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E-print Network

Background: To investigate the role of maspin expression in the progression of gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and its value as a prognostic indicator. Methods: In the study 54 patients with GIST diagnosis were included in Uludag University of Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pathology between 1997-2007. The expression of maspin in 54 cases of gastrointestinal stromal tumor was detected by immunohistochemistry and compared with the clinicopathologic tumor parameters. Results: The positive expression rates for maspin in the GISTs were 66,6 % (36 of 54 cases). Maspin overexpression was detected in 9 of 29 high risk tumors (31%) and was significantly higher in very low/low (78.6%) and intermediate-risk tumors (63.6%) than high-risk tumors. Conclusions: Maspin expression might be an important factor in tumor progression and patient prognosis in GIST. In the future, larger series may be studied to examine the prognostic significance of maspin in GISTs and, of course, maspin expression may be studied in different mesenchymal tumors. Background Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal



E-print Network

Background: According to the scientific literature, less than 30 borderline ovarian tumors have been karyotyped and less than 100 analyzed for genomic imbalances by CGH. Methods: We report a series of borderline ovarian tumors (n = 23) analyzed by G-banding and karyotyping as well as high resolution CGH; in addition, the tumors were analyzed for microsatellite stability status and by FISH for possible 6q deletion. Results: All informative tumors were microsatellite stable and none had a deletion in 6q27. All cases with an abnormal karyotype had simple chromosomal aberrations with +7 and +12 as the most common. In three tumors with single structural rearrangements, a common breakpoint in 3q13 was detected. The major copy number changes detected in the borderline tumors were gains from chromosome arms 2q, 6q, 8q, 9p, and 13q and losses from 1p, 12q, 14q, 15q, 16p, 17p, 17q, 19p, 19q, and 22q. The series included five pairs of bilateral tumors and, in two of these pairs, informative data were obtained as to their clonal relationship. In both pairs, similarities were found between the tumors from the right and left side, strongly indicating that bilaterality had occurred via a metastatic process. The bilateral tumors as a group showed more aberrations than did the unilateral ones, consistent with the view that bilaterality is a sign of more advanced disease. Conclusion: Because some of the imbalances found in borderline ovarian tumors seem to be similar to imbalances already known from the more extensively studied overt ovarian carcinomas, we speculate that the subset of borderline tumors with detectable imbalances or karyotypic aberrations may contain a smaller subset of tumors with a tendency to develop a more malignant phenotype. The group of borderline tumors with no imbalances would, in this line of thinking, have less or no propensity for clonal evolution and development to full-blown carcinomas.




... excessively in the body. Normally, the body controls cell growth and division. New cells are created to replace ... room for healthy replacements. If the balance of cell growth and death is disturbed, a tumor may form. ...


Artigo Original Avaliação dos valores sérico e pleural dos marcadores tumorais CEA, CYFRA21-1 e CA 15-3 em portadores de derrame pleural* Evaluation of serum and pleural levels of the tumor markers CEA, CYFRA21-1 and CA 15-3 in patients with pleural effusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the levels of the tumor markers carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cytokeratin 19 fragment (CYFRA21-1) and carbohydrate antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3) in the blood and pleural fluid of patients with benign or malignant pleural effusion, evaluating the sensitivity of each marker in these fluids. Methods: We prospectively evaluated 85 patients with pleural effusion. The study of the pleural fluid

Isabella Coimbra Wagner; Murilo José de Barros; Lilian Karine; Neves da Silva; Francisco Montenegro de Melo; Maria Tereza Cartaxo Muniz



Uso de la variabilidad de la frecuencia cardiaca como marcador de los efectos cardiovasculares asociados con la contaminación del aire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological studies have shown the association be- tween atmospheric pollutants and increase in mortality due to cardiovascular causes, especially in patients with previ- ous cardio-respiratory diseases. However, the pathophysio- logical mechanisms by which these events take place have not been elucidated. One of the proposed mechanisms by which suspended respirable particles and other pollutants produce their effect is that they

Horacio Riojas-Rodríguez; Fernando Holguin; Antonio González-Hermosillo; Isabelle Romieu



Una investigacin de la UA avanza en el diagnstico precoz del Alzheimer mediante marcadores biolgicos  

E-print Network

Una investigación de la UA avanza en el diagnóstico precoz del Alzheimer mediante marcadores enfermedad de Alzheimer. Este es uno de los resultados obtenidos por la doctoranda Natividad López Riquelme y Traza en la Enfermedad de Alzheimer y su asociación con los agentes del Estrés Oxidativo sistémico

Escolano, Francisco


Reconocimiento robusto de marcadores artificiales para la navegacion de robots  

E-print Network

cambios de escala. Los experimentos demuestran que nuestra soluci´on es r´apida y muy robusta incluso en Introducci´on Dentro del campo de investigaci´on dedicado a la navegaci´on de robots, son mu- chos los experimentos. 2 Histogramas polares Los histogramas polares son definidos como un medio para comparar s

Escolano, Francisco


Mediastinal tumor  


... is divided into three sections: Anterior (front) Middle Posterior (back) Mediastinal tumors are rare. The most common ... In children, tumors are more common in the posterior mediastinum. These tumors often begin in the nerves ...


Spinal tumor  


Tumor - spinal cord ... spinal tumors occur in the nerves of the spinal cord itself. Most often these are ependymomas and other ... genetic defects. Spinal tumors can occur: Inside the spinal cord (intramedullary) In the membranes (meninges) covering the spinal ...


Wilms' Tumor  


Wilms' tumor is a rare type of kidney cancer. It causes a tumor on one or both kidneys. It usually affects ... are at risk should be screened for Wilms' tumor every three months until they turn eight. Symptoms ...


Brain tumors.  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in experimental tumor biology are being applied to critical clinical problems of primary brain tumors. The expression of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors, which are sparse in normal brain, is increased as much as 20-fold in brain tumors. Experimental studies show promise in using labeled ligands to these receptors to identify the outer margins of malignant brain tumors. Whereas positron emission tomography has improved the dynamic understanding of tumors, the labeled selective tumor receptors with positron emitters will enhance the ability to specifically diagnose and greatly aid in the pretreatment planning for tumors. Modulation of these receptors will also affect tumor growth and metabolism. Novel methods to deliver antitumor agents to the brain and new approaches using biologic response modifiers also hold promise to further improve the management of brain tumors. Images PMID:1848735

Black, K. L.; Mazziotta, J. C.; Becker, D. P.



Urogenital tumors  

SciTech Connect

An overview is provided for veterinary care of urogenital tumors in companion animals, especially the dog. Neoplasms discussed include tumors of the kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, testis, ovary, vagina, vulva and the canine transmissible venereal tumor. Topics addressed include description, diagnosis and treatment.

Weller, R.E.



Brain Tumor Symptoms  


... Tumors Risk Factors Brain Tumor Statistics Brain Tumor Dictionary Webinars Anytime Learning About Us Letter from the ... Factors Brain Tumor Statistics ABTA Publications Brain Tumor Dictionary Upcoming Webinars Anytime Learning Adolescent & Pediatric Brain Tumors ...


Pituitary Tumors  


... as the brain and visual pathways, and the individual’s age and overall health. Three types of treatment are used: surgical removal of the tumor; radiation therapy, in which high-dose x-rays are used to kill the tumor ...


Tumor Description  

E-print Network

Abstract—This paper used a fuzzy kohonen neural network for medical image segmentation. Image segmentation plays a important role in the many of medical imaging applications by automating or facilitating the diagnostic. The paper analyses the tumor by extraction of the features of (area, entropy, means and standard deviation).These measurements gives a description for a tumor.


Hypothalamic tumor  


... at any age, but they are often more aggressive in adults than in children. In adults, tumors ... The treatment depends on how aggressive the tumor is, and whether it is a glioma or another type of cancer. Treatment may involve combinations of surgery, radiation , ...


Bone Tumor  


... taken for other reasons, such as a sprained ankle or rotator cu? problem. Doctor Examination If you think you might have a bone tumor, see your doctor as soon as possible for diagnosis and treatment. Occasionally, infection, stress fractures, and other non-tumor conditions can closely resemble ...



E-print Network

It has been known for many years that infection of an experimental animal with one of a relatively small group of viruses somehow resulted in the appearance of gross tumors. Because of this and the known intimate relationships between the infecting virus and the functions of the cell it invades, many scientists have hypothesized that cancer in man may well be of viral etiology. Yet even today when the amount and sophistication of tumor virus research has markedly increased in recent years, it is not known how a virus transforms a normal cell to one having the properties of a tumor cell nor is there direct evidence that viruses cause cancer in man. However, in the last five years there has been a remarkable change in the experimental approach to the study of tumor viruses. Whereas most early investigations were limited to observations of biological phenomena at the whole animal-gross tumor level, now modern, virological, biochemical, and immunological methods are used to examine the quantitative interaction of tumor viruses with the single cell in the transforming event and to look for determining characteristics of the tumor virus particles, as such. This has been a logical development as techniques in these basic areas have been discovered and applied to other biological problems. Thus, although the final answers are still far from being achieved, we find that a number of basic factors of importance in viral oncogenesis have been defined in certain experimental virus-induced tumor systems. IMPORTANCE OF IN VITRO SYSTEMS FOR VIRUS TRANSFORMATION The chief reason that we are able to start formulating some tentative answers to the question of how a virus transforms a normal cell to a tumor cell is the development of tissue culture systems in which virus transformation occurs in vitro. The degree of control that these isolated systems


Glioneuronal Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Neuronal and mixed neuronal–glial tumors are thought to arise from neuroepithelial cells. According to the 2007 WHO classification,\\u000a this group of tumors comprises ganglioglioma and gangliocytoma, desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma (DIA) and ganglioglioma,\\u000a dys-plastic cerebellar gangliocytoma (Lhermitte–Duclos disease), dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT), central neurocytoma,\\u000a cerebellar liponeurocytoma (CLN), paraganglioma of the cauda equina (PCE), and the more recently recognized subtypes papillary\\u000a glion-euronal

Matthias Simon; Rudolf A. Kristof; Johannes Schramm


Childhood tumors.  


Pediatric solid tumors represent a distinct set of malignancies of embryonal origin whose incidence peaks in the first years of life. Specific genetic anomalies with pathogenic significance, which have helped to define the diagnosis better and to improve the prognosis of children with these tumors, recently have been discovered. Survival of children with solid tumors also has improved significantly because of effective multidisciplinary care, which, in this case, always involves chemotherapy and surgery. These favorable results require that children with these diseases are referred and treated at institutions that have multidisciplinary teams and the infrastructure and expertise for caring for these children. Diagnostic and therapeutic principles for the most common childhood solid tumors are discussed in this article, with an emphasis on surgical procedures. PMID:10836015

Herrera, J M; Krebs, A; Harris, P; Barriga, F



Pituitary tumor  


... pituitary tumor is an abnormal growth in the pituitary gland. This is the part of the brain that ... are never diagnosed during the person's lifetime. The pituitary gland is a pea-sized endocrine gland located at ...


Tumor Markers  


... Understanding Your Diagnosis » Exams and Test Descriptions » Tumor Markers Share this Page Close Push escape to close ... To Treatment Online Support Communities WhatNext ACS Events Making Strides Against Breast Cancer Walks Coaches vs. Cancer ...


Brain Tumors  


... brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, or malignant, with cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain ... targeted therapy. Targeted therapy uses substances that attack cancer cells without harming normal cells. Many people get ...


Tumor Types  


... and how the cells behave, from the least aggressive (benign) to the most aggressive (malignant). Some tumor types are assigned a grade, ... four distinct genetic subtypes that respond differently to aggressive therapies, making treatment extremely difficult and challenging. Parallel ...


Ear Tumors  


... Resources for Help and Information The One-Page Merck Manual of Health Medical Terms Conversion Tables Manuals available ... Perichondritis Dermatitis of the Ear Canal Ear Tumors Merck Manual > Patients & Caregivers > Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders > Outer ...


Cell Tumor  

E-print Network

Background: Intra-abdominal desmoplastic small round cell tumor is a rare malignancy with a predilection for young males. Unique histological and immunocytochemicalfeatures distinguish the tumor from other members of the family of small round cell tumors of infancy and childhood. The aggressive nature of tumor spread, relative insensitivity to chemotherapy, and generally incomplete resectability result in a very poor prognosis. The authors report a case of a 39-year-old man with diffuse abdominal and pelvic involvement of intra-abdominal desmoplastic small round cell tumor treated with aggressive chemotherapy and surgery. Methods: Computed-tomography (CT)-guided biopsy of an omental mass was performed. Histologically, discrete nests of uniform closely packed malignant cells were distributed in a background offocally desmoplastic stroma. Immunocytochemistry demonstrated positivityfor epithelial, mesenchymal, and neural markers. On the basis of these unique histological and immunohistochemical characteristics, the diagnosis of desmoplastic small round cell tumor was made. The patient was treated with aggressive neoadjuvant chemotherapy consisting of a high-dose alkylator-based combination regimen, followed by surgery. Results: The patient had a 10 to 15 percent regression in tumor mass in response to chemotherapy. Laparotomy revealed two large omental masses, another large mass adherent to the left colon and pelvic sidewall, and diaphragmatic, peritoneal and mesenteric studding with small nodules. Complete surgical resection was not possible. Conclusions: Intra-abdominal desmoplastic small round cell tumor remains an aggressive malignancy with an extremely poor prognosis. Although some response to chemotherapy may be possible, complete resection is rare, and surgical efforts are general palliative.



E-print Network

Irradiation is one of the most widely used methods in the treatment of malignant tumors, and yet the exact action of the rays is not known. The assumption has been prevalent in the past that the good results from irradiation are due to destruction of the malignant cells per se, but there are indications that the effect of the rays on the tumor bed is equally as important.2 3 8 In a previous investigation8 it was shown that when a malignant breast carcinoma was transplanted into a tumor-resistant strain of mice and irradiated, the percentage of cures was higher and the fibrous tissue stroma response was heavier than when the same tumor was transplanted into a tumor-susceptible strain and irradiated. Other investigations4 ' 5 ' ' ' have shown that when animals bearing malignant tumors are treated with bacterial toxins extensive hemorihage into the tumors occurs and is sometimes followed by their regression. This phenomenon is explained on the basis of vascular fragility which makes the rapidly growing tumor susceptible to the injected toxin. The present work was undertaken to study the effect of combining bacterial toxins and x-ray irradiation in the treatment of a transplantable mammary carcinoma in mice. Methods and results A theelin-induced carcinoma ' was transplanted into Strain A mice and observed with the same experimental methods as were described in the previous report,8 except for the addition of the bacterial toxins and the use of only a single dose of x-ray, namely, 2500 r. One group of mice was saved for controls; another group received only the toxins; a third group was irradiated; and a fourth group received both irradiation and toxin. The animals in the pres-


Brain tumors.  


The past 2 decades have witnessed a revolution in the management of childhood brain tumors, with the establishment of multidisciplinary teams and national and international consortiums that led to significant improvements in the outcomes of children with brain tumors. Unprecedented cooperation within the pediatric neuro-oncology community and sophisticated rapidly evolving technology have led to advances that are likely to revolutionize treatment strategies and improve outcomes. PMID:25435118

Chintagumpala, Murali; Gajjar, Amar



Ependymal Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ependymomas represent a heterogeneous group of glial tumors whose biological behavior depends on various histological, molecular,\\u000a and clinical variables. The scope of this chapter is to review the clinical and histo-logical features as well as the molecular\\u000a genetics of ependymomas with special emphasis on their influence on tumor recurrence and prognosis. Furthermore, potential\\u000a molecular targets for therapy are outlined.

Martin Hasselblatt


Brain and Spinal Tumors  


NINDS Brain and Spinal Tumors Information Page Synonym(s): Spinal Cord Tumors Condensed from Brain and Spinal Tumors: Hope Through ... Trials Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What are Brain and Spinal Tumors? Brain and spinal cord tumors ...


Understanding Brain Tumors  


... to Know About Brain Tumors . What is a Brain Tumor? A brain tumor is an abnormal growth? ... Tumors” from Frankly Speaking Frankly Speaking About Cancer: Brain Tumors Download the full book Questions to ask ...


Oligodendroglial tumors.  


Oligodendroglial tumors are relatively rare, comprising approximately 5% of all glial neoplasms. Oligodendroglial tumor patients have a better prognosis than those with astrocytic neoplasms, and patients with tumors that contain 1p/19q co-deletions or IDH-1 mutations appear to be particularly sensitive to treatment. In the past decade, scientists have made significant progress in the unraveling the molecular events that relate to the pathogenesis of these neoplasms. There is considerable excitement resulting from the recent reports from two large phase III randomized trials (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer [EORTC] 26951 and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group [RTOG] 9402), which disclosed that patients with newly diagnosed 1p/19q co-deleted anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors have a 7+year increase in median overall survival following chemoradiation, as compared to radiation alone. This has stimulated a renewed interest in the development of new therapeutic strategies for treatment and potential cure of oligodendroglial tumors, based on an improved scientific understanding of the molecular events involved in the pathogenesis of these neoplasms. The goal of this document is to summarize the key translational developments and recent clinical therapeutic trial data, with a correlative perspective on current and future directions. PMID:25173140

Jaeckle, Kurt A



[Temporomandibular joint primitive tumors and pseudo tumors].  


The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) can be the site of bone, cartilaginous, or synovial tumors. There is no well-defined histological classification. We listed all benign tumors, malignant primitive tumors, and rare pseudo tumors of the TMJ. We provide a list to help for the diagnosis and the differential diagnosis of non-tumoral lesions by far the most frequent. PMID:23711211

Oukabli, M; Chibani, M; Ennouali, H; Hemmaoui, B; Albouzidi, A



'Cortar na investigao como queimar  

E-print Network

Nobel da Medicina e presidente da Royal Society, o britânico vem a Portugal mostrar que ciência e bem de sempre no financiamento de bolsas pela Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia. > Como vê o? Em biologia c medicina, queremos perceber como fun- cionam os seres vivos - o que é crucial para uma

Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica


Brain Tumor Diagnosis  


... Types of Brain Scans X-rays Laboratory Tests DNA Profiling Biopsy Procedure Malignant and Benign Brain Tumors Tumor ... Types of Brain Scans X-rays Laboratory Tests DNA Profiling Biopsy Procedure Malignant and Benign Brain Tumors Tumor ...


Brain tumor - children  


... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...


Metastatic brain tumor  


Brain tumor - metastatic (secondary); Cancer - brain tumor (metastatic) ... when there is a single tumor and the cancer has not spread to other ... Chemotherapy for metastatic brain tumors is usually not as ...


Adrenal tumor.  

E-print Network

We report on a 23-year-old woman with a right adrenal tumor 13 cm in diameter who was treated by laparoscopy. The patient was asymptomatic, and the tumor was incidentally diagnosed on abdominal ultrasonography. A subsequent computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen confirmed a 12x7x8-cm homogenous mass of the right adrenal. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a solid mass measuring 13x7x7.5 cm arising from the right adrenal. Laparoscopic complete excision of the mass was accomplished through a transabdominal lateral approach. The postoperative period was uneventful, and the patient was discharged on the second postoperative day. Histology was consistent with an adrenal ganglioneuroma. Two years later, there is no evidence of recurrence on abdominal CT scan.


Retrorectal tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred twenty patients with primary retrorectal tumors (79 congenital, 14 neurogenic, 13 osseous, and 14 miscellaneous)\\u000a had their initial treatment at the Mayo Clinic from 1960 to 1979. The mean age was 43 years (100 patients were adults). Female\\u000a predominance was associated with congenital cysts (15?1) and male predominance with chordomas (5?1). Forty-three percent of\\u000a the patients had malignant

Shu-Wen Jao; Robert W. Beart; Robert J. Spencer; Herbert M. Reiman; Duane M. Ilstrup



Una investigaci de la UA avana en el diagnstic preco de l'Alzheimer mitjanant marcadors biolgics  

E-print Network

Una investigació de la UA avança en el diagnòstic precoç de l'Alzheimer mitjançant marcadors biològics Alacant, 3 de juny de 2011 Els nivells d'estrès oxidatiu són superiors en persones amb malaltia d'Alzheimer de Alzheimer y su asociación con los agentes del estrés oxidativo sistémico", investigació conjunta

Escolano, Francisco


Pancreatic islet cell tumor  


Islet cell tumors; Islet of Langerhans tumor; Neuroendocrine tumors ... In the healthy pancreas, cells called islet cells produce hormones that regulate a several bodily functions. These include blood sugar level and the production of ...


Childhood Brain Tumors  


Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...


Tumors and Pregnancy  


Tumors during pregnancy are rare, but they can happen. Tumors can be either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. The most common cancers in pregnancy are breast cancer, cervical cancer, lymphoma, and melanoma. ...



Microsoft Academic Search

El pasto Banderita (Bouteloua curtipendula) Michx. (Torr.), es una especie nativa de México, pero no se ha hecho un uso plani- ficado de su riqueza genética. Para determinar relaciones genéti- cas en 90 poblaciones nativas de Banderita, de varios Estados de México, se analizó la expresión de marcadores de polimorfismo de longitud de fragmentos amplificados (AFLP) y su consisten- cia,

Carlos Morales-Nieto; Adrián Quero-Carrillo; Olivier Le-Blanc; Alfonso Hernández-Garay; Jorge Pérez-Pérez; Sergio González-Muñoz



Uso de Marcadores Difusos para Solucionar el Problema de la Coplanaridad en la Calibracion de la Camara en 3D. Aplicacion en  

E-print Network

emparejamientos entre marcadores logrados en la etapa anterior. La SC es un proceso que implica mucho tiempo de propio proce- so. Por lo tanto, hay un fuerte inter´es en el dise~no de m´etodos autom´aticos que den

Granada, Universidad de


Como Lo Hago Yo: Myelomeningocele  

PubMed Central

Fortificación con ádico fólico es efectiva, pero aún falta conciencia en los jóvenes. La legalidad del aborto aumenta la importancia de la consulta prenatal. Realizo la cirugía bajo microcoscopio por razones didácticas. Irrigación continua para reducir la temperatura del tejido. Trato a la plaqueta como tejido viable. No suturo la plaqueta. No cierro músculo. ATB por una semana después de cirugía. Hidrocefalia: Válvula en todos los casos de ventriculomegalia. Médula anclada: Desanclar una sola vez. Chiari II: Revisar la válvula. Incluir en el seguimiento rendimiento escolar, puede indicar obstrucción de la válvula o médula anclada. PMID:24791217

Lazareff, Jorge



Monitor tumor burden with circulating tumor DNA.  


There is a need to identify better biomarkers to monitor diseases and/or assess therapeutic responses. For those with cancer, one can identify DNA fragments that contain somatic mutations originating in the tumor DNA in plasma or serum. There have been several early studies suggesting that advances in sequencing technologies will allow identification of somatic genomic alterations that can be used to monitor tumor dynamics. Dawson investigated circulating cell-free DNA carrying tumor specific alterations in patients with breast cancer. The authors compared CT imaging from 30 women with metastatic breast cancer receiving treatment, using two assays for circulating tumor DNA, CA 15-3, and CTCs. Taken the two methods together circulating tumor DNA was detected in 29 or 30 women (97%) and 115 of 141 plasma samples (82%). Circulating tumor DNA levels showed a greater dynamic range and greater correlation with changes in tumor burden than did CA 15-3 or CTC. The relatively small study showed that circulating tumor DNA has a superior sensitivity to other circulating biomarkers and a dynamic range that correlates with tumor burden. PMID:23792566

Figg, William D; Reid, Jim



Tumor Macroenvironment and Metabolism  

PubMed Central

In this review we introduce the concept of the tumor macroenvironment and explore it in the context of metabolism. Tumor cells interact with the tumor microenvironment including immune cells. Blood and lymph vessels are the critical components that deliver nutrients to the tumor and also connect the tumor to the macroenvironment. Several factors are then released from the tumor itself but potentially also from the tumor microenvironment, influencing the metabolism of distant tissues and organs. Amino acids, and distinct lipid and lipoprotein species can be essential for further tumor growth. The role of glucose in tumor metabolism has been studied extensively. Cancer-associated cachexia is the most important tumor-associated systemic syndrome and not only affects the quality of life of patients with various malignancies but is estimated to be the cause of death in 15%–20% of all cancer patients. On the other hand, systemic metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes are known to influence tumor development. Furthermore, the clinical implications of the tumor macroenvironment are explored in the context of the patient’s outcome with special consideration for pediatric tumors. Finally, ways to target the tumor macroenvironment that will provide new approaches for therapeutic concepts are described. PMID:24787299

Al-Zhoughbi, Wael; Huang, Jianfeng; Paramasivan, Ganapathy S.; Till, Holger; Pichler, Martin; Guertl-Lackner, Barbara; Hoefler, Gerald



Pediatric spinal tumors.  


Although tumors of the central nervous system in children constitute the second most prevalent tumor type of childhood, spinal cord tumors account for less than 10% of pediatric central nervous system tumors. The most common are intramedullary, although they can be found in the extradural compartment or as intradural extramedullary masses. Extradural tumors can arise from bony elements, the meninges, or soft tissues. Neuroblastomas and sarcomas are frequently encountered along with bone tumors. Intradural extramedullary tumors can be meningeal or from distant sites and include meningiomas and schwannomas; most tend to be benign. Intradural intramedullary tumors, neuronal or glial, can be derived from neuroepithelial tissues. For the intramedullary tumors, astrocytomas represent around 60% of tumors, ependymomas 30%, and developmental tumors 4%. Such tumors require a multidisciplinary approach to ensure optimal patient outcomes. Spinal cord tumors most often present with pain followed by motor regression, gait disturbance, sphincter dysfunction or sensory loss, torticollis, and kyphoscoliosis. Treatment is based on tumor type, but surgical resection is the mainstay. Predictors of outcome include the histological grading, extent of resection, and neurological status at the time of surgery. PMID:23622304

Hsu, Wesley; Jallo, George I



Posterior fossa tumor  


Posterior fossa tumor is a type of brain tumor located in or near the bottom of the ... The posterior fossa is a small space in the skull, found near the brainstem and cerebellum. The cerebellum is ...


Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation  


... in the United States are diagnosed with a brain tumor We offer emotional and educational support to ... LEARN MORE Largest non-governmental funder of childhood brain tumor research in the world We fund innovative ...


Children's Brain Tumor Foundation  


Children’s Brain Tumor Foundation, A non-profit organization, was founded in 1988 by dedicated parents, physicians and friends. Our ... and the long term outlook for children with brain and spinal cord tumors through research, support, education, ...


General Information about Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (Islet Cell Tumors)  


... the tumor and a special camera that detects radioactivity is used to show where the tumors are ... the tumor and a special camera that detects radioactivity is used to show where the tumors are ...


Vaginal endodermal sinus tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malignant germ cell tumors are rare tumors of childhood accounting less than 3% of pediatric malignancies, and endodermal\\u000a sinus tumor (EST) is the most common histological subtype. The vagina is an extremely rare site for germ cell tumors (GCT).\\u000a A one-year female was admitted with history of bleeding pervagina. She had pallor and a mass was palpable anteriorly on rectal

Vijay Kumar; Pushpa Kini; Deepti Vepakomma; M. Basant



Malignant tumors of childhood  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 34 papers about malignant tumors. some of the titles are: Invasive Cogenital Mesoblastic Nephroma, Leukemia Update, Unusual Perinatal Neoplasms, Lymphoma Update, Gonadal Germ Cell Tumors in Children, Nutritional Status and Cancer of Childhood, and Chemotherapy of Brain tumors in Children.

Brooks, B.J.



[Sex cord gonadal stromal tumors].  


According to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification from 2004, sex cord gonadal stromal tumors are divided into Leydig cell tumors, Sertoli cell tumors, granulosa cell tumors, tumors of the thecoma-fibroma group, incompletely differentiated sex cord gonadal stromal tumors, mixed forms of sex cord gonadal stromal tumors and tumors containing both germ cell and sex cord gonadal stromal elements. These tumors can appear sporadically or in combination with hereditary syndromes. To diagnose these rare tumors the combination of characteristic morphological aspects and various immunohistochemical markers is useful. Latest investigations demonstrate the potential role of mutation analyses in the diagnosis of this heterogeneous group of tumors. PMID:24819979

Bremmer, F; Behnes, C L; Radzun, H-J; Bettstetter, M; Schweyer, S



Tumor-derived exosomes  

PubMed Central

Intercellular communication is a key process in the development and progression of cancer. The dynamic and reciprocal interplays between the tumor and its microenvironment orchestrate events critical to the establishment of primary and metastatic niches and maintenance of a permissive environment at the tumor?stroma interface. Atay and colleagues found that gastrointestinal stromal tumor cells secrete vesicles known as exosomes. These exosomes contain oncogenic KIT and their transfer and uptake by surrounding smooth muscle cells lead to enhanced AKT and MAPK signaling and phenotypic modulation of several cellular processes, including morphological changes, expression of tumor-associated markers, secretion of matrix metalloproteinases, and enhanced tumor cell invasion. This provocative study emphasizes that exosome-mediated signaling within the tumor microenvironment acts as a positive feedback loop that contributes to invasiveness and that interfering with this message delivery system may represent promising therapeutic approaches, not only for GIST, but for other types of cancer. PMID:24778765

Atay, Safinur; Godwin, Andrew K



Headaches and brain tumors.  


This article overviews headache and brain tumors, particularly from the diagnostic point of view of patients presenting with headache as their major symptom. Common and uncommon brain tumors can produce headache and investigation is warranted if any red flags are present. An overview of particular tumors and their presentations are covered along with some investigative suggestions and pertinent treatment strategies for some patients. PMID:24703537

Kirby, Sarah; Purdy, R Allan



Tumor microenvironment is multifaceted  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer initiation, progression, and invasion occur in a complex and dynamic microenvironment which depends on the hosts and\\u000a sites where tumors develop. Tumors arising in mucosal tissues may progress in an inflammatory context linked to local viral\\u000a and\\/or bacterial infections. At the opposite, tumors developing in immunoprivileged sites are protected from microorganisms\\u000a and grow in an immunosuppressive environment. In the

Catherine Sautès-Fridman; Julien Cherfils-Vicini; Diane Damotte; Sylvain Fisson; Wolf Hervé Fridman; Isabelle Cremer; Marie-Caroline Dieu-Nosjean



Intraperitoneal Solitary Fibrous Tumor  

PubMed Central

Solitary fibrous tumors of the pelvis are rare. We report the case of a 32-years-old patient who presented with abdominopelvic mass. The imaging studies showed a right adnexal mass of more than 10?cm. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a 20?cm mass at the Douglas pouch which was adhered to the posterior wall of the uterus. Complete resection of the mass was performed. Histological analysis showed a spindle cell undifferentiated tumor whose morphological and immunohistochemical profile are consistent with solitary fibrous tumor. It is important to know that although these tumors are rare, their evolution can be pejorative. Therefore, long-term followup should be recommended. PMID:25276449

Benabdejlil, Youssef; Kouach, Jaouad; Babahabib, Abdellah; Elhassani, Moulay Elmehdi; Rharassi, Issam; Boudhas, Adil; Bakkali, Hicham; Elmarjany, Mohammed; Moussaoui, Driss; Dehayni, Mohamed



Aggressive malignant phyllodes tumor  

PubMed Central

Introduction Originally described in 1838 by Muller, phyllodes tumor is a rare fibroepithelial neoplasm which represents roughly 0.3–0.9% of all breast cancers. Phyllodes tumor are divided into benign, borderline and malignant histologic categories. Malignant phyllodes tumor represent anywhere from 10–30% of all phyllodes tumors. This group has both the potential to recur locally and metastasize, however not all malignant phyllodes behave this way. The challenge lays in predicting which tumor will recur locally or metastasize. Distinguishing this subset of malignant phyllodes tumor is paramount. Presentation of case We present a case of malignant phyllodes which presented with metastatic disease. What is fascinating about this case is not only the initial presentation but also the aggressiveness of this variation of phyllodes tumor. The patient initially presented with a large mass which encompassed her whole right breast. On surgical pathology the mass measured roughly 31 cm in diameter and weighed over 10 kg. Within 5 weeks from surgery the patient had suffered brain metastases and also 6 local recurrent tumors. The patient passed roughly 11 weeks after her first visit to our office. Conclusion Despite biopsy proven malignant phyllodes tumor, it was near impossible to predict such a rapid course of disease progression in our patient. Our case illustrates the unpredictable nature of this disease in general and it possibly sheds light on a variant of the disease which had undergone an aggressive transformation. PMID:25697402

Roberts, Nathan; Runk, Dianne M.



Tumor Ablation and Nanotechnology  

PubMed Central

Next to surgical resection, tumor ablation is a commonly used intervention in the treatment of solid tumors. Tumor ablation methods include thermal therapies, photodynamic therapy, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) producing agents. Thermal therapies induce tumor cell death via thermal energy and include radiofrequency, microwave, high intensity focused ultrasound, and cryoablation. Photodynamic therapy and ROS producing agents cause increased oxidative stress in tumor cells leading to apoptosis. While these therapies are safe and viable alternatives when resection of malignancies is not feasible, they do have associated limitations that prevent their widespread use in clinical applications. To improve the efficacy of these treatments, nanoparticles are being studied in combination with nonsurgical ablation regimens. In addition to better thermal effect on tumor ablation, nanoparticles can deliver anticancer therapeutics that show synergistic anti-tumor effect in the presence of heat and can also be imaged to achieve precision in therapy. Understanding the molecular mechanism of nanoparticle-mediated tumor ablation could further help engineer nanoparticles of appropriate composition and properties to synergize the ablation effect. This review aims to explore the various types of nonsurgical tumor ablation methods currently used in cancer treatment and potential improvements by nanotechnology applications. PMID:20866097

Manthe, Rachel L.; Foy, Susan P.; Krishnamurthy, Nishanth; Sharma, Blanka; Labhasetwar, Vinod




Microsoft Academic Search

Este artículo se propone abordar dos formas de elaboración de una investigación cualitativa la Entrevista y Cuestionario, describiendo algunos conceptos, definiciones, tipos y técnicas de los temas propuestas, así como su importancia para la elaboración de una investigación cualitativa.

Milton Luis Rodrigues Bresque; Cristiane Hoffmann Moreira; Paulo Ricardo Mackedanz Flores; Victória Hoffmann Moreira



Endodermal sinus tumor in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malignant germ cell tumors account for about 3% of neoplasms in children, and endodermal sinus tumor (EST) is the most common histological subtype. The authors reviewed 22 years' experience (at their institution) in the management of 37 patients with this tumor. Fifteen of them (41%) had a sacrococcygeal primary, 10 had a testicular tumor (27%), 6 had an ovarian tumor

Andrew M. Davidoff; Andre Hebra; Nancy Bunin; Stephen J. Shochat; Louise Schnaufer



Treatment Options for Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors  


... NCI Web site . Stage V Wilms Tumor and patients at high risk of developing bilateral Wilms tumor Treatment of stage V Wilms tumor may be different for each patient and may include: Combination chemotherapy to shrink the ...


Skull Base Tumors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In skull base tumors associated with a low radiosensitivity for conventional radiotherapy (RT), irradiation with proton or carbon ion beams facilitates a safe and accurate application of high tumor doses due to the favorable beam localization properties of these particle beams. Cranial nerves, the brain stem and normal brain tissue can at the same time be optimally spared.

Schulz-Ertner, Daniela


Tumor Cold Ischemia

In a recently published manuscript in the journal of Molecular and Cellular Proteomics, researchers from the National Cancer Institutes (NCI) Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) investigated the effect of cold ischemia on the proteome of fresh frozen tumors.


Hormonally active ovarian tumors.  


Steroid-hormone-producing ovarian tumors include those in which the neoplastic cells secrete hormones as well as a wide variety of tumors in which the neoplastic cells stimulate the ovarian stroma or adjacent hilus cells to become hormonally active. PMID:9474877

Scully, R E



PTEN hamartoma tumor syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PTEN hamartoma tumor syndromes (PHTS) are a collection of rare clinical syndromes characterized by germline mutations of the tumor suppressor PTEN. These syndromes are driven by cellular overgrowth, leading to benign hamartomas in virtually any organ. Cowden syndrome (CS), the prototypic PHTS syndrome, is associated with increased susceptibility to breast, thyroid, and endometrial cancer. PTEN is located on chromosome

Gideon M Blumenthal; Phillip A Dennis



Acetate dependence of tumors.  


Acetyl-CoA represents a central node of carbon metabolism that plays a key role in bioenergetics, cell proliferation, and the regulation of gene expression. Highly glycolytic or hypoxic tumors must produce sufficient quantities of this metabolite to support cell growth and survival under nutrient-limiting conditions. Here, we show that the nucleocytosolic acetyl-CoA synthetase enzyme, ACSS2, supplies a key source of acetyl-CoA for tumors by capturing acetate as a carbon source. Despite exhibiting no gross deficits in growth or development, adult mice lacking ACSS2 exhibit a significant reduction in tumor burden in two different models of hepatocellular carcinoma. ACSS2 is expressed in a large proportion of human tumors, and its activity is responsible for the majority of cellular acetate uptake into both lipids and histones. These observations may qualify ACSS2 as a targetable metabolic vulnerability of a wide spectrum of tumors. PMID:25525877

Comerford, Sarah A; Huang, Zhiguang; Du, Xinlin; Wang, Yun; Cai, Ling; Witkiewicz, Agnes K; Walters, Holly; Tantawy, Mohammed N; Fu, Allie; Manning, H Charles; Horton, Jay D; Hammer, Robert E; McKnight, Steven L; Tu, Benjamin P



Radiation therapy: orbital tumors.  


Orbital tumors are rare overall, comprising 0.1% of all tumors and less than 20% of all orbital diseases. Tumors may be benign, locally aggressive, or malignant. Of the malignant tumors, lymphomas and metastases are the most common and are primarily seen in the elderly population. While surgery and chemotherapeutic agents are often employed in the management of these lesions, not all patients are candidates for these therapies. Radiation therapy offers a noninvasive, well-tolerated primary treatment modality, whereby vision-sparing is feasible in many cases. In this chapter, we review an array of non-neoplastic entities and orbital tumors, for which there exists a role for radiation, and the radiotherapeutic techniques and applications in their management. PMID:23989130

Marwaha, Gaurav; Macklis, Roger; Singh, Arun D



Tumor microenvironment indoctrination  

PubMed Central

Nastiness of cancer does not only reside in the corruption of cancer cells by genetic aberrations that drive their sustained proliferative power—the roots of malignancy—but also in its aptitude to reciprocally sculpt its surrounding environment and cellular stromal ecosystem, in such a way that the corrupted tumor microenvironment becomes a full pro-tumorigenic entity. Such a contribution had been appreciated three decades ago already, with the discovery of tumor angiogenesis and extracellular matrix remodeling. Nevertheless, the recent emergence of the tumor microenvironment as the critical determinant in cancer biology is paralleled by the promising therapeutic potential it carries, opening alternate routes to fight cancer. The study of the tumor microenvironment recruited numerous lead-scientists over the years, with distinct perspectives, and some of them have kindly accepted to contribute to the elaboration of this special issue entitled Tumor microenvironment indoctrination: An emerging hallmark of cancer. PMID:22863738



Method of treating tumors  


A method of treating tumors, such as prostate tumors, breast tumors, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and the like, includes the sequential steps of administering to the patient at least one dose of an antiangiogenic cyclo-arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-containing pentapeptide (cRGD pentapeptide); administering to the patient an anti-tumor effective amount of a radioimmunotherapeutic agent (RIT); and then administering to the patient at least one additional dose of cRGD pentapeptide. The cRGD pentapeptide is preferably cyclo-(Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe-[N-Me]-Val), and the RIT is preferably a radionuclide-labeled chelating agent-ligand complex in which chelating agent is chemically bonded to a tumor-targeting molecule, such as a monoclonal antibody.

DeNardo, Sally J.; Burke, Patricia A.; DeNardo, Gerald L.; Goodman, Simon; Matzku, Siegfried



Gastrointestinal Neuroendocrine Tumors: Pancreatic Endocrine Tumors  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) have long fascinated clinicians and investigators despite their relative rarity. Their clinical presentation varies depending upon whether the tumor is functional or not and also according to the specific hormonal syndrome produced. Tumors may be sporadic or inherited but little is known about their molecular pathology, especially the sporadic forms. Chromogranin A appears to be the most useful serum marker for diagnosis, staging and monitoring. Initially, therapy should be directed at the hormonal syndrome as this has the major initial impact on the patient's health. Most PETs are relatively indolent but ultimately malignant, except for insulinomas which are predominantly benign. Surgery is the only modality that offers the possibility of cure although it is generally noncurative in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome or nonfunctional PETs with MEN1. Preoperative staging of disease extent is necessary to determine the likelihood of complete resection though debulking surgery is often felt to be useful in unresectable patients. Once metastatic, biotherapy is usually the first modality employed because it is generally well tolerated. Systemic or regional therapies are generally reserved until symptoms occur or tumor growth is rapid. Recently a number of newer agents, as well as receptor-directed radiotherapy, are being evalulated for patients with advanced disease. This review addresses a number of recent advances regarding the molecular pathology, diagnosis, localization and management of PETs including discussion of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy and other novel antitumor approaches. We conclude with a discussion of future directions and unsettled problems in the field. PMID:18703061

Metz, David C.



Stages of Adult Brain Tumors  


... no standard staging system for adult brain and spinal cord tumors. The extent or spread of cancer is ... is no standard staging system for brain and spinal cord tumors . Brain tumors that begin in the brain ...


Radiofrequency Ablation of Lung Tumors  


... or radiation therapy may eliminate the remaining tumor cells. RFA very effectively destroys the central part of a tumor—the area that tends not to respond well to radiotherapy. If a tumor recurs in the same region, ...


Radiology of the spine: Tumors  

SciTech Connect

This book deals with tumors of the spinal cord and various aspects of primary and secondary osseous tumors of the spine. Included in discussion are tumors, chordoma hemangioma, vascular malformation and the terms angioma and hemangiomas.

Jeanmart, L.



Cirugía transnasal endoscópica para tumores de hipófisis  

PubMed Central

Introducción: Exponer la técnica utilizada y los resultados obtenidos en los primeros 52 pacientes portadores de tumores hipofisarios tratados por la vía endoscópica transnasal en el Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires Métodos: Se llevó a cabo un análisis retrospectivo de 52 cirugías endoscópicas transnasales utilizadas en el tratamiento de tumores hipofisários. Las mismas fueron realizadas en el Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires durante el período junio del 2011 a junio del 2012. Se analizaron las características demográficas de los pacientes, la patología de base y la morbimortalidad asociada a la cirugía. Resultados: La edad media de los pacientes fue de 41,52 años con un rango de 18-79. La distribución fue similar entre hombres y mujeres. Las patologías más frecuentes fueron: adenomas no funcionantes (40.4%), tumores productores de GH/Acromegalia (25%) y tumores productores de ACTH/Enfermedad de Cushing (23.1%). Aproximadamente el 70 % correspondieron a macroadenomas. Sólo un paciente presentó complicaciones. No se registro ningún óbito. Conclusión: Si bien podremos objetivar fehacientemente resultados más concluyentes en futuros trabajos, podemos decir a priori que, en la endoscopía el detalle anatómico es claramente superior al microscópico y que la posibilidad de la introducción del endoscopio en la silla turca permite la visualización directa de remanentes tumorales, de sitios de fístula y como así también de la glándula normal, ventajas que potencialmente podrían permitir obtener mejores resultados quirúrgicos, en términos de control de la enfermedad y tasa de complicaciones. PMID:23596553

Ajler, Pablo; Hem, Santiago; Goldschmidt, Ezequiel; Landriel, Federico; Campero, Alvaro; Yampolsky, Claudio; Carrizo, Antonio



Rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome.  


Rhabdoid tumors (RT), or malignant rhabdoid tumors, are among the most aggressive and lethal forms of human cancer. They can arise in any location in the body but are most commonly observed in the brain, where they are called atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT), and in the kidneys, where they are called rhabdoid tumors of the kidney. The vast majority of rhabdoid tumors present with a loss of function in the SMARCB1 gene, also known as INI1, BAF47, and hSNF5, a core member of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex. Recently, mutations in a 2nd locus of the SWI/SNF complex, the SMARCA4 gene, also known as BRG1, were found in rhabdoid tumors with retention of SMARCB1 expression. Familial cases may occur in a condition known as rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome (RTPS). In RTPS, germline inactivation of 1 allele of a gene occurs. When the mutation occurs in the SMARCB1 gene, the syndrome is called RTPS1, and when the mutation occurs in the SMARCA4 gene it is called RTPS2. Children presenting with RTPS tend to develop tumors at a younger age, but the impact that germline mutation has on survival remains unclear. Adults who carry the mutation tend to develop multiple schwannomas. The diagnosis of RTPS should be considered in patients with RT, especially if they have multiple primary tumors, and/or in individuals with a family history of RT. Because germline mutations result in an increased risk of carriers developing RT, genetic counseling for families with this condition is recommended. PMID:25494491

Sredni, Simone T; Tomita, Tadanori



Laryngeal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor.  


Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor seldom involves the larynx, as only about 50 to 60 cases have been described in the literature. Even though these tumors are often not aggressive, they have the potential for invasion and local recurrence. We describe the case of a 27-year-old man who was admitted to an emergency department with signs of upper airway obstruction secondary to an obstructive mass. Histology identified the mass as an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the subglottis. The patient underwent an emergency tracheotomy followed by a partial laryngectomy. During 14 months of follow-up, he remained free of active disease. PMID:25531846

Girardi, Fábio M; Fontana, Ciro W; Kroef, Ricardo G; Barra, Marinez B; Detânico, Felipe O; Herter, Nilton T



Targeting the tumor microenvironment  

PubMed Central

Despite some notable successes cancer remains, for the most part, a seemingly intractable problem. There is, however, a growing appreciation that targeting the tumor epithelium in isolation is not sufficient as there is an intricate mutually sustaining synergy between the tumor epithelial cells and their surrounding stroma. As the details of this dialogue emerge, new therapeutic targets have been proposed. The FDA has already approved drugs targeting microenvironmental components such as VEGF and aromatase and many more agents are in the pipeline. In this article, we describe some of the “druggable” targets and processes within the tumor microenvironment and review the approaches being taken to disrupt these interactions. PMID:17485314

Kenny, Paraic A.; Lee, Genee Y.; Bissell, Mina J.



Targeting the tumor microenvironment  

SciTech Connect

Despite some notable successes cancer remains, for the most part, a seemingly intractable problem. There is, however, a growing appreciation that targeting the tumor epithelium in isolation is not sufficient as there is an intricate mutually sustaining synergy between the tumor epithelial cells and their surrounding stroma. As the details of this dialogue emerge, new therapeutic targets have been proposed. The FDA has already approved drugs targeting microenvironmental components such as VEGF and aromatase and many more agents are in the pipeline. In this article, we describe some of the 'druggable' targets and processes within the tumor microenvironment and review the approaches being taken to disrupt these interactions.

Kenny, P.A.; Lee, G.Y.; Bissell, M.J.



Metabolic control of tumor progression and anti-tumor immunity  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Loss of cell growth control does not explain why tumors form as the immune system recognizes many malignant cells and keeps them in check. The local inflammatory microenvironment is a pivotal factor in tumor formation as tumor associated inflammation actively suppresses anti-tumor immunity. The purpose of this review is to evaluate emerging evidence that amino acid catabolism is a key feature of tumor-associated inflammation that supports tumor progression and immune resistance to therapy. Recent findings Enhanced amino acid catabolism in inflammatory tumor microenvironments correlates with carcinogen resistance and immune regulation mediated by tumor-associated immune cells that protect tumors from natural and vaccine-induced immunity. Interfering with metabolic pathways exploited by tumors is a promising anti-tumor strategy, especially when combined with other therapies. Moreover, molecular sensors that evolved to detect pathogens may enhance evasion of immune surveillance to permit tumor progression. Summary Innate immune sensing that induces amino acid catabolism in tumor microenvironments may be pivotal in initiating and sustaining local inflammation that promotes immune resistance and attenuates anti-tumor immunity. Targeting molecular sensors that mediate these metabolic changes may be an effective strategy to enhance anti-tumor immunity that prevents tumor progression, as well as improving the efficacy of cancer therapy. PMID:24305570

Huang, Lei; Mellor, Andrew L.



Mechanics in Tumor Growth 1 Mechanics in Tumor Growth  

E-print Network

Mechanics in Tumor Growth 1 1 Mechanics in Tumor Growth L. Graziano Polytechnic of Turin Department Torino, Italy Abstract. This chapter focuses on the mechanical aspects of tumor growth. After describing some of the main feature of tumor growth and in particular the phenomena involving stress

Preziosi, Luigi


Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors.  


Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors (UTROSCT) are rare neoplasms of unknown etiology. Only 67 cases have been reported in the literature, to our knowledge, so far. The neoplasm usually occurs in middle-aged women. Most patients present with abnormal uterine bleeding and/or abdominal pain, along with an enlarged uterus or a palpable uterine mass. There is no specific imaging finding, and the diagnosis is made exclusively on histopathologic examination. A multitude of architectural patterns are described, which include plexiform cords, anastomosing trabeculae, watered-silk, microfollicle, macrofollicle, tubules, retiform, solid cellular islands, and diffuse pattern of growth. The neoplastic cells are usually small with round to ovoid nuclei, nuclear monotony, mild nuclear hyperchromasia, and inconspicuous nucleoli with scant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Nuclear grooves are rare. Mitotic figures are infrequent, and necrosis is mostly absent. This tumor depicts a diverse immunohistochemical profile with expression of sex cord, epithelial, and smooth muscle lineages markers. Sex cord markers, such as inhibin, calretinin, CD99, WT1, and MART-1; epithelial markers, such as pancytokeratin and epithelial membrane antigen; smooth muscle markers, such as smooth muscle actin, desmin, and histone deacetylase 8; and miscellaneous markers, such as CD10, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, S100, and CD117, are often coexpressed. Immunoexpression for calretinin and at least for one of the other sex cord markers is required to establish a diagnosis of UTROSCT. Hysterectomy with or without bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is usually the treatment for UTROSCT. Although most UTROSCTs behave benignly, some do recur, and thus, this entity should be considered as a tumor of low malignant potential. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge on UTROSCT and its clinical relevance. PMID:24283865

Pradhan, Dinesh; Mohanty, Sambit K



Liver Tumors (For Parents)  


... is not due to alcoholism), Fanconi's anemia (a disease of the bone marrow), or infection with hepatitis B or C. Continue Symptoms Early on, a child with a benign or malignant liver tumor might have few symptoms — or none at ...


Skin tumors on squirrels  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Skin tumors having the gross appearance of previously reported fibromas are reported on gray squirrels from N. Y., Md., Va., N. C., and W. Va. and from a fox squirrel from W. Va. and a porcupine from Pa.

Herman, C.M.; Reilly, J.R.



Brain Tumor Statistics  


... Our Financials Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Council Leadership News Press Releases Headlines Newsletter ABTA E-News ... Financials Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Council & Reviewers Leadership News Careers Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain ...


Overview of Heart Tumors  


... the heart's muscle cells. Rhabdomyomas commonly develop during infancy or childhood, often as part of a rare ... all are rare. Some are cancerous and some benign. Tumors that originate in some other part of the ...


Allogeneic tumor cell vaccines  

PubMed Central

The high mortality rate associated with cancer and its resistance to conventional treatments such as radiation and chemotherapy has led to the investigation of a variety of anti-cancer immunotherapies. The development of novel immunotherapies has been bolstered by the discovery of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), through gene sequencing and proteomics. One such immunotherapy employs established allogeneic human cancer cell lines to induce antitumor immunity in patients through TAA presentation. Allogeneic cancer immunotherapies are desirable in a clinical setting due to their ease of production and availability. This review aims to summarize clinical trials of allogeneic tumor immunotherapies in various cancer types. To date, clinical trials have shown limited success due potentially to extensive degrees of inter- and intra-tumoral heterogeneity found among cancer patients. However, these clinical results provide guidance for the rational design and creation of more effective allogeneic tumor immunotherapies for use as monotherapies or in combination with other therapies. PMID:24064957

Srivatsan, Sanjay; Patel, Jaina M; Bozeman, Erica N; Imasuen, Imade E; He, Sara; Daniels, Danielle; Selvaraj, Periasamy



Brain Tumor Risk Factors  


... tumors, a mutation, or change in the DNA sequence that makes up a specific gene, is passed ... 22 are most frequently found in meningiomas. If multiple members of your family have been diagnosed with ...


Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics  


... Statistics Request Permissions Print to PDF Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 04/ ... nodes or distant parts of the body. Survival statistics should be interpreted with caution. These estimates are ...


[Atypical tumor regression].  


A 67-year-old man presented with a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus diagnosed by biopsy. After neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy the gastroesophagectomy specimen showed diffuse polymorphic and anuclear cell residues ranging from 35 µm to 46 µm in size. Immunohistochemically, PanCK and AE1-3 revealed a positive staining while CD68 and MIB1 showed a negative staining. The retrospective anamnesis revealed that the patient had chronic polyarthritis as underlying illness, for which reason he had been taking humira and methotrexate, a cytostatic drug, for many years. Therefore, the development of the tumor might have been enhanced by these drugs. Electron microscopic analysis confirmed that the avital akaryote cell residues represented a special type of tumor regression. Complete tumor regression level IV without vital rest tumor tissue based on Baldus et al. was diagnosed. PMID:24154755

Heitplatz, B; Müller, K-M



Tumor Glycome Labs 2

Tumor Glycomics Laboratories of the NIH Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer The National Cancer Institute is funding an initiative to discover, develop, and clinically validate cancer biomarkers based on complex carbohydrate structures


Tumor Microenvironment Consortium

Tumor Microenvironment Network (TMEN) Dinah Singer, Ph.D. Director Suresh Mohla, Ph.D. TMEN Program Director Division of Cancer Biology TMEN 2006-2011: Goals – Generate a comprehensive understanding of the composition of the normal stroma


Osteochondroma (Bone Tumor)  


... knee shows a typical pedunculated osteochondroma on the femur. (Right) This x-ray of the shoulder taken ... orthopaedic oncologist). Osteochondroma cont. Several tumors in the femur and tibia are apparent in this x-ray ...


Lung Carcinoid Tumor: Surgery  


... will increase the risk of the carcinoid tumor spreading even farther, to other organs. If this happens, ... can’t have major surgery because you have reduced lung function or other serious medical problems, or ...


Antiterrorismo como poltica exterior EDWARD N. LUTTWAK*  

E-print Network

desde mediados del siglo XIX, cuando la amenaza transnacional procedía de revolucionarios liberales, en alianza. India estaba dispuesta y deseosa, por supuesto. Su amenaza implícita obligaba a Pakistán a evitar China, como para Rusia e India, resultó ser la amenaza islámica: se han puesto bombas en autobuses de

Bilbao Arrese, Jesús Mario


ARTIGO INTERNET Fazer computadores "ver como humanos"  

E-print Network

ARTIGO INTERNET Fazer computadores "ver como humanos" in Data: 2011-8-28 Link computador -- continua a fascinar-me todos os dias, pela parte tecnológica e pelas suas profundas implicações

Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica


Imaging of Neuroendocrine Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) arise from amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation (APUD) cells throughout the nervous and\\u000a endocrine systems, which produce and secrete regulatory hormones. NETs commonly originate in: (1) argentaffin cells of the\\u000a gut, resulting in carcinoid tumors, (2) endocrine cells in the pancreas, (3) calcitonin-producing thyroid cells, resulting\\u000a in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), and (4) parathyroid, adrenal, and pituitary

Piyaporn Boonsirikamchai; Mohamed Khalaf Aly Asran; Chusilp Charnsangavej


[Angiogenesis in cartilage tumors].  


In contrast to normal cartilage, which is avascular, angiogenesis is characteristic of cartilage tumors. In this review, we outline the basic principles of angiogenesis with regard to recent findings on differential morphological and molecular aspects of angiogenesis in cartilage tumors, including enchondromas, conventional chondrosarcomas and dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas. Furthermore, we describe the effects of hypoxia and interleukin-1? on angiogenic signaling in chondrosarcoma cells. PMID:20661574

Kalinski, T; Roessner, A



Choroid Plexus Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Choroid plexus tumors (CPTs) are rare, primary brain tumors arising from the neuroepithelium of the choroid plexus. Although\\u000a they may be found in patients of any age, the vast majority occur in the pediatric population. Up to 70% of these neoplasms\\u000a occur in children, with over half arising in children under 2 years of age [39]. The annual incidence for

Paul Kongkham; James T. Rutka


Radiology of juxtaglomerular tumors  

SciTech Connect

Nine cases of proven juxtaglomerular tumor of the kidney are reviewed. Each patient presented with hypertension; elevated peripheral renin levels were found in four patients. As in past studies, this tumor occurred more frequently in women (7/9 cases). Although the patients tended to be younger (mean age, 31 years) than those with essential hypertension, all but two patients were more than 20 years of age. In all cases, the tumor was solitary, well-defined, and curable by surgery. The tumor was identified by excretory urography in 5/8 patients who underwent this procedure. A solid renal mass was detected in each of the seven patients examined by ultrasound. Since the tumor tends to be isodense with normal renal parenchyma, it is sometimes not seen on computed tomography without intravenouse contrast material. Arteriography revealed a hypovascular mass in each of the nine patients. The combination of a hypovascular solid renal mass in a patient with elevated renin but no renal artery lesions should suggest the diagnosis of a juxtaglomerular cell tumor.

Dunnick, N.R. (Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC); Hartman, D.S.; Ford, K.K.; Davis, C.J. Jr.; Amis, E.S. Jr.



Molecular pathogenesis of oligodendroglial tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on their histopathological appearances, most diffusely infiltrative gliomas can be classified either as astrocytic tumors (As), pure oligodendroglial tumors (Os) or mixed oligoastrocytic tumors (OAs). The latter two may be grouped together as oligodendroglial tumors (OTs). The distinction between As and OTs is important because of the more favorable clinical behavior of OTs. Unfortunately, the histopathological delineation of OAs,

Judith W. M. Jeuken; Andreas Von Deimling; Pieter Wesseling



Pediatric brain tumor cell lines.  


Pediatric brain tumors as a group, including medulloblastomas, gliomas, and atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRT) are the most common solid tumors in children and the leading cause of death from childhood cancer. Brain tumor-derived cell lines are critical for studying the biology of pediatric brain tumors and can be useful for initial screening of new therapies. Use of appropriate brain tumor cell lines for experiments is important, as results may differ depending on tumor properties, and can thus affect the conclusions and applicability of the model. Despite reports in the literature of over 60 pediatric brain tumor cell lines, the majority of published papers utilize only a small number of these cell lines. Here we list the approximately 60 currently-published pediatric brain tumor cell lines and summarize some of their central features as a resource for scientists seeking pediatric brain tumor cell lines for their research. PMID:25211508

Xu, Jingying; Margol, Ashley; Asgharzadeh, Shahab; Erdreich-Epstein, Anat



Pancreatic endocrine tumors.  


Pancreatic endocrine tumors have been steadily growing in incidence and prevalence during the last two decades, showing an incidence of 4-5/1,000,000 population. They represent a heterogeneous group with very varying tumor biology and prognosis. About half of the patients present clinical symptoms and syndromes related to substances released from the tumors (Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, insulinoma, glucagonoma, etc) and the other half are so-called nonfunctioning tumors mainly presenting with symptoms such as obstruction, jaundice, bleeding, and abdominal mass. Ten percent to 15% of the pancreatic endocrine tumors are part of an inherited syndrome such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1), von Hippel-Lindau (VHL), neurofibromatosis, or tuberousclerosis. The diagnosis is based on histopathology demonstrating neuroendocrine features such as positive staining for chromogranin A and specific hormones such as gastrin, proinsulin, and glucagon. Moreover, the biochemical diagnosis includes measurement of chromogranins A and B or specific hormones such as gastrin, insulin, glucagon, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the circulation. In addition to standard localization procedures, radiology (computed tomography [CT] scan, magnetic resonance imaging [MRI], ultrasound [US]), somatostatin receptor scintigraphy, and most recently positron emission tomography with specific isotopes such as (11)C-5 hydroxytryptamin ((11)C-5-HTP), fluorodopa and (68)Ga-1,4,7,10-tetra-azacyclododecane-N,N',N?,N?-tetra-acetic acid (DOTA)-octreotate are performed. Surgery is still one of the cornerstones in the management of pancreatic endocrine tumors, but curative surgery is rarely obtained in most cases because of metastatic disease. Debulking and other cytoreductive procedures might facilitate systemic treatment. Cytotoxic drugs, biological agents, such as somatostatin analogs, alpha interferons, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors and tyrosine kinase inhibitors are routinely used. Tumor-targeted radioactive treatment is available in many centres in Europe and is effective in patients with tumors that express high content of somatostatin receptors type 2 and 5. In the future, treatment will be based on tumor biology and molecular genetics with the aim of so-called personalized medicine. PMID:21167379

Oberg, Kjell



of Gastric Submucosal Tumor  

E-print Network

Purpose: Laparoscopic wedge resection of gastric submucosal tumor may be difficult in case of the endophytic mass or the mass located unreachable area such as cardia, and intragastric approach can be useful. We would present the experiences of the intragastric wedge resection. Materials and Methods: There were 7 patients diagnosed as gastric submucosal tumor and underwent the intragastric wedge resection at Surgery, Chungnam National University Hospital. We reviewed medical record. Results: There were 3 male and 4 female. Mean age was 65 years-old (57~73). Mean body mass index was 26.28 kg/m 2 (21.28~35.30). Location of lesions was 4 cardia, 2 fundus and 1 midbody, respectively. Mean operation time was 83.6 minutes (70~105). All patients were healed without any complication. Mean postoperative hospital stay was 5.4 days (4~6). Mean size was 2.7 cm (2.3~3.8). Pathologic finding was 5 gastrointestinal stromal tumor and 2 leiomyoma. Conclusions: The single incision intragastric wedge resection of gastric submucosal tumor is feasible and acceptable, especially in mass of gastric upper part. Key Words: Laparoscopy; Surgical procedures, minimally invasive; Gastrointestinal stromal tumors; Gastrectomy; Stomach neoplasms


Mesenteric inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs), also known as inflammatory pseudotumors and inflammatory fibrosarcomas, are uncommon mesenchymal tumors composed of myofibroblastic spindle cells admixed with lymphocytes, plasma cells and eosinophils. Once thought to be reactive, these lesions are now considered to be neoplastic. These tumors can occur throughout the body, most commonly in the lung, mesentery and omentum. Patients commonly present with painless abdominal mass or with intestinal obstruction. IMTs may be multicentric, have a high local recurrence rate and may metastasize in rare cases. The lesions show wide variability in their histologic features and cellularity, and marked inflammatory infiltration, predominantly of plasmatocytes and lymphocytes, and occasionally neutrophils and eosinophils. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements and/or ALK1 and p80 immunoreactivity are reported in 33-67% of the tumors. Owing to the rarity of these lesions, there are no specific imaging findings that distinguish IMTs from other mesenteric masses. Complete surgical resection is the treatment of choice. Local recurrence rates are high, and re-excision is the preferred therapy for local recurrences. ALK-positive tumors show good response to ALK inhibitors. Current knowledge and comprehensive review of the available literature on IMTs is herein presented. PMID:25608706

Chaudhary, Poras



Ossifying plexiform tumor.  


We report a rare case of ossifying plexiform tumor in a 64-year-old female. The patient had a 2-year history of gradual hardening of the right thumb pad and pain that radiated up the forearm. Physical examination showed a tender, mobile 2-cm subcutaneous nodule distending the tip of the right thumb. The biopsy specimen showed a well-delineated tumor with multiple lobules of epithelioid and spindled cells arranged in a plexiform pattern separated by fibrous bands and having foci of bone formation. The neoplastic cells had scant-to-moderate amphophilic cytoplasm with mild nuclear pleomorphism in a myxocollagenous background. No necrosis, mitoses or cytological atypicia were seen. The osteocytes present in the bone islands were bland, with occasional rimming osteoblasts. X-ray showed stippled calcification in the soft tissue of the distal thumb without involvement of the phalanx. The patient is tumor free for 1 year after complete local excision. Only three cases of ossifying plexiform tumor have been reported. All previous cases and the current case presented as subcutaneous nodules on hand digits of females, measuring 1-2 cm in greatest dimension. Ossifying plexiform tumor appears to be a benign neoplasm with no reports of progression or metastasis. PMID:25407793

Lee, Solomon S; Baker, Brian L; Gapp, Joshua D G; Rosenberg, Andrew E; Googe, Paul B



Percutaneous bone tumor management.  


Interventional radiology plays a major role in the management of bone tumors. Many different percutaneous techniques are available. Some aim to treat pain and consolidate a pathological bone (cementoplasty); others aim to ablate tumor or reduce its volume (sclerotherapy, thermal ablation). In this article, image-guided techniques of primary and secondary bone tumors with vertebroplasty, ethanol injection, radiofrequency ablation, laser photocoagulation, cryoablation, and radiofrequency ionization (coblation) will be reviewed. For each modality, the principles, the indications, and the results will be presented. The technical choice depends on the therapeutic intent-curative or palliative-and the need for consolidation, but also on the general status of the patient and the other therapeutic options. For the most complex cases, combined treatments can be required. However, the less disabling technique should always be considered first. PMID:21629402

Gangi, Afshin; Buy, Xavier



Tumor-induced osteomalacia  

PubMed Central

Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is an acquired disorder of isolated renal phosphate wasting associated with tumors, typically of mesenchymal origin. Patients with TIO share similar biochemical and skeletal phenotypes with patients who have autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (ADHR) and X-linked hypophosphatemia. The study of TIO introduced the idea of the existence of circulating factors, referred to as ‘phosphatonins’, produced by the tumor, which act upon the kidney to reduce phosphate reabsorption. Although several factors have been identified, the phosphatonin FGF-23, also identified as the causative factor in ADHR, is currently the best characterized of these factors relative to phosphate handling. This review describes the importance of TIO in understanding phosphate homeostasis in the context of new endocrine interactions between the skeleton and the kidney. PMID:20228870

Farrow, Emily G; White, Kenneth E



Gastrointestinal stromal tumor  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal stromal tumor has received a lot of attention over the last 10 years due to its unique biologic behavior, clinicopathological features, molecular mechanisms, and treatment implications. GIST is the most common mesenchymal neoplasm in the gastrointestinal tract and has emerged from a poorly understood and treatment resistant neoplasm to a well-defined tumor entity since the discovery of particular molecular abnormalities, KIT and PDGFRA gene mutations. The understanding of GIST biology at the molecular level promised the development of novel treatment modalities. Diagnosis of GIST depends on the integrity of histology, immunohistochemistry and molecular analysis. The risk assessment of the tumor behavior relies heavily on pathological evaluation and significantly impacts clinical management. In this review, historic review, epidemiology, pathogenesis and genetics, diagnosis, role of molecular analysis, prognostic factor and treatment strategies have been discussed. PMID:22943011

Yue, Changjun



Radioembolization of hepatic tumors  

PubMed Central

Unresectable primary and metastatic liver tumors are a leading cause of cancer mortality and morbidity. This remains a challenging and key task for every oncologist despite significant advances that have been made with selective targeted systemic agents and in technology advances with radiotherapy delivery. Radioembolization (RE) is a technique of permanently implanting microspheres containing Yttrium-90 (90Y), a beta-emitting isotope with a treatment range of 2 mm, into hepatic tumors. This form of brachytherapy utilizes the unique dual vascular anatomy of the liver to preferentially deliver radioactive particles via the hepatic artery to tumor, sparing normal liver parenchyma. The main treatment inclusion criteria are patients with solid tumors, compensated liver functions, life expectancy of at least three months, and ECOG performance status 0-2. Benefit of RE has been proven in patients that have low-to-moderate extrahepatic disease burden, prior liver radiotherapy, heavy prior chemotherapy and biologic agent exposure, and history of hepatic surgery or ablation. Most of the clinical evidence is reported in metastatic colorectal, and neuroendocrine tumors (NET), and primary hepatocellular cancer. A growing body of data supports the use of RE in hepatic metastatic breast cancer, intrahepatic cholangiocarinoma, and many other metastatic tumor types. Side effects are typically mild constitutional and GI issues limited to the first 7-14 days post treatment, with only 6% grade 3 toxicity reported in large series. Potentially serious or fatal radiation induced liver disease is extremely rare, reported in only 1% or fewer in major series of both metastatic and primary tumors treated with RE. Currently, high priority prospective clinical trials are testing RE combined with chemotherapy in first line therapy for colorectal hepatic metastases, and combined with sorafenib for hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Fortunately, this beneficial and now widely available therapy is being increasingly incorporated into the standard therapy algorithms of multidisciplinary GI cancer teams worldwide. This form of radiotherapy differs significantly from daily external beam radiotherapy in many ways, particularly in dose rate, dosimetric coverage and duration of radiation delivery, side effects, and patient selection factors. A wealth of experience using RE in solid tumors exists and ongoing major prospective clinical trials will soon clarify the role of RE in the management of metastatic colorectal liver metastases. PMID:24982766



[Gemcitabine and urogenital tumors].  


Among genito-urinary tumors, gemcitabine has only got the marketing approval for advanced urothelial cancer. The combination of gemcitabine and cisplatin has been shown to be a new standard of treatment in this disease because of equal efficacy and lesser toxicity as compared to the classic M-VAC protocol which includes methotrexate, vinblastin, doxorubicin and cisplatin. However new trials are required with the aim of improving survival, especially in the adjuvant setting after cystectomy. The role of gemcitabine in other tumors of the genito-urinary tract has to be determined. PMID:12449039

Culine, Stéphane



Gluteal tumoral calcinosis.  


Tumoral calcinosis is an extremely rare benign condition that is characterised by deposits of calcium hydroxyapatite crystals in periarticular soft tissues. Although it is mainly located around large joints such as the hips, shoulders and elbows, it may also involve the small joints of hand and wrist. There are multiple types of tumoral calcinosis with divergent clinical characteristics but the exact cause is still unknown. We present a literature review to evaluate the location, clinical features, treatment options and results of surgical excision in this condition. Wide resection appears to lead to a good clinical outcome and a low incidence of local relapse. PMID:23233180

Del Bravo, Valentina; Liuzza, Francesco; Perisano, Carlo; Chalidis, Byron; Marzetti, Emanuele; Colelli, Pamela; Maccauro, Giulio



Brain tumors and epilepsy.  


When treating patients harboring a brain tumor, it is mandatory to integrate the dogmas of epilepsy into a neuro-oncological viewpoint. The frequency of seizures differs widely between low- and high-grade tumors because of different mechanisms of epileptogenesis. The modern theories of pathological neural networks, especially in low-grade gliomas, can provide the key for an in-depth understanding of the principles of connectionism that underline both seizures, cognitive impairment and plasticity. It is a consuetude that principles of general management of patients with nontumor-related epilepsy are applied to neuro-oncology. Nevertheless, since tumors are complex evolving lesions requiring a multidisciplinary treatment approach (surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy), it is mandatory to have a comprehensive view of the natural history of each lesion when choosing the best antiepileptic drug. More than two thirds of patients with brain tumors and medically intractable epilepsy benefit from (sub)total surgical resection. Therefore, these patients are good surgical candidates both for oncological and epileptological considerations, in order to change the natural history of the lesion and to improve the quality of life at the same time. However, 15% of patients still have intractable medical seizures after surgery. Moreover, the insula may participate more often than usually considered in (intractable) seizures. Therefore, in these patients, invasive EEG recordings and eventually a second epilepsy surgery might be proposed. PMID:18505359

Brogna, Christian; Gil Robles, Santiago; Duffau, Hugues



Induced by the Tumor?  

E-print Network

Cholangiocarcinoma is a predominantly fatal cancer, which can be difficult to treat. It has been reported that the administration of pioglitazone temporarily improved not only diabetic control, but also bile duct carcinoma-induced cholangiohepatitis. Pioglitazone is considered to have both direct and indirect mechanisms of action on the tumor-related hepatitis. Several molecules induced by thiazolidinedione, including Smad pathway-related molecules, adipokines, and other lipid metabolismrelated proteins, may directly or indirectly suppress tumor development and/or tumor-induced cholangiohepatitis. Although the most frequent and critical side effect of thiazolidinedione is drug-induced hepatitis, it can probably be avoided by careful monitoring of serum hepatic enzyme levels. Thiazolidinedione should be considered for management of tumor-induced hepatitis in the presence of diabetes unless severe side effects occur. Copyright © 2008 S. Suzuki and K. Hashizume. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 1.



Pathogenesis of pituitary tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pituitary adenomas may hypersecrete hormones (including prolactin, growth hormone and adrenocorticotropic hormone, and rarely follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone or TSH) or may be nonfunctional. Despite their high prevalence in the general population, these tumors are invariably benign and exhibit features of differentiated pituitary cell function as well as premature proliferative arrest. Pathogenesis of dysregulated pituitary cell proliferation and unrestrained hormone

Shlomo Melmed



Tumor-induced osteomalacia  

PubMed Central

Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare and fascinating paraneoplastic syndrome in which patients present with bone pain, fractures, and muscle weakness. The cause is high blood levels of the recently identified phosphate and vitamin D-regulating hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). In TIO, FGF23 is secreted by mesenchymal tumors that are usually benign, but are typically very small and difficult to locate. FGF23 acts primarily at the renal tubule and impairs phosphate reabsorption and 1?-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, leading to hypophosphatemia and low levels of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D. A step-wise approach utilizing functional imaging (F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and octreotide scintigraphy) followed by anatomical imaging (computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging), and, if needed, selective venous sampling with measurement of FGF23 is usually successful in locating the tumors. For tumors that cannot be located, medical treatment with phosphate supplements and active vitamin D (calcitriol or alphacalcidiol) is usually successful; however, the medical regimen can be cumbersome and associated with complications. This review summarizes the current understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease and provides guidance in evaluating and treating these patients. Novel imaging modalities and medical treatments, which hold promise for the future, are also reviewed. PMID:21490240

Chong, William H; Molinolo, Alfredo A; Chen, Clara C; Collins, Michael T



Childhood Brain Tumor Foundation  


... related fundraising projects go to the Childhood Brain… Amazon Smile When you shop at AmazonSmile, Amazon donates 0.5% of the purchase price to ... Brain Tumor Foundation. Bookmark the link and support us every ...


Pediatric Extradural Spinal Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have reviewed 16 children with extradural spinal tumors, both benign and malignant, treated from 1998 to 2006 in Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India. The duration of symptomatology, clinical signs, radiological investigations, surgical approach, outcome and histopathological variation from the Western world was noted and evaluated. The age of these children ranged from 3 to 20

Raj Kumar; Pramod J. Giri



General Information about Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors  


... nodes. Renal cell cancer may also be called renal cell carcinoma. Rhabdoid Tumor of the Kidney Rhabdoid tumor of the kidney is a type of kidney cancer that occurs mostly in infants and young children. It is often advanced at the time of diagnosis . Rhabdoid tumor of the kidney grows and spreads ...


Molecular Mechanisms of Tumor Angiogenesis and Tumor Progression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) is crucial for the growth and persistence of primary solid tumors and their metastases. Furthermore, angiogenesis is also required for metastatic dissemination, since an increase in vascular density will allow easier access of tumor cells to the circulation. Induction of angiogenesis precedes the formation of malignant tumors, and increased vascularization seems to correlate

Ugo Cavallaro; Gerhard Christofori



Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor  


Surgery is done to remove one or both ovaries. If the tumor is advanced stage, chemotherapy or radiation therapy may ... Ramirez PT, Gershenson DM. Neoplastic diseases of the ovary: ... stromal tumors. In: Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, Katz ...


Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pancreatic endocrine tumors are rare neoplasms accounting for less than 5% of pancreatic malignancies. They are broadly classified\\u000a into either functioning tumors (insulinomas, gastrinomas, glucagonomas, VIPomas, and somatostatinomas) or nonfunctioning tumors.\\u000a The diagnosis of these tumors is difficult and requires a careful history and examination combined with laboratory tests and\\u000a radiologic imaging. Signs and symptoms are usually related to hormone

Karen Davies; Kevin C. Conlon



Ovarian tumors with functioning manifestations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various categories of ovarian tumors, particularly those of gonadal stromal origin, are capable of producing a variety of\\u000a hormones that occasionally induce interesting clinical manifestations. The endocrine manifestations associated with gonadal\\u000a stromal tumors are often due to hormone production by the tumor cells. Sometimes the tumor cells produce only one hormone,\\u000a while more frequently the hormonal manifestations result from a

Fattaneh A. Tavassoli



Pancreatic endocrine tumors: Recent advances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) can be divided on a clinical and pathologic basis into ten classes (insulinomas, gastrinomas (Zollinger-Ellison syndrome), VIPomas (Verner-Morrison syndrome, WDHA, pancreatic cholera), glucagonomas, somatostatinomas, ACTH-releasing tumors (ACTHomas), growth hormone-releasing factor secreting tumors (GRFomas), nonfunctioning or pancreatic polypeptide secreting tumors (non- functioning PET), PETs causing carcinoid syndrome and PETs causing hypercalcemia)). Recent reports suggest calcitonin- secreting

R. T. Jensen


MR findings of ovarian tumors with hormonal activity, with emphasis on tumors other than sex cord-stromal tumors.  


Sex cord-stromal tumors including granulosa cell tumor, thecoma, Sertoli stromal cell tumor and steroid cell tumor are noted for their hormonal activity. However, there are many kinds of ovarian tumors other than sex cord-stromal tumors and tumor-like conditions with endocrine manifestations. Cross-sectional imaging, especially MR, can provide precise features of ovarian tumors and uterine morphological change even in a clinically latent excess of estrogen. In this article, we demonstrate typical imaging findings of ovarian tumors with hormonal activity. We also shortly explain the mechanism of the virilization and hyperestrogenism caused by ovarian tumors and tumor-like conditions. PMID:17403591

Tanaka, Yumiko Oishi; Saida, Tsukasa Sasaki; Minami, Rie; Yagi, Takako; Tsunoda, Hajime; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki; Minami, Manabu



SIRT1, is it a tumor promoter or tumor suppressor  

E-print Network

SIRT1 has been considered as a tumor promoter because of its increased expression in some types of cancers and its role in inactivating proteins that are involved in tumor suppression and DNA damage repair. However, recent studies demonstrated that SIRT1 levels are reduced in some other types of cancers, and that SIRT1 deficiency results in genetic instability and tumorigenesis, while overexpression of SIRT1 attenuates cancer formation in mice heterozygous for tumor suppressor p53 or APC. Here, I review these recent findings and discuss the possibility that activation of SIRT1 both extends lifespan and inhibits cancer formation. Key words: SIRT1, tumor promoter, tumor suppressor, DNA damage repair



Monoclonal Antibodies Targeting Tumor Growth

The type 1 insulin-like growth factor (IGF) receptor (IGF1R) is over-expressed by many tumors and mediates proliferation, motility, and protection from apoptosis. Agents that inhibit IGF1R expression or function can potentially block tumor growth and metastasis. Its major ligands, IGF-I, and IGF-II are over-expressed by multiple tumor types.


A Rare Malignant Triton Tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor with rhabdomyoblastic differentiation, malignant triton tumor, has a rare incidence. We report such a case in a 40-year-old male who presented with a mass over the buttock. He was a previously diagnosed case of neurofibroma in the same area. Histomorphology supported by immunostaining with S-100 protein confirmed the diagnosis. Malignant triton tumor has a poor

Kalpalata Tripathy; Rabinarayan Mallik; Aparajita Mishra; Debiprasad Misra; Niranjan Rout; Padmalaya Nayak; Sagarika Samantray; Jayshree Rath



Tumor uptake of radioruthenium compounds  

SciTech Connect

The use of ruthenium-97 as a scintigraphic agent, particularly for tumor localization, is investigated. The tumor uptake of ruthenium chloride and ruthenium-labelled transferrin is evaluated and their application as tumor-imagine agents is compared to gallium-67 citrate. (ACR)

Srivastava, S C; Richards, P; Meinken, G E; Larson, S M; Grunbaum, Z



The controversy of Warthin's tumor  

SciTech Connect

Warthin's tumor is controversial. This controversy is multifaceted and relates to all aspects of the tumor from its historical beginnings to its pathogenesis, investigations, and treatments. In this paper, an in depth study of Warthin's tumor has been made to help clarify these controversies.

Chapnik, J.S.



MR findings of ovarian tumors with hormonal activity, with emphasis on tumors other than sex cord-stromal tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex cord-stromal tumors including granulosa cell tumor, thecoma, Sertoli stromal cell tumor and steroid cell tumor are noted for their hormonal activity. However, there are many kinds of ovarian tumors other than sex cord-stromal tumors and tumor-like conditions with endocrine manifestations. Cross-sectional imaging, especially MR, can provide precise features of ovarian tumors and uterine morphological change even in a clinically

Yumiko Oishi Tanaka; Tsukasa Sasaki Saida; Rie Minami; Takako Yagi; Hajime Tsunoda; Hiroyuki Yoshikawa; Manabu Minami



Tumor endothelial marker 1–specific DNA vaccination targets tumor vasculature  

PubMed Central

Tumor endothelial marker 1 (TEM1; also known as endosialin or CD248) is a protein found on tumor vasculature and in tumor stroma. Here, we tested whether TEM1 has potential as a therapeutic target for cancer immunotherapy by immunizing immunocompetent mice with Tem1 cDNA fused to the minimal domain of the C fragment of tetanus toxoid (referred to herein as Tem1-TT vaccine). Tem1-TT vaccination elicited CD8+ and/or CD4+ T cell responses against immunodominant TEM1 protein sequences. Prophylactic immunization of animals with Tem1-TT prevented or delayed tumor formation in several murine tumor models. Therapeutic vaccination of tumor-bearing mice reduced tumor vascularity, increased infiltration of CD3+ T cells into the tumor, and controlled progression of established tumors. Tem1-TT vaccination also elicited CD8+ cytotoxic T cell responses against murine tumor-specific antigens. Effective Tem1-TT vaccination did not affect angiogenesis-dependent physiological processes, including wound healing and reproduction. Based on these data and the widespread expression of TEM1 on the vasculature of different tumor types, we conclude that targeting TEM1 has therapeutic potential in cancer immunotherapy. PMID:24642465

Facciponte, John G.; Ugel, Stefano; De Sanctis, Francesco; Li, Chunsheng; Wang, Liping; Nair, Gautham; Sehgal, Sandy; Raj, Arjun; Matthaiou, Efthymia; Coukos, George; Facciabene, Andrea



Genetics Home Reference: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor  


... gastrointestinal stromal tumor and may include treatment providers. American Cancer Society: Treating Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST) Cancer.Net: Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor--Diagnosis Genetic Testing Registry: Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors You might also find ...


Teratoid Wilms' tumor exhibiting extensive squamous differentiation.  


Teratoid Wilms' tumor is a rare renal tumor. Herein, we report an unusual variant of such tumor which simulated renal teratoma because of abundant keratinized squamous epithelium within the tumor. PMID:24946081

Karaku?, Esra; Senayli, Atilla; Özcan, Fatma; Demir, Ahmet Haci; Tiryaki, Tugrul; Özyörük, Derya; Emir, Suna



Treatment for Stromal Tumors of the Ovary  


... tumors are treated with surgery to remove the ovary with the tumor. Most patients with stage I tumors are watched ... cancers are treated with surgery to remove the ovary with the tumor. Surgery is also used to stage and debulk ...


[Detection of liver tumors].  


Accurate detection of liver metastases in patients with known primary tumors is often essential for therapeutic decision making. Compared to conventional contrast media-enhanced CT unenhanced MRI seems to be slightly superior for the detection of small focal liver lesions. However, intraoperative US and CTAP show higher sensitivities for lesion detection but use of these techniques is limited because of their invasive character. The new superparamagnetic MR contrast medium ENDOREM improves the number of liver lesions detected significantly as compared to unenhanced MRI. Furthermore, as shown recently, ENDOREM-enhanced MRI may be as sensitive as CTAP. Thus, ENDOREM is useful for preoperative staging of liver tumors due to improvement in lesion detection and delineation of the hepatic vascular system. PMID:8588031

Rummeny, E J; Reimer, P; Daldrup, H; Peters, P E



Studies on the tumor initiating, tumor promoting, and tumor co-initiating properties of respiratory carcinogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

With mouse skin as the bioassay model, the multifaceted behavior of chemicals and mixtures can be elucidated using the protocols of tumor initiation, tumor promotion, tumor co-initiation, and complete carcinogenesis. In addition to studies with individual respiratory carcinogens, we report the tumorigenic and carcinogenic effects of complex environmental mixtures. We sought to compare the potency of human respiratory carcinogens, based

S. Nesnow; L. L. Triplett; T. J. Slaga



[Epidemiology of lung tumors].  


Approximately one out of 500 chest radiographs shows the incidental finding of a solitary pulmonary nodule and almost one half of these pulmonary lesions are caused by a tumor. Unfortunately, only 2% to 5% of all lung tumors are of benign origin, e. g. lipoma, fibroma, hamartoma, and chondroma, and the majority are malignant neoplasms, most commonly primary lung cancer followed by metastases of extrapulmonary primary carcinomas. Thus, a careful diagnostic work up of solitary pulmonary nodules, including histological diagnosis, is mandatory for an adequate management and treatment of patients with pulmonary lesions. Despite all recent improvements of treatment modalities, lung cancer continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality among malignant diseases worldwide. The prognosis of affected patients is still very poor and a 5-years survival rate of only 14% makes lung cancer the number one cause of death due to cancer in Switzerland. Active and passive tobacco smoking are by far the best known risk factor for the development of lung cancer, but there are severe other probably less known factors that may increase the individual risk for malignant neoplasms of the lung. These risk factors include e. g. exposure to natural ionic radiation, consisting of terrestrial radiation and indoor radiation caused by radon gas, exposure to respirable dust and Diesel engine emissions, asbestos, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In the majority of cases, the latency between exposure and development of cancer is years to decades and the person concerned was occupationally exposed. Therefore, a detailed evaluation of a patient's medical and occupational history is needed. Due to its poor prognosis, prevention and early diagnosis of lung cancer is crucial to improve our patients' outcome. Good knowledge of epidemiology and aetiology of pulmonary tumors is the key to preventive measures and identification of individuals at increased risk for lung cancer. An overview will be provided on the epidemiology of lung tumors and predominantly preventable risk factors for lung cancer. PMID:22753285

Ott, S; Geiser, T



Oncogenes and tumor angiogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among novel promising approaches that have recently entered the scene of anti-cancer therapy angiogenesis inhibition and targeting cancer-causing genes (e.g. oncogenes) are of particular interest as potentially highly synergistic. One reason for this is that transforming genetic lesions driving cancer progression (e.g. mutations of ras and\\/or p53) are thought to be causative for the onset of tumor angiogenesis and thereby

Janusz Rak; Joanne L Yu



Imaging of Mediastinal Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mediastinum comprises the region extending from the thoracic inlet to the diaphragm in the central thorax, interposed\\u000a between the two pleural cavities [1]. Tradi - tionally, the mediastinum is separated into three compartments (anterior, middle\\u000a and posterior) as a classification scheme, since various tumor types are more common in certain locations. These compartments\\u000a are not actual anatomic locations divided

Scott Moore; Hetal Dave-Verma; Ajay Singh


Colorectal gastrointestinal stromal tumor.  


Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is the most common mesenchymal neoplasm arising in the digestive tract, with an estimated prevalence of 15-20 per 1,000,000. GISTs are related to the interstitial cells of Cajal and are characterized by constitutive over-expression of the transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor KIT. This is produced by a patognomonic mutation of the proto-oncogene c-kit that occurs in up to 90% of cases. Exon 11 is affected most frequently; exons 9 and 13 are less commonly involved. One-third of GISTs lacking KIT mutations exhibits alternative activating mutations in the PDGFR? gene. Colorectal GISTs represent about 5-10% of the cases, mainly located in the rectum that is the third common site. Benign GISTs are more common, but many tumors are of uncertain malignant potential; tumor size and rate of mitosis are still the most reliable criteria for assessing the risk of an aggressive behavior. Surgery is the first-line treatment for resectable non-metastatic colorectal GIST. Standard oncologic resection is inappropriate because skip metastases and lymphatic spread are rarely reported. Segmental colectomy with negative margins is recommended, and local excision is oncologically adequate in highly selected rectal tumors. Radical surgery alone is not always curative especially in high-risk GISTs, and half of patients develops local recurrences or distant metastases after R0 operation. Medical therapeutic strategies have rapidly evolved after the introduction of targeted molecular therapy. Efficacy and safety of imatinib mesylate was first demonstrated in patients with metastatic and unresectable disease. Adjuvant and neoadjuvant use of imatinib are promising therapeutic options to improve the outcome of surgery to downstage unresectable lesions and to allow less extensive resections. PMID:20967481

Amato, A



Modeling tumor evolutionary dynamics  

PubMed Central

Tumorigenesis can be seen as an evolutionary process, in which the transformation of a normal cell into a tumor cell involves a number of limiting genetic and epigenetic events, occurring in a series of discrete stages. However, not all mutations in a cell are directly involved in cancer development and it is likely that most of them (passenger mutations) do not contribute in any way to tumorigenesis. Moreover, the process of tumor evolution is punctuated by selection of advantageous (driver) mutations and clonal expansions. Regarding these driver mutations, it is uncertain how many limiting events are required and/or sufficient to promote a tumorigenic process or what are the values associated with the adaptive advantage of different driver mutations. In spite of the availability of high-quality cancer data, several assumptions about the mechanistic process of cancer initiation and development remain largely untested, both mathematically and statistically. Here we review the development of recent mathematical/computational models and discuss their impact in the field of tumor biology. PMID:23420281

Stransky, Beatriz; de Souza, Sandro J.



Vagal body tumors.  


Six cases of vagal body tumor are reviewed. All first presented as painless neck masses with normal cranial nerve function. Otologic symptoms were infrequent, occurring only with temporal bone involvement. In true vagal paragangliomas, cranial nerve and auditory function is usually preserved until there is extensive disease of the skull base. Tumor progression after radiotherapy was documented in four patients, three of whom were treated with 4500 cGy or more. One patient was found to have regional lymph node metastases. The six patients had a total of 10 head and neck paragangliomas, illustrating the high incidence of synchronous and metachronous lesions. Because of the high incidence of multiple lesions, these tumors threaten lower cranial nerves bilaterally in many instances. Because cranial nerve function is preserved until late, and because vagal and accessory nerve paralysis is usually unavoidable with resection, we advocate conservative treatment in selected cases. It may be reasonable to postpone surgery until cranial nerve impairment becomes evident or other vital structures are threatened. PMID:1909012

Arts, H A; Fagan, P A



Study of Kidney Tumors in Young Patients

Clear Cell Sarcoma of the Kidney; Congenital Mesoblastic Nephroma; Diffuse Hyperplastic Perilobar Nephroblastomatosis; Rhabdoid Tumor of the Kidney; Stage I Renal Cell Cancer; Stage I Wilms Tumor; Stage II Renal Cell Cancer; Stage II Wilms Tumor; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage III Wilms Tumor; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IV Wilms Tumor; Stage V Wilms Tumor



Primary Tumors of the Spleen  

PubMed Central

Tumors of the spleen are rare compared to the incidence of such tumors in other parenchymatous organs. Their classification has varied with both time and author. They can be divided into two main categories: nonlymphoid and lymphoid. The most common nonlymphoid tumors are the vascular tumors which include benign and malignant haemangiomas, littoral cell angiomas, lymphangiomas and haemangioendotheliomas. The remaining nonlymphoid tumors, such as fibrosarcoma, neurinoma, and lipoma are very uncommon. The lymphoid tumors include Hodgkin’s and non Hodgkin’s lymphoma, histiocytic lymphoma and plasmacytoma. Metastatic tumors to the spleen mainly originate from melanoma, breast and lung lesions. However, metastases to the spleen are rare compared to those of other parenchymatous organs. PMID:23675122

Fotiadis, C.; Georgopoulos, I.; Stoidis, C.; Patapis, P.



Wnt5a Suppresses Tumor Formation and Redirects Tumor Phenotype in MMTV-Wnt1 Tumors  

PubMed Central

Wnt5a is a non-canonical signaling Wnt that has been implicated in tumor suppression. We previously showed that loss of Wnt5a in MMTV-PyVmT tumors resulted in a switch in tumor phenotype resulting in tumors with increased basal phenotype and high Wnt/?-catenin signaling. The object of this study was to test the hypothesis that Wnt5a can act to inhibit tumors formed by activation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling. To this end, we characterized tumor and non-tumor mammary tissue from MMTV-Wnt1 and double transgenic MMTV-Wnt1;MMTV-Wnt5a mice. Wnt5a containing mice demonstrated fewer tumors with increased latency when compared to MMTV-Wnt1 controls. Expression of markers for basal-like tumors was down-regulated in the tumors that formed in the presence of Wnt5a indicating a phenotypic switch. Reduced canonical Wnt signaling was detected in double transgenic tumors as a decrease in active ?-catenin protein and a decrease in Axin2 mRNA transcript levels. In non-tumor tissues, over-expression of Wnt5a in MMTV-Wnt1 mammary glands resulted in attenuation of phenotypes normally observed in MMTV-Wnt1 glands including hyperbranching and increased progenitor and basal cell populations. Even though Wnt5a could antagonize Wnt/?-catenin signaling in primary mammary epithelial cells in culture, reduced Wnt/?-catenin signaling was not detected in non-tumor MMTV-Wnt1;Wnt5a tissue in vivo. The data demonstrate that Wnt5a suppresses tumor formation and promotes a phenotypic shift in MMTV-Wnt1 tumors. PMID:25401739

Easter, Stephanie L.; Mitchell, Elizabeth H.; Baxley, Sarah E.; Desmond, Renee; Frost, Andra R.; Serra, Rosa



A case of carotid body tumor concomitant with carcinoid tumor.  


Neuroendocrine tumors typically fall into two broad categories: those of epithelial origin and those of neural derivation. The former group includes carcinoid tumors and the latter includes paraganglioma. Although paraganglioma and carcinoid tumor have different biologic behaviors, their overlapping histological appearance can pose diagnostic challenges. Carcinoid tumors are rare, slow-growing neuroendocrine tumors arising from the enterochromaffin cells disseminated throughout the gastrointestinal and bronchopulmonary systems. Carotid body tumor is the most common type of extra-adrenal paraganglioma. Paraganglioma tends to grow slowly but can compress adjacent vessel and nerve. A 63-year-old woman showed huge mass extending from carotid body to skull base, encircling internal and external carotid arteries on magnetic resonance image. Surgical removal of carotid body tumor was done after embolization procedure. Postoperative histopathologic examination and immunohistochemical analysis were consistent with paraganglioma concomitant with carcinoid tumor in carotid body. Primary cervical carcinoid tumor is extremely rare, and to the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of concomitant existence of paraganglioma and carcinoid tumor in carotid body. PMID:25199739

Mun, Mi Jin; Lee, Jin Choon; Lee, Byung Joo



Tumor-associated macrophages: foe or accomplice of tumors?  


Macrophages are predominantly involved in the immune and inflammatory processes of solid tumors. Macrophages infiltrated into a tumor have an ambivalent relationship with the tumor, because they are innately very flexible and adaptable depending on the microenvironment of the tissue and the tissue-derived factors. The relationship between tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and a tumor is extremely complicated and has not yet been clearly elucidated. Now, the reintegration of biological knowledge including immunology, pathology and oncology is indispensable for the clinical application of TAMs to cancer therapy. In this review, we focus on the range of pro- and anti-tumor functions performed by TAMs and outline a new class of cancer therapies that aims at controlling the complex functions of TAMs. PMID:14666727

Ohno, Satoshi; Suzuki, Nobutaka; Ohno, Yumiko; Inagawa, Hiroyuki; Soma, Gen-Ichiro; Inoue, Masaki



Roles of tumor suppressors in regulating tumor-associated inflammation.  


Loss or silencing of tumor suppressors (TSs) promotes neoplastic transformation and malignant progression. To date, most work on TS has focused on their cell autonomous effects. Recent evidence, however, demonstrates an important noncell autonomous role for TS in the control of tumor-associated inflammation. We review evidence from clinical data sets and mouse model studies demonstrating enhanced inflammation and altered tumor microenvironment (TME) upon TS inactivation. We discuss clinical correlations between tumor-associated inflammation and inactivation of TS, and their therapeutic implications. This review sets forth the concept that TS can also suppress tumor-associated inflammation, a concept that provides new insights into tumor-host interactions. We also propose that in some cases the loss of TS function in cancer can be overcome through inhibition of the resulting inflammatory response, regardless whether it is a direct or an indirect consequence of TS loss. PMID:25190145

Yang, L; Karin, M



[Germ cell and embryonal tumors].  


Germ cell tumors, which constitute approximately 3-5% of tumors of the central nervous system (CNS), can be subdivided into germinomas, embryonal carcinomas, yolk sac tumors, choriocarcinomas, teratomas and mixed germ cell tumors. The diagnosis of intracranial germ cell tumor is based on the clinical symptoms, detection of tumor markers, such as alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and the beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and spinal cord, CSF cytology and histology. The diagnosis of a secreting germ cell tumor, i.e. a non-germinoma, can be made by the determination of AFP and hCG as tumor markers. Germinomas are radiosensitive but are equally as sensitive to chemotherapy. Teratomas of the CNS are mostly diagnosed in newborns and infants. The most decisive role in the treatment of teratomas is played by as complete a resection as possible. Chemotherapy and irradiation play a subordinate role.Embryonal tumors, which constitute approximately 15-20% of CNS tumors, include medulloblastomas, primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) of the CNS and the atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor of the CNS. Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in childhood and adolescence. The incidence peak is the fifth year of life with a male predisposition in a ratio of 1.5:1. Medulloblastomas constitute 12-25% of all pediatric CNS tumors and 30-40% of pediatric tumors of the posterior cranial fossa. At the time of diagnosis evidence of dissemination in the CSF cavity is found in approximately 40% of patients. The extreme cell density makes medulloblastomas hyperdense in computed tomography (CT) and can therefore be differentiated from hypodense astrocytomas. The PNETs are histologically related to medulloblastomas, pineoblastomas, atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors and peripheral neuroblastomas. They are relatively rare in children constituting less than 5% of supratentorial neoplasms. Patients are mostly clinically conspicuous due to macrocephalus and signs of brain pressure and/or seizures. In native CT the solid components of PNETs show a hyperdensity compared to the surrounding brain parenchyma probably due to the high cell density. Cysts and calcification are often detectable. The survival rate of children with CNS tumors has continuously increased in recent years. When corresponding clinical symptoms appear, such as headache, nausea or vomiting when fasting, all of which are evidence of increased intracranial pressure, MRI should be carried out as quickly as possible. Children should be treated in centers with departments of pediatric oncology and hematology and within the framework of studies. PMID:25119569

Reith, W; Mühl-Benninghaus, R; Simgen, A; Yilmaz, U



Hepatic vascular tumors.  


The most common hepatic vascular tumor in the pediatric population is the infantile hepatic hemangioma. Although these lesions have a spectrum of presentations, there are three main subtypes that have been described-focal, multifocal, and diffuse. An algorithm on the workup, treatment, and follow-up of these lesions can be based on this categorization. Recent shifts in the management of hemangiomas with beta-blockers (propranolol) have also influenced the treatment of hepatic hemangiomas. This article reviews the current understanding of hepatic hemangiomas and protocols in the management of these patients. PMID:25241093

Hsi Dickie, Belinda; Fishman, Steven J; Azizkhan, Richard G



Intracranial germ cell tumor.  


Germ cell tumours represent about 3 to 8% of pediatric brain tumours. Occurrence of diabetes insipidus is common in the case of suprasellar germ cell tumors. The diagnosis may be advanced by MRI owing to the location and relatively univocal characteristics of the lesion signal. The existence of a bifocal mass developed in both suprasellar region and pineal zone is highly suggestive of a germinoma. The most important notion is to recognize that at the time of diabetes insipidus diagnosis in a child, the cerebral mass might be too small to be identified by MRI. In such patients, repeating imaging study should be obtained. PMID:20957891

Kreutz, J; Rausin, L; Weerts, E; Tebache, M; Born, J; Hoyoux, C



Therapeutic Trial for Patients With Ewing Sarcoma Family of Tumor and Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumors

Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor; Ewing Sarcoma of Bone or Soft Tissue; Localized Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor



Dynamic CT of pancreatic tumors  

SciTech Connect

Dynamic computed tomography was performed on 19 patients with clinically diagnosed pancreatic and peripancreatic tumors. There were 10 patients with pancreatic cancer, three with inflammatory pancreatic masses, two with cystadenoma, one with insuloma, and three with peripancreatic tumors. Computed tomography was performed with a Varian-V-360-3 scanner; scanning was for 30 consecutive sec at 3 sec intervals after the bolus injection of 50 ml of contrast medium into the antecubital vein. Dynamic computed tomography (CT) may be more useful than conventional contrast CT because it facilitates: (1) correct evaluation of tumor vascularity allowing a differential diagnosis; (2) location of the boundary between tumor and a nontumor tissue; (3) detection of small tumors; and (4) visualization of pancreatic invasion by peripancreatic tumors. In addition, contrast enhancement and the degree of vascular proliferation can be quantitatively assessed by analyzing time-density curves.

Hosoki, T.



[Salivary gland tumors in children].  


Salivary gland tumors in children are rare: they correspond to 8-10% of head and neck pediatric tumors. Clinicians of all disciplines should be aware of this diagnosis in front of non-inflammatory mass of the parotid or in the territory of other salivary glands. In children, 50% of salivary gland tumors are malignant which contrasts with a 10-25% risk in adults. Epithelial tumors are the most common, mucoepidermoïd carcinomas of the parotid in particular. Surgery is the treatment of choice in epithelial tumors. Adjuvant radiotherapy may be indicated in case of unfavorable prognostic factors but must be balanced with the risk of radiation-induced growth defects and secondary cancer. The role of chemotherapy is limited in these tumors, but should be discussed in case of an inoperable or metastatic lesion. PMID:21690035

Thariat, Juliette; Vedrine, Pierre-Olivier; Orbach, Daniel; Marcy, Pierre-Yves; Badoual, Cécile; Butori, Catherine; Teissier, Natacha; Toussaint, Bruno; Castillo, Laurent



Surgical treatment of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) are uncommon but clinically challenging and fascinating tumors. GEP-NETs\\u000a present as either functional or as nonfunctional tumors. Functional tumors are commonly associated with a specific hormonal\\u000a syndrome directly related to a hormone secreted by the tumor, like gastrinomas with a Zollinger–Ellison syndrome or carcinoid\\u000a syndrome in patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NET) of the ileum. Nonfunctional tumors

Volker Fendrich; Detlef K. Bartsch



NF2 Tumor suppressor gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NF2 tumor suppressor gene, located in chromosome 22q12, is involved in the development of multiple tumors of the nervous system,\\u000a either associated with neurofibromatosis 2 or sporadic ones, mainly schwannomas and meningiomas. In order to evaluate the\\u000a role of the NF2 gene in sporadic central nervous system (CNS) tumors, we analyzed NF2 mutations in 26 specimens: 14 meningiomas, 4

Irene Szijan; Daniel Rochefort; Carl Bruder; Ezequiel Surace; Gloria Machiavelli; Viviana Dalamon; Javier Cotignola; Veronica Ferreiro; Alvaro Campero; Armando Basso; Jan P. Dumanski; Guy A. Rouleau



Proton Therapy for Thoracoabdominal Tumors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In advanced-stage disease of certain thoracoabdominal tumors, proton therapy (PT) with concurrent chemotherapy may be an option to reduce side effects. Several technological developments, including a respiratory gating system and implantation of fiducial markers for image guided radiation therapy (IGRT), are necessary for the treatment in thoracoabdominal tumors. In this chapter, the role of PT for tumors of the lung, the esophagus, and liver are discussed.

Sakurai, Hideyuki; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Sugahara, Shinji; Nakayama, Hidetsugu; Tokuuye, Koichi


Sex Cord-Stromal Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Sex cord-stromal tumors are rare neoplasms which most commonly occur in the ovary. Granulosa cell tumors are the most common\\u000a histologic subtype. Presenting symptoms and signs may be specific to this group of tumors, and treatment is determined by\\u000a many factors, including age and histologic subtype. Appropriate therapy usually includes surgery, and chemotherapy often plays\\u000a a role. Much progress has

Jubilee Brown; David M. Gershenson


Vascular tumors simulating occlusive disease.  


Two cases of vascular tumors of large vessels with intraluminal growth simulating venous thrombosis and arterial occlusive disease are reported. One was a borderline malignant epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of the femoral vein and the other a malignant epithelioid angiosarcoma of the carotid artery. Immunohistochemical studies permitted to classify the tumors. Treatment consisted in surgical resection. No recurrence and no metastasis are noted at 24 months. Uncertainty regarding biological behaviour of vascular tumors and treatment persists. PMID:11284093

Schröder, A; Peters, A; Riepe, G; Larena, A; Meierling, S; Mentzel, T; Katenkamp, D; Imig, H



Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC)

The Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC) is an open scientific forum organized to foster the development of multi-center, international and inter-disciplinary collaborations that will lead to a better understanding of the etiology, outcomes, and prevention of brain tumors. During the process of attaining this mission, BTEC plans to mentor junior investigators or investigators who are new to brain tumor epidemiologic research.


Primary Tumors of the Spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary neoplasms of the spine encompass a broad spectrum of tumors, ranging in their tissue of origin, local behavior, and\\u000a potential for metastasis. The diagnosis and treatment of these disorders is accordingly varied. As a category, non-myeloproliferative\\u000a primary tumors of the spine are rare, accounting for approx 5% of all bone tumors, when one excludes hemangiomas (1,2). In frequency, therefore,

Rex C. Haydon; Frank M. Phillips


Como Lo Hago Yo: Mielomeningocele En Bolivia  

PubMed Central

Introducción: Las malformaciones del tubo neural (MTN) representan la segunda causa más frecuente de anomalías congénitas, luego de las cardiopatías. En este grupo se destaca el mielomeningocele (MMC) por su mayor incidencia, y por ser la más incapacitante y la más compleja entre todas las demás malformaciones del sistema nervioso c`entral (SNC). En Bolivia, como en muchos países de Sudamérica, los bajos niveles socio-culturales y la debilidad en el sistema sanitario, hacen que su incidencia y su morbilidad, sean mayores que en las naciones más desarrolladas. Material y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo y descriptivo de 70 casos de MMC, atendidos por un equipo multidisciplinario en el Hospital Universitario Japonés (HUJ) de Santa Cruz de la Sierra, entre 2008-2011. De ellos, 60 fueron intervenidos quirúrgicamente. Resultados: Se realizaron controles prenatales sólo en 27 mujeres (38.6%), diagnosticándose una disrafia espinal en apenas dos casos (7.4%). La edad de ingreso del MMC en su mayoría fue después de las 24 horas (65.6%), predominando su localización en la región lumbosacra (64.3%). De ellos, 67.2% eran abiertos, presentando un 32.9% un daño neurológico motor parcial mientras que 47.1% tenían paraplejia por debajo de la lesión. De los 70 casos, tres (4.3%) no fueron intervenidos, por presentar defectos congénitos severos o estado general grave. Las principales complicaciones posoperatorias inmediatas fueron: dehiscencia de sutura y/o infección de la herida (16.6%), fístula de líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) (10%) e infección del SNC (11.7%). La mortalidad general y postoperatoria fue de 7.1% y 3.3%, respectivamente. Al mes de vida presentaban hidrocefalia un 80% de los pacientes operados, colocándose una derivación ventriculoperitoneal (DVP) de presión media. De 9 pacientes que tuvieron un acompanamiento de dos o más años, seis presentaron una médula anclada, que fueron intervenidas quirúrgicamente. Conclusión: En esta serie, el diagnóstico prenatal del MMC fue ocasional y la derivación al HUJ de los recién nacidos con esta malformación fue generalmente tardía. No hubo predominio de género y la mayoría de los casos presentaron sus lesiones en la región lumbar y lumbosacra. La mortalidad general y postoperatoria fue similar a la reportada en la literatura. Pocos enfermos realizaron controles posteriores al alta hospitalaria. Igual que otros países de Sudamérica, las falencias en el sistema público de salud y el nivel sociocultural, son factores determinantes para un mal pronóstico en estos niños. Por sus múltiples complicaciones, el MMC requiere de una especial atención gubernamental, sobre todo de carácter preventivo mediante el uso de ácido fólico en mujeres fértiles, como también de un equipo profesional multidisciplinario, a fin de realizar un tratamiento adecuado y oportuno. Al mismo tiempo, trabajos multicéntricos en hospitales de América Latina, ayudarán al mejor manejo de estos pacientes. PMID:24791220

Dabdoub, Carlos F.; Dabdoub, Carlos B.; Villavicencio, Ramiro; Quevedo, Germán



Detection of Circulating Tumor Cells  

PubMed Central

The increasing number of treatment options for patients with metastatic carcinomas has created an accompanying need for methods to determine if the tumor will be responsive to the intended therapy and to monitor its effectiveness. Ideally, these methods would be noninvasive and provide quantitative real-time analysis of tumor activity in a variety of carcinomas. Assessment of circulating tumor cells shed into the blood during metastasis may satisfy this need. Here we review the CellSearch technology used for the detection of circulating tumor cells and discuss potential future directions for improvements. PMID:25133014

Terstappen, Leon W. M. M.



Intracranial tumors in Enugu, Nigeria.  


Over a five-year period, there were 48 cases of intracranial tumors at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria. All the patients were Nigerian Negroes. Glial tumors accounted for 20.8%, pituitary tumors 18.8%, and meningiomas 16.7%. There were five cases of tuberculomas and five cases of metastatic tumors. Miscellaneous tumors contributed 22.9% of the total. There were more males than females, especially in the meningioma and tuberculoma groups. Nearly one-half of the tumors were in people in their first and second decades of life; two-thirds of the tumors were in those under 30 years of age. One-third of the patients have died within the five years under review. The results of this survey are strikingly different from Caucasian series. The relatively low incidence of gliomas and the high incidence of meningiomas and pituitary tumors in this study are interestingly similar to the results of other workers who studied Negro populations and may underscore the importance of genetic factors in the development of some brain tumors. PMID:7427874

Ohaegbulam, S C; Saddeqi, N; Ikerionwu, S



Glutathione Levels in Human Tumors  

PubMed Central

This review summarizes clinical studies in which glutathione was measured in tumor tissue from patients with brain, breast, gastrointestinal, gynecological, head and neck and lung cancer. Glutathione tends to be elevated in breast, ovarian, head and neck and lung cancer and lower in brain and liver tumors compared to disease-free tissue. Cervical, colorectal, gastric and esophageal cancers show both higher and lower levels of tumor glutathione. Some studies show an inverse relationship between patient survival and tumor glutathione. Based on this survey, we recommend approaches that may improve the clinical value of glutathione as a biomarker. PMID:22900535

Gamcsik, Michael P.; Kasibhatla, Mohit S.; Teeter, Stephanie D.; Colvin, O. Michael



A Primary Retroperitoneal Mucinous Tumor  

PubMed Central

A twenty-five-year-old female presented with a large retroperitoneal mass. Workup included history and physical exam, imaging, biopsy, colonoscopy, and gynecologic exam. After surgical resection, the mass was determined to be a primary retroperitoneal mucinous tumor (PRMT). Clinically and histologically, these tumors are similar pancreatic and ovarian mucinous neoplasms. PRMTs are rare and few case reports have been published. PRMTs are divided into mucinous cystadenomas, mucinous borderline tumors of low malignant potential, and mucinous carcinoma. These tumors have malignant potential so resection is indicated and in some cases adjuvant chemotherapy and/or surveillance imaging.

Heelan Gladden, Alicia A.; Wohlauer, Max; McManus, Martine C.; Gajdos, Csaba



Tumor suppressor and hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

A few signaling pathways are driving the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma. Each of these pathways possesses negative regulators. These enzymes, which normally suppress unchecked cell proliferation, are circumvented in the oncogenic process, either the over-activity of oncogenes is sufficient to annihilate the activity of tumor suppressors or tumor suppressors have been rendered ineffective. The loss of several key tumor suppressors has been described in hepatocellular carcinoma. Here, we systematically review the evidence implicating tumor suppressors in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:18350603

Martin, Juliette; Dufour, Jean-François



A Rare Malignant Triton Tumor  

PubMed Central

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor with rhabdomyoblastic differentiation, malignant triton tumor, has a rare incidence. We report such a case in a 40-year-old male who presented with a mass over the buttock. He was a previously diagnosed case of neurofibroma in the same area. Histomorphology supported by immunostaining with S-100 protein confirmed the diagnosis. Malignant triton tumor has a poor prognosis owing to its aggressive biological behavior. The fact that the presence of this tumor in the buttock region is extremely rare has prompted the authors to report this case. PMID:20671860

Tripathy, Kalpalata; Mallik, Rabinarayan; Mishra, Aparajita; Misra, Debiprasad; Rout, Niranjan; Nayak, Padmalaya; Samantray, Sagarika; Rath, Jayshree



[Malignant nail tumors].  


Because of the large number of different tissues making up the distal phalanx of fingers and toes, a large variety of malignant tumors can be found in and around the nail apparatus. Bowen disease is probably the most frequent nail malignancy. It is usually seen as a verrucous plaque of the nail fold and nail bed in persons above the age of 40 years. It slowly grows over a period of years or even decades before degenerating to an invasive squamous cell carcinoma. The latter may also occur primarily often as a weeping onycholysis. The next most frequent nail malignancy is ungual melanoma. Those arising from the matrix are usually pigmented and often start with a longitudinal melanonychia whereas those originating from the nail bed remain amelanotic, are often nodular and mistaken for an ingrown nail in an elderly person. The treatment of choice for in situ and early invasive subungual melanomas is generous extirpation of the nail apparatus whereas distal amputation is only indicated for advanced melanomas. In addition to these frequent nail malignancies, nail-specific carcinomas, malignant vascular and osseous tumors, other sarcomas, nail involvement in malignant systemic disorders and metastases may occur. In most cases, they cannot be diagnosed accurately on clinical grounds. Therefore, a high degree of suspicion is necessary in all isolated or single-digit proliferations that do not respond to conservative treatment. PMID:24718507

Haneke, E



SIRT1, Is It a Tumor Promoter or Tumor Suppressor?  

Microsoft Academic Search

SIRT1 has been considered as a tumor promoter because of its increased expression in some types of cancers and its role in inactivating proteins that are involved in tumor sup- pression and DNA damage repair. However, recent studies demonstrated that SIRT1 levels are reduced in some other types of cancers, and that SIRT1 deficiency results in genetic in- stability and

Chu-Xia Deng



Juxtaglomerular Cell Tumor: A Distinct Mesenchymal Tumor of Kidney  

PubMed Central

Juxtaglomerular cell tumor (JGCT) is an unusual mesenchymal entity of the kidney. It is a benign renin-secreting tumor causing hypertension and hypokalemia due to secondary hyperaldosteronism. It is curable if it is discovered early and surgically removed, but may cause a fatal outcome usually due to complications of associated hypertension. PMID:25161802

Elouazzani, Hafsa; Jahid, Ahmed; Bernoussi, Zakiya; Mahassini, Najat



Granulosa Cell Tumor of the Ovary: Tumor Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Granulosa cell tumors of the ovary are rare neoplasms that originate from sex-cord stromal cells. The long natural history of granulosa cell tumors and their tendency to recur years after the initial diagnosis are the most prominent of their characteristics. The secretion of estradiol is the reason for signs at presentation such as vaginal bleeding and precocious puberty. Abdominal pain

Georgios V. Koukourakis; Vasilios E. Kouloulias; Michael J. Koukourakis; Georgios A. Zacharias; Christos Papadimitriou; Kyriaki Mystakidou; Kyriaki Pistevou-Gompaki; John Kouvaris; Athanasios Gouliamos



Putting Tumors in Context  

SciTech Connect

The interactions between cancer cells and their micro- and macroenvironment create a context that promotes tumor growth and protects it from immune attack. The functional association of cancer cells with their surrounding tissues forms a new 'organ' that changes as malignancy progresses. Investigation of this process might provide new insights into the mechanisms of tumorigenesis and could also lead to new therapeutic targets. Under normal conditions, ORGANS are made up of TISSUES that exchange information with other cell types via cell-cell contact, cytokines and the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM). The ECM, which is produced by collaboration between STROMAL fibroblasts and EPITHELIAL cells, provides structural scaffolding for cells, as well as contextual information. The endothelial vasculature provides nutrients and oxygen, and cells of the immune system combat pathogens and remove apoptotic cells. Epithelial cells associate into intact, polarized sheets. These tissues communicate through a complex network of interactions: physically, through direct contact or through the intervening ECM, and biochemically, through both soluble and insoluble signalling molecules. In combination, these interactions provide the information that is necessary to maintain cellular differentiation and to create complex tissue structures. Occasionally, the intercellular signals that define the normal context become disrupted. Alterations in epithelial tissues can lead to movement of epithelial sheets and proliferation - for example, after activation of mesenchymal fibroblasts due to wounding.Normally, these conditions are temporary and reversible, but when inflammation is sustained, an escalating feedback loop ensues.Under persistent inflammatory conditions, continual upregulation of enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by stromal fibroblasts can disrupt the ECM, and invading immune cells can overproduce factors that promote abnormal proliferation. As this process progresses, the normal organization of the organ is replaced by a functional disorder. If there are pre-existing epithelial cells within this changing context that possess tumorigenic potential, they can start to proliferate. Alternatively, the abnormal interactions might lead to genomic instability within the epithelial cells and the acquisition of tumorigenic potential. The proliferating cancer cells can then interact with their microenvironment and enhance the abnormal interactions. At this point, the tumor has become its own organ, with a distinct context that now defines all its cellular responses. Here, we will examine how the mechanisms that contribute to the normal context also act to suppress developing tumors, how disruption of this context initiates and supports the process of tumorigenicity, and how some cells with a tumorigenic genotype can become phenotypically normal if the context is appropriately manipulated.

Bissell, Mina; Radisky, Derek



through Tumor Necrosis  

E-print Network

RSKB, a 90-kDa ribosomal S6 protein kinase family (RSK) member with two complete catalytic domains connected by a linker, is activated through p38- and ERK-mitogen-activated protein kinases. The N-terminal kinases of RSKs phosphorylate substrates; activation requires phosphorylation of linker and C-terminal kinase sites. Unlike other RSKs, the activation loop phosphorylation sites of both catalytic domains of RSKB, Ser 196 and Thr 568, were required for activity. RSKB activation depended on phosphorylation of linker Ser 343 and Ser 360 and associated with phosphorylation of nonconserved Ser 347, but Ser 347-deficient RSKB retained partial activity. The known protein kinase A and protein kinase C inhibitors, H89 and Ro31–8220, blocked RSKB activity. Treatment of HeLa cells with tumor necrosis


Tumor reversion holds promise  

E-print Network

Copyright: C 2010 Telerman et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. In the present issue of the journal, Makoto Noda and colleagues present a screening assay for anti-cancer drugs based on tumor reversion, identifying a series of hitherto unsuspected compounds that are of potential therapeutic interest. More specifically, the assay is based upon triggering the promoter of Reck, which functions as an inhibitor of metalloproteinases. Among the pharmaceutical agents that were able to activate the Reck promoter, 1/3 were known anti-cancer drugs which act through different cytopathic mechanisms. The second group comprises drugs that inhibit growth of bacteria, plasmodium falciparum, fungi and worms. The third category consists of “drugs related to the function of the


Cathepsins mediate tumor metastasis  

PubMed Central

Cathepsins are highly expressed in various human cancers, associated with tumor metastasis. It is superfamily, concluding A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, L, K, O, S, V, and W family members. As a group of lysosomal proteinases or endopeptidases, each member has a different function, playing different roles in distinct tumorigenic processes such as proliferation, angiogenesis, metastasis, and invasion. Cathepsins belong to a diverse number of enzyme subtypes, including cysteine proteases, serine proteases and aspartic proteases. The contribution of cathepsins to invasion in human cancers is well documented, although the precise mechanisms by which cathepsins exert their effects are still not clear. In the present review, the role of cathepsin family members in cancer is discussed. PMID:24340132

Tan, Gong-Jun; Peng, Zheng-Ke; Lu, Jin-Ping; Tang, Fa-Qing



Regorafenib in Treating Patients With Advanced or Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

Gastrinoma; Glucagonoma; Insulinoma; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Pulmonary Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma; Somatostatinoma



ABT-751 in Treating Young Patients With Refractory Solid Tumors

Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors; Childhood Germ Cell Tumor; Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Kidney Cancer; Liver Cancer; Neuroblastoma; Ovarian Cancer; Sarcoma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific



Sorafenib Tosylate in Treating Patients With Progressive Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

Gastrinoma; Glucagonoma; Insulinoma; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Neuroendocrine Tumor; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma; Somatostatinoma; WDHA Syndrome



Pazopanib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Progressive Carcinoid Tumors

Atypical Carcinoid Tumor; Foregut Carcinoid Tumor; Hindgut Carcinoid Tumor; Lung Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Midgut Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Recurrent Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Regional Gastrointestinal Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Stage IIIA Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Stage IIIB Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma



Imaging probe for tumor malignancy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid tumors possess unique microenvironments that are exposed to chronic hypoxic conditions ("tumor hypoxia"). Although more than half a century has passed since it was suggested that tumor hypoxia correlated with poor treatment outcomes and contributed to cancer recurrence, a fundamental solution to this problem has yet to be found. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) is the main transcription factor that regulates the cellular response to hypoxia. It induces various genes whose functions are strongly associated with malignant alteration of the entire tumor. The cellular changes induced by HIF-1 are extremely important targets of cancer therapy, particularly in therapy against refractory cancers. Imaging of the HIF-1-active microenvironment is therefore important for cancer therapy. To image HIF-1activity in vivo, we developed a PTD-ODD fusion protein, POHA, which was uniquely labeled with near-infrared fluorescent dye at the C-terminal. POHA has two functional domains: protein transduction domain (PTD) and VHL-mediated protein destruction motif in oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domain of the alpha subunit of HIF-1 (HIF-1?). It can therefore be delivered to the entire body and remain stabilized in the HIF-1-active cells. When it was intravenously injected into tumor-bearing mice, a tumor-specific fluorescence signal was detected in the tumor 6 h after the injection. These results suggest that POHA can be used an imaging probe for tumor malignancy.

Tanaka, Shotaro; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae; Hiraoka, Hasahiro



[Bilateral tumors of the eyebrows].  


We report about a 5-year-old boy who presented in our clinic with bilateral, slowly progressive solid tumors of the eyebrows. Histological examination of the excised tumors revealed the typical diversified picture of pilomatrixoma with basophilic and shadow cells. The bilateral or multiple manifestation of pilomatrixoma is uncommon and can be associated with myotonic dystrophy, sarcoidosis or Gardner's syndrome. PMID:20393727

Süsskind, D; Rohrbach, J M; Besch, D; Jaissle, G B



Glomus tumor of the trachea.  


Glomus tumor of the trachea is extremely rare. There were approximately 15 reported cases before. Herein, we report another case of glomus tumor of the trachea in a 50-year-old woman presenting with cough and dyspnea for 8 years. She suffered from hemoptysis for 1 day before this admission. Bronchoscopy and CT scan showed a polypoid tumor protruding into the tracheal lumen and with extraluminal extension. The tumor was located at 9 cm below the vocal cord and 1.5 cm above the carina. It measured 2.5 x 2.5 x 2.0 cm and arose from the posterior wall of the trachea. Microscopically, the tumor consisted of a sheet of uniform cells surrounding the vascular spaces. Only few scattered tumor cells showed weak positive staining for muscle actin (HHF-35) by immunohistochemical stain. Ultrastructural study confirmed the presence of small amount of myofibrillar bundles with focal densities in some of the tumor cells. Other cells exhibited only rare or very sparse myofilaments. Characteristic feature of fine pinocytotic vesicles along the plasma membrance of the tumor cells was also noted. PMID:14649680

Chien, Shang-Tao; Lee, Tai-Min; Hsu, Jane-Yi; Wang, Jyh-Seng; Tseng, Hui-Hwa



Chemical xenogenization of experimental tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical xenogenization occurs when experimental tumors, treated in vivo or in vitro with selected chemicals, become immunogenic, i.e., able to induce a strong rejection response, immunological in nature, in the histocompatible hosts. Unlike modifications induced by haptens, changes in tumor cell immunogenicity associated with chemical xenogenization are heritable as a result of drug interfence with the genetic code. Drugs endowed

Paolo Puccetti; Luigina Romani; Maria C. Fioretti



Computed tomography of Krukenberg tumors  

SciTech Connect

Computed tomography (CT) of three patients with Kurkenberg tumor was reviewed retrospectively. CT showed large, lobulated, multicystic masses with soft-tissue components, indistinguishable from primary ovarian carcinoma. Much has been written about metastatic ovarian tumor, but this is the first report in the radiologic literature about their CT features. The authors emphasize the importance of recognizing the ovary as a frequent site of metastases and the proper approach to this problem. In patients with a history of colon or gastric carcinoma, the mixed cystic and solid ovarian mass on CT should be regarded as metastatic tumor until proven otherwise. A careful search for gastrointestinal tract signs or symptoms should be done in any patient with a pelvic tumor. When CT is done for evaluation of ovarian tumor, the stomach and colon should be carefully evaluated, and the ovaries routinely examined in the preoperative CT staging of gastric or colon carcinoma.

Cho, K.C.; Gold, B.M.



[Hereditary head and neck tumors].  


Hereditary paraganglioma, Gorlin-Goltz syndrome and Fanconi anemia are among the rare hereditary tumor syndromes of the head and neck. Patients with hereditary paraganglioma often develop multiple tumors of the glomus caroticum and glomus jugulotympanicum. The corresponding genetic defects of the mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase complex induce autonomous tumor cell growth. In patients with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome basal cell carcinomas and keratocystic odontogenic tumors usually occur much earlier than in patients with sporadic tumors. The associated germline mutations are located in the patched gene which is a modulator of the cell cycle. Fanconi anemia represents a chromosomal instability syndrome which is characterized by early onset of pancytopenia, i.e. bone marrow failure and subsequent development of acute myeloid leukemia and/or squamous cell carcinomas, especially of the head and neck. A total of 13 different gene clusters have been identified in 2 DNA associated complexes which play an important role in DNA repair mechanisms. PMID:20844882

Schwarz-Furlan, S; Brase, C; Stockmann, P; Furlan, I; Hartmann, A



Mitotically Active Plexiform Fibrohistiocytic Tumor  

PubMed Central

Plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumor is an intermediate malignant tumor situated in superficial soft tissues. It affects children and young adults. The tumor is most commonly located on upper extremities, whereas involvement of back region is rare. Mitotic activity is generally low (~3/10 HPF). It is rare, but it can exhibit aggressive behavior, so total excision with clear surgical margins and long-term followup is necessary to detect local recurrence and metastases. We report a child with a solid mass on back region which was found to be a mitotically active plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumor (6/10 HPF) after excision. Plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumor (PFT) is a mesenchymal neoplasm of children, adolescents, and young adults. It is characterized by fibrohistiocytic cytomorphology and multinodular growth pattern. Clinically it is usually a slow-growing mass of upper extremities with frequent local recurrence and rare regional lymphatic and systemic metastasis (Fletcher et al. (2002), Enzinger and Zhang (1988), Remstein et al. (1999)). PMID:23607025

Zemheri, Ebru; Özkanl?, ?eyma; ?enol, Serkan; Ozen, Filiz; Ulukaya Durakba?a, Cigdem; Zindanc?, ?lkin; Okur, Hamit



Advances in understanding pituitary tumors  

PubMed Central

Pituitary tumors are common in the general population. Since neuroimaging techniques have improved, pituitary tumors are more often diagnosed incidentally. About 16.7% of the general population show changes in the pituitary gland. Predominantly, pituitary tumors are benign pituitary adenomas. Pituitary carcinomas or aggressive pituitary tumors are extremely rare. They might develop from benign adenomas. New genetic and epigenetic abnormalities help us to understand pituitary tumorigenesis and might lead to therapeutical targeting drugs in the future. Macroadenomas (>1 cm) can lead to visual field disturbances, compression of cranial nerves, hypopituitarism, and infiltration of the cavernous sinuses. The functional status of the pituitary tumor is important. About half to one third of all pituitary tumors are non-functioning pituitary adenomas. The other pituitary tumors show a specific pattern of hormone secretion. About 25% to 41% of all pituitary tumors are prolactinomas, acromegaly with production of growth hormone represents 10% to 15% of adenomas, Cushing's disease with production of adrenocorticotropic hormone accounts for 10%, and other hormonal characteristics are less common. Transsphenoidal resection and total adenomectomy are desirable. Radiosurgery has enriched the surgical treatment options. Surgical treatment is the intervention of choice except for prolactinomas, where pharmaceutical treatment is recommended. Pharmaceutical treatment consists of dopamine agonists such as cabergoline and somatostatin analogues that include octreotide and pasireotide; retinoic acid is of theoretical interest while peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma-ligands are not clinically useful. In acromegaly, pegvisomant is a further treatment option. Temozolomide should be considered in aggressive pituitary tumors. In general, pharmaceutical options developed recently have extended the repertoire of treatment possibilities of pituitary tumors. PMID:24592317

Renner, Ulrich; Karl Stalla, Günter



Advances in understanding pituitary tumors.  


Pituitary tumors are common in the general population. Since neuroimaging techniques have improved, pituitary tumors are more often diagnosed incidentally. About 16.7% of the general population show changes in the pituitary gland. Predominantly, pituitary tumors are benign pituitary adenomas. Pituitary carcinomas or aggressive pituitary tumors are extremely rare. They might develop from benign adenomas. New genetic and epigenetic abnormalities help us to understand pituitary tumorigenesis and might lead to therapeutical targeting drugs in the future. Macroadenomas (>1 cm) can lead to visual field disturbances, compression of cranial nerves, hypopituitarism, and infiltration of the cavernous sinuses. The functional status of the pituitary tumor is important. About half to one third of all pituitary tumors are non-functioning pituitary adenomas. The other pituitary tumors show a specific pattern of hormone secretion. About 25% to 41% of all pituitary tumors are prolactinomas, acromegaly with production of growth hormone represents 10% to 15% of adenomas, Cushing's disease with production of adrenocorticotropic hormone accounts for 10%, and other hormonal characteristics are less common. Transsphenoidal resection and total adenomectomy are desirable. Radiosurgery has enriched the surgical treatment options. Surgical treatment is the intervention of choice except for prolactinomas, where pharmaceutical treatment is recommended. Pharmaceutical treatment consists of dopamine agonists such as cabergoline and somatostatin analogues that include octreotide and pasireotide; retinoic acid is of theoretical interest while peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma-ligands are not clinically useful. In acromegaly, pegvisomant is a further treatment option. Temozolomide should be considered in aggressive pituitary tumors. In general, pharmaceutical options developed recently have extended the repertoire of treatment possibilities of pituitary tumors. PMID:24592317

Kopczak, Anna; Renner, Ulrich; Karl Stalla, Günter



The History of Tumor Virology  

PubMed Central

In the century since its inception, the field of tumor virology has provided groundbreaking insights into the causes of human cancer. Peyton Rous founded this scientific field in 1911 by discovering an avian virus that induced tumors in chickens; however, it took 40 years for the scientific community to comprehend the effect of this seminal finding. Later identification of mammalian tumor viruses in the 1930s by Richard Shope and John Bittner, and in the 1950s by Ludwik Gross, sparked the first intense interest in tumor virology by suggesting the possibility of a similar causal role for viruses in human cancers. This change in attitude opened the door in the 1960s and 1970s for the discovery of the first human tumor viruses—EBV, hepatitis B virus, and the papillomaviruses. Such knowledge proved instrumental to the development of the first cancer vaccines against cancers having an infectious etiology. Tumor virologists additionally recognized that viruses could serve as powerful discovery tools, leading to revolutionary breakthroughs in the 1970s and 1980s that included the concept of the oncogene, the identification of the p53 tumor suppressor, and the function of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor. The subsequent availability of more advanced molecular technologies paved the way in the 1980s and 1990s for the identification of additional human tumor viruses—human T-cell leukemia virus type 1, hepatitis C virus, and Kaposi’s sarcoma virus. In fact, current estimates suggest that viruses are involved in 15% to 20% of human cancers worldwide. Thus, viruses not only have been shown to represent etiologic agents for many human cancers but have also served as tools to reveal mechanisms that are involved in all human malignancies. This rich history promises that tumor virology will continue to contribute to our understanding of cancer and to the development of new therapeutic and preventive measures for this disease in the 21st century. PMID:18829521

Javier, Ronald T.; Butel, Janet S.



General Information about Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors  


... eyes. Imaging and blood tests are used to detect (find) and diagnose extragonadal germ cell tumors. The ... The following three tumor markers are used to detect extragonadal germ cell tumor: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Beta- ...


What Happens After Treatment for Pituitary Tumors?  


... tumors? Keeping medical insurance and copies of your medical records Lifestyle changes after having a pituitary tumor How ... Topic Keeping medical insurance and copies of your medical records What happens after treatment for pituitary tumors? For ...


Can Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors Be Found Early?  


... Tumors + - Text Size Download Printable Version [PDF] » Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging TOPICS Document Topics GO » SEE ... Carcinoid Tumors? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors Talking ...


Can Wilms Tumor Be Found Early?  


... Tumor + - Text Size Download Printable Version [PDF] » Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging TOPICS Document Topics GO » SEE ... Wilms Tumor? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Wilms Tumor Talking With ...


Laser therapy in ocular tumors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The medical laser equipments made at NILPRP have been exploited intensively for more than 10 years at CMH. The availability and reliability of the first like-on equipment have increased, following improvements in optical delivery system and cooling circuit. This paper shows the impact of technical advances on the development of ophthalmologic laser therapy. Intraocular tumors pose special problems of diagnosis and treatment. Diagnostic methods include addition to systemic and ophthalmologic examinations, ancillary examinations, such as transillumination, fluorescence angiography, ultrasonography, radioactive phosphorus uptake tests, radiology, computerized tomography and fine-needle aspiration biopsy with cytological analyses. The enucleation of the involved eye used to be a generally accepted management of malignant tumors. Improved therapeutic methods such as photocoagulation and better surgical techniques now provide a variety of therapeutic alternatives. This study covers 31 cases of intraocular tumors that were managed either by Argon Laser photocoagulation and/or by Nd:YAG laser surgical treatment. Four cases were intraocular metastasse and 17 cases were primitive intraocular tumors. Argon laser therapy proved to be totally ineffective for intraocular metastasse but very adequate therapy for primitive tumors. Tumor extirpations (choroidal, cillary body or iris tumors) using Nd:YAG laser lancet proved to be more suitable than classic surgery.

Carstocea, Benone D.; Gafencu, Otilia L.; Apostol, Silvia; Ionita, Marcel A.; Moroseanu, A.; Dascalu, Traian; Lupei, Voicu; Ionita-Manzatu, V.



Tumor Targeting via Integrin Ligands  

PubMed Central

Selective and targeted delivery of drugs to tumors is a major challenge for an effective cancer therapy and also to overcome the side-effects associated with current treatments. Overexpression of various receptors on tumor cells is a characteristic structural and biochemical aspect of tumors and distinguishes them from physiologically normal cells. This abnormal feature is therefore suitable for selectively directing anticancer molecules to tumors by using ligands that can preferentially recognize such receptors. Several subtypes of integrin receptors that are crucial for cell adhesion, cell signaling, cell viability, and motility have been shown to have an upregulated expression on cancer cells. Thus, ligands that recognize specific integrin subtypes represent excellent candidates to be conjugated to drugs or drug carrier systems and be targeted to tumors. In this regard, integrins recognizing the RGD cell adhesive sequence have been extensively targeted for tumor-specific drug delivery. Here we review key recent examples on the presentation of RGD-based integrin ligands by means of distinct drug-delivery systems, and discuss the prospects of such therapies to specifically target tumor cells. PMID:24010121

Marelli, Udaya Kiran; Rechenmacher, Florian; Sobahi, Tariq Rashad Ali; Mas-Moruno, Carlos; Kessler, Horst



Comprehensive management of head and neck tumors, volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This book consists of 14 parts, each containing several papers. The parts are: General Considerations in the Management of Patients with Head and Neck Tumors, Tumors of the Ear, Tumors of the Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinuses, Tumors of the Oral Cavity, Tumors of the Pharynx, Tumors of the Larynx, Tumors of the Skin, Dental and Jaw Tumors, Tumors of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands, Tumors of the Trachea, Tumors of the Eye, Orbit, and Lacrimal Apparatus, and Special Topics.

Thawley, S.E.; Panje, W.R.



Dirio Econmico -Universidades Como ser investigador em Portugal  

E-print Network

Diário Económico - Universidades Como é ser investigador em Portugal Autor: N.D. Editora: ST e SF - Universidades Como é ser investigador em Portugal Autor: N.D. Editora: ST e SF Id: 1646658 Data Publicação: 19

Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica


Therapeutic modalities for Pancoast tumors  

PubMed Central

A Pancoast tumor, also called a pulmonary sulcus tumor or superior sulcus tumor, is a tumor of the pulmonary apex. It is a type of lung cancer defined primarily by its location situated at the top end of either the right or left lung. It typically spreads to nearby tissues such as the ribs and vertebrae. Most Pancoast tumors are non-small cell cancers. The growing tumor can cause compression of a brachiocephalic vein, subclavian artery, phrenic nerve, recurrent laryngeal nerve, vagus nerve, or, characteristically, compression of a sympathetic ganglion resulting in a range of symptoms known as Horner’s syndrome. Pancoast tumors are named for Henry Pancoast, a US radiologist, who described them in 1924 and 1932.The treatment of a Pancoast lung cancer may differ from that of other types of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Its position and close proximity to vital structures may make surgery difficult. As a result, and depending on the stage of the cancer, treatment may involve radiation and chemotherapy given prior to surgery. Surgery may consist of the removal of the upper lobe of a lung together with its associated structures as well as mediastinal lymphadenectomy. Surgical access may be via thoracotomy from the back or the front of the chest and modification. Careful patient selection, improvements in imaging such as the role of PET-CT in restaging of tumors, radiotherapy and surgical advances, the management of previously inoperable lesions by a combined experienced thoracic-neurosurgical team and prompt recognition and therapy of postoperative complications has greatly increased local control and overall survival for patients with these tumors. PMID:24672693

Nikolaos, Panagopoulos; Vasilios, Livaditis; Efstratios, Koletsis; Panagiotis, Alexopoulos; Christos, Prokakis; Nikolaos, Baltayiannis; Antonios, Hatzimichalis; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Tsiouda, Theodora; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Madesis, Athanasios; Vretzakis, Georgios; Kolettas, Alexandros; Dimitrios, Dougenis



Treatment Option Overview (Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors / Islet Cell Tumors)  


... are increased by gastrinomas. When increased stomach acid , stomach ulcers , and diarrhea are caused by a tumor that ... hormone being made. Too much gastrin may cause: Stomach ulcers that keep coming back. Pain in the abdomen, ...


Brain tumors in irradiated monkeys.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was made of 32 monkeys which survived one to seven years after total body exposure to protons or to high-energy X rays. Among these 32 monkeys there were 21 which survived two years or longer after exposure to 200 to 800 rad. Glioblastoma multiforme developed in 3 of the 10 monkeys surviving three to five years after receiving 600 or 800 rad 55-MeV protons. Thus, the incidence of tumor development in the present series was far higher than the incidence of spontaneously developing brain tumors in monkeys cited in the literature. This suggests that the tumors in the present series may have been radiation-induced.

Haymaker, W.; Miquel, J.; Rubinstein, L. J.



Tumor detection using airways asymmetry.  


A novel tumor detection technique on CT Scan images of the neck area is detailed in this paper. This technique is based on an airways' symmetry evolution within slices. The algorithm proposes to the physician a set of three slices where a tumor (if it exists) should mostly be located. Then, he will just have to browse the three slices instead of almost 100 in a CT scan. Our method is very effective and shows no false alarms within the patients in our database. In each of our tests the tumors were found to be close to one of the three proposed slices. PMID:17281765

Mancas, Matei; Gosselin, Bernard; Macq, Benoit



Classification of human ovarian tumors.  

PubMed Central

Most human ovarian tumors are classified into one of several categories based on presumed histogenesis and direction of differentiation. Separate categories are reserved for neoplasms composed of cells of several origins and for nonneoplastic disorders that simulate neoplasms. Using the World Health Organization Histologic Classification of Ovarian Tumors, histologic features for common and rare human ovarian tumors are described and illustrated. Images PLATE 1. PLATE 2. PLATE 3. PLATE 4. PLATE 5. PLATE 6. PLATE 7. PLATE 8. PLATE 9. PLATE 10. PLATE 11. PLATE 12. PLATE 13. PLATE 14. PLATE 15. PLATE 16. PLATE 17. PLATE 18. PLATE 19. PLATE 20. PLATE 21. PLATE 22. PMID:3665859

Scully, R E



Heterogeneity of tumor cells from a single mouse mammary tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the use of a variety of cell culture and separation methods, four cell lines were isolated from a single au tochthonous BALB\\/cfC3H mammary tumor. These lines differ markedly from each other in culture morphology, various in vitro growth properties, expression of murine mammary tumor virus antigen, and karyotype, yet all four lines are tumorigenic in normal, syngeneic hosts, yielding

Daniel L. Dexter; Henryk M. Kowalski; Beverly A. Blazar; Zuzana Fligiel; R Vogel; G H Heppner



[Pancreatic tumors: recent developments].  


Pancreatic cancer (PC) still typically has a poor prognosis. In addition to smoking, obesity and new-onset diabetes mellitus are considered to be significant risk factors. An endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) remains the mainstay for diagnosis and on which the majority of advances are based. In this sense, needle-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (nCLE) is gaining importance in the differential diagnosis of solid pancreatic lesions and studies comparing different needle types (cytology vs. histology) for EUS-guided puncture. Intravenous contrast (IC-EUS) and elastography are additional tools associated with EUS that can assist in diagnosing PC. Regarding prognostic factors, the importance of the role of mesenteric-portal vein resection was emphasized, given the limited advances in treatment, as in previous years. Regarding cystic tumors, work focuses on validating the new international guidelines from Fukuoka 2012 (revised Sendai criteria) and on determining predictors of cystic lesion malignancy, mainly of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN). From a therapeutic point of view, there are theories regarding the usefulness of alcohol and the gemcitabine-paclitaxel combination in the ablation of small mucinous cystic lesions through EUS-injection. PMID:25294272

Lariño Noia, José



Tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas  

PubMed Central

Introducción La asociación entre tumores y malformaciones congénitas está bien establecida, pero no existen datos exclusivos en el período neonatal y se desconocen los mecanismos subyacentes que generan dicha relación. Objetivos Este trabajo tiene dos objetivos: primero, analizar la frecuencia de los tumores neonatales asociados a malformaciones congénitas, y segundo, comentar las posibles hipótesis etiopatogénicas de la relación entre ambas entidades. Materiales y método Estudio retrospectivo de las historias clínicas de los tumores neonatales, en el Hospital Universitario Materno- Infantil La Fe de Valencia, desde enero de 1990 hasta diciembre de 1999. Selección y descripción de las variedades histológicas asociadas a malformaciones congénitas. Éstas se han agrupado siguiendo los criterios de la Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades CIE-9, códigos 740.0–759.9. Revisión sistemática bibliográfica de los últimos 25 años, obtenida del Medline, Cancerlit, Index Citation Science y Embase. El perfil de búsqueda utilizado fue la combinación de “neonatal/congenital-tumors/cancer/neoplasms” y “congenital malformations/birth defects”. Resultados Se identificaron 72 tumores neonatales (2,8 % del total de tumores pediátricos diagnosticados en dichos años) y 15 de ellos (20,8 %) asociados a malformaciones congénitas, enfermedades o síndromes congénitos. Las asociaciones entre tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas fueron las siguientes: a) angioma en 3 pacientes: con dos cardiopatías congénitas y una atresia de coanas-laringomalacia; b) neuroblastoma en 2 pacientes: uno con riñón en herradura y anomalías vertebrales, y otro con cardiopatía congénita; c) teratoma en 2 pacientes: uno con fisura palatina y anomalías vertebrales, y otro con metatarso varo; d) tumor del sistema nervioso central en un paciente con hernia de Bochdaleck; e) tumor cardíaco en 4 pacientes con esclerosis tuberosa; f) leucemia aguda en un paciente con síndrome de Down y cardiopatía congénita; g) tumor renal en un caso con hidrocefalia triventricular, y h) tumor adrenal en un caso con hemihipertrofia. En la bibliografía específica, las publicaciones engloban tumores de diferentes épocas pediátricas y sin unanimidad de criterios para clasificar las malformaciones congénitas. Apenas existen datos en el período neonatal y la asociación entre ambas entidades se obtiene de registros de instituciones médicas. La prevalencia oscila entre el 15 y el 31,6 %. Las hipótesis etiopatogénicas que explican la asociación entre tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas están basadas en las exposiciones prenatales (preconcepcionales y transplacentarias) a factores de riesgo potencialmente mutagénicos y carcinogénicos. Conclusiones Probablemente, los tumores neonatales se asocian con mayor frecuencia a malformaciones congénitas que los tumores diagnosticados en épocas posteriores de la vida. Para conocer la prevalencia real de la asociación entre tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas, es necesario unificar los criterios de inclusión y definición de ambas entidades. La obtención de una minuciosa historia medioambiental en todos los tumores neonatales asociados a malformaciones congénitas, donde se detallen y registren todos los factores de riesgo constitucionales y ambientales, es fundamental para mejorar nuestros escasos conocimientos de los mecanismos prenatales subyacentes y avanzar en su prevención. PMID:18559198

Tornero, O. Berbel; García, J.A. Ortega; Tortajada, J. Ferrís i; Castell, J. García; Colomer, J. Donat i; Soldin, O.P.; Soler, J.L. Fuster



Translationally controlled tumor protein is a target of tumor reversion  

PubMed Central

By analyzing the gene expression profile between tumor cells and revertant counterparts that have a suppressed malignant phenotype, we previously reported a significant down-regulation of translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) in the revertants. In the present study, we derived, by using the H1 parvovirus as a selective agent, revertants from three major solid cancers: colon, lung, and melanoma cell lines. These cells have a strongly suppressed malignant phenotype both in vitro and in vivo. The level of TCTP is decreased in most of the revertants. To verify whether inhibition of TCTP expression induces changes in the malignant phenotype, in the classical, well established model of “flat reversion,” v-src-transformed NIH3T3 cells were transfected with antisense TCTP. By inhibiting the expression of TCTP, the number of revertant cells was raised to 30%, instead of the reported rate for spontaneous flat revertants of 10-6. Because TCTP encodes for a histamine-releasing factor, we tested the hypothesis that inhibitors of the histaminic pathway could be effective against tumor cells. We show that some antihistaminic compounds (hydroxyzine and promethazine) and other pharmacological compounds with a related structure (including thioridazine and sertraline) kill tumor cells and significantly decrease the level of TCTP. All together, these data suggest that, with tumor reversion used as a working model, TCTP was identified as a target and drugs were selected that decrease its expression and kill tumor cells. PMID:15489264

Tuynder, Marcel; Fiucci, Giusy; Prieur, Sylvie; Lespagnol, Alexandra; Géant, Anne; Beaucourt, Séverine; Duflaut, Dominique; Besse, Stéphanie; Susini, Laurent; Cavarelli, Jean; Moras, Dino; Amson, Robert; Telerman, Adam



Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium

The Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) is a comprehensive and coordinated effort to accelerate the understanding of the molecular basis of cancer through the application of robust, quantitative, proteomic technologies and workflows.


Radiation therapy for brain tumors  

SciTech Connect

Results of radiation therapy obtained at the University of California, San Francisco over the last 25 years for various adult types of brain tumors are presented. Included are astrocytomas, ependymomas, pineal and suprasellar tumors, meningiomas, and malignant gliomas. For each tumor type considered, the disease-free survival rate appeared to be improved when subtotal resection was followed by irradiation. The lack of improvement in survival with malignant gliomas has prompted investigation into more aggressive multimodality therapies. These are discussed along with a new program using high-activity iodine 125 sources to deliver high-dose radiotherapy to malignant gliomas. It is possible that this new approach will lead to improved survival rates and be applicable to many tumors within the central nervous system.

Wara, W.M.



Percutaneous Ablation of Adrenal Tumors  

PubMed Central

Adrenal tumors comprise a broad spectrum of benign and malignant neoplasms, and include functional adrenal adenomas, pheochromocytomas, primary adrenocortical carcinoma and adrenal metastases. Percutaneous ablative approaches that have been described and used in the treatment of adrenal tumors include percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA), cryoablation, microwave ablation and chemical ablation. Local tumor ablation in the adrenal gland presents unique challenges, secondary to the adrenal gland’s unique anatomic and physiologic features. The results of clinical series employing percutaneous ablative techniques in the treatment of adrenal tumors are reviewed in this article. Clinical and technical considerations unique to ablation in the adrenal gland are presented, including approaches commonly used in our practices, and risks and potential complications are discussed. PMID:20540918

Venkatesan, Aradhana M.; Locklin, Julia; Dupuy, Damian E.; Wood, Bradford J.



Primary tumors of the spine.  


Spinal tumors consist of a large spectrum of various histologic entities. Multiple spinal lesions frequently represent known metastatic disease or lymphoproliferative disease. In solitary lesions primary neoplasms of the spine should be considered. Primary spinal tumors may arise from the spinal cord, the surrounding leptomeninges, or the extradural soft tissues and bony structures. A wide variety of benign neoplasms can involve the spine including enostosis, osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, aneurysmal bone cyst, giant cell tumor, and osteochondroma. Common malignant primary neoplasms are chordoma, chondrosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma or primitive neuroectodermal tumor, and osteosarcoma. Although plain radiographs may be useful to characterize some spinal lesions, magnetic resonance imaging is indispensable to determine the extension and the relationship with the spinal canal and nerve roots, and thus determine the plan of management. In this article we review the characteristic imaging features of extradural spinal lesions. PMID:24896744

Orguc, Sebnem; Arkun, Remide



Diffusion Imaging of Brain Tumors  

PubMed Central

MR imaging offers a tremendous armamentarium of different methods that can be employed in brain tumor characterization. MR diffusion imaging has become a widely accepted method for probing the presence of fluid pools and molecular tissue water mobility. For most clinical applications of diffusion imaging, it is assumed that the diffusion signal vs diffusion weighting factor b decays monoexponentially. Within this framework, measurement of a single diffusion coefficient in brain tumors permits an approximate categorization of tumor type and for some tumors definitive diagnosis. In most brain tumors, when compared to normal brain tissue, the diffusion coefficient is elevated. The presence of peritumoral edema, which also exhibits an elevated diffusion coefficient, often precludes delineation of the tumor based on diffusion information alone. Serially obtained diffusion data is useful to document and even predict cellular response to drug or radiation therapy. Diffusion measurements in tissues over an extended range of b-factors have clearly shown that the mono-parametric description of the MR diffusion signal decay is incomplete. Very high diffusion weighting on clinical systems requires substantial compromise in spatial resolution. But after suitable analysis, superior separation of malignant brain tumors, peritumoral edema, and normal brain tissue can be achieved. These findings are also discussed in light of tissue-specific differences in membrane structure and the restrictions membranes exert on diffusion. Finally, measurement of the directional dependence of diffusion permits assessment of white matter integrity and dislocation. Such information, particularly in conjunction with advanced post-processing, is considered immensely useful for therapy planning. Diffusion imaging, which permits monoexponential analysis and provides directional diffusion information, is performed routinely in brain tumor patients. More advanced methods require improvement in acquisition speed and spatial resolution to gain clinical acceptance. PMID:20886568

Maier, Stephan E.; Sun, Yanping; Mulkern, Robert V.



Molecular Genetics of Neuroendocrine Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through insights into the molecular genetics of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), the genes predisposing to multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes were identified. In MEN1, tumors occur in the parathyroids, endocrine pancreas, anterior pituitary, adrenal glands and thymic neuroendocrine tissues. The MEN1 gene encodes a putative growth-suppressor protein, menin, binding JunD, a transcriptional factor belonging to the AP-1 complex. However, new partners

A. Calender



Radioguided Surgery of Brain Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Surgery is still considered as the primary therapeutic procedure for brain tumors. The precise delineation and excision of\\u000a brain tumor extent allows one to improve survival outcome and quality of life of surgically treated patients. In that context,\\u000a many technical adjuncts to surgery, such as neuronavigation, ultrasound or intraoperative MRI have been explored to achieve\\u000a the most complete removal of

Laurent Menard


Brain Tumors and ICU Seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Seizures are a common presentation of brain neoplasms. Both primary brain tumors and metastases can present with seizures,\\u000a which are more commonly focal depending on the location and the pathology of the lesion. In general, more benign tumors have\\u000a higher incidence of seizures than more malignant ones. These patients are admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) either\\u000a for preoperative

Efstathios Papavassiliou; Panayiotis Varelas


Tumor Necrosis Factor and Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor necrosis factor a (TNF) is a potent, pleiotropic, proinflammatory cytokine that is produced by macrophages, neutrophils,\\u000a fibroblasts, keratinocytes, NK, T-and B-cells and also by tumor cells. TNF binds to either of two receptors, TNF-R1 or TNF-R2,\\u000a expressed on virtually all mammalian cell types. TNF was named because of its ability, when administered in pharmacologic\\u000a doses, to cause necrosis of

Mark Witte; David J. Shealy; Marian T. Nakada; G. Mark Anderson


Tumor detection in nonstationary backgrounds  

SciTech Connect

The author introduces two detectors which are used to locate simulated tumors of fixed size in clinical gamma-ray images. The first method was conceived when it was observed that small tumors possess an identifiable signature in curvature feature space, where curvature'' is the local curvature of the image data when viewed as a relief map. Computed curvature values are mapped to a normalized significance space using a windowed t-statistic. The resulting test statistic is thresholded at a chosen level of significance to give a positive detection. Nonuniform anatomic background activity is effectively suppressed. The second detector is an adaptive prewhitening matched filter, which uses a form of preprocessing known as statistical scaling to adaptively prewhiten the background. Tests are performed using simulated Gaussian-shaped tumors superimposed on twelve clinical gamma-ray images. When the tumors to be detected are small -- less than 3 pixels in diameter - the curvature detector out-performs the matched filter in true positive/false positive tests. A mean true positive rate of 95% at one false positive per image is achieved when the local signal-to-noise ratio of the tumor-background is [>=] 2. At larger tumor sizes the best performance is displayed by a different form of matched filter, namely the statistical correlation function proposed by Pratt.

Stickland, R.N. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States))



Multimodality evaluation of cervical tumors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clinical signs of radiotherapy failure are often not present until well after treatment has been completed. Methods which could predict the response of tumors either before or early into the radiotherapy schedule would have important implications for patient management. Recent studies performed at our institution suggest that MR perfusion imaging maya be useful in distinguishing between individuals who are likely to benefit from radiation therapy and those who are not. Because MR perfusion imaging reflects tissue vascularity as well as perfusion, quantitative positron emission tomographic (PET) blood flow studies were performed to obtain an independent assessment of tumor perfusion. MR perfusion and PET quantitative blood flow studies were acquired on four women diagnosed with advanced cervical cancer. The MR perfusion studies were acquired on a 1 cm sagittal slice through the epicenter of the tumor mass. Quantitative PET blood flow studies were performed using an autoradiographic technique. The PET and MRI were registered using a manual interactive routine and the mean blood flow in the tumor was compared to the relative signal intensity in a corresponding region on the MR image. The mean blood flow in the cervical tumors ranged form 30-48 ml/min/100 grams. The observed blood flow values are consistent with the assumed relationship between MR contrast enhancement and the distribution of tissue perfusion. The information offered by these studies provides an additional window into the evaluation of the response of cervical tumors to radiation therapy.

Madsen, Mark T.; Mayr, Nina A.; Yuh, William T. C.; Ehrhardt, James C.; Magnotta, Vincent A.; Ponto, Laura L. B.; Vannier, Michael W.; Hichwa, Richard D.



Glomus Tumors of the Hand  

PubMed Central

Objective: The purpose of this study is to present a review of the current understanding of glomus tumors of the hand. Methods: Clinical cases are used to demonstrate the relevance of history and physical examination in deriving the diagnosis of this rare, but important entity. Treatment, complications, and review of the literature are presented. Results: Glomus tumors are rare vascular lesions representing approximately 1% of all hand tumors. Derived from the glomus body, they are usually found at the tip of digits and present as a classic triad of severe pain, point tenderness, and cold sensitivity. Clinical features include blue discoloration, palpable nodule, and nail deformity in subungual tumors. The Hildreth's test and the Love's pin test are reliable methods of diagnosing glomus hand tumors with sensitivity and specificity exceeding 90%. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice. Possible complications following operative management include recurrence and nail deformity. Conclusion: This article outlines the current knowledge relating to the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of glomus tumors of the hand. PMID:18997858

Hazani, Ron; Houle, John M.; Kasdan, Morton L.; Wilhelmi, Bradon J.



Computed tomography in gastrointestinal stromal tumors.  


The aim of this study was to define the imaging characteristics of primary and recurrent gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) in computed tomography with respect to the tumor size. Computed tomography was performed in 35 patients with histologically confirmed gastrointestinal stromal tumors and analyzed retrospectively by two experienced and independent radiologist. The following morphologic tumor characteristics of primary ( n=20) and ( n=16) recurrent tumors were evaluated according to tumor size, shape, homogeneity, density compared with liver, contrast enhancement, presence of calcifications, ulcerations, fistula or distant metastases and the anatomical relationship to the intestinal wall, and the infiltration of adjacent visceral organs. Small GIST (<5 cm) showed a sharp tumor margin with homogeneous density and structure on unenhanced and contrast-enhanced images, and were characterized by an intraluminal tumor growth. Intermediate sized GIST (>5-10 cm) demonstrated an irregular shape, inhomogeneous density on unenhanced and contrast-enhanced images, a combined intra- and extraluminal tumor growth with aggressive findings, and infiltration of adjacent organs in 9 primary diagnosed and 2 recurrent tumors. Large GIST (>10 cm), which were observed in 8 primary tumors and 11 recurrent tumors, showed an irregular margin with inhomogeneous density and aggressive findings, and were characterized by signs of malignancy such as distant and peritoneal metastases. Small recurrent tumors had a similar appearance as compared with large primary tumors. Computed tomography gives additional information with respect to the relationship of gastrointestinal stromal tumor to the gastrointestinal wall and surrounding organs, and it detects distant metastasis. Primary and recurrent GIST demonstrate characteristic CT imaging features which are related to tumor size. Aggressive findings and signs of malignancy are found in larger tumors and in recurrent disease. Computed tomography is useful in detection and characterization of primary and recurrent tumors with regard to tumor growth pattern, tumor size, and varied appearances of gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and indirectly gives hints regarding dignity and therefore prognostic outcome. PMID:12835984

Ghanem, Nadir; Altehoefer, Carsten; Furtwängler, Alex; Winterer, Jan; Schäfer, Oliver; Springer, Oliver; Kotter, Elmar; Langer, Mathias



Tumor suppressor molecules and methods of use  


The invention provides substantially pure tumor suppressor nucleic acid molecules and tumor suppressor polypeptides. The invention also provides hairpin ribozymes and antibodies selective for these tumor suppressor molecules. Also provided are methods of detecting a neoplastic cell in a sample using detectable agents specific for the tumor suppressor nucleic acids and polypeptides.

Welch, Peter J.; Barber, Jack R.



Tumor lysate-loaded biodegradable microparticles  

E-print Network

Tumor lysate-loaded biodegradable microparticles as cancer vaccines Expert Rev. Vaccines 13(1), 9 tumor lysate (TL) as a source of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) have significant potential for generating therapeutic anti-tumor immune responses. Vaccines encompassing TL bypass the limitations of single

Salem, Aliasger K.


Metastatic breast neuroendocrine tumor from the rectum.  


Metastatic breast neuroendocrine tumor is an exceedingly rare entity. They are commonly initially misdiagnosed as primary breast carcinoma. Correct diagnosis of this tumor is crucial owing to the different clinical management from primary breast tumor. We report an additional case of metastatic breast neuroendocrine tumor from the rectum that behaved in an aggressive fashion and failed to respond to chemotherapy treatment. PMID:22729125

Al-Maghrabi, Jaudah A; Zekri, Jamal



Oncogenes as inducers of tumor angiogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dominantly acting transforming oncogenes are generally considered to contribute to tumor development and progression by their direct effects on tumor cell proliferation and differentiation. However, the growth of solid tumors beyond 1–2 mm in diameter requires the induction and maintenance of a tumor blood vessel supply, which is attributed in large part to the production of angiogenesis promoting growth factors

J. Rak; J. Filmus; G. Finkenzeller; S. Grugel; D. Marmé; R. S. Kerbel



[Circulating tumor cells: cornerstone of personalized medicine].  


Cancer treatment has evolved toward personalized medicine. It is mandatory for clinicians to ascertain tumor biological features in order to optimize patients' treatment. Identification and characterization of circulating tumor cells demonstrated a prognostic value in many solid tumors. Here, we describe the main technologies for identification and characterization of circulating tumor cells and their clinical application in gynecologic and breast cancers. PMID:25017712

Rafii, A; Vidal, F; Rathat, G; Alix-Panabières, C



Status of gallium-67 in tumor detector  

SciTech Connect

The efficacy of gallium-67 citrate in detecting specific tumors is discussed. Tumors in which gallium-67 imaging is useful as a diagnostic tool include Hodgkin's disease, histiocystic lymphoma, Burkitt's lymphoma, hepatoma melanoma, and leukemia. It has not been found to be effective in diagnosing head and neck tumors, gastrointestinal tumors, genitourinary tract tumors, breast tumors, and pediatric tumors. Gallium may be useful in the evaluation of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, testicular carcinoma, mesothelioma, and carcinoma of the lung. It may also be useful for determining response to treatment and prognosis in some neoplasms.

Hoffer, P.



Can We Negotiate with a Tumor?  

PubMed Central

Recent progress in deciphering the molecular portraits of tumors promises an era of more personalized drug choices. However, current protocols still follow standard fixed-time schedules, which is not entirely coherent with the common observation that most tumors do not grow continuously. This unpredictability of the increases in tumor mass is not necessarily an obstacle to therapeutic efficiency, particularly if tumor dynamics could be exploited. We propose a model of tumor mass evolution as the integrated result of the dynamics of two linked complex systems, tumor cell population and tumor microenvironment, and show the practical relevance of this nonlinear approach. PMID:25084359

Deschatrette, Jean



Rare Primary Central Nervous System Tumors  

PubMed Central

There are close to 70,000 new cases of primary central nervous system tumors diagnosed annually in the United States. Meningiomas, gliomas, nerve sheath tumors and pituitary tumors account for 85% of them. There is abundant literature on these commonly occurring tumors but data from the literature on infrequently encountered tumors such as atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, choroid plexus carcinoma, ganglioglioma, hemangiopericytoma, and pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma are limited. This review provides an overview of the clinicopathologic and therapeutic aspects of these rare primary central nervous system tumors. PMID:25276324

Kubicky, Charlotte Dai; Sahgal, Arjun; Chang, Eric L.; Lo, Simon S.



Rare primary central nervous system tumors.  


There are close to 70,000 new cases of primary central nervous system tumors diagnosed annually in the United States. Meningiomas, gliomas, nerve sheath tumors and pituitary tumors account for 85% of them. There is abundant literature on these commonly occurring tumors but data from the literature on infrequently encountered tumors such as atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, choroid plexus carcinoma, ganglioglioma, hemangiopericytoma, and pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma are limited. This review provides an overview of the clinicopathologic and therapeutic aspects of these rare primary central nervous system tumors. PMID:25276324

Kubicky, Charlotte Dai; Sahgal, Arjun; Chang, Eric L; Lo, Simon S



Relationship between Tumor Cell Invasiveness and Polyploidization  

PubMed Central

A number of studies have shown that tumor cells fuse with other tumor and non-tumor cells. In the present study on tumor cell lines derived from glioblastoma, breast cancer, and melanoma, we estimated the frequency of fusion between tumor cells by establishing the fraction of cells with whole tumor-genome duplication in each cell line. Together with this, the capacity of the tumor cell lines to spread through a basement membrane scaffold was assessed, in order to test the hypothesis that pericellular proteolysis by enzymatic release in the spaces of intercellular contact could account for differences in the fusogenicity of tumor cells. The difference in invasiveness between the cell lines accounted for their specific amount of cells with tumor-genome duplication, which, depending on the cell line analyzed, ranged from 2% to 25% of the total cells. These results support the hypothesis that cell-to-cell invasion eliciting membrane fusion causes polyploidization in tumor cells. PMID:23300919

Mercapide, Javier; Anzanello, Fabio; Rappa, Germana; Lorico, Aurelio



Relationship between tumor cell invasiveness and polyploidization.  


A number of studies have shown that tumor cells fuse with other tumor and non-tumor cells. In the present study on tumor cell lines derived from glioblastoma, breast cancer, and melanoma, we estimated the frequency of fusion between tumor cells by establishing the fraction of cells with whole tumor-genome duplication in each cell line. Together with this, the capacity of the tumor cell lines to spread through a basement membrane scaffold was assessed, in order to test the hypothesis that pericellular proteolysis by enzymatic release in the spaces of intercellular contact could account for differences in the fusogenicity of tumor cells. The difference in invasiveness between the cell lines accounted for their specific amount of cells with tumor-genome duplication, which, depending on the cell line analyzed, ranged from 2% to 25% of the total cells. These results support the hypothesis that cell-to-cell invasion eliciting membrane fusion causes polyploidization in tumor cells. PMID:23300919

Mercapide, Javier; Anzanello, Fabio; Rappa, Germana; Lorico, Aurelio



Tumor Spectrum, Tumor Latency and Tumor Incidence of the Pten-Deficient Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPten functionally acts as a tumor suppressor gene. Lately, tissue-specific ablation of Pten gene in mice has elucidated the role of Pten in different tumor progression models. However, a temporally controlled Pten loss in all adult tissues to examine susceptibility of various tissues to Pten-deficient tumorigenesis has not been addressed yet. Our goal was to explore the genesis of Pten-deficient

Tsai-Ling Lu; Junn-Liang Chang; Chih-Chia Liang; Li-Ru You; Chun-Ming Chen; Dong-Yan Jin



Integrated Analysis of Tumor Samples Sheds Light on Tumor Heterogeneity  

PubMed Central

The heterogeneity of tumor samples is a major challenge in the analysis of high-throughput profiling of tumor biopsies and cell lines. The measured aggregate signals of multigenerational progenies often represent an average of several tumor subclones with varying genomic aberrations and different gene expression levels. The goal of the present study was to integrate copy number analyses from SNP-arrays and karyotyping, gene expression profiling, and pathway analyses to detect heterogeneity, identify driver mutations, and explore possible mechanisms of tumor evolution. We showed the heterogeneity of the studied samples, characterized the global copy number alteration profiles, and identified genes whose copy number status and expression levels were aberrant. In particular, we identified a recurrent association between two BRAFV600E and BRAFV600K mutations and changes in DKK1 gene expression levels, which might indicate an association between the BRAF and WNT pathways. These findings show that the integrated approaches used in the present study can robustly address the challenging issue of tumor heterogeneity in high-throughput profiling. PMID:23012583

Parisi, Fabio; Micsinai, Mariann; Strino, Francesco; Ariyan, Stephan; Narayan, Deepak; Bacchiocchi, Antonella; Cheng, Elaine; Xu, Fang; Li, Peining; Kluger, Harriet; Halaban, Ruth; Kluger, Yuval



In vitro repolarized tumor macrophages inhibit gastric tumor growth.  


Gastric cancer is the second most frequent cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Combined surgery and chemo/radiotherapy give only a limited 5-year survival rate. Alternative therapeutic strategies such as immunotherapy are needed to improve this survival rate. Macrophages are functionally plastic cells. Type 1 macrophages (M1) inhibit, whereas type 2 macrophages (M2) promote, tumor growth. In this study, we examined the effects of in vitro repolarized tumor macrophages on gastric tumor growth in vivo. We demonstrated that peritoneal macrophages isolated from mouse forestomach carcinoma (MFC) tumor-bearing mice (TPM) displayed a M2 functional phenotype as indicated by a characteristic cytokine production profile and expression pattern of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and arginase (Arg) of M2 macrophages. Treatment of TPM with type 1 cytokine IL-12 and IFN-gamma repolarized TPM toward the M1 phenotype as confirmed by a cytokine production profile and expression pattern of iNOS and Arg of typical M1 macrophages. Repolarized TPM significantly inhibits the growth of MFC tumors implanted subcutaneously compared to peritoneal macrophage (PM) isolated from normal animals, TPM, or M2 macrophages. Our study supports in vitro repolarization of macrophages as a potential immunotherapeutic strategy for gastric cancer. PMID:23879167

Liu, Hao; Wu, Xiaolin; Wang, Shanmei; Deng, Wei; Zan, Lipin; Yu, Shuangjiang



Heparanase promotes lymphangiogenesis and tumor invasion in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.  


Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are an important and abundant component of the extracellular matrix, which undergo substantial remodeling throughout tumorigenesis via the enzymatic activity of heparanase. Heparanase has been shown to be upregulated in many human cancers; however, its specific functions in human pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) and spontaneous mouse models of cancer have not been evaluated. Here, we investigated the role of heparanase in PanNETs using patient samples and the RIP1-Tag2 (RT2) PanNET-transgenic mouse model. High heparanase expression significantly correlated with more advanced tumor stage, higher tumor grade and the presence of distant metastasis in PanNET patients. We genetically manipulated heparanase levels in the RT2 model using heparanase-transgenic mice, which constitutively overexpress heparanase, and heparanase-knockout mice. Heparanase was found to have a critical role in promoting tumor invasion, through both macrophage and cancer cell sources in the tumor microenvironment. In addition, elevated heparanase levels significantly increased peritumoral lymphangiogenesis in vivo and promoted the trans-differentiation of macrophages into lymphatic endothelial cell-like structures in culture. Conversely, we found that heparanase deletion led to increased angiogenesis and pericyte coverage. Together, these data identify important roles for heparanase in regulating several critical aspects of tumorigenesis, demonstrating that heparanase represents a potential therapeutic target for PanNET patients. PMID:23644656

Hunter, K E; Palermo, C; Kester, J C; Simpson, K; Li, J-P; Tang, L H; Klimstra, D S; Vlodavsky, I; Joyce, J A



Components of the Hematopoietic Compartments in Tumor Stroma and Tumor-Bearing Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid tumors are composed of cancerous cells and non-cancerous stroma. A better understanding of the tumor stroma could lead to new therapeutic applications. However, the exact compositions and functions of the tumor stroma are still largely unknown. Here, using a Lewis lung carcinoma implantation mouse model, we examined the hematopoietic compartments in tumor stroma and tumor-bearing mice. Different lineages of

Hoangdinh Huynh; Junke Zheng; Masato Umikawa; Robert Silvany; Xian-Jin Xie; Catherine J. Wu; Martin Holzenberger; Qianming Wang; Cheng Cheng Zhang; Zhongjun Zhou



Interfractional Variations of Tumor Centroid Position and Tumor Regression during Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Lung Tumor  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To determine interfractional changes of lung tumor centroid position and tumor regression during stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials. 34 patients were treated by SBRT in 4-5 fractions to a median dose of 50?Gy. The CT scans acquired for verification were registered with simulation CT scans. The gross target volume (GTV) was contoured on all verification CT scans and compared to the initial GTV in treatment plan system. Results. The mean (±standard deviation, SD) three-dimension vector shift was 5.2 ± 3.1?mm. The mean (±SD) interfractional variations of tumor centroid position were ?0.7 ± 4.5?mm in anterior-posterior (AP) direction, 0.2 ± 3.1?mm in superior-inferior (SI) direction, and 0.4 ± 2.4?mm in right-left (RL) direction. Large interfractional variations (?5?mm) were observed in 5 fractions (3.3%) in RL direction, 16 fractions (10.5%) in SI direction, and 36 fractions (23.5%) in AP direction. Tumor volume did not decrease significantly during lung SBRT. Conclusions. Small but insignificant tumor volume regression was observed during lung SBRT. While the mean interfractional variations of tumor centroid position were minimal in three directions, variations more than 5?mm account for approximately a third of all, indicating additional margin for PTV, especially in AP direction. PMID:25548770

Sun, Yanan; Lu, Yufei; Cheng, Siguo; Guo, Wei; Ye, Ke; Zhao, Huiyun; Zheng, Xiaoli; Li, Dingjie; Wang, Shujuan; Yang, Chengliang; Ge, Hong



Sclerosing stromal tumor of the ovary  

PubMed Central

Sclerosing stromal tumor is a rare ovarian tumor, occurring in young adults in the second and third decade of life. We report clinical and histopathological features of three cases of sclerosing stromal tumor of the ovary with a review of literature. The tumor has distinct histological features and is easily recognizable when a high index of suspicion is maintained in young patients presenting with an ovarian mass. These tumors are benign and can be treated successfully by enucleation or unilateral ovariotomy. PMID:25264533

Atram, Manisha; Sharma, Satish; Gangane, Nitin



Ganglioside distribution in murine neural tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ganglioside composition of seven experimental brain tumors was examined in C57BL\\/6J mice. The tumors were produced from\\u000a 20-methylcholanthrene (20-MC) implantation into either the cerebrum or cerebellum and were maintained in serial transplants\\u000a through many generations. The tumors studied were grown subcutaneously as solid tumors, and cells from two of the tumors were\\u000a also studied in culture. Histologically, all of

Thomas N. Seyfried; Mohga El-Abbadi; Mary Louise Roy



Indolent carcinoid tumor of the sigmoid colon.  


Carcinoid tumors of the colon are a rare cause of colonic malignant disease. A case of carcinoid tumor of the sigmoid colon is presented that illustrates the indolent course of this type of tumor. The case presented highlights the clinicopathologic features of carcinoid tumors of hindgut origin, including advanced local and widely metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis in the absence of symptoms of the carcinoid syndrome. The diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors are reviewed. PMID:8129244

Berger, J J; Berman, S S; Morgan, R E; Britt, L D



Cryo-ablation improves anti-tumor immunity through recovering tumor educated dendritic cells in tumor-draining lymph nodes  

PubMed Central

Background In addition to minimally invasive destruction of tumors, cryo-ablation of tumors to some extent modulated anti-tumor immunity. Cryo-ablated tumors in glioma mice models induced anti-tumor cellular immunologic response which increases the percentage of CD3+ and CD4+T cells in blood as well as natural killer cells. As a crucial role in triggering anti-tumor immunity, dendritic cells (DCs) were educated by tumors to adopt a tolerance phenotype which helps the tumor escape from immune monitoring. This study aims to study whether cryo-ablation could influence the tolerogenic DCs, and influence anti-tumor immunity in tumor-draining lymph nodes (TDLNs). Methods Using the GL261 subcutaneous glioma mouse model, we created a tumor bearing group, cryo-ablation group, and surgery group. We analyzed alteration in phenotype and function of tolerogenic DCs, and evaluated the factors of anti-tumor immunity inhibition. Results DCs in TDLNs in GL261 subcutaneous glioma mouse model expressed tolerogenic phenotype. In contrast to surgery, cryo-ablation improved the quantity and quality of these tolerogenic DCs. Moreover, the DCs decreased the expression of intracellular interleukin-10 (IL-10) and extra-cellular IL-10. In vitro, DCs from the cryo-ablation group recovered their specific function and induced potent anti-tumor immunity through triggering T cells. In vivo, cryo-ablation showed weak anti-tumor immunity, only inhibiting the growth of rechallenged tumors. But many IL-10-low DCs, rather than IL-10-high DCs, infiltrated the tumors. More importantly, Tregs inhibited the performance of these DCs; and depletion of Tregs greatly improved anti-tumor immunity in vivo. Conclusion Cryo-ablation could recover function of tumor induced tolerogenic DCs in vitro; and depletion of Tregs could improve this anti-tumor effect in vivo. The Tregs/CD4+T and Tregs/CD25+T cells in TDLNs inhibit DCs’ activity and function.

He, Xiao-Zheng; Wang, Qi-Fu; Han, Shuai; Wang, Hui-Qing; Ye, Yong-Yi; Zhu, Zhi-Yuan; Zhang, Shi-Zhong



Phyllodes Tumor of the Breast  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To better identify prognostic factors for local control and survival, as well as the role of different therapeutic options, for phyllodes tumors, a rare fibroepithelial neoplasm of the breast. Methods and Materials: Data from 443 women treated between 1971 and 2003 were collected from the Rare Cancer Network. The median age was 40 years (range, 12-87 years). Tumors were benign in 284 cases (64%), borderline in 80 cases (18%), and malignant in 79 cases (18%). Surgery consisted of breast-conserving surgery (BCS) in 377 cases (85%) and total mastectomy (TM) in 66 cases (15%). Thirty-nine patients (9%) received adjuvant radiotherapy (RT). Results: After a median follow-up of 106 months, local recurrence (LR) and distant metastases rates were 19% and 3.4%, respectively. In the malignant and borderline group (n = 159), RT significantly decreased LR (p = 0.02), and TM had better results than BCS (p = 0.0019). Multivariate analysis revealed benign histology, negative margins, and no residual disease (no RD) after initial treatment and RT delivery as independent favorable prognostic factors for local control; benign histology and low number of mitosis for disease-free survival; and pathologic tumor size tumor necrosis for overall survival. In the malignant and borderline subgroup multivariate analysis TM was the only favorable independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival. Conclusions: This study showed that phyllodes tumor patients with no RD after treatment have better local control. Benign tumors have a good prognosis after surgery alone. In borderline and malignant tumors, TM had better results than BCS. Thus, in these forms adjuvant RT should be considered according to histologic criteria.

Belkacemi, Yazid [Centre Oscar Lambret, Lille (France); University of Lille II, Lille (France)], E-mail:; Bousquet, Guilhem [University of Lille II, Lille (France); Marsiglia, Hugo [Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Florence University, Florence (Italy); Ray-Coquard, Isabelle [CRLC Leon Berard, Lyon (France); Magne, Nicolas [Institut Jules Bordet, Brussels (Belgium); Malard, Yann [CRLC F. Bergonie, Bordeaux (France); Lacroix, Magalie [CRLC Claudius Regaud, Toulouse (France); Gutierrez, Cristina [Institut Catala d'Oncologia, L'Hospitalet (Spain); Senkus, Elzbieta [Medical University, Gdansk (Poland); Christie, David [East Coast Cancer Center, Tugun, Queensland (Australia); Drumea, Karen [Rambam Medical Center, Haifa (Israel); Lagneau, Edouard [CHU, Besancon (France); Kadish, Sidney P. [University of Massachusetts, North Worcester, MA (United States); Scandolaro, Luciano [Divisione di Radioterapia Oncologica, Ospedale S. Anna, Como (Italy); Azria, David [CRLC Val d'Aurelle, Montpellier (France); Ozsahin, Mahmut [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland)



WWOX: A fragile tumor suppressor.  


WWOX, the WW domain-containing oxidoreductase gene at chromosome region 16q23.3-q24.1, spanning chromosomal fragile site FRA16D, encodes the 46?kDa Wwox protein, a tumor suppressor that is lost or reduced in expression in a wide variety of cancers, including breast, prostate, ovarian, and lung. The function of Wwox as a tumor suppressor implies that it serves a function in the prevention of carcinogenesis. Indeed, in vitro studies show that Wwox protein interacts with many binding partners to regulate cellular apoptosis, proliferation, and/or maturation. It has been reported that newborn Wwox knockout mice exhibit nascent osteosarcomas while Wwox(+/-) mice exhibit increased incidence of spontaneous and induced tumors. Furthermore, absence or reduction of Wwox expression in mouse xenograft models results in increased tumorigenesis, which can be rescued by Wwox re-expression, though there is not universal agreement among investigators regarding the role of Wwox loss in these experimental models. Despite this proposed tumor suppressor function, the overlap of the human WWOX locus with FRA16D sensitizes the gene to protein-inactivating deletions caused by replication stress. The high frequency of deletions within the WWOX locus in cancers of various types, without the hallmark protein inactivation-associated mutations of "classical" tumor suppressors, has led to the proposal that WWOX deletions in cancers are passenger events that occur in early cancer progenitor cells due to fragility of the genetic locus, rather than driver events which provide the cancer cell a selective advantage. Recently, a proposed epigenetic cause of chromosomal fragility has suggested a novel mechanism for early fragile site instability and has implications regarding the involvement of tumor suppressor genes at chromosomal fragile sites in cancer. In this review, we provide an overview of the evidence for WWOX as a tumor suppressor gene and put this into the context of fragility associated with the FRA16D locus. PMID:25538133

Schrock, Morgan S; Huebner, Kay



Biomarkers in Tissue Samples From Patients With High-Risk Wilms Tumor

Clear Cell Sarcoma of the Kidney; Recurrent Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors; Rhabdoid Tumor of the Kidney; Stage I Wilms Tumor; Stage II Wilms Tumor; Stage III Wilms Tumor; Stage IV Wilms Tumor; Stage V Wilms Tumor



Angiogenesis in Spontaneous Tumors and Implications for Comparative Tumor Biology  

PubMed Central

Blood supply is essential for development and growth of tumors and angiogenesis is the fundamental process of new blood vessel formation from preexisting ones. Angiogenesis is a prognostic indicator for a variety of tumors, and it coincides with increased shedding of neoplastic cells into the circulation and metastasis. Several molecules such as cell surface receptors, growth factors, and enzymes are involved in this process. While antiangiogenic therapy for cancer has been proposed over 20 years ago, it has garnered much controversy in recent years within the scientific community. The complex relationships between the angiogenic signaling cascade and antiangiogenic substances have indicated the angiogenic pathway as a valid target for anticancer drug development and VEGF has become the primary antiangiogenic drug target. This review discusses the basic and clinical perspectives of angiogenesis highlighting the importance of comparative biology in understanding tumor angiogenesis and the integration of these model systems for future drug development. PMID:24563633

Benazzi, C.; Al-Dissi, A.; Chau, C. H.; Figg, W. D.; Sarli, G.; de Oliveira, J. T.; Gärtner, F.



Targeting tumor-necrosis factor receptor pathways for tumor immunotherapy  

PubMed Central

With the success of ipilimumab and promise of programmed death-1 pathway-targeted agents, the field of tumor immunotherapy is expanding rapidly. Newer targets for clinical development include select members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family. Agonist antibodies to these co-stimulatory molecules target both T and B cells, modulating T-cell activation and enhancing immune responses. In vitro and in vivo preclinical data have provided the basis for continued development of 4-1BB, OX40, glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related gene, herpes virus entry mediator, and CD27 as potential therapies for patients with cancer. In this review, we summarize the immune response to tumors, consider preclinical and early clinical data on select TNFR family members, discuss potential translational challenges and suggest possible combination therapies with the aim of inducing durable antitumor responses. PMID:24855562



Targeting tumor-necrosis factor receptor pathways for tumor immunotherapy.  


With the success of ipilimumab and promise of programmed death-1 pathway-targeted agents, the field of tumor immunotherapy is expanding rapidly. Newer targets for clinical development include select members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family. Agonist antibodies to these co-stimulatory molecules target both T and B cells, modulating T-cell activation and enhancing immune responses. In vitro and in vivo preclinical data have provided the basis for continued development of 4-1BB, OX40, glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related gene, herpes virus entry mediator, and CD27 as potential therapies for patients with cancer. In this review, we summarize the immune response to tumors, consider preclinical and early clinical data on select TNFR family members, discuss potential translational challenges and suggest possible combination therapies with the aim of inducing durable antitumor responses. PMID:24855562

Schaer, David A; Hirschhorn-Cymerman, Daniel; Wolchok, Jedd D



Tumor Ablation with Irreversible Electroporation  

PubMed Central

We report the first successful use of irreversible electroporation for the minimally invasive treatment of aggressive cutaneous tumors implanted in mice. Irreversible electroporation is a newly developed non-thermal tissue ablation technique in which certain short duration electrical fields are used to permanently permeabilize the cell membrane, presumably through the formation of nanoscale defects in the cell membrane. Mathematical models of the electrical and thermal fields that develop during the application of the pulses were used to design an efficient treatment protocol with minimal heating of the tissue. Tumor regression was confirmed by histological studies which also revealed that it occurred as a direct result of irreversible cell membrane permeabilization. Parametric studies show that the successful outcome of the procedure is related to the applied electric field strength, the total pulse duration as well as the temporal mode of delivery of the pulses. Our best results were obtained using plate electrodes to deliver across the tumor 80 pulses of 100 µs at 0.3 Hz with an electrical field magnitude of 2500 V/cm. These conditions induced complete regression in 12 out of 13 treated tumors, (92%), in the absence of tissue heating. Irreversible electroporation is thus a new effective modality for non-thermal tumor ablation. PMID:17989772

Al-Sakere, Bassim; André, Franck; Bernat, Claire; Connault, Elisabeth; Opolon, Paule; Davalos, Rafael V.; Rubinsky, Boris; Mir, Lluis M.



Scintigraphic differentiation of intrahepatic tumors  

SciTech Connect

Intrahepatic tumors in asymptomatic patients are seen with increasing frequency. Treatment is dependent of the histology; while follicular nodular hyperplasia (FNH) and hemangiomas need no further treatment, all other tumors should be resected. In a prospective study we investigated the usefulness of two-stage scintigraphy (TSS) for the differentiation. The cholescintigraphy was started with a perfusion study, followed by a scan in the parenchymal phase and in the excretion phase. There is a typical scintigraphic pattern for FNH (hyperperfusion, normal parenchymal uptake delayed excretion) and hemangioma (hypoperfusion, no uptake), while all other tumors may have a mixed pattern. Therefore a blood pool is added to look for a hemangioma, if there is no typical pattern for FNH in the cholescintigraphy. The TSS classified correct 21 of 23 patients with FNH, 17 of 18 with hemangiomas, all 3 with adenoma and 36 of 37 with primary malignant intrahepatic tumors. The TSS is more accurate than CT or sonography, safe and inexpensive and therefore the method of first choice in the differentiation of intrahepatic tumors.

Creutzig, H.; Brolsch, C.; Gratz, K.; Neuhaus, P.; Muller, St.; Schober, O.; Lang, W.; Hundeshagen, H.; Pichlmayr, R.



ALCHEMIST (Estudios sobre la Secuenciación e Identificación de Marcadores para el Mejoramiento de la Terapia Adjuvante para el Cáncer de Pulmón): Preguntas y respuestas

ALCHEMIST comprende tres estudios clínicos integrados de medicina de precisión diseñados para identificar a personas con cáncer de pulmón en estadio inicial cuyos tumores tienen ciertos cambios genéticos poco comunes. También buscan evaluar si los tratamientos con medicamentos que combaten esos cambios moleculares pueden mejorar la supervivencia


Tumoral calcinosis of the hand  

PubMed Central

Tumoral calcinosis is a rare condition described in literature as a deposition of calcium salts in soft tissues. We here report a rare case of Tumoral calcinosis in the index finger of a hand in a 22-year-old woman. Because of the absence of any trauma, normal serum phosphate and calcium levels and no symptoms but a cosmetic defect, our case is classified as a primary tumoral calcinosis. As well as described in literature, also in this case the surgical excision was the mainstay treatment for this benign pathology. For the particular area involved we performed a radical excision followed by an interesting reverse homodigital artery flap from the ulnar side of the index. PMID:25858267

Amati, Carlo; Pesce, Vito; Armenio, Andrea; Solarino, Giuseppe; Moretti, Biagio



Tumoral calcinosis of the hand.  


Tumoral calcinosis is a rare condition described in literature as a deposition of calcium salts in soft tissues. We here report a rare case of Tumoral calcinosis in the index finger of a hand in a 22-year-old woman. Because of the absence of any trauma, normal serum phosphate and calcium levels and no symptoms but a cosmetic defect, our case is classified as a primary tumoral calcinosis. As well as described in literature, also in this case the surgical excision was the mainstay treatment for this benign pathology. For the particular area involved we performed a radical excision followed by an interesting reverse homodigital artery flap from the ulnar side of the index. PMID:25858267

Amati, Carlo; Pesce, Vito; Armenio, Andrea; Solarino, Giuseppe; Moretti, Biagio



FGF23 Producing Mesenchymal Tumor  

PubMed Central

A 40-year-old patient was referred to Clinic of Endocrinology due to hypophosphatemia causing pain, cramps, and weakness of muscles. Moreover, his bone mineral density was very low. The previous treatment with phosphorus and active vitamin D metabolites was ineffective. In lab tests the hypophosphatemia, hyperphosphaturia, and elevated FGF23 levels were found. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) showed increased radiotracer uptake in the right maxillary sinus and CT scans confirmed presence of tumor in this localization. Biopsy and cytological examination created suspicion of mesenchymal tumor—glomangiopericytoma. Waiting for surgery the patient was treated with long acting Somatostatine analogue, and directly before operation short acting Octreotide and intravenous phosphorus were used. Histology confirmed the cytological diagnosis and the phosphatemia return to normal values in 10 days after the tumor removal. PMID:24639905

?wik?a, Jaros?aw B.; Misiorowski, Waldemar; Rabijewski, Micha?; Sikora, Krzysztof; Wanyura, Hubert



Epilepsy associated tumors: Review article  

PubMed Central

Long-term epilepsy associated tumors (LEAT) represent a well known cause of focal epilepsies. Glioneuronal tumors are the most frequent histological type consisting of a mixture of glial and neuronal elements and most commonly arising in the temporal lobe. Cortical dysplasia or other neuronal migration abnormalities often coexist. Epilepsy associated with LEAT is generally poorly controlled by antiepileptic drugs while, on the other hand, it is high responsive to surgical treatment. However the best management strategy of tumor-related focal epilepsies remains controversial representing a contemporary issues in epilepsy surgery. Temporo-mesial LEAT have a widespread epileptic network with complex epileptogenic mechanisms. By using an epilepsy surgery oriented strategy LEAT may have an excellent seizure outcome therefore surgical treatment should be offered early, irrespective of pharmacoresistance, avoiding both the consequences of uncontrolled seizures as well as the side effects of prolonged pharmacological therapy and the rare risk of malignant transformation. PMID:25405186

Giulioni, Marco; Marucci, Gianluca; Martinoni, Matteo; Marliani, Anna Federica; Toni, Francesco; Bartiromo, Fiorina; Volpi, Lilia; Riguzzi, Patrizia; Bisulli, Francesca; Naldi, Ilaria; Michelucci, Roberto; Baruzzi, Agostino; Tinuper, Paolo; Rubboli, Guido



[Tracheal tumor treated as asthma].  


Primary tumors of the trachea are very rare. In adults, the majority of them are malignant. Schwannomas are exceedingly rare benign tumors in the tracheobronchial tree. We report a case of a 37-year-old man who was hospitalized for increasing dyspnea. He had been treated for bronchial asthma for the last 4 years with no benefit. The CT scan of the chest and bronchoscopy identified a tracheal mass that was prolapsed in the left stem bronchus. The patient did not remain free of disease after endoscopic laser resection. So, surgical resection was made. The tumor was excised at its base. A segment of the left stem bronchus was removed and primary anastomosis was performed. The histopathologic diagnosis was of a benign schwannoma without malignant elements. There was no recurrence during the follow-up period. This case demonstrates that intratracheal masses should be considered in patients with dyspnea or in patients with asthma refractory to conventional therapy. PMID:25131369

Ayadi-Kaddour, A; Khadhar, A; Mlika, M; Ismail, O; Braham, E; Marghli, A; Zidi, A; El Mezni, F



Histones: Controlling Tumor Signaling Circuitry  

PubMed Central

Epigenetic modifications constitute the next frontier in tumor biology research. Post-translation modification of histones dynamically influences gene expression independent of alterations to the DNA sequence. These mechanisms are often mediated by histone linkers or by proteins associated with the recruitment of DNA-binding proteins, HDAC I and II interacting proteins and transcriptional activators, coactivators or corepressors. Early evidence suggested that histones and their modifiers are involved in sophisticated processes that modulate tumor behavior and cellular phenotype. In this review, we discuss how recent discoveries about chromatin modifications, particularly histone acetylation, are shaping our knowledge of cell biology and our understanding of the molecular circuitry governing tumor progression and consider whether recent insights may extend to novel therapeutic approaches. Furthermore, we discuss the latest oncogenomic findings in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) from studies using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology and highlight the impact of mutations identified in histones and their modifiers. PMID:25177526

Martins, Manoela D.; Castilho, Rogerio M.



Update on pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) are relatively rare tumors comprising 1-2% of all pancreas neoplasms. In the last 10 years our understanding of this disease has increased dramatically allowing for advancements in the treatment of pNETs. Surgical excision remains the primary therapy for localized tumors and only potential for cure. New surgical techniques using laparoscopic approaches to complex pancreatic resections are a major advancement in surgical therapy and increasingly possible. With early detection being less common, most patients present with metastatic disease. Management of these patients requires multidisciplinary care combining the best of surgery, chemotherapy and other targeted therapies. In addition to surgical advances, recently, there have been significant advances in systemic therapy and targeted molecular therapy. PMID:25493258

McKenna, Logan R.



Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors.  


Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are rare soft tissue sarcomas of ectomesenchymal origin. The World Health Organization coined the term MPNST to replace previous heterogeneous and often confusing terminology, such as "malignant schwannoma," "malignant neurilemmoma," "neurogenic sarcoma," and "neurofibrosarcoma." Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors arise from major or minor peripheral nerve branches or sheaths of peripheral nerve fibers, and are derived from Schwann cells or pluripotent cells of neural crest origin. The Schwann cell is thought to be the major contributor to the formation of benign as well as malignant neoplasms of the nerve sheath. While this fact remains essentially true, the identity of cell of origin of the MPNST remains elusive, and has not yet been conclusively identified. It has been suggested that these tumors may have multiple cell line origins. In this review, the authors discuss the epidemiology, diagnosis, management, and treatment of MPNSTs. PMID:17613203

Gupta, Gaurav; Maniker, Allen



[Cystic tumors of the pancreas].  


Cystic tumors of the pancreas are rare, accounting for only 10 to 15% of cystic lesions of the pancreas and 1% of malignant neoplasms. They can be benign or malignant and well circumscribed and localized. Their identification, the differential diagnosis and treatment are difficult and one example is that up to a third of them may be confused with pseudocysts. The most important are serous microcystic cystadenomas, mucinous cystadenomas, mucinous cystadenocarcinomas, mucin-producing adenocarcinomas and adenocarcinomas associated to pseudocyst or to simple cyst. The most useful studies for diagnosis are ultrasound, computed axial tomography, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, guided punction of the cyst with study of the fluid, and biopsy. The choice of the type of treatment depends on the variety of the tumor. The localization and extension, the surgical risk, the experience of the surgeon and the institutional resources. The prognosis of these tumors is better than that of ductal adenocarcinoma, even if they are malignant. PMID:9480530

Hurtado Andrade, H; Cortés Espinosa, T



Tumor targeting, trifunctional dendritic wedge.  


We report in vitro and in vivo evaluation of a newly designed trifunctional theranostic agent for targeting solid tumors. This agent combines a dendritic wedge with high boron content for boron neutron capture therapy or boron MRI, a monomethine cyanine dye for visible-light fluorescent imaging, and an integrin ligand for efficient tumor targeting. We report photophysical properties of the new agent, its cellular uptake and in vitro targeting properties. Using live animal imaging and intravital microscopy (IVM) techniques, we observed a rapid accumulation of the agent and its retention for a prolonged period of time (up to 7 days) in fully established animal models of human melanoma and murine mammary adenocarcinoma. This macromolecular theranostic agent can be used for targeted delivery of high boron load into solid tumors for future applications in boron neutron capture therapy. PMID:25350602

Dubey, Ramin; Kushal, Swati; Mollard, Alexis; Vojtovich, Lesya; Oh, Philip; Levin, Michael D; Schnitzer, Jan E; Zharov, Ilya; Olenyuk, Bogdan Z



Immunological treatment of liver tumors  

PubMed Central

Although multiple options for the treatment of liver tumors have often been described in the past, including liver resection, radiofrequency ablation with or without hepatic pump insertion, laparoscopic liver resection and the use of chemotherapy, the potential of immunotherapy and gene manipulation is still largely unexplored. Immunological therapy by gene manipulation is based on the interaction between virus-based gene delivery systems and dendritic cells. Using viruses as vectors, it is possible to transduce dendritic cells with genes encoding tumor-associated antigens, thus inducing strong humoral and cellular immunity against the antigens themselves. Both chemotherapy and radiation therapy have the disadvantage of destroying healthy cells, thus causing severe side-effects. We need more precisely targeted therapies capable of killing cancer cells while sparing healthy cells. Our goal is to establish a new treatment for solid liver tumors based on the concept of cytoreduction, and propose an innovative algorithm. PMID:16425346

Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio; Grizzi, Fabio; Jumper, Cynthia A; Cobos, Everardo; Hermonat, Paul L; Frezza, Eldo E



Histological patterns of head and neck tumors: An insight to tumor histology  

PubMed Central

This article emphasizes the basis for origin and importance of tumor patterns in diagnosis of oral and maxillofacial tumors. In this article, histological patterns and subpatterns of head and neck tumors are enlisted. Although, undifferentiated tumors remain a challenge to the histopathologist, by describing the histological patterns and the subpatterns of the tumors, an attempt has been made for the diagnosis of the tumors and subsequently for implementation of precise treatment plan for the same. PMID:24959039

Dive, Alka M; Bodhade, Ashish S; Mishra, Minal S; Upadhyaya, Neha



Tumor classification: molecular analysis meets Aristotle  

PubMed Central

Background Traditionally, tumors have been classified by their morphologic appearances. Unfortunately, tumors with similar histologic features often follow different clinical courses or respond differently to chemotherapy. Limitations in the clinical utility of morphology-based tumor classifications have prompted a search for a new tumor classification based on molecular analysis. Gene expression array data and proteomic data from tumor samples will provide complex data that is unobtainable from morphologic examination alone. The growing question facing cancer researchers is, "How can we successfully integrate the molecular, morphologic and clinical characteristics of human cancer to produce a helpful tumor classification?" Discussion Current efforts to classify cancers based on molecular features ignore lessons learned from millennia of experience in biological classification. A tumor classification must include every type of tumor and must provide a unique place for each tumor within the classification. Groups within a classification inherit the properties of their ancestors and impart properties to their descendants. A classification was prepared grouping tumors according to their histogenetic development. The classification is simple (reducing the complexity of information received from the molecular analysis of tumors), comprehensive (providing a place for every tumor of man), and consistent with recent attempts to characterize tumors by cytogenetic and molecular features. The clinical and research value of this historical approach to tumor classification is discussed. Summary This manuscript reviews tumor classification and provides a new and comprehensive classification for neoplasia that preserves traditional nomenclature while incorporating information derived from the molecular analysis of tumors. The classification is provided as an open access XML document that can be used by cancer researchers to relate tumor classes with heterogeneous experimental and clinical tumor databases. PMID:15113444

Berman, Jules J



Imaging of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors  

PubMed Central

Imaging of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors can be broadly divided into anatomic and functional techniques. Anatomic imaging determines the local extent of the primary lesion, providing crucial information required for surgical planning. Functional imaging, not only determines the extent of metastatic disease spread, but also provides important information with regard to the biologic behavior of the tumor, allowing clinicians to decide on the most appropriate forms of treatment. We review the current literature on this subject, with emphasis on the strengths of each imaging modality. PMID:21603312

Tan, Eik Hock; Tan, Cher Heng



Rare tumors of sinonasal track  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To characterize the clinical behavior of rare sinonasal malignancies.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Clinical data from the cases of rare sinonasal malignancies at Gujarat Cancer and Research Institute during 2001–2007 were\\u000a extracted. Data for histologic type of tumor, tumor stage and survival were analyzed.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Eighty-nine cases of the non-squamous cell malignancy were identified. The mean patient age was 54 years. In this study, we

Darshan V. Doshi; Umank Tripathi; Rajendra I. Dave; Shashank J. Pandya; Hemant K. Shukla; Bhavana C. Parikh



Tumors of the Pituitary Gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Anterior pituitary tumors are clonal proliferation of pituitary cells. They usually consist of one cell type, although some\\u000a adenomas consist of more than one cell type.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Pituitary tumors can be characterized by broad spectrum markers such as synaptophysin and chromogranin. Reticulin histochemical\\u000a staining is useful in separating normal hyperplastic and neoplastic pituitary tissues. Electron microscopy is a powerful tool\\u000a to

Ricardo V. Lloyd; Bernd W. Scheithauer; Eva Horvath; Kalman Kovacs


Cytosine Methyltransferases as Tumor Markers  

PubMed Central

Changes in DNA methylation patterns is a prominent characteristic of human tumors. Tumor cells display reduced levels of genomic DNA methylation and site-specific CpG island hypermethylation. Methylation of CpG dinucleotides is catalyzed by the enzyme family of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). In this review, the role of DNA methylation and DNMTs as key determinants of carcinogenesis is further elucidated. The chromatin modifying proteins that are known to interact with DNMTs are also described. Finally, the role of DNMTs as potential therapeutic targets is addressed. PMID:21629434

Pavlopoulou, Athanasia; Kossida, Sophia



Adult Wilms tumor: Case report  

PubMed Central

Wilms tumor (WT) occurs infrequently in adults. Even rarer is adult WT with extension by direct intravascular spread into the right side of the heart. The present report describes a WT with intracaval and intracardiac extension in a 38-year-young man. In addition, thrombus extension above the infrahepatic IVC represents a major technical topic for surgeons because of the possible occurrence of uncontrollable hemorrhages and tumor fragmentation. We report the results of a surgical approach to caval thrombosis including the isolation of the IVC from the liver as routinely performed during liver harvesting. The morphologic and immune-histochemical findings confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:25553532

Morabito, V.; Guglielmo, N.; Melandro, F.; Mazzesi, G.; Alesini, F.; Bosco, S.; Berloco, P.B.



Palifosfamide in Treating Patients With Recurrent Germ Cell Tumors

Adult Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Adult Teratoma; Malignant Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Malignant Extragonadal Non-Seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor; Extragonadal Seminoma; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Extragonadal Non-Seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Extragonadal Seminoma; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor



Evolution of tumor invasiveness: the adaptive tumor microenvironment landscape model.  


Interactions between cancer cells and their microenvironment are crucial for promoting tumor growth and invasiveness. In the tumor adaptive landscape model, hypoxic and acidic microenvironmental conditions reduce the fitness of cancer cells and significantly restrict their proliferation. This selects for enhanced motility as cancer cells may evolve an invasive phenotype if the consequent cell movement is rewarded by proliferation. Here, we used an integrative approach combining a mathematical tumor adaptive landscape model with experimental studies to examine the evolutionary dynamics that promote an invasive cancer phenotype. Computer simulation results hypothesized an explicit coupling of motility and proliferation in cancer cells. The mathematical modeling results were also experimentally examined by selecting Panc-1 cells with enhanced motility on a fibroblast-derived 3-dimensional matrix for cells that move away from the unfavorable metabolic constraints. After multiple rounds of selection, the cells that adapted through increased motility were characterized for their phenotypic properties compared with stationary cells. Microarray and gene depletion studies showed the role of Rho-GDI2 in regulating both cell movement and proliferation. Together, this work illustrates the partnership between evolutionary mathematical modeling and experimental validation as a potentially useful approach to study the complex dynamics of the tumor microenvironment. PMID:21859828

Lee, Hyung-Ok; Silva, Ariosto S; Concilio, Susanna; Li, Yue-Sheng; Slifker, Michael; Gatenby, Robert A; Cheng, Jonathan D



Tumor growth modeling based on cell and tumor lifespans  

E-print Network

is that the mean value of the tumor lifespan can be approached by a logarithmic function of the initial cancer cell by clinicians of the appropriate treat- ment planning. Keywords: Markov chain; cancer cells; radiotherapy 1 the Target Theory and assumes there exists a number of radio-sensitive sites within the cell, called targets

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Ceramide kinase promotes tumor cell survival and mammary tumor recurrence.  


Recurrent breast cancer is typically an incurable disease and, as such, is disproportionately responsible for deaths from this disease. Recurrent breast cancers arise from the pool of disseminated tumor cells (DTC) that survive adjuvant or neoadjuvant therapy, and patients with detectable DTCs following therapy are at substantially increased risk for recurrence. Consequently, the identification of pathways that contribute to the survival of breast cancer cells following therapy could aid in the development of more effective therapies that decrease the burden of residual disease and thereby reduce the risk of breast cancer recurrence. We now report that ceramide kinase (Cerk) is required for mammary tumor recurrence following HER2/neu pathway inhibition and is spontaneously upregulated during tumor recurrence in multiple genetically engineered mouse models for breast cancer. We find that Cerk is rapidly upregulated in tumor cells following HER2/neu downregulation or treatment with Adriamycin and that Cerk is required for tumor cell survival following HER2/neu downregulation. Consistent with our observations in mouse models, analysis of gene expression profiles from more than 2,200 patients revealed that elevated CERK expression is associated with an increased risk of recurrence in women with breast cancer. In addition, although CERK expression is associated with aggressive subtypes of breast cancer, including those that are estrogen receptor-negative, HER2(+), basal-like, or high grade, its association with poor clinical outcome is independent of these clinicopathologic variables. Together, our findings identify a functional role for Cerk in breast cancer recurrence and suggest the clinical utility of agents targeted against this prosurvival pathway. PMID:25164007

Payne, Ania W; Pant, Dhruv K; Pan, Tien-Chi; Chodosh, Lewis A



Targeting tumor microenvironment: crossing tumor interstitial fluid by multifunctional nanomedicines  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The genesis of cancer appears to be a complex matter, which is not simply based upon few genetic abnormalities/alteration. In fact, irregular microvasculature and aberrant interstitium of solid tumors impose significant pathophysiologic barrier functions against cancer treatment modalities, hence novel strategies should holistically target bioelements of tumor microenvironment (TME). In this study, we provide some overview and insights on TME and important strategies used to control the impacts of such pathophysiologic barriers. Methods: We reviewed all relevant literature for the impacts of tumor interstitium and microvasculature within the TME as well as the significance of the implemented strategies. Results: While tumorigenesis initiation seems to be in close relation with an emergence of hypoxia and alterations in epigenetic/genetic materials, large panoplies of molecular events emerge as intricate networks during oncogenesis to form unique lenient TME in favor of tumor progression. Within such irregular interstitium, immune system displays defective surveillance functionalities against malignant cells. Solid tumors show multifacial traits with coadaptation and self-regulation potentials, which bestow profound resistance against the currently used conventional chemotherapy and immunotherapy agents that target solely one face of the disease. Conclusion: The cancerous cells attain unique abilities to form its permissive microenvironment, wherein (a) extracellular pH is dysregulated towards acidification, (b) extracellular matrix (ECM) is deformed, (c) stromal cells are cooperative with cancer cells, (d) immune system mechanisms are defective, (e) non-integrated irregular microvasculature with pores (120-1200 nm) are formed, and (h) interstitial fluid pressure is high. All these phenomena are against cancer treatment modalities. As a result, to control such abnormal pathophysiologic traits, novel cancer therapy strategies need to be devised using multifunctional nanomedicines and theranostics. PMID:25035848

Omidi, Yadollah; Barar, Jaleh



Gefitinib in Treating Patients With Progressive Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

Gastrinoma; Glucagonoma; Insulinoma; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma; Somatostatinoma; WDHA Syndrome



Primary Neuroendocrine Tumor in Brain  

PubMed Central

The incidence of brain metastases for neuroendocrine tumor (NET) is reportedly 1.5~5%, and the origin is usually pulmonary. A 77-year-old man presented to our hospital with headache and disturbance of specific skilled motor activities. Computed tomography (CT) showed a massive neoplastic lesion originating in the left temporal and parietal lobes that caused a mass edematous effect. Grossly, total resection of the tumor was achieved. Histological examination revealed much nuclear atypia and mitotic figures. Staining for CD56, chromogranin A, and synaptophysin was positive, indicating NET. The MIB-1 index was 37%. Histopathologically, the tumor was diagnosed as NET. After surgery, gastroscopy and colonoscopy were performed, but the origin was not seen. After discharge, CT and FDG-PET (fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography) were performed every 3 months. Two years later we have not determined the origin of the tumor. It is possible that the brain is the primary site of this NET. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of this phenomenon. PMID:25506006

Tamura, Ryota; Kuroshima, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Yoshiki



Giant cell tumor of bone.  


Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is one type of giant cell-rich lesion of bone. This benign mesenchymal tumor has characteristic multinuclear giant cells. Mononuclear stromal cells are the physiologically active and diagnostic cell type. Most GCTs are located in the epiphyseal regions of long bones. The axial skeleton-primarily the sacrum-is a secondary site of involvement. Most patients present with pain, swelling, joint effusion, and disability in the third and fourth decades of life. Imaging studies are important for tumor staging and radiographic grading. Typically, these clinically active but slow-growing tumors are confined to bone, with relatively well-defined radiographic borders. Monostotic disease is most common. Metastatic spread to the lungs is rare. Extended intralesional curettage with or without adjuvant therapy is the primary treatment choice. Local recurrence is seen in ? 20% of cases, and a second local intralesional procedure is typically sufficient in cases that are detected early. Medical therapies include diphosphonates and denosumab. Denosumab has been approved for use in osteoporosis as well as breast and prostate cancer metastatic to bone. Medical therapy and radiotherapy can alter the management of GCT of bone, especially in multifocal disease, local recurrences, and bulky central/axial disease. PMID:23378375

Raskin, Kevin A; Schwab, Joseph H; Mankin, Henry J; Springfield, Dempsey S; Hornicek, Francis J



Living with a Brain Tumor  


... Assistance Travel & Housing Assistance Caregiving Information About Us Letter from the President & CEO Our Financials Board of ... Create Your Own Fundraiser CareCampaign Share Your Story National Volunteer Network Patient ... is a life-altering event for anyone. When a brain tumor is diagnosed, it can take away your sense of security and control. This can be both unsettling and ...


Current immunotherapy for solid tumors.  


Explorative knowledge of cellular and molecular mechanisms of immune function and regulation has provided optimism in developing cancer immunotherapy. However, three decades of experimental and clinical investigations to offer powerful immunotherapeutic strategies against solid tumors, with the possible exception of monoclonal antibody-targeted therapies, have not succeeded in significantly prolonging patient survival. Nonspecific immune approaches, including cytokine-based therapies and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, have so far produced consistent, although limited, results. In this review, we present the developments of cell transfer-based strategies that, in preclinical studies, have demonstrated potential efficacy, but have only established tumor regression in limited numbers of patients. The key to success demands creative combinations of tumor antigens, adjuvance, gene modification and various administration strategies in the development of cell-based therapies together with other cancer-treatment principles, often in a stepwise 'space-rocket-type' approach. Combined efforts of several scientific disciplines, such as tumor biology and immunology, as well as cell and gene research in transplantation, will open new venues. New regulation for clinical trials with advanced therapy medicine products to ensure patient safety will be highlighted. PMID:20635964

Barkholt, Lisbeth; Bregni, Marco



Tumor immunotargeting using innovative radionuclides.  


This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality. PMID:25679452

Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Rousseau, Caroline; Bodet-Milin, Caroline; Mathieu, Cédric; Guérard, François; Frampas, Eric; Carlier, Thomas; Chouin, Nicolas; Haddad, Ferid; Chatal, Jean-François; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Chérel, Michel; Barbet, Jacques



Tumor Immunotargeting Using Innovative Radionuclides  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality. PMID:25679452

Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Rousseau, Caroline; Bodet-Milin, Caroline; Mathieu, Cédric; Guérard, François; Frampas, Eric; Carlier, Thomas; Chouin, Nicolas; Haddad, Ferid; Chatal, Jean-François; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Chérel, Michel; Barbet, Jacques



How Are Pituitary Tumors Diagnosed?  


... to see if they have grown into nearby structures. In some cases, an imaging test of the head done for another reason may detect a pituitary tumor. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan MRI scans use radio waves and strong magnets to create detailed pictures of the inside of ...


Molecular imaging of neuroendocrine tumors.  


Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are a heterogeneous group of tumors that arise from neuroendocrine cells. These tumors may arise from various organs, including lung, thymus, thyroid, stomach, duodenum, small bowel, large bowel, appendix, pancreas, adrenal, and skin. Most are well differentiated and have the ability to produce biogenic amines and various hormones. NET usually occur sporadically but they also be associated with various familial syndromes. For the vast majority of NET, surgical resection is the treatment of choice whenever feasible. Localization of NET prior to surgery and for staging and follow-up relies on both anatomic and functional imaging modalities. In fact, the unique secretory characteristics of these tumors lend themselves to imaging by molecular imaging modalities, which can target specific metabolic pathways or receptors. Neuroendocrine cells have a variety of such target receptors and pathways for which radiopharmaceuticals have been developed, including [(123)I/(131)I]-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), [(111)In]pentetreotide, [(68)Ga] somatostatin analogs, [(18)F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), [(11)C/(18)F] dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), [(11)C] 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) (99m)Tc pentavalent dimercaptosuccinic acid ([(99m)Tc] (V) DMSA, and [(18)F] fluorodopamine (FDA). Here, we review the molecular imaging approaches for NET using various radiopharmaceuticals. PMID:21167384

Carrasquillo, Jorge A; Chen, Clara C



Brain Tumor in Newborn Babies  

Microsoft Academic Search

5 cases of brain tumor in newborn babies under 2 months are presented. 4 of them were supratentorial teratoma and originated from the midline, and 1 was a glioma at the cerebellopontine angle. 2 cases died before surgery and 2 cases after surgery. In our 5th case a benign teratoma of 150 g was removed from the third ventricle. He

Akira Takaku; Namio Kodama; Hiroo Ohara; Shigeaki Hori



General Information about Pituitary Tumors  


... The level of cortisol is checked from a sample of blood or from urine that is collected for three days. Low-dose dexamethasone suppression test : ... The level of cortisol is checked from a sample of blood or from urine that is collected for three days. Venous sampling for pituitary tumors : ...


Heme Oxygenase-1 in Tumors  

PubMed Central

Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) catalyzes the oxidation of heme to biologically active products: carbon monoxide (CO), biliverdin, and ferrous iron. It participates in maintaining cellular homeostasis and plays an important protective role in the tissues by reducing oxidative injury, attenuating the inflammatory response, inhibiting cell apoptosis, and regulating cell proliferation. HO-1 is also an important proangiogenic mediator. Most studies have focused on the role of HO-1 in cardiovascular diseases, in which its significant, beneficial activity is well recognized. A growing body of evidence indicates, however, that HO-1 activation may play a role in carcinogenesis and can potently influence the growth and metastasis of tumors. HO-1 is very often upregulated in tumor tissues, and its expression is further increased in response to therapies. Although the exact effect can be tissue specific, HO-1 can be regarded as an enzyme facilitating tumor progression. Accordingly, inhibition of HO-1 can be suggested as a potential therapeutic approach sensitizing tumors to radiation, chemotherapy, or photodynamic therapy. PMID:17822372




Intraocular tumors. A cytopathologic study.  


The cytologic characteristics and histopathologic correlates of common ocular tumors were examined using (1) cytologic and histologic specimens prepared from enucleated eyes with retinoblastoma and melanoma, (2) cytologic specimens prepared from clinically obtained intraocular fluids from eyes with lymphoma, metastatic adenocarcinoma and retinoblastoma and (3) cytologic specimens prepared from orbital aspirates and cerebrospinal fluids from a patient in whom retinoblastoma had spread to the orbit and central nervous system. Retinoblastoma cells occurred singly and in clusters and were associated with abundant necrotic debris and portions of capillaries with perivascular tumor infiltrates. Melanoma cells frequently had prominent nucleoli and variable amounts of fine cytoplasmic pigmentation and were found individually and in groups. Lymphoma cells were noncohesive, with scant cytoplasm. Metastatic intraocular adenocarcinoma cells had well-defined borders, multiple nucleoli and vacuolated cytoplasm. In general, the cellular morphology in the cytologic and tissue preparations of the intraocular tumors correlated well with each other. The findings suggest that common primary and metastatic intraocular tumors can be differentiated in cytologic preparations. PMID:2343699

Scroggs, M W; Johnston, W W; Klintworth, G K



Tumor Promotion in Rat Liver  

E-print Network

An initiation/promotion bioassay for chemical carcinogens and tumor promoters has been developed in rat liver using presumed preneoplastic lesions, foci of y-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGTasepositive hepatocytes, as the endpoint. To evaluate the tumor-promoting activity of phenobarbital, rats were administered diethylnitrosamine (DENA), 2.0 mmole/kg, followed by 500 ppm phenobarbital in their drinking water. After 6 weeks of phenobarbital promotion, the rats had an increased incidence of foci as compared to nonphenobarbital-treated rats. By 50 weeks, the number of foci in the nonpromoted animals equaled the number observed with promotion. The stability and progression of GGTase-positive foci was determined in rats that received a 2/3 partial hepatectomy, followed 24 hours later by DENA administration (0.3 mmole/kg). The rats then received 500 ppm phenobarbital in the drinking water for 7 weeks. After 7 weeks, half of the rats were continued on phenobarbital and the other half were removed from phenobarbital treatment. The number of foci observed in rats continued on phenobarbital treatment leveled off after 10 weeks of promotion, while in rats taken off phenobarbital it did not regress but increased at a slower rate, and, by 56 weeks, approached the number observed in rats subjected to continuous promotion. At 56 weeks, the size of foci was larger after continuous promotion. At 81 weeks, all 6 (100%) of the rats on continuous promotion had liver tumors, while only 3 of 6 (50%) of the rats removed from promotion had tumors. Promotion by phenobarbital stimulated the growth and decreased the time required for the appearance of GGTase-positive foci and liver tumors.


Romidepsin in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

Gastrinoma; Glucagonoma; Insulinoma; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Pulmonary Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma; Regional Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Somatostatinoma



Imaging and resectability issues of sinonasal tumors.  


Sinonasal tumors can invade into the critical structures of the anterior and central skull base. Although the determination of precise tumor histology is difficult with imaging, radiology is important in helping differentiate malignant from benign disease. Imaging helps to map the anatomical extent of intracranial and intraorbital tumor, which has important implications for staging, treatment and prognosis. Imaging also helps to facilitate and plan for craniofacial or endoscopic surgical approaches and radiation planning. This paper will review the locoregional invasion patterns for sinonasal tumors, with emphasis on their imaging features. The authors will discuss the implications for staging, resection potential, choice and details of radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy and prognosis. The imaging assessment of structures and compartments that are critical to the skull base team are highlighted: orbit, cavernous sinus, anterior cranial fossa dura/intracranial tumor, lateral frontal sinus, vascular tumor encasement, perineural tumor spread and tumor effect on the surrounding bony structures. PMID:23477517

Singh, Navneet; Eskander, Antoine; Huang, Shao-Hui; Curtin, Hugh; Bartlett, Eric; Vescan, Allan; Kraus, Dennis; O'Sullivan, Brian; Gentili, Fred; Gullane, Patrick; Yu, Eugene



Extrauterine inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor: A case report.  


•This is the first case report of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor in the literature to present with extrauterine disease.•A prompt work-up of symptoms may have precluded a tumor debulking procedure. PMID:24371717

Kushnir, Christina L; Gerardi, Melissa; Banet, Natalie; Shih, Ie-Ming; Diaz-Montes, Teresa



Systemic tumor-specific gene delivery.  


The objective of a systemically administered cancer gene therapy is to achieve gene expression that is isolated to the tumor tissue. Unfortunately, viral systems have strong affinity for the liver, and delivery from non-viral cationic systems often results in high expression in the lungs. Non-specific delivery to these organs must be overcome if tumors are to be aggressively treated with genes such as IL-12 which activates a tumor immune response, and TNF-alpha which can induce tumor cell apoptosis. Techniques which have led to specific expression in tumor tissue include receptor targeting through ligand conjugation, utilization of tumor specific promoters and viral mutation in order to take advantage of proteins overexpressed in tumor cells. This review analyzes these techniques applied to liposomal, PEI, dendrimer, stem cell and viral gene delivery systems in order to determine the techniques that are most effective in achieving tumor specific gene expression after systemic administration. PMID:24035974

Kullberg, Max; McCarthy, Ryan; Anchordoquy, Thomas J



General Information about Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors  


... Intestine Cancer Treatment . Unusual Cancers of Childhood Health history can affect the risk of gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors. ... carcinoid tumors include the following: Having a family history of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome ...


Deregulated proliferation and differentiation in brain tumors.  


Neurogenesis, the generation of new neurons, is deregulated in neural stem cell (NSC)- and progenitor-derived murine models of malignant medulloblastoma and glioma, the most common brain tumors of children and adults, respectively. Molecular characterization of human malignant brain tumors, and in particular brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs), has identified neurodevelopmental transcription factors, microRNAs, and epigenetic factors known to inhibit neuronal and glial differentiation. We are starting to understand how these factors are regulated by the major oncogenic drivers in malignant brain tumors. In this review, we will focus on the molecular switches that block normal neuronal differentiation and induce brain tumor formation. Genetic or pharmacological manipulation of these switches in BTSCs has been shown to restore the ability of tumor cells to differentiate. We will discuss potential brain tumor therapies that will promote differentiation in order to reduce treatment resistance, suppress tumor growth, and prevent recurrence in patients. PMID:25416506

Swartling, Fredrik J; ?an?er, Matko; Frantz, Aaron; Weishaupt, Holger; Persson, Anders I



General Information about Adult Brain Tumors  


... medulla), and other parts of the brain. The spinal cord connects the brain to nerves in most parts ... touch. There are different types of brain and spinal cord tumors. Brain and spinal cord tumors are named ...


Circulating Tumor Cell Assay Frequently Asked Questions

Version: July 2010 Circulating Tumor Cell Assay Frequently Asked Questions LHTP003.8.1 ?H2AX IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE ASSAY FOR CIRCULATING TUMOR CELLS USING THE CELLSEARCH SYSTEM 1. Do I need any prior experience before applying for the training


Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults  


... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults Download Printable ... the topics below to get started. What Is Brain/CNS Tumors In Adults? What is cancer? What ...


Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Children  


... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Children Download Printable ... the topics below to get started. What Is Brain/CNS Tumors In Children? What is cancer? What ...


Tumor Quantification in Clinical Positron Emission Tomography  

PubMed Central

Positron emission tomography (PET) is used extensively in clinical oncology for tumor detection, staging and therapy response assessment. Quantitative measurements of tumor uptake, usually in the form of standardized uptake values (SUVs), have enhanced or replaced qualitative interpretation. In this paper we review the current status of tumor quantification methods and their applications to clinical oncology. Factors that impede quantitative assessment and limit its accuracy and reproducibility are summarized, with special emphasis on SUV analysis. We describe current efforts to improve the accuracy of tumor uptake measurements, characterize overall metabolic tumor burden and heterogeneity of tumor uptake, and account for the effects of image noise. We also summarize recent developments in PET instrumentation and image reconstruction and their impact on tumor quantification. Finally, we offer our assessment of the current development needs in PET tumor quantification, including practical techniques for fully quantitative, pharmacokinetic measurements. PMID:24312151

Bai, Bing; Bading, James; Conti, Peter S



Tumor cell migration in complex microenvironments  

E-print Network

Tumor cell migration is essential for invasion and dissemination from primary solid tumors and for the establishment of lethal secondary metastases at distant organs. In vivo and in vitro models enabled identification of ...

Polacheck, William Joseph


In Vitro Model of Tumor Cell Extravasation  

E-print Network

Tumor cells that disseminate from the primary tumor and survive the vascular system can eventually extravasate across the endothelium to metastasize at a secondary site. In this study, we developed a microfluidic system ...

Jeon, Jessie S.


Estrogen's Impact on Colon Tumor Formation  

E-print Network

One hundred thirty six men and women die every day from colon cancer in the United States (2008 statistics). Estrogen has been shown to reduce colonic tumor inflammation; however, it is unclear in the tumor development and growth process what...

Tinsley, Kirby



Cancer Stem Cells Found in Pancreatic Tumors

Researchers have detected cancer stem cells in tumors from patients with pancreatic cancer. Experiments in mice suggest that these cancer stem cells may help explain the aggressive growth and spread of pancreatic tumors seen in patients.


Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium Working Groups

Childhood Brain Tumor Working Group - This Working Group focuses on epidemiologic studies of childhood brain tumors. We will focus on establishing research questions of interest in order to plan appropriate studies to address these questions.


LiquichekTM Tumor Marker Control  

E-print Network

LiquichekTM Tumor Marker Control Bio-Rad Laboratories T U M O R M A R K E R C O N T R O L S #12;T U M O R M A R K E R C O N T R O L S LiquichekTM Tumor Marker Control LiquichekTM Tumor Marker Control is a liquid, human serum based, third party control for monitoring the precision of tumor marker testing

Rodriguez, Carlos


Solitary fibrous tumor of the oral cavity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of benign solitary fibrous tumor of the oral cavity is reported. The tumor occurred in the buccal mucosa of a 34-year-old woman. The surgically removed tumor was 1.5 × 1.2 × 1.0 cm in size and well circumscribed. Histologically, the tumor was composed of spindle-shaped cells that were predominantly arranged haphazardly. Hemangiopericytomalike areas and collagenous areas were also

Kenji Kurihara; Kiyoshi Mizuseki; Junya Sonobe; Junji Yanagihara



Minute carcinoid tumor of the gallbladder.  


A minute carcinoid tumor of the gallbladder is reported. The tumor was incidentally identified in a 77-year-old Japanese man with cholecystolithiasis, hepatocellular carcinoma and sigmoid colon carcinoma. The tumor formed a 5-mm-sized sessile polyp at the neck of the gallbladder. The tumor cells, which were argyrophilic and non-argentaffinic, belonged to the foregut-type. Immunohistochemically, they were positive for neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and somatostatin. PMID:1678242

Mochizuki, M



Epidemiologic study of tumors in dinosaurs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occasional reports in isolated fragments of dinosaur bones have suggested that tumors might represent a population phenomenon. Previous study of humans has demonstrated that vertebral radiology is a powerful diagnostic tool for population screening. The epidemiology of tumors in dinosaurs was here investigated by fluoroscopically screening dinosaur vertebrae for evidence of tumors. Computerized tomography (CT) and cross-sections were obtained where

B. M. Rothschild; D. H. Tanke; M. Helbling; L. D. Martin



Neuroendocrine tumors, version 1.2015.  


Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) comprise a broad family of tumors that may or may not be associated with symptoms attributable to hormonal hypersecretion. The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Neuroendocrine Tumors discuss the diagnosis and management of both sporadic and hereditary NETs. This selection from the guidelines focuses on sporadic NETs of the pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, lung, and thymus. PMID:25583772

Kulke, Matthew H; Shah, Manisha H; Benson, Al B; Bergsland, Emily; Berlin, Jordan D; Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S; Emerson, Lyska; Engstrom, Paul F; Fanta, Paul; Giordano, Thomas; Goldner, Whitney S; Halfdanarson, Thorvardur R; Heslin, Martin J; Kandeel, Fouad; Kunz, Pamela L; Kuvshinoff, Boris W; Lieu, Christopher; Moley, Jeffrey F; Munene, Gitonga; Pillarisetty, Venu G; Saltz, Leonard; Sosa, Julie Ann; Strosberg, Jonathan R; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas; Wolfgang, Christopher; Yao, James C; Burns, Jennifer; Freedman-Cass, Deborah



Pituitary tumors: pathophysiology, clinical manifestations and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pituitary tumors are frequently encountered intracranial neoplasms. They present with a variety of clinical manifestations that include symptoms and signs of excessive hormone secretion by the tumor, signs of hormone deficits by the normal pituitary gland and others related to expansion of the tumor mass and the resulting compression of surrounding structures such as the optic chiasm and cranial nerves.

B M Arafah; M P Nasrallah



Helping CAR T cells reach tumors.  


CAR T cells have shown dramatic effects against blood cancers, but they have had little impact on solid tumors. Researchers increased the effectiveness of CAR T-cell therapy in solid tumors by injecting the cells near the tumors. A phase I trial using this approach will begin early next year. PMID:25583818



Perfluorochemical emulsions can increase tumor radiosensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

An oxygen-carrying perfluorochemical emulsion enhanced the effectiveness of radiation therapy in two transplantable solid tumors in mice. The perfluorochemical emulsion had no effect on tumor growth after x-irradiation, but delayed tumor growth significantly when administered to oxygen-breathing mice before or during irradiation.

B. A. Teicher; C. M. Rose



Non-functioning pituitary tumors: 2012 update.  


Non-functioning pituitary adenomas are the most common pituitary macroadenomas in adults, accounting for approximately 14%-28% of all clinically relevant pituitary tumors. They are a heterogeneous group of tumors that cause symptoms by compression and/or hormone deficiencies. The possibility of tumor growth is increased in macroadenomas and solid tumors as compared to microadenomas and cystic tumors. Diagnosis is based on imaging procedures (magnetic resonance imaging), but there are studies reporting promising potential biomarkers. Transsphenoidal surgery remains the first therapeutic option for large tumors with compressive symptoms. There is no evidence that endoscopic procedures improve outcomes, but they decrease morbidity. There is no unanimity in finding prognostic predictors of recurrence. Radiosurgery achieves tumor control and, sometimes, adenoma size reduction. Its adverse effects increase with higher doses and tumor sizes>4cm(3). Drug treatment is of little value. In aggressive non-functioning tumors, temozolomide (TMZ) may be used with caution because no controlled studies are available. TMZ achieves tumor control in 38%-40% of aggressive non-functioning tumors. The optimal treatment regimen and duration have not been defined yet. Lack of response to TMZ after 3 cycles predicts for treatment resistance, but initial response does not ensure optimal mid or long-term results. O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase expression has a limited predictive value of response to treatment with TMZ in aggressive non-functioning tumors. It should therefore not be a determinant factor in selection of patients to be treated with TMZ. PMID:24035732

Cámara Gómez, Rosa



Esophageal carcinoid tumor treated by endoscopic resection.  


The present report describes a rare case of esophageal carcinoid tumor that was treated by endoscopic resection. A 43-year-old woman underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy at her family clinic for screening of the upper digestive tract and a small lesion resembling a submucosal tumor was detected in the lower esophagus. A biopsy sample from the lesion was diagnosed as esophageal carcinoid tumor and the patient visited our hospital for detailed examination. The tumor was approximately 3?mm in diameter and its surface appeared to be covered with normal squamous epithelium. The tumor had a shiny reddish surface without ulceration or erosion. Magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging showed structures resembling reticular vessels under the epithelium. Endoscopic ultrasonography depicted the tumor as a low-echoic mass within the lamina propria. Computed tomography did not detect the tumor and no metastatic lesions were evident in other organs. With the patient's informed consent, the tumor was resected using endoscopic submucosal dissection, with a sufficient free margin in both the vertical and horizontal directions. Magnifying endoscopic examination showed the resected tumor to have abundant reticular vessels. Finally, the tumor was diagnosed immunopathologically as an esophageal carcinoid tumor (neuroendocrine cell tumor, grade 1), without lymphatic or vascular invasion. PMID:25283957

Yagi, Makoto; Abe, Yasuhiko; Sasaki, Yu; Nomura, Eiki; Sato, Takeshi; Iwano, Daisuke; Yoshizawa, Kazuya; Sakuta, Kazuhiro; Kanno, Nana; Nishise, Syouichi; Ueno, Yoshiyuki



Giant cell tumor of the capitate.  


Giant cell tumors are primary bone tumors most often observed in the metaepiphyses of long bones; location in the hand, especially the carpal bones, is rare. We report a patient with recurrent giant cell tumor of the capitate and discuss treatment and prognosis in this rare site. PMID:21373912

Angelini, Andrea; Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Ruggieri, Pietro



NCI-MICCAI Challenge on Brain Tumor  

E-print Network

I NCI-MICCAI Challenge on Multimodal Brain Tumor Segmentation Proceedings of NCI-MICCAI BRATS 2013 of their unpredictable appearance and shape, segmenting brain tumors from multi-modal imaging data is one of the most; ...), the type of lesion (primary or secondary tumors; solid or infiltratively growing), and the state

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


MICCAI 2012 Challenge on Brain Tumor  

E-print Network

I MICCAI 2012 Challenge on Multimodal Brain Tumor Segmentation Proceedings of MICCAI-BRATS 2012 appearance and shape, segmenting brain tumors from multi-modal imaging data is one of the most challenging of lesion (primary or secondary tumors; solid or infiltratively growing), and the state of the disease (pre

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


CHAPTER TEN Matrix Regulation of Tumor-  

E-print Network

CHAPTER TEN Matrix Regulation of Tumor- Initiating Cells Sophie Y. Wong, Sanjay Kumar Department.1 What are tumor-initiating cells? 244 1.2 Significance of TICs 245 2. Identification and Isolation of mechanotransduction 250 4. Conclusion 251 References 252 Abstract The recognition that the progression of many tumors

Kumar, Sanjay


MR imaging in staging of bone tumors  

PubMed Central

For staging of bone tumors, TNM and Enneking’s systems are used with some differences. Magnetic resonance imaging is particularly useful for defining the extent of high-grade tumors, including transcortical and intertrabecular infiltration and periosteal extension. The concepts of compartment and curative surgical margins are important for bone tumor staging. PMID:17098647

Ehara, Shigeru



Fuzzy tumor-immune interaction system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we study a tumor-immune interaction system in fuzzy environment. By assuming the initial values of the tumor-immune interaction system as fuzzy values, we obtain a fuzzy tumor-immune interaction system. We then use the extension principle of Zadeh to interpret the obtained system and propose its solution numerically by means of fuzzy Euler method.

Daud, Wan Suhana Wan; Ahmad, Muhammad Zaini; Sakib, Elyana; Hasan, Zabidi Abu



Clinical data of Granulosa cell tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical data from Granulosa cell tumors (GCT) of the ovary were compared with data from 528 cases of malignant ovarian tumor in regard to symptomatology, treatment and prognosis. GCT are more frequent under the age of 30 and their biology requires a clinical separation from other feminizing mesenchymal tumors. Irregularities of ulterine bleeding as a result of hormonal activity were

K.-W. Schweppe; F. K. Beller



9 CFR 381.87 - Tumors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Tumors. Any organ or other part of a carcass which is affected by a tumor shall be condemned and when there is evidence of metastasis or that the general condition of the bird has been affected by the size, position, or nature of the tumor, the whole...



9 CFR 381.87 - Tumors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Tumors. Any organ or other part of a carcass which is affected by a tumor shall be condemned and when there is evidence of metastasis or that the general condition of the bird has been affected by the size, position, or nature of the tumor, the whole...



Is ?\\/? for prostate tumors really low?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Brenner and Hall’s 1999 paper estimating an ?\\/? value of 1.5 Gy for prostate tumors has stimulated much interest in the question of whether this ratio (of intrinsic radiosensitivity to repair capacity) is much lower in prostate tumors than in other types of tumors that proliferate faster. The implications for possibly treating prostatic cancer using fewer and larger fractions

Jack Fowler; Rick Chappell; Mark Ritter



Tumor-Associated Macrophages in Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neoplastic cells form only one part of a complex network of cell types that make up a breast tumor. The normal cell types that make up the nonneoplastic components of tumors include fibroblasts, endothelium, and inflammatory cells, such as tumor associated macrophages (TAMs). TAMs have the potential to carry out both anti- and protumor activities. In their antitumor role TAMs

Russell D. Leek; Adrian L. Harris



Overview of Pediatric Testicular Tumors in Korea  

PubMed Central

Prepubertal testicular tumors are rare compared with postpubertal testicular tumors. The incidence of prepubertal testicular tumors peaks at 2 years of age, tapers off after 4 years of age, and then begins to rise again at puberty. Prepubertal and postpubertal testicular tumors show many differences, including the typical tumor histology, molecular biological differences, and the malignant potential of tumors at different ages. Pediatric testicular tumors are classified as benign or malignant on the basis of their clinical behavior and histologically are divided into germ cell and gonadal stromal (nongerm cell) tumors. Many histological and biological studies have further confirmed the distinct nature of prepubertal and postpubertal testicular tumors. These differences have led to various management strategies for prepubertal and postpubertal tumors. Because overall about 75% of prepubertal testicular tumors are benign, a testis-sparing approach is becoming more common in children. Orchiectomy and observation with very selective use of chemotherapy has become the standard approach when a malignant tumor is identified. Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection and radiation therapy play very limited roles. PMID:25512812

Chung, Jae Min



A validated mathematical model of tumor growth including tumor-host interaction, cell-mediated immune  

E-print Network

A validated mathematical model of tumor growth including tumor-host interaction, cell of tumor cells to such cytotoxic substances (Lavi et al., 2012). Mathematical modelling of tumor growth/n, 28933 M´ostoles, Madrid, Spain Abstract We consider a dynamical model of cancer growth including three

Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad


Deregulation of tumor angiogenesis and blockade of tumor growth in PPARb-deficient mice  

E-print Network

Deregulation of tumor angiogenesis and blockade of tumor growth in PPARb-deficient mice Sabine Mu Peters5 and Rolf Mu¨ ller1, * 1 Institute of Molecular Biology and Tumor Research (IMT), Philipps show that the growth of syn- geneic Pparb wild-type tumors is impaired in Pparb�/� mice, concomitant

Omiecinski, Curtis


Minimization of Tumor Volume and Endothelial Support for a System Describing Tumor Anti-Angiogenesis  

E-print Network

Minimization of Tumor Volume and Endothelial Support for a System Describing Tumor Anti is a novel treatment approach for cancer that aims at preventing a tumor from developing its own network of the tumor. In this paper a mathematical model for anti-angiogenic treatment is analyzed as a 3- dimensional

Ledzewicz, Urszula


Enrichment of tumor cells for cell kinetic analysis in human tumor biopsies using cytokeratin gating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To determine the feasibility of using cytokeratin antibodies to distinguish normal and malignant cells in human tumors using flow cytometry. The goal was ultimately to increase the accuracy of cell kinetic measurements on human tumor biopsies.Material and methods: A panel of four antibodies was screened on a series of 48 tumors from two centres; 22 head and neck tumors

K. Haustermans; I. Hofland; M. Ramaekers; D. Ivanyi; A. J. M. Balm; K. Geboes; T. Lerut; E. van der Schueren; A. C. Begg




Microsoft Academic Search

Las fotografías son unos excelentes documentos visuales para la Historia del Arte, la Historia Contemporánea y la Antropología. Sin embargo, hasta ahora, son muy pocos los estudios que tienen a la fotografía como principal fuente histórica y antropológica. Por eso, es indispensable construir una teoría y una metodología útiles para que los investigadores puedan realizar unos trabajos basados en la

Emilio Luis Lara López



Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Este artigo trata de questões que envolvem a organi zação do texto de opinião como instrumento de realizações de intenções comunicativas do escritor. Centra-se no ensino da e struturação desse tipo de texto, propondo a superação de alguns limites impos tos às macroestruturas semânticas pelas \\

Waldivia Maria de Jesus


Tumor Spectrum, Tumor Latency and Tumor Incidence of the Pten-Deficient Mice  

E-print Network

Background. Pten functionally acts as a tumor suppressor gene. Lately, tissue-specific ablation of Pten gene in mice has elucidated the role of Pten in different tumor progression models. However, a temporally controlled Pten loss in all adult tissues to examine susceptibility of various tissues to Pten-deficient tumorigenesis has not been addressed yet. Our goal was to explore the genesis of Pten-deficient malignancies in multiple tissue lineages of the adult mouse. Methods and Findings. We utilized an inducible Cre/loxP system to delete Pten exon 5 in the systemic organs of ROSA26 (R26)-CreER T;Pten fx/fx mice. On reaching 45 weeks 4OHT-induced Pten loss, we found that the R26-CreER T;Pten fx/fx mice developed a variety of malignancies. Overall tumor mean latency was 17 weeks in the Pten-deficient mice. Interestingly, mutant females developed malignancies more quickly at 10,11 weeks compared with a tumor latency of 21 weeks for mutant males. Lymphoma incidence (76.9 % in females; 40.0 % in males) was higher than the other malignancies found in the mutant mice. Mutant males developed prostate (20.0%), intestinal cancer (35.0%) and squamous cell carcinoma (10.0%), whereas the mutant females developed squamous cell carcinoma (15.4%) and endometrial cancer (46.1%) in addition to lymphomas. Furthermore, we tested the pharmacological inhibition of the PTEN downstream effectors using LY294002 on Pten-deficient prostate hyperplasia. Our data revealed that, indeed, the prostate hyperplasia resulting from the induced Pten loss was significantly suppressed by LY294002 (p = 0.007). Conclusions. Through monitoring a variety of Pten-deficient tumor formation, our results


A highly tumor-targeted nanoparticle of podophyllotoxin penetrated tumor core and regressed multidrug resistant tumors.  


Podophyllotoxin (PPT) exhibited significant activity against P-glycoprotein mediated multidrug resistant (MDR) tumor cell lines; however, due to its poor solubility and high toxicity, PPT cannot be dosed systemically, preventing its clinical use for MDR cancer. We developed a nanoparticle dosage form of PPT by covalently conjugating PPT and polyethylene glycol (PEG) with acetylated carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Ac) using one-pot esterification chemistry. The polymer conjugates self-assembled into nanoparticles (NPs) of variable sizes (20-120 nm) depending on the PPT-to-PEG molar ratio (2-20). The conjugate with a low PPT/PEG molar ratio of 2 yielded NPs with a mean diameter of 20 nm and released PPT at ?5%/day in serum, while conjugates with increased PPT/PEG ratios (5 and 20) produced bigger particles (30 nm and 120 nm respectively) that displayed slower drug release (?2.5%/day and ?1%/day respectively). The 20 nm particles exhibited 2- to 5-fold enhanced cell killing potency and 5- to 20-fold increased tumor delivery compared to the larger NPs. The biodistribution of the 20 nm PPT-NPs was highly selective to the tumor with 8-fold higher accumulation than all other examined tissues, while the larger PPT-NPs (30 and 120 nm) exhibited increased liver uptake. Within the tumor, >90% of the 20 nm PPT-NPs penetrated to the hypovascular core, while the larger particles were largely restricted in the hypervascular periphery. The 20 nm PPT-NPs displayed significantly improved efficacy against MDR tumors in mice compared to the larger PPT-NPs, native PPT and the standard taxane chemotherapies, with minimal toxicity. PMID:25818440

Roy, Aniruddha; Ernsting, Mark J; Undzys, Elijus; Li, Shyh-Dar



What Should You Ask Your Doctor about Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors?  


... gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors? What should you ask your doctor about gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors? It is important to ... Staging Treating Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors Talking With Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors ...


Treatment Options By Stage (Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors)  


Treatment Options By Stage Stage I Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment depends on whether the tumor is ... the NCI Web site . Stage II Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment depends on whether the tumor is ...


Temperature control in deep tumor treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tumor cells are more sensitive to temperature increase than normal tissue. Hyperthermia has been used as a potential modality for cancer treatment. Another benefit from the thermal interruption of tumor cells is the immunological reactions, caused by inflammation and other mechanisms, and more interestingly caused by antigen(s) release. The temperature control is crucial both in direct tumor destruction through acute thermal effect and in immune reactions. Low temperature may not achieve the desired tumor cell killing. High temperature could result in over heating of the tumor, hence introducing undesirable damage to surrounding normal tissue. High temperature could completely denature the cell proteins, hence rendering tumor antigen(s) useless in immunological stimulation. A combination of an 805-nm laser and in-situ indocyanine green (ICG) solutions were used in treating rat tumors. Temperature measured at different locations showed that the effective photothermal interaction could reach as deep as 1 cm below the treatment surface and the temperature inside the tumor can be controlled by the laser and dye parameters. Multiple beams were also used to irradiate the tumor. When the tumor is free of ICG, the temperature increase of the tumor was less significant under the laser irradiation with a power density of 0.33 W/cm2; tumor tissue at a depth of 1 cm only experienced a 7°C-temperature increase. However, when the tumor contained ICG solution, the temperature at 1-cm depth experienced more than 15°C-temperature increase. Multiple-fiber irradiation further enhanced the photothermal selectivity. Furthermore, when one fiber was used, the edge of the tumor experienced less impact by the laser beam, while multiple beams resulted in an almost uniform temperature increase over the entire tumor.

Jeong, Sang w.; Liu, Hong; Chen, Wei R.



Blocking tumor cell eicosanoid synthesis by GPx4 impedes tumor growth and malignancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using tumor cell-restricted overexpression of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4), we investigated the contribution of tumor cell eicosanoids to solid tumor growth and malignant progression in two tumor models differing in tumorigenic potential. By lowering cellular lipid hydroperoxide levels, GPx4 inhibits cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) activities. GPx4 overexpression drastically impeded solid tumor growth of weakly tumorigenic L929 fibrosarcoma cells, whereas

Ingeborg Heirman; Daisy Ginneberge; Regina Brigelius-Flohé; Nico Hendrickx; Patrizia Agostinis; Peter Brouckaert; Pieter Rottiers; Johan Grooten



Giant solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura.  


Solitary fibrous tumors are rare mesenchymal tumors accounting for <5% of all neoplasms in the pleura and other sites. A 45-year-old man reported to us with cough and dyspnea. Radiological investigations revealed a giant mass displacing the mediastinum to the left. The tumor weighing 3.0?kg was successfully resected via a right thoracotomy. Histology and immunohistochemistry confirmed a benign tumor. Recurrence and malignant transformation of these benign tumors have been reported. Our patient has been followed up for 4 years with no recurrence. PMID:24887903

Ludhani, Prakash Manoharlal; Anathakrishnan, Radha; Muthubaskaran, Venkatadevanathan; Chandrasekar, Padmanabhan; Muralidharan, Srinivasan



Genetically Engineered Mouse Models of Pituitary Tumors  

PubMed Central

Animal models constitute valuable tools for investigating the pathogenesis of cancer as well as for preclinical testing of novel therapeutics approaches. However, the pathogenic mechanisms of pituitary-tumor formation remain poorly understood, particularly in sporadic adenomas, thus, making it a challenge to model pituitary tumors in mice. Nevertheless, genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) of pituitary tumors have provided important insight into pituitary tumor biology. In this paper, we review various GEMMs of pituitary tumors, highlighting their contributions and limitations, and discuss opportunities for research in the field. PMID:25136513

Cano, David A.; Soto-Moreno, Alfonso; Leal-Cerro, Alfonso



NK Cells in the Tumor Microenvironment  

PubMed Central

The presence of natural killer (NK) cells in the tumor microenvironment correlates with outcome in a variety of cancers. However, the role of intratumoral NK cells is unclear. Preclinical studies have shown that, while NK cells efficiently kill circulating tumor cells of almost any origin, they seem to have very little effect against the same type of tumor cells when these have extravasated. The ability to kill extravasated tumor cells is, however, is dependent of the level of activation of the NK cells, as more recent published and unpublished studies, discussed below, have demonstrated that interleukin-2–activated NK cells are able to attack well-established solid tumors. PMID:24941376

Larsen, Stine K.; Gao, Yanhua; Basse, Per H.



Management of primary and metastatic spinal tumors.  


ìTumors of the spine, though rare, may significantly impact quality of life. The management depends not only on clinical presentation, but also on histology, stage and grade of the tumor. Primary benign tumors usually are a focal problem, however, may be focally aggressive. Primary malignant tumors are always considered aggressive and are managed in a multidisciplinary fashion. Surgical treatment often requires aggressive en bloc resection to maximize potential for cure. Metastatic tumors of the spine may cause a significant impact on the quality of life. In select cases with spine instability, pain and neurologic deficit surgical management is indicated. PMID:25649066

Arutyunyan, G G; Clarke, M J



Endovascular Embolization of Head and Neck Tumors  

PubMed Central

Endovascular tumor embolization as adjunctive therapy for head and neck cancers is evolving and has become an important part of the tools available for their treatment. Careful study of tumor vascular anatomy and adhering to general principles of intra-arterial therapy can prove this approach to be effective and safe. Various embolic materials are available and can be suited for a given tumor and its vascular supply. This article aims to summarize current methods and agents used in endovascular head and neck tumor embolization and discuss important angiographic and treatment characteristics of selected common head and neck tumors. PMID:22022319

Lazzaro, Marc A.; Badruddin, Aamir; Zaidat, Osama O.; Darkhabani, Ziad; Pandya, Dhruvil J.; Lynch, John R.



Wilms' Tumor in a Horseshoe Kidney  

PubMed Central

The incidence of horseshoe kidney is about 1 in 400 cases. The presence of Wilms' tumor with a horseshoe kidney is unusual, and the occurrence of Wilms' tumor in a horseshoe kidney is estimated at 0.4 to 0.9% of all Wilms' tumors. We report the case of a 5-year-old boy who presented with a stage IV Wilms' tumor in a horseshoe kidney. The patient was treated with preoperative chemotherapy followed by surgical resection and adjuvant chemotherapy. This case illustrates the role of preoperative chemotherapy for preserving renal function and aims to highlight the multimodality treatment of Wilms' tumor. PMID:22950005

Lee, Sang Hun; Bae, Min Ho; Choi, Sung Ho; Lee, Jin Seok; Cho, Young Sam; Joo, Kwan Joong; Kwon, Chil Hun



Metastatic malignant phyllodes tumor involving the cerebellum.  


Brain metastases from malignant phyllodes tumors of the breast are a rare occurrence. We report a patient with a malignant phyllodes tumor of the right breast which subsequently metastasized to the right lower lobe of the lung 1 year after initial presentation, and to the right cerebellar hemisphere 2 years after diagnosis of her breast mass. After both chemotherapy and whole brain radiotherapy the patient is tumor free at most recent follow-up, 116 months after the breast tumor diagnosis was made. The literature is briefly reviewed and the differential diagnosis of malignant spindle cell brain tumors is discussed. PMID:25449208

Rowe, J Jordi; Prayson, Richard A



MR imaging of tumor-associated macrophages  

PubMed Central

Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) in breast cancers foster several aspects of tumor progression and metastasis, and represent a biomarker associated with an unfavorable clinical outcome. As new therapeutic agents selectively targeting leukocytes enter the clinic whose mechanism of action involves diminishing macrophage infiltration or presence in tumors, it becomes increasingly important to identify those tumors heavily infiltrated by TAMs, as well as monitoring TAM response to therapy. MR imaging with iron oxide nanoparticles enables noninvasive quantification of TAMs in tumors, and thus, provides an easily accessible ex vivo assessment of TAMs for prognosis and related treatment decisions. PMID:22754769

Daldrup-Link, Heike; Coussens, Lisa M.



Stereotactic hyperthermia for brain tumors.  


We have developed a localized hyperthermia system using computed tomography-stereotactic surgery as malignant brain tumor therapy. In an experimental study, the temperature in the area of the cat brain within 20 mm from a radiofrequency electrode reached more than 43.7 degrees C. Intravenous administration of MCNU during hyperthermia caused a significant increase of MCNU content in the heated brain as compared with a control brain. In the clinical study, localized radiofrequent hyperthermia using stereotactic surgery was performed on 7 malignant deep-seated gliomas and 21 metastatic brain tumors. Especially, combination therapy of stereotactic hyperthermia and chemotherapy was effective treatment for gliomas less than 30 mm deep in the brain. PMID:1964243

Yokote, H; Komai, N; Nakai, E; Itakura, T; Hayashi, S



Senescent cells in growing tumors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tumors are defined by their intense proliferation, but sometimes cancer cells turn senescent and stop replicating. In the stochastic cancer model in which all cells are tumorigenic, senescence is seen as the result of random mutatations, suggesting that it could represent a barrier to tumor growth. In the hierarchical cancer model a subset of the cells, the cancer stem cells, divide indefinitely while other cells eventually turn senescent. Here we formulate cancer growth in mathematical terms and obtain distinct predictions for the evolution of senescence in the two models. We perform experiments in human melanoma cells which confirm the predictions of the hierarchical model and show that senescence is a reversible process controlled by survivin. We conclude that enhancing senescence is unlikely to provide a useful therapeutic strategy to fight cancer, unless the cancer stem cells are specifically targeted.

Zapperi, Stefano; La Porta, Caterina A. M.; Sethna, James P.



Pathology of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is a well recognized and relatively well understood soft tissue tumor. Early events in GIST development are activating mutations in KIT or PDGFRA, which occur in most GISTs and encode for mutated tyrosine receptor kinases that are therapeutic targets for tyrosine kinase inhibitors, including imatinib and sunitinib. A small minority of GISTs possessing neither KIT nor PDGFRA mutations may have germline mutations in SDH, suggesting a potential role of SDH in the pathogenesis. Immunohistochemical detection of KIT, and more recently DOG1, has proven to be reliable and useful in the diagnosis of GISTs. Because current and future therapies depend on pathologists, it is important that they recognize KIT-negative GISTs, GISTs in specific clinical contexts, GISTs with unusual morphology, and GISTs after treatment. This review focuses on recent developments in the understanding of the biology, immunohistochemical diagnosis, the role of molecular analysis, and risk assessment of GISTs. PMID:22855636

Foo, Wai Chin; Liegl-Atzwanger, Bernadette; Lazar, Alexander J.



Review Tumor metastasis to bone  

E-print Network

Establishment of skeletal metastasis involves bidirectional interactions between the tumor cell and the cellular elements in the bone microenvironment. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of bone metastasis will be critical in developing the means to prevent bone metastasis or inhibit its progression. The receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B (RANK)/RANK ligand pathway has emerged as the key pathway regulating osteolysis in skeletal metastasis. A number of candidate factors, including the Wnt (wingless int) proteins, endothelin-1, and bone morphogenetic proteins, have been implicated in the establishment of osteoblastic metastasis. The complex nature of tumor-bone microenvironment interactions and the presence of multiple pathways that lead to bone metastasis suggests that simultaneous targeting of these pathways in the metastatic cascade are required for effective treatment. This review discusses current understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms that underlie the establishment of bone metastasis and potential molecular therapeutic strategies for prevention and treatment of bone metastasis.



Pathology Case Study: Cystic Tumor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This cytogenetics case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. This case involves 21-year-old male presented with a mass in his right thigh. Prior to this, the patient was healthy and had no major health concerns. The tumor was removed and the attending doctor ordered a cytogenetic analysis of the specimen. The results from that analysis along with microscopic images and electron photomicrographs of the tumor are included in the case study to aid in the understanding of the final diagnosis. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâ??s findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâ??s conditions.

Dunn, Jean


Tumor Metabolism of Malignant Gliomas  

PubMed Central

Constitutively activated oncogenic signaling via genetic mutations such as in the EGFR/PI3K/Akt and Ras/RAF/MEK pathways has been recognized as a major driver for tumorigenesis in most cancers. Recent insights into tumor metabolism have further revealed that oncogenic signaling pathways directly promote metabolic reprogramming to upregulate biosynthesis of lipids, carbohydrates, protein, DNA and RNA, leading to enhanced growth of human tumors. Therefore, targeting cell metabolism has become a novel direction for drug development in oncology. In malignant gliomas, metabolism pathways of glucose, glutamine and lipid are significantly reprogrammed. Moreover, molecular mechanisms causing these metabolic changes are just starting to be unraveled. In this review, we will summarize recent studies revealing critical gene alterations that lead to metabolic changes in malignant gliomas, and also discuss promising therapeutic strategies via targeting the key players in metabolic regulation. PMID:24217114

Ru, Peng; Williams, Terence M.; Chakravarti, Arnab; Guo, Deliang



[Cystic gastric tumor with calcifications].  


In imaging techniques was seen a thickness of the gastric wall in a patient with pain for several months and loss of weight. Biopsies taken out of the tumor mass by gastroscopy and laparoscopy have not been ground-breaking. For this disease pattern is it not unusual that the diagnosis of heterotopic pancreatic tissue with pancreatitis is not confirmed until a resection of the stomach. PMID:21267534

Gerber, T; Mück, R; Outrata, J; Kistner, H; Ernst, R; Heidemann, E



The immunological identity of tumor  

PubMed Central

By means of well-characterized autoimmunity models, we comparatively probed the “selfness” of malignant cells and their normal counterparts. We found that tumors activate self-tolerance mechanisms much more efficiently than normal tissues, reflecting a status of immunoprivileged “self.” Our findings indicate that potent autoimmune responses can eradicate established malignancies, yet the collateral destruction of healthy tissues may prove difficult to circumvent. PMID:23734327

Miska, Jason; Devarajan, Priyadharshini; Chen, Zhibin



Cardiac Tumors: A Brief Commentary  

PubMed Central

Patients with cardiac tumors may present with cardiovascular related or constitutional symptoms, but more often than not a cardiac mass is discovered incidentally during an imaging examination performed for an unrelated indication. Cardiac myxoma is generally considered to be a surgical emergency. Echocardiography, including the transesophageal approach, is the most important means of diagnosis; computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The clinical presentation has changed, and the management of cardiac myxoma now needs to be reviewed. PMID:25538934

Roever, Leonardo; Casella-Filho, Antonio; Dourado, Paulo Magno Martins; Resende, Elmiro Santos; Chagas, Antônio Carlos Palandri



Endoscopic treatment of orbital tumors  

PubMed Central

Different orbital and transcranial approaches are performed in order to manage orbital tumors, depending on the location and size of the lesion within the orbit. These approaches provide a satisfactory view of the superior and lateral aspects of the orbit and the optic canal but involve risks associated with their invasiveness because they require significant displacement of orbital structures. In addition, external approaches to intraconal lesions may also require deinsertion of extraocular muscles, with subsequent impact on extraocular mobility. Recently, minimally invasive techniques have been proposed as valid alternative to external approaches for selected orbital lesions. Among them, transnasal endoscopic approaches, “pure” or combined with external approaches, have been reported, especially for intraconal lesions located inferiorly and medially to the optic nerve. The avoidance of muscle detachment and the shortness of the surgical intraorbital trajectory makes endoscopic approach less invasive, thus minimizing tissue damage. Endoscopic surgery decreases the recovery time and improves the cosmetic outcome not requiring skin incisions. The purpose of this study is to review and discuss the current surgical techniques for orbital tumors removal, focusing on endoscopic approaches to the orbit and outlining the key anatomic principles to follow for safe tumor resection. PMID:25789299

Signorelli, Francesco; Anile, Carmelo; Rigante, Mario; Paludetti, Gaetano; Pompucci, Angelo; Mangiola, Annunziato



Tumor pathology of the orbit.  


The term orbital tumor covers a wide range of benign and malignant diseases affecting specific component of the orbit or developing in contact with them. They are found incidentally or may be investigated as part of the assessment of a systemic disorder or because of orbital signs (exophthalmos, pain, etc.). Computed tomography, MRI and Color Doppler Ultrasound (CDU), play a varying role depending on the clinical presentation and the disease being investigated. This article reflects long experience in a reference center but does not claim to be exhaustive. We have chosen to consider these tumors from the perspective of their usual presentation, emphasizing the most common causes and suggestive radiological and clinical presentations (progressive or sudden-onset exophthalmos, children or adults, lacrimal gland lesions, periorbital lesions and enophthalmos). We will describe in particular muscle involvement (thyrotoxicosis and tumors), vascular lesions (cavernous sinus hemangioma, orbital varix, cystic lymphangioma), childhood lesions and orbital hematomas. We offer straightforward useful protocols for simple investigation and differential diagnosis. Readers who wish to go further to extend their knowledge in this fascinating area can refer to the references in the bibliography. PMID:25195185

Héran, F; Bergès, O; Blustajn, J; Boucenna, M; Charbonneau, F; Koskas, P; Lafitte, F; Nau, E; Roux, P; Sadik, J C; Savatovsky, J; Williams, M



Proximal Humerus Reconstructions for Tumors  

PubMed Central

The optimal method for reconstructing the proximal humerus in patients with tumors is controversial. To determine functional outcomes and complication rates after different types of reconstructions, we reviewed a consecutive series of 49 patients who underwent proximal humerus resection and osteoarticular allograft (17 patients), allograft-prosthetic composite (16), or endoprosthetic (16) reconstruction. Operative indications included primary malignancies (24 patients), metastatic disease (19), and benign aggressive disease (six). Implant revision was more common after osteoarticular reconstruction (five of 17) than after allograft-prosthetic composite (one of 16) or endoprosthetic (zero of 16) reconstructions. At a minimum followup of 24 months (median, 98 months; range, 24–214 months) in surviving patients, Musculoskeletal Tumor Society functional scores averaged 79% for the allograft-prosthetic composite, 71% for the osteoarticular allograft, and 69% for the endoprosthetic reconstruction cohorts. Shoulder instability was associated with abductor mechanism compromise and was more common after endoprosthetic reconstruction. Allograft fractures occurred in 53% of patients receiving osteoarticular allografts. We recommend allograft-prosthetic composite reconstruction for younger patients with primary tumors of bone and endoprosthetic reconstruction for older patients with metastatic disease. Because of the unacceptable complication rate, we do not recommend osteoarticular allograft reconstruction for routine use in the proximal humerus. Level of Evidence: Level III, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18820983

Adams, Sheila C.; Pitcher, J. David; Malinin, Theodore I.; Temple, H. Thomas



Endoscopic treatment of orbital tumors.  


Different orbital and transcranial approaches are performed in order to manage orbital tumors, depending on the location and size of the lesion within the orbit. These approaches provide a satisfactory view of the superior and lateral aspects of the orbit and the optic canal but involve risks associated with their invasiveness because they require significant displacement of orbital structures. In addition, external approaches to intraconal lesions may also require deinsertion of extraocular muscles, with subsequent impact on extraocular mobility. Recently, minimally invasive techniques have been proposed as valid alternative to external approaches for selected orbital lesions. Among them, transnasal endoscopic approaches, "pure" or combined with external approaches, have been reported, especially for intraconal lesions located inferiorly and medially to the optic nerve. The avoidance of muscle detachment and the shortness of the surgical intraorbital trajectory makes endoscopic approach less invasive, thus minimizing tissue damage. Endoscopic surgery decreases the recovery time and improves the cosmetic outcome not requiring skin incisions. The purpose of this study is to review and discuss the current surgical techniques for orbital tumors removal, focusing on endoscopic approaches to the orbit and outlining the key anatomic principles to follow for safe tumor resection. PMID:25789299

Signorelli, Francesco; Anile, Carmelo; Rigante, Mario; Paludetti, Gaetano; Pompucci, Angelo; Mangiola, Annunziato



The retinoblastoma gene in human pituitary tumors  

SciTech Connect

Functional inactivation of the retinoblastoma (RB) tumor suppressor gene is important in the pathogenesis of many human tumors. Recently, the frequent occurrence of pituitary tumors was reported in mice genetically engineered to have one defective RB allele, a genetic background analogous to that of patients with familial retinoblastoma. The molecular pathogenesis of human pituitary tumors is largely unknown, and the potential role of RB gene inactivation in these neoplasms has not been examined. Consequently, the authors studied 20 human pituitary tumors (12 clinically nonfunctioning tumors, 4 somatotroph adenomas, 2 prolactinomas, and 2 corticotrophy adenomas) for tumor-specific allelic loss of the RB gene using a highly informative polymorphic locus within the gene. Control leukocyte DNA samples from 18 of these 20 patients were heterozygous at this locus, permitting genetic evaluation of their paired tumor specimens. In contrast to the pituitary tumors in the mouse model, none of these 18 human tumors exhibited RB allelic loss. These findings indicate that RB gene inactivation probably does not play an important role in the pathogenesis of common types of human pituitary tumors. 24 refs., 1 fig.

Cryns, V.L.; Arnold, A.; Alexander, J.M.; Klibanski, A. (Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States))



Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Young Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors

Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific



Sunitinib in Treating Young Patients With Refractory Solid Tumors

Central Nervous System Metastases; Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific



Carcinoid tumors of the abdomen: CT features.  


Carcinoid tumors are rare neuroendocrine neoplasms that belong to a more general category of tumor called the APUDomas. Ninety percent of carcinoid tumors are located in the gastrointestinal tract. Abdominal carcinoid tumors are categorized according to the division of the primitive gut from which they arise. Carcinoid tumors originating from the foregut develop in the gastric wall, duodenum, and pancreas; those originating from the midgut develop from the small bowel, appendix, and right colon; and those originating from the hindgut develop from the transverse or left colon or from the rectum. This report illustrates the computed tomographic appearance of primary and metastatic carcinoid tumors of the abdomen. Among the different organs that may be involved by metastases from carcinoid tumor, special emphasis is placed on the liver. PMID:10227886

Pelage, J P; Soyer, P; Boudiaf, M; Brocheriou-Spelle, I; Dufresne, A C; Coumbaras, J; Rymer, R



Targeting the tumor stroma in hepatocellular carcinoma.  


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common and deadly cancers worldwide. In ninety percent of the cases it develops as a result of chronic liver damage and it is thus a typical inflammation-related cancer characterized by the close relation between the tumor microenvironment and tumor cells. The stromal environment consists out of several cell types, including hepatic stellate cells, macrophages and endothelial cells. They are not just active bystanders in the pathogenesis of HCC, but play an important and active role in tumor initiation, progression and metastasis. Furthermore, the tumor itself influences these cells to create a background that is beneficial for sustaining tumor growth. One of the key players is the hepatic stellate cell, which is activated during liver damage and differentiates towards a myofibroblast-like cell. Activated stellate cells are responsible for the deposition of extracellular matrix, increase the production of angiogenic factors and stimulate the recruitment of macrophages. The increase of angiogenic factors (which are secreted by macrophages, tumor cells and activated stellate cells) will induce the formation of new blood vessels, thereby supplying the tumor with more oxygen and nutrients, thus supporting tumor growth and offering a passageway in the circulatory system. In addition, the secretion of chemokines by the tumor cells leads to the recruitment of tumor associated macrophages. These tumor associated macrophages are key actors of cancer-related inflammation, being the main type of inflammatory cells infiltrating the tumor environment and exerting a tumor promoting effect by secreting growth factors, stimulating angiogenesis and influencing the activation of stellate cells. This complex interplay between the several cell types involved in liver cancer emphasizes the need for targeting the tumor stroma in HCC patients. PMID:25729472

Heindryckx, Femke; Gerwins, Pär



Autophagy sensitivity of neuroendocrine lung tumor cells.  


Neuroendocrine (NE) phenotypes characterize a spectrum of lung tumors, including low-grade typical and intermediate-grade atypical carcinoid, high-grade large-cell NE carcinoma and small cell lung carcinoma. Currently, no effective treatments are available to cure NE lung tumors, demanding identification of biological features specific to these tumors. Here, we report that autophagy has an important role for NE lung tumor cell proliferation and survival. We found that the expression levels of the autophagy marker LC3 are relatively high in a panel of lung tumor cell lines expressing high levels of neuron-specific enolase (NSE), a key NE marker in lung tumors. In response to bafilomycin A1 and chloroquine, NE lung tumor cells exhibited cytotoxicity whereas non-NE lung tumor cells exhibited cytostasis, indicating a distinct role of autophagy for NE lung tumor cell survival. Intriguingly, in certain NE lung tumor cell lines, the levels of processed LC3 (LC3-II) were inversely correlated with AKT activity. When AKT activity was inhibited using AKTi or MK2206, the levels of LC3-II and SQSTM1/p62 were increased. In contrast, torin 1, rapamycin or mTOR knockdown increased p62 levels, suggesting that these two pathways have opposing effects on autophagy in certain NE lung tumors. Moreover, inhibition of one pathway resulted in reduced activity of the other, suggesting that these two pathways crosstalk in the tumors. These results suggest that NE lung tumor cells share a common feature of autophagy and are more sensitive to autophagy inhibition than non-NE lung tumor cells. PMID:24126619

Hong, Seung-Keun; Kim, Jin-Hwan; Starenki, Dmytro; Park, Jong-In



Chemotherapy of WAP-T mouse mammary carcinomas aggravates tumor phenotype and enhances tumor cell dissemination.  


In this study, the effects of the standard chemotherapy, cyclophosphamide/adriamycin/5-fluorouracil (CAF) on tumor growth, dissemination and recurrence after orthotopic implantation of murine G-2 cells were analyzed in the syngeneic immunocompetent whey acidic protein-T mouse model (Wegwitz et al., PLoS One 2010; 5:e12103; Schulze-Garg et al., Oncogene 2000; 19:1028-37). Single-dose CAF treatment reduced tumor size significantly, but was not able to eradicate all tumor cells, as recurrent tumor growth was observed 4 weeks after CAF treatment. Nine days after CAF treatment, residual tumors showed features of regressive alterations and were composed of mesenchymal-like tumor cells, infiltrating immune cells and some tumor-associated fibroblasts with an intense deposition of collagen. Recurrent tumors were characterized by coagulative necrosis and less tumor cell differentiation compared with untreated tumors, suggesting a more aggressive tumor phenotype. In support, tumor cell dissemination was strongly enhanced in mice that had developed recurrent tumors in comparison with untreated controls, although only few disseminated tumor cells could be detected in various organs 9 days after CAF application. In vitro experiments revealed that CAF treatment of G-2 cells eliminates the vast majority of epithelial tumor cells, whereas tumor cells with a mesenchymal phenotype survive. These results together with the in vivo findings suggest that tumor cells that underwent epithelial-mesenchymal transition and/or exhibit stem-cell-like properties are difficult to eliminate using one round of CAF chemotherapy. The model system described here provides a valuable tool for the characterization of the effects of chemotherapeutic regimens on recurrent tumor growth and on tumor cell dissemination, thereby enabling the development and preclinical evaluation of novel therapeutic strategies to target mammary carcinomas. PMID:25449528

Jannasch, Katharina; Wegwitz, Florian; Lenfert, Eva; Maenz, Claudia; Deppert, Wolfgang; Alves, Frauke



Bayesian Inference of Tumor Hypoxia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tumor hypoxia is a state of oxygen deprivation in tumors. It has been associated with aggressive tumor phenotypes and with increased resistance to conventional cancer therapies. In this study, we report on the application of Bayesian sequential analysis in estimating the most probable value of tumor hypoxia quantification based on immunohistochemical assays of a biomarker. The `gold standard' of tumor hypoxia assessment is a direct measurement of pO2 in vivo by the Eppendorf polarographic electrode, which is an invasive technique restricted to accessible sites and living tissues. An attractive alternative is immunohistochemical staining to detect proteins expressed by cells during hypoxia. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is an enzyme expressed on the cell membrane during hypoxia to balance the immediate extracellular microenvironment. CAIX is widely regarded as a surrogate marker of chronic hypoxia in various cancers. The study was conducted with two different experimental procedures. The first data set was a group of three patients with invasive cervical carcinomas, from which five biopsies were obtained. Each of the biopsies was fully sectioned and from each section, the proportion of CAIX-positive cells was estimated. Measurements were made by image analysis of multiple deep sections cut through these biopsies, labeled for CAIX using both immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical techniques [1]. The second data set was a group of 24 patients, also with invasive cervical carcinomas, from which two biopsies were obtained. Bayesian parameter estimation was applied to obtain a reliable inference about the proportion of CAIX-positive cells within the carcinomas, based on the available biopsies. From the first data set, two to three biopsies were found to be sufficient to infer the overall CAIX percentage in the simple form: best estimate±uncertainty. The second data-set led to a similar result in 70% of the cases. In the remaining cases Bayes' theorem warned us automatically that the inference from the data could not be summarized by just two numbers, but the full posterior probability density function (pdf) had to be used.

Gunawan, R.; Tenti, G.; Sivaloganathan, S.



[Ovarian tumor markers of presumed benign ovarian tumors].  


Cancer Antigen 125 (CA125) and Human Epididymis Protein 4 (HE4) are the most studied ovarian tumor markers. Their diagnostic performance for identification of ovarian cancer are superior to CA19-9, CA72-4, and carcinoembryonic antigen, which are no more recommended for the diagnosis of presumed benign ovarian tumor. HE4 (>140 pmol/L) is superior to CA125 (>30 U/mL) in terms of specificity and positive likelihood ratio. CA125 and HE4 can be combined into an algorithm ROMA, or associated to clinical information (composite index), biological data (OVA1) or imaging (Risk for Malignancy Index (RMI), LR2). ROMA algorithm is an exponential equation combining plasmatic concentrations of HE4 and CA125. ROMA is more sensitive and less specific than HE4 in predicting epithelial ovarian cancer. ROMA is more accurate in post-menopausal women. The performance of ROMA is lower than the ultrasound model LR2 in differentiating malignant from benign ovarian tumors, whatever the hormonal status. The composite index combining CA125 with a symptoms index (pain, abdominal distension, bloating, difficulty eating) has a good sensitivity in a screening program, but because of a 12% false positive rate, ultrasound is required before management. The RMI algorithm is based on serum CA125, ultrasound findings (septation, solid zones, metastases, ascite, bilaterality) and menopausal status. RMI is less sensitive, but more specific than ROMA or OVA1 for the classification of ovarian masses. The addition of HE4 to RMI seems to be the most accurate. The subjective evaluation of ovarian cysts by sonography and color Doppler is better than ROMA and RMI algorithms, and not affected by the hormonal status. PMID:24210243

Lahlou, N; Brun, J-L



Collision tumor with inflammatory breast carcinoma and malignant phyllodes tumor: a case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

There have been some reports of coincidental presentation of breast carcinoma and phyllodes tumor in the same breast. Most of the cases were carcinoma that arose from a phyllodes tumor with a histologically identified transitional area, and they behaved less aggressively than the usually encountered carcinoma. Collision tumors are rare clinical entities in which two histologically distinct tumor types show involvement at the same site. The occurrence of these tumors in the breast is extremely rare. Here, we report a case of 45-year-old woman who had both invasive ductal carcinoma as the finding of inflammatory carcinoma and a malignant phyllodes tumor in the same breast. There was no evidence of a transitional area between the phyllodes tumor and the invasive ductal carcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a collision tumor of inflammatory breast carcinoma coincident with a malignant phyllodes tumor in same breast. PMID:24400686




Microsoft Academic Search

Saavedra-Ontiveros D, Arteaga-Martínez M, Serrano-Medina B, Reynoso-Arizmendi F, Prada-Garay N, Cornejo-Roldán LR. Contaminación industrial con solventes orgánicos como causa de teratogénesis. Salud Publica Mex 1996;38:3-12. ABSTRACT Objective. To inform of a new teratogenic syndrome in human beings and its confirmation in rats. Material and Methods. The study comprised three phases: a field study; a case-control study; and a genetic epidemiology



Radiation-guided drug delivery to tumor blood vessels results in improved tumor growth delay.  


Tumor blood vessels are biological targets for cancer therapy. In this study, a tumor vasculature targeting system that consisted of liposomes and lectin (WGA) was built. Liposomes were used to carry a number of liposome-friendly anti-tumoral agents along with WGA, a lectin which posseses a specific affinity for binding to inflamed endothelial cells. In order to target tumor vasculature, inflammation of endothelial cells was induced by radiation. Because ionizing radiation induces an inflammatory response in tumor vasculature, lectin-conjugates were utilized to determine whether radiation can be used to target drug delivery to tumor vessels. Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) is one such lectin that binds to inflamed microvasculature. WGA was conjugated to liposomes containing cisplatin and administered to tumor bearing mice. Tumor growth delay was used to analyze the efficacy of cytotoxicity. FITC-conjugated WGA accumulated within irradiated tumor microvasculature. WGA was conjugated to liposomes and labeled with 111In. This demonstrated radiation-inducible tumor-selective binding. WGA-liposome-conjugates were loaded with Cisplatin and administered to mice bearing irradiated tumors. Tumors treated with a combination of liposome encapsulated cisplatin together with radiation showed a significant increase in tumor growth delay as compared to radiation alone. These findings demonstrate that ionizing radiation can be used to guide drug delivery to tumor microvasculature. PMID:15451595

Geng, Ling; Osusky, Katherine; Konjeti, Sekhar; Fu, Allie; Hallahan, Dennis



FOXL2 Mutation is Absent in Uterine Tumors Resembling Ovarian Sex Cord Tumors.  


Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors (UTROSCTs) are rare uterine neoplasms characterized by pure or predominant epithelial-like patterns that share morphologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural features with ovarian sex cord tumors. FOXL2 immunoexpression has recently been found in sex cord stromal tumors of the ovary, including granulosa cell tumors, Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, thecomas, and fibromas, but mutations have been identified mostly in adult granulosa cell tumors. In this study, we investigated FOXL2 mutation status and protein expression in UTROSCTs. Mutational analysis using a TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction-based allelic discrimination assay was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue from 15 UTROSCTs. FOXL2 mutation was absent in all tumors. FOXL2 immunoexpression was tested in all 15 tumors. Intensity of staining was scored as weak, moderate, or strong. Percentage of tumor cells with nuclear staining was recorded as follows: 0 (negative); 1+ (1% to 25%); 2+ (26% to 50%); 3+ (51% to 75%); and 4+ (76% to 100%). Nuclear expression of FOXL2 was present in 6 of 15 (40%) UTROSCTs. One tumor demonstrated strong 4+ staining. Moderate expression was seen in 3 cases, including 2 and 1 showing 2+ and 1+ staining, respectively. Weak expression was observed in 2 tumors demonstrating 3+ and 1+ staining. Although UTROSCTs show overlapping morphologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural features with sex cord stromal tumors of the ovary, they do not harbor FOXL2 mutation despite focal immunoreactivity in a subset of these tumors. PMID:25581731

Chiang, Sarah; Staats, Paul N; Senz, Janine; Kommoss, Friedrich; De Nictolis, Michele; Huntsman, David G; Gilks, C Blake; Oliva, Esther



Pediatric Spinal Cord Tumors and Masses  

PubMed Central

Background/Objective: Spinal cord tumors are a relatively rare diagnosis, accounting for 1% to 10% of all pediatric central nervous system tumors. Understanding the etiology and clinical outcomes of these tumors is therefore very important. This study presents detailed information regarding clinical presentation, histological findings, outcomes, functional assessment, and management of a series of patients with this diagnosis. Method: Retrospective, descriptive study. Subjects: Thirty-five children with a final diagnosis of spinal cord tumor or mass, excluding dysraphism. Results: Neurodevelopmental tumors (dermoid tumors, epidermoid tumors, and teratomas) were the most common tumor type (31%), followed by astrocytomas (29%) and neuroblastomas (14%). Other types included schwannomas, meningiomas, giant cell tumors, extradural cystic masses, leukemic-related masses, and masses related to neurofibromatosis. Mean age at diagnosis was 6.6 years (SD = 5.5 y) and did not vary significantly by tumor type except for children with neuroblastoma (mean = 0.4 y, SD = 0.5 y). More boys (57%) were identified in the series than girls (43%); however, there was no association between tumor type and sex. Presenting complaints of pain were noted in 57% and were localized to the back, neck, or extremities. Extremity weakness was reported as an initial presenting symptom in 46%. Three children had scoliosis as a presenting issue and 14 had gait abnormalities. Regardless of treatment modality, mobility was retained in 83% of children with or without gait aids. Neurogenic bowel and/or bladder were present in 23% of the population. Conclusions: This study corroborates other studies indicating that intramedullary tumors are the predominant form of pediatric spinal cord tumor. This population, however, presented with an unusually large number of developmental tumors, contrary to several published studies. The disparity may be the result of this institution acting as a regional referral center, thus increasing the number of this type of patient. The population is too small to make any other conjecture. The predominance of astrocytomas and neuroblastomas among those patients with poor outcomes and the prevalence of developmental tumors suggest the need for broader investigation. Although, in general, spinal cord tumors are relatively rare, this preliminary study supports the need to further evaluate associations between tumor type, presenting symptoms, treatment, and functional outcome in children with spinal cord tumors. PMID:17874681

Wilson, Pamela E; Oleszek, Joyce L; Clayton, Gerald H



Unusual primary tumors of the heart.  


Primary tumors of the heart, with the exception of atrial myxomas, occur rarely; tumors metastatic to or directly invasive of the heart are far more common. About 75% of primary tumors are benign, and 75% of these are atrial myxomas. The benign tumors include rhabdomyomas, fibromas, papillary fibroelastomas, hemangiomas, pericardial cysts, lipomas, hamartomas, teratomas, mesotheliomas, and paragangliomas or pheochromocytomas. The last 3 may also be malignant. The malignant tumors consist of various sarcomas: myxosarcoma, liposarcoma, angiosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, osteosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, undifferentiated sarcoma, reticulum cell sarcoma, neurofibrosarcoma, and malignant fibrous histiocytoma. Cardiac tumors produce a large variety of symptoms through any of 4 mechanisms. Their mass can obstruct intracardiac blood flow or interfere with valve function. Local invasion can lead to arrhythmias or pericardial effusions with tamponade. Bits of tumor can embolize, causing systemic deficits when the tumors are on the left side of the heart. Finally, the tumors may cause systemic or constitutional symptoms. Some tumors, of course, produce no symptoms and become evident as incidental findings. The most useful diagnostic tool is the echocardiogram, which in almost all cases precisely locates the tumor and defines its extent. The echocardiographic appearance may also allow quite accurate prediction of the tumor type and whether it is malignant or benign. Magnetic resonance imaging serves as the next most important test where the density of T1 and T2 images may allow tumor cell type identification. With few exceptions, these tumors require operative excision. Most benign tumors can be resected completely; a few, because of their large size, cannot be, and only tumor debulking may be possible. Heart transplantation should be considered for these patients. Many of the malignant tumors cannot be resected completely, either because of the extent of local spread and invasion or because of the frequent distant metastases. Transplantation may also be an option for those with extensive local disease. The long-term results for resected benign tumors are excellent; the long-term results for sarcomas are very poor, and there are few survivors. For patients with unresectable sarcomas, radiation and chemotherapy may be used, but without great expectation of successful results. PMID:10807431

Vander Salm, T J




E-print Network

The lgh complex is on the murine 12th chromosome and contains the genes (Igh-C) that encode the constant (C) portion of/~, 6, 3', a, and e immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chains together with J, D, and V region genes that encode their corresponding variable (V) regions (1-3). In addition to these Igh genes, there are several other linked genes, some of which may play a role in immune reactivity. For example, a series of antigens have been described: Tsu, Tind, Tthy, and Tpre, which are controlled by genes that map telomeric to the lgh locus (reference 4, and R. Riblet, E. Eicher, and B. Taylor, unpublished data). These antigens are limited in their tissue expression to T cell subsets and have been detected on T cell factors that have immunoregulatory activity (5-7). Lyb-7 is an antigenic determinant controlled by a gene linked to the lgh-V side of the complex and is selectively expressed on a B lymphocyte subset (8). In contrast, the lgh-linked minor histocompatibility H(Igh) (9) and prealbumin (Pre-1) genes (10) presumably encode molecules that are unrelated to the immune system. We have previously observed that immunization of C.B-20 (Igh b) mice with Igh


Hypoxic Tumor Microenvironment and Cancer Cell Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Hypoxia or oxygen deficiency is a salient feature of solid tumors. Hypoxic tumors are often resistant to conventional cancer therapies, and tumor hypoxia correlates with advanced stages of malignancy. Hypoxic tumors appear to be poorly differentiated. Increasing evidence suggests that hypoxia has the potential to inhibit tumor cell differentiation and thus plays a direct role in the maintenance of cancer stem cells. Studies have also shown that hypoxia blocks differentiation of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells, a potential source of tumor-associated stromal cells. It is therefore likely that hypoxia may have a profound impact on the evolution of the tumor stromal microenvironment. These observations have led to the emergence of a novel paradigm for a role of hypoxia in facilitating tumor progression. Hypoxia may help create a microenvironment enriched in poorly differentiated tumor cells and undifferentiated stromal cells. Such an undifferentiated hypoxic microenvironment may provide essential cellular interactions and environmental signals for the preferential maintenance of cancer stem cells. This hypothesis suggests that effectively targeting hypoxic cancer stem cells is a key to successful tumor control. PMID:19519400

Kim, Yuri; Lin, Qun; Glazer, Peter M.; Yun, Zhong



Non-pancreatic cancer tumors in the pancreatic region  

PubMed Central

Most of tumors found in the pancreas are adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. A small number of tumors in the pancreas, such as islet cell tumors or neuroendocrine tumors, papillary cystic neoplasms, lymphoma, acinar cell tumors, metastatic tumors to the pancreas often, have a far better prognosis, and the majority of these tumors are non-malignant or benign. The author reviewed the recent literatures, and summarized where the tumor comes originally in the pancreas, what is the type of the tumor, and how to treat the tumor. PMID:22540066

Andrén-Sandberg, Åke



Surgical Treatment of Gastric Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal stromal tumor is the most common mesenchymal tumor in the gastrointestinal tract and is most frequently developed in the stomach in the form of submucosal tumor. The incidence of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor is estimated to be as high as 25% of the population when all small and asymptomatic tumors are included. Because gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor is not completely distinguished from other submucosal tumors, a surgical excisional biopsy is recommended for tumors >2 cm. The surgical principles of gastrointestinal stromal tumor are composed of an R0 resection with a normal mucosa margin, no systemic lymph node dissection, and avoidance of perforation, which results in peritoneal seeding even in cases with otherwise low risk profiles. Laparoscopic surgery has been indicated for gastrointestinal stromal tumors <5 cm, and the indication for laparoscopic surgery is expanded to larger tumors if the above mentioned surgical principles can be maintained. A simple exogastric resection and various transgastric resection techniques are used for gastrointestinal stromal tumors in favorable locations (the fundus, body, greater curvature side). For a lesion at the gastroesophageal junction in the posterior wall of the stomach, enucleation techniques have been tried preserve the organ's function. Those methods have a theoretical risk of seeding a ruptured tumor, but this risk has not been evaluated by well-designed clinical trials. While some clinical trials are still on-going, neoadjuvant imatinib is suggested when marginally unresectable or multiorgan resection is anticipated to reduce the extent of surgery and the chance of incomplete resection, rupture or bleeding. PMID:23610714

Kong, Seong-Ho



Tumor Promotion Studies in Rat  

E-print Network

The tracheal epithelium of the Fischer 344 rat is histologically very similar to that of the human bronchus. Also, carcinomas of tracheal origin in F-344 rats are similar in morphology to human bronchogenic carcinomas. Tumor promotion in rat tracheal epithelium was studied by using two model systems. The first is a heterotopic transplant system in which rat tracheas are implanted subcutaneously on the backs of isogenic recipents. In the first system, the epithelium was topically exposed to pellets containing 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA), used as the initiating agent, followed by pellets containing the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), the promoting agent. After 98 weeks, a three- to fourfold increase in the percentage of tracheas having malignant tumors was seen in tracheal transplants receiving both DMBA and TPA compared to DMBA alone. Exposure of the tracheal grafts to TPA alone resulted in epithelial hyperplasia and inflammation, but no dysplastic lesions. The second system is an organ culture-cell culture system in which small pieces of trachea are grown in organ culture, then epithelial cells are grown from these pieces as primary cell cultures. The organ cultures were exposed to the direct alkylating agent, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) used as the initiator, then multiple short exposures to TPA were used to promote. Primary cell cultures and cell lines were then established from these explants. After 52 weeks, a fivefold increase in the percentage of explants producing tumorigenic cell lines was observed when MNNG + TPA-exposed explants were compared to MNNG-exposed explants. Tracheal explants exposed to TPA alone produced many cell lines but none tested were tumorigenic. These two systems provide a means to study tumor promotion in respiratory epithelium. The evidence more importantly suggests that airborne promoting substances may play a key role in the development of bronchogenic carcinoma.


Implication of Tumor Microenvironment in Chemoresistance: Tumor-Associated Stromal Cells Protect Tumor Cells from Cell Death  

PubMed Central

Tumor development principally occurs following the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations in tumor cells. These changes pave the way for the transformation of chemosensitive cells to chemoresistant ones by influencing the uptake, metabolism, or export of drugs at the cellular level. Numerous reports have revealed the complexity of tumors and their microenvironment with tumor cells located within a heterogeneous population of stromal cells. These stromal cells (fibroblasts, endothelial or mesothelial cells, adipocytes or adipose tissue-derived stromal cells, immune cells and bone marrow-derived stem cells) could be involved in the chemoresistance that is acquired by tumor cells via several mechanisms: (i) cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions influencing the cancer cell sensitivity to apoptosis; (ii) local release of soluble factors promoting survival and tumor growth (crosstalk between stromal and tumor cells); (iii) direct cell-cell interactions with tumor cells (crosstalk or oncologic trogocytosis); (iv) generation of specific niches within the tumor microenvironment that facilitate the acquisition of drug resistance; or (v) conversion of the cancer cells to cancer-initiating cells or cancer stem cells. This review will focus on the implication of each member of the heterogeneous population of stromal cells in conferring resistance to cytotoxins and physiological mediators of cell death. PMID:22949815

Castells, Magali; Thibault, Benoît; Delord, Jean-Pierre; Couderc, Bettina



TUSC1, a Putative Tumor Suppressor Gene, Reduces Tumor Cell Growth In Vitro and Tumor Growth In Vivo  

PubMed Central

We previously reported the identification of TUSC1 (Tumor Suppressor Candidate 1), as a novel intronless gene isolated from a region of homozygous deletion at D9S126 on chromosome 9p in human lung cancer. In this study, we examine the differential expression of TUSC1 in human lung cancer cell lines by western blot and in a primary human lung cancer tissue microarray by immunohistochemical analysis. We also tested the functional activities and mechanisms of TUSC1 as a tumor suppressor gene through growth suppression in vitro and in vivo. The results showed no expression of TUSC1 in TUSC1 homozygously deleted cells and diminished expression in some tumor cell lines without TUSC1 deletion. Interestingly, the results from a primary human lung cancer tissue microarray suggested that higher expression of TUSC1 was correlated with increased survival times for lung cancer patients. Our data demonstrated that growth curves of tumor cell lines transfected with TUSC1 grew slower in vitro than those transfected with the empty vector. More importantly, xenograph tumors in nude mice grew significantly slower in vivo in cells stably transfected with TUSC1 than those transfected with empty vector. In addition, results from confocal microscopy and immunohistochemical analyses show distribution of TUSC1 in the cytoplasm and nucleus in tumor cell lines and in normal and tumor cells in the lung cancer tissue microarray. Taken together, our results support TUSC1 has tumor suppressor activity as a candidate tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome 9p. PMID:23776618

Shan, Zhihong; Shakoori, Abbas; Bodaghi, Sohrab; Goldsmith, Paul; Jin, Jen; Wiest, Jonathan S.



Pathology Case Study: Metastasizing Tumor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a woman presented with a low-grade sarcoma with features of plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumor in the subcutaneous soft tissue of left posterior thigh. Visitors can view both gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of soft tissue pathology.

Rao, Uma N. M.


Tumor-Altered Dendritic Cell Function: Implications for Anti-Tumor Immunity  

PubMed Central

Dendritic cells (DC) are key regulators of both innate and adaptive immunity, and the array of immunoregulatory functions exhibited by these cells is dictated by their differentiation, maturation, and activation status. Although a major role for these cells in the induction of immunity to pathogens has long been appreciated, data accumulated over the last several years has demonstrated that DC are also critical regulators of anti-tumor immune responses. However, despite the potential for stimulation of robust anti-tumor immunity by DC, tumor-altered DC function has been observed in many cancer patients and tumor-bearing animals and is often associated with tumor immune escape. Such dysfunction has significant implications for both the induction of natural anti-tumor immune responses as well as the efficacy of immunotherapeutic strategies that target endogenous DC in situ or that employ exogenous DC as part of anti-cancer immunization maneuvers. In this review, the major types of tumor-altered DC function will be described, with emphasis on recent insights into the mechanistic bases for the inhibition of DC differentiation from hematopoietic precursors, the altered programing of DC precursors to differentiate into myeloid-derived suppressor cells or tumor-associated macrophages, the suppression of DC maturation and activation, and the induction of immunoregulatory DC by tumors, tumor-derived factors, and tumor-associated cells within the milieu of the tumor microenvironment. The impact of these tumor-altered cells on the quality of the overall anti-tumor immune response will also be discussed. Finally, this review will also highlight questions concerning tumor-altered DC function that remain unanswered, and it will address factors that have limited advances in the study of this phenomenon in order to focus future research efforts in the field on identifying strategies for interfering with tumor-associated DC dysfunction and improving DC-mediated anti-tumor immunity. PMID:23874338

Hargadon, Kristian M.



Radiation-induced nitric oxide mitigates tumor hypoxia and radioresistance in a murine SCCVII tumor model  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •IR-induced NO increased tissue perfusion and pO{sub 2}. •IR increased NO production in tumors without changes in the mRNA and protein levels of NOS isoforms. •NOS activity assay showed that IR upregulated eNOS activity in tumors. •IR-induced NO decreased tumor hypoxia and altered tumor radiosensitivity. -- Abstract: Tumor hypoxia, which occurs mainly as a result of inadequate tissue perfusion in solid tumors, is a well-known challenge for successful radiotherapy. Recent evidence suggests that ionizing radiation (IR) upregulates nitric oxide (NO) production and that IR-induced NO has the potential to increase intratumoral circulation. However, the kinetics of NO production and the responsible isoforms for NO synthase in tumors exposed to IR remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the mechanism by which IR stimulates NO production in tumors and the effect of IR-induced NO on tumor radiosensitivity. Hoechst33342 perfusion assay and electron spin resonance oxymetry showed that IR increased tissue perfusion and pO{sub 2} in tumor tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis using two different hypoxic probes showed that IR decreased hypoxic regions in tumors; treatment with a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, L-NAME, abrogated the effects of IR. Moreover, IR increased endothelial NOS (eNOS) activity without affecting its mRNA or protein expression levels in SCCVII-transplanted tumors. Tumor growth delay assay showed that L-NAME decreased the anti-tumor effect of fractionated radiation (10 Gy × 2). These results suggested that IR increased eNOS activity and subsequent tissue perfusion in tumors. Increases in intratumoral circulation simultaneously decreased tumor hypoxia. As a result, IR-induced NO increased tumor radiosensitivity. Our study provides a new insight into the NO-dependent mechanism for efficient fractionated radiotherapy.

Nagane, Masaki, E-mail: [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)] [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Yasui, Hironobu, E-mail: [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)] [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Yamamori, Tohru, E-mail: [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)] [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Zhao, Songji, E-mail: [Department of Tracer Kinetics and Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)] [Department of Tracer Kinetics and Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Kuge, Yuji, E-mail: [Central Institute of Isotope Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)] [Central Institute of Isotope Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Tamaki, Nagara, E-mail: [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)] [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Kameya, Hiromi, E-mail: [Food Safety Division, National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan)] [Food Safety Division, National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan); Nakamura, Hideo, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Hokkaido University of Education, Hakodate (Japan)] [Department of Chemistry, Hokkaido University of Education, Hakodate (Japan); Fujii, Hirotada, E-mail: [Center for Medical Education, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo (Japan)] [Center for Medical Education, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo (Japan); Inanami, Osamu, E-mail: [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)] [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)



A Case of Primary Renal Carcinoid Tumor  

PubMed Central

Primary renal carcinoid tumors are extremely rare kidney lesions, with fewer than 100 reported cases previously. We describe a 75-year-old man with an incidentally detected cystic renal mass. Computed tomography showed a 3?cm tumor with a cystic component enhanced with contrast. No evidence of metastasis was detected. We treated the patient with radical nephrectomy. Pathological examinations revealed a cellular arrangement specific to carcinoid tumor and positive for chromogranin A, neural cell adhesion molecule, and somatostatin receptor type 2. The tumor cells had a mitotic count of 4 mitoses/10 high-power fields, and the level of the proliferation marker Ki-67 was 5%. The pathological diagnosis was renal neuroendocrine tumor grade 2. No local recurrence and no systemic metastasis were detected during the 18-month follow-up period. To our knowledge, this is the 6th case of renal neuroendocrine grade 2 tumor reported thus far. PMID:25685590

Tanaka, Toshikazu; Yamamoto, Hayato; Imai, Atsushi; Shingo, Hatakeyama; Yoneyama, Takahiro; Koie, Takuya; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Ohyama, Chikara



Embryonal brain tumors and developmental control genes  

SciTech Connect

Cell proliferation in embryogenesis and neoplastic transformation is thought to be controlled by similar sets of regulatory genes. This is certainly true for tumors of embryonic origin, such as Ewing sarcoma, Wilms` tumor and retinoblastoma, in which developmental control genes are either activated as oncogenes to promote proliferation, or are inactivated to eliminate their growth suppressing function. However, to date little is known about the genetic events underlying the pathogenesis of medulloblastoma, the most common brain tumor in children, which still carries an unfavourable prognosis. None of the common genetic alterations identified in other neuroectodermal tumors, such as mutation of the p53 gene or amplification of tyrosine kinase receptor genes, could be uncovered as key events in the formation of medulloblastoma. The identification of regulatory genes which are expressed in this pediatric brain tumor may provide an alternative approach to gain insight into the molecular aspects of tumor formation.

Aguzzi, A. [Univ. Hospital, Schmelzbergstr (Switzerland)



Tumor response evaluation in oncology: current update.  


Quantification of tumor burden and assessment of changes in tumor size after chemotherapy are commonly performed to evaluate treatment response in oncology trials. Validation and adoption of different criteria have been attempted in the past to achieve uniformity in scanning techniques and measurement metrics so that comparison of different oncological trials is feasible. Response assessment of solid tumors is usually consisted of either bidimensional (World Health Organization criteria) or unidimensional (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors [RECIST] guidelines) measurement of tumors before and after chemotherapy. RECIST 1.1 criteria have been recently published. In this article, we try to provide a comprehensive review of the tumor response evaluation guidelines that were recently updated in attempts to overcome limitations of the previous criteria as well as incorporate recent advances in imaging techniques. PMID:20657213

Shanbhogue, Alampady Krishna Prasad; Karnad, Anand B; Prasad, Srinivasa R



Granular cell tumor of the suprasternal space.  


A case of granular cell tumor (GCT) was reported. We encountered a 33-year-old woman with a painless, elastic, hard mass in the soft tissue of the suprasternal space. The tumor was excised with several millimeters margin of normal tissue above the deep cervical fascia and the wound was closed primarily. Histological examination on hematoxylin-eosin stain showed a tumor growth in the mid- to deep dermis and eosinophilic small granules that were consistent with granular cell tumors. Immunohistochemical studies showed positive staining for S-100 protein. We experienced a case of a granular cell tumor occurring in the suprasternal space and report the importance of including it in the differential diagnosis of subcutaneous soft tissue tumors. PMID:20860741

Ihara, Koji; Ito, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Yumiko; Fukaya, Eri; Nakazawa, Hiroaki; Nozaki, Motohiro



Tumor Bioengineering Using a Transglutaminase Crosslinked Hydrogel  

PubMed Central

Development of a physiologically relevant 3D model system for cancer research and drug development is a current challenge. We have adopted a 3D culture system based on a transglutaminase-crosslinked gelatin gel (Col-Tgel) to mimic the tumor 3D microenvironment. The system has several unique advantages over other alternatives including presenting cell-matrix interaction sites from collagen-derived peptides, geometry-initiated multicellular tumor spheroids, and metabolic gradients in the tumor microenvironment. Also it provides a controllable wide spectrum of gel stiffness for mechanical signals, and technical compatibility with imaging based screening due to its transparent properties. In addition, the Col-Tgel provides a cure-in-situ delivery vehicle for tumor xenograft formation in animals enhancing tumor cell uptake rate. Overall, this distinctive 3D system could offer a platform to more accurately mimic in vivo situations to study tumor formation and progression both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25133673

Fang, Josephine Y.; Tan, Shih-Jye; Yang, Zhi; Tayag, Charisse; Han, Bo



CT and MR findings of Krukenberg tumors: Comparison with primary ovarian tumors  

SciTech Connect

The purposes of this study were to evaluate the CT and MR findings of Krukenberg tumors and to compare them with those of primary ovarian tumors. This study included 20 patients with Krukenberg tumors and 65 patients with various primary ovarian tumors. CT/MR/both imaging studies were available in 15/1/4 patients with Krukenberg tumor and 31/10/24 patients with primary ovarian tumors, respectively. Imaging findings of the tumors were categorized into three subgroups: a solid mass with intratumoral cysts, a solid mass without intratumoral cysts, and a predominantly cystic mass. Among 32 Krukenberg tumors (bilateral in 12 patients), 22 were solid masses with intratumoral cysts, in 14 of which the wall of the intratumoral cysts showed apparently strong contrast enhancement on CT and/or MRI. Six Krukenberg tumors were solid masses without intratumoral cysts, and four were predominantly cystic masses. Imaging findings of 88 primary ovarian tumors (bilateral in 23 patients) were 5 solid masses with intratumoral cysts, 27 solid masses without intratumoral cysts, and 56 predominantly cystic masses. None of the five primary ovarian tumors with solid mass with intratumoral cysts demonstrated apparently strong contrast enhancement of the cyst wall. Krukenberg tumor should be suspected when one sees solid ovarian tumors containing well demarcated intratumoral cystic lesions, especially if the walls of those cysts demonstrate apparently strong contrast enhancement. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Kim, Seung Hyup; Kim, Won Hong; Park, Kyung Joo [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of)] [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of)



Mammary tumor virus proviral DNA in normal murine tissue and non-virally induced mammary tumors.  

PubMed Central

The Southern DNA filter transfer technique was used to study the involvement of the endogenous mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) in the development of mammary tumors of nonviral etiology. The presence of extra MMTV proviruses in the genomes of these non-virally induced mammary tumors would indicate an integration of the provirus of an activated endogenous MMTV. Acquisition of MMTV proviruses did not seem to be an absolute requirement for the development of hormone or carcinogenically induced mammary tumors in strain BALB/c nor for hormone-induced mammary tumors in mouse strains 020, C57BL, and C3Hf. In some hormone-induced mammary tumors we did observe extra MMTV proviruses in submolar quantities, indicating that reintegration may occasionally occur and that only a part of the tumor cells acquired new MMTV DNA information. Hormone-dependent and -independent primary mammary tumors of the mouse strain GR, which are controlled by the Mtv-2 mammary tumor induction gene, all acquired extra MMTV proviruses. Most of these extra MMTV proviral-DNA-containing fragments appeared present in submolar quantities, suggesting that only part of the tumor cells acquired extra MMTV proviral information. These findings indicate that the initially transformed mammary gland cells of non-virally induced mammary tumors do not necessarily acquire extra MMTV proviral DNA information, in contrast to the MMTV-induced mammary tumors, in which all tumor cells contain extra MMTV DNA information. Images PMID:6268828

Michalides, R; Wagenaar, E; Groner, B; Hynes, N E



Different staining patterns of ovarian Brenner tumor and the associated mucinous tumor.  


The association of ovarian Brenner tumors and adjacent mucinous tumors is well known but not completely understood. In this study, we analyzed immunohistochemical markers on Brenner tumors and their associated mucinous tumor to explore Mullerian as well as Wolffian and germ cell derivation and determine if the mucinous component is independent or related to the Brenner tumor. Of 32 consecutive cases of Brenner tumors, 8 were identified with significant mucinous component, and 7 additional cases included foci of mucinous epithelium within the Brenner transitional nests. All Brenner tumors were diffusely positive for GATA3 and negative for Paired box gene 8, PAX2, and Sal-like protein 4. Interestingly, the areas of mucinous epithelium as well as mucinous tumors, intermixed and adjacent to the Brenner tumor, were negative for all 4 markers; however, occasional basal-like cells retained expression of GATA3. The immunoprofile of mucinous tumors associated with Brenner tumors shares the lack of Mullerian markers PAX2 and Paired box gene 8 with the Brenner tumor but differs in the expression of GATA3 only in the Brenner tumor component. PMID:25596159

Roma, Andres A; Masand, Ramya P



Simulation of complex transport of nanoparticles around a tumor using tumor-microenvironment-on-chip.  


Delivery of therapeutic agents selectively to tumor tissue, which is referred as "targeted delivery," is one of the most ardently pursued goals of cancer therapy. Recent advances in nanotechnology enable numerous types of nanoparticles (NPs) whose properties can be designed for targeted delivery to tumors. In spite of promising early results, the delivery and therapeutic efficacy of the majority of NPs are still quite limited. This is mainly attributed to the limitation of currently available tumor models to test these NPs and systematically study the effects of complex transport and pathophysiological barriers around the tumors. In this study, thus, we developed a new in vitro tumor model to recapitulate the tumor microenvironment determining the transport around tumors. This model, named tumor-microenvironment-on-chip (T-MOC), consists of 3-dimensional microfluidic channels where tumor cells and endothelial cells are cultured within extracellular matrix under perfusion of interstitial fluid. Using this T-MOC platform, the transport of NPs and its variation due to tumor microenvironmental parameters have been studied including cut-off pore size, interstitial fluid pressure, and tumor tissue microstructure. The results suggest that T-MOC is capable of simulating the complex transport around the tumor, and providing detailed information about NP transport behavior. This finding confirms that NPs should be designed considering their dynamic interactions with tumor microenvironment. PMID:25194778

Kwak, Bongseop; Ozcelikkale, Altug; Shin, Crystal S; Park, Kinam; Han, Bumsoo



Cancer Nanomedicines Targeting Tumor Extracellular pH  

PubMed Central

Tumors have been a highlight in the research of nanomedicine for decades. Despite all the efforts in the decoration of the nano systems, tumor specific targeting is still an issue due to the heterogeneous nature of tumors. Hypoxia is frequently observed in solid tumors. The consequent acidification of tumor extracellular matrices may bring new insight to tumor targeting. In this review, we present the polymeric nano systems that target tumor extracellular pH (pHe). PMID:22078927

Tian, Li; Bae, You Han



Surgical management of carotid body tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The goal was to review our experience in the management of carotid body tumors at a tertiary referral center. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of patients at University of California-Los Angeles Medical Center in whom carotid body tumor was diagnosed between 1973 and 1998. Results: Twenty-nine patients with 36 carotid body tumors were identified. Thirty-five operations were performed.

Steven J. Wang; Marilene B. Wang; Tanya M. Barauskas; Thomas C. Calcaterra



[Chylous ascites secondary to a carcinoid tumor].  


A 68-year-old male with abdominal swelling and wasting of one month's evolution had chylous ascites. The clinical study of the patient showed a retroperitoneal tumor and a distal jejunum and mesenterium affliction. There were metastatic nodules in peritoneum, epiploic appendix and malignant pleural effusion. The histological study showed a carcinoid tumor. Chylous ascites is an exceptional complication, and a bad prognosis factor of carcinoid tumor. PMID:2103270

Aliaga, L; Herrera, F; Sarmiento, C; Plaza, F; Castillo, A



Multiscale tumor spatiokinetic model for intraperitoneal therapy.  


This study established a multiscale computational model for intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy, to depict the time-dependent and spatial-dependent drug concentrations in peritoneal tumors as functions of drug properties (size, binding, diffusivity, permeability), transport mechanisms (diffusion, convection), spatial-dependent tumor heterogeneities (vessel density, cell density, pressure gradient), and physiological properties (peritoneal pressure, peritoneal fluid volume). Equations linked drug transport and clearance on three scales (tumor, IP cavity, whole organism). Paclitaxel was the test compound. The required model parameters (tumor diffusivity, tumor hydraulic conductivity, vessel permeability and surface area, microvascular hydrostatic pressure, drug association with cells) were obtained from literature reports, calculation, and/or experimental measurements. Drug concentration-time profiles in peritoneal fluid and plasma were the boundary conditions for tumor domain and blood vessels, respectively. The finite element method was used to numerically solve the nonlinear partial differential equations for fluid and solute transport. The resulting multiscale model accounted for intratumoral spatial heterogeneity, depicted diffusive and convective drug transport in tumor interstitium and across blood vessels, and provided drug flux and concentration as a function of time and spatial position in the tumor. Comparison of model-predicted tumor spatiokinetics with experimental results (autoradiographic data of 3H-paclitaxel in IP ovarian tumors in mice, 6 h posttreatment) showed good agreement (1% deviation for area under curve and 23% deviations for individual data points, which were several-fold lower compared to the experimental intertumor variations). The computational multiscale model provides a tool to quantify the effects of drug-, tumor-, and host-dependent variables on the concentrations and residence time of IP therapeutics in tumors. PMID:24570339

Au, Jessie L-S; Guo, Peng; Gao, Yue; Lu, Ze; Wientjes, Michael G; Tsai, Max; Wientjes, M Guillaume



Contrast Ultrasound in Imaging Tumor Angiogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a New strategies to detect tumor angiogenesis and monitor response of tumor vasculature to therapy are needed. There are a plethora\\u000a of anti-angiogenic strategies being evaluated pre-clinically and in the clinical setting; however, a ­significant unmet challenge\\u000a is following the response of tumors to anti-angiogenic therapy. Herein we review current modalities being investigated for\\u000a this purpose and highlight the utility of

Grzegorz Korpanty; Rolf A. Brekken


Reproducibility of neuroendocrine lung tumor classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a tumor classification scheme to be useful, it must be reproducible and it must show clinical significance. Classification of neuroendocrine lung tumors is a difficult problem with little information about interobserver reproducibility. We sought to evaluate the classification of typical carcinoid (TC), atypical carcinoid (AC), large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC), and small-cell carcinoma (SCC) tumors as proposed by W.D. Travis

William D Travis; Anthony A Gal; Thomas V Colby; David S Klimstra; Roni Falk; Michael N Koss



Radiological evaluation of Pott puffy tumor  

SciTech Connect

The Pott puffy tumor represents frontal osteomyelitis with subperiosteal (pericranial) abscess, secondary to frontal sinusitis. Pott puffy tumor is one of several potential complications of infection of a frontal sinus. Computed tomography (CT) and radionuclide bone imaging have proved to be invaluable tools in the diagnosis of frontal sinusitis, osteomyelitis, and intracranial infection. This article details the radionuclide bone imaging and findings on CT in three children with Pott puffy tumor, as well as the clinical features and pathophysicological mechanisms.

Wells, R.G.; Sty, J.R.; Landers, A.D.



Laparoscopic liver resection of benign liver tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility, safety, and outcome of laparoscopic liver resection\\u000a for benign liver tumors in a multicenter setting. Background: Despite restrictive, tailored indications for resection in benign\\u000a liver tumors, an increasing number of articles have been published concerning laparoscopic liver resection of these tumors.\\u000a Methods: A retrospective study was performed in 18

B. Descottes; D. Glineur; F. Lachachi; D. Valleix; J. Paineau; A. Hamy; M. Morino; H. Bismuth; D. Castaing; E. Savier; P. Honore; O. Detry; M. Legrand; J. S. Azagra; M. Goergen; M. Ceuterick; J. Marescaux; D. Mutter; B. Hemptinne; R. Troisi; J. Weerts; B. Dallemagne; C. Jehaes; M. Gelin; V. Donckier; R. Aerts; B. Topal; C. Bertrand; B. Mansvelt; L. Krunckelsven; D. Herman; M. Kint; E. Totte; R. Schockmel; J. F. Gigot



Descriptive epidemiology of primary spinal cord tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Object There is little population-based data available on primary spinal cord tumors. Many of the existing statistics are not current\\u000a or were obtained from surgical series. Historically, population-based data were collected only for malignant tumors, and only\\u000a recently have data begun to be collected on non-malignant tumors. The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence\\u000a of both non-malignant

Kate A. Schellinger; Jennifer M. Propp; J. Lee Villano; Bridget J. McCarthy



Pancreatic cystic islet-cell tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Cystic islet-cell tumors are rare neoplasms that may be confused with more familiar cystic pancreatic lesions, such as pseudocysts,\\u000a serous cystadenoma, and mucinous tumors. Analysis of aspirated cyst fluid for tumor markers (carcinoembryonic antigen [CEA],\\u000a CA-125, and CA-15.3), enzymes (amylase and lipase), viscosity, and cytology has been proposed as an aid to preoperative differential\\u000a diagnosis. These tests will distinguish mucinous

David Weissmann; Kent Lewandrowski; John Godine; Barbara Centeno; Andrew Warshaw



Primary neuroendocrine tumor of the testis  

PubMed Central

Testicular neuroendocrine tumor is rare. It accounts for less than 1% of all testicular neoplasms. More than 60 cases have been published in the literature. A 27-year-old man presented with left testicular mass and underwent radical orchidectomy. Histological examination showed neuroendocrine tumor, confirmed by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. The patient showed no evidence of metastasis over 1-year follow-up post-orchidectomy in spite of extensive tumor necrosis. PMID:24833836

Alsharif, Shakir; Al-Shraim, Mubarak; Alhadi, Ahmed; Al-Aown, Abdulrahman; Fooshang, Fawzy; Eid, Refat



Metastasis Suppressors and the Tumor Microenvironment  

PubMed Central

The most dangerous attribute of cancer cells is their ability to metastasize. Throughout the process of metastasis, tumor cells interact with other tumor cells, host cells and extracellular molecules. This brief review explores how a new class of molecules – metastasis suppressors – regulate tumor cell–microenvironmental interactions. Data are presented which demonstrate that metastasis suppressors act at multiple steps of the metastatic cascade. A brief discussion for how metastasis suppressor regulation of cellular interactions might be exploited is presented. PMID:19308680

Bodenstine, Thomas M.



[Imaging and radioguided surgery of tumors NETs].  


Neuroendocrine tumors tend to grow slowly and are notoriously difficult to localize, at least in the early stages. Metastases are in most cases already present at the time of diagnosis. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy improves detection of small and occult NET tumors. Intraoperative probe counting with a hand-held gamma probe can identify tumors even when they are small and impalpable, but receptor positive. This advanced operative approach may improve the survival of these patients. PMID:24042403

Schillirò, Francesco; Mallardo, Vania; Manna, Antonio; Fontanarosa, Antonio; Califano, Teresa; Della Vecchia, Nicoletta; Romano, Giovanna; Di Crescenzo, Vincenzo; Genovese, Eugenio Annibale



Promotion of lung tumors in mice  

SciTech Connect

Several elements of two-stage carcinogenesis apply to the development of lung tumors in mice. At least three agents, identified as promoters, will also enhance tumor formation in lung: phorbol, saccharin, and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The antioxidant BHT is effective only if animals are treated after exposure to an initiating agent. Administration can be delayed up to 5 months after urethan treatment and still enhance tumor formation. BHT enhances lung tumor formation regardless of its route of administration. The lowest dose required to produce an effect has not yet been determined. In at least one mouse strain, BHT also enhances tumor formation in animals initiated with 3-methylcholanthren or diethylnitrosaine. No evidence is available yet to show that BHT would enhance tumor development in animals treated with subcarcinogenic doses of an initiating compound. Nor has it been possible to produce more tumors with BHT in mouse strains which have a low spontaneous tumor incidence and respond poorly to urethan. Neveretheless, the data collected on the effects of BHT on mouse lung tumor development have broadened the concept of two-stage carcinogenesis and complement the evidence for initiation-promotion available for other epithelial tissues. (ERB)

Witschi, H.P.



Tumors in Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome  

SciTech Connect

The 14 tumors reported in Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome since 1989, when added to the 22 previously reported, are beginning to show a pattern of neural and developmental tumors, especially of the head, which is malformed in the syndrome. Among the neoplasms were 12 of the nervous system: 2 each of oligodendroglioma, medulloblastoma, neuroblastoma, and 3 other benign tumors; 2 of nasopharyngeal rhabdomyosarcoma; and 1 each of leiomyosarcoma, seminoma, and embryonal carcinoma. Among the other benign tumors were an ondontoma, a choristoma, a dermoid cyst, and 2 pilomatrixomas. 20 refs., 1 tab.

Miller, R.W. [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States); Rubinstein, J.H. [Univ. of Cincinnati College of Medicine, OH (United States)



Chemotherapy induces tumor clearance independent of apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Dysregulation of apoptosis is associated with the development of human cancer and resistance to anti-cancer therapy. The ultimate goal of cancer treatment is to selectively induce cancer cell death and overcome drug resistance. A deeper understanding of how a given chemotherapy affects tumor cell death is needed to develop strategically designed anti-cancer agents. Here we utilize a xenograft mouse tumor system generated from genetically defined cells deficient in apoptosis to examine the involvement of multiple forms of cell death induced by cyclophosphamide (CP), a DNA alkylating agent commonly used in chemotherapy. We find that while apoptosis facilitates tumor regression, it is dispensable for complete tumor regression as other forms of cell death are activated. Sporadic necrosis is observed in both apoptosis-competent and deficient tumors evident by tumor cell morphology, extracellular release of high mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1), and activation of innate immune cells in CP treated tumors. Our findings indicate that in apoptosis-deficient tumors, necrosis may play a fundamental role in tumor clearance by stimulating the innate immune response. PMID:19047135

Guerriero, Jennifer L.; Ditsworth, Dara; Fan, Yongjun; Zhao, Fangping; Crawford, Howard C.; Zong, Wei-Xing



Giant-cell tumor of the patella.  


We report a 38-year old man with a giant-cell tumor in a rare site, the patella. Primary patellar neoplasms are highly unusual. According to a survey by the Bone and Soft Tissue Tumor Committee of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association, of more than 2,126 giant-cell tumors of bone reported since 1972, only 22 were primary patellar neoplasms. We present a case of this rare entity along with its clinical and radiographic features. The first clinical symptom was anterior knee pain. Though anterior knee pain has numerous and varied causes, it is necessary to consider patellar bone tumors in the differential diagnosis. PMID:22358142

Yoshida, Yukihiro; Kojima, Toshio; Taniguchi, Masashi; Osaka, Shunzo; Tokuhashi, Yasuaki



Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Solid Tumors

Bladder Cancer; Breast Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Kidney Cancer; Lung Cancer; Ovarian Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific



Maximizing Tumor Immunity With Fractionated Radiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Technologic advances have led to increased clinical use of higher-sized fractions of radiation dose and higher total doses. How these modify the pathways involved in tumor cell death, normal tissue response, and signaling to the immune system has been inadequately explored. Here we ask how radiation dose and fraction size affect antitumor immunity, the suppression thereof, and how this might relate to tumor control. Methods and Materials: Mice bearing B16-OVA murine melanoma were treated with up to 15 Gy radiation given in various-size fractions, and tumor growth followed. The tumor-specific immune response in the spleen was assessed by interferon-{gamma} enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay with ovalbumin (OVA) as the surrogate tumor antigen and the contribution of regulatory T cells (Tregs) determined by the proportion of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup hi}Foxp3{sup +} T cells. Results: After single doses, tumor control increased with the size of radiation dose, as did the number of tumor-reactive T cells. This was offset at the highest dose by an increase in Treg representation. Fractionated treatment with medium-size radiation doses of 7.5 Gy/fraction gave the best tumor control and tumor immunity while maintaining low Treg numbers. Conclusions: Radiation can be an immune adjuvant, but the response varies with the size of dose per fraction. The ultimate challenge is to optimally integrate cancer immunotherapy into radiation therapy.

Schaue, Doerthe, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ratikan, Josephine A.; Iwamoto, Keisuke S.; McBride, William H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)



Cellular immunotherapy for pediatric solid tumors.  


Substantial progress has been made in the treatment of pediatric solid tumors over the past 4 decades. However, children with metastatic and or recurrent disease continue to do poorly despite the aggressive multi-modality conventional therapies. The increasing understanding of the tumor biology and the interaction between the tumor and the immune system over the recent years have led to the development of novel immune-based therapies as alternative options for some of these high-risk malignancies. The safety and anti-tumor efficacy of various tumor vaccines and tumor-antigen specific immune cells are currently being investigated for various solid tumors. In early clinical trials, most of these cellular therapies have been well tolerated and have shown promising clinical responses. Although substantial work is being done in this field, the available knowledge for pediatric tumors remains limited. We review the contemporary early phase cell-based immunotherapy efforts for pediatric solid tumors and discuss the rationale and the challenges thereof. PMID:25082406

Hegde, Meenakshi; Moll, Alexander J; Byrd, Tiara T; Louis, Chrystal U; Ahmed, Nabil



Exploiting tumor epigenetics to improve oncolytic virotherapy  

PubMed Central

Oncolytic viruses (OVs) comprise a versatile and multi-mechanistic therapeutic platform in the growing arsenal of anticancer biologics. These replicating therapeutics find favorable conditions in the tumor niche, characterized among others by increased metabolism, reduced anti-tumor/antiviral immunity, and disorganized vasculature. Through a self-amplification that is dependent on multiple cancer-specific defects, these agents exhibit remarkable tumor selectivity. With several OVs completing or entering Phase III clinical evaluation, their therapeutic potential as well as the challenges ahead are increasingly clear. One key hurdle is tumor heterogeneity, which results in variations in the ability of tumors to support productive infection by OVs and to induce adaptive anti-tumor immunity. To this end, mounting evidence suggests tumor epigenetics may play a key role. This review will focus on the epigenetic landscape of tumors and how it relates to OV infection. Therapeutic strategies aiming to exploit the epigenetic identity of tumors in order to improve OV therapy are also discussed. PMID:24062768

Forbes, Nicole E.; Abdelbary, Hesham; Lupien, Mathieu; Bell, John C.; Diallo, Jean-Simon



Imaging Tumor Cell Movement In Vivo  

PubMed Central

This unit describes the methods that we have been developing for analyzing tumor cell motility in mouse and rat models of breast cancer metastasis. Rodents are commonly used both to provide a mammalian system for studying human tumor cells (as xenografts in immunocompromised mice) as well as for following the development of tumors from a specific tissue type in transgenic lines. The Basic Protocol in this unit describes the standard methods used for generation of mammary tumors and imaging them. Additional protocols for labeling macrophages, blood vessel imaging, and image analysis are also included. PMID:23456602

Entenberg, David; Kedrin, Dmitriy; Wyckoff, Jeffrey; Sahai, Erik; Condeelis, John; Segall, Jeffrey E.



Oncogene expression in endocrine pancreatic tumors.  


The mRNA expression of the (proto)oncogenes Ha-ras, Ki-ras, fos, c-myc, N-myc, and sis was studied in five pancreatic endocrine tumors and two non-neoplastic pancreatic tissues. Compared with non-tumorous pancreatic tissue, Ha-ras and Ki-ras mRNA was overexpressed up to 42-fold in all the tumors; metastasizing tumors showed 2-6 times higher Ha-ras mRNA levels than benign neoplasias. In contrast, c-myc mRNA levels were higher in normal tissue than n tumors and fos mRNA levels did not differ significantly between tumors and normal tissue. The activities of Ki-ras, fos and c-myc mRNA expression did not correlate with any of the histological or biological properties of the tumors, nor with the clinical course of disease. Our results, although based on a limited number of cases, suggest tha Ha-ras and Ki-ras mRNA overexpression is associated with the development of pancreatic endocrine tumors. The measurement of Ha-ras mRNA levels may contribute to the assessment of tumor prognosis. PMID:2904191

Höfler, H; Ruhri, C; Pütz, B; Wirnsberger, G; Hauser, H



against Tumor Antigen In Vivo  

E-print Network

The priming of an immune response against a major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted antigen expressed by nonhematopoietic cells involves the transfer of that antigen to a host bone marrow-derived antigen presenting cell (APC) for presentation to CD8 + T lymphocytes. Dendritic cells (DC), as bone marrow-derived APC, are first candidates for presentation of tumorassociated antigens (TAA). The aim of this study was to see whether DC are able to prime in vivo antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes after exposure to a soluble protein antigen in vitro. Lacking a well-defined murine TAA, we took advantage of 13-galactosidase (13-gal)transduced tumor cell lines as a model in which [3-gal operationally functions as TAA. For in vivo priming both a DC line, transduced or not transduced with the gene coding for murine GM-CSF, and fresh bone marrow-derived DC (bm-DC), loaded in vitro with soluble ~-gal, were used. Priming with either granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor-transduced DC line or fresh bm-DC but not with untransduced DC line generated CTL able to lyse 13-gal-transfected target cells. Furthermore, GM-CSF was necessary for the DC line to efficiently present soluble [3-gal as an H-2Ld-restricted peptide to a [3-gal--specific CTL clone. Data also show that a long-lasting immunity against tumor challenge can be induced using


Paraneoplastic Autoimmunity in Thymus Tumors  

PubMed Central

Autoimmune phenomena are more frequent in thymic epithelial tumors (TET) than in any other human tumor. Mysthenia gravis (MG) is by far the most common autoimmune disease in thymoma patients. MG is characterized by muscle weakness due to autoantibodies against the acetylcholine receptor (AChR), and CD4 +AChR-specific T cells play a pivotal role for the production of these autoantibodies. About 10% of MG patients have a thymoma and, interestingly, only such thymomas exhibit an MG association that maintains thymuslike morphological and functional features with respect to the homing and differentiation of immature T cells. Since AChR protein is not expressed in thymomas, the specificity of the autoimmunity in thymoma-associated MG is thought to be determined by nonreceptor proteins with AChR epitopes. Such proteins are overexpressed in cortical-type MG-associated thymomas, and medullary thymomas express these proteins at barely detectable levels. Aside from this quantitative difference, the pathogenesis of anti-AChR autoimmunity might be qualitatively different in these thymoma subtypes. Our findings suggest that an antigen-specific abnormal Tcell selection by cortical-type TET may contribute to the pathogenesis of paraneoplastic MG. In contrast, an abnormal (intratumorous) activation of autoreactive T cells may be operative in medullary thymomas. PMID:9716914

Schultz, Anja; Wilisch, Annette; Helmreich, Markus; Nenninger, Regina; Müller-Hermelink, Hans Konrad



Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors  

PubMed Central

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are uncommon, biologically aggressive soft tissue sarcomas of neural origin that pose tremendous challenges to effective therapy. In 50% of cases, they occur in the context of neurofibromatosis type I, characterized by loss of function mutations to the tumor suppressor neurofibromin; the remainder arise sporadically or following radiation therapy. Prognosis is generally poor, with high rates of relapse following multimodality therapy in early disease, low response rates to cytotoxic chemotherapy in advanced disease, and propensity for rapid disease progression and high mortality. The last few years have seen an explosion in data surrounding the potential molecular drivers and targets for therapy above and beyond neurofibromin loss. These data span multiple nodes at various levels of cellular control, including major signal transduction pathways, angiogenesis, apoptosis, mitosis, and epigenetics. These include classical cancer-driving genetic aberrations such as TP53 and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) loss of function, and upregulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and (mechanistic) target of rapamycin (TOR) pathways, as well as less ubiquitous molecular abnormalities involving inhibitors of apoptosis proteins, aurora kinases, and the Wingless/int (Wnt) signaling pathway. We review the current understanding of MPNST biology, current best practices of management, and recent research developments in this disease, with a view to informing future advancements in patient care. PMID:24470531

Farid, Mohamad; Demicco, Elizabeth G.; Garcia, Roberto; Ahn, Linda; Merola, Pamela R.; Cioffi, Angela



Wilms Tumor Survival in Kenya  

PubMed Central

Purpose Survival from Wilms Tumor (WT) exceeds 90% at 5 years in developed nations, whereas at last report, 2-year event-free survival (EFS) in Kenya reached only 35%. To clarify factors linked to these poor outcomes in Kenya, we established a comprehensive web-based WT registry, comprised of patients from the four primary hospitals treating childhood cancers. Materials and Methods WT patients diagnosed between January 2008 and January 2012 were identified. Files were abstracted for demographic characteristics, treatment regimens, and enrollment in the Kenyan National Hospital Insurance Fund (NHIF). Children under 15 years of age having both a primary kidney tumor on imaging and concordant histology consistent with WT were included. Results Two-year event-free survival (EFS) was 52.7% for all patients (n=133), although loss to follow up (LTFU) was 50%. For the 33 patients who completed all scheduled standard therapy, 2-year EFS was 94%. Patients enrolled in NHIF tended to complete more standard therapy and had a lower hazard of death (Cox 0.192, p <0.001). Conclusion Survival of Kenyan WT patients has increased slightly since last report. Notably, WT patients completing all phases of standard therapy experienced 2-year survival approaching the benchmarks of developed nations. Efforts in Kenya should be made to enhance compliance with WT treatment through NHIF enrollment. PMID:23845615

Axt, Jason; Abdallah, Fatmah; Axt, Meridith; Githanga, Jessie; Hansen, Erik; Lessan, Joel; Li, Ming; Musimbi, Joyce; Mwachiro, Michael; Newton, Mark; Ndung’u, James; Njuguna, Festis; Nzioka, Ancent; Oruko, Oliver; Patel, Kirtika; Tenge, Robert; Ukoli, Flora; White, Russel; O’Neill, James; Lovvorn, Harold



Valorisation of Como Historical Cadastral Maps Through Modern Web Geoservices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cartographic cultural heritage preserved in worldwide archives is often stored in the original paper version only, thus restricting both the chances of utilization and the range of possible users. The Web C.A.R.T.E. system addressed this issue with regard to the precious cadastral maps preserved at the State Archive of Como. Aim of the project was to improve the visibility and accessibility of this heritage using the latest free and open source tools for processing, cataloguing and web publishing the maps. The resulting architecture should therefore assist the State Archive of Como in managing its cartographic contents. After a pre-processing consisting of digitization and georeferencing steps, maps were provided with metadata, compiled according to the current Italian standards and managed through an ad hoc version of the GeoNetwork Opensource geocatalog software. A dedicated MapFish-based webGIS client, with an optimized version also for mobile platforms, was built for maps publication and 2D navigation. A module for 3D visualization of cadastral maps was finally developed using the NASA World Wind Virtual Globe. Thanks to a temporal slidebar, time was also included in the system producing a 4D Graphical User Interface. The overall architecture was totally built with free and open source software and allows a direct and intuitive consultation of historical maps. Besides the notable advantage of keeping original paper maps intact, the system greatly simplifies the work of the State Archive of Como common users and together widens the same range of users thanks to the modernization of map consultation tools.

Brovelli, M. A.; Minghini, M.; Zamboni, G.



El teatro como reflexión colectiva: Conversación con Sergio Corrieri  

E-print Network

grandes rasgos, por supuesto. Por nuestra convivencia en la zona y por los multiples canales naturales que eso nos brinda, nosotros estamos actualizados de la problemática. Aparte, con el tiempo, el Escambray ha ido perdiendo artistas particulares en el... gente del Escambray se nos queja. Uno de los aspectos más interesantes, a mi modo de ver, de la experiencia del Teatro Escambray es que todo este proceso se ha ido haciendo sobre la marcha, ha ido surgiendo, como tú decías hace poco, de la práctica...

Luzuriaga, Gerardo



Biochemical prognostic indicators for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and small bowel neuroendocrine tumors.  


Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) and small bowel neuroendocrine tumors (SBNETs) are rare tumors that are frequently diagnosed late in the course of the disease. Several biomarkers have been proposed in the literature as prognostic factors for patients with these tumors. This article discusses a recent publication in Annals of Surgical Oncology from the University of Iowa analyzing the effect of different biomarkers on survival in patients with PNETs and SBNETs. PMID:25493250

Landry, Christine S; Cavaness, Keith; Celinski, Scott; Preskitt, John



Assessment of Tumor Growth in Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors in von Hippel Lindau Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background The incidence of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) is increasing but only a subset of these heterogeneous tumors will progress to malignant disease which is associated with a poor prognosis. Currently, there is limited data on the natural history of these tumors and it is difficult to determine which patients require surgical intervention because the risk of metastatic disease cannot be accurately determined. Study Design We conducted a prospective study of 87 patients with von Hippel Lindau syndrome-associate solid pancreatic lesions to determine the natural history of these tumors with biochemical testing, follow up anatomic and functional imaging, and advanced imaging analysis with a median follow up of 4 years. Results Approximately 20% of consecutive tumor measurements during follow up were decreased in size and 20% showed no change. This included 2 of 4 surgically-proven malignant tumors which had a net decrease in tumor size over time. Tumor volume, as derived from greatest diameter and volumetric measurement, showed good correlation to pathology tumor measurement of surgically resected tumors (Spearman rank correlation ?=0.72, p=0.0011, and ?=0.83, p<0.0001; respectively). Tumor density measurement had an inverse relationship with tumor size (Spearman rank correlation ?0.22, p=0.0047). A tumor density cutoff of 200 was 75% specific for malignant tumors. Conclusions PNETs demonstrate a non-linear growth pattern, which includes periods of no growth and apparent decrease in size by imaging. These growth patterns are variable and not associated with tumor grade and malignancy. Tumor density, as measured in this cohort, may offer a specific diagnostic tool for malignant disease. PMID:24440063

Weisbrod, Allison B.; Kitano, Mio; Thomas, Francine; Williams, David; Gulati, Neelam; Gesuwan, Krisana; Liu, Yixun; Venzon, David; Turkbey, Ismail; Choyke, Peter; Yao, Jack; Libutti, Steven K.; Nilubol, Naris; Linehan, William M.; Kebebew, Electron



High-Dose Thiotepa Plus Peripheral Stem Cell Transplantation in Treating Patients With Refractory Solid Tumors

Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors; Childhood Germ Cell Tumor; Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Cancer; Retinoblastoma; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific



Tumoral expression of IL-33 inhibits tumor growth and modifies the tumor microenvironment through CD8+ T and NK cells.  


Cancer immunotherapy has shown great promise as a new standard cancer therapeutic modality. However, the response rates are limited for current approach that depends on enhancing spontaneous antitumor immune responses. Therefore, increasing tumor immunogenicity by expressing appropriate cytokines should further improve the current immunotherapy. IL-33 is a member of the IL-1 family of cytokines and is released by necrotic epithelial cells or activated innate immune cells and is thus considered a "danger" signal. The role of IL-33 in promoting type 2 immune responses and tissue inflammation has been well established. However, whether IL-33 drives antitumor immune responses is controversial. Our previous work established that IL-33 promoted the function of CD8(+) T cells. In this study, we showed that the expression of IL-33 in two types of cancer cells potently inhibited tumor growth and metastasis. Mechanistically, IL-33 increased numbers and IFN-? production by CD8(+) T and NK cells in tumor tissues, thereby inducing a tumor microenvironment favoring tumor eradication. Importantly, IL-33 greatly increased tumor Ag-specific CD8(+) T cells. Furthermore, both NK and CD8(+) T cells were required for the antitumor effect of IL-33. Moreover, depletion of regulatory T cells worked synergistically with IL-33 expression for tumor elimination. Our studies established "alarmin" IL-33 as a promising new cytokine for tumor immunotherapy through promoting cancer-eradicating type 1 immune responses. PMID:25429071

Gao, Xin; Wang, Xuefeng; Yang, Qianting; Zhao, Xin; Wen, Wen; Li, Gang; Lu, Junfeng; Qin, Wenxin; Qi, Yuan; Xie, Fang; Jiang, Jingting; Wu, Changping; Zhang, Xueguang; Chen, Xinchun; Turnquist, Heth; Zhu, Yibei; Lu, Binfeng



Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors are polyphenotypic neoplasms with true sex cord differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we present the clinicopathologic features and immunophenotypic characteristics of five cases of uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors and three cases of endometrial stromal tumors with sex cord-like elements, with emphasis on immunohistochemical markers of sex cord differentiation. The mean patient age was 42 years (range 19–69 years), and vaginal bleeding was the most common clinical

Julie A Irving; Silvestro Carinelli; Jaime Prat



Maspin expression in prostate tumor elicits host anti-tumor immunity  

PubMed Central

The goal of the current study is to examine the biological effects of epithelial-specific tumor suppressor maspin on tumor host immune response. Accumulated evidence demonstrates an anti-tumor effect of maspin on tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. The molecular mechanism underlying these biological functions of maspin is thought to be through histone deacetylase inhibition, key to the maintenance of differentiated epithelial phenotype. Since tumor-driven stromal reactivities co-evolve in tumor progression and metastasis, it is not surprising that maspin expression in tumor cells inhibits extracellular matrix degradation, increases fibrosis and blocks hypoxia-induced angiogenesis. Using the athymic nude mouse model capable of supporting the growth and progression of xenogeneic human prostate cancer cells, we further demonstrate that maspin expression in tumor cells elicits neutrophil- and B cells-dependent host tumor immunogenicity. Specifically, mice bearing maspin-expressing tumors exhibited increased systemic and intratumoral neutrophil maturation, activation and antibody-dependent cytotoxicity, and decreased peritumoral lymphangiogenesis. These results reveal a novel biological function of maspin in directing host immunity towards tumor elimination that helps explain the significant reduction of xenograft tumor incidence in vivo and the clinical correlation of maspin with better prognosis of several types of cancer. Taken together, our data raised the possibility for novel maspin-based cancer immunotherapies. PMID:25373490

Dzinic, Sijana H.; Chen, Kang; Thakur, Archana; Kaplun, Alexander; Daniel Bonfil, R.; Li, Xiaohua; Liu, Jason; Margarida Bernardo, M.; Saliganan, Allen; Back, Jessica B.; Yano, Hiroshi; Schalk, Dana L.; Tomaszewski, Elyse N.; Beydoun, Ahmed S.; Dyson, Gregory; Mujagic, Adelina; Krass, David; Dean, Ivory; Mi, Qing-Sheng; Heath, Elisabeth; Sakr, Wael; Lum, Lawrence G.; Sheng, Shijie



Maspin expression in prostate tumor elicits host anti-tumor immunity.  


The goal of the current study is to examine the biological effects of epithelial-specific tumor suppressor maspin on tumor host immune response. Accumulated evidence demonstrates an anti-tumor effect of maspin on tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. The molecular mechanism underlying these biological functions of maspin is thought to be through histone deacetylase inhibition, key to the maintenance of differentiated epithelial phenotype. Since tumor-driven stromal reactivities co-evolve in tumor progression and metastasis, it is not surprising that maspin expression in tumor cells inhibits extracellular matrix degradation, increases fibrosis and blocks hypoxia-induced angiogenesis. Using the athymic nude mouse model capable of supporting the growth and progression of xenogeneic human prostate cancer cells, we further demonstrate that maspin expression in tumor cells elicits neutrophil- and B cells-dependent host tumor immunogenicity. Specifically, mice bearing maspin-expressing tumors exhibited increased systemic and intratumoral neutrophil maturation, activation and antibody-dependent cytotoxicity, and decreased peritumoral lymphangiogenesis. These results reveal a novel biological function of maspin in directing host immunity towards tumor elimination that helps explain the significant reduction of xenograft tumor incidence in vivo and the clinical correlation of maspin with better prognosis of several types of cancer. Taken together, our data raised the possibility for novel maspin-based cancer immunotherapies. PMID:25373490

Dzinic, Sijana H; Chen, Kang; Thakur, Archana; Kaplun, Alexander; Bonfil, R Daniel; Li, Xiaohua; Liu, Jason; Bernardo, M Margarida; Saliganan, Allen; Back, Jessica B; Yano, Hiroshi; Schalk, Dana L; Tomaszewski, Elyse N; Beydoun, Ahmed S; Dyson, Gregory; Mujagic, Adelina; Krass, David; Dean, Ivory; Mi, Qing-Sheng; Heath, Elisabeth; Sakr, Wael; Lum, Lawrence G; Sheng, Shijie



Natural selection of tumor variants in the generation of “tumor escape” phenotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea that tumors must “escape” from immune recognition contains the implicit assumption that tumors can be destroyed by immune responses either spontaneously or as the result of immunotherapeutic intervention. Simply put, there is no need for tumor escape without immunological pressure. Here, we review evidence supporting the immune escape hypothesis and critically explore the mechanisms that may allow such

Hung T. Khong; Nicholas P. Restifo



Activity of drug-loaded tumor-penetrating microparticles in peritoneal pancreatic tumors.  


Intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy confers significant survival benefits in cancer patients. However, several problems, including local toxicity and ineffectiveness against bulky tumors, have prohibited it from becoming a standard of care. We have developed drug-loaded, polymeric tumor-penetrating microparticles (TPM) to address these problems. Initial studies showed that TPM provides tumor-selective delivery and is effective against ovarian SKOV3 tumors of relatively small size (<50 mg). The present study evaluated whether the TPM activity extends to other tumor types that are more bulky and have different morphologies and disease presentation. We evaluated TPM in mice bearing two IP human pancreatic tumors with different growth characteristics and morphologies (rapidly growing, large and porous Hs766T vs. slowly growing, smaller and densely packed MiaPaCa2), and at different disease stage (early stage with smaller tumors vs. late stage with larger tumors plus peritoneal carcinomatosis). Comparison of treatments with TPM or paclitaxel in Cremophor micelles, at equi-toxic doses, shows, in all tumor types: (a) higher paclitaxel levels in tumors (up to 55-fold) for TPM, (b) greater efficacy for TPM, including significantly longer survival and higher cure rate, and (c) a single dose of TPM was equally efficacious as multiple doses of paclitaxel/Cremophor. The results indicate tumor targeting property and superior antitumor activity of paclitaxel-loaded TPM are generalizable to small and large peritoneal tumors, with or without accompanying carcinomatosis. PMID:24200079

Lu, Ze; Tsai, Max; Wang, Jie; Cole, David J; Wientjes, M Guillaume; Au, Jessie L-S



022. Granular cell tumor of the lung  

PubMed Central

Background Granular cell tumor, also known as granular cell myoblastoma, is an uncommon benign tumor with female predisposition, that involves any part of the oral cavity, but the tongue is the most common site. It is considered to be of mesenchymal origin (myoblastic), but at present, the tumor is believed to derive from Schwann cells, and the granularity of the cytoplasm may be associated with accumulation of lysosomes. Cases of granular cell tumors of the lung/ tracheobronchial tree are extremely rare (6-10% of all the granular cell tumors, 0.2% of the lung neoplasms). Methods Three cases of granular cell tumor of the lung could be retrieved from files of the Department of Pathology of the “G. Papanicolaou” General Hospital, Thessaloniki at the period 1994-2014. Two of the patients were men of the 5th decade of life and the third case was about a woman, 52-year-old, with multiple small bilateral intrabronchial tumors. The patients presented with slight chest pain, shortness of breath and cough. An excision biopsy via bronchoscopy was performed in all of them. Results Microscopically, the lesions were composed of large polygonal eosinophilic cells with highly granular cytoplasm and indistinct cell membranes, with ill-defined growth pattern. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for S-100 protein. Ki 67 was practically zero. The lesions were pathologically diagnosed as granular cell tumors. There are no recurrences after removal. Conclusions Lung/tracheobronchial tree is an uncommon site for granular cell tumor, with the tongue being the classical location. In about 10-20% of the patients, the lesions are multiple. Congenital examples have been reported and others have systematic involvement. It is benign, rarely recurs, but occasional lesions with malignant behavior have been described. Granular cell tumor of the tracheobronchial tree usually can be easily excised via bronchoscopy, but when it involves submucosal glands, nerves or peribronchial tissues, should need surgical excision.

Baliaka, Aggeliki; Pastelli, Nikoleta; Tziastoudi, Eirini; Cheva, Angeliki; Papaemmanouil, Styliani; Sakkas, Leonidas



Molecular genetic studies of sporadic pituitary tumors  

SciTech Connect

Tumor formation may result from the activation of dominant oncogenes or by inactivation of recessive, tumor suppressor genes. The role of such mutations in the development of pituitary tumors has been studied. Tumors from 88 patients, representing the 4 major classes of adenoma, were investigated. In DNA extracted from matched leukocyte and tumor samples, allelic deletions were sought with 15 probes identifying restriction, fragment length polymorphisms on chromosomes 1, 5, 10, 11, 13, 17, 20, and 22. Evidence of amplification or rearrangement of 10 recognized cellular oncogenes (N-ras, mycL1, mycN, myc, H-ras, bcl1, H-stf1, sea, kraS2, and fos) was sought in tumor DNA. Activating dominant mutations of G{sub s{alpha}} were detected using the polymerase chain reaction to amplify exons 7-10 and hybridizing the product to normal and mutant allele-specific oligonucleotides. Allelic deletions on chromosome 11 were identified in 16 tumors (18%) representing all 4 major subtypes. Deletions on other autosomes were observed in less than 6% of tumors. Three adenomas had deletions on multiple autosomes, 2 of these were aggressive and recurrent. Mutations of G{sub s{alpha}} were confirmed to be specific to somatotrophinomas, being identified in 36% of such tumors in this series. No evidence of amplification or rearrangement of other recognized cellular oncogenes was found. Inactivation of a recessive oncogene on chromosome 11 is an important and possibly early event in the development of the four major types of pituitary adenoma, whereas activating mutations of G{sub s{alpha}} are confirmed to be specific to somatotropinomas. Two aggressive tumors were found to have multiple autosomal losses, suggesting a multistep progression in the development of tumors of this phenotype. 30 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Boggild, M.D.; Jenkinson, S.; McTernan, P.; Perrett, C.W.; Clayton, R.N. [Keele Univ., Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom)] [Keele Univ., Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom); Thakker, R.V. [Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom)] [Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Pistorello, M.; Boscaro, M.; Scanarini, M. [Univ. of Padua (Italy)] [Univ. of Padua (Italy)



Intraoperative infrared imaging of brain tumors  

PubMed Central

Object Although clinical imaging defines the anatomical relationship between a brain tumor and the surrounding brain and neurological deficits indicate the neurophysiological consequences of the tumor, the effect of a brain tumor on vascular physiology is less clear. Methods An infrared camera was used to measure the temperature of the cortical surface before, during, and after removal of a mass in 34 patients (primary brain tumor in 21 patients, brain metastases in 10 and falx meningioma, cavernous angioma, and radiation necrosis–astrocytosis in one patient each). To establish the magnitude of the effect on blood flow induced by the tumor, the images were compared with those from a group of six patients who underwent temporal lobectomy for epilepsy. In four cases a cerebral artery was temporarily occluded during the course of the surgery and infrared emissions from the cortex before and after occlusion were compared to establish the relationship of local temperature to regional blood flow. Discrete temperature gradients were associated with surgically verified lesions in all cases. Depending on the type of tumor, the cortex overlying the tumor was either colder or warmer than the surrounding cortex. Spatial reorganization of thermal gradients was observed after tumor resection. Temperature gradients of the cortex in patients with tumors exceeded those measured in the cortex of patients who underwent epilepsy surgery. Conclusions Brain tumors induce changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the cortex, which can be made visible by performing infrared imaging during cranial surgery. A reduction in CBF beyond the tumor margin improves after removal of the lesion. PMID:15599965

Gorbach, Alexander M.; Heiss, John D.; Kopylev, Leonid; Oldfield, Edward H.



Does tumor growth follow a "universal law" ? Caterina Guiot*,  

E-print Network

1 Does tumor growth follow a "universal law" ? Caterina Guiot*, , Piero Giorgio Degiorgis , , Pier recently proposed. Here we investigate the extension of this model to the growth of solid malignant tumors, relating properly rescaled tumor masses and tumor growth times. The results support the notion that tumor

Grether, Gregory


The antigen specific composition of melanoma tumor infiltrating lymphocytes?  


Large numbers of tumor associated antigens has been characterized, but only a minor fraction of these are recognized by tumor infiltrating lymphocytes of melanoma, although these have shown the ability to recognize tumor and provide tumor regression upon adoptive transfer. Thus the peptide recognition of the majority of the CD8 tumor infiltrating lymphocytes remains to be identified. PMID:23162762

Hadrup, Sine Reker



Study of the Glutaminase Inhibitor CB-839 in Solid Tumors

Solid Tumors; Triple-Negative Breast Cancer; Non Small Cell Lung Cancer; Renal Cell Carcinoma; Mesothelioma; Fumarate Hydratase (FH)-Deficient Tumors; Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH)-Deficient Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GIST); Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH)-Deficient Non-gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors; Tumors Harboring Isocitrate Dehydrogenase-1 (IDH1) and IDH2 Mutations



Nonlinear simulation of the effect of microenvironment on tumor growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present and investigate a model for solid tumor growth that incorporates features of the tumor microenvironment. Using analysis and nonlinear numerical simulations, we explore the effects of the interaction between the genetic characteristics of the tumor and the tumor microenvironment on the resulting tumor progression and morphology. We find that the range of morphological responses can

Paul Macklin; John Lowengrub



comoR: a software for disease comorbidity risk assessment  

PubMed Central

Background The diagnosis of comorbidities, which refers to the coexistence of different acute and chronic diseases, is difficult due to the modern extreme specialisation of physicians. We envisage that a software dedicated to comorbidity diagnosis could result in an effective aid to the health practice. Results We have developed an R software comoR to compute novel estimators of the disease comorbidity associations. Starting from an initial diagnosis, genetic and clinical data of a patient the software identifies the risk of disease comorbidity. Then it provides a pipeline with different causal inference packages (e.g. pcalg, qtlnet etc) to predict the causal relationship of diseases. It also provides a pipeline with network regression and survival analysis tools (e.g. Net-Cox, rbsurv etc) to predict more accurate survival probability of patients. The input of this software is the initial diagnosis for a patient and the output provides evidences of disease comorbidity mapping. Conclusions The functions of the comoR offer flexibility for diagnostic applications to predict disease comorbidities, and can be easily integrated to high–throughput and clinical data analysis pipelines. PMID:25045465



Natural history of tumor growth and immune modulation in common spontaneous murine mammary tumor models.  


Recent studies in patients with breast cancer suggest the immune microenvironment influences response to therapy. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between growth rates of tumors in common spontaneous mammary tumor models and immune biomarkers evaluated in the tumor and blood. TgMMTV-neu and C3(1)-Tag transgenic mice were followed longitudinally from birth, and MPA-DMBA-treated mice from the time of carcinogen administration, for the development of mammary tumors. Tumor-infiltrating CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells, FOXP3(+) T-regulatory cells, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells were assessed by flow cytometry. Serum cytokines were evaluated in subsets of mice. Fine needle aspirates of tumors were collected and RNA was isolated to determine levels of immune and proliferation markers. Age of tumor onset and kinetics of tumor growth were significantly different among the models. Mammary tumors from TgMMTV-neu contained a lower CD8/CD4 ratio than that of other models (p < 0.05). MPA-DMBA-induced tumors contained a higher percentage of FOXP3(+) CD4(+) T-cells (p < 0.01) and MDSC (p < 0.001) compared with the other models. Individuals with significantly slower tumor growth demonstrated higher levels of Type I serum cytokines prior to the development of lesions compared to those with rapid tumor growth. Moreover, the tumors of animals with more rapid tumor growth demonstrated a significant increase in the expression of genes associated with Type II immunity than those with slower-progressing tumors. These data provide a foundation for the development of in vivo models to explore the relationship between endogenous immunity and response to standard therapies for breast cancer. PMID:25395320

Gad, Ekram; Rastetter, Lauren; Slota, Meredith; Koehnlein, Marlese; Treuting, Piper M; Dang, Yushe; Stanton, Sasha; Disis, Mary L



Targeting Tumor Suppressor Networks for Cancer Therapeutics  

PubMed Central

Cancer is a consequence of mutations in genes that control cell proliferation, differentiation and cellular homeostasis. These genes are classified into two categories: oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Together, overexpression of oncogenes and loss of tumor suppressors are the dominant driving forces for tumorigenesis. Hence, targeting oncogenes and tumor suppressors hold tremendous therapeutic potential for cancer treatment. In the last decade, the predominant cancer drug discovery strategy has relied on a traditional reductionist approach of dissecting molecular signaling pathways and designing inhibitors for the selected oncogenic targets. Remarkable therapies have been developed using this approach; however, targeting oncogenes is only part of the picture. Our understanding of the importance of tumor suppressors in preventing tumorigenesis has also advanced significantly and provides a new therapeutic window of opportunity. Given that tumor suppressors are frequently mutated, deleted, or silenced with loss-of-function, restoring their normal functions to treat cancer holds tremendous therapeutic potential. With the rapid expansion in our knowledge on cancer over the last several decades, developing effective anticancer regimens against tumor suppressor pathways has never been more promising. In this article, we will review the concept of tumor suppression, and outline the major therapeutic strategies and challenges of targeting tumor suppressor networks for cancer therapeutics. PMID:24387338

Guo, Xuning Emily; Ngo, Bryan; Modrek, Aram Sandaldjian; Lee, Wen-Hwa



Chemotherapy Induces Tumor Clearance Independent of Apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dysregulation of apoptosis is associated with the development of human cancer and resistance to anticancer therapy. The ultimate goal of cancer treatment is to selectively induce cancer cell death and overcome drug resistance. A deeper understanding of how a given chemotherapy affects tumor cell death is needed to develop strategically designed anticancer agents. Here, we use a xenograft mouse tumor

Jennifer L. Guerriero; Yongjun Fan; Fangping Zhao; Howard C. Crawford; Wei-Xing Zong



The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defects in the APC gene are inarguably linked to the progression of colon cancers that arise both sporadically and through the transmission of germline mutations. Genetic evidence from humans and mouse models suggest that APC is a classic tumor suppressor in that both alleles likely require inactivation for tumor growth to ensue. Nearly all of the mutations, germline and somatic,

Paul Polakis



IL18-producing Salmonella inhibit tumor growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown that intravenously applied bacteria can accumulate in tumors and lead to sporadic tumor regression. Recently, systemic administration of attenuated Salmonella typhimurium was demonstrated to generate no significant side effects in humans, but also no antitumor responses. We report the enhanced antitumor activity in preclinical mouse cancer models of nonvirulent S. typhimurium engineered to synthesize the cytokine

M Loeffler; G Le'Negrate; M Krajewska; J C Reed



Malignant phyllodes tumor of the left atrium  

PubMed Central

Metastatic tumors to the heart usually involve right sided chambers. We report a rare case of malignant phyllodes tumor of breast with metastatic involvement of left atrium occurring through direct invasion from mediastinal micro-metastasis and presenting as a left atrial mass causing arrhythmia. PMID:24814127

Bhambhani, Anupam; Ayyagari, Sudha; Mohapatra, Tushar; Rehman, Syed Abdul; Shah, Milap; Rao, Sudhakar; Rangashamanna, Vital; Rajasekhar, V.; Chittimilla, Santosh



Shark Cartilage Contains Inhibitors of Tumor Angiogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shark cartilage contains a substance that strongly inhibits the growth of new blood vessels toward solid tumors, thereby restricting tumor growth. The abundance of this factor in shark cartilage, in contrast to cartilage from mammalian sources, may make sharks an ideal source of the inhibitor and may help to explain the rarity of neoplasms in these animals.

Anne Lee; Robert Langer



Tumor vaccines in 2010: Need for integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induction of tumor-specific immunity is an attractive approach to cancer therapy, however to date every major pivotal trial has resulted in failure. While the phenomena of tumor-mediated immune suppression has been known for decades, only recently have specific molecular pathways been elucidated, and for the first time, rationale means of intervening and observing results of intervention have been developed. In

David Koos; Steven F. Josephs; Doru T Alexandrescu; Ray Chun-Fai Chan; Famela Ramos; Vladimir Bogin; Vincent Gammill; Constantin A. Dasanu; Rosalia De Necochea-Campion; Neil H. Riordan; Ewa Carrier



Microfluidic Platforms for Capturing Circulating Tumor Cells  

E-print Network

Microfluidic Platforms for Capturing Circulating Tumor Cells Sweta Gupta, Allison C. Baker-cost microfluidic device that can be used to isolate and capture circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from whole blood. The device was made from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) consisting of a microfluidic channel with microposts

Tang, William C


Activating transcription factor 2 in mesenchymal tumors.  


Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) is a member of activator protein 1 superfamily, which can heterodimerize with other transcription factors regulating cell differentiation and survival. ATF2 assembles into a complex with the synovial sarcoma translocation, chromosome 18 (SS18)-synovial sarcoma, X breakpoint (SSX) fusion oncoprotein, and the transducin-like enhancer of split 1 (TLE1) corepressor, driving oncogenesis in synovial sarcoma. The fusion oncoproteins in many other translocation-associated sarcomas incorporate transcription factors from the ATF/cAMP response element binding or E26 families, which potentially form heterodimers with ATF2 to regulate transcription. ATF2 may therefore play an important role in the oncogenesis of many mesenchymal tumors, but as yet, little is known about its protein expression in patient specimens. Herein we perform immunohistochemical analyses using a validated specific antibody for ATF2 expression and intracellular localization on a cohort of 594 malignant and 207 benign mesenchymal tumors representing 47 diagnostic entities. Melanoma served as a positive control for nuclear and cytoplasmic staining. High nuclear ATF2 expression was mainly observed in translocation-associated and/or spindle cell sarcomas including synovial sarcoma, desmoplastic small round cell tumor, endometrial stromal sarcoma, gastrointestinal stromal tumor, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, and solitary fibrous tumor. Cytoplasmic ATF2 expression was less frequently seen than nuclear expression in malignant mesenchymal tumors. Benign mesenchymal tumors mostly showed much lower nuclear and cytoplasmic ATF2 expression. PMID:24289970

Endo, Makoto; Su, Le; Nielsen, Torsten O



Preoperative transarterial Embolisation in bone tumors.  


Bone tumors include a variety of lesions, both primary and metastatic. The treatment modalities for bone tumors vary with the individual lesion, but in general surgical excision is the treatment of choice with other adjunctive therapies. However, surgery for many bone tumors is complex due to several factors including tumor bulk, vascularity, vicinity to vital structures and potentially inaccessible location of the lesion. Transarterial Embolisation (TAE) is one of the important adjuvant treatment modalities and in some cases it may be the primary and curative treatment. Preoperative TAE has proved to be effective in both primary and metastatic bone tumors. It reduces tumor vascularity and intraoperative blood loss, the need for blood transfusion and associated complications, allows better definition of tissue planes at surgery affording more complete excision, and hence reduced recurrence. Preoperative chemoEmbolisation has also been shown to increase the sensitivity of some tumors to subsequent chemotherapy and radiotherapy. There are several techniques and embolic agents available for this purpose, but the ultimate aim is to achieve tumor devascularization. In this review, we discuss the techniques including the choice of embolic agent, application to individual lesions and potential complications. PMID:22761978

Gupta, Pankaj; Gamanagatti, Shivanand



[New surgical treatment options for bone tumors].  


Primary bone neoplasms can be classified into benign, locally/aggressive and rarely metastasizing and malignant tumors. Patients with benign tumors usually undergo surgical treatment in cases of local symptoms, mainly consisting of pain or functional deficits due to compression of important anatomical structures, such as nerves or blood vessels. Locally/aggressive and rarely metastasizing tumors exhibit an infiltrative growth pattern, so that surgical treatment is necessary to prevent further destruction of bone leading to local instability. Finally, the surgical treatment of malignant tumors is, with few exceptions, considered to be a prerequisite for long-term survival, either alone or in combination with systemic chemotherapy. Whereas the main objective of surgery in the treatment of benign tumors is relief of local symptoms with a minimum amount of damage to healthy tissue and minimizing the risk of local recurrence while ensuring bone stability in locally aggressive and rarely metastasizing tumors, the primary goal in the operative treatment of bone sarcomas is the resection of the tumor with clear surgical margins followed by defect reconstruction and the preservation of function. This review examines the current developments in the surgical treatment of primary bone neoplasms with respect to the management of the tumors and novel reconstructive options. PMID:25394971

Andreou, D; Henrichs, M P; Gosheger, G; Nottrott, M; Streitbürger, A; Hardes, J



Percutaneous needle treatment of liver tumors  

E-print Network

· Percutaneous needle treatment of liver tumors · Target multiple tumors through a single incisionmm x 90mm x 260mm · Autoclavable I. Free Space III. Bovine Liver · Precurved concentric nitinol tubes.80 Bovine Liver (mm) 3.32 ± 2.66 II. Ethanol Solution Future Work · Human trials with manual unit · Fully

Webster III, Robert James


Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the pelvis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are well recognized in the pleura, but their occurrence at other sites has only become appreciated in recent years, as a consequence of which extrapleural examples often go unrecognized and misdiagnosed. Because of their rarity, overall experience concerning this tumor has not been significant and reports detailing radiological findings are few. We herein report an unusual

Shiu Yan J. Wat; Monalisa Sur; Kavita Dhamanaskar



Visualizing extravasation dynamics of metastatic tumor cells  

PubMed Central

Little is known about how metastatic cancer cells arrest in small capillaries and traverse the vascular wall during extravasation in vivo. Using real-time intravital imaging of human tumor cells transplanted into transparent zebrafish, we show here that extravasation of cancer cells is a highly dynamic process that involves the modulation of tumor cell adhesion to the endothelium and intravascular cell migration along the luminal surface of the vascular wall. Tumor cells do not damage or induce vascular leak at the site of extravasation, but rather induce local vessel remodeling characterized by clustering of endothelial cells and cell-cell junctions. Intravascular locomotion of tumor cells is independent of the direction of blood flow and requires ?1-integrin-mediated adhesion to the blood-vessel wall. Interestingly, the expression of the pro-metastatic gene Twist in tumor cells increases their intravascular migration and extravasation through the vessel wall. However, in this case, Twist expression causes the tumor cells to switch to a ?1-integrin-independent mode of extravasation that is associated with the formation of large dynamic rounded membrane protrusions. Our results demonstrate that extravasation of tumor cells is a highly dynamic process influenced by metastatic genes that target adhesion and intravascular migration of tumor cells, and induce endothelial remodeling. PMID:20530574

Stoletov, Konstantin; Kato, Hisashi; Zardouzian, Erin; Kelber, Jonathan; Yang, Jing; Shattil, Sanford; Klemke, Richard




PubMed Central

The growing availability of inexpensive high-throughput sequence data is enabling researchers to sequence tumor populations within a single individual at high coverage. But, cancer genome sequence evolution and mutational phenomena like driver mutations and gene fusions are difficult to investigate without first reconstructing tumor haplotype sequences. Haplotype assembly of single individual tumor populations is an exceedingly difficult task complicated by tumor haplotype heterogeneity, tumor or normal cell sequence contamination, polyploidy, and complex patterns of variation. While computational and experimental haplotype phasing of diploid genomes has seen much progress in recent years, haplotype assembly in cancer genomes remains uncharted territory. In this work, we describe HapCompass-Tumor a computational modeling and algorithmic framework for haplotype assembly of copy number variable cancer genomes containing haplotypes at different frequencies and complex variation. We extend our polyploid haplotype assembly model and present novel algorithms for (1) complex variations, including copy number changes, as varying numbers of disjoint paths in an associated graph, (2) variable haplotype frequencies and contamination, and (3) computation of tumor haplotypes using simple cycles of the compass graph which constrain the space of haplotype assembly solutions. The model and algorithm are implemented in the software package HapCompass-Tumor which is available for download from PMID:24297529




Vascular tumors of the choroid and retina  

PubMed Central

Vascular tumors of the retina and choroid can be seen occasionally. In the following article, the key clinical and diagnostic features of the major retinal and choroidal vascular tumors, their systemic associations, and the literature pertaining to the most currently available treatment strategies are reviewed. PMID:25827544

Shanmugam, P Mahesh; Ramanjulu, Rajesh



Dependence of FDG uptake on tumor microenvironment  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the factors affecting the {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) uptake in tumors at a microscopic level, by correlating it with tumor hypoxia, cellular proliferation, and blood perfusion. Methods and Materials: Nude mice bearing Dunning prostate tumors (R3327-AT) were injected with {sup 18}F-FDG and pimonidazole, bromodeoxyuridine, and, 1 min before sacrifice, with Hoechst 33342. Selected tumor sections were imaged by phosphor plate autoradiography, while adjacent sections were used to obtain the images of the spatial distribution of Hoechst 33342, pimonidazole, and bromodeoxyuridine. The images were co-registered and analyzed on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Results: Statistical analysis of the data obtained from these tumors demonstrated that {sup 18}F-FDG uptake was positively correlated with pimonidazole staining intensity in each data set studied. Correlation of FDG uptake with bromodeoxyuridine staining intensity was always negative. In addition, FDG uptake was always negatively correlated with the staining intensity of Hoechst 33342. Conclusions: For the Dunning prostate tumors studied, FDG uptake was always positively correlated with hypoxia and negatively correlated with both cellular proliferation and blood flow. Therefore, for the tumor model studied, higher FDG uptake is indicative of tumor hypoxia, but neither blood flow nor cellular proliferation.

Pugachev, Andrei [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)]. E-mail:; Ruan, Shutian [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Carlin, Sean [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Larson, Steven M. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Campa, Jose [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Ling, C. Clifton [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Humm, John L. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)



Malignant phyllodes tumor of the left atrium.  


Metastatic tumors to the heart usually involve right sided chambers. We report a rare case of malignant phyllodes tumor of breast with metastatic involvement of left atrium occurring through direct invasion from mediastinal micro-metastasis and presenting as a left atrial mass causing arrhythmia. PMID:24814127

Bhambhani, Anupam; Ayyagari, Sudha; Mohapatra, Tushar; Rehman, Syed Abdul; Shah, Milap; Rao, Sudhakar; Rangashamanna, Vital; Rajasekhar, V; Chittimilla, Santosh



Altered Tumor-Cell Glycosylation Promotes Metastasis  

PubMed Central

Malignant transformation of cells is associated with aberrant glycosylation presented on the cell-surface. Commonly observed changes in glycan structures during malignancy encompass aberrant expression and glycosylation of mucins; abnormal branching of N-glycans; and increased presence of sialic acid on proteins and glycolipids. Accumulating evidence supports the notion that the presence of certain glycan structures correlates with cancer progression by affecting tumor-cell invasiveness, ability to disseminate through the blood circulation and to metastasize in distant organs. During metastasis tumor-cell-derived glycans enable binding to cells in their microenvironment including endothelium and blood constituents through glycan-binding receptors – lectins. In this review, we will discuss current concepts how tumor-cell-derived glycans contribute to metastasis with the focus on three types of lectins: siglecs, galectins, and selectins. Siglecs are present on virtually all hematopoietic cells and usually negatively regulate immune responses. Galectins are mostly expressed by tumor cells and support tumor-cell survival. Selectins are vascular adhesion receptors that promote tumor-cell dissemination. All lectins facilitate interactions within the tumor microenvironment and thereby promote cancer progression. The identification of mechanisms how tumor glycans contribute to metastasis may help to improve diagnosis, prognosis, and aid to develop clinical strategies to prevent metastasis. PMID:24592356

Häuselmann, Irina; Borsig, Lubor




E-print Network

. BehlingKelly Canine adrenal tumors Oct 17th 8am R. Ossiboff Tumor diagnosis in zoo species Nov 21st 8 to veterinary oncology. To broaden the perspective, the executive committee is especially Erica L. BehlingKelly, Clinical Pathology: Kelly R. Hume, Oncology: krh73@cornell


Discovery of Tumor Suppressor Gene Function.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is an update of a 1991 review on tumor suppressor genes written at a time when understanding of how the genes work was limited. A recent major breakthrough in the understanding of the function of tumor suppressor genes is discussed. (LZ)

Oppenheimer, Steven B.



Cisplatin neuropathy in brain tumor chemotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

38 patients with glial brain tumors received 135 mg\\/m2 cisplatin intravenously every month for 5 courses. Signs and symptoms of peripheral neuropathy were evaluated clinically and electrophysiologically. This approach differs from methods previously reported in that it offers two major advantages: primary brain tumors do not cause paraneoplastic neuropathy; no neurotoxic drugs other than cisplatin were employed. Our study confirmed

A. Sghirlanzoni; A. Silvani; V. Scaioli; D. Pareyson; R. Marchesan; A. Boiardi



Radiotherapy for Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNTs) are rare malignant neoplasms considered to be resistant to radiotherapy (RT), although data on efficacy are scarce. We reviewed our institutional experience to further delineate the role of RT for patients with PNTs. Methods and Materials: Between 1986 and 2006, 36 patients with PNTs were treated with RT to 49 sites. Of these 36 patients, 23 had radiographic follow-up data, which were used to determine the tumor response rate and freedom from local progression. Long-term toxicity was graded according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Results: The overall response rate to RT was 39% (13% complete response, 26% partial response, 56% stable disease, and 4% progressive disease). A significant difference in the freedom from local progression between the groups receiving either greater than or less than the median 2 Gy/fraction biologically equivalent dose of 49.6 Gy was found, with all radiographic progression occurring in patients who had received <=32 Gy. The actuarial 3-year local freedom from progression rate was 49%. Palliation was achieved in 90% of patients, with either improvement or resolution of symptoms after RT. Of 35 patients, 33 had metastatic disease at their referral for RT, and the median overall survival for this patient population was 2 years. Three long-term Grade 3 or greater toxicities were recorded. Conclusion: RT is an effective modality for achieving local control in patients with PNTs. RT produces high rates of symptomatic palliation and freedom from local progression. Prospective trials of radiotherapy for PNTs are warranted.

Contessa, Joseph N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Griffith, Kent A. [Comprehensive Cancer Center Biostatistics Unit, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Wolff, Elizabeth [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ensminger, William; Zalupski, Mark [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ben-Josef, Edgar, E-mail: edgarb@med.umich.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)



Severe acute tumor lysis syndrome in patients with germ-cell tumors  

PubMed Central

Germ-cell tumors are a high-proliferative type of cancer that may evolve to significant bulky disease. Tumor lysis syndrome is rarely reported in this setting. The reports of three patients with germ-cell tumors who developed severe acute tumor lysis syndrome following the start of their anticancer therapy are presented. All patients developed renal dysfunction and multiorgan failure. Patients with extensive germ-cell tumors should be kept on close clinical and laboratory monitoring. Physicians should be aware of this uncommon but severe complication and consider early admission to the intensive care unit for the institution of measures to prevent acute renal failure. PMID:19468517

Feres, Guilherme Alvarenga; Salluh, Jorge Ibrain Figueira; Ferreira, Carlos Gil; Soares, Marcio



Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the kidney presenting with pulmonary tumor embolism: A case report  

PubMed Central

Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) of the kidney is a rare, aggressive tumor known for its recurrence and metastatic potential. Despite the frequency of venous extension to the renal veins and inferior vena cava, pulmonary tumor embolism at the initial presentation is not common. We report a case of 22-year-old female with PNET of the kidney who presented with tumor embolism in the inferior vena cava (IVC) and bilateral pulmonary artery. The patient underwent surgical resection and histopathological analysis confirmed the presence of tumor within the IVC and pulmonary arteries. The patient received adjuvant chemotherapy and is currently doing well on follow-up. PMID:25349668

Chinnaa, Sathya; Das, Chandan J; Sharma, Sanjay; Singh, Prabhjot; Seth, Amlesh; Purkait, Suvendu; Mathur, Sandeep R



Tetrathiomolybdate inhibits head and neck cancer metastasis by decreasing tumor cell motility, invasiveness and by promoting tumor cell anoikis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The metastatic spread of solid tumors is directly or indirectly responsible for most cancer-related deaths. Tumor metastasis is very complex and this process requires a tumor cell to acquire enhanced motility, invasiveness and anoikis resistance to successfully establish a tumor at a distal site. Metastatic potential of tumor cells is directly correlated with the expression levels of several angiogenic

Pawan Kumar; Arti Yadav; Samip N Patel; Mozaffarul Islam; Quintin Pan; Sofia D Merajver; Theodoros N Teknos



[Ethmoid tumors in moose and roe deer].  


Ethmoid tumors are expansively-infiltratively growing tumors of carcinomatous or sarcomatous nature, deriving from the mucous membrane of the ethmoid bone. In Sweden, such tumors were found in 35 elks (Alces a. alces) and 4 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) during the years 1947-1982, that means a frequency of about 1 and 0.1 per cent, respectively of the investigation material. However, in the free living elk and roe deer population, the frequency might be much lower. The tumors were malign, extensively melting the soft and hard tissues of the ethmoid region, breaking into the brain cavity, the forehead subcutaneous tissues, etc. Symptoms as suppurative or bloody discharge at the nose, external outline aberrations and disorders to be related to injuries of the central nervous system were observed. In the elk, ethmoid tumors were found only in female animals. In the beginning of this century, ethmoid tumors were found in a number of cattle and horses in Sweden and Norway. Multiple cases occurred in some herds indicating that the tumors were caused by an infectious agent. Since the year 1916, there seem to be no reports on the finding of ethmoid tumors in domestic animals in the Nordic countries. In 1960, however, such tumors were discovered in Indian cattle in Kerala in the south of India. Tumor tissue from the cattle was examined and a herpes-virus was found. Geographically, the distribution of the tumor cases in cattle and elk was very similar in Sweden indicating a possible mutual transmission. As the tumors obviously have disappeared from cattle but not from the elk, it seems likely that the elk might be the primary carrier of the ethmoid tumor. Ethmoid tumors have been observed for many years in Scandinavia but only rather recently they were discovered in India. It has been known for long that birds after contamination might be involved in the spread of virus diseases, provided the virus are reasonably resistant. In the actual case, the suspicion has mainly been directed at three bird species, viz. the blue throat (Luscinia svecica), the scarlet grosbeak (Erythrina erythrina) and the red-necked phalarope (Phalaropus lobatus). In spring and summer, these birds periodically reside in elk habitat where they might be contaminated. In the autumn, they may extend their migration to the southern parts of India. PMID:2993995

Borg, K; Nilsson, P O



Strange Attractor in Immunology of Tumor Growth  

E-print Network

The time delayed cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response on the tumor growth has been developed on the basis of discrete approximation (2-dimensional map). The growth kinetic has been described by logistic law with growth rate being the bifurcation parameter. Increase in the growth rate results in instability of the tumor state and causes period-doubling bifurcations in the immune+tumor system. For larger values of tumor growth rate a strange attractor has been observed. The model proposed is able to describe the metastable-state production when time series data of the immune state and the number of tumor cells are irregular and unpredictable. This metastatic disease may be caused not by exterior (medical) factors, but interior density dependent ones.

Margarita Voitikova



Colorimetric Immunoassay for Detection of Tumor Markers  

PubMed Central

Tumor markers are substances, usually proteins, produced by the body in response to cancer growth, or by the cancer tissue itself. They can be detected in blood, urine, or tissue samples, and the discovery and detection of tumor markers may provide earlier diagnosis of cancer and improved therapeutic intervention. Colorimetric immunoassays for tumor marker detection have attracted considerable attention, due to their simplicity and high efficiency. The traditionally used colorimetric immunoassays for the detection of tumor markers are based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and the great achievement of nanotechnology has further opened opportunities for the development of such kind of immunoassays. This paper will summarize recent advances in the field of colorimetric immunoassays for detecting tumor markers, which is aimed to provide an overview in this field, as well as experimental guidance for the learner. PMID:21614193

Yin, Yongmei; Cao, Ya; Xu, Yuanyuan; Li, Genxi



[Cytoreductive surgery for malignant peritoneal tumors].  


Cytoreductive surgery is an essential part of a multimodality treatment concept for peritoneal metastases. Indications are primary peritoneal tumors like peritoneal mesothelioma or secondaries from colorectal cancer or pseudomyxoma peritonei. Patients with gastric or ovarian carcinoma or abdominal sarcoma with peritoneal seedings can be treated within studies. Tumor entity, tumor load, and tumor distribution are the most critical issues for patient selection. Complete macroscopic cytoreduction is the strongest prognostic factor and can be achieved by parietal and visceral peritonectomy. The operation should be performed in a standardized manner. Due to possible tumor manifestation in all four quadrants of the abdomen and extensive extraperitoneal dissection, extensive surgical and oncological expertise is prerequisite. Treatment in specialized surgical oncology centers is recommended to minimize morbidity and mortality. The German Society for General and Visceral Surgery is certifying centers of competence for surgical treatment of peritoneal malignancies. Data of all patients are documented in the HIPEC register. The inclusion of patients in studies is recommended. PMID:24722868

Piso, P; Leebmann, H; März, L; Mayr, M