor and IFP gradients are flattened. Then, the drug is transported mainly by 'mixing', powered by physiological bulk body movements. Steady state is achieved and the drug covers the entire tumor over several months. Supporting measurements are provided from the LODER™ system, releasing siRNA against mutated KRAS over months in pancreatic cancer in-vivo models. LODER™ was also successfully employed in a recent Phase 1/2 clinical trial with pancreatic cancer patients. PMID:26416413

  20. Tumor margin detection using optical biopsy techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yan; Liu, Cheng-hui; Li, Jiyou; Li, Zhongwu; Zhou, Lixin; Chen, Ke; Pu, Yang; He, Yong; Zhu, Ke; Li, Qingbo; Alfano, Robert R.

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study is to use the Resonance Raman (RR) and fluorescence spectroscopic technique for tumor margin detection with high accuracy based on native molecular fingerprints of breast and gastrointestinal (GI) tissues. This tumor margins detection method utilizes advantages of RR spectroscopic technique in situ and in real-time to diagnose tumor changes providing powerful tools for clinical guiding intraoperative margin assessments and postoperative treatments. The tumor margin detection procedures by RR spectroscopy were taken by scanning lesion from center or around tumor region in ex-vivo to find the changes in cancerous tissues with the rim of normal tissues using the native molecular fingerprints. The specimens used to analyze tumor margins include breast and GI carcinoma and normal tissues. The sharp margin of the tumor was found by the changes of RR spectral peaks within 2 mm distance. The result was verified using fluorescence spectra with 300 nm, 320 nm and 340 nm excitation, in a typical specimen of gastric cancerous tissue within a positive margin in comparison with normal gastric tissues. This study demonstrates the potential of RR and fluorescence spectroscopy as new approaches with labeling free to determine the intraoperative margin assessment.

  1. Are biomechanical changes necessary for tumor progression?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kas, Josef A.

    2014-03-01

    Already the Roman Celsus recognized rigid tissue as characteristic for solid tumors. Conversely, changes towards a weaker cytoskeleton have been described as a feature of cancer cells since the early days of tumor biology. It remains unclear if a carcinoma's rigid signature stems from more inflexible cells or is caused by the stroma. Despite that the importance of cell biomechanics for tumor progression becomes more and more evident the chicken-and-egg problem to what extent cancer cells already change their mechanical properties within the solid tumor in order to transgress its boundary or mechanical changes are induced by the microenvironment when the cell has left the tumor has been discussed highly controversial. Comprehensive clinical biomechanical measurements only exist from tumor tissue without the possibility to identify individual cells or from individual cancer cells from pleural effusions. Since the biomechanical properties of cells in carcinomas remain unknown measurements on individual cells that directly stem out of primary tumor samples are required, which we have conducted. We found in cervix and mammary carcinomas a distinctive increase of softer cells as well as contractile cells. A soft and contractile cell is like a strong elastic rope. The cell can generate a strong tensile tension to pull its self along and is soft against compression to avoid jamming.

  2. Surgery and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Children With Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-04

    Childhood Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Teratoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Stage II Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma

  3. Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent or Resistant Malignant Germ Cell Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-08

    Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Malignant Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Testicular Choriocarcinoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Yolk Sac Tumor

  4. Tumor vascular reactivity as a marker to predict tumor response to chemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Songhyun; Seong, Myeongsu; Jeong, Hyeryun; Kim, Jae G.

    2015-03-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers for females. To monitor chemotherapeutic efficacy of breast cancer, medical imaging systems such as X-ray mammography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasonography have been used. Currently, it can take up to 3 to 6 weeks to see the tumor response from chemotherapy by monitoring tumor volume changes. In this study, we used near infrared spectroscopy to see if we can predict breast cancer treatment efficacy earlier than tumor volume changes by monitoring tumor vascular reactivity during inhalational gas interventions. The results show the amplitude of oxy-hemoglobin changes (vascular reactivity) during hyperoxic gas inhalation is well correlated with tumor growth, and responded 1 day earlier than tumor volume changes after chemotherapy. In addition, we fitted oxyhemoglobin concentration increase during hyperoxic gas intervention using a double exponential fitting model. From these, we found the change of amplitude 1 value is well matched with tumor growth and regression. Especially, it predicts the chemotherapeutic response of breast tumor better than the amplitude of oxyhemoglobin concentration change during hyperoxic gas intervention. These results may imply that near infrared spectroscopy with respiratory challenges can be useful in early detection of tumor and also in prediction of tumor response to chemotherapy.

  5. Automated Quantification of Tumor Viability in a Rabbit Liver Tumor Model after Chemoembolization Using Infrared Imaging.

    PubMed

    D'inca, Hadrien; Namur, Julien; Ghegediban, Saida Homayra; Wassef, Michel; Pascale, Florentina; Laurent, Alexandre; Manfait, Michel

    2015-07-01

    The rabbit VX2 tumor is a fast-growing carcinoma model commonly used to study new therapeutic devices, such as catheter-based therapies for patients with inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma. The evaluation of tumor viability after such locoregional therapies is essential to directing hepatocellular carcinoma management. We used infrared microspectroscopy for the automatic characterization and quantification of the VX2 liver tumor viability after drug-eluting beads transarterial chemoembolization (DEB-TACE). The protocol consisted of K-means clustering followed by principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The K-means clustering was used to classify the spectra from the infrared images of control or treated tumors and to build a database of many tissue spectra. On the basis of this reference library, the PCA-LDA analysis was used to build a predictive model to identify and quantify automatically tumor viability on unknown tissue sections. For the DEB group, the LDA model determined that the surface of tumor necrosis represented 91.6% ± 8.9% (control group: 33.1% ± 19.6%; Mann-Whitney P = 0.0004) and the viable tumor 2.6% ± 4% (control group: 62.2% ± 15.2%; Mann-Whitney P = 0.0004). Tissue quantification measurements correlated well with tumor necrosis (r = 0.827, P < 0.0001) and viable tumor (r = 0.840, P < 0.0001). Infrared imaging and PCA-LDA analysis could be helpful for easily assessing tumor viability. PMID:25979795

  6. Colorectal cancer-derived tumor spheroids retain the characteristics of original tumors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Hwa; Hong, Jun Hwa; Park, Hwan Ki; Park, Jun Seok; Kim, Bo-Kyung; Lee, Jung-Yi; Jeong, Ji Yun; Yoon, Ghil Suk; Inoue, Masahiro; Choi, Gyu-Seog; Lee, In-Kyu

    2015-10-10

    Primary cultures of cancer cells are useful for developing personalized medicine. In this study, we characterized three lines of three-dimensional (3D) tumor spheroids established directly from tumor tissues of patients with colorectal cancers (CRCs). Each line mainly included EpCAM-positive cells and cells expressing putative cancer stem cell markers such as CD133, CD44, CD24, ALDH1, and LGR5. These characteristic stem cell markers remained identically for months in vitro. Short tandem repeat genotyping suggested that genetic fingerprints of these tumor spheroids were similar to those of the original tumor tissues from which they were derived. Mutational analysis showed that each line had the same mutation profile for APC, KRAS, MLH1, serine-threonine kinase 11, and TP53 as its parental tumor tissue. One line harboring an activating KRAS mutation was resistant to cetuximab while the remaining two lines harboring wild-type KRAS showed different responses to cetuximab. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that xenograft tumors derived from these lines retained the histopathological and mutational patterns of their parental tumors. Collectively, these results clearly showed that 3D tumor spheroids directly generated from tumor tissues of patients with CRCs preserved the characteristics of their parental tumor tissues and could be used for developing personalized medicines for CRCs. PMID:26185002

  7. Tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells induce tumor cell resistance to cytotoxic T cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Tangying; Ramakrishnan, Rupal; Altiok, Soner; Youn, Je-In; Cheng, Pingyan; Celis, Esteban; Pisarev, Vladimir; Sherman, Simon; Sporn, Michael B; Gabrilovich, Dmitry

    2011-10-01

    Cancer immunotherapeutic approaches induce tumor-specific immune responses, in particular CTL responses, in many patients treated. However, such approaches are clinically beneficial to only a few patients. We set out to investigate one possible explanation for the failure of CTLs to eliminate tumors, specifically, the concept that this failure is not dependent on inhibition of T cell function. In a previous study, we found that in mice, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a source of the free radical peroxynitrite (PNT). Here, we show that pre-treatment of mouse and human tumor cells with PNT or with MDSCs inhibits binding of processed peptides to tumor cell-associated MHC, and as a result, tumor cells become resistant to antigen-specific CTLs. This effect was abrogated in MDSCs treated with a PNT inhibitor. In a mouse model of tumor-associated inflammation in which the antitumor effects of antigen-specific CTLs are eradicated by expression of IL-1? in the tumor cells, we determined that therapeutic failure was not caused by more profound suppression of CTLs by IL-1?-expressing tumors than tumors not expressing this proinflammatory cytokine. Rather, therapeutic failure was a result of the presence of PNT. Clinical relevance for these data was suggested by the observation that myeloid cells were the predominant source of PNT in human lung, pancreatic, and breast cancer samples. Our data therefore suggest what we believe to be a novel mechanism of MDSC-mediated tumor cell resistance to CTLs. PMID:21911941

  8. Mediastinal Germ Cell Tumor Exhibiting a Discrepancy between Tumor Markers and Imaging: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Takenaka, Kei; Mukohara, Toru; Hirai, Chihoko; Funakoshi, Yohei; Nakamura, Yukiko; Chayahara, Naoko; Toyoda, Masanori; Kiyota, Naomi; Itoh, Tomoo; Yokozaki, Hiroshi; Minami, Hironobu

    2015-01-01

    We report a mediastinal germ cell tumor (GCT) that exhibited a discrepancy between the time course of serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels and clinical consequences. An otherwise healthy man, aged 34 years, was diagnosed with a nonseminomatous GCT, most likely embryonal carcinoma (EC), based on a mediastinal tumor biopsy. Standard chemotherapy resulted in an optimal decrease in serum hCG levels. However, multiple lesions in the liver continued to enlarge, which led to his death. Autopsy revealed few viable tumor cells in the liver, with the great majority of the tumor cells appearing to have undergone necrosis, suggesting that they responded to the chemotherapy. The residual tumor cells in the mediastinum and the liver were similar to syncytiotrophoblast cells, suggesting a cho-riocarcinoma (CC). On immunohistochemical analysis, the mediastinal tumor cells in the diagnostic biopsy specimen expressed both CD30 and hCG, whereas residual mediastinal and hepatic tumor cells in the autopsy specimen after chemotherapy also expressed hCG, but not CD30. These findings suggested that the patient suffered from a primary mixed GCT consisting of an EC and a CC. Both pre- and postchemotherapy tumors strongly expressed matrix metalloproteinase-2, supporting the aggressive and invasive features of the tumor phenotype. We speculate that the extremely invasive tumor destroyed normal liver structure, whereas chemotherapy and central necrosis reduced the number of viable cells themselves, causing a discordant decrease in serum hCG levels. PMID:26351441

  9. Biodegradable polymeric micelle-encapsulated doxorubicin suppresses tumor metastasis by killing circulating tumor cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Senyi; Wu, Qinjie; Zhao, Yuwei; Zheng, Xin; Wu, Ni; Pang, Jing; Li, Xuejing; Bi, Cheng; Liu, Xinyu; Yang, Li; Liu, Lei; Su, Weijun; Wei, Yuquan; Gong, Changyang

    2015-03-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) play a crucial role in tumor metastasis, but it is rare for any chemotherapy regimen to focus on killing CTCs. Herein, we describe doxorubicin (Dox) micelles that showed anti-metastatic activity by killing CTCs. Dox micelles with a small particle size and high encapsulation efficiency were obtained using a pH-induced self-assembly method. Compared with free Dox, Dox micelles exhibited improved cytotoxicity, apoptosis induction, and cellular uptake. In addition, Dox micelles showed a sustained release behavior in vitro, and in a transgenic zebrafish model, Dox micelles exhibited a longer circulation time and lower extravasation from blood vessels into surrounding tissues. Anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities of Dox micelles were investigated in transgenic zebrafish and mouse models. In transgenic zebrafish, Dox micelles inhibited tumor growth and prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing zebrafish. Furthermore, Dox micelles suppressed tumor metastasis by killing CTCs. In addition, improved anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities were also confirmed in mouse tumor models, where immunofluorescent staining of tumors indicated that Dox micelles induced more apoptosis and showed fewer proliferation-positive cells. There were decreased side effects in transgenic zebrafish and mice after administration of Dox micelles. In conclusion, Dox micelles showed stronger anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities and decreased side effects both in vitro and in vivo, which may have potential applications in cancer therapy.

  10. Targeting Artificial Tumor Stromal Targets for Molecular Imaging of Tumor Vascular Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Koonce, Nathan A.; Levy, Joseph; Hardee, Matthew E.; Jamshidi-Parsian, Azemat; Vang, Kieng B.; Sharma, Sunil; Raleigh, James A.; Dings, Ruud P. M.; Griffin, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Developed and tested for many years, a variety of tumor hypoxia detection methods have been inconsistent in their ability to predict treatment outcomes or monitor treatment efficacy, limiting their present prognostic capability. These variable results might stem from the fact that these approaches are based on inherently wide-ranging global tumor oxygenation levels based on uncertain influences of necrotic regions present in most solid tumors. Here, we have developed a novel non-invasive and specific method for tumor vessel hypoxia detection, as hypoxemia (vascular hypoxia) has been implicated as a key driver of malignant progression, therapy resistance and metastasis. This method is based on high-frequency ultrasound imaging of ?-pimonidazole targeted-microbubbles to the exogenously administered hypoxia marker pimonidazole. The degree of tumor vessel hypoxia was assessed in three mouse models of mammary gland carcinoma (4T1, SCK and MMTV-Wnt-1) and amassed up to 20% of the tumor vasculature. In the 4T1 mammary gland carcinoma model, the signal strength of ?-pimonidazole targeted-microbubbles was on average 8-fold fold higher in tumors of pimonidazole-injected mice than in non-pimonidazole injected tumor bearing mice or non-targeted microbubbles in pimonidazole-injected tumor bearing mice. Overall, this provides proof of principle for generating and targeting artificial antigens able to be ‘created’ on-demand under tumor specific microenvironmental conditions, providing translational diagnostic, therapeutic and treatment planning potential in cancer and other hypoxia-associated diseases or conditions. PMID:26308944

  11. Tumor-induced osteomalacia due to a recurrent mesenchymal tumor overexpressing several growth factor receptors

    PubMed Central

    Gerothanasi, Nikolina; Frydas, Athanasios; Triantafyllou, Evangelia; Poulios, Chris; Hytiroglou, Prodromos; Apostolou, Panagiotis; Papasotiriou, Ioannis; Tournis, Symeon; Kesisoglou, Isaak; Yovos, John G

    2015-01-01

    Summary Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome caused primarily by benign mesenchymal tumors. These tumors typically follow a benign clinical course and local recurrence occurs in <5% of cases. We investigated a 49-year-old man with a recurrent mesenchymal phosphaturic tumor showing no signs of malignancy. The patient suffered from chronic muscle weakness, myalgia and cramps. His medical record included the diagnosis of oncogenic osteomalacia, for which he was submitted to tumor resection in the left leg three times before. Laboratory examination showed hypophosphatemia, hyperphosphaturia and an elevated serum FGF23 level. A radical surgical approach (amputation) was advised, however, complete biochemical and clinical remission was not reached. Molecular analysis of the tumor cells demonstrated overexpression of growth factor receptors implicated in tumor angiogenesis and metastatic potential (platelet derived growth factor type A (PDGFRA), PDGFRB and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor) together with increased expression of FGF23, x-linked-phosphate-regulating endopeptidase and KLOTHO. TIO is usually associated with benign phosphauturic tumors and, when identified, resection of the tumor leads to complete remission in the majority of cases. The underlying pathophysiology of recurrences in these tumors is not known. This is the first report showing increased expression of growth factor receptors in a locally aggressive but histopathologically benign phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor. Learning points TIO is usually associated with benign soft tissue or bone neoplasms of mesenchymal origin.These tumors typically follow a benign clinical course and even in the rare malignant cases local recurrence occurs in <5%.Successful identification and removal of the tumor leads to full recovery in the majority of cases. PMID:26155363

  12. Selected anti-tumor vaccines merit a place in multimodal tumor therapies

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Eva-Maria; Wunderlich, Roland; Ebel, Nina; Rubner, Yvonne; Schlücker, Eberhard; Meyer-Pittroff, Roland; Ott, Oliver J.; Fietkau, Rainer; Gaipl, Udo S.; Frey, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Multimodal approaches are nowadays successfully applied in cancer therapy. Primary locally acting therapies such as radiotherapy (RT) and surgery are combined with systemic administration of chemotherapeutics. Nevertheless, the therapy of cancer is still a big challenge in medicine. The treatments often fail to induce long-lasting anti-tumor responses. Tumor recurrences and metastases result. Immunotherapies are therefore ideal adjuncts to standard tumor therapies since they aim to activate the patient's immune system against malignant cells even outside the primary treatment areas (abscopal effects). Especially cancer vaccines may have the potential both to train the immune system against cancer cells and to generate an immunological memory, resulting in long-lasting anti-tumor effects. However, despite promising results in phase I and II studies, most of the concepts finally failed. There are some critical aspects in development and application of cancer vaccines that may decide on their efficiency. The time point and frequency of medication, usage of an adequate immune adjuvant, the vaccine's immunogenic potential, and the tumor burden of the patient are crucial. Whole tumor cell vaccines have advantages compared to peptide-based ones since a variety of tumor antigens (TAs) are present. The master requirements of cell-based, therapeutic tumor vaccines are the complete inactivation of the tumor cells and the increase of their immunogenicity. Since the latter is highly connected with the cell death modality, the inactivation procedure of the tumor cell material may significantly influence the vaccine's efficiency. We therefore also introduce high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) as an innovative inactivation technology for tumor cell-based vaccines and outline that HHP efficiently inactivates tumor cells by enhancing their immunogenicity. Finally studies are presented proving that anti-tumor immune responses can be triggered by combining RT with selected immune therapies. PMID:23087898

  13. Hyperthermia and the therapy of malignant tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Streffer, C.

    1987-01-01

    Recent biological research with cells in vitro and experimental tumors shows that hyperthermia has an important role to play in cancer therapy. Hyperthermia induces a number of physiological and biological changes whereby damage is higher in the tumor than in the normal tissue. Used in conjunction with radio- or chemotherapy, it could therefore be a potent modality for tumor management. The first clinical data on the application of hyperthermia plus radio- and chemotherapy support these expectations, despite a number of technical problems regarding heat application and measurement of heat temperature distribution in the tissues.

  14. Chemokines in tumor development and progression

    SciTech Connect

    Mukaida, Naofumi; Japan Science and Technology Agency, Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075 ; Baba, Tomohisa

    2012-01-15

    Chemokines were originally identified as mediators of the inflammatory process and regulators of leukocyte trafficking. Subsequent studies revealed their essential roles in leukocyte physiology and pathology. Moreover, chemokines have profound effects on other types of cells associated with the inflammatory response, such as endothelial cells and fibroblasts. Thus, chemokines are crucial for cancer-related inflammation, which can promote tumor development and progression. Increasing evidence points to the vital effects of several chemokines on the proliferative and invasive properties of tumor cells. The wide range of activities of chemokines in tumorigenesis highlights their roles in tumor development and progression.

  15. Canine hematopoietic tumors: diagnosis, treatment and complications

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1986-02-01

    Canine hematopoietic tumors constitute a group of neoplasms that are frequently encountered in veterinary practice. Although common, they are also a diagnostically confusing group of tumors due to continued revision of their definition and classification. The confusion that arises from these changes presents the clinician with a perpetual challenge of diagnosis and therapy. Therapy of canine hematopoietic tumors has traditionally evolved from treatment of human patients with similar diseases, and in turn, these neoplasms have served as models for evaluating newer therapies for possible application in human patients. Methods of treatment have included chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery, and hyperthermia. 9 tabs.

  16. Surgical Management of Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Thomas E

    2016-02-01

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are uncommon tumors with a range of clinical behavior. Some PNETs are associated with symptoms of hormone secretion, with increased systemic levels of insulin, gastrin, glucagon, or other hormones. More commonly, PNETs are nonfunctional, without hormone secretion. Surgical resection is the mainstay of therapy, particularly for localized disease. Surgical therapy must be tailored to tumor and clinical characteristics. Resection may be particularly indicated in the setting of hormone hypersecretion. Small, incidental PNETs are increasingly managed nonoperatively. Surgery may also be indicated in some instances of metastatic disease, if all metastatic foci may be removed. PMID:26614371

  17. FNA of thyroid granular cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Harp, Eric; Caraway, Nancy P

    2013-09-01

    Granular cell tumor rarely occurs in the thyroid. This case report describes the cytologic features of a granular cell tumor seen in a fine needle aspirate obtained from a 27-year-old woman with a gradually enlarging thyroid nodule. The aspirate showed single as well as syncytial clusters of cells with abundant granular cytoplasm. The differential diagnosis in this case included granular cell tumor, Hurthle cell lesion/neoplasm, and a histiocytic reparative process. Immunohistochemical studies, including S-100 protein and CD68, performed on a cell block preparation were helpful in supporting the diagnosis. PMID:22508678

  18. Hyperammonemia in anorectic tumor-bearing rats

    SciTech Connect

    Chance, W.T.; Cao, L.; Nelson, J.L.; Foley-Nelson, T.; Fischer, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    Plasma ammonia concentrations were significantly elevated by 150% in anorectic rats bearing methylcholanthrene sarcomas. Assessment of ammonia levels in blood draining these sarcomas indicated nearly a 20-fold increase as compared with venous blood in control rats, suggesting the tumor mass as the source of this increase in ammonia. Infusing increasing concentrations of ammonium salts produced anorexia and alterations in brain amino acids in normal rats that were similar to those observed in anorectic tumor-bearing rats. Therefore, these results suggest that ammonia released by tumor tissue may be an important factor in the etiology of cancer anorexia.

  19. Liposomal contrast agents in brain tumor imaging.

    PubMed

    Ghaghada, Ketan B; Colen, Rivka R; Hawley, Catherine R; Patel, Neil; Mukundan, Srinivasan

    2010-08-01

    Treatment of glioblastoma multiforme remains a major challenge despite advances in standard therapy, including surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. The field of nanomedicine is expected to have a major impact on the treatment and management of brain tumors. Over the past decade, significant efforts have been made in using nanoparticles for diagnosis and treatment of brain tumors. One class of nanoparticles, liposomes, have received considerable attention for use as nanocarriers for delivery of therapeutics and contrast agents. The purpose of this article is to present the advances in the design and functional characteristics of liposomes for applications in brain tumor imaging. PMID:20708552

  20. Papillary tumor of the pineal region

    PubMed Central

    Opatowsky, Michael; O'Rourke, Brian; Layton, Kennith

    2012-01-01

    Presented is a patient with papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR), an uncommon and recently recognized neoplasm. As its name implies, PTPR does not arise from the pineal gland itself. The cell of origin is thought to be the specialized ependymocytes of the subcommissural organ. Primary tumors of the pineal region include pineal parenchymal neoplasms, germ cell neoplasms, and tumors arising from adjacent structures, including meningiomas, astrocytomas, and ependymomas. Like other masses in this location, PTPR often leads to obstructive hydrocephalus. Due to the relative paucity of reported cases of PTPR, its natural history is unknown. PMID:22275792

  1. A therapy inactivating the tumor angiogenic factors.

    PubMed

    Morales-Rodrigo, Cristian

    2013-02-01

    This paper is devoted to a nonlinear system of partial differential equations modeling the effect of an anti-angiogenic therapy based on an agent that binds to the tumor angiogenic factors. The main feature of the model under consideration is a nonlinear flux production of tumor angiogenic factors at the boundary of the tumor. It is proved the global existence for the nonlinear system and the effect in the large time behavior of the system for high doses of the therapeutic agent. PMID:23311368

  2. Cancer Progression and Tumor Growth Kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagoev, Krastan; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Wilkerson, Julia; Sprinkhuizen, Sara; Song, Yi-Qiao; Bates, Susan; Rosen, Bruce; Fojo, Tito

    2013-03-01

    We present and analyze tumor growth data from prostate and brain cancer. Scaling the data from different patients shows that early stage prostate tumors show non-exponential growth while advanced prostate and brain tumors enter a stage of exponential growth. The scaling analysis points to the existence of cancer stem cells and/or massive apoptosis in early stage prostate cancer and that late stage cancer growth is not dominated by cancer stem cells. Statistical models of these two growth modes are discussed. Work supported by the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health

  3. Childhood brain tumors: accomplishments and ongoing challenges.

    PubMed

    Packer, Roger J

    2008-10-01

    The management of childhood brain tumors, which consist of many different histological subtypes, continues to be a challenge. Outcome, measured not only by survival rates but also by the effects of disease and therapy on quality of life, has improved over the past two decades for some tumor types, most notably medulloblastomas. For others, however, there has been little progress, and quality of life for long-term survivors remains suboptimal. Because of advances in our understanding of the biology underlying childhood brain tumors, treatments may change dramatically in the years ahead. Accordingly, survival rates may improve and long-term sequelae lessen. PMID:18952578

  4. A Tumor Suppressor Function for Notch Signaling in Forebrain Tumor Subtypes.

    PubMed

    Giachino, Claudio; Boulay, Jean-Louis; Ivanek, Robert; Alvarado, Alvaro; Tostado, Cristobal; Lugert, Sebastian; Tchorz, Jan; Coban, Mustafa; Mariani, Luigi; Bettler, Bernhard; Lathia, Justin; Frank, Stephan; Pfister, Stefan; Kool, Marcel; Taylor, Verdon

    2015-12-14

    In the brain, Notch signaling maintains normal neural stem cells, but also brain cancer stem cells, indicating an oncogenic role. Here, we identify an unexpected tumor suppressor function for Notch in forebrain tumor subtypes. Genetic inactivation of RBP-J?, a key Notch mediator, or Notch1 and Notch2 receptors accelerates PDGF-driven glioma growth in mice. Conversely, genetic activation of the Notch pathway reduces glioma growth and increases survival. In humans, high Notch activity strongly correlates with distinct glioma subtypes, increased patient survival, and lower tumor grade. Additionally, simultaneous inactivation of RBP-J? and p53 induces primitive neuroectodermal-like tumors in mice. Hence, Notch signaling cooperates with p53 to restrict cell proliferation and tumor growth in mouse models of human brain tumors. PMID:26669487

  5. A differential diagnosis of inherited endocrine tumors and their tumor counterparts

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, Sergio P. A.; Lourenço, Delmar M.; Toledo, Rodrigo A.

    2013-01-01

    Inherited endocrine tumors have been increasingly recognized in clinical practice, although some difficulties still exist in differentiating these conditions from their sporadic endocrine tumor counterparts. Here, we list the 12 main topics that could add helpful information and clues for performing an early differential diagnosis to distinguish between these conditions. The early diagnosis of patients with inherited endocrine tumors may be performed either clinically or by mutation analysis in at-risk individuals. Early detection usually has a large impact in tumor management, allowing preventive clinical or surgical therapy in most cases. Advice for the clinical and surgical management of inherited endocrine tumors is also discussed. In addition, recent clinical and genetic advances for 17 different forms of inherited endocrine tumors are briefly reviewed. PMID:23917672

  6. Imidazoacridones with Anti-Tumor Activity

    Cancer.gov

    The present invention relates to a class of bifunctional therapeutic agents with potent and selective activity against colon, liver and pancreatic cancers inhibiting tumor growth via a novel mechanism.

  7. Paracrine Induction of Endothelium by Tumor Exosomes

    PubMed Central

    Hood, Joshua L.; Pan, Hua; Lanza, Gregory M.; Wickline, Samuel A.

    2012-01-01

    Cancers utilize a nanoscale messenger system known as exosomes to communicate with surrounding tissues and immune cells. However, the functional relationship between tumor exosomes, endothelial signaling, angiogenesis, and metastasis is poorly understood. Herein, we describe a standardized approach for defining the angiogenic potential of isolated exosomes. We created a powerful technique to rapidly and efficiently isolate and track exosomes for study using dynamic light scattering in conjunction with fluorescent exosome labeling. With these methods, melanoma exosomes were observed to interact with and influence endothelial tubule morphology as well as move between endothelial tubule cells by means of tunneling nanotube structures. Melanoma exosomes also were observed to rapidly stimulate the production of endothelial spheroids and endothelial sprouts in a dose-dependent manner. In concert, tumor exosomes simultaneously elicited paracrine endothelial signaling by regulation of certain inflammatory cytokines. These data suggest that, tumor exosomes can promote endothelial angiogenic responses, which could contribute to tumor metastatic potential. PMID:19786948

  8. Probing the tumor microenvironment: collection and induction

    E-print Network

    Williams, James K.

    The Nano Intravital Device, or NANIVID, is under development as an optically transparent, implantable tool to study the tumor microenvironment. Two etched glass substrates are sealed using a thin polymer membrane to create ...

  9. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor – An Evolving Concept

    PubMed Central

    Tornillo, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most frequent mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. The discovery that these tumors, formerly thought of smooth muscle origin, are indeed better characterized by specific activating mutation in genes coding for the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) CKIT and PDGFRA and that these mutations are strongly predictive for the response to targeted therapy with RTK inhibitors has made GISTs the typical example of the integration of basic molecular knowledge in the daily clinical activity. The information on the mutational status of these tumors is essential to predict (and subsequently to plan) the therapy. As resistant cases are frequently wild type, other possible oncogenic events, defining other “entities,” have been discovered (e.g., succinil dehydrogenase mutation/dysregulation, insuline growth factor expression, and mutations in the RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway). The classification of disease must nowadays rely on the integration of the clinico-morphological characteristics with the molecular data. PMID:25593916

  10. Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium Membership Information

    Cancer.gov

    BTEC welcomes new members interested in the development of multi-center, inter-disciplinary collaborations that will lead to a better understanding of the etiology, outcomes and prevention of all brain tumors.

  11. A stochastic model for tumor heterogeneity

    E-print Network

    Simone, Giuseppina

    2015-01-01

    Phenotype variations define heterogeneity of biological and molecular systems, which play a crucial role in several mechanisms. Heterogeneity has been demonstrated in tumor cells. Here, samples from blood of patients affected from colon tumor were analyzed and fished with a microfluidic assay based on galactose active moieties, and incubated, for culturing, in SCID mice. Following the experimental investigation, a model based on Markov theory was implemented and discussed to explain the equilibrium existing between phenotypes of subpopulations of cells sorted using the microfluidic assay. The model in combination with the experimental results had many implications for tumor heterogeneity. It displayed interconversion of phenotypes, as observed after experiments. The interconversion generates of metastatic cells and implies that targeting the CTCs will be not an efficient method to prevent tumor recurrence. Most importantly, understanding the transitions between cell phenotypes in cell population can boost the...

  12. Monitoring therapeutic monoclonal antibodies in brain tumor.

    PubMed

    Ait-Belkacem, Rima; Berenguer, Caroline; Villard, Claude; Ouafik, L'Houcine; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Beck, Alain; Chinot, Olivier; Lafitte, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Bevacizumab induces normalization of abnormal blood vessels, making them less leaky. By binding to vascular endothelial growth factor, it indirectly attacks the vascular tumor mass. The optimal delivery of targeted therapies including monoclonal antibodies or anti-angiogenesis drugs to the target tissue highly depends on the blood-brain barrier permeability. It is therefore critical to investigate how drugs effectively reach the tumor. In situ investigation of drug distribution could provide a better understanding of pharmacological agent action and optimize chemotherapies for solid tumors. We developed an imaging method coupled to protein identification using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. This approach monitored bevacizumab distribution within the brain structures, and especially within the tumor, without any labeling. PMID:25484065

  13. Method for Predicting and Detecting Tumor Metastasis

    Cancer.gov

    The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Laboratory of Development Neurobiology is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize methods for predicting and detecting tumor metastasis.

  14. Nanotechnology-mediated targeting of tumor angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Angiogenesis is disregulated in many diseased states, most notably in cancer. An emerging strategy for the development of therapies targeting tumor-associated angiogenesis is to harness the potential of nanotechnology to improve the pharmacology of chemotherapeutics, including anti-angiogenic agents. Nanoparticles confer several advantages over that of free drugs, including their capability to carry high payloads of therapeutic agents, confer increased half-life and reduced toxicity to the drugs, and provide means for selective targeting of the tumor tissue and vasculature. The plethora of nanovectors available, in addition to the various methods available to combine them with anti-angiogenic drugs, allows researchers to fine-tune the pharmacological profile of the drugs ad infinitum. Use of nanovectors has also opened up novel avenues for non-invasive imaging of tumor angiogenesis. Herein, we review the types of nanovector and therapeutic/diagnostic agent combinations used in targeting tumor angiogenesis. PMID:21349160

  15. PAQR3: a novel tumor suppressor gene

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xin; Li, Zheng; Chan, Matthew TV; Wu, William Ka Kei

    2015-01-01

    PAQR3, also known as RKTG (Raf kinase trapping to Golgi), is a member of the progestin and adipoQ receptor (PAQR) family. The role of PAQR3 as a tumor suppressor has recently been established in different types of human cancer in which PAQR3 exerts its biological function through negative regulation of the oncogenic Raf/MEK/ERK signaling. Multiple studies have found that PAQR3 downregulation frequently occurs in human cancers and is very often associated with tumor progression and shortened patients’ survival. Moreover, restoring the expression of PAQR3 could induce apoptosis and inhibit proliferation and invasiveness of cancer cells. Downregulation of PAQR3 by oncogenic microRNAs has also been reported. In this review, we summarized current knowledge concerning the role of PAQR3 in tumor development. To our knowledge, this is the first review on the role of this novel tumor suppressor. PMID:26609468

  16. Clinical features of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Grozinsky-Glasberg, Simona; Mazeh, Haggi; Gross, David J

    2015-08-01

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs), also known as islet cell tumors, are rare neoplasms that arise in the endocrine tissues of the pancreas. Most of pancreatic NETs (50-75%) are nonfunctioning (not associated with a hormonal clinical syndrome); however, in up to one third they can secrete a variety of peptide hormones, including insulin, gastrin, glucagon, vasoactive intestinal peptide, somatostatin etc., resulting in rare but unique clinical syndromes. In this article, the clinical features of the different types of PNETs will be reviewed. Other aspects of the management of these tumors (surgery, treatment of advanced disease, tumor localization) are not dealt with here, as they are covered by other papers in this volume. PMID:25689919

  17. [Clinical diagnosis of frequent skin tumors].

    PubMed

    Hundeiker, M

    1976-12-01

    Some clinical differential diagnostic aspects of frequent or otherwise important skin tumors and precancerous lesions, grouped after their gross nodular or ulcerated, papillomatous or flat appearances, are compiled. PMID:188788

  18. Targeting of drugs and nanoparticles to tumors

    E-print Network

    Ruoslahti, Erkki

    The various types of cells that comprise the tumor mass all carry molecular markers that are not expressed or are expressed at much lower levels in normal cells. These differentially expressed molecules can be used as ...

  19. Functional characterization of mobilized tumor cells

    E-print Network

    Yao, Xiaosai

    2014-01-01

    Despite being responsible for 90% of cancer mortality, metastasis is not well understood. This thesis is focused on the circulation step of the metastatic cascade, examining three types of mobilized tumor cells: circulating ...

  20. Does Tumor Development Follow a Programmed Path?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Robert

    2011-03-01

    The initiation and progression of a tumor is a complex process, resembling the growth of a embryo in terms of the stages of development and increasing differentiation and somatic evolution of constituent cells in the community of cells that constitute the tumor. Typically we view cancer cells as rogue individuals violating the rules of the games played within an organism, but I would suggest that what we see is a programmed and algorithmic process. I will then question If tumor progression is dominated by the random acquisition of successive survival traits, or by a systematic and sequential unpacking of ``weapons'' from a pre-adapted ``toolkit'' of genetic and epigenetic potentialities? Can we then address this hypothesis by data mining solid tumors layer by layer? Support of the NSF and the NCI is gratefully acknowledged.

  1. How Are Lung Carcinoid Tumors Staged?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the abdomen (diaphragm), the membranes surrounding the space between the lungs (mediastinal pleura), or membranes of ... tumor of any size has grown into the space between the lungs (mediastinum), the heart, the large ...

  2. Calcifying Fibrous Tumor of the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Larson, Brent K; Dhall, Deepti

    2015-07-01

    Calcifying fibrous tumor is a benign mass lesion classically described as a soft tissue tumor. However, a thorough review of the literature reveals that it can occur virtually anywhere, including the tubular gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Its clinical manifestations are variable in the GI tract, and its imaging findings are nonspecific. However, it has unique histologic and immunophenotypical features that must be recognized by GI pathologists to differentiate it from an assortment of other rare mesenchymal lesions of the abdomen and GI tract. Calcifying fibrous tumor is composed of a paucicellular collagen matrix, interspersed calcified bodies, and a sparse inflammatory infiltrate. Although calcifying fibrous tumor is benign, pathologists must be aware that it may occur in the GI tract to differentiate it from other potentially more aggressive, rare mesenchymal lesions. PMID:26125434

  3. Fibroid Tumors in Women: A Hidden Epidemic?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... associated with these tumors." NIH Study Seeks to Relieve Fibroid Pain with Fewer Side Effects Researchers at ... could cause fibroids to shrink. That could help relieve pain and other symptoms and possibly improve fertility ...

  4. Staging Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... before the cancer is diagnosed and continue for months or years. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors ... after treatment. Some cancer treatments cause side effects months or years after treatment has ended. These are ...

  5. Brain Tumors - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... List of All Topics All Brain Tumors - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. French (français) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) ...

  6. Cushing syndrome due to adrenal tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... syndrome . It occurs when a tumor of the adrenal gland releases excess amounts of the hormone cortisol. Other ... hormone cortisol. This hormone is made in the adrenal glands . Too much cortisol can be due to various ...

  7. Radiofrequency Ablation Therapy for Solid Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Kam, Anthony

    2002-12-04

    Surgical resection, systemic chemotherapy, and local radiation have been the conventional treatments for localized solid cancer. Because certain patients are not candidates for tumor resection and because many tumors are poorly responsive to chemotherapy and radiation, there has been an impetus to develop alternative therapies. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a minimally invasive therapy for localized solid cancers that has gained considerable attention in the last 12 years. Advantages of minimally invasive therapies over surgery include less recovery time, lower morbidity and mortality, eligibility of more patients, and lower cost. RFA has been applied most extensively to inoperable hepatic tumors. It is investigational for tumors in the kidney, lung, bone, breast, and adrenal gland. This colloquium will review the mechanism, techniques, limitations, and clinical applications of RFA. The ultimate role that RFA will play in cancer therapy will depend on the results of long-term follow-up and prospective randomized trials.

  8. Drugs Approved for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  9. Primary borderline parovarian tumor in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    There are few reports of pregnancy complicated by a primary borderline parovarian tumor. A 32-year-old pregnant woman was found to have an ovarian tumor. At 13 weeks of gestation, cystectomy was performed and a diagnosis of primary borderline parovarian tumor was made. At 38 weeks of gestation, she underwent cesarean section combined with a restaging operation. A normal infant was delivered and there were no signs of recurrence. Currently, the patient is being followed for 24 months after the initial treatment and all imaging data show no evidence of recurrence. This report includes a short review of the existing literature on this topic and documents this case in detail. This case demonstrates the appropriate procedure for evaluating and treating a primary borderline parovarian tumor during pregnancy. PMID:26623422

  10. Monitoring therapeutic monoclonal antibodies in brain tumor

    PubMed Central

    Ait-Belkacem, Rima; Berenguer, Caroline; Villard, Claude; Ouafik, L’Houcine; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Beck, Alain; Chinot, Olivier; Lafitte, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Bevacizumab induces normalization of abnormal blood vessels, making them less leaky. By binding to vascular endothelial growth factor, it indirectly attacks the vascular tumor mass. The optimal delivery of targeted therapies including monoclonal antibodies or anti-angiogenesis drugs to the target tissue highly depends on the blood-brain barrier permeability. It is therefore critical to investigate how drugs effectively reach the tumor. In situ investigation of drug distribution could provide a better understanding of pharmacological agent action and optimize chemotherapies for solid tumors. We developed an imaging method coupled to protein identification using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. This approach monitored bevacizumab distribution within the brain structures, and especially within the tumor, without any labeling. PMID:25484065

  11. Imaging Tumor Metabolism Using Positron Emission Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, David Y.; Soloviev, Dmitry; Brindle, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is an extraordinarily sensitive clinical imaging modality for interrogating tumor metabolism. Radiolabelled PET substrates can be traced at sub-physiological concentrations, allowing non-invasive imaging of metabolism and intra-tumoral heterogeneity in systems ranging from advanced cancer models to cancer patients in the clinic. There are a wide range of novel and more established PET radiotracers, which can be used to investigate various aspects of tumor metabolism, including carbohydrate, amino acid and fatty acid metabolism. In this review we will briefly discuss the more established metabolic tracers and describe recent work on the development of new tracers. Some of the unanswered questions in tumor metabolism will be considered alongside new technical developments, such as combined PET/MRI machines, that could provide new imaging solutions to some of the outstanding diagnostic challenges facing modern cancer medicine. PMID:25815854

  12. Heterogeneity in evolutionary models of tumor progression

    E-print Network

    Foo, Jasmine

    tumors have also been demonstrated via flow cytometry in cervical cancers and lymph node metastases [27 and increased mutation and proliferation rates. The resulting distinct subpopulations evolve, in turn produce

  13. Nanotechnology-mediated targeting of tumor angiogenesis

    E-print Network

    Banerjee, Deboshri

    Abstract Angiogenesis is disregulated in many diseased states, most notably in cancer. An emerging strategy for the development of therapies targeting tumor-associated angiogenesis is to harness the potential of nanotechnology ...

  14. Enhanced Performance of Brain Tumor Classification via Tumor Region Augmentation and Partition

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jun; Huang, Wei; Cao, Shuangliang; Yang, Ru; Yang, Wei; Yun, Zhaoqiang; Wang, Zhijian; Feng, Qianjin

    2015-01-01

    Automatic classification of tissue types of region of interest (ROI) plays an important role in computer-aided diagnosis. In the current study, we focus on the classification of three types of brain tumors (i.e., meningioma, glioma, and pituitary tumor) in T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI (CE-MRI) images. Spatial pyramid matching (SPM), which splits the image into increasingly fine rectangular subregions and computes histograms of local features from each subregion, exhibits excellent results for natural scene classification. However, this approach is not applicable for brain tumors, because of the great variations in tumor shape and size. In this paper, we propose a method to enhance the classification performance. First, the augmented tumor region via image dilation is used as the ROI instead of the original tumor region because tumor surrounding tissues can also offer important clues for tumor types. Second, the augmented tumor region is split into increasingly fine ring-form subregions. We evaluate the efficacy of the proposed method on a large dataset with three feature extraction methods, namely, intensity histogram, gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), and bag-of-words (BoW) model. Compared with using tumor region as ROI, using augmented tumor region as ROI improves the accuracies to 82.31% from 71.39%, 84.75% from 78.18%, and 88.19% from 83.54% for intensity histogram, GLCM, and BoW model, respectively. In addition to region augmentation, ring-form partition can further improve the accuracies up to 87.54%, 89.72%, and 91.28%. These experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is feasible and effective for the classification of brain tumors in T1-weighted CE-MRI. PMID:26447861

  15. Tumor-Infiltrating ?? T Lymphocytes: Pathogenic Role, Clinical Significance, and Differential Programing in the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Lo Presti, Elena; Dieli, Franceso; Meraviglia, Serena

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing clinical evidence indicating that the immune system may either promote or inhibit tumor progression. Several studies have demonstrated that tumors undergoing remission are largely infiltrated by T lymphocytes [tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs)], but on the other hand, several studies have shown that tumors may be infiltrated by TILs endowed with suppressive features, suggesting that TILs are rather associated with tumor progression and unfavorable prognosis. ?? T lymphocytes are an important component of TILs that may contribute to tumor immunosurveillance, as also suggested by promising reports from several small phase-I clinical trials. Typically, ???T lymphocytes perform effector functions involved in anti-tumor immune responses (cytotoxicity, production of IFN-? and TNF-?, and dendritic cell maturation), but under appropriate conditions they may divert from the typical Th1-like phenotype and polarize to Th2, Th17, and Treg cells thus acquiring the capability to inhibit anti-tumor immune responses and promote tumor growth. Recent studies have shown a high frequency of ?? T lymphocytes infiltrating different types of cancer, but the nature of this association and the exact mechanisms underlying it remain uncertain and whether or not the presence of tumor-infiltrating ?? T lymphocytes is a definite prognostic factor remains controversial. In this paper, we will review studies of tumor-infiltrating ?? T lymphocytes from patients with different types of cancer, and we will discuss their clinical relevance. Moreover, we will also discuss on the complex interplay between cancer, tumor stroma, and ?? T lymphocytes as a major determinant of the final outcome of the ?? T lymphocyte response. Finally, we propose that targeting ?? T lymphocyte polarization and skewing their phenotype to adapt to the microenvironment might hold great promise for the treatment of cancer. PMID:25505472

  16. Tumor Volume-Adapted Dosing in Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy of Lung Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Trakul, Nicholas; Chang, Christine N.; Harris, Jeremy; Chapman, Christopher; University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI ; Rao, Aarti; University of California, Davis, School of Medicine, Davis, CA ; Shen, John; University of California, Irvine, School of Medicine, Irvine, CA ; Quinlan-Davidson, Sean; Department of Radiation Oncology, McMaster University, Juravinski Cancer Centre, Hamilton, Ontario ; Filion, Edith J.; Departement de Medecine, Service de Radio-Oncologie, Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec ; Wakelee, Heather A.; Colevas, A. Dimitrios; Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA ; Whyte, Richard I.; Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA ; and others

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Current stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) protocols for lung tumors prescribe a uniform dose regimen irrespective of tumor size. We report the outcomes of a lung tumor volume-adapted SABR dosing strategy. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the outcomes in 111 patients with a total of 138 primary or metastatic lung tumors treated by SABR, including local control, regional control, distant metastasis, overall survival, and treatment toxicity. We also performed subset analysis on 83 patients with 97 tumors treated with a volume-adapted dosing strategy in which small tumors (gross tumor volume <12 mL) received single-fraction regimens with biologically effective doses (BED) <100 Gy (total dose, 18-25 Gy) (Group 1), and larger tumors (gross tumor volume {>=}12 mL) received multifraction regimens with BED {>=}100 Gy (total dose, 50-60 Gy in three to four fractions) (Group 2). Results: The median follow-up time was 13.5 months. Local control for Groups 1 and 2 was 91.4% and 92.5%, respectively (p = 0.24) at 12 months. For primary lung tumors only (excluding metastases), local control was 92.6% and 91.7%, respectively (p = 0.58). Regional control, freedom from distant metastasis, and overall survival did not differ significantly between Groups 1 and 2. Rates of radiation pneumonitis, chest wall toxicity, and esophagitis were low in both groups, but all Grade 3 toxicities developed in Group 2 (p = 0.02). Conclusion: A volume-adapted dosing approach for SABR of lung tumors seems to provide excellent local control for both small- and large-volume tumors and may reduce toxicity.

  17. Autoradiographic and histopathological studies of boric acid-mediated BNCT in hepatic VX2 tumor-bearing rabbits: Specific boron retention and damage in tumor and tumor vessels.

    PubMed

    Yang, C H; Lin, Y T; Hung, Y H; Liao, J W; Peir, J J; Liu, H M; Lin, Y L; Liu, Y M; Chen, Y W; Chuang, K S; Chou, F I

    2015-12-01

    Hepatoma is a malignant tumor that responds poorly to conventional therapies. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) may provide a better way for hepatoma therapy. In this research, (10)B-enriched boric acid (BA, 99% (10)B) was used as the boron drug. A multifocal hepatic VX2 tumor-bearing rabbit model was used to study the mechanisms of BA-mediated BNCT. Autoradiography demonstrated that BA was selectively targeted to tumors and tumor vessels. Histopathological examination revealed the radiation damage to tumor-bearing liver was concentrated in the tumor regions during BNCT treatment. The selective killing of tumor cells and the destruction of the blood vessels in tumor masses may be responsible for the success of BA-mediated BNCT for liver tumors. PMID:26372198

  18. PAK1 Promotes Intestinal Tumor Initiation.

    PubMed

    Dammann, Kyle; Khare, Vineeta; Harpain, Felix; Lang, Michaela; Kurtovic, Azra; Mesteri, Ildiko; Evstatiev, Rayko; Gasche, Christoph

    2015-11-01

    p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) is a serine/threonine kinase that is overexpressed in colorectal cancer. PAK1 is a target of mesalamine [5-aminosylicylic acid (5-ASA)], a common drug for the treatment of ulcerative colitis with prospective chemopreventive properties. Here, we investigated whether PAK1 deletion impedes tumorigenesis in murine intestinal cancer models. Ten-week-old APC(min) or APC(min)/PAK1(-/-) mice were monitored for 8 weeks, euthanized, and assessed for tumor number and size. Six- to 8-week-old PAK1(-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice received one 10 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection of azoxymethane (AOM) and four cycles of 1.7% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) for 4 days followed by 14 days of regular water. Mice also received 5-ASA via diet. Tumor incidence and size was assessed via colonoscopy and pathology. Molecular targets of PAK1 and 5-ASA were evaluated via immunohistochemistry (IHC) in both models. PAK1 deletion reduced tumor multiplicity and tumor burden but did not alter average tumor size in APC(min) mice. IHC revealed that PAK1 deletion reduced p-AKT, ?-catenin, and c-Myc expression in APC(min) adenomas. Colonoscopy and pathologic analysis revealed that PAK1 deletion reduced tumor multiplicity without affecting tumor size in AOM/DSS-treated mice. 5-ASA treatment and PAK1 deletion impeded tumor multiplicity and dysplastic lesions in AOM/DSS mice. IHC further revealed that 5-ASA blocked ?-catenin signaling via inhibition of PAK1/p-AKT. These data indicate that PAK1 contributes to initiation of intestinal carcinogenesis. Cancer Prev Res; 8(11); 1093-101. ©2015 AACR. PMID:26304465

  19. In vitro studies on odontogenic tumors.

    PubMed

    Catón, Javier; Mitsiadis, Thimios A; Morgan, Peter R

    2012-01-01

    Ameloblastomas are uncommon benign neoplasms of the jaws. They originate from dental epithelial cells, but they are not capable of mineralizing or forming enamel. The study of these tumors is limited to live tissue collected from patients during scheduled surgery. Ameloblastomas grow slowly in vivo and this property is translated to their behavior in vitro. Here, we describe the methods to culture ameloblastomas in organotypic cultures, as well as to isolate stem/progenitor cells from these tumors. PMID:22566055

  20. A rare disorder: tumoral calcinosis and cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Allameh, Seyyed Farshad; Anari, Akram Ghadiri; Gharabaghi, Mehrnaz Asadi; Nakhjavani, Manouchehr

    2011-01-01

    Tumoral calcinosis is a rare disease characterised by deposition of calcified mass near the joints. The pathogenesis of this disease is not exactly defined. A disorder of calcium and inorganic phosphate metabolism may play a role. Here, we report a case of 19-year-old girl who had both cryptogenic cirrhosis and idiopathic tumoral calcinosis. To our knowledge, there is few report of such concurrence. PMID:22688940

  1. Direct intratumoral embolization of intranasal vascular tumors.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyun-Uk; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Park, Chang-Mook; Kim, Jung-Soo

    2013-02-01

    Embolization is a well established technique that facilitates the subsequent surgical removal of vascularized tumors such as juvenile angiofibroma. Preoperative transarterial embolization has proven beneficial for decreasing intraoperative blood loss. However, the procedure is often incomplete owing to extensive vascular structure. Direct intratumoral embolization may help overcome this limitation. We report our experience with embolization of nasal vascular tumors by means of direct intratumoral injection of n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA). PMID:22341928

  2. Genomic landscape of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors

    PubMed Central

    Gebauer, Niklas; Schmidt-Werthern, Christian; Bernard, Veronica; Feller, Alfred C; Keck, Tobias; Begum, Nehara; Rades, Dirk; Lehnert, Hendrik; Brabant, Georg; Thorns, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prognostic role of genomic stability and copy number alterations (CNAs) pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs). METHODS: A high-resolution array-based comparative genomic hybridization approach was utilized in order to investigate and quantify chromosomal aberrations in a panel of 37 primary PanNET and 11 metastatic samples. DNA samples were extracted from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tumor specimen. Genomic findings were correlated with histopathological and immunohistochemical data. Moreover, the dataset was subjected to employing an unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis approach utilizing Euclidean distance and average linkage and associations between genomically defined tumor groups and recurrent CNAs or clinicopathological features of the study group were assessed. RESULTS: Numerous chromosomal aberrations were recurrently detected in both, primary tumor samples and metastases. Copy number gains were most frequently observed at 06p22.2-p22.1 (27.1%), 17p13.1 (20.8%), 07p21.3-p21.2 (18.8%), 09q34.11 (18.8%). Genomic losses were significantly less frequent and the only recurrent aberration affected 08q24.3 (6.3%). Moreover, we detected a high degree of genomic heterogeneity between primary tumors and metastatic lesions. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of loci affected by CNAs in more than 3 primary tumor samples revealed two genetically distinct tumor groups as well as two chromosomal clusters of genomic imbalances indicating a small subset of tumors with common molecular features (13.5%). Aberrations affecting 6p22.2-22.1, 8q24.3, 9q34.11 and 17p13.1 (P = 0.011; 0.003; 0.003; 0.001), were significantly associated with a poorer survival prognosis. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that several frequent CNAs in numerous candidate regions are involved in the pathogenesis and metastatic progression of PanNET. PMID:25516664

  3. Three-Dimensional Multispecies Nonlinear Tumor Growth–II: Tumor Invasion and Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Frieboes, H.B.; Jin, F.; Chuang, Y.-L.; Wise, S.M.; Lowengrub, J.S.; Cristini, V.

    2010-01-01

    We extend the diffuse interface model developed in Wise et al. (2008) to study nonlinear tumor growth in 3D. Extensions include the tracking of multiple viable cell species populations through a continuum diffuse-interface approach, onset and aging of discrete tumor vessels through angiogenesis, and incorporation of individual cell movement using a hybrid continuum-discrete approach. We investigate disease progression as a function of cellular-scale parameters such as proliferation and oxygen/nutrient uptake rates. We find that heterogeneity in the physiologically complex tumor microenvironment, caused by non-uniform distribution of oxygen, cell nutrients, and metabolites, as well as phenotypic changes affecting cellular-scale parameters, can be quantitatively linked to the tumor macro-scale as a mechanism that promotes morphological instability. This instability leads to invasion through tumor infiltration of surrounding healthy tissue. Models that employ a biologically-founded, multiscale approach, as illustrated in this work, could help to quantitatively link the critical effect of heterogeneity in the tumor microenvironment with clinically observed tumor growth and invasion. Using patient tumor-specific parameter values, this approach may provide a predictive tool to characterize the complex in vivo tumor physiological characteristics and clinical response, and thus lead to improved treatment modalities and prognosis. PMID:20303982

  4. Parallel optimization of tumor model parameters for fast registration of brain tumor images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharaki, Evangelia I.; Hogea, Cosmina S.; Shen, Dinggang; Biros, George; Davatzikos, Christos

    2008-03-01

    The motivation of this work is to register MR brain tumor images with a brain atlas. Such a registration method can make possible the pooling of data from different brain tumor patients into a common stereotaxic space, thereby enabling the construction of statistical brain tumor atlases. Moreover, it allows the mapping of neuroanatomical brain atlases into the patient's space, for segmenting brains and thus facilitating surgical or radiotherapy treatment planning. However, the methods developed for registration of normal brain images are not directly applicable to the registration of a normal atlas with a tumor-bearing image, due to substantial dissimilarity and lack of equivalent image content between the two images, as well as severe deformation or shift of anatomical structures around the tumor. Accordingly, a model that can simulate brain tissue death and deformation induced by the tumor is considered to facilitate the registration. Such tumor growth simulation models are usually initialized by placing a small seed in the normal atlas. The shape, size and location of the initial seed are critical for achieving topological equivalence between the atlas and patient's images. In this study, we focus on the automatic estimation of these parameters, pertaining to tumor simulation. In particular, we propose an objective function reflecting feature-based similarity and elastic stretching energy and optimize it with APPSPACK (Asynchronous Parallel Pattern Search), for achieving significant reduction of the computational cost. The results indicate that the registration accuracy is high in areas around the tumor, as well as in the healthy portion of the brain.

  5. Gene expression profiles of circulating tumor cells versus primary tumors in metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Onstenk, Wendy; Sieuwerts, Anieta M; Weekhout, Marleen; Mostert, Bianca; Reijm, Esther A; van Deurzen, Carolien H M; Bolt-de Vries, Joan B; Peeters, Dieter J; Hamberg, Paul; Seynaeve, Caroline; Jager, Agnes; de Jongh, Felix E; Smid, Marcel; Dirix, Luc Y; Kehrer, Diederik F S; van Galen, Anne; Ramirez-Moreno, Raquel; Kraan, Jaco; Van, Mai; Gratama, Jan W; Martens, John W M; Foekens, John A; Sleijfer, Stefan

    2015-06-28

    Before using circulating tumor cells (CTCs) as liquid biopsy, insight into molecular discrepancies between CTCs and primary tumors is essential. We characterized CellSearch-enriched CTCs from 62 metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients with ?5 CTCs starting first-line systemic treatment. Expression levels of 35 tumor-associated, CTC-specific genes, including ESR1, coding for the estrogen receptor (ER), were measured by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction and correlated to corresponding primary tumors. In 30 patients (48%), gene expression profiles of 35 genes were discrepant between CTCs and the primary tumor, but this had no prognostic consequences. In 15 patients (24%), the expression of ER was discrepant. Patients with ER-negative primary tumors and ER-positive CTCs had a longer median TTS compared to those with concordantly ER-negative CTCs (8.5 versus 2.1 months, P = 0.05). From seven patients, an axillary lymph node metastasis was available. In two patients, the CTC profiles better resembled the lymph node metastasis than the primary tumor. Our findings suggest that molecular discordances between CTCs and primary tumors frequently occur, but that this bears no prognostic consequences. Alterations in ER-status between primary tumors and CTCs might have prognostic implications. PMID:25797316

  6. Tumor suppressor XAF1 induces apoptosis, inhibits angiogenesis and inhibits tumor growth in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Li Ming; Shi, Dong Mei; Dai, Qiang; Cheng, Xiao Jiao; Yao, Wei Yan; Sun, Ping Hu; Ding, Yan Fei; Qiao, Min Min; Wu, Yun Lin; Jiang, Shi Hu; Tu, Shui Ping

    2014-01-01

    X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP)-associated factor 1 (XAF1), a XIAP-binding protein, is a tumor suppressor gene. XAF1 was silent or expressed lowly in most human malignant tumors. However, the role of XAF1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of XAF1 on tumor growth and angiogenesis in hepatocellular cancer cells. Our results showed that XAF1 expression was lower in HCC cell lines SMMC-7721, Hep G2 and BEL-7404 and liver cancer tissues than that in paired non-cancer liver tissues. Adenovirus-mediated XAF1 expression (Ad5/F35-XAF1) significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in HCC cells in dose- and time- dependent manners. Infection of Ad5/F35-XAF1 induced cleavage of caspase -3, -8, -9 and PARP in HCC cells. Furthermore, Ad5/F35-XAF1 treatment significantly suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft model of liver cancer cells. Western Blot and immunohistochemistry staining showed that Ad5/F35-XAF1 treatment suppressed expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is associated with tumor angiogenesis, in cancer cells and xenograft tumor tissues. Moreover, Ad5/F35-XAF1 treatment prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice. Our results demonstrate that XAF1 inhibits tumor growth by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting tumor angiogenesis. XAF1 may be a promising target for liver cancer treatment. PMID:24980821

  7. Tumor suppressor XAF1 induces apoptosis, inhibits angiogenesis and inhibits tumor growth in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li Ming; Shi, Dong Mei; Dai, Qiang; Cheng, Xiao Jiao; Yao, Wei Yan; Sun, Ping Hu; Ding, Yanfei; Qiao, Min Min; Wu, Yun Lin; Jiang, Shi Hu; Tu, Shui Ping

    2014-07-30

    X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP)-associated factor 1 (XAF1), a XIAP-binding protein, is a tumor suppressor gene. XAF1 was silent or expressed lowly in most human malignant tumors. However, the role of XAF1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of XAF1 on tumor growth and angiogenesis in hepatocellular cancer cells. Our results showed that XAF1 expression was lower in HCC cell lines SMMC-7721, Hep G2 and BEL-7404 and liver cancer tissues than that in paired non-cancer liver tissues. Adenovirus-mediated XAF1 expression (Ad5/F35-XAF1) significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in HCC cells in dose- and time- dependent manners. Infection of Ad5/F35-XAF1 induced cleavage of caspase -3, -8, -9 and PARP in HCC cells. Furthermore, Ad5/F35-XAF1 treatment significantly suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft model of liver cancer cells. Western Blot and immunohistochemistry staining showed that Ad5/F35-XAF1 treatment suppressed expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is associated with tumor angiogenesis, in cancer cells and xenograft tumor tissues. Moreover, Ad5/F35-XAF1 treatment prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice. Our results demonstrate that XAF1 inhibits tumor growth by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting tumor angiogenesis. XAF1 may be a promising target for liver cancer treatment. PMID:24980821

  8. Similarity on neural stem cells and brain tumor stem cells in transgenic brain tumor mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Guanqun; Li, Qingquan; Peng, Gang; Ma, Jun; Fan, Hongwei; Li, Yingbin

    2013-01-01

    Although it is believed that glioma is derived from brain tumor stem cells, the source and molecular signal pathways of these cells are still unclear. In this study, we used stable doxycycline-inducible transgenic mouse brain tumor models (c-myc+/SV40Tag+/Tet-on+) to explore the malignant trans-formation potential of neural stem cells by observing the differences of neural stem cells and brain tumor stem cells in the tumor models. Results showed that chromosome instability occurred in brain tumor stem cells. The numbers of cytolysosomes and autophagosomes in brain tumor stem cells and induced neural stem cells were lower and the proliferative activity was obviously stronger than that in normal neural stem cells. Normal neural stem cells could differentiate into glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive and microtubule associated protein-2-positive cells, which were also negative for nestin. However, glial fibrillary acidic protein/nestin, microtubule associated protein-2/nestin, and glial fibrillary acidic protein/microtubule associated protein-2 double-positive cells were found in induced neural stem cells and brain tumor stem cells. Results indicate that induced neural stem cells are similar to brain tumor stem cells, and are possibly the source of brain tumor stem cells. PMID:25206546

  9. [Pancreatic endocrine tumors - management guidelines (recommended by the Polish Network of Neuroendocrine Tumors)].

    PubMed

    Kos-Kud?a, Beata; Bolanowski, Marek; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja; Krzakowski, Maciej; Marek, Bogdan; Nasierowska-Guttmejer, Anna; Lampe, Pawe?; Sworczak, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    Pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) are rare neoplasms of this organ. The majority of PETs are tumors without hormonal activity. In this publication, we present the diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines for the management of these tumors proposed by the Polish Network of Neuroendocrine Tumors. These guidelines refer to biochemical and location diagnostics, including scintygraphy of somatostatin receptors, endoscopic ultrasonography and other anatomical and functional imaging methods. High importance is attached to correct histopathological diagnosis which determines further management of patients with PETs. Antitumor therapy requires multidirectional procedure, and therefore the rules of surgical treatment, biotherapy, chemotherapy and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy are discussed. PMID:18335402

  10. Inactivation of the tumor suppressor WTX in a subset of pediatric tumors.

    PubMed

    Akhavanfard, Sara; Vargas, Sara O; Han, Moonjoo; Nitta, Mai; Chang, Clarice B; Le, Long P; Fazlollahi, Ladan; Nguyen, Quan; Ma, Yunqing; Cosper, Arjola; Dias-Santagata, Dora; Han, Jae Y; Bergethon, Kristin; Borger, Darrell R; Ellisen, Leif W; Pomeroy, Scott L; Haber, Daniel A; Iafrate, A John; Rivera, Miguel N

    2014-01-01

    WTX is a tumor suppressor gene expressed during embryonic development and inactivated in 20-30% of cases of Wilms tumor, the most common pediatric kidney cancer. WTX has been implicated in several cellular processes including Wnt signaling, WT1 transcription, NRF2 degradation, and p53 function. Given that WTX is widely expressed during embryonic development and has been recently shown to regulate mesenchymal precursor cells in several organs, we tested for the potential involvement of WTX in a panel of pediatric tumors and adult sarcomas. A total of 353 tumors were screened for WTX deletions by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Discrete somatic WTX deletions were identified in two cases, one hepatoblastoma and one embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, and confirmed by array comparative genomic hybridization. Direct sequencing of the full WTX open reading frame in 24 hepatoblastomas and 21 embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas did not identify additional mutations in these tumor types. The presence of WTX mRNA was confirmed in hepatoblastomas and embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas without WTX deletions by RNA-in situ hybridization. Notably, tumors with evidence of WTX inactivation, Wilms tumor, hepatoblastoma and rhabdomyosarcoma, are primitive tumors that resemble undifferentiated precursor cells and are linked to overgrowth syndromes. These results indicate that WTX inactivation occurs in a wider variety of tumor types than previously appreciated and point to shared pathogenic mechanisms between a subset of pediatric malignancies. PMID:24249259

  11. Naturally arising tumors of the inbred WAB/Not rat strain. II. Immunogenicity of transplanted tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Middle, J.G.; Embleton, M.J.

    1981-09-01

    The immunogenicity of 28 transplanted naturally arising tumors of the inbred WAB/Not rat was investigated at early passages in strictly syngeneic, contemporary animals. Included were nephroblastomas, histologically benign and malignant mammary tumors, soft tissue and skin tumors, 1 lymphoid tumor, and 2 gastrointestinal lesions. In no case was evidence of immunogenicity observed when animals were treated with multiple grafts of irradiated (15,000 rad) tissue or by excision of a growing tumor. A few of these tumors were further investigated by other methods of immunization, including injection at various sites of irradiated cells followed by challenge at different sites and multiple injections of mitomycin C- or Formalin-treated cells. Again no evidence of immunogenicity was seen. Attempts to immunize with viable cells mixed with BCG or Corynebacterium parvum failed due to lack of tumor suppression by these agents. Limited concomitant immunity experiments yielded similarly negative results, except in one case of a fibrosarcoma for which a slight reduction in second tumor growth was observed when primary implants were very large. Some alterations in biologic properties during transplant passage and the incidence of postexcision recurrence and metastatic spread of some of the tumors are described.

  12. Collecting and Storing Blood and Brain Tumor Tissue Samples From Children With Brain Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-05

    Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Newly Diagnosed Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma

  13. Marrow-tumor interactions: the role of the bone marrow in controlling chemically induced tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Rosse, C

    1980-01-01

    This report summarizes work done to evaluate the role of the bone marrow in tumor growth regulation. Work done with the MCA tumor showed that several subclasses of mononuclear bone marrow cells (e.g. natural regulatory cell, NRC) play a major role in the regulation of tumor growth. Experiments with the spontaneous CE mammary carcinoma system illustrate that a rapid growth of certain neoplasms may be due to the fact that through some as yet undefined mechanism the tumor eliminates mononuclear cells in the bone marrow of the host and stops their production. (KRM)

  14. Innovations in the management of Wilms’ tumor

    PubMed Central

    Gleason, Joseph M.; Lorenzo, Armando J.; Bowlin, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in the management of Wilms’ tumor have been dramatic over the past half century, not in small part due to the institution of multimodal therapy and the formation of collaborative study groups. While different opinions exist in the management of Wilms’ tumors depending on where one lives and practices, survival rates have surpassed 90% across the board in Western societies. With more children surviving into adulthood, the concerns about morbidity have reached the forefront and now represent as much a consideration as oncologic outcomes these days. Innovations in treatment are on the horizon in the form of potential tumor markers, molecular biological means of testing for chemotherapeutic responsiveness, and advances in the delivery of chemotherapy for recurrent or recalcitrant tumors. Other technological innovations are being applied to childhood renal tumors, such as minimally invasive and nephron-sparing approaches. Risk stratification also allows for children to forego potentially unnecessary treatments and their associated morbidities. Wilms’ tumor stands as a great example of the gains that can be made through protocol-driven therapy with strenuous outcomes analyses. These gains continue to spark interest in minimization of morbidity, while avoiding any compromise in oncologic efficacy. While excitement and innovation are important in the advancement of treatment delivery, we must continue to temper this enthusiasm and carefully evaluate options in order to continue to provide the highest standard of care in the management of this now highly curable disease. PMID:25083165

  15. Targeting the Metabolic Microenvironment of Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Kate M.; Wojtkowiak, Jonathan W.; Hashim, Arig Ibrahim; Gillies, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The observation of aerobic glycolysis by tumor cells in 1924 by Otto Warburg, and subsequent innovation of imaging glucose uptake by tumors in patients with PET-CT has incited a renewed interest in the altered metabolism of tumors. As tumors grow in situ, a fraction of it is further away from their blood supply, leading to decreased oxygen concentrations (hypoxia), which induces the hypoxia response pathways of HIF1?, mTOR and UPR. In normal tissues, these responses mitigate hypoxic stress and induce neo-angiogenesis. In tumors, these pathways are dysregulated and lead to decreased perfusion and exacerbation of hypoxia as a result of immature and chaotic blood vessels. Hypoxia selects for a glycolytic phenotype and resultant acidification of the tumor microenvironment, facilitated by upregulation of proton transporters. Acidification selects for enhanced metastatic potential and reduced drug efficacy through ion trapping. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of pre-clinical and clinical drugs under development for targeting aerobic glycolysis, acidosis, hypoxia and hypoxia-response pathways. Hypoxia and acidosis can be manipulated, providing further therapeutic benefit for cancers that feature these common phenotypes. PMID:22959024

  16. Nucleophosmin is overexpressed in thyroid tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Pianta, Annalisa; Puppin, Cinzia; Franzoni, Alessandra; Fabbro, Dora; Di Loreto, Carla; Bulotta, Stefania; Deganuto, Marta; Paron, Igor; Tell, Gianluca; Puxeddu, Efisio; Filetti, Sebastiano; Russo, Diego; Damante, Giuseppe; Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria 'S. Maria della Misericordia' Udine, Udine

    2010-07-02

    Nucleophosmin (NPM) is a protein that contributes to several cell functions. Depending on the context, it can act as an oncogene or tumor suppressor. No data are available on NPM expression in thyroid cells. In this work, we analyzed both NPM mRNA and protein levels in a series of human thyroid tumor tissues and cell lines. By using immunohistochemistry, NPM overexpression was detected in papillary, follicular, undifferentiated thyroid cancer, and also in follicular benign adenomas, indicating it as an early event during thyroid tumorigenesis. In contrast, various levels of NPM mRNA levels as detected by quantitative RT-PCR were observed in tumor tissues, suggesting a dissociation between protein and transcript expression. The same behavior was observed in the normal thyroid FRTL5 cell lines. In these cells, a positive correlation between NPM protein levels, but not mRNA, and proliferation state was detected. By using thyroid tumor cell lines, we demonstrated that such a post-mRNA regulation may depend on NPM binding to p-Akt, whose levels were found to be increased in the tumor cells, in parallel with reduction of PTEN. In conclusion, our present data demonstrate for the first time that nucleophosmin is overexpressed in thyroid tumors, as an early event of thyroid tumorigenesis. It seems as a result of a dysregulation occurring at protein and not transcriptional level related to an increase of p-Akt levels of transformed thyrocytes.

  17. Vaccination against strontium-90-induced bone tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Reif, A.E.; Triest, W.E.

    1983-09-01

    The thesis was tested that immunization against a murine osteosarcoma virus can reduce the incidence of bone tumors induced by /sup 90/Sr. C57BL/6J female mice (190) were divided into three sets of 2 groups. Each set consisted of a control group and an experimental group treated ip with 1.0 muCi /sup 90/Sr at 66 days of age. The three sets of groups received the following additional treatments: none (controls), 6 injections of Formalin-inactivated FBJ osteosarcoma virus (vaccinated group), or 6 injections of active FBJ virus (active virus controls). Only 1 bone tumor developed in a mouse not treated with /sup 90/Sr in the active virus controls. In /sup 90/Sr-treated mice, vaccination reduced bone tumor deaths during the first 600 days from 9 of 36 in controls to 1 of 33 in vaccinated mice (P less than .01), but bone tumor deaths during the entire life-span, 10 of 36 and 5 of 33, respectively, were not significantly different (P . .07). Thus the vaccination procedure delayed the development of bone tumors. In contrast, injection of active virus into /sup 90/Sr-treated mice increased the lifetime incidence of bone tumors from 10 of 36 in controls to 19 of 32 (P . .01).

  18. Management of thymic tumors: a European perspective

    PubMed Central

    Venuta, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Thymic tumors are rare mediastinal tumors, which are considered as orphan diseases due to their low prevalence. The most recent histologic classification divides thymic tumors into thymomas, thymic carcinomas (TC) and neuroendocrine thymic tumors (NETT). Until recently, clinical research on thymic tumors has been primarily represented by single-institution experiences usually scattered over a long time period in order to accumulate a sufficient number of patients for clinical analysis. Europe has played a pivotal role in the advancement of the clinical research on thymus in the past years. In the last decade, there has been an increased interest in thymic malignancies in the scientific community. The European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS), the most representative society of general thoracic surgeons in the world, established a dedicated thymic working group in 2010 with the intent to provide a platform among ESTS members with a specific interest in thymic malignancies. The present review is intended to provide, through the description of the activity of the ESTS thymic working group and its published results, an overview of the European contribution to the thymic research. A brief overview of the state-of-the-art of clinical presentation, diagnosis, staging and histologic classification of thymic tumors is also provided, along with the most recent therapeutic advancements. PMID:24868441

  19. Giant Solitary Fibrous Tumor of Orbit.

    PubMed

    Tenekeci, Goktekin; Sari, Alper; Vayisoglu, Yusuf; Serin, Onur

    2015-07-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) have been reported in various locations in the body. Solitary fibrous tumors are extremely rare tumors, especially when located in the orbit. Diagnosis of SFT cannot be made based on histopathology only because it exhibits a variable microscopic appearance, and necessitates immunohistochemistry to confirm the diagnosis. A 51-year-old man was admitted to our clinic for the evaluation of a mass bulging in his left eye. Clinical examination revealed a painless mass extruding out of the orbital cavity with dimensions of 8?×?7 ?cm. Exenteration of the left eye including the upper and lower eyelid and reconstruction of the orbital cavity using a temporoparietal fascia flap and a temporal muscle flap was performed. SFT of orbital region is known as a slow growing and painless tumor. Based on previous studies, increased mitotic rate of the tumor gives the impression that the tumor has a malignant nature. Until now a small number or orbital SFTs were reported and none of them presented with a giant mass protruding out of the orbital cavity. We present a unique case of orbital SFT filling the whole orbital cavity and protruding outward as a giant mass. This case has been reported to expand our knowledge in this debated entity. PMID:26102546

  20. Endothelial Thermotolerance Impairs Nanoparticle Transport in Tumors.

    PubMed

    Bagley, Alexander F; Scherz-Shouval, Ruth; Galie, Peter A; Zhang, Angela Q; Wyckoff, Jeffrey; Whitesell, Luke; Chen, Christopher S; Lindquist, Susan; Bhatia, Sangeeta N

    2015-08-15

    The delivery of diagnostic and therapeutic agents to solid tumors is limited by physical transport barriers within tumors, and such restrictions directly contribute to decreased therapeutic efficacy and the emergence of drug resistance. Nanomaterials designed to perturb the local tumor environment with precise spatiotemporal control have demonstrated potential to enhance drug delivery in preclinical models. Here, we investigated the ability of one class of heat-generating nanomaterials called plasmonic nanoantennae to enhance tumor transport in a xenograft model of ovarian cancer. We observed a temperature-dependent increase in the transport of diagnostic nanoparticles into tumors. However, a transient, reversible reduction in this enhanced transport was seen upon reexposure to heating, consistent with the development of vascular thermotolerance. Harnessing these observations, we designed an improved treatment protocol combining plasmonic nanoantennae with diffusion-limited chemotherapies. Using a microfluidic endothelial model and genetic tools to inhibit the heat-shock response, we found that the ability of thermal preconditioning to limit heat-induced cytoskeletal disruption is an important component of vascular thermotolerance. This work, therefore, highlights the clinical relevance of cellular adaptations to nanomaterials and identifies molecular pathways whose modulation could improve the exposure of tumors to therapeutic agents. PMID:26122846

  1. Brain mapping in tumors: intraoperative or extraoperative?

    PubMed

    Duffau, Hugues

    2013-12-01

    In nontumoral epilepsy surgery, the main goal for all preoperative investigation is to first determine the epileptogenic zone, and then to analyze its relation to eloquent cortex, in order to control seizures while avoiding adverse postoperative neurologic outcome. To this end, in addition to neuropsychological assessment, functional neuroimaging and scalp electroencephalography, extraoperative recording, and electrical mapping, especially using subdural strip- or grid-electrodes, has been reported extensively. Nonetheless, in tumoral epilepsy surgery, the rationale is different. Indeed, the first aim is rather to maximize the extent of tumor resection while minimizing postsurgical morbidity, in order to increase the median survival as well as to preserve quality of life. As a consequence, as frequently seen in infiltrating tumors such as gliomas, where these lesions not only grow but also migrate along white matter tracts, the resection should be performed according to functional boundaries both at cortical and subcortical levels. With this in mind, extraoperative mapping by strips/grids is often not sufficient in tumoral surgery, since in essence, it allows study of the cortex but cannot map subcortical pathways. Therefore, intraoperative electrostimulation mapping, especially in awake patients, is more appropriate in tumor surgery, because this technique allows real-time detection of areas crucial for cerebral functions--eloquent cortex and fibers--throughout the resection. In summary, rather than choosing one or the other of different mapping techniques, methodology should be adapted to each pathology, that is, extraoperative mapping in nontumoral epilepsy surgery and intraoperative mapping in tumoral surgery. PMID:24328878

  2. Dasatinib, Ifosfamide, Carboplatin, and Etoposide in Treating Young Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Malignant Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-30

    Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors; Childhood Germ Cell Tumor; Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Kidney Cancer; Liver Cancer; Lymphoma; Neuroblastoma; Ovarian Cancer; Sarcoma; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  3. MINI REVIEW TUMOR REVERSION: CORRECTION OF MALIGNANT BEHAVIOR BY

    E-print Network

    Kenny, Paraic

    MINI REVIEW TUMOR REVERSION: CORRECTION OF MALIGNANT BEHAVIOR BY MICROENVIRONMENTAL CUES Paraic A that is intimately linked to, and controlled by, reciprocal signaling between the genetically altered tumor defects can revert tumor cells to a normal phenotype, both in vivo and in culture, even when the tumor

  4. MATH100 PROJECT A SIMPLE MODEL FOR TUMOR GROWTH

    E-print Network

    Fasshauer, Greg

    MATH100 PROJECT A SIMPLE MODEL FOR TUMOR GROWTH Introduction. It has been observed experimentally that a tumor grows by dividing its cells, and at early stage the tumor grows at a rate proportional (1) is known as the law of natural growth. Given the initial tumor volume is V0 at the initial time t

  5. Sunitinib impedes brain tumor progression and reduces tumor-induced neurodegeneration in the microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Hatipoglu, Gökçe; Hock, Stefan W; Weiss, Ruth; Fan, Zheng; Sehm, Tina; Ghoochani, Ali; Buchfelder, Michael; Savaskan, Nicolai E; Eyüpoglu, Ilker Y

    2015-01-01

    Malignant gliomas can be counted to the most devastating tumors in humans. Novel therapies do not achieve significant prolonged survival rates. The cancer cells have an impact on the surrounding vital tissue and form tumor zones, which make up the tumor microenvironment. We investigated the effects of sunitinib, a small molecule multitargeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, on constituents of the tumor microenvironment such as gliomas, astrocytes, endothelial cells, and neurons. Sunitinib has a known anti-angiogenic effect. We found that sunitinib normalizes the aberrant tumor-derived vasculature and reduces tumor vessel pathologies (i.e. auto-loops). Sunitinib has only minor effects on the normal, physiological, non-proliferating vasculature. We found that neurons and astrocytes are protected by sunitinib against glutamate-induced cell death, whereas sunitinib acts as a toxin towards proliferating endothelial cells and tumor vessels. Moreover, sunitinib is effective in inducing glioma cell death. We determined the underlying pathways by which sunitinib operates as a toxin on gliomas and found vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2, KDR/Flk1) as the main target to execute gliomatoxicity. The apoptosis-inducing effect of sunitinib can be mimicked by inhibition of VEGFR2. Knockdown of VEGFR2 can, in part, foster the resistance of glioma cells to receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Furthermore, sunitinib alleviates tumor-induced neurodegeneration. Hence, we tested whether temozolomide treatment could be potentiated by sunitinib application. Here we show that sunitinib can amplify the effects of temozolomide in glioma cells. Thus, our data indicate that combined treatment with temozolomide does not abrogate the effects of sunitinib. In conclusion, we found that sunitinib acts as a gliomatoxic agent and at the same time carries out neuroprotective effects, reducing tumor-induced neurodegeneration. Thus, this report uncovered sunitinib's actions on the brain tumor microenvironment, revealing novel aspects for adjuvant approaches and new clinical assessment criteria when applied to brain tumor patients. PMID:25458015

  6. MerTK inhibition in tumor leukocytes decreases tumor growth and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Rebecca S.; Jacobsen, Kristen M.; Wofford, Anne M.; DeRyckere, Deborah; Stanford, Jamie; Prieto, Anne L.; Redente, Elizabeth; Sandahl, Melissa; Hunter, Debra M.; Strunk, Karen E.; Graham, Douglas K.; Earp, H. Shelton

    2013-01-01

    MerTK, a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) of the TYRO3/AXL/MerTK family, is expressed in myeloid lineage cells in which it acts to suppress proinflammatory cytokines following ingestion of apoptotic material. Using syngeneic mouse models of breast cancer, melanoma, and colon cancer, we found that tumors grew slowly and were poorly metastatic in MerTK–/– mice. Transplantation of MerTK–/– bone marrow, but not wild-type bone marrow, into lethally irradiated MMTV-PyVmT mice (a model of metastatic breast cancer) decreased tumor growth and altered cytokine production by tumor CD11b+ cells. Although MerTK expression was not required for tumor infiltration by leukocytes, MerTK–/– leukocytes exhibited lower tumor cell–induced expression of wound healing cytokines, e.g., IL-10 and growth arrest-specific 6 (GAS6), and enhanced expression of acute inflammatory cytokines, e.g., IL-12 and IL-6. Intratumoral CD8+ T lymphocyte numbers were higher and lymphocyte proliferation was increased in tumor-bearing MerTK–/– mice compared with tumor-bearing wild-type mice. Antibody-mediated CD8+ T lymphocyte depletion restored tumor growth in MerTK–/– mice. These data demonstrate that MerTK signaling in tumor-associated CD11b+ leukocytes promotes tumor growth by dampening acute inflammatory cytokines while inducing wound healing cytokines. These results suggest that inhibition of MerTK in the tumor microenvironment may have clinical benefit, stimulating antitumor immune responses or enhancing immunotherapeutic strategies. PMID:23867499

  7. Immunohistochemical expression of calretinin in ameloblastoma, adenomatoid odontogenic tumor, and keratocystic odontogenic tumor: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Koneru, Anila; Hallikeri, Kaveri; Nellithady, Ganesh Shreekanth; Krishnapillai, Rekha; Prabhu, Sudeendra

    2014-01-01

    Calretinin is expressed primarily in the central and peripheral nervous system and extensively studied in colon adenocarcinoma and mesotheliomas. Calretinin is known to be expressed in the odontogenic epithelium and odontogenic tumors. However, the role of calretinin in the pathogenesis of odontogenic tumors is yet to be confirmed. Hence, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression and role of calretinin in selected odontogenic tumors. The study included 30 ameloblastomas, 30 adenomatoid odontogenic tumors, and 30 keratocystic odontogenic tumors. Staining intensity, pattern, and localization of the immunopositive cells were determined. Statistical analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance test. P-values <0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Results showed that 90% ameloblastomas and 80% keratocystic odontogenic tumors were immunopositive to calretinin, whereas none of the adenomatoid odontogenic tumors showed reactivity. Intensity was higher in the ameloblastomas compared with the keratocystic odontogenic tumors. Statistically significant differences were observed when the expression of calretinin was compared, except between the ameloblastoma and keratocystic odontogenic tumor. However, the intensity of calretinin was significantly higher in the ameloblastoma when compared with the keratocystic odontogenic tumor. On the basis of these results, it is suggested that calretinin might be used as a specific immunohistochemical marker for the ameloblastomas and could play an important role in the differentiation of aggressiveness of different odontogenic tumors. Depending on the cell regulatory processes, we suggest a possible role of calretinin in the pathogenesis of ameloblastomas and have to be further studied along with other proliferative cell cycle and apoptotic markers with larger sample size. PMID:25046230

  8. DAPK loss in colon cancer tumor buds: implications for migration capacity of disseminating tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Ivanovska, Jelena; Zlobec, Inti; Forster, Stefan; Karamitopoulou, Eva; Dawson, Heather; Koelzer, Viktor Hendrik; Agaimy, Abbas; Garreis, Fabian; Söder, Stephan; Laqua, William; Lugli, Alessandro; Hartmann, Arndt; Rau, Tilman T; Schneider-Stock, Regine

    2015-11-01

    Defining new therapeutic strategies to overcome therapy resistance due to tumor heterogeneity in colon cancer is challenging. One option is to explore the molecular profile of aggressive disseminating tumor cells. The cytoskeleton-associated Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) is involved in the cross talk between tumor and immune cells at the invasion front of colorectal cancer. Here dedifferentiated tumor cells histologically defined as tumor budding are associated with a high risk of metastasis and poor prognosis. Analyzing samples from 144 colorectal cancer patients we investigated immunhistochemical DAPK expression in different tumor regions such as center, invasion front, and buds. Functional consequences for tumor aggressiveness were studied in a panel of colon tumor cell lines using different migration, wound healing, and invasion assays. DAPK levels were experimentally modified by siRNA transfection and overexpression as well as inhibitor treatments. We found that DAPK expression was reduced towards the invasion front and was nearly absent in tumor buds. Applying the ECIS system with HCT116 and HCT116 stable lentiviral DAPK knock down cells (HCTshDAPK) we identified an important role for DAPK in decreasing the migratory capacity whereas proliferation was not affected. Furthermore, the migration pattern differed with HCTshDAPK cells showing a cluster-like migration of tumor cell groups. DAPK inhibitor treatment revealed that the migration rate was independent of DAPK's catalytic activity. Modulation of DAPK expression level in SW480 and DLD1 colorectal cancer cells significantly influenced wound closure rate. DAPK seems to be a major player that influences the migratory capability of disseminating tumor cells and possibly affects the dynamic interface between pro- and anti-survival factors at the invasion front of colorectal cancer. This interesting and new finding requires further evaluation. PMID:26405175

  9. Current Concepts and Occurrence of Epithelial Odontogenic Tumors: II. Calcifying Epithelial Odontogenic Tumor Versus Ghost Cell Odontogenic Tumors Derived from Calcifying Odontogenic Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeon Sook

    2014-01-01

    Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumors (CEOTs) and ghost cell odontogenic tumors (GCOTs) are characteristic odontogenic origin epithelial tumors which produce calcifying materials from transformed epithelial tumor cells. CEOT is a benign odontogenic tumor composed of polygonal epithelial tumor cells that show retrogressive calcific changes, amyloid-like deposition, and clear cytoplasm. Differentially, GCOTs are a group of transient tumors characterized by ghost cell presence, which comprise calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT), dentinogenic ghost cell tumor (DGCT), and ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma (GCOC), all derived from calcifying odontogenic cysts (COCs). There is considerable confusion about COCs and GCOTs terminology, but these lesions can be classified as COCs or GCOTs, based on their cystic or tumorous natures, respectively. GCOTs include ameloblastomatous tumors derived from dominant odontogenic cysts classified as CCOTs, ghost cell-rich tumors producing dentinoid materials as DGCTs, and the GCOT malignant counterpart, GCOCs. Many authors have reported CEOTs and GCOTs variably express keratins, ?-catenin, BCL-2, BSP, RANKL, OPG, Notch1, Jagged1, TGF-?, SMADs, and other proteins. However, these heterogeneous lesions should be differentially diagnosed to allow for accurate tumor progression and prognosis prediction. PMID:25013415

  10. Glomus Tumors and Neurofibromatosis: A Newly Recognized Association

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Bridget

    2014-01-01

    Background: Glomus tumors are painful benign tumors arising from the neuromyoarterial elements of the glomus body, typically in a subungual location. Historically, glomus tumors have been considered isolated or sporadic, not typically associated with other disease processes. Over the last few years, however, multiple case reports, a molecular genetics study, and an epidemiologic study have confirmed an association between type I neurofibromatosis and glomus tumors. The purpose of this review is to summarize the existing information about the association between neurofibromatosis and glomus tumors and to determine whether glomus tumors that are associated with neurofibromatosis differ from isolated glomus tumors in terms of tumor number, location, and sex distribution. Methods: A PubMed, Ovid Medline, and Cochrane Database search was performed using the terms “glomus tumor,” “glomus tumour,” and “glomangioma” each combined with the search term “neurofibromatosis.” Fifteen English language articles were included. Information about the molecular genetics, patient sex, number of tumors per patient, and tumor location were recorded. Results: A total of 36 patients with glomus tumors and neurofibromatosis have been reported in the literature. Seventy-nine percent were female. Tumors were multifocal in 32% of patients, with an average of 1.4 glomus tumors per patient. Glomus tumors arose in a nonsubungual location in 38% of patients. Conclusions: A strong association between type I neurofibromatosis and glomus tumors has been identified. In neurofibromatosis patients with glomus tumors, the sex distribution, tumor location, and tumor burden appear similar to those in patients with isolated glomus tumors. Treating providers should be aware of this association to facilitate prompt diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25426397

  11. Head, neck, and brain tumor embolization guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Duffis, E Jesus; Prestigiacomo, Charles Joseph; Abruzzo, Todd; Albuquerque, Felipe; Bulsara, Ketan R; Derdeyn, Colin P; Fraser, Justin F; Hirsch, Joshua A; Hussain, Muhammad Shazam; Do, Huy M; Jayaraman, Mahesh V; Meyers, Philip M; Narayanan, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Background Management of vascular tumors of the head, neck, and brain is often complex and requires a multidisciplinary approach. Peri-operative embolization of vascular tumors may help to reduce intra-operative bleeding and operative times and have thus become an integral part of the management of these tumors. Advances in catheter and non-catheter based techniques in conjunction with the growing field of neurointerventional surgery is likely to expand the number of peri-operative embolizations performed. The goal of this article is to provide consensus reporting standards and guidelines for embolization treatment of vascular head, neck, and brain tumors. Summary This article was produced by a writing group comprised of members of the Society of Neurointerventional Surgery. A computerized literature search using the National Library of Medicine database (Pubmed) was conducted for relevant articles published between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 2010. The article summarizes the effectiveness and safety of peri-operative vascular tumor embolization. In addition, this document provides consensus definitions and reporting standards as well as guidelines not intended to represent the standard of care, but rather to provide uniformity in subsequent trials and studies involving embolization of vascular head and neck as well as brain tumors. Conclusions Peri-operative embolization of vascular head, neck, and brain tumors is an effective and safe adjuvant to surgical resection. Major complications reported in the literature are rare when these procedures are performed by operators with appropriate training and knowledge of the relevant vascular and surgical anatomy. These standards may help to standardize reporting and publication in future studies. PMID:22539531

  12. Osteoclastic giant cell tumor of the pancreas?

    PubMed Central

    Temesgen, Wudneh M.; Wachtel, Mitchell; Dissanaike, Sharmila

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Pancreatic giant cell tumors are rare, with an incidence of less than 1% of all pancreatic tumors. Osteoclastic giant cell tumor (OGCT) of the pancreas is one of the three types of PGCT, which are now classified as undifferentiated carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells. PRESENTATION OF CASE The patient is a 57 year old woman who presented with a 3 week history of epigastric pain and a palpable abdominal mass. Imaging studies revealed an 18 cm × 15 cm soft tissue mass with cystic components which involved the pancreas, stomach and spleen. Exploratory laparotomy with distal pancreatectomy, partial gastrectomy and splenectomy was performed. Histology revealed undifferentiated pancreatic carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells with production of osteoid and glandular elements. DISCUSSION OGCT of the pancreas resembles benign-appearing giant cell tumors of bone, and contain osteoclastic-like multinucleated cells and mononuclear cells. OGCTs display a less aggressive course with slow metastasis and lymph node spread compared to pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Due to the rarity of the cancer, there is a lack of prospective studies on treatment options. Surgical en-bloc resection is currently considered first line treatment. The role of adjuvant therapy with radiotherapy or chemotherapy has not been established. CONCLUSION Pancreatic giant cell tumors are rare pancreatic neoplasms with unique clinical and pathological characteristics. Osteoclastic giant cell tumors are the most favorable sub-type. Surgical en bloc resection is the first line treatment. Long-term follow-up of patients with these tumors is essential to compile a body of literature to help guide treatment. PMID:24631915

  13. The tumor spectrum in FHIT-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Zanesi, N; Fidanza, V; Fong, L Y; Mancini, R; Druck, T; Valtieri, M; Rüdiger, T; McCue, P A; Croce, C M; Huebner, K

    2001-08-28

    Mice carrying one inactivated Fhit allele (Fhit +/- mice) are highly susceptible to tumor induction by N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine, with 100% of Fhit +/- mice exhibiting tumors of the forestomach/squamocolumnar junction vs. 25% of Fhit +/+ controls. In the current study a single N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine dose was administered to Fhit +/+, +/-, and -/- mice to compare carcinogen susceptibility in +/- and -/- Fhit-deficient mice. At 29 weeks after treatment, 7.7% of wild-type mice had tumors. Of the Fhit -/- mice 89.5% exhibited tumors (average 3.3 tumors/mouse) of the forestomach and squamocolumnar junction; half of the -/- mice had medium (2 mm diameter) to large (>2 mm) tumors. Of the Fhit +/- mice 78% exhibited tumors (average 2.4 tumors/mouse) and 22% showed medium to large tumors. Untreated Fhit-deficient mice have been observed for up to 2 years for spontaneous tumors. Fhit +/- mice (average age 21 mo) exhibit an average of 0.94 tumors of different types; Fhit -/- mice (average age 16 mo) also showed an array of tumors (average 0.76 tumor/mouse). The similar spontaneous and induced tumor spectra observed in mice with one or both Fhit alleles inactivated suggests that Fhit may be a one-hit tumor suppressor gene in some tissues. PMID:11517343

  14. Epigenetic Therapy for Solid Tumors: Highlighting the Impact of Tumor Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Shaliny; Ient, Jonathan; Göttgens, Eva-Leonne; Krieg, Adam J.; Hammond, Ester M.

    2015-01-01

    In the last few decades, epigenetics has emerged as an exciting new field in development and disease, with a more recent focus towards cancer. Epigenetics has classically referred to heritable patterns of gene expression, primarily mediated through DNA methylation patterns. More recently, it has come to include the reversible chemical modification of histones and DNA that dictate gene expression patterns. Both the epigenetic up-regulation of oncogenes and downregulation of tumor suppressors have been shown to drive tumor development. Current clinical trials for cancer therapy include pharmacological inhibition of DNA methylation and histone deacetylation, with the aim of reversing these cancer-promoting epigenetic changes. However, the DNA methyltransferase and histone deacetylase inhibitors have met with less than promising results in the treatment of solid tumors. Regions of hypoxia are a common occurrence in solid tumors. Tumor hypoxia is associated with increased aggressiveness and therapy resistance, and importantly, hypoxic tumor cells have a distinct epigenetic profile. In this review, we provide a summary of the recent clinical trials using epigenetic drugs in solid tumors, discuss the hypoxia-induced epigenetic changes and highlight the importance of testing the epigenetic drugs for efficacy against the most aggressive hypoxic fraction of the tumor in future preclinical testing. PMID:26426056

  15. Self Instructional Manual for Tumor Registrars: Book 1, Objectives and Functions of a Tumor Registry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Cancer Inst. (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The programed text is designed to provide tumor registrars with a means of learning the procedures for abstracting charts of cancer patients and for carrying out the other functions of a tumor registry. It was developed as an adjunct to on-the-job training for use without direct instructor supervision. Directions and suggestions for using the…

  16. TNF Alpha concentration in tumored and non-tumored Sinclair swine 

    E-print Network

    Ash, Joan Olivia Rogers

    1998-01-01

    [alpha] concentrations were measured by porcine-specific TNF[alpha] ELISA. The mean serum TNF[alpha] concentration of all tumored pig samples combined (23.2 pg/n-d) was significantly higher than non-tumored pigs (15.97 pg/ml). However, comparisons of age groups between...

  17. Recognition of tumor cells by Dectin-1 orchestrates innate immune cells for anti-tumor responses

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Shiho; Ikushima, Hiroaki; Ueki, Hiroshi; Yanai, Hideyuki; Kimura, Yoshitaka; Hangai, Sho; Nishio, Junko; Negishi, Hideo; Tamura, Tomohiko; Saijo, Shinobu; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Taniguchi, Tadatsugu

    2014-01-01

    The eradication of tumor cells requires communication to and signaling by cells of the immune system. Natural killer (NK) cells are essential tumor-killing effector cells of the innate immune system; however, little is known about whether or how other immune cells recognize tumor cells to assist NK cells. Here, we show that the innate immune receptor Dectin-1 expressed on dendritic cells and macrophages is critical to NK-mediated killing of tumor cells that express N-glycan structures at high levels. Receptor recognition of these tumor cells causes the activation of the IRF5 transcription factor and downstream gene induction for the full-blown tumoricidal activity of NK cells. Consistent with this, we show exacerbated in vivo tumor growth in mice genetically deficient in either Dectin-1 or IRF5. The critical contribution of Dectin-1 in the recognition of and signaling by tumor cells may offer new insight into the anti-tumor immune system with therapeutic implications. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04177.001 PMID:25149452

  18. Aerobic Glycolysis as a Marker of Tumor Aggressiveness: Preliminary Data in High Grade Human Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Vlassenko, Andrei G.; McConathy, Jonathan; Couture, Lars E.; Su, Yi; Massoumzadeh, Parinaz; Leeds, Hayden S.; Chicoine, Michael R.; Tran, David D.; Huang, Jiayi; Dahiya, Sonika; Marcus, Daniel S.; Fouke, Sarah Jost; Rich, Keith M.; Raichle, Marcus E.; Benzinger, Tammie L. S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Glucose metabolism outside of oxidative phosphorylation, or aerobic glycolysis (AG), is a hallmark of active cancer cells that is not directly measured with standard 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). In this study, we characterized tumor regions with elevated AG defined based on PET measurements of glucose and oxygen metabolism. Methods. Fourteen individuals with high-grade brain tumors underwent structural MR scans and PET measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen (CMRO2) and glucose (CMRGlu) metabolism, and AG, using 15O-labeled CO, O2 and H2O, and FDG, and were compared to a normative cohort of 20 age-matched individuals. Results. Elevated AG was observed in most high-grade brain tumors and it was associated with decreased CMRO2 and CBF, but not with significant changes in CMRGlu. Elevated AG was a dramatic and early sign of tumor growth associated with decreased survival. AG changes associated with tumor growth were differentiated from the effects of nonneoplastic processes such as epileptic seizures. Conclusions. Our findings demonstrate that high-grade brain tumors exhibit elevated AG as a marker of tumor growth and aggressiveness. AG may detect areas of active tumor growth that are not evident on conventional FDG PET. PMID:26424903

  19. Tumor Microenvironments Correspond to Unique Metabolic Signatures that Affect Tumor Growth | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    Using a genetic construct that produces a green glow as a tumor responds to microenvironmental stresses, a team of investigators at Stanford University have shown that the way in which a tumor responds to stress can predict how it will grow in the body. This work, led by Albert Koong, M.D., was published in the journal Cancer Research.

  20. Tasmanian devil facial tumor disease: insights into reduced tumor surveillance from an unusual malignancy.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Iain D

    2010-10-01

    Tasmanian devil facial tumor disease (DFTD) is a highly aggressive cancer involving the facial tissues that currently presents a serious extinction risk for the Tasmanian devil population. Although the histogenesis is uncertain, an origin from a neural crest cell-lineage is considered likely. Epidemiological, cytogenetic and immunological data all support the premise that DFTD arose from a single tumor clone from an individual diseased animal, and is being transmitted between individual animals as a tumor "allograft" by biting during social interaction. The spread of this cancer throughout the species is believed to be facilitated by a reduced MHC diversity, possibly as a result of an evolutionary bottleneck. The pathogenesis of DFTD has some similarities with certain human cancers, including donor-recipient tumor transmission, which may complicate organ transplantation, and certain forms of malignancy at the maternal/fetal interface. The natural history and pathology of DFTD, and the data describing this highly unusual tumor biology are discussed. PMID:20473867

  1. Tumor Lysis Syndrome in Solid Tumors: An up to Date Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Mirrakhimov, Aibek E.; Ali, Alaa M.; Khan, Maliha; Barbaryan, Aram

    2014-01-01

    Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a potentially deadly complication of tumors or their treatment. This syndrome consists of a constellation of laboratory findings such as hyperuricemia, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hypocalcemia, known as laboratory TLS. When clinical complications such as seizures, acute renal failure, and cardiac dysrhythmias occur in patients with laboratory TLS, the syndrome is called clinical TLS. TLS is especially common in patients with hematological malignancies with rapid cellular turnover rates such as acute lymphocytic leukemia and Burkitt lymphoma, but is very rare in patients with solid tumors. Nevertheless, there are multiple reports in the literature on the occurrence of TLS in patients with solid tumors. In this review article, we summarize the current data on the occurrence of TLS in patients with solid tumors. We propose an algorithm of risk stratification and prevention of TLS in patients with solid cancers. PMID:25002953

  2. Circulating Fibronectin Controls Tumor Growth12

    PubMed Central

    von Au, Anja; Vasel, Matthaeus; Kraft, Sabrina; Sens, Carla; Hackl, Norman; Marx, Alexander; Stroebel, Philipp; Hennenlotter, Jörg; Todenhöfer, Tilman; Stenzl, Arnulf; Schott, Sarah; Sinn, Hans-Peter; Wetterwald, Antoinette; Bermejo, Justo Lorenzo; Cecchini, Marco G; Nakchbandi, Inaam A

    2013-01-01

    Fibronectin is ubiquitously expressed in the extracellular matrix, and experimental evidence has shown that it modulates blood vessel formation. The relative contribution of local and circulating fibronectin to blood vessel formation in vivo remains unknown despite evidence for unexpected roles of circulating fibronectin in various diseases. Using transgenic mouse models, we established that circulating fibronectin facilitates the growth of bone metastases by enhancing blood vessel formation and maturation. This effect is more relevant than that of fibronectin produced by endothelial cells and pericytes, which only exert a small additive effect on vessel maturation. Circulating fibronectin enhances its local production in tumors through a positive feedback loop and increases the amount of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) retained in the matrix. Both fibronectin and VEGF then cooperate to stimulate blood vessel formation. Fibronectin content in the tumor correlates with the number of blood vessels and tumor growth in the mouse models. Consistent with these results, examination of three separate arrays from patients with breast and prostate cancers revealed that a high staining intensity for fibronectin in tumors is associated with increased mortality. These results establish that circulating fibronectin modulates blood vessel formation and tumor growth by modifying the amount of and the response to VEGF. Furthermore, determination of the fibronectin content can serve as a prognostic biomarker for breast and prostate cancers and possibly other cancers. PMID:23908593

  3. Probing the tumor microenvironment: collection and induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, James K.; Padgen, Michael R.; Wang, Yarong; Entenberg, David; Gertler, Frank; Condeelis, John S.; Castracane, James

    2012-03-01

    The Nano Intravital Device, or NANIVID, is under development as an optically transparent, implantable tool to study the tumor microenvironment. Two etched glass substrates are sealed using a thin polymer membrane to create a reservoir with a single outlet. This reservoir is loaded with a hydrogel blend that contains growth factors or other chemicals to be delivered to the tumor microenvironment. When the device is implanted in the tumor, the hydrogel will swell and release these entrapped molecules, forming a gradient. Validation of the device has been performed in vitro using epidermal growth factor (EGF) and MenaINV, a highly invasive, rat mammary adenocarcinoma cell line. In both 2-D and 3-D environments, cells migrated toward the gradient of EGF released from the device. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of White Leghorn chicken eggs is being utilized to grow xenograft tumors that will be used for ex vivo cell collection. Device optimization is being performed for in vivo use as a tool to collect the invasive cell population. Preliminary cell collection experiments in vivo were performed using a mouse model of breast cancer. As a second application, the device is being explored as a delivery vehicle for chemicals that induce controlled changes in the tumor microenvironment. H2O2 was loaded in the device and generated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells near the device outlet. In the future, other induction targets will be explored, including hypoglycemia and the manipulation of extracellular matrix stiffness.

  4. Immunohistochemical Detection of Changes in Tumor Hypoxia

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, James Carlin, Sean; Burke, Sean A.; Wen Bixiu; Yang, Kwang Mo; Ling, C. Clifton

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: Although hypoxia is a known prognostic factor, its effect will be modified by the rate of reoxygenation and the extent to which the cells are acutely hypoxic. We tested the ability of exogenous and endogenous markers to detect reoxygenation in a xenograft model. Our technique might be applicable to stored patient samples. Methods and Materials: The human colorectal carcinoma line, HT29, was grown in nude mice. Changes in tumor hypoxia were examined by injection of pimonidazole, followed 24 hours later by EF5. Cryosections were stained for these markers and for carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1{alpha} (HIF1{alpha}). Tumor hypoxia was artificially manipulated by carbogen exposure. Results: In unstressed tumors, all four markers showed very similar spatial distributions. After carbogen treatment, pimonidazole and EF5 could detect decreased hypoxia. HIF1{alpha} staining was also decreased relative to CAIX, although the effect was less pronounced than for EF5. Control tumors displayed small regions that had undergone spontaneous changes in tumor hypoxia, as judged by pimonidazole relative to EF5; most of these changes were reflected by CAIX and HIF1{alpha}. Conclusion: HIF1{alpha} can be compared with either CAIX or a previously administered nitroimidazole to provide an estimate of reoxygenation.

  5. Congenital Disseminated Extrarenal Malignant Rhabdoid Tumor.

    PubMed

    Boudjemaa, Sabah; Petit, Arnaud; Dainese, Linda; Bourdeaut, Franck; Lipsett, Jill; Coulomb, Aurore

    2015-01-01

    Soft tissue tumors arising in association with genetic or malformation syndromes have been increasingly reported. Malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT) is a highly aggressive neoplasm of infancy and young childhood, characterized by typical morphology and biallelic inactivation of the SMARCB1 (INI1/hSNF5/BAF47) gene on chromosome 22q.2 which encodes a subunit of the SWI/SNF ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex. Congenital infantile disseminated MRT represents a unique clinicopathologic presentation of this tumor. We report a case occurring in a female neonate who presented at birth a voluminous left thigh mass. Surgical biopsy performed at day 9 showed morphology and immunoprofile of MRT. Staging evaluation identified hypercalcemia and distant nodules. The mass showed rapid growth. Despite chemotherapy, the tumor progressed with exteriorization through the biopsy scar. Chemotherapy was discontinued and treatment limited to palliative care and the child died on day 51. The tumor was homozygous for the SMARCB1 deletion with apparent de novo heterozygous germ line deletion in the infant, not identified in the parents. PMID:25751458

  6. Tumor Volumes and Prognosis in Laryngeal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Issa, Mohamad R; Samuels, Stuart E; Bellile, Emily; Shalabi, Firas L; Eisbruch, Avraham; Wolf, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Tumor staging systems for laryngeal cancer (LC) have been developed to assist in estimating prognosis after treatment and comparing treatment results across institutions. While the laryngeal TNM system has been shown to have prognostic information, varying cure rates in the literature have suggested concern about the accuracy and effectiveness of the T-classification in particular. To test the hypothesis that tumor volumes are more useful than T classification, we conducted a retrospective review of 78 patients with laryngeal cancer treated with radiation therapy at our institution. Using multivariable analysis, we demonstrate the significant prognostic value of anatomic volumes in patients with previously untreated laryngeal cancer. In this cohort, primary tumor volume (GTVP), composite nodal volumes (GTVN) and composite total volume (GTVP + GTVN = GTVC) had prognostic value in both univariate and multivariate cox model analysis. Interestingly, when anatomic volumes were measured from CT scans after a single cycle of induction chemotherapy, all significant prognosticating value for measured anatomic volumes was lost. Given the literature findings and the results of this study, the authors advocate the use of tumor anatomic volumes calculated from pretreatment scans to supplement the TNM staging system in subjects with untreated laryngeal cancer. The study found that tumor volume assessment after induction chemotherapy is not of prognostic significance. PMID:26569309

  7. Effects of laser immunotherapy on tumor microenvironment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acquaviva, Joseph T.; Wood, Ethan W.; Hasanjee, Aamr; Chen, Wei R.; Vaughan, Melville B.

    2014-02-01

    The microenvironments of tumors are involved in a complex and reciprocal dialog with surrounding cancer cells. Any novel treatment must consider the impact of the therapy on the microenvironment. Recently, clinical trials with laser immunotherapy (LIT) have proven to effectively treat patients with late-stage, metastatic breast cancer and melanoma. LIT is the synergistic combination of phototherapy (laser irradiation) and immunological stimulation. One prominent cell type found in the tumor stroma is the fibroblast. Fibroblast cells can secrete different growth factors and extracellular matrix modifying molecules. Furthermore, fibroblast cells found in the tumor stroma often express alpha smooth muscle actin. These particular fibroblasts are coined cancer-associated fibroblast cells (CAFs). CAFs are known to facilitate the malignant progression of tumors. A collagen lattice assay with human fibroblast cells is used to elucidate the effects LIT has on the microenvironment of tumors. Changes in the contraction of the lattice, the differentiation of the fibroblast cells, as well as the proliferation of the fibroblast cells will be determined.

  8. Analysis of virotherapy in solid tumor invasion.

    PubMed

    Malinzi, Joseph; Sibanda, Precious; Mambili-Mamboundou, Hermane

    2015-05-01

    Cancer treatment is an inexact science despite traditional cancer therapies. The traditional cancer treatments have high levels of toxicity and relatively low efficacy. Current research and clinical trials have indicated that virotherapy, a procedure which uses replication-competent viruses to kill cancer cells, has less toxicity and a high efficacy. However, the interaction dynamics of the tumor host, the virus, and the immune response is poorly understood due to its complexity. We present a mathematical analysis of models that study tumor-immune-virus interactions in the form of differential equations with spatial effects. A stability analysis is presented and we obtained analytical traveling wave solutions. Numerical simulations were obtained using fourth order Runge-Kutta and Crank-Nicholson methods. We show that the use of viruses as a cancer treatment can reduce the tumor cell concentration to a very low cancer dormant steady state or possibly deplete all tumor cells in body tissue. The traveling waves indicated an exponential increase and decrease in the cytotoxic-T-lymphocytes (CTLs) density and tumor load in the long term respectively. PMID:25725123

  9. Tumoral calcinosis: pearls, polemics, and alternative possibilities.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Kathryn M; Chew, Felix S

    2006-01-01

    Massive periarticular calcinosis of the soft tissues is a unique but not rare radiographic finding. On the contrary, tumoral calcinosis is a rare familial disease. Unfortunately, the term tumoral calcinosis has been liberally and imprecisely used to describe any massive collection of periarticular calcification, although this term actually refers to a hereditary condition associated with massive periarticular calcification. The inconsistent use of this term has created confusion throughout the literature. More important, if the radiologist is unfamiliar with tumoral calcinosis or disease processes that mimic this condition, then diagnosis could be impeded, treatment could be delayed, and undue alarm could be raised, possibly leading to unwarranted surgical procedures. The soft-tissue lesions of tumoral calcinosis are typically lobulated, well-demarcated calcifications that are most often distributed along the extensor surfaces of large joints. There are many conditions with similar appearances, including the calcinosis of chronic renal failure, calcinosis universalis, calcinosis circumscripta, calcific tendonitis, synovial osteochondromatosis, synovial sarcoma, osteosarcoma, myositis ossificans, tophaceous gout, and calcific myonecrosis. The radiologist plays a critical role in avoiding unnecessary invasive procedures and in guiding the selection of appropriate tests that can result in a conclusive diagnosis of tumoral calcinosis. PMID:16702460

  10. Energy and Redox Homeostasis in Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Marcus Fernandes; Amoêdo, Nívea Dias; Rumjanek, Franklin David

    2012-01-01

    Cancer cells display abnormal morphology, chromosomes, and metabolism. This review will focus on the metabolism of tumor cells integrating the available data by way of a functional approach. The first part contains a comprehensive introduction to bioenergetics, mitochondria, and the mechanisms of production and degradation of reactive oxygen species. This will be followed by a discussion on the oxidative metabolism of tumor cells including the morphology, biogenesis, and networking of mitochondria. Tumor cells overexpress proteins that favor fission, such as GTPase dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1). The interplay between proapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family that promotes Drp 1-dependent mitochondrial fragmentation and fusogenic antiapoptotic proteins such as Opa-1 will be presented. It will be argued that contrary to the widespread belief that in cancer cells, aerobic glycolysis completely replaces oxidative metabolism, a misrepresentation of Warburg's original results, mitochondria of tumor cells are fully viable and functional. Cancer cells also carry out oxidative metabolism and generally conform to the orthodox model of ATP production maintaining as well an intact electron transport system. Finally, data will be presented indicating that the key to tumor cell survival in an ROS rich environment depends on the overexpression of antioxidant enzymes and high levels of the nonenzymatic antioxidant scavengers. PMID:22693511

  11. Development of an Acellular Tumor Extracellular Matrix as a Three-Dimensional Scaffold for Tumor Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi-Gang; Lei, Guang-Yan; Liu, Jia; Gao, Wei; Hu, Ye-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Tumor engineering is defined as the construction of three-dimensional (3D) tumors in vitro with tissue engineering approaches. The present 3D scaffolds for tumor engineering have several limitations in terms of structure and function. To get an ideal 3D scaffold for tumor culture, A549 human pulmonary adenocarcinoma cells were implanted into immunodeficient mice to establish xenotransplatation models. Tumors were retrieved at 30-day implantation and sliced into sheets. They were subsequently decellularized by four procedures. Two decellularization methods, Tris-Trypsin-Triton multi-step treatment and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) treatment, achieved complete cellular removal and thus were chosen for evaluation of histological and biochemical properties. Native tumor tissues were used as controls. Human breast cancer MCF-7 cells were cultured onto the two 3D scaffolds for further cell growth and growth factor secretion investigations, with the two-dimensional (2D) culture and cells cultured onto the Matrigel scaffolds used as controls. Results showed that Tris-Trypsin-Triton multi-step treated tumor sheets had well-preserved extracellular matrix structures and components. Their porosity was increased but elastic modulus was decreased compared with the native tumor samples. They supported MCF-7 cell repopulation and proliferation, as well as expression of growth factors. When cultured within the Tris-Trypsin-Triton treated scaffold, A549 cells and human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (SW-480) had similar behaviors to MCF-7 cells, but human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells (KYSE-510) had a relatively slow cell repopulation rate. This study provides evidence that Tris-Trypsin-Triton treated acellular tumor extracellular matrices are promising 3D scaffolds with ideal spatial arrangement, biomechanical properties and biocompatibility for improved modeling of 3D tumor microenvironments. PMID:25072252

  12. Cancer stem cells and the tumor microenvironment: interplay in tumor heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Albini, Adriana; Bruno, Antonino; Gallo, Cristina; Pajardi, Giorgio; Noonan, Douglas M.; Dallaglio, Katiuscia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Tumor cells able to recapitulate tumor heterogeneity have been tracked, isolated and characterized in different tumor types, and are commonly named Cancer Stem Cells or Cancer Initiating Cells (CSC/CIC). CSC/CIC are disseminated in the tumor mass and are resistant to anti-cancer therapies and adverse conditions. They are able to divide into another stem cell and a “proliferating” cancer cell. They appear to be responsible for disease recurrence and metastatic dissemination even after apparent eradication of the primary tumor. The modulation of CSC/CIC activities by the tumor microenvironment (TUMIC) is still poorly known. CSC/CIC may mutually interact with the TUMIC in a special and unique manner depending on the TUMIC cells or proteins encountered. The TUMIC consists of extracellular matrix components as well as cellular players among which endothelial, stromal and immune cells, providing and responding to signals to/from the CSC/CIC. This interplay can contribute to the mechanisms through which CSC/CIC may reside in a dormant state in a tissue for years, later giving rise to tumor recurrence or metastasis in patients. Different TUMIC components, including the connective tissue, can differentially activate CIC/CSC in different areas of a tumor and contribute to the generation of cancer heterogeneity. Here, we review possible networking activities between the different components of the tumor microenvironment and CSC/CIC, with a focus on its role in tumor heterogeneity and progression. We also summarize novel therapeutic options that could target both CSC/CIC and the microenvironment to elude resistance mechanisms activated by CSC/CIC, responsible for disease recurrence and metastases. PMID:26291921

  13. Inhibition of IL-17A suppresses enhanced-tumor growth in low dose pre-irradiated tumor beds.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Jung; Park, Hyo Jin; Lee, Ik-Jae; Kim, Won Woo; Ha, Sang-Jun; Suh, Yang-Gun; Seong, Jinsil

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiation induces modification of the tumor microenvironment such as tumor surrounding region, which is relevant to treatment outcome after radiotherapy. In this study, the effects of pre-irradiated tumor beds on the growth of subsequently implanted tumors were investigated as well as underlying mechanism. The experimental model was set up by irradiating the right thighs of C3H/HeN mice with 5 Gy, followed by the implantation of HCa-I and MIH-2. Both implanted tumors in the pre-irradiated bed showed accelerated-growth compared to the control. Tumor-infiltrated lymphocyte (TIL) levels were increased, as well as pro-tumor factors such as IL-6 and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-?1) in the pre-irradiated group. In particular, the role of pro-tumor cytokine interleukin-17A (IL-17A) was investigated as a possible target mechanism because IL-6 and TGF-? are key factors in Th17 cells differentiation from naïve T cells. IL-17A expression was increased not only in tumors, but also in CD4+ T cells isolated from the tumor draining lymph nodes. The effect of IL-17A on tumor growth was confirmed by treating tumors with IL-17A antibody, which abolished the acceleration of tumor growth. These results indicate that the upregulation of IL-17A seems to be a key factor for enhancing tumor growth in pre-irradiated tumor beds. PMID:25181290

  14. T cells from the tumor microenvironment of patients with progressive myeloma can generate strong, tumor-specific cytolytic responses to autologous, tumor-loaded dendritic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhodapkar, Madhav V.; Krasovsky, Joseph; Olson, Kara

    2002-10-01

    Most untreated cancer patients develop progressive tumors. We tested the capacity of T lymphocytes from patients with clinically progressive, multiple myeloma to develop killer function against fresh autologous tumor. In this malignancy, it is feasible to reproducibly evaluate freshly isolated tumor cells and T cells from the marrow tumor environment. When we did this with seven consecutive patients, with all clinical stages of disease, we did not detect reactivity to autologous cancer cells. However, both cytolytic and IFN--producing responses to autologous myeloma were generated in six of seven patients after stimulation ex vivo with dendritic cells that had processed autologous tumor cells. The antitumor effectors recognized fresh autologous tumor but not nontumor cells in the bone marrow, myeloma cell lines, dendritic cells loaded with tumor-derived Ig, or allogeneic tumor. Importantly, these CD8+ effectors developed with similar efficiency by using T cells from both the blood and the bone marrow tumor environment. Therefore, even in the setting of clinical tumor progression, the tumor bed of myeloma patients contains T cells that can be activated readily by dendritic cells to kill primary autologous tumor.

  15. Reversal of Tumor Immune Inhibition Using a Chimeric Cytokine Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Leen, Ann M; Sukumaran, Sujita; Watanabe, Norihiro; Mohammed, Somala; Keirnan, Jacqueline; Yanagisawa, Ryu; Anurathapan, Usanarat; Rendon, David; Heslop, Helen E; Rooney, Cliona M; Brenner, Malcolm K; Vera, Juan F

    2014-01-01

    The success of adoptively transferred tumor-directed T cells requires them to survive and expand in vivo. Most tumors, however, employ immune evasion mechanisms, including the production of inhibitory cytokines that limit in vivo T-cell persistence and effector function. To protect tumor-directed T cells from such negative influences, we generated a chimeric cytokine receptor in which the interleukin (IL) 4 receptor exodomain was fused to the IL7 receptor endodomain. We thereby inverted the effects of tumor-derived IL4 so that the proliferation and activation of tumor directed cytotoxic T cells was enhanced rather than inhibited in the tumor microenvironment, resulting in superior antitumor activity. These transgenic T cells were only activated in the tumor environment since triggering required exposure to both tumor antigen (signal 1) and tumor-derived IL4 (signal 2). This selectivity supports future clinical adaptation. PMID:24732709

  16. Cardiac tumors: leiomyosarcoma – a case report

    PubMed Central

    Syska-Sumi?ska, Joanna; Zieli?ski, Piotr; D?u?niewski, Miros?aw; Sadowski, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    We present a case report of a 60-year-old woman with a long history of leiomyosarcoma in different locations. She was admitted to the clinic due to a left ventricular tumor diagnosed in ECHO examination. The patient was qualified for radical tumor resection. The early postoperative period was complicated due to low cardiac output syndrome and bradyarrhythmia requiring temporary cardiac pacing. Optimized pharmacological therapy resulted in a gradual reduction of symptoms and a clinical improvement of congestive heart failure (NYHA III – NYHA II). Due to the radical nature of the surgery, the patient was not referred for supplementary treatment. The follow-up currently exceeds 12 months – no new metastases have been found. This case provides an example of how to diagnose and treat heart tumors. PMID:26702284

  17. Tumor cell growth fraction in Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Gerdes, J.; Van Baarlen, J.; Pileri, S.; Schwarting, R.; Van Unnik, J. A.; Stein, H.

    1987-01-01

    The growth fraction of tumor cells was studied in 45 cases of Hodgkin's disease by means of a recently developed double immunostaining technique using monoclonal antibody Ki-1, which reacts selectively with Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells in tissues affected by Hodgkin's disease, and antibody Ki-67, which recognizes a cell proliferation-associated nuclear antigen. The medians of the growth fractions of the tumor cells in all histologic subtypes of Hodgkin's disease varied between 78% and 83%. In none of the cases investigated did we find a growth fraction below 50%. Furthermore, mononucleated Hodgkin cells as well as multi-nucleated Reed-Sternberg cells showed a similar Ki-67 labeling index, indicating that both tumor cell types belong to the proliferating pool of this malignancy. Images Figure 1 PMID:3307442

  18. Applications of Functionalized Fullerenes in Tumor Theranostics

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhiyun; Ma, Lijing; Liu, Ying; Chen, Chunying

    2012-01-01

    Functionalized fullerenes with specific physicochemical properties have been developed for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Notably, metallofullerene is a new class of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast-enhancing agent, and may have promising applications for clinical diagnosis. Polyhydroxylated and carboxyl fullerenes have been applied to photoacoustic imaging. Moreover, in recent years, functionalized fullerenes have shown potential in tumor therapies, such as photodynamic therapy, photothermal treatment, radiotherapy and chemotherapeutics. Their antitumor effects may be associated with the modulation of oxidative stress, anti-angiogenesis, and immunostimulatory activity. While various types of novel nanoparticle agents have been exploited in tumor theranostics, their distribution, metabolism and toxicity in organisms have also been a source of concern among researchers. The present review summarizes the potential of fullerenes as tumor theranostics agents and their possible underlying mechanisms are discussed. PMID:22509193

  19. Anemia, tumor hypoxemia, and the cancer patient

    SciTech Connect

    Varlotto, John . E-mail: jvarlott@bidmc.harvard.edu; Stevenson, Mary Ann

    2005-09-01

    Purpose: To review the impact of anemia/tumor hypoxemia on the quality of life and survival in cancer patients, and to assess the problems associated with the correction of this difficulty. Methods: MEDLINE searches were performed to find relevant literature regarding anemia and/or tumor hypoxia in cancer patients. Articles were evaluated in order to assess the epidemiology, adverse patient effects, anemia correction guidelines, and mechanisms of hypoxia-induced cancer cell growth and/or therapeutic resistance. Past and current clinical studies of radiosensitization via tumor oxygenation/hypoxic cell sensitization were reviewed. All clinical studies using multi-variate analysis were analyzed to show whether or not anemia and/or tumor hypoxemia affected tumor control and patient survival. Articles dealing with the correction of anemia via transfusion and/or erythropoietin were reviewed in order to show the impact of the rectification on the quality of life and survival of cancer patients. Results: Approximately 40-64% of patients presenting for cancer therapy are anemic. The rate of anemia rises with the use of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hormonal therapy for prostate cancer. Anemia is associated with reductions both in quality of life and survival. Tumor hypoxemia has been hypothesized to lead to tumor growth and resistance to therapy because it leads to angiogenesis, genetic mutations, resistance to apoptosis, and a resistance to free radicals from chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Nineteen clinical studies of anemia and eight clinical studies of tumor hypoxemia were found that used multi-variate analysis to determine the effect of these conditions on the local control and/or survival of cancer patients. Despite differing definitions of anemia and hypoxemia, all studies have shown a correlation between low hemoglobin levels and/or higher amounts of tumor hypoxia with poorer prognosis. Radiosensitization through improvements in tumor oxygenation/hypoxic cell sensitization has met with limited success via the use of hyperbaric oxygen, electron-affinic radiosensitizers, and mitomycin. Improvements in tumor oxygenation via the use of carbogen and nicotinamide, RSR13, and tirapazamine have shown promising clinical results and are all currently being tested in Phase III trials. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines recommend transfusion or erythropoietin for symptomatic patients with a hemoglobin of 10-11 g/dl and state that erythropoietin should strongly be considered if hemoglobin falls to less than 10 g/dl. These recommendations were based on studies that revealed an improvement in the quality of life of cancer patients, but not patient survival with anemia correction. Phase III studies evaluating the correction of anemia via erythropoietin have shown mixed results with some studies reporting a decrease in patient survival despite an improvement in hemoglobin levels. Diverse functions of erythropoietin are reviewed, including its potential to inhibit apoptosis via the JAK2/STAT5/BCL-X pathway. Correction of anemia by the use of blood transfusions has also shown a decrement in patient survival, possibly through inflammatory and/or immunosuppressive pathways. Conclusions: Anemia is a prevalent condition associated with cancer and its therapies. Proper Phase III trials are necessary to find the best way to correct anemia for specific patients. Future studies of erythropoietin must evaluate the possible anti-apoptotic effects by directly assessing the tumor for erythropoietin receptors or the presence of the JAK2/STAT5/BCL-X pathway. Due to the ability of transfusions to cause immunosuppression, most probably through inflammatory pathways, it may be best to study the effects of transfusion with the prolonged use of anti-inflammatory medications.

  20. Psychiatric aspects of brain tumors: A review

    PubMed Central

    Madhusoodanan, Subramoniam; Ting, Mark Bryan; Farah, Tara; Ugur, Umran

    2015-01-01

    Infrequently, psychiatric symptoms may be the only manifestation of brain tumors. They may present with mood symptoms, psychosis, memory problems, personality changes, anxiety, or anorexia. Symptoms may be misleading, complicating the clinical picture. A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted regarding reports of brain tumors and psychiatric symptoms from 1956-2014. Search engines used include PubMed, Ovid, Psych Info, MEDLINE, and MedScape. Search terms included psychiatric manifestations/symptoms, brain tumors/neoplasms. Our literature search yielded case reports, case studies, and case series. There are no double blind studies except for post-diagnosis/-surgery studies. Early diagnosis is critical for improved quality of life. Symptoms that suggest work-up with neuroimaging include: new-onset psychosis, mood/memory symptoms, occurrence of new or atypical symptoms, personality changes, and anorexia without body dysmorphic symptoms. This article reviews the existing literature regarding the diagnosis and management of this clinically complex condition. PMID:26425442

  1. Metabolomic profiling of tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Wettersten, Hiromi I; Ganti, Sheila; Weiss, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    Metabolomics is one of the newcomers among the "omics" techniques, perhaps also constituting the most relevant for the study of pathophysiological conditions. Metabolomics may indeed yield not only disease-specific biomarkers but also profound insights into the etiology and progression of a variety of human disorders. Various metabolomic approaches are currently available to study oncogenesis and tumor progression in vivo, in murine tumor models. Many of these models rely on the xenograft of human cancer cells into immunocompromised mice. Understanding how the metabolism of these cells evolves in vivo is critical to evaluate the actual pertinence of xenograft models to human pathology. Here, we discuss various tumor xenograft models and methods for their metabolomic profiling to provide a short guide to investigators interested in this field of research. PMID:24924138

  2. Solitary fibrous tumor of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Andrew R.; Newman, Elliot; Hajdu, Cristina H.

    2015-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are rare mesenchymal neoplasms of fibroblastic origin. Most commonly they affect the pleura but they been described in other viscera. SFT of the pancreas is extremely rare, and only eight cases have been reported to date. We perform a literature review and report a ninth case. The patient is a 54-year-old African-American female who presented with several months of abdominal pain. Abdominal radiography demonstrated a lesion in the head of the pancreas, and she underwent a Whipple operation. Pathology demonstrated SFT of the pancreas. She is alive and well 1 year post-operatively. SFT of the pancreas predominately affects middle-aged women. These tumors are difficult to distinguish radiologically from neuroendocrine tumors. While SFT of the pancreas tend to have an indolent course, there is the potential for malignancy. We recommend complete surgical excision. PMID:26628714

  3. Solitary fibrous tumor of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Andrew R; Newman, Elliot; Hajdu, Cristina H

    2015-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are rare mesenchymal neoplasms of fibroblastic origin. Most commonly they affect the pleura but they been described in other viscera. SFT of the pancreas is extremely rare, and only eight cases have been reported to date. We perform a literature review and report a ninth case. The patient is a 54-year-old African-American female who presented with several months of abdominal pain. Abdominal radiography demonstrated a lesion in the head of the pancreas, and she underwent a Whipple operation. Pathology demonstrated SFT of the pancreas. She is alive and well 1 year post-operatively. SFT of the pancreas predominately affects middle-aged women. These tumors are difficult to distinguish radiologically from neuroendocrine tumors. While SFT of the pancreas tend to have an indolent course, there is the potential for malignancy. We recommend complete surgical excision. PMID:26628714

  4. Advancement and prospects of tumor gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Wang, Qing-Tao; Liu, He; Zhang, Zhen-Zhu; Huang, Wen-Lin

    2011-01-01

    Gene therapy is one of the most attractive fields in tumor therapy. In past decades, significant progress has been achieved. Various approaches, such as viral and non-viral vectors and physical methods, have been developed to make gene delivery safer and more efficient. Several therapeutic strategies have evolved, including gene-based (tumor suppressor genes, suicide genes, antiangiogenic genes, cytokine and oxidative stress-based genes) and RNA-based (antisense oligonucleotides and RNA interference) approaches. In addition, immune response-based strategies (dendritic cell– and T cell–based therapy) are also under investigation in tumor gene therapy. This review highlights the progress and recent developments in gene delivery systems, therapeutic strategies, and possible clinical directions for gene therapy. PMID:21352695

  5. Pulsed laser radiation therapy of skin tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlov, A.P.; Moskalik, K.G.

    1980-11-15

    Radiation from a neodymium laser was used to treat 846 patients with 687 precancerous lesions or benign tumors of the skin, 516 cutaneous carcinomas, 33 recurrences of cancer, 51 melanomas, and 508 metastatic melanomas in the skin. The patients have been followed for three months to 6.5 years. No relapses have been observed during this period. Metastases to regional lymph nodes were found in five patients with skin melanoma. Pulsed laser radiation may be successfully used in the treatment of precancerous lesions and benign tumors as well as for skin carcinoma and its recurrences, and for skin melanoma. Laser radiation is more effective in the treatment of tumors inaccessible to radiation therapy and better in those cases in which surgery may have a bad cosmetic or even mutilating effect. Laser beams can be employed in conjunction with chemo- or immunotherapy.

  6. Hepatobiliary Tumors: Update on Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Kabbach, Ghassan; Assi, Hussein A; Bolotin, George; Schuster, Michael; Lee, Hwa Jeong; Tadros, Micheal

    2015-01-01

    Tumors of the liver and biliary tree, mainly hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma, are the second leading cause of cancer related death worldwide and the sixth leading cause of cancer related death among men in developed countries. Recent developments in biomarkers and imaging modalities have enhanced early detection and accurate diagnosis of these highly fatal malignancies. These advances include serological testing, micro-ribonucleic acids, fluorescence in situ hybridization, contrast-enhanced ultrasound, and hepatobiliary-phase magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, there have been major developments in the surgical and nonsurgical management of these tumors, including expansion of the liver transplantation criteria, new locoregional treatments, and molecularly targeted therapies. In this article, we review various types of hepatobiliary tumors and discuss new developments in their diagnosis and management. PMID:26623263

  7. Malignant thoracopulmonary small-cell (Askin) tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, I.J.; Kurtz, D.W.; Cazenave, L.; Lieber, M.R.; Miser, J.S.; Chandra, R.; Triche, T.J.

    1985-09-01

    The clinical, radiographic, and pathologic features of 10 patients with documented malignant small-cell tumor of the thoracopulmonary region (Askin tumor) were reviewed. The tumor represents a distinct pathologic entity of neuroectodermal origin. Clinically, it presents as a chest-wall mass with or without pain. Its radiographic appearance is that of a soft-tissue mass with or without pleural or rib involvement, often with metastatic disease - to the skeletal system, bone marrow, thorax, and sympathetic chain. Two patients developed metastases to the adrenal gland and liver, one after autologous bone marrow transplantation. The radiologist should be aware of this entity and its pattern of metastatic spread since metastases are treated aggressively.

  8. Functional imaging in tumor-associated lymphatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Sunkuk; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2011-03-01

    The lymphatic system plays an important role in cancer cell dissemination; however whether lymphatic drainage pathways and function change during tumor progression and metastasis remains to be elucidated. In this report, we employed a non-invasive, dynamic near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging technique for functional lymphatic imaging. Indocyanine green (ICG) was intradermally injected into tumor-free mice and mice bearing C6/LacZ rat glioma tumors in the tail or hindlimb. Our imaging data showed abnormal lymphatic drainage pathways and reduction/loss of lymphatic contractile function in mice with lymph node (LN) metastasis, indicating that cancer metastasis to the draining LNs is accompanied by transient changes of the lymphatic architectural network and its function. Therefore, functional lymphatic imaging may provide a role in the clinical staging of cancer.

  9. Pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation.

    PubMed

    Patil, Meena; Karandikar, Manjiri

    2015-01-01

    The 2007 World Health Organization classification of tumors of the central nervous system identified "pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation" (PPTID) as a new pineal parenchymal neoplasm, located between pineocytoma and pineoblastoma as grade II or III. Because of the small number of reported cases, the classification of PPT is still a matter of controversy. We report a case of PPTID. A 25-year-old female patient was admitted to hospital with complaints of a headache, nausea, vomiting since 1-year. Computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed well-defined, mildly enhancing lesion in the region of the pineal gland with areas of calcification. The tumor was excised. After 3 years, she presented with metastasis in thoracic and lumbosacral spinal region. This is a rare event. PMID:26549088

  10. Thoracic Bone Tumors Every Radiologist Should Know.

    PubMed

    Jokerst, Clint; McFarland, William; Swanson, Jonathan; Mohammed, Tan-Lucien H

    2016-01-01

    The thoracic cage provides the structural support that makes respiration possible, provides protection to vital organs such as the lungs, heart, liver, and spleen, and serves as an anchor point for the upper extremities. Neoplasms of the bony thorax are not an uncommon incidental finding at both radiography and cross-sectional imaging. Some tumors have a characteristic appearance and it is important that an accurate differential diagnosis be provided. Misidentification could lead to unnecessary imaging or procedures with associated cost, morbidity, and mortality. The purpose of this article is to serve as a quick review of bone tumors commonly encountered in the thorax and that every radiologist should know. Please note that there are also several non-neoplastic osseous lesions that may mimic bone tumors such as osteomyelitis and eosinophilic granuloma; however, these entities are beyond the scope of this review and would not be discussed. PMID:26254813

  11. The pericyte antigen RGS5 in perivascular soft tissue tumors.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jia; Shrestha, Swati; Yen, Yu-Hsin; Scott, Michelle A; Soo, Chia; Ting, Kang; Peault, Bruno; Dry, Sarah M; James, Aaron W

    2016-01-01

    Perivascular soft tissue tumors are relatively uncommon neoplasms of unclear lineage of differentiation, although most are presumed to originate from or differentiate to pericytes or a modified perivascular cell. Among these, glomus tumor, myopericytoma, and angioleiomyoma share a spectrum of histologic findings and a perivascular growth pattern. In contrast, solitary fibrous tumor was once hypothesized to have pericytic differentiation-although little bona fide evidence of pericytic differentiation exists. Likewise the perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) family shares a perivascular growth pattern, but with distinctive dual myoid-melanocytic differentiation. RGS5, regulator of G-protein signaling 5, is a novel pericyte antigen with increasing use in animal models. Here, we describe the immunohistochemical expression patterns of RGS5 across perivascular soft tissue tumors, including glomus tumor (n = 6), malignant glomus tumor (n = 4), myopericytoma (n = 3), angioleiomyoma (n = 9), myofibroma (n = 4), solitary fibrous tumor (n = 10), and PEComa (n = 19). Immunohistochemical staining and semi-quantification was performed, and compared to ?SMA (smooth muscle actin) expression. Results showed that glomus tumor (including malignant glomus tumor), myopericytoma, and angioleiomyoma shared a similar diffuse immunoreactivity for RGS5 and ?SMA across all tumors examined. In contrast, myofibroma, solitary fibrous tumor and PEComa showed predominantly focal to absent RGS5 immunoreactivity. These findings further support a common pericytic lineage of differentiation in glomus tumors, myopericytoma and angioleiomyoma. The pericyte marker RGS5 may be of future clinical utility for the evaluation of pericytic differentiation in soft tissue tumors. PMID:26558691

  12. Gelatin microcapsules for enhanced microwave tumor hyperthermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Qijun; Fu, Changhui; Tie, Jian; Liu, Tianlong; Li, Linlin; Ren, Xiangling; Huang, Zhongbing; Liu, Huiyu; Tang, Fangqiong; Li, Li; Meng, Xianwei

    2015-02-01

    Local and rapid heating by microwave (MW) irradiation is important in the clinical treatment of tumors using hyperthermia. We report here a new thermo-seed technique for the highly efficient MW irradiation ablation of tumors in vivo based on gelatin microcapsules. We achieved 100% tumor elimination in a mouse model at an ultralow power of 1.8 W without any side-effects. The results of MTT assays, a hemolysis test and the histological staining of organs indicated that the gelatin microcapsules showed excellent compatibility with the physiological environment. A possible mechanism is proposed for MW hyperthermia using gelatin microcapsules. We also used gelatin microcapsules capped with CdTe quantum dots for in vivo optical imaging. Our study suggests that these microcapsules may have potential applications in imaging-guided cancer treatment.Local and rapid heating by microwave (MW) irradiation is important in the clinical treatment of tumors using hyperthermia. We report here a new thermo-seed technique for the highly efficient MW irradiation ablation of tumors in vivo based on gelatin microcapsules. We achieved 100% tumor elimination in a mouse model at an ultralow power of 1.8 W without any side-effects. The results of MTT assays, a hemolysis test and the histological staining of organs indicated that the gelatin microcapsules showed excellent compatibility with the physiological environment. A possible mechanism is proposed for MW hyperthermia using gelatin microcapsules. We also used gelatin microcapsules capped with CdTe quantum dots for in vivo optical imaging. Our study suggests that these microcapsules may have potential applications in imaging-guided cancer treatment. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr07104b

  13. Scanned Carbon Pencil Beams for Tumor Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemmel, A.; Saito, N.; Chaudhri, N.; Lü; chtenborg, R.; Schardt, D.; Rietzel, E.; Bert, Ch.

    2009-03-01

    At GSI a fully active beam application has been developed for tumor therapy with carbon ions. In this so-called rasterscan system the tumor volume is typically split into ˜60 slices of iso-energies taken from a list of 252 energies ranging from ˜90-430 MeV/u (range: 1.8-30.7 cm). The energies can be combined with variable beam diameters and intensities. For each iso-energy slice beam is requested from the synchrotron and delivered as a narrow pencil beam (beam's full width at half maximum 3-10 mm). For lateral target coverage this pencil beam is deflected to several hundreds of grid positions per iso-energy slice by orthogonal dipole magnets. At each grid position an optimized number of particles is deposited intensity-controlled, i.e. ionization chambers monitor the dose deposition and trigger deflection to the next grid position once the required dose level is achieved. This method allows intensity-modulated treatment fields necessary to deposit a uniform biological effective dose. Additionally, it allows for simultaneous optimization of multiple fields that allow better sparing of organs at risk partially or fully surrounded by the tumor. Scanned beam delivery facilitates target conformal and homogeneous dose delivery for stationary targets. For tumors located in the head & neck as well as tumors in the pelvic region very promising results were achieved in the carbon therapy pilot project started at GSI in 1993. A comparable project is conducted at Paul-Scherrer-Institut (PSI) in Switzerland with a scanned proton beam. One of the current research topics is the treatment of moving targets such as lung tumors. Scanned beam delivery requires but also offers possibilities to conformably irradiate moving target sites.

  14. Proliferation characteristics of canine transmissible venereal tumor.

    PubMed

    Chu, R M; Lin, C Y; Liu, C C; Yang, S Y; Hsiao, Y W; Hung, S W; Pao, H N; Liao, K W

    2001-01-01

    Canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) grows progressively (P-phase) in the host and then spontaneously regresses (R-phase). The mechanisms behind the transition from the P-to R-phases are not well understood. In this study, in order to determine the proliferation characteristics of CTVT, we evaluated telomerase activity and enumerated nuclear organizing regions (AgNOR) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). It was found that CTVT cells from the P-and R-phases were both positive for telomerase activity, although it was lower in the R-phase. Evaluations of telomerase activity should take into account the stage of mitosis. Although, in the majority of cases, telomerase activity can be used to differentiate between benign and malignant tumors in dogs, other factors or markers should also be used to obtain accurate diagnoses. The PCNA-positive rate and the number and area of AgNOR per cell increased much more in the P-phase than the R-phase. However, the AgNOR values were always higher. Thus, the AgNOR count can be used to distinguish the P-and R-phases of CTVT. In addition, mitotic figures were much higher in number in the P-phase as compared to the R-phase. We believe that, during spontaneous regression of CTVT cells, slow tumor cell proliferation must contribute to the decrease in tumor size. However, shortening of tumor cell telomeres is not directly involved in this process. Other factors, such as expression of MHC antigens on CTVT cells, humoral immunity, cytokines released by the inflammatory cells and, especially, tumor infiltrating lymphocytes may contribute to CTVT regression. PMID:11911286

  15. Current concepts of tumor-induced angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Paku, S

    1998-01-01

    Tumor induced angiogenesis is responsible for the nutrition of the growing tumor and can also increase the probability of hematogenous tumor dissemination. Data obtained from morphological analysis of tumor angiogenesis can contribute to the development of new anti-angiogenic therapies. Based on in vitro and in vivo observations several models of angiogenesis were introduced, explaining the mechanism of lumen formation and the timing of basement membrane depositon. (1) Lumen is formed either by cell body curving or by fusion of intracellular vacuoles of nonpolarized endothelial cells. New basement membrane is deposited after lumen formation. (2) Slit-like lumen is immediately formed by migrating polarized endothelial cells. Basement membrane is continuously deposited during endothelial cell migration, only cellular processes of the endothelial cell migrating on the tip of the growing capillary are free of deposited basement membrane material. (3) Development of transluminal bridges in larger vessels a process called intussusceptive growth leads to the division of the vessels. These models, however, describe angiogenesis in tissues rich in connective tissue. Different processes of angiogenesis take place in organs such as liver, lungs, adrenals, which are the most frequent sites of metastasis having high vessel density without sufficient space for capillary sprouting. In the case of liver metastases of Lewis lung carcinoma the proliferation of endothelial cells was elicited only by direct contact between tumor and endothelial cells, leading to the development of large convoluted vessels inside the metastases. These vessels were continuous with the sinusoidal system, suggesting that these metastases have dual blood supply. This observation, among others, is in contrast to the generally accepted view that liver tumors have arterial blood supply. The increasing number of data demonstrating the dual or venous blood supply of liver metastases should be taken into consideration in the therapy of liver metastasis. PMID:9555124

  16. Reporting Tumor Molecular Heterogeneity in Histopathological Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Mafficini, Andrea; Amato, Eliana; Fassan, Matteo; Simbolo, Michele; Antonello, Davide; Vicentini, Caterina; Scardoni, Maria; Bersani, Samantha; Gottardi, Marisa; Rusev, Borislav; Malpeli, Giorgio; Corbo, Vincenzo; Barbi, Stefano; Sikora, Katarzyna O.; Lawlor, Rita T.; Tortora, Giampaolo; Scarpa, Aldo

    2014-01-01

    Background Detection of molecular tumor heterogeneity has become of paramount importance with the advent of targeted therapies. Analysis for detection should be comprehensive, timely and based on routinely available tumor samples. Aim To evaluate the diagnostic potential of targeted multigene next-generation sequencing (TM-NGS) in characterizing gastrointestinal cancer molecular heterogeneity. Methods 35 gastrointestinal tract tumors, five of each intestinal type gastric carcinomas, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, ampulla of Vater carcinomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, cholangiocarcinomas, pancreatic solid pseudopapillary tumors were assessed for mutations in 46 cancer-associated genes, using Ion Torrent semiconductor-based TM-NGS. One ampulla of Vater carcinoma cell line and one hepatic carcinosarcoma served to assess assay sensitivity. TP53, PIK3CA, KRAS, and BRAF mutations were validated by conventional Sanger sequencing. Results TM-NGS yielded overlapping results on matched fresh-frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues, with a mutation detection limit of 1% for fresh-frozen high molecular weight DNA and 2% for FFPE partially degraded DNA. At least one somatic mutation was observed in all tumors tested; multiple alterations were detected in 20/35 (57%) tumors. Seven cancers displayed significant differences in allelic frequencies for distinct mutations, indicating the presence of intratumor molecular heterogeneity; this was confirmed on selected samples by immunohistochemistry of p53 and Smad4, showing concordance with mutational analysis. Conclusions TM-NGS is able to detect and quantitate multiple gene alterations from limited amounts of DNA, moving one step closer to a next-generation histopathologic diagnosis that integrates morphologic, immunophenotypic, and multigene mutational analysis on routinely processed tissues, essential for personalized cancer therapy. PMID:25127237

  17. Combination Chemotherapy and Surgery in Treating Young Patients With Wilms Tumor

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-27

    Adult Renal Wilms Tumor; Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome; Childhood Renal Wilms Tumor; Diffuse Hyperplastic Perilobar Nephroblastomatosis; Hemihypertrophy; Stage I Renal Wilms Tumor; Stage II Renal Wilms Tumor; Stage III Renal Wilms Tumor; Stage IV Renal Wilms Tumor; Stage V Renal Wilms Tumor

  18. Clinical Presentation and Diagnosis of Neuroendocrine Tumors.

    PubMed

    Vinik, Aaron I; Chaya, Celine

    2016-02-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are slow-growing neoplasms capable of storing and secreting different peptides and neuroamines. Some of these substances cause specific symptom complexes, whereas others are silent. They usually have episodic expression, and the diagnosis is often made at a late stage. Although considered rare, the incidence of NETs is increasing. For these reasons, a high index of suspicion is needed. In this article, the different clinical syndromes and the pathophysiology of each tumor as well as the new and emerging biochemical markers and imaging techniques that should be used to facilitate an early diagnosis, follow-up, and prognosis are reviewed. PMID:26614367

  19. Systemic Therapies for Advanced Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors.

    PubMed

    Mulvey, Claire K; Bergsland, Emily K

    2016-02-01

    Well-differentiated gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors (GINETs) tend to be slow growing, but treatment of advanced disease remains a challenge. Somatostatin analogues (SSAs) are considered standard therapy for carcinoid syndrome. SSAs delay tumor progression in advanced well-differentiated gastroenteropancreatic NETs. Cytotoxic chemotherapy and interferon play a limited role in the treatment of nonpancreatic GINETs. There is no standard approach to treatment of patients with disease progression. Identification of systemic agents with antitumor activity in advanced disease remains an unmet medical need. Enrollment to clinical trials is encouraged; potential therapeutic targets include the vascular endothelial growth factor and mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathways. PMID:26614369

  20. Apatinib for molecular targeted therapy in tumor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haijun

    2015-01-01

    As tumor angiogenesis is one of the hallmarks of cancer, the inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor signaling has become an attractive anticancer approach. Apatinib, a small-molecule inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, has demonstrated encouraging anticancer activity across a broad range of malignancies, including gastric cancer, non-small-cell lung cancer, breast cancer, and hepatocellular carcinoma. In this up-to-date review, focus is not only on the structure, mechanisms, and pharmacokinetics of apatinib, but also on summarizing clinical trials and making recommendations of apatinib for patients with advanced solid tumors. PMID:26622168

  1. Multiple tumors of the female genital tract.

    PubMed

    Ambrosini, A; Becagli, L; Scrimin, F; Cecchetto, A; Domini, D; Resta, P; De Salvia, D

    1982-01-01

    The increased incidence of multiple primary tumors of genital-breast district has been evaluated, with the possibility of early diagnosis which consent greater survival in cancer patients. We found a particular high incidence of second neoplasia associated with vulval tumors (7.4%). With regard to pathogenetic factors, the oncogenic role of certain treatments is undoubtedly important, especially if they are protracted in time. It is necessary that these patients undergo complete gynecological screening for a time period that is much longer than that held sufficient to consider a patient cured. PMID:7169066

  2. [Inflammations and tumors of the temporal bone].

    PubMed

    Burian, M

    1997-12-01

    The term 'inflammation of the middle ear' covers a couple of diseases which range from the acute otitis media to the middle ear cholesteatoma. However, a clear characterization of a certain pathology is essential for any further treatment. Therefore this article presents a short overview about the different types of infections and their clinical manifestation. The tumors of the temporal bone show a great variety in their incidence. Even if tumors like the acoustic neurinoma or the paraganglioma are comparatively common, the chondroblastoma of the temporal bone is absolutely rare. In spite of these differences the individual temporal bone neoplasias are shortly mentioned herein. PMID:9498246

  3. Peripheral calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor - Case report.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Deepthi; Jayade, Bhushan V; Jayade, Gautam; Gopalkrishnan, K

    2014-01-01

    The calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT), Pindborg tumor is a benign, slow growing, but locally invasive neoplasm. It is known to have a common intraosseous variant and a very rare extraosseous variant. We report an unusual case of an extraosseous variant of CEOT of unusual large size and maxillary anterior location, the treatment was planned considering the clinical, radiological and histological features. Though peripheral types are less aggressive and had no recurrence, in our case regular follow up is required considering the aggressiveness of the lesion and its proximity to important adjacent structures. PMID:25737934

  4. Granular Cell Tumors on Unusual Anatomic Locations

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Joo

    2015-01-01

    Granular cell tumors (GCTs) are soft tissue tumors, which are thought to be derived from Schwann cells. Although most GCTs are reported to arise in tongue and oral cavity (30-50%), they can appear on any anatomic sites, even visceral organs. Herein, we report 5 cases of GCTs on unusual anatomic locations, such as palm, arm, thigh, finger, and vulvar area. Complete surgical excision is preferred treatment of choice to prevent recurrence. These cases emphasize that GCTs not involving oral cavity are more prevalent than expected, and the diagnosis should be histopathologically confirmed. PMID:26446660

  5. Pineal region tumors: analysis of treatment results

    SciTech Connect

    Amendola, B.E.; McClatchey, K.; Amendola, M.A.

    1984-07-01

    This article represents a review of 32 patients with pineal region tumors seen and treated at the University of Michigan Medical Center from January 1950 to December 1980. All patients presented with manifestations of increased intracranial pressure: limitation of the upward gaze (Parinaud's syndrome), hydrocephalus and a mass in the posterior aspect of the third ventricle. The tumor was demonstrated by pneumoencephalography, ventriculography, angiography or CT scans. Ventricular decompression was performed in all patients. Twenty-seven patients received post-operative irradiation. The overall 10 year survival for evaluable patients was 16/24 (67%). Few complications were seen.

  6. Hormonal component of tumor photodynamic therapy response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korbelik, Mladen; Merchant, Soroush

    2008-02-01

    The involvement of adrenal glucocorticoid hormones in the response of the treatment of solid tumors by photodynamic therapy (PDT) comes from the induction of acute phase response by this modality. This adrenal gland activity is orchestrated through the engagement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal hormonal axis incited by stress signals emanating from the PDT-treated tumor. Glucocorticoid hormone activity engendered within the context of PDT-induced acute phase response performs multiple important functions; among other involvements they beget acute phase reactant production, systemic neutrophil mobilization, and control the production of inflammation-modulating and immunoregulatory proteins.

  7. Pott's Puffy Tumor: An Uncommon Clinical Entity

    PubMed Central

    Suwan, Phillip T.; Mogal, Suvarna; Chaudhary, Subhash

    2012-01-01

    Although first described in 1760, Pott's puffy tumor is a lesser known clinical entity. Often seen as a complication of frontal sinusitis, Pott's is a frontal bone osteomyelitis with an associated subperiosteal abscess. Patients present with a fluctuant swelling of the scalp. The diagnosis is often confirmed with computed tomography (CT). Prompt surgical and medical treatments are the rule as there is the potential for significant morbidity if not quickly diagnosed and treated. Herein, we describe the presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of an 8-year-old female presenting with Pott's puffy tumor. PMID:23091765

  8. Regulatory B cells preferentially accumulate in tumor-draining lymph nodes and promote tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Ganti, Sheila N.; Albershardt, Tina C.; Iritani, Brian M.; Ruddell, Alanna

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies found that B16-F10 melanoma growth in the rear footpad of immunocompetent mice induces marked B cell accumulation within tumor-draining popliteal lymph nodes (TDLN). This B cell accumulation drives TDLN remodeling that precedes and promotes metastasis, indicating a tumor-promoting role for TDLN B cells. Here we show that phenotypic characterization of lymphocytes in mice bearing B16-F10 melanomas identifies preferential accumulation of T2-MZP B cells in the TDLN. Comparison of non-draining LNs and spleens of tumor-bearing mice with LNs and spleens from naïve mice determined that this pattern of B cell accumulation was restricted to the TDLN. B cell-deficient and immunocompetent mice reconstituted with T2-MZP B cells but not with other B cell subsets displayed accelerated tumor growth, demonstrating that T2-MZP B cells possess regulatory activity in tumor-bearing mice. Unlike splenic regulatory B cells, however, these TDLN B cells did not exhibit increased IL-10 production, nor did they promote Treg generation in the TDLN. These findings demonstrate that tumors initially signal via the lymphatic drainage to stimulate the preferential accumulation of T2-MZP regulatory B cells. This local response may be an early and critical step in generating an immunosuppressive environment to permit tumor growth and metastasis. PMID:26193241

  9. Targeting Mitochondrial Function to Treat Quiescent Tumor Cells in Solid Tumors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaonan; de Milito, Angelo; Olofsson, Maria Hägg; Gullbo, Joachim; D'Arcy, Padraig; Linder, Stig

    2015-01-01

    The disorganized nature of tumor vasculature results in the generation of microenvironments characterized by nutrient starvation, hypoxia and accumulation of acidic metabolites. Tumor cell populations in such areas are often slowly proliferating and thus refractory to chemotherapeutical drugs that are dependent on an active cell cycle. There is an urgent need for alternative therapeutic interventions that circumvent growth dependency. The screening of drug libraries using multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) or glucose-starved tumor cells has led to the identification of several compounds with promising therapeutic potential and that display activity on quiescent tumor cells. Interestingly, a common theme of these drug screens is the recurrent identification of agents that affect mitochondrial function. Such data suggest that, contrary to the classical Warburg view, tumor cells in nutritionally-compromised microenvironments are dependent on mitochondrial function for energy metabolism and survival. These findings suggest that mitochondria may represent an "Achilles heel" for the survival of slowly-proliferating tumor cells and suggest strategies for the development of therapy to target these cell populations. PMID:26580606

  10. Proteolysis during tumor cell extravasation in vitro: metalloproteinase involvement across tumor cell types.

    PubMed

    Voura, Evelyn B; English, Jane L; Yu, Hoi-Ying E; Ho, Andrew T; Subarsky, Patrick; Hill, Richard P; Hojilla, Carlo V; Khokha, Rama

    2013-01-01

    To test if proteolysis is involved in tumor cell extravasation, we developed an in vitro model where tumor cells cross an endothelial monolayer cultured on a basement membrane. Using this model we classified the ability of the cells to transmigrate through the endothelial cell barrier onto the underlying matrix, and scored this invasion according to the stage of passage through the endothelium. Metalloproteinase inhibitors reduced tumor cell extravasation by at least 35%. Visualization of protease and cell adhesion molecules by confocal microscopy demonstrated the cell surface localization of MMP-2, MMP-9, MT1-MMP, furin, CD44 and ?v?3, during the process of transendothelial migration. By the addition of inhibitors and bio-modulators we assessed the functional requirement of the aforementioned molecules for efficient migration. Proteolytic digestion occurred at the cell-matrix interface and was most evident during the migratory stage. All of the inhibitors and biomodulators affected the transition of the tumor cells into the migratory stage, highlighting the most prevalent use of proteolysis at this particular step of tumor cell extravasation. These data suggest that a proteolytic interface operates at the tumor cell surface within the tumor-endothelial cell microenvironment. PMID:24194929

  11. Targeting Mitochondrial Function to Treat Quiescent Tumor Cells in Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaonan; de Milito, Angelo; Olofsson, Maria Hägg; Gullbo, Joachim; D’Arcy, Padraig; Linder, Stig

    2015-01-01

    The disorganized nature of tumor vasculature results in the generation of microenvironments characterized by nutrient starvation, hypoxia and accumulation of acidic metabolites. Tumor cell populations in such areas are often slowly proliferating and thus refractory to chemotherapeutical drugs that are dependent on an active cell cycle. There is an urgent need for alternative therapeutic interventions that circumvent growth dependency. The screening of drug libraries using multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) or glucose-starved tumor cells has led to the identification of several compounds with promising therapeutic potential and that display activity on quiescent tumor cells. Interestingly, a common theme of these drug screens is the recurrent identification of agents that affect mitochondrial function. Such data suggest that, contrary to the classical Warburg view, tumor cells in nutritionally-compromised microenvironments are dependent on mitochondrial function for energy metabolism and survival. These findings suggest that mitochondria may represent an “Achilles heel” for the survival of slowly-proliferating tumor cells and suggest strategies for the development of therapy to target these cell populations. PMID:26580606

  12. Infrared Spectra of Human Breast Tumor Tissue and Experimental Animal Tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Belkov, M. V.; Skornyakov, I. V.; Pekhnyo, V. I.; Kozachkova, A. N.; Tsarik, H. V.; Kutsenko, I. P.; Sharykina, N. I.; Butra, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    We have used Fourier transform IR spectroscopy methods to conduct comparative studies of human breast tumors and sarcoma 180 tumor grafted into mice. The IR spectral parameters used to identify tumor tissue in mice with the sarcoma 180 strain proved to be identical to the parameters for human breast tissue in cancer. In the presence of a malignant tumor in humans, the most intense C=O vibrational bands in the protein molecules are observed in the interval 1710-1680 cm-1. For a benign tumor, in the IR spectra of breast tissue the intense bands are located in the interval 1670-1650 cm-1. We spectroscopically monitored the diagnosis and the chemotherapy process using the model of sarcoma 180 in mice. As the therapeutic drugs, we used synthesized coordination compounds based on palladium complexes with diphosphonic acid derivatives. We demonstrate the promising potential of palladium complexes with zoledronic acid as an effective cytostatic. In therapy using a palladium complex with zoledronic acid, the effect of tumor growth inhibition is accompanied by a change in its spectral characteristics. The parameters of the IR spectra for tumor tissue after treatment are close to those of the IR spectra for healthy tissue.

  13. Surgical management of some unusual Parapharyngeal space Tumors.

    PubMed

    Nayak, U K; Choudary, S; Rao, J J; Kumar, E C

    2001-10-01

    We present out experience with the surgical management of 8 cases parapharyngeal tumors which were successfully operated using various approaches. Most tumors were quite large and presented special surgical challenges to safegaurd important structures and ensure complete tumors excision. Included in the series are 3 rare tumors, a myoepethilioma of the deep lobe of parotid, a Glomus intravagale tumor and a case of extra osseous Ewing's sarcoma. Depending on tumors location and extent, the transcervical, transparotid and midline mandibulotomy approaches were used and the techniques are described. All patients are currently doing well without any evidence of disease. PMID:23119823

  14. Pharmacokinetics and tumor dynamics of the nanoparticle IT-101 from PET imaging and tumor histological measurements

    PubMed Central

    Schluep, Thomas; Hwang, Jungyeon; Hildebrandt, Isabel J.; Czernin, Johannes; Choi, Chung Hang J.; Alabi, Christopher A.; Mack, Brendan C.; Davis, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    IT-101, a cyclodextrin polymer-based nanoparticle containing camptothecin, is in clinical development for the treatment of cancer. Multiorgan pharmacokinetics and accumulation in tumor tissue of IT-101 is investigated by using PET. IT-101 is modified through the attachment of a 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7-Tris-acetic acid ligand to bind 64Cu2+. This modification does not affect the particle size and minimally affects the surface charge of the resulting nanoparticles. PET data from 64Cu-labeled IT-101 are used to quantify the in vivo biodistribution in mice bearing Neuro2A s.c. tumors. The 64Cu-labeled IT-101 displays a biphasic plasma elimination. Approximately 8% of the injected dose is rapidly cleared as a low-molecular-weight fraction through the kidneys. The remaining material circulates in plasma with a terminal half-life of 13.3 h. Steadily increasing concentrations, up to 11% injected dose per cm3, are observed in the tumor over 24 h, higher than any other tissue at that time. A 3-compartment model is used to determine vascular permeability and nanoparticle retention in tumors, and is able to accurately represent the experimental data. The calculated tumor vascular permeability indicates that the majority of nanoparticles stay intact in circulation and do not disassemble into individual polymer strands. A key assumption to modeling the tumor dynamics is that there is a “sink” for the nanoparticles within the tumor. Histological measurements using confocal microscopy show that IT-101 localizes within tumor cells and provides the sink in the tumor for the nanoparticles. PMID:19564622

  15. Correlation between nasopharyngeal carcinoma tumor volume and the 2002 International Union Against Cancer tumor classification system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The correlation between primary tumor volume and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) UICC 2002 T classification, N classification and distant metastasis after radiation therapy was discussed to provide further evidence for the inclusion of tumor volume into the TNM classification staging system. Methods Between February 2001 and December 2008, 666 patients with NPC treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) were analyzed retrospectively. Primary gross tumor volume was calculated from treatment planning computed tomography scans. The Kruskal-Wallis and Mann–Whitney tests were used for comparison of continuous variables and the chi-square test was used for categorical variables. A logistic regression model was used for multivariate analysis. Results Median primary tumor volume of the 666 patients was 20.35 ml (range, 0.44???192.63 ml), and it gradually increased with T classification. Statistically significant differences in tumor volume were observed between patients with different T classifications (p?tumor volume between patients with or without lymph node metastasis were statistically significant (p?tumor volume (p?=?0.007) were the main factors influencing distant metastasis. Conclusion Tumor volume was correlated with T classification, cervical lymph node mestastasis and distant metastasis after radiation therapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma, suggesting that tumor volume should be included into the TNM staging system. PMID:23578324

  16. SCA-1 Identifies the Tumor-Initiating Cells in Mammary Tumors of BALB-neuT Transgenic Mice1

    PubMed Central

    Grange, Cristina; Lanzardo, Stefania; Cavallo, Federica; Camussi, Giovanni; Bussolati, Benedetta

    2008-01-01

    Cancer stem cells, initiating and sustaining the tumor process, have been isolated in human and murine breast cancer using different cell markers. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the presence and characteristics of stem/tumor-initiating cells in the model of the mouse mammary neoplasia driven by the activated form of rat Her-2/neu oncogene (BALB-neuT mice). For this purpose, we generated tumor spheres from primary spontaneous BALB-neuT tumors. Tumor sphere cultures were characterized for clonogenicity, self-renewal, and ability to differentiate in epithelial/myoepithelial cells of the mammary gland expressing basal and luminal cytokeratins and alpha-smooth muscle actin. In addition, tumor spheres were more resistant to doxorubicin compared with parental tumor cells. In the attempt to identify a selected marker for the sphere-generating cells, we found that Sca-1+ cells, present in tumors or enriched in mammospheres, and not CD24+ or CD29+ cells, were responsible for the sphere generation in vitro. Moreover, cells from the tumor spheres showed an increased tumor-generating ability in respect to the epithelial tumor cells. Sca-1+ sorted cells or clonal mammospheres derived from a Sca-1+ cell showed a superimposable tumor-initiating ability. The data of the present study indicate that a Sca-1+ population derived from mammary BALB-neuT tumors is responsible for sphere generation in culture and for initiating tumors in vivo. PMID:19048122

  17. Cross-talk among myeloid-derived suppressor cells, macrophages, and tumor cells impacts the inflammatory milieu of solid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Beury, Daniel W.; Parker, Katherine H.; Nyandjo, Maeva; Sinha, Pratima; Carter, Kayla A.; Ostrand-Rosenberg, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    MDSC and macrophages are present in most solid tumors and are important drivers of immune suppression and inflammation. It is established that cross-talk between MDSC and macrophages impacts anti-tumor immunity; however, interactions between tumor cells and MDSC or macrophages are less well studied. To examine potential interactions between these cells, we studied the impact of MDSC, macrophages, and four murine tumor cell lines on each other, both in vitro and in vivo. We focused on IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-?, and NO, as these molecules are produced by macrophages, MDSC, and many tumor cells; are present in most solid tumors; and regulate inflammation. In vitro studies demonstrated that MDSC-produced IL-10 decreased macrophage IL-6 and TNF-? and increased NO. IL-6 indirectly regulated MDSC IL-10. Tumor cells increased MDSC IL-6 and vice versa. Tumor cells also increased macrophage IL-6 and NO and decreased macrophage TNF-?. Tumor cell-driven macrophage IL-6 was reduced by MDSC, and tumor cells and MDSC enhanced macrophage NO. In vivo analysis of solid tumors identified IL-6 and IL-10 as the dominant cytokines and demonstrated that these molecules were produced predominantly by stromal cells. These results suggest that inflammation within solid tumors is regulated by the ratio of tumor cells to MDSC and macrophages and that interactions of these cells have the potential to alter significantly the inflammatory milieu within the tumor microenvironment. PMID:25170116

  18. A highly tumor-specific light-triggerable drug carrier responds to hypoxic tumor conditions for effective tumor treatment.

    PubMed

    Park, Wooram; Bae, Byoung-Chan; Na, Kun

    2016-01-01

    Light-triggered drug delivery is among the most investigated stimulus-response strategies and has been widely explored in cancer treatment. However, the limited specificity of light-triggered drug delivery reduces the therapeutic efficacy and causes considerable undesirable side effects. In this work, we demonstrate a highly tumor-specific light-triggerable drug carrier (H-LTDC) induced by a combination of internal (i.e., tumor hypoxia) and external stimuli (i.e., light). The doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded H-LTDC was self-assembled from type-1-reactive oxygen species (ROStype1)-mediated degradable chondroitin sulfate (CS) conjugated with a photosensitizer (PS), Pheophorbide-a, which has a spherical shape and a uniform size distribution. Under hypoxic conditions, ROSType1 was mainly generated due to the electron-rich sulfate groups in the polysaccharide backbone. The ROStype1 generated by H-LTDC allowed laser-triggered drug release at low oxygen concentrations. From the in vitro cytotoxicity tests with colon cancer cells (HCT-116), under laser irradiation, DOX-loaded H-LTDCs showed higher toxicity under hypoxic conditions than that under normoxic conditions. In vivo and ex vivo biodistribution studies demonstrated that H-LTDCs selectively accumulated in the tumor tissues. As a result, drug-loaded H-LTDCs exhibited high anti-tumor activity in vivo. Overall, we believe that this approach could represent a promising platform for the treatment of tumor and hypoxia-associated diseases without undesirable side effects. PMID:26606448

  19. Gastric Schwannoma: A Benign Tumor Often Misdiagnosed as Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Rathi, Pravin M.; Somani, Vaibhav S.; Mulani, Astha M.

    2015-01-01

    Gastric schwannomas are rare mesenchymal tumors that arise from the nerve plexus of gut wall. They present with nonspecific symptoms and are often detected incidentally. Preoperative investigation is not pathognomic and many are therefore misdiagnosed as gastrointestinal stromal tumors. We report a rare case of a 37-year old woman who underwent laparotomy for complex bilateral ovarian cyst with resection of gastric-gastrointestinal stromal tumor preoperatively, but confirmed to have a gastric schwannomas postoperatively. This case underscores the differential diagnosis of submucosal, exophytic gastric mass as schwannoma. PMID:26664714

  20. Abemaciclib in Children With DIPG or Recurrent/Refractory Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-30

    Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma; Brain Tumor, Recurrent; Solid Tumor, Recurrent; Neuroblastoma, Recurrent, Refractory; Ewing Sarcoma, Recurrent, Refractory; Rhabdomyosarcoma, Recurrent, Refractory; Osteosarcoma, Recurrent, Refractory; Rhabdoid Tumor, Recurrent, Refractory