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  1. Tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... works Sometimes benign tumors may be removed for cosmetic reasons. Benign tumors of the brain may be removed because of their location or harmful effect on the surrounding normal brain tissue. If a ...

  2. TUBERCULOSIS COMO ENFERMEDAD OCUPACIONAL

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Ticona, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Existe evidencia suficiente para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en diversos profesionales especialmente entre los trabajadores de salud. En el Perú están normados y reglamentados los derechos laborales inherentes a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional, como la cobertura por discapacidad temporal o permanente. Sin embargo, estos derechos aún no han sido suficientemente socializados. En este trabajo se presenta información sobre el riesgo de adquirir tuberculosis en el lugar de trabajo, se revisan las evidencias para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en trabajadores de salud y se presenta la legislación peruana vigente al respecto. PMID:22858771

  3. Pituitary Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your Body in Balance › Pituitary Tumors Fact Sheet Pituitary Tumors March, 2010 Download PDFs English Zulu Espanol Editors ... production of sex hormones, and more. What are pituitary tumors? Pituitary tumors are small, abnormal growths in the ...

  4. Brain tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Black, K. L.; Mazziotta, J. C.; Becker, D. P.

    1991-01-01

    Recent advances in experimental tumor biology are being applied to critical clinical problems of primary brain tumors. The expression of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors, which are sparse in normal brain, is increased as much as 20-fold in brain tumors. Experimental studies show promise in using labeled ligands to these receptors to identify the outer margins of malignant brain tumors. Whereas positron emission tomography has improved the dynamic understanding of tumors, the labeled selective tumor receptors with positron emitters will enhance the ability to specifically diagnose and greatly aid in the pretreatment planning for tumors. Modulation of these receptors will also affect tumor growth and metabolism. Novel methods to deliver antitumor agents to the brain and new approaches using biologic response modifiers also hold promise to further improve the management of brain tumors. Images PMID:1848735

  5. Tumor Types

    MedlinePlus

    ... tumors. The WHO classifies brain tumors by cell origin and how the cells behave, from the least ... skull Originates from cells left over from early fetal development Invades the bone and soft tissues but ...

  6. Wilms Tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... fever for no reason. Tests that examine the kidney and blood are used to find the tumor. Doctors usually diagnose and remove the tumor in surgery. Other treatments include chemotherapy and radiation and biologic therapies. Biologic ...

  7. Pituitary Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Pituitary Tumors Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump ... Clinical Trials Organizations Publicaciones en Español What are Pituitary Tumors? The pituitary is a small, bean-sized gland ...

  8. Vaginal tumors

    MedlinePlus

    Vaginal cancer; Cancer - vagina; Tumor - vaginal ... Most cancerous vaginal tumors occur when another cancer, such as cervical or endometrial cancer , spreads. This is called secondary vaginal cancer. Primary vaginal cancer is rare. Most primary vaginal cancers start ...

  9. Carcinoid Tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... your screen to choose another section to continue reading this guide. ‹ Carcinoid Tumor up Carcinoid Tumor - Statistics › f t g e P + H Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About Us Carcinoid Tumor ...

  10. Urogenital tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    An overview is provided for veterinary care of urogenital tumors in companion animals, especially the dog. Neoplasms discussed include tumors of the kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, testis, ovary, vagina, vulva and the canine transmissible venereal tumor. Topics addressed include description, diagnosis and treatment.

  11. [Supratentorial tumors].

    PubMed

    Grunwald, I; Dillmann, K; Roth, C; Backens, M; Reith, W

    2007-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is a routine diagnostic measure for a suspected intracerebral mass. Computed tomography is usually also indicated. Further diagnostic procedures as well as the interpretation of the findings vary depending on the tumor location. This contribution discusses the symptoms and diagnostics for supratentorial tumors separated in relation to their intra- or extracranial location. Supratentorial tumors include astrocytoma, differentiated by their circumscribed and diffuse growth, ganglioglioma, ependyoma, neurocytoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), oligodendroglioma, dysem-bryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNET), meningoangiomatosis, pineal tumors, hamatoma, lymphoma, craniopharyngeoma and metastases. The supratentorial extracranial tumors include the choroid plexus, colloid cysts, meningeoma, infantile myofibromatosis and lipoma. The most common sub-forms, especially of astrocytoma, will also be presented. PMID:17541538

  12. Intraventricular Tumors.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Amit; Kanekar, Sangam

    2016-04-01

    Intraventricular tumors represent a unique group of intracranial neoplasm separate from the classic division as intra- vs extra-axial masses. Intraventricular tumors are unique because of the diverse pathologic spectrum, including the entire gamut of neuroepithelial and nonneuroepithelial tumors. Most of these tumors are clinically benign presenting with headaches or signs and symptoms of hydrocephalus. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging play a pivotal role in diagnosis and neurosurgical guidance. Though, practically any intracranial tumor can have an intraventricular location, we would be discussing the common 8 tumors, which together constitute more than 90% of intraventricular masses. Demographics, clinical and imaging findings, are together very useful in narrowing down the differential. PMID:27063665

  13. Pindborg tumor

    PubMed Central

    Caliaperoumal, Santhosh Kumar; Gowri, S.; Dinakar, J.

    2016-01-01

    Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT), also known as Pindborg tumor, is a rare odontogenic epithelial neoplasm. So far, nearly 200 cases have been reported in the literature. We are reporting a case of CEOT in a 42-year-old male patient with painless bony swelling in the mandible. The clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features are discussed with relevant references.

  14. Hypothalamic tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... at any age, but they are often more aggressive in adults than in children. In adults, tumors ... The treatment depends on how aggressive the tumor is, and whether it is a glioma or another type of cancer. Treatment may involve combinations of surgery, radiation , ...

  15. Carcinoid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Pinchot, Scott N.; Holen, Kyle; Sippel, Rebecca S.; Chen, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    Carcinoid tumors are rare, slow-growing neuroendocrine tumors arising from the enterochromaffin cells disseminated throughout the gastrointestinal and bronchopulmonary systems. Though they have been traditionally classified based upon the embryologic site of origin, morphologic pattern, and silver affinity, newer classification systems have been developed to emphasize the considerable clinical and histopathologic variability of carcinoid tumors found within each embryologic site of origin. These neoplasms pose a diagnostic challenge because they are often innocuous at the time of presentation, emphasizing the need for a multidisciplinary diagnostic approach utilizing biochemical analysis, standard cross-sectional imaging, and newer advances in nuclear medicine. Similarly, treatment of both primary and disseminated carcinoid disease reflects the need for a multidisciplinary approach, with surgery remaining the only curative modality. The prognosis for patients with these tumors is generally favorable, however can be quite variable and is related to the location of the primary tumor, extent of metastatic disease at initial presentation, and the time of diagnosis. PMID:19091780

  16. Vascular Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sepulveda, Abel; Buchanan, Edward P.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular anomalies are divided into two main groups: tumors and malformations. Vascular tumors are a large and complex group of lesions, especially for clinicians with none or little experience in this field. In the past, these lesions caused a great deal of confusion because many appear analogous to the naked eye. Thankfully, recent advances in diagnostic techniques have helped the medical community to enhance our comprehension, accurately label, diagnose, and treat these lesions. In this article, we will review the most frequent vascular tumors and provide the reader with the tools to properly label, diagnose, and manage these complex lesions. PMID:25045329

  17. Ear Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... surgical removal. Cancerous tumors Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are common skin cancers that can develop on ... infections may have an increased risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma. When these cancers first appear, they can be ...

  18. Tumor Grade

    MedlinePlus

    ... of cancer that have their own grading systems. Breast cancer . Doctors most often use the Nottingham grading ... of the Scarff-Bloom-Richardson grading system) for breast cancer ( 1 ). This system grades breast tumors based ...

  19. Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, or malignant, with cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain ... targeted therapy. Targeted therapy uses substances that attack cancer cells without harming normal cells. Many people get ...

  20. Tumor Markers

    MedlinePlus

    ... types: Germ cell tumors, lymphoma, leukemia, melanoma, and neuroblastoma Tissue analyzed: Blood How used: To assess stage, ... NSE) Cancer types: Small cell lung cancer and neuroblastoma Tissue analyzed: Blood How used: To help in ...

  1. Spinal tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... removed to relieve pressure on the spinal cord. Radiation therapy may be used with, or instead of, surgery. Chemotherapy has not been proven effective against most spinal tumors, but it may be recommended ...

  2. Wilms Tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... kidneys at diagnosis (also called bilateral tumors). About 5% are stage V. Surgery is most often used to treat ... a child is finished with therapy, the care team will provide a schedule of ... several months. Stage and histology of the cancer will determine the ...

  3. [Hepatic tumors].

    PubMed

    Moser, K; Dittrich, C; Pirich, P; Schneeweiss, B

    1983-01-01

    In this paper aspects concerning epidemiology, pathophysiology, laboratory diagnosis and treatment modalities of primary hepatomas and secondary tumors of the liver are discussed. As results obtained with conventional chemotherapy are unsatisfying special emphasis is put on the new therapeutic methods of intraarterial and intravenous cytostatic perfusion via hepatic artery and portal vein respectively. Additionally our own clinical and laboratory datas are presented. PMID:6195884

  4. [Sinunasal Tumors].

    PubMed

    Arens, C

    2016-04-01

    Sinunasal tumors represent a rare and very heterogeneous group of lesions of the nose, sinuses and skull base with a broad spectrum of different biological activities and clinical behavior, which require an individual and primarily surgical treatment strategy. Despite of mild improvement in the overall survival of patients with sinunasal malignancies (SNM) over the last decade, treatment outcome remains stable on a moderate to low level. This analysis brings up the necessity of a more effective local as well as systemic treatment. Especially new concepts in surgery, chemo radiation as well as antibody treatment offer multimodal treatment strategies that may improve quality of life and overall survival in patients with sinunasal tumors. PMID:27058141

  5. What Is Wilms Tumor?

    MedlinePlus

    ... they look under a microscope (their histology): Favorable histology: Although the cancer cells in these tumors don’ ... children with these tumors is very good. Unfavorable histology (anaplastic Wilms tumor): In these tumors, the look ...

  6. Pituitary: Secretory Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... secretory tumor, accounting for about 40 percent of pituitary tumors. This tumor produces too much prolactin, the hormone ... passages behind your nose. Removing or reducing the pituitary tumor that causes acromegaly will reduce growth hormone levels ...

  7. Brain Tumor Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... represent about 8% of all primary brain tumors. Pituitary tumors represent 15.5% of all primary brain tumors. ... be an estimated 11,700 new cases of pituitary tumors in 2016. Lymphomas represent 2% of all primary ...

  8. Brain tumor (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Brain tumors are classified depending on the exact site of the tumor, the type of tissue involved, benign ... tendencies of the tumor, and other factors. Primary brain tumors can arise from the brain cells, the meninges ( ...

  9. Understanding Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Brain Tumors . What is a Brain Tumor? A brain tumor is an abnormal growth
 ... Tumors” from Frankly Speaking Frankly Speaking About Cancer: Brain Tumors Download the full book Questions to ask ...

  10. Brain tumor - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  11. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  12. [Tumor surgery].

    PubMed

    Hausamen, J E

    2000-05-01

    Surgery is still the primary therapeutic approach in treatment of tumors in the head and neck area, dating back to the early nineteenth century. More than 150 years ago, hemimaxillectomies and mandibular resections as well as hemiglossectomies were already performed by leading surgeons. The block principle we are now following dates back to Crile, who also established the principle of cervical lymph node dissection. Ablative oncologic surgery has always been closely linked with plastic and reconstructive surgery, rendering radical surgical interventions possible without disfiguring patients. The development of facial reconstructive surgery proceeded in stages, in the first instance as secondary reconstruction using tube pedicled flaps. The change to the concept of primary reconstruction occurred via arterialized skin flaps and myocutaneous flaps to the widely accepted and performed free tissue transfer. Free bone grafting, inaugurated earlier and still representing the majority of bone grafting, has been supplemented for certain reconstructive purposes by free vascularized bone transfer from various donor sites. Although the five-year-survival rate of carcinoma of the oral cavity has remained unchanged in the past 30 years, distinctive improvements in tumor surgery can be recorded. This is primarily based on improved diagnostics such as modern imaging techniques and the refinement of surgical techniques. The DOSAK has worked out distinctive guidelines for effective ablative oncologic surgery. Surgical approaches offering wide exposure and carrying low morbidity play a decisive role in radical resections. For this reason, midfacial degloving offers an essential improvement for the resection of midface tumors, especially from an aesthetic point of view. Tumors situated deep behind the viscerocranium at the skull base can be clearly exposed either through a lateral approach following a temporary osteotomy of the mandibular ramus or a transmandibular, transmaxillar, or transfacial approach with minimal morbidity. Concerning the concept of neck dissection, radical techniques are more and more abandoned in favor of a more conservative procedure. Actual inquiries concerning present surgical procedures as to the surgical strategy in "N(o)-neck" or marginal and segmental resection in mandibular adherent carcinomas demand scientific clarification. PMID:10938654

  13. ADRENOCORTICAL TUMORS

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, E. Kost

    1950-01-01

    Hormonally active tumors of the adrenal cortex are either benign adenomas or adenocarcinomas. They may be located within the adrenal gland or as adrenal rests along the Wolffian tract. Hyperplastic cortical tissue without actual neoplastic formation is also capable of elaborating excessive cortical secretions. At the present state of knowledge, any one or a combination of the following compounds may be elaborated in a given case: the electrolytic, glucogenic, androgenic, or estrogenic corticosteroids. Whether or not Cushing's syndrome is primarily pituitary or adrenal in origin is still a matter of conjecture. PMID:15426994

  14. American Brain Tumor Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Brain Tumor Information Adolescent & Pediatric Treatment & Care Brain Tumor Research Get Involved Ways To Donate For Health Care ... Resource Center Pediatric Caregiver Center Request a Mentor Brain Tumor Research ABTA Research Grant Funding Opportunities ABTA Grant Application ...

  15. Pancreatic Exocrine Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... exocrine tumors. These tumors start in the exocrine cells of the pancreas. The following table describes the most common pancreatic exocrine tumors. TYPE DESCRIPTION Adenocarcinoma ... in the cells lining the pancreatic duct. Acinar Cell Carcinoma Acinar ...

  16. Pathology of eyelid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Pe’er, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The eyelids are composed of four layers: skin and subcutaneous tissue including its adnexa, striated muscle, tarsus with the meibomian glands, and the palpebral conjunctiva. Benign and malignant tumors can arise from each of the eyelid layers. Most eyelid tumors are of cutaneous origin, mostly epidermal, which can be divided into epithelial and melanocytic tumors. Benign epithelial lesions, cystic lesions, and benign melanocytic lesions are very common. The most common malignant eyelid tumors are basal cell carcinoma in Caucasians and sebaceous gland carcinoma in Asians. Adnexal and stromal tumors are less frequent. The present review describes the more important eyelid tumors according to the following groups: Benign and malignant epithelial tumors, benign and malignant melanocytic tumors, benign and malignant adnexal tumors, stromal eyelid tumors, lymphoproliferative and metastatic tumors, other rare eyelid tumors, and inflammatory and infections lesions that simulate neoplasms. PMID:27146927

  17. Tumors and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Tumors during pregnancy are rare, but they can happen. Tumors can be either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. The most common cancers in pregnancy are breast cancer, cervical cancer, lymphoma, and melanoma. ...

  18. Overview of Heart Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... the heart. Most heart tumors are metastatic cancer. Did You Know... Noncancerous tumors can be as deadly ... slow the tumor's growth. Resources In This Article Did You Know 1 Did You Know... Table 2 ...

  19. Childhood Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  20. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies Brain Tumors KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain Tumors Print A ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  1. Pancreatic islet cell tumor

    MedlinePlus

    Islet cell tumors; Islet of Langerhans tumor; Neuroendocrine tumors ... In the healthy pancreas, cells called islet cells produce hormones that regulate a several bodily functions. These include blood sugar level and the production of ...

  2. Como Lo Hago Yo: Myelomeningocele

    PubMed Central

    Lazareff, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Fortificación con ádico fólico es efectiva, pero aún falta conciencia en los jóvenes. La legalidad del aborto aumenta la importancia de la consulta prenatal. Realizo la cirugía bajo microcoscopio por razones didácticas. Irrigación continua para reducir la temperatura del tejido. Trato a la plaqueta como tejido viable. No suturo la plaqueta. No cierro músculo. ATB por una semana después de cirugía. Hidrocefalia: Válvula en todos los casos de ventriculomegalia. Médula anclada: Desanclar una sola vez. Chiari II: Revisar la válvula. Incluir en el seguimiento rendimiento escolar, puede indicar obstrucción de la válvula o médula anclada. PMID:24791217

  3. Wilms tumor with intravascular tumor thrombus.

    PubMed

    Emir, Suna

    2014-01-01

    Wilms tumor (WT) is one of the most common solid tumors in children. It is the second most common extracranial solid tumor after neuroblastoma. WT has a strong tendency to invade blood vessels in the form of tumor thrombus, into the renal veins, and inferior vena cava and even into the right atrium. Extension of tumor thrombus along to the renal vein into the inferior vena cava occurs in 4-10% of all patients. Tumor thrombus extending to the right atrium is less reported as 0.7-1%. WT with renal vein thrombus has been reported to be more common in the right kidney because of the shorter right renal vein. Most patients with tumor thrombus are asymptomatic and diagnosis is only made on imaging investigations. Several imaging modalities including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Doppler ultrasonography (USG) can demonstrate intravascular tumor thrombus before surgery. In addition to CT and MRI, Doppler USG is reliable in demonstrating the presence and extent of inferior vena cava tumor thrombus. The management of WT with tumor thrombus is determined by multiple factors such as extent of tumor thrombus, chemotherapy response of the tumor. Now, it is generally recommended to use preoperative chemotherapy to a patient presenting with intravascular tumor thrombus. This approach is helpful to decrease the extent of the vascular thrombus which facilitates surgical excision. Most intracaval and intraatrial thrombi in WT show a response to chemotherapy. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy causes tumor regression in nearly half of the patients. Most of them can be managed without the need for cardiac bypass surgery. The decision of initial surgery or preoperative chemotherapy should be carefully determined on every case. Primary surgery would only be indicated in a patient who is unstable because of thrombus that might dislodge and cause acute symptoms. Presence of tumor thrombus in WT needs for multidisciplinary care including pediatric oncologists, pediatric surgeons, and pediatric cardiac surgeons. PMID:26835320

  4. Wilms tumor with intravascular tumor thrombus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Wilms tumor (WT) is one of the most common solid tumors in children. It is the second most common extracranial solid tumor after neuroblastoma. WT has a strong tendency to invade blood vessels in the form of tumor thrombus, into the renal veins, and inferior vena cava and even into the right atrium. Extension of tumor thrombus along to the renal vein into the inferior vena cava occurs in 4-10% of all patients. Tumor thrombus extending to the right atrium is less reported as 0.7-1%. WT with renal vein thrombus has been reported to be more common in the right kidney because of the shorter right renal vein. Most patients with tumor thrombus are asymptomatic and diagnosis is only made on imaging investigations. Several imaging modalities including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Doppler ultrasonography (USG) can demonstrate intravascular tumor thrombus before surgery. In addition to CT and MRI, Doppler USG is reliable in demonstrating the presence and extent of inferior vena cava tumor thrombus. The management of WT with tumor thrombus is determined by multiple factors such as extent of tumor thrombus, chemotherapy response of the tumor. Now, it is generally recommended to use preoperative chemotherapy to a patient presenting with intravascular tumor thrombus. This approach is helpful to decrease the extent of the vascular thrombus which facilitates surgical excision. Most intracaval and intraatrial thrombi in WT show a response to chemotherapy. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy causes tumor regression in nearly half of the patients. Most of them can be managed without the need for cardiac bypass surgery. The decision of initial surgery or preoperative chemotherapy should be carefully determined on every case. Primary surgery would only be indicated in a patient who is unstable because of thrombus that might dislodge and cause acute symptoms. Presence of tumor thrombus in WT needs for multidisciplinary care including pediatric oncologists, pediatric surgeons, and pediatric cardiac surgeons. PMID:26835320

  5. Pediatric Odontogenic Tumors.

    PubMed

    Abrahams, Joshua M; McClure, Shawn A

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric odontogenic tumors are rare, and are often associated with impacted teeth. Although they can develop anywhere in the jaws, odontogenic tumors mainly occur in the posterior mandible. This article discusses the diagnosis and treatment of the most common pediatric odontogenic tumors, such as ameloblastoma, keratocystic odontogenic tumor, odontoma, and cementoblastoma. PMID:26614700

  6. Adrenal Gland Tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Adrenal Gland Tumor Adrenal Gland Tumor This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Adrenal Gland Tumor. Use the menu below to choose the ... workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Adrenal Gland Tumor Introduction Statistics Risk Factors Symptoms and Signs ...

  7. Tumor heterogeneity and circulating tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chufeng; Guan, Yan; Sun, Yulan; Ai, Dan; Guo, Qisen

    2016-05-01

    In patients with cancer, individualized treatment strategies are generally guided by an analysis of molecular biomarkers. However, genetic instability allows tumor cells to lose monoclonality and acquire genetic heterogeneity, an important characteristic of tumors, during disease progression. Researchers have found that there is tumor heterogeneity between the primary tumor and metastatic lesions, between different metastatic lesions, and even within a single tumor (either primary or metastatic). Tumor heterogeneity is associated with heterogeneous protein functions, which lowers diagnostic precision and consequently becomes an obstacle to determining the appropriate therapeutic strategies for individual cancer patients. With the development of novel testing technologies, an increasing number of studies have attempted to explore tumor heterogeneity by examining circulating tumor cells (CTCs), with the expectation that CTCs may comprehensively represent the full spectrum of mutations and/or protein expression alterations present in the cancer. In addition, this strategy represents a minimally invasive approach compared to traditional tissue biopsies that can be used to dynamically monitor tumor evolution. The present article reviews the potential efficacy of using CTCs to identify both spatial and temporal tumor heterogeneity. This review also highlights current issues in this field and provides an outlook toward future applications of CTCs. PMID:26902424

  8. [Parapharyngeal space tumors].

    PubMed

    Ozdziński, W; Norozny, W; Debniak, E; Mikaszewski, B

    1995-01-01

    The authors presented material of 52 parapharyngeal space tumors seen ENT Department Medical University of Gdańsk in year 1980-1994. Majority of these tumors -32 (61.5%)-were benign (adenoma pleomorphum-22, adenolymphoma-4, neurilemmoma-4, ganglioneuroma-2). The remaining 20 (38.5%) tumors were malignant (cystis branchiogenes carcinomatosa-4, carcinoma planoepitheliale-3, lymphoma malignum-3, adenoma pleomorphum maligum-2, tumor mucoepidermalis-2, and tumor acinocellularis, chemodectoma, meningeoma malignum, haemangiopericytoma, chordoma, chondrosarcoma one of each. PMID:9454110

  9. [Tumors of the hand].

    PubMed

    Grünert, J; Büchler, U

    1995-01-01

    Most of the numerous tumors of the hand, arising from the skin, soft-tissues and bones show a benign course. The vast majority of those tumors is classified as a tumor-like lesion, of which the ganglia are the most frequent. Malignant tumors of the hand are extremely rare. The diagnosis of those usually visible and obvious tumors is regularly made on clinical findings. Only tumors of the deep structures and unclear masses of soft-tissues and bone need further diagnostic procedures. In case of potentially malignant tumors of the hand a systematic and thorough approach should be started to receive a full and complete staging of the tumor. Modern treatment regimens include for malignant tumors of the hand an interdisciplinary approach with a combination of chemotherapy, surgery and radiation-therapy. PMID:7855752

  10. Tumor microenvironment and nanotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Upreti, Meenakshi; Jyoti, Amar; Sethi, Pallavi

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies delineate a predominant role for the tumor microenvironment in tumor growth and progression. Improved knowledge of cancer biology and investigation of the complex functional interrelation between the cellular and noncellular compartments of the tumor microenvironment have provided an ideal platform for the evolution of novel cancer nanotherapies. In addition, multifunctional “smart” nanoparticles carrying imaging agents and delivering multiple drugs targeted preferentially to the tumor/tumor microenvironment will lead to early diagnosis and better treatment for patients with cancer. The emerging knowledge of the tumor microenvironment has enabled rational designing of nanoparticles for combinatorial treatment strategies that include radiotherapy, antiangiogenesis and chemotherapy. This multimodality approach is thus expected to achieve therapeutic efficacy and enhance the quality of life of cancer patients. This review highlights the unique characteristics of the tumor microenvironment that are exploited by nanotechnology to develop novel drug delivery systems aimed to target the tumor/tumor microenvironment. PMID:24634853

  11. Tumor Macroenvironment and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zhoughbi, Wael; Huang, Jianfeng; Paramasivan, Ganapathy S.; Till, Holger; Pichler, Martin; Guertl-Lackner, Barbara; Hoefler, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    In this review we introduce the concept of the tumor macroenvironment and explore it in the context of metabolism. Tumor cells interact with the tumor microenvironment including immune cells. Blood and lymph vessels are the critical components that deliver nutrients to the tumor and also connect the tumor to the macroenvironment. Several factors are then released from the tumor itself but potentially also from the tumor microenvironment, influencing the metabolism of distant tissues and organs. Amino acids, and distinct lipid and lipoprotein species can be essential for further tumor growth. The role of glucose in tumor metabolism has been studied extensively. Cancer-associated cachexia is the most important tumor-associated systemic syndrome and not only affects the quality of life of patients with various malignancies but is estimated to be the cause of death in 15%–20% of all cancer patients. On the other hand, systemic metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes are known to influence tumor development. Furthermore, the clinical implications of the tumor macroenvironment are explored in the context of the patient’s outcome with special consideration for pediatric tumors. Finally, ways to target the tumor macroenvironment that will provide new approaches for therapeutic concepts are described. PMID:24787299

  12. Spinal tumors in children.

    PubMed

    Binning, Mandy; Klimo, Paul; Gluf, Wayne; Goumnerova, Liliana

    2007-10-01

    Pediatric spine tumors encompass a diverse group of pathologic diagnoses that differ markedly based on the location and age of the child. Children can be affected by primary and metastatic tumors, making the differential diagnosis and treatment options extensive. This article discusses the features of spinal tumors in children based primarily on location: extradural, intradural-extramedullary, and intramedullary tumors. Because this article deals with such a broad topic, detailed descriptions and outcomes of surgical and nonsurgical treatments for each particular tumor are limited. Rather, the key clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic features of each tumor are discussed. PMID:17991588

  13. Whole Tumor Antigen Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Cheryl Lai-Lai; Benencia, Fabian; Coukos, George

    2011-01-01

    Although cancer vaccines with defined antigens are commonly used, the use of whole tumor cell preparations in tumor immunotherapy is a very promising approach and can obviate some important limitations in vaccine development. Whole tumor cells are a good source of TAAs and can induce simultaneous CTLs and CD4+ T helper cell activation. We review current approaches to prepare whole tumor cell vaccines, including traditional methods of freeze-thaw lysates, tumor cells treated with ultraviolet irradiation, and RNA electroporation, along with more recent methods to increase tumor cell immunogenicity with HOCl oxidation or infection with replication-incompetent herpes simplex virus. PMID:20356763

  14. Metastatic brain tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain from an unknown location. This is called cancer of unknown primary (CUP) origin. Growing brain tumors can place pressure ... not know the original location. This is called cancer of unknown primary (CUP) origin. Metastatic brain tumors occur in about ...

  15. Lung Carcinoid Tumor: Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... for lung carcinoid tumor symptoms Surgery to treat lung carcinoid tumors Surgery is the main treatment for ... often be cured by surgery alone. Types of lung surgery Different operations can be used to treat ( ...

  16. Brain Tumor Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Exam Types of Brain Scans X-rays Laboratory Tests DNA Profiling Biopsy Procedure Malignant and Benign Brain Tumors ... Exam Types of Brain Scans X-rays Laboratory Tests DNA Profiling Biopsy Procedure Malignant and Benign Brain Tumors ...

  17. Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... you insights into your child's treatment. LEARN MORE Brain tumors and their treatment can be deadly so ... for Kids, AMA expand partnership Read more >> Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation 302 Ridgefield Court, Asheville, NC 28806 ...

  18. Children's Brain Tumor Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... CBTF Justin's Hope Fund Grant Recipients Grants Children’s Brain Tumor Foundation, A non-profit organization, was founded ... and the long term outlook for children with brain and spinal cord tumors through research, support, education, ...

  19. [Intrapulmonary Solitary Fibrous Tumor].

    PubMed

    Komori, Kazuyuki; Tabata, Toshiharu; Katsumata, Hiroshi; Minowa, Muneo; Fujimura, Shigefumi

    2015-08-01

    We report a case of intrapulmonary solitary fibrous tumor( SFT). A 34-year-old woman was referred to our hospital due to an abnormal shadow on a chest roentgenogram without symptom. Computed tomography showed a circumscribed intrapulmonary tumor with mild uptake on fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography( PET) in the left lower lobe( S6). Frozen examination revealed a mesenchymal tumor. Based on the pathological and immunohistochemical findings, the tumor was diagnosed as intrapulmonary SFT. PMID:26329708

  20. Intramedullary tumors in children

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Sandip; Chatterjee, Uttara

    2011-01-01

    Intramedullary tumors of the spinal cord account for 35-40% of intraspinal tumors in children. The biological behavior of these tumors is of slow progression, and hence aggressive surgery has been advocated. Surgical adjuncts include use of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring, preoperative ultrasound, microsurgical techniques and ultrasonic suction devices. Osteoplastic laminoplasty approaches avoid post-laminectomy deformities in younger children. Postoperative radiotherapy and more recently chemotherapy regimes have been proposed for incompletely resected tumors. PMID:22069435

  1. Carcinoma de tumor primario desconocido—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del carcinoma de tumor primario desconocido, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

  2. Tumores carcinoides gastrointestinales—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del tumor carcinoide gastrointestinal, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

  3. Endocrine, Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... growth of endocrine (hormone-producing) cells in the pancreas called islet cells. This is why these tumors are sometimes referred ... very large. They can occur anywhere in the pancreas and in the duodenum. They ... Islet Cell Tumor Nonfunctional islet cell tumors are usually malignant. ...

  4. NCI Rare Tumor Initiative

    Cancer.gov

    The mission of the Rare Tumors Initiative is to better leverage existing NCI expertise in basic and clinical science studies of rare tumors to identify and more effectively translate potential new therapies. The NCI Rare Tumor Initiative was launched in 2

  5. Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... your screen to choose another section to continue reading this guide. ‹ Neuroendocrine Tumor - Overview up Neuroendocrine Tumor - Risk Factors › f t g e P + H Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About Us Neuroendocrine Tumor ...

  6. Brain and Spinal Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Brain and Spinal Tumors Information Page Synonym(s): Spinal Cord ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What are Brain and Spinal Tumors? Tumors of the brain and ...

  7. Tumor cell heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Chekhun, V F; Sherban, S D; Savtsova, Z D

    2013-09-01

    The paper deals with the analysis of literary data on the tumor cell heterogeneity. Phenotypic, genetic and epigenetic mechanisms of heterogeneity are considered. The heterogeneity of metastasis is considered too. The importance for the biology of populations of tumor cells and the sensitivity of tumors to therapeutic treatment are discussed. PMID:24084451

  8. Treatment for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GISTs) Based on Tumor Spread

    MedlinePlus

    ... stromal tumors? Treatment choices for gastrointestinal stromal tumor based on tumor spread Treatment for gastrointestinal stromal tumors ( ... an intermediate or high risk of growing back based on these factors, adjuvant treatment with the targeted ...

  9. Tumor-penetrating peptides.

    PubMed

    Teesalu, Tambet; Sugahara, Kazuki N; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2013-01-01

    Tumor-homing peptides can be used to deliver drugs into tumors. Phage library screening in live mice has recently identified homing peptides that specifically recognize the endothelium of tumor vessels, extravasate, and penetrate deep into the extravascular tumor tissue. The prototypic peptide of this class, iRGD (CRGDKGPDC), contains the integrin-binding RGD motif. RGD mediates tumor-homing through binding to ?v integrins, which are selectively expressed on various cells in tumors, including tumor endothelial cells. The tumor-penetrating properties of iRGD are mediated by a second sequence motif, R/KXXR/K. This C-end Rule (or CendR) motif is active only when the second basic residue is exposed at the C-terminus of the peptide. Proteolytic processing of iRGD in tumors activates the cryptic CendR motif, which then binds to neuropilin-1 activating an endocytic bulk transport pathway through tumor tissue. Phage screening has also yielded tumor-penetrating peptides that function like iRGD in activating the CendR pathway, but bind to a different primary receptor. Moreover, novel tumor-homing peptides can be constructed from tumor-homing motifs, CendR elements and protease cleavage sites. Pathologies other than tumors can be targeted with tissue-penetrating peptides, and the primary receptor can also be a vascular "zip code" of a normal tissue. The CendR technology provides a solution to a major problem in tumor therapy, poor penetration of drugs into tumors. The tumor-penetrating peptides are capable of taking a payload deep into tumor tissue in mice, and they also penetrate into human tumors ex vivo. Targeting with these peptides specifically increases the accumulation in tumors of a variety of drugs and contrast agents, such as doxorubicin, antibodies, and nanoparticle-based compounds. Remarkably the drug to be targeted does not have to be coupled to the peptide; the bulk transport system activated by the peptide sweeps along any compound that is present in the blood. PMID:23986882

  10. Tumor-Penetrating Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Teesalu, Tambet; Sugahara, Kazuki N.; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2013-01-01

    Tumor-homing peptides can be used to deliver drugs into tumors. Phage library screening in live mice has recently identified homing peptides that specifically recognize the endothelium of tumor vessels, extravasate, and penetrate deep into the extravascular tumor tissue. The prototypic peptide of this class, iRGD (CRGDKGPDC), contains the integrin-binding RGD motif. RGD mediates tumor-homing through binding to αv integrins, which are selectively expressed on various cells in tumors, including tumor endothelial cells. The tumor-penetrating properties of iRGD are mediated by a second sequence motif, R/KXXR/K. This C-end Rule (or CendR) motif is active only when the second basic residue is exposed at the C-terminus of the peptide. Proteolytic processing of iRGD in tumors activates the cryptic CendR motif, which then binds to neuropilin-1 activating an endocytic bulk transport pathway through tumor tissue. Phage screening has also yielded tumor-penetrating peptides that function like iRGD in activating the CendR pathway, but bind to a different primary receptor. Moreover, novel tumor-homing peptides can be constructed from tumor-homing motifs, CendR elements and protease cleavage sites. Pathologies other than tumors can be targeted with tissue-penetrating peptides, and the primary receptor can also be a vascular “zip code” of a normal tissue. The CendR technology provides a solution to a major problem in tumor therapy, poor penetration of drugs into tumors. The tumor-penetrating peptides are capable of taking a payload deep into tumor tissue in mice, and they also penetrate into human tumors ex vivo. Targeting with these peptides specifically increases the accumulation in tumors of a variety of drugs and contrast agents, such as doxorubicin, antibodies, and nanoparticle-based compounds. Remarkably the drug to be targeted does not have to be coupled to the peptide; the bulk transport system activated by the peptide sweeps along any compound that is present in the blood. PMID:23986882

  11. Tumor Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, Andrew C.

    2012-01-01

    The vascular endothelium is a dynamic cellular “organ” that controls passage of nutrients into tissues, maintains the flow of blood, and regulates the trafficking of leukocytes. In tumors, factors such as hypoxia and chronic growth factor stimulation result in endothelial dysfunction. For example, tumor blood vessels have irregular diameters; they are fragile, leaky, and blood flow is abnormal. There is now good evidence that these abnormalities in the tumor endothelium contribute to tumor growth and metastasis. Thus, determining the biological basis underlying these abnormalities is critical for understanding the pathophysiology of tumor progression and facilitating the design and delivery of effective antiangiogenic therapies. PMID:22393533

  12. Tumors of the spine.

    PubMed

    Ciftdemir, Mert; Kaya, Murat; Selcuk, Esref; Yalniz, Erol

    2016-02-18

    Spine tumors comprise a small percentage of reasons for back pain and other symptoms originating in the spine. The majority of the tumors involving the spinal column are metastases of visceral organ cancers which are mostly seen in older patients. Primary musculoskeletal system sarcomas involving the spinal column are rare. Benign tumors and tumor-like lesions of the musculoskeletal system are mostly seen in young patients and often cause instability and canal compromise. Optimal diagnosis and treatment of spine tumors require a multidisciplinary approach and thorough knowledge of both spine surgery and musculoskeletal tumor surgery. Either primary or metastatic tumors involving the spine are demanding problems in terms of diagnosis and treatment. Spinal instability and neurological compromise are the main and critical problems in patients with tumors of the spinal column. In the past, only a few treatment options aiming short-term control were available for treatment of primary and metastatic spine tumors. Spine surgeons adapted their approach for spine tumors according to orthopaedic oncologic principles in the last 20 years. Advances in imaging, surgical techniques and implant technology resulted in better diagnosis and surgical treatment options, especially for primary tumors. Also, modern chemotherapy drugs and regimens with new radiotherapy and radiosurgery options caused moderate to long-term local and systemic control for even primary sarcomas involving the spinal column. PMID:26925382

  13. Tumors of the spine

    PubMed Central

    Ciftdemir, Mert; Kaya, Murat; Selcuk, Esref; Yalniz, Erol

    2016-01-01

    Spine tumors comprise a small percentage of reasons for back pain and other symptoms originating in the spine. The majority of the tumors involving the spinal column are metastases of visceral organ cancers which are mostly seen in older patients. Primary musculoskeletal system sarcomas involving the spinal column are rare. Benign tumors and tumor-like lesions of the musculoskeletal system are mostly seen in young patients and often cause instability and canal compromise. Optimal diagnosis and treatment of spine tumors require a multidisciplinary approach and thorough knowledge of both spine surgery and musculoskeletal tumor surgery. Either primary or metastatic tumors involving the spine are demanding problems in terms of diagnosis and treatment. Spinal instability and neurological compromise are the main and critical problems in patients with tumors of the spinal column. In the past, only a few treatment options aiming short-term control were available for treatment of primary and metastatic spine tumors. Spine surgeons adapted their approach for spine tumors according to orthopaedic oncologic principles in the last 20 years. Advances in imaging, surgical techniques and implant technology resulted in better diagnosis and surgical treatment options, especially for primary tumors. Also, modern chemotherapy drugs and regimens with new radiotherapy and radiosurgery options caused moderate to long-term local and systemic control for even primary sarcomas involving the spinal column. PMID:26925382

  14. Cartilage-forming tumors.

    PubMed

    Qasem, Shadi A; DeYoung, Barry R

    2014-01-01

    Cartilage-forming tumors as a group are the most common primary bone tumors; this is largely due to the common occurrence of asymptomatic benign lesions such as osteochondroma and enchondroma. The common feature of these tumors is the presence of chondrocytic cells and the formation of cartilaginous tumor matrix. Some of these tumors are true neoplasms while others are hamartomas or developmental abnormalities. The morphologic heterogeneity of these tumors may be explained by a common multipotent mesenchymal cell differentiating along the lines of fetal-adult cartilage maturation. Recently mutations in IDH1 and IDH2 have been detected in a variety of benign and malignant cartilaginous tumors.(1-4.) PMID:24680178

  15. Tumores cerebrales—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento de los tumores cerebrales, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con estos tipos de cáncer.

  16. Tumores cerebrales—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre el tratamiento de los tumores cerebrales, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con estos tipos de cáncer.

  17. Adenomatoid Tumor of Testis

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Waqas; Parwani, Anil V.

    2009-01-01

    Adenomatoid tumors are responsible for 30% of all paratesticular masses. These are usually asymptomatic, slow growing masses. They are benign tumors comprising of cords and tubules of cuboidal to columnar cells with vacuolated cytoplasm and fibrous stroma. They are considered to be of mesothelial origin supported by histochemical studies and genetic analysis of Wilms tumor 1 gene expression. Excision biopsy is both diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. The main clinical consideration is accurate diagnosis preventing unnecessary orchiectomy. Diagnostic studies include serum tumor markers (negative alpha fetoprotein, beta HCG, LDH) ultrasonography (hypoechoic and homogenous appearance) and frozen section. PMID:21151545

  18. Tumor Ablation and Nanotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Manthe, Rachel L.; Foy, Susan P.; Krishnamurthy, Nishanth; Sharma, Blanka; Labhasetwar, Vinod

    2010-01-01

    Next to surgical resection, tumor ablation is a commonly used intervention in the treatment of solid tumors. Tumor ablation methods include thermal therapies, photodynamic therapy, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) producing agents. Thermal therapies induce tumor cell death via thermal energy and include radiofrequency, microwave, high intensity focused ultrasound, and cryoablation. Photodynamic therapy and ROS producing agents cause increased oxidative stress in tumor cells leading to apoptosis. While these therapies are safe and viable alternatives when resection of malignancies is not feasible, they do have associated limitations that prevent their widespread use in clinical applications. To improve the efficacy of these treatments, nanoparticles are being studied in combination with nonsurgical ablation regimens. In addition to better thermal effect on tumor ablation, nanoparticles can deliver anticancer therapeutics that show synergistic anti-tumor effect in the presence of heat and can also be imaged to achieve precision in therapy. Understanding the molecular mechanism of nanoparticle-mediated tumor ablation could further help engineer nanoparticles of appropriate composition and properties to synergize the ablation effect. This review aims to explore the various types of nonsurgical tumor ablation methods currently used in cancer treatment and potential improvements by nanotechnology applications. PMID:20866097

  19. [Retroperitoneal germ cell tumor].

    PubMed

    Borrell Palanca, A; García Garzón, J; Villamón Fort, R; Domenech Pérez, C; Martínez Lorente, A; Gunthner, S; García Sisamón, F

    1999-03-01

    We report a case of retroperitoneal extragonadal germ-cell tumor in an 17 years old patient who presented with aedema and pain in left inferior extremity asociated with hemopthysis caused by pulmonar metastasis, who was treated with chemotherapy and resection of residual mass and pulmonary nodes. Dyagnosis was stableshed by fine neadle aspiration biopsy of the wass. We comment on the difficult of stableshing differential dyagnosis between retroperitoneal extragonadal germ-cell tumor and metastasis of a testicular tumor. Dyagnosis is stableshed by the finding of a histologically malignant germ-cell tumor with normal testis. We considered physical examination and ecographyc exploration enough for a correct dyagnosis. PMID:10363384

  20. Radioresistance of Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Kevin; Knisely, Jonathan; Symons, Marc; Ruggieri, Rosamaria

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is frequently used as part of the standard of care treatment of the majority of brain tumors. The efficacy of RT is limited by radioresistance and by normal tissue radiation tolerance. This is highlighted in pediatric brain tumors where the use of radiation is limited by the excessive toxicity to the developing brain. For these reasons, radiosensitization of tumor cells would be beneficial. In this review, we focus on radioresistance mechanisms intrinsic to tumor cells. We also evaluate existing approaches to induce radiosensitization and explore future avenues of investigation. PMID:27043632

  1. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor, an uncommon tumor

    PubMed Central

    Vasudevan, K.; Kumar, Senthil; Vijayasamundeeswari; Vigneswari, Srivel

    2012-01-01

    Here we report a case of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) in the maxilla in a young girl aged 14 years and its surgical management. We also review the literature and variations in the nomenclature and classifications of this interesting tumor. The review of literature gives an interesting picture regarding terminologies in the past and dilemma in classifying this tumor. The introduction of the name adenomatoid odontogenic tumour has resulted in the simpler and fruitful surgical management like enucleation and curettage with no reports of recurrences. In the past, similar lesion with the terminology like adeno ameloblastoma has resulted in unnecessary mutilating surgery. The conflicting views whether the lesion is being neoplasm or an anomalous hamartomatous growth is also being discussed. PMID:22919236

  2. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor, an uncommon tumor.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, K; Kumar, Senthil; Vijayasamundeeswari; Vigneswari, Srivel

    2012-04-01

    Here we report a case of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) in the maxilla in a young girl aged 14 years and its surgical management. We also review the literature and variations in the nomenclature and classifications of this interesting tumor. The review of literature gives an interesting picture regarding terminologies in the past and dilemma in classifying this tumor. The introduction of the name adenomatoid odontogenic tumour has resulted in the simpler and fruitful surgical management like enucleation and curettage with no reports of recurrences. In the past, similar lesion with the terminology like adeno ameloblastoma has resulted in unnecessary mutilating surgery. The conflicting views whether the lesion is being neoplasm or an anomalous hamartomatous growth is also being discussed. PMID:22919236

  3. Brain Tumor Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resource Center Pediatric Caregiver Center Request a Mentor Brain Tumor Research ABTA Research Grant Funding Opportunities ABTA Grant Application Portal Research Funding FAQ's Newly Awarded ABTA Research Grants Outcome Reports for Funding Ending ... for Brain Tumors 5K Run & Walk Team Breakthrough Find an ...

  4. Brain Tumor Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resource Center Pediatric Caregiver Center Request a Mentor Brain Tumor Research ABTA Research Grant Funding Opportunities ABTA Grant Application Portal Research Funding FAQ's Newly Awarded ABTA Research Grants Outcome Reports for Funding Ending ... for Brain Tumors 5K Run & Walk Team Breakthrough Find an ...

  5. Vanishing tumor in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Vimal, M. V.; Budyal, Sweta; Kasliwal, Rajeev; Jagtap, Varsha S.; Lila, Anurag R.; Bandgar, Tushar; Menon, Padmavathy; Shah, Nalini S.

    2012-01-01

    A patient with microprolactinoma, who had two successful pregnancies, is described for management issues. First pregnancy was uneventful. During the second pregnancy, the tumor enlarged to macroprolactinoma with headache and blurring of vision which was managed successfully with bromocriptine. Post delivery, complete disappearance of the tumor was documented. PMID:23226664

  6. NCI Rare Tumor Initiative

    Cancer.gov

    Contact Information   For more information on the Rare Tumors Initiative or to become a member please contact:   Abby Sandler, Ph.D. Special Assistant to the Director, Rare Tumors Initiative, OD, CCR, NCI 301-496-9983 sandlera@mail.nih.gov Karlyne Reilly,

  7. Benign bone tumors.

    PubMed

    Steffner, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Benign bone lesions are a broad category that demonstrates a spectrum of activities from latent to aggressive. Differentiating the various tumors is important in order to properly determine necessary intervention. This chapter focuses on the presentation, imaging, diagnostic features, and treatment of the most common benign bone tumors in order to help guide diagnosis and management. PMID:25070230

  8. Skull Base Tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz-Ertner, Daniela

    In skull base tumors associated with a low radiosensitivity for conventional radiotherapy (RT), irradiation with proton or carbon ion beams facilitates a safe and accurate application of high tumor doses due to the favorable beam localization properties of these particle beams. Cranial nerves, the brain stem and normal brain tissue can at the same time be optimally spared.

  9. Primary cardiac tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, N A

    1980-01-01

    Cardiac tumors are a rare, but potentially curably form of heart disease. A high index of clinical suspicion is necessary for diagnosis as these tumors have protean manifestations that mimic a variety of other cardiac and noncardiac diseases. Presently, M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiography are utilized as safe, reliable, and noninvasive imaging modalities. Seventy-five per cent of these tumors are benign, with myxoma accounting for 50% and rhabodomyoma comprising 20% of lesions. Various histologic types of sarcoma are the predominant malignant cardiac neoplasms. With strict attention to avoiding perioperative tumor embolization, surgical resection of these lesions can be accomplished with minimal morbidity and mortality. Sixteen consecutive primary tumors of the heart have been surgically treated at Duke University Medical Center since 1966 with no perioperative deaths and no late recurrences. Images Figs. 2A and B. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Figs. 5A and B Fig. 6. PMID:7362282

  10. Modern Brain Tumor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Barajas, Ramon F.; Cha, Soonmee

    2015-01-01

    The imaging and clinical management of patients with brain tumor continue to evolve over time and now heavily rely on physiologic imaging in addition to high-resolution structural imaging. Imaging remains a powerful noninvasive tool to positively impact the management of patients with brain tumor. This article provides an overview of the current state-of-the art clinical brain tumor imaging. In this review, we discuss general magnetic resonance (MR) imaging methods and their application to the diagnosis of, treatment planning and navigation, and disease monitoring in patients with brain tumor. We review the strengths, limitations, and pitfalls of structural imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging techniques, MR spectroscopy, perfusion imaging, positron emission tomography/MR, and functional imaging. Overall this review provides a basis for understudying the role of modern imaging in the care of brain tumor patients. PMID:25977902

  11. Method of treating tumors

    DOEpatents

    DeNardo, Sally J.; Burke, Patricia A.; DeNardo, Gerald L.; Goodman, Simon; Matzku, legal representative, Kerstin; Matzku, Siegfried

    2006-04-18

    A method of treating tumors, such as prostate tumors, breast tumors, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and the like, includes the sequential steps of administering to the patient at least one dose of an antiangiogenic cyclo-arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-containing pentapeptide (cRGD pentapeptide); administering to the patient an anti-tumor effective amount of a radioimmunotherapeutic agent (RIT); and then administering to the patient at least one additional dose of cRGD pentapeptide. The cRGD pentapeptide is preferably cyclo-(Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe-[N-Me]-Val), and the RIT is preferably a radionuclide-labeled chelating agent-ligand complex in which chelating agent is chemically bonded to a tumor-targeting molecule, such as a monoclonal antibody.

  12. Tumor angiogenesis-characteristics of tumor endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hida, Kyoko; Maishi, Nako; Torii, Chisaho; Hida, Yasuhiro

    2016-04-01

    Tumor blood vessels provide nutrition and oxygen to the tumor, resulting in tumor progression. They also act as gatekeepers, inducing tumor metastasis. Thus, targeting tumor blood vessels is an important strategy in cancer therapy. Tumor endothelial cells (TECs), which line the inner layer of blood vessels of the tumor stromal tissue, are the main targets of anti-angiogenic therapy. Because new tumor blood vessels generally sprout from pre-existing vasculature, they have been considered to be the same as normal blood vessels. However, tumor blood vessels demonstrate a markedly abnormal phenotype that includes several important morphological changes. The degree of angiogenesis is determined by the balance between the angiogenic stimulators and inhibitors released by the tumor and host cells. Recent studies have revealed that TECs also exhibit altered characteristics which depend on the tumor microenvironment. Here, we review recent studies on TEC abnormalities and heterogeneity with respect to tumor progression and consider their therapeutic implications. PMID:26879652

  13. THE TUMOR MACROENVIRONMENT: CANCER-PROMOTING NETWORKS BEYOND TUMOR BEDS

    PubMed Central

    Rutkowski, Melanie R.; Svoronos, Nikolaos; Puchalt, Alfredo Perales; Conejo-Garcia, Jose R.

    2015-01-01

    During tumor progression, alterations within the systemic tumor environment, or macroenvironment, result in the promotion of tumor growth, tumor invasion to distal organs, and eventual metastatic disease. Distally produced hormones, commensal microbiota residing within mucosal surfaces, and myeloid cells and even the bone marrow impact the systemic immune system, tumor growth, and metastatic spread. Understanding the reciprocal interactions between the cells and soluble factors within the macroenvironment and the primary tumor will enable the design of specific therapies that have the potential to prevent dissemination and metastatic spread. This chapter will summarize recent findings detailing how the primary tumor and systemic tumor macroenvironment coordinate malignant progression. PMID:26216635

  14. How Are Wilms Tumors Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Survival rates for Wilms tumor, by stage and histology Previous Topic Signs and symptoms of Wilms tumor ... also look at the sample to determine the histology of the Wilms tumor (favorable or unfavorable), as ...

  15. How Are Pituitary Tumors Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tumors? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Pituitary Tumors Talking With Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Pituitary Tumors Research? Other Resources ...

  16. Benign follicular tumors.

    PubMed

    Tellechea, Oscar; Cardoso, José Carlos; Reis, José Pedro; Ramos, Leonor; Gameiro, Ana Rita; Coutinho, Inês; Baptista, António Poiares

    2015-12-01

    Benign follicular tumors comprise a large and heterogeneous group of neoplasms that share a common histogenesis and display morphological features resembling one or several portions of the normal hair follicle, or recapitulate part of its embryological development. Most cases present it as clinically nondescript single lesions and essentially of dermatological relevance. Occasionally, however, these lesions be multiple and represent a cutaneous marker of complex syndromes associated with an increased risk of visceral neoplasms. In this article, the authors present the microscopic structure of the normal hair follicle as a basis to understand the type and level of differentiation of the various follicular tumors. The main clinicopathological features and differential diagnosis of benign follicular tumors are then discussed, including dilated pore of Winer, pilar sheath acanthoma, trichoadenoma, trichilemmoma, infundibuloma, proliferating trichilemmal cyst/tumor, trichoblastoma and its variants, pilomatricoma, trichodiscoma/fibrofolliculoma, neurofollicular hamartoma and trichofolliculoma. In addition, the main syndromes presenting with multiple follicular tumors are also discussed, namely Cowden, Birt-Hogg-Dubé, Rombo and Bazex-Dupré-Christol syndromes, as well as multiple tumors of follicular infundibulum (infundibulomatosis) and multiple trichoepitheliomas. Although the diagnosis of follicular tumors relies on histological examination, we highlight the importance of their knowledge for the clinician, especially when in presence of patients with multiple lesions that may be the cutaneous marker of a cancer-prone syndrome. The dermatologist is therefore in a privileged position to recognize these lesions, which is extremely important to provide further propedeutic, appropriate referral and genetic counseling for these patients. PMID:26734858

  17. Benign follicular tumors*

    PubMed Central

    Tellechea, Oscar; Cardoso, José Carlos; Reis, José Pedro; Ramos, Leonor; Gameiro, Ana Rita; Coutinho, Inês; Baptista, António Poiares

    2015-01-01

    Benign follicular tumors comprise a large and heterogeneous group of neoplasms that share a common histogenesis and display morphological features resembling one or several portions of the normal hair follicle, or recapitulate part of its embryological development. Most cases present it as clinically nondescript single lesions and essentially of dermatological relevance. Occasionally, however, these lesions be multiple and represent a cutaneous marker of complex syndromes associated with an increased risk of visceral neoplasms. In this article, the authors present the microscopic structure of the normal hair follicle as a basis to understand the type and level of differentiation of the various follicular tumors. The main clinicopathological features and differential diagnosis of benign follicular tumors are then discussed, including dilated pore of Winer, pilar sheath acanthoma, trichoadenoma, trichilemmoma, infundibuloma, proliferating trichilemmal cyst/tumor, trichoblastoma and its variants, pilomatricoma, trichodiscoma/fibrofolliculoma, neurofollicular hamartoma and trichofolliculoma. In addition, the main syndromes presenting with multiple follicular tumors are also discussed, namely Cowden, Birt-Hogg-Dubé, Rombo and Bazex-Dupré-Christol syndromes, as well as multiple tumors of follicular infundibulum (infundibulomatosis) and multiple trichoepitheliomas. Although the diagnosis of follicular tumors relies on histological examination, we highlight the importance of their knowledge for the clinician, especially when in presence of patients with multiple lesions that may be the cutaneous marker of a cancer-prone syndrome. The dermatologist is therefore in a privileged position to recognize these lesions, which is extremely important to provide further propedeutic, appropriate referral and genetic counseling for these patients. PMID:26734858

  18. Epilepsy and brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Englot, Dario J; Chang, Edward F; Vecht, Charles J

    2016-01-01

    Seizures are common in patients with brain tumors, and epilepsy can significantly impact patient quality of life. Therefore, a thorough understanding of rates and predictors of seizures, and the likelihood of seizure freedom after resection, is critical in the treatment of brain tumors. Among all tumor types, seizures are most common with glioneuronal tumors (70-80%), particularly in patients with frontotemporal or insular lesions. Seizures are also common in individuals with glioma, with the highest rates of epilepsy (60-75%) observed in patients with low-grade gliomas located in superficial cortical or insular regions. Approximately 20-50% of patients with meningioma and 20-35% of those with brain metastases also suffer from seizures. After tumor resection, approximately 60-90% are rendered seizure-free, with most favorable seizure outcomes seen in individuals with glioneuronal tumors. Gross total resection, earlier surgical therapy, and a lack of generalized seizures are common predictors of a favorable seizure outcome. With regard to anticonvulsant medication selection, evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of focal epilepsy should be followed, and individual patient factors should also be considered, including patient age, sex, organ dysfunction, comorbidity, or cotherapy. As concomitant chemotherapy commonly forms an essential part of glioma treatment, enzyme-inducing anticonvulsants should be avoided when possible. Seizure freedom is the ultimate goal in the treatment of brain tumor patients with epilepsy, given the adverse effects of seizures on quality of life. PMID:26948360

  19. Targeting the tumor microenvironment

    SciTech Connect

    Kenny, P.A.; Lee, G.Y.; Bissell, M.J.

    2006-11-07

    Despite some notable successes cancer remains, for the most part, a seemingly intractable problem. There is, however, a growing appreciation that targeting the tumor epithelium in isolation is not sufficient as there is an intricate mutually sustaining synergy between the tumor epithelial cells and their surrounding stroma. As the details of this dialogue emerge, new therapeutic targets have been proposed. The FDA has already approved drugs targeting microenvironmental components such as VEGF and aromatase and many more agents are in the pipeline. In this article, we describe some of the 'druggable' targets and processes within the tumor microenvironment and review the approaches being taken to disrupt these interactions.

  20. Tumor-Associated Macrophages and Neutrophils in Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jaehong; Bae, Jong-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Distinct tumor microenvironment forms in each progression step of cancer and has diverse capacities to induce both adverse and beneficial consequences for tumorigenesis. It is now known that immune cells can be activated to favor tumor growth and progression, most probably influenced by the tumor microenvironment. Tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils can exert protumoral functions, enhancing tumor cell invasion and metastasis, angiogenesis, and extracellular matrix remodeling, while inhibiting the antitumoral immune surveillance. Considering that neutrophils in inflammatory environments recruit macrophages and that recruited macrophages affect neutrophil functions, there may be various degrees of interaction between tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils. Platelets also play an important role in the recruitment and regulation of monocytic and granulocytic cells in the tumor tissues, suggesting that platelet function may be essential for generation of tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils. In this review, we will explore the biology of tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils and their possible interactions in the tumor microenvironment. Special attention will be given to the recruitment and activation of these tumor-associated cells and to the roles they play in maintenance of the tumor microenvironment and progression of tumors. PMID:26966341

  1. Pazopanib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Progressive Carcinoid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-31

    Atypical Carcinoid Tumor; Foregut Carcinoid Tumor; Hindgut Carcinoid Tumor; Lung Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Midgut Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Regional Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1

  2. Children's Tumor Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Board members represent a wide spectrum of uniquely gifted individuals from all reaches of the country committed ... advances. Strategic Planning and Research Oversight Discover the Children's Tumor Foundation's plan to accelerate progress toward finding ...

  3. Intraperitoneal Solitary Fibrous Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Benabdejlil, Youssef; Kouach, Jaouad; Babahabib, Abdellah; Elhassani, Moulay Elmehdi; Rharassi, Issam; Boudhas, Adil; Bakkali, Hicham; Elmarjany, Mohammed; Moussaoui, Driss; Dehayni, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors of the pelvis are rare. We report the case of a 32-years-old patient who presented with abdominopelvic mass. The imaging studies showed a right adnexal mass of more than 10 cm. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a 20 cm mass at the Douglas pouch which was adhered to the posterior wall of the uterus. Complete resection of the mass was performed. Histological analysis showed a spindle cell undifferentiated tumor whose morphological and immunohistochemical profile are consistent with solitary fibrous tumor. It is important to know that although these tumors are rare, their evolution can be pejorative. Therefore, long-term followup should be recommended. PMID:25276449

  4. Intraperitoneal solitary fibrous tumor.

    PubMed

    Benabdejlil, Youssef; Kouach, Jaouad; Babahabib, Abdellah; Elhassani, Moulay Elmehdi; Rharassi, Issam; Boudhas, Adil; Bakkali, Hicham; Elmarjany, Mohammed; Moussaoui, Driss; Dehayni, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors of the pelvis are rare. We report the case of a 32-years-old patient who presented with abdominopelvic mass. The imaging studies showed a right adnexal mass of more than 10 cm. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a 20 cm mass at the Douglas pouch which was adhered to the posterior wall of the uterus. Complete resection of the mass was performed. Histological analysis showed a spindle cell undifferentiated tumor whose morphological and immunohistochemical profile are consistent with solitary fibrous tumor. It is important to know that although these tumors are rare, their evolution can be pejorative. Therefore, long-term followup should be recommended. PMID:25276449

  5. Metastatic pleural tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pleural fluid analysis Pleural needle biopsy Removal of fluid from around the lungs ( thoracentesis ) ... tumors usually cannot be removed with surgery. The original ... lot of fluid collecting around your lungs and you have shortness ...

  6. [Atypical tumor regression].

    PubMed

    Heitplatz, B; Müller, K-M

    2013-11-01

    A 67-year-old man presented with a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus diagnosed by biopsy. After neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy the gastroesophagectomy specimen showed diffuse polymorphic and anuclear cell residues ranging from 35 µm to 46 µm in size. Immunohistochemically, PanCK and AE1-3 revealed a positive staining while CD68 and MIB1 showed a negative staining. The retrospective anamnesis revealed that the patient had chronic polyarthritis as underlying illness, for which reason he had been taking humira and methotrexate, a cytostatic drug, for many years. Therefore, the development of the tumor might have been enhanced by these drugs. Electron microscopic analysis confirmed that the avital akaryote cell residues represented a special type of tumor regression. Complete tumor regression level IV without vital rest tumor tissue based on Baldus et al. was diagnosed. PMID:24154755

  7. Skin tumors on squirrels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Reilly, J.R.

    1955-01-01

    Skin tumors having the gross appearance of previously reported fibromas are reported on gray squirrels from N. Y., Md., Va., N. C., and W. Va. and from a fox squirrel from W. Va. and a porcupine from Pa.

  8. Liver Tumors (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... team will take extensive measures to carefully monitor radiation doses to protect healthy tissue as much as possible. Chemotherapy. In contrast to radiation, which destroys the cancerous cells of a tumor ...

  9. Antibody tumor penetration

    PubMed Central

    Thurber, Greg M.; Schmidt, Michael M.; Wittrup, K. Dane

    2009-01-01

    Antibodies have proven to be effective agents in cancer imaging and therapy. One of the major challenges still facing the field is the heterogeneous distribution of these agents in tumors when administered systemically. Large regions of untargeted cells can therefore escape therapy and potentially select for more resistant cells. We present here a summary of theoretical and experimental approaches to analyze and improve antibody penetration in tumor tissue. PMID:18541331

  10. Tumoral and Choroidal Vascularization

    PubMed Central

    Jost, Maud; Maillard, Catherine; Lecomte, Julie; Lambert, Vincent; Tjwa, Marc; Blaise, Pierre; Alvarez Gonzalez, Maria-Luz; Bajou, Khalid; Blacher, Silvia; Motte, Patrick; Humblet, Chantal; Defresne, Marie Paule; Thiry, Marc; Frankenne, Francis; Gothot, André; Carmeliet, Peter; Rakic, Jean-Marie; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Noël, Agnès

    2007-01-01

    An adequate balance between serine proteases and their plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is critical for pathological angiogenesis. PAI-1 deficiency in mice is associated with impaired choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and tumoral angiogenesis. In the present work, we demonstrate unexpected differences in the contribution of bone marrow (BM)-derived cells in these two processes regulated by PAI-1. PAI-1−/− mice grafted with BM-derived from wild-type mice were able to support laser-induced CNV formation but not skin carcinoma vascularization. Engraftment of irradiated wild-type mice with PAI-1−/− BM prevented CNV formation, demonstrating the crucial role of PAI-1 delivered by BM-derived cells. In contrast, the transient infiltration of tumor transplants by local PAI-1-producing host cells rather than by BM cells was sufficient to rescue tumor growth and angiogenesis in PAI-1-deficient mice. These data identify PAI-1 as a molecular determinant of a local permissive soil for tumor angiogenesis. Altogether, the present study demonstrates that different cellular mechanisms contribute to PAI-1-regulated tumoral and CNV. PAI-1 contributes to BM-dependent choroidal vascularization and to BM-independent tumor growth and angiogenesis. PMID:17717143

  11. Tumor Cell Vasculogenic Mimicry

    PubMed Central

    Seftor, Richard E.B.; Hess, Angela R.; Seftor, Elisabeth A.; Kirschmann, Dawn A.; Hardy, Katharine M.; Margaryan, Naira V.; Hendrix, Mary J.C.

    2013-01-01

    In 1999, The American Journal of Pathology published an article entitled “Vascular Channel Formation by Human Melanoma Cells in Vivo and in Vitro: Vasculogenic Mimicry,” by Maniotis and colleagues, which ignited a spirited debate for several years and earned distinction as a citation classic. Tumor cell vasculogenic mimicry (VM) refers to the plasticity of aggressive cancer cells forming de novo vascular networks, which thereby contribute to perfusion of rapidly growing tumors, transporting fluid from leaky vessels, and/or connecting with the constitutional endothelial-lined vasculature. The tumor cells capable of VM share a plastic, transendothelial phenotype, which may be induced by hypoxia. Since VM was introduced as a novel paradigm for melanoma tumor perfusion, many studies have contributed new findings illuminating the underlying molecular pathways supporting VM in a variety of tumors, including carcinomas, sarcomas, glioblastomas, astrocytomas, and melanomas. Facilitating the functional plasticity of tumor cell VM are key proteins associated with vascular, stem cell, and hypoxia-related signaling pathways, each deserving serious consideration as potential therapeutic targets and diagnostic indicators of the aggressive, metastatic phenotype. PMID:22944600

  12. Pancreatic cystic tumors.

    PubMed

    Salvia, R; Festa, L; Butturini, G; Tonsi, A; Sartori, N; Biasutti, C; Capelli, P; Pederzoli, P

    2004-04-01

    Cystic tumors of the pancreas are less frequent than other tumors in neoplastic pancreatic pathology, but in recent years the literature has reported an increasing number. After the first report by Becourt in 1830, cystic tumors were classified into 2 different types by Compagno and Oertel in 1978: benign tumors with glycogen-rich cells and mucinous cystic neoplasms with overt and latent malignancy. The WHO classification of exocrine tumors of the pancreas, published in 1996, is based on the histopathological features of the epithelial wall, which are the main factor in differential diagnosis with cystic lesions of the pancreas. Thanks to the knowledge acquired up to now, a surgical procedure is not always required because the therapeutic choice is conditioned by the correct classification of this heterogeneous group of tumors. Clinical signs are not really useful in the clinical work up, most patients have no symptoms and when clinical signs are present, they may help us to pinpoint the organ of origin but never to identify the type of pathology. In the last few years, the great improvement in imaging has enabled us not only to discriminate cystic from solid lesions, but also to identify the features of the lesions and label them preoperatively. More invasive diagnostic procedures such as fine needle aspiration and intracystic fluid tumor marker level are not really useful because they are not sensitive and the cystic wall can show different degrees of dysplasia and de-epithelialization. These are the reasons for sending the entire specimen to pathology. Good cooperation between surgeons, pathologists, radiologists and gastroenterologists is mandatory to increase the chances of making a proper diagnosis. Therefore, we must analyze all the information we have, such as age, sex, clinical history, location of the tumor and radiological features, in order to avoid the mistake of treating a cystic neoplasm as a benign lesion or as a pseudocyst, as described in the literature. Except for inoperable cases due to the critical condition of the patient or non-resectable lesions, surgical treatment differs with the diagnosis. Cystic tumors of the pancreas, therefore, are a heterogeneous group of tumors, with a real problem regarding differential diagnosis between neoplastic and inflammatory lesions. Even with a proper work up, some perplexity may remain about the nature of the lesion and in these cases the surgical procedure has a therapeutic value as well as playing a diagnostic role. The role of surgery is central in the treatment of these tumors because it could be curative when complete resection is possible. In this way, the lack of good therapeutic results with chemotherapy and radiotherapy force the surgeon to go ahead with the procedure. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms represent a new and, from the epidemiological point of view, important chapter in the world of cystic tumors. The margin of resection is important and the surgeon has to be aware that in order to have a curative resection, total pancreatectomy is sometimes required. In the last few years the therapeutic approach has changed thanks to new knowledge of the biological behavior of these tumors. In fact, from a surgical approach in all cases, we are now discussing the possibility of a follow-up not only for asymptomatic serous cystadenomas but also for the little branch side intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) in critical patients. A follow-up could be planned even for solid pseudopapillary tumors but it seems risky to leave untreated big tumors in young patients without a certain diagnosis and with so few studies reported in the literature. PMID:15238892

  13. [Tumors of the hand bones].

    PubMed

    Neverov, V A; Dadalov, M I; Rodomanova, L A; Serb, S K

    2004-01-01

    The article is devoted to an actual problem of surgical treatment of hand bone tumors. It presents a classification of hand bone tumors, pathogenesis, clinical course of the most common tumors, methods of surgical treatment. Results of treatment of 108 patients with hand bone tumors are described. PMID:15651698

  14. [Genetics of renal tumors].

    PubMed

    Oláh, E; Jakab, Z; Balogh, E

    2001-07-01

    The quintessence of malignant transformation is the genetic alteration of the tumor progenitor cell, i.e. somatic mutation. The genetic change appearing at chromosome and/or gene level results in the disturbance of the balance of cell proliferation and differentiation. In solid tumors, including renal tumors, the basic genetic mechanism proved to be the loss of function of a specific gene pair caused by loss of the particular chromosome or chromosomal region (monosomy, deletion) or by mutation of the gene. In the well studied Wilms' tumor-aniridia-syndrome the distal part of 11p13 region is deleted. The responsible gene is the WT-1 tumor suppressor gene, a Zn finger type transcription factor. In the majority of cases the mutation of this gene leads to the tumor formation without cytogenetically detectable deletion. For manifestation of the tumor the functional damage of both alleles is needed. In other histological types of renal tumors a great variation of chromosome losses and gains, as well as translocations can be identified. In Wilms tumor of embryonic origin, tumor suppressor genes located on the short arms of chromosomes 16 and 17 play a role in the pathogenesis. Besides, the significance of abnormal genomic imprinting of IGF2 and H19 genes located on 11p15 has also been confirmed. If a part of the embryonic cells do not regress, they may develop to papillary carcinoma together with the appearance of trisomies of chromosomes 7 and 17 and loss of Y. In the transformation process from papillary adenoma to carcinoma, duplication of several chromosomal regions is involved (3q+, +8, +12, +16, +20). The origin of renal carcinoma developing from normal nephron cells is associated with a deletion of 3p and 5q+, while during the progression of the disease further variable chromosome losses appear (6q-, 8p-, 14q-, -9). Tumor-specific cytogenetic and molecular genetic changes confirm the morphological classification of epithelial renal tumors pointing at the relation of the various entities or their independence. Based on cytogenetic alterations, a sequential predictive model of renal tumors can be developed. Individual types, together with joining and sequential appearance of aberrations are in line with the multistep mechanism of carcinogenesis. At the same time, the specific cytogenetic and molecular genetic changes confirm the diagnosis, provide further information about the histological type and progression of the disease. In hereditary cases, the members of the family at risk can be identified by recognizing the possibly associating clinical symptoms and/or by detecting the constitutional mutation of the gene using molecular genetic methods. Consequently, the genetic study of renal tumors plays important role not only in diagnosis and choosing adequate therapy but also in prevention of the disease. PMID:11478032

  15. Brain tumors in infants

    PubMed Central

    Ghodsi, Seyyed Mohammad; Habibi, Zohreh; Hanaei, Sara; Moradi, Ehsan; Nejat, Farideh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Brain tumors in infants have different clinical presentations, anatomical distribution, histopathological diagnosis, and clinical prognosis compared with older children. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was done in patients <12 months old who were operated on for primary brain tumor in Children's Hospital Medical Center since 2008 to 2014. Results: Thirty-one infants, 20 males and 11 females, with the mean age of 7.13 months (0.5–12) were enrolled. There were 16 supratentorial and 15 infratentorial tumors. The presenting symptoms included increased head circumference (16); bulge fontanel (15); vomiting (15); developmental regression (11); sunset eye (7); seizure (4); loss of consciousness (4); irritability (3); nystagmus (2); visual loss (2); hemiparesis (2); torticollis (2); VI palsy (3); VII, IX, X nerve palsy (each 2); and ptosis (1). Gross total and subtotal resection were performed in 19 and 11 cases, respectively. Fourteen patients needed external ventricular drainage in the perioperative period, from whom four infants required a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. One patient underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunting without tumor resection. The most common histological diagnoses were primitive neuroectodermal tumor (7), followed by anaplastic ependymoma (6) and grade II ependymoma. The rate of 30-day mortality was 19.3%. Eighteen patients are now well-controlled with or without adjuvant therapy (overall survival; 58%), from whom 13 cases are tumor free (disease free survival; 41.9%), 3 cases have residual masses with fixed or decreased size (progression-free survival; 9.6%), and 2 cases are still on chemotherapy. Conclusion: Brain tumors in infants should be treated with surgical resection, followed by chemotherapy when necessary.

  16. [Children's tumors of the hand].

    PubMed

    Salazard, B; Philandrianos, C

    2008-12-01

    Soft-tissue and osseous tumors of the hand in children differ considerably from those of adults, not only in frequency but also in terms of anatomic distribution, histologic type and prognosis. Malignant tumors are rare in children, the most common being rhabdomyosarcoma for soft-tissue tumors, and osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma for osseous tumors. Hemangioma is the most common soft-tissue tumor in infancy and childhood. Other vascular abnormalities are capillary malformation, venous malformation. Many other benign soft-tissue and cutaneous tumors can be seen (ganglion cyst, naevus, fibroma...). The surgeon must know the signs, evolution and the treatment of these tumors. PMID:18848496

  17. Chemoimmunotherapy: reengineering tumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gang

    2013-01-01

    Cancer chemotherapy drugs have long been considered immune suppressive. However, more recent data indicate that some cytotoxic drugs effectively treat cancer in part by facilitating an immune response to the tumor when given at the standard dose and schedule. These drugs induce a form of tumor cell death that is immunologically active, thereby inducing an adaptive immune response specific for the tumor. In addition, cancer chemotherapy drugs can promote tumor immunity through ancillary and largely unappreciated immunologic effects on both the malignant and normal host cells present within the tumor microenvironment. These more subtle immunomodulatory effects are dependent on the drug itself, its dose, and its schedule in relation to an immune-based intervention. The recent approvals of two new immune-based therapies for prostate cancer and melanoma herald a new era in cancer treatment and have led to heightened interest in immunotherapy as a valid approach to cancer treatment. A detailed understanding of the cellular and molecular basis of interactions between chemotherapy drugs and the immune system is essential for devising the optimal strategy for integrating new immune-based therapies into the standard of care for various cancers, resulting in the greatest long-term clinical benefit for cancer patients. PMID:23389507

  18. Ossifying plexiform tumor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Solomon S; Baker, Brian L; Gapp, Joshua D G; Rosenberg, Andrew E; Googe, Paul B

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of ossifying plexiform tumor in a 64-year-old female. The patient had a 2-year history of gradual hardening of the right thumb pad and pain that radiated up the forearm. Physical examination showed a tender, mobile 2-cm subcutaneous nodule distending the tip of the right thumb. The biopsy specimen showed a well-delineated tumor with multiple lobules of epithelioid and spindled cells arranged in a plexiform pattern separated by fibrous bands and having foci of bone formation. The neoplastic cells had scant-to-moderate amphophilic cytoplasm with mild nuclear pleomorphism in a myxocollagenous background. No necrosis, mitoses or cytological atypicia were seen. The osteocytes present in the bone islands were bland, with occasional rimming osteoblasts. X-ray showed stippled calcification in the soft tissue of the distal thumb without involvement of the phalanx. The patient is tumor free for 1 year after complete local excision. Only three cases of ossifying plexiform tumor have been reported. All previous cases and the current case presented as subcutaneous nodules on hand digits of females, measuring 1-2 cm in greatest dimension. Ossifying plexiform tumor appears to be a benign neoplasm with no reports of progression or metastasis. PMID:25407793

  19. Dysembryoplastic Neuroepithelial Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Yeon-Lim

    2015-01-01

    Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT) is a benign glioneuronal neoplasm that most commonly occurs in children and young adults and may present with medically intractable, chronic seizures. Radiologically, this tumor is characterized by a cortical topography and lack of mass effect or perilesional edema. Partial complex seizures are the most common presentation. Three histologic subtypes of DNTs have been described. Histologically, the recognition of a unique, specific glioneuronal element in brain tumor samples from patients with medically intractable, chronic epilepsy serves as a diagnostic feature for complex or simple DNT types. However, nonspecific DNT has diagnostic difficulty because its histology is indistinguishable from conventional gliomas and because a specific glioneuronal element and/or multinodularity are absent. This review will focus on the clinical, radiographic, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features as well as the molecular genetics of all three variants of DNTs. The histological and cytological differential diagnoses for this lesion, especially the nonspecific variant, will be discussed. PMID:26493957

  20. Endolymphatic sac tumors.

    PubMed

    Wick, Cameron C; Manzoor, Nauman F; Semaan, Maroun T; Megerian, Cliff A

    2015-04-01

    Endolymphatic sac tumors (ELST) are slow-growing, locally aggressive, low-grade malignancies that originate from the epithelium of the endolymphatic duct and sac. ELST often present with sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo, which may mimic Meniere disease. Large tumors may present with additional cranial neuropathies. Management is primarily via microsurgical excision. Radiation therapy has a limited role for residual or unresectable disease. Early detection may enable hearing preservation techniques. ELST have an association with von Hippel-Lindau disease. PMID:25650230

  1. Radioembolization of hepatic tumors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Unresectable primary and metastatic liver tumors are a leading cause of cancer mortality and morbidity. This remains a challenging and key task for every oncologist despite significant advances that have been made with selective targeted systemic agents and in technology advances with radiotherapy delivery. Radioembolization (RE) is a technique of permanently implanting microspheres containing Yttrium-90 (90Y), a beta-emitting isotope with a treatment range of 2 mm, into hepatic tumors. This form of brachytherapy utilizes the unique dual vascular anatomy of the liver to preferentially deliver radioactive particles via the hepatic artery to tumor, sparing normal liver parenchyma. The main treatment inclusion criteria are patients with solid tumors, compensated liver functions, life expectancy of at least three months, and ECOG performance status 0-2. Benefit of RE has been proven in patients that have low-to-moderate extrahepatic disease burden, prior liver radiotherapy, heavy prior chemotherapy and biologic agent exposure, and history of hepatic surgery or ablation. Most of the clinical evidence is reported in metastatic colorectal, and neuroendocrine tumors (NET), and primary hepatocellular cancer. A growing body of data supports the use of RE in hepatic metastatic breast cancer, intrahepatic cholangiocarinoma, and many other metastatic tumor types. Side effects are typically mild constitutional and GI issues limited to the first 7-14 days post treatment, with only 6% grade 3 toxicity reported in large series. Potentially serious or fatal radiation induced liver disease is extremely rare, reported in only 1% or fewer in major series of both metastatic and primary tumors treated with RE. Currently, high priority prospective clinical trials are testing RE combined with chemotherapy in first line therapy for colorectal hepatic metastases, and combined with sorafenib for hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Fortunately, this beneficial and now widely available therapy is being increasingly incorporated into the standard therapy algorithms of multidisciplinary GI cancer teams worldwide. This form of radiotherapy differs significantly from daily external beam radiotherapy in many ways, particularly in dose rate, dosimetric coverage and duration of radiation delivery, side effects, and patient selection factors. A wealth of experience using RE in solid tumors exists and ongoing major prospective clinical trials will soon clarify the role of RE in the management of metastatic colorectal liver metastases. PMID:24982766

  2. Gluteal tumoral calcinosis.

    PubMed

    Del Bravo, Valentina; Liuzza, Francesco; Perisano, Carlo; Chalidis, Byron; Marzetti, Emanuele; Colelli, Pamela; Maccauro, Giulio

    2012-01-01

    Tumoral calcinosis is an extremely rare benign condition that is characterised by deposits of calcium hydroxyapatite crystals in periarticular soft tissues. Although it is mainly located around large joints such as the hips, shoulders and elbows, it may also involve the small joints of hand and wrist. There are multiple types of tumoral calcinosis with divergent clinical characteristics but the exact cause is still unknown. We present a literature review to evaluate the location, clinical features, treatment options and results of surgical excision in this condition. Wide resection appears to lead to a good clinical outcome and a low incidence of local relapse. PMID:23233180

  3. Mouse Models for Tumor Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shengyu; Zhang, J. Jillian; Huang, Xin-Yun

    2013-01-01

    Tumor metastasis is the main cause of death of cancer patients. Here we describe two mouse models for investigating tumor metastasis. In the first spontaneous metastasis mouse model, 4T1 mouse breast tumor cells are injected into the mammary gland of host mice and the metastasis of 4T1 tumor cells into the lung are examined with a colonogenic assay. In the second experimental metastasis mouse model, luciferase-labeled MDA-MB-231 human breast tumor cells are injected into the tail vein of NOD-SCID immunodeficient mice and the colonization of MDA-MB-231 tumor cells in the lung are monitored using noninvasive bioluminescence imaging. PMID:22956145

  4. Acromegaly associated with multiple tumors.

    PubMed

    Sekizawa, Naoko; Hayakawa, Eri; Tsuchiya, Kyoichiro; Yoshimoto, Takanobu; Akashi, Takumi; Fujii, Takeshi; Yamada, Shozo; Hirata, Yukio

    2009-01-01

    A 56-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for the surgical removal of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). He was diagnosed with acromegaly due to his characteristic clinical features, endocrine data, and the presence of pituitary tumor. He was found to have colon cancer and follicular thyroid tumor. Pathological examination of the pituitary tumor after transsphenoidal surgery was compatible with growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenoma. We also detected the transcripts and/or immunoreactivity of GH/insulin-like growth factor I components in the tumor specimen. This is a rare case of acromegaly associated with multiple tumors, including RCC, colon cancer and thyroid tumor. PMID:19652429

  5. Innovations in Intraoperative Tumor Visualization.

    PubMed

    Visgauss, Julia D; Eward, William C; Brigman, Brian E

    2016-01-01

    In the surgical management of solid tumors, adequacy of tumor resection has implications for local recurrence and survival. The standard method of intraoperative identification of tumor margin is frozen section pathologic analysis, which is time-consuming with potential for sampling error. Intraoperative tumor visualization has the potential to significantly improve surgical cancer care across disciplines, by guiding accuracy of biopsies, increasing adequacy of resections, directing adjuvant therapy, and even providing diagnostic information. We provide an outline of various methods of intraoperative tumor visualization developed to aid in the real-time assessment of tumor extent and adequacy of resection. PMID:26614939

  6. Intracranial tumors in infants.

    PubMed

    Young, Helen K; Johnston, Heather

    2004-06-01

    The prognosis in infants with brain tumors has historically been very poor. This study reviews 16 infants under the age of 12 months with brain tumors who presented to our institution between 1988 and 1999. The aim was to describe the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of these patients and to establish if newer diagnostic and treatment modalities have improved prognosis in terms of survival and neurocognitive outcome. Charts were reviewed retrospectively for age at diagnosis, time to diagnosis, presenting features, location, histology, surgical and adjuvant treatment, survival, and neurocognitive outcome. Survival has improved. Three quarters of the patients remain alive. The 5-year survival rate was 81%. The 5-year progression-free survival rate was 51%, with a median follow-up time of 70 months. The 5-year survival rate for benign tumors was 100%. None of the children with malignant tumors survived. Morbidity remains high: 8 of 13 survivors had focal neurologic deficits, 7 of 13 had epilepsy, and 7 of 12 had significant cognitive disability. Future treatment protocols should include formal analysis of neurocognitive morbidity, functional outcome, and quality of life measures to provide accurate prognostic information and to prepare families for early intervention programs. PMID:15446390

  7. Circulating Plasma Tumor DNA.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Heather A; Beaver, Julia A; Park, Ben H

    2016-01-01

    Circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA)-first identified in 1947-is "naked" DNA that is free-floating in the blood, and derived from both normal and diseased cells. In the 1970s, scientists observed that patients with cancer had elevated levels of ccfDNA as compared to their healthy, cancer-free counterparts. The maternal fetal medicine community first developed techniques to identify the small fraction of fetal-derived ccfDNA for diagnostic purposes. Similarly, due to the presence of tumor-specific (somatic) variations in all cancers, the fraction of circulating cell-free plasma tumor DNA (ptDNA) in the larger pool of ccfDNA derived from normal cells can serve as extremely specific blood-based biomarkers for a patient's cancer. In theory this "liquid biopsy" can provide a real-time assessment of molecular tumor genotype (qualitative) and existing tumor burden (quantitative). Historically, the major limitation for ptDNA as a biomarker has been related to a low detection rate; however, current and developing techniques have improved sensitivity dramatically. In this chapter, we discuss these methods, including digital polymerase chain reaction and various approaches to tagged next-generation sequencing. PMID:26987539

  8. Benign tumors

    Cancer.gov

    In human pulmonary pathology, benign tumors are rare and almost never progress to malignancy. The situation is quite different in mouse pathology, where a significant number of adenomas, especially after some chemical induction schemes and genetic modifications, may progress to carcinomas.

  9. [Mediastinal tumors: introduction].

    PubMed

    Trousse, D; Avaro, J-P

    2010-02-01

    Mediastinal tumors are relatively uncommon, usually incidentally discovered on a chest X-ray in asymptomatic patients. Young adults are particularly concerned. Mediastinal masses represent a group of heterogeneous histological type cell. A definite diagnosis is essential leading to an adequate prompt therapeutic strategy when either benign disease or aggressive malignant tumor is conceivable. Indeed the therapeutic management of such tumors could be strictly medical, requiring exclusive surgical approach or includes a multimodal treatment. Clinical examination and imaging are important tools in the diagnostic approach. However the specific diagnosis could be complex and requires histological confirmation by an experienced pathologist after examination of large biopsies of the tumor. Several investigations, including surgical invasive exploration, should be quickly requested in order to achieve a final diagnosis and refer patients in an adequate therapeutic scheme without delay. The aim of this article is to point out the available diagnostic tools in mediastinal masses, including surgical approach, and to identify the role of surgical resection in specific subtypes. PMID:20207291

  10. Management of orbital tumors.

    PubMed

    Char, D H

    1993-11-01

    Orbital tumors are uncommon. In children, both malignant and benign causes of orbital proptosis necessitate urgent assessment; in many cases, emergent intervention is necessary to avoid blindness. In adults, proptosis is most commonly associated with thyroid orbitopathy. Orbital tumors in adults rarely are characterized by the explosive growth and damage that can occur with childhood lesions. In both age-groups, the evolution of better scanning modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging with fat saturation and gadolinium enhancement, has improved diagnostic accuracy, especially in patients with loss of vision. In more than 95% of cases, noninvasive techniques yield a correct diagnosis. In patients who require nonsurgical intervention, especially if the diagnosis is uncertain, fine-needle aspiration biopsy has an accuracy that exceeds 95%. Combined-modality therapy has improved the control of and decreased the morbidity associated with several orbital tumors. Surgical advances, such as the ancillary use of the CO2 laser, have enhanced the management of some orbital tumors. PMID:8231272

  11. Salivary gland tumors

    MedlinePlus

    Salivary gland tumors are abnormal cells growing in the tubes (ducts) that drain the salivary glands or the gland itself. ... The salivary glands are located around the mouth. They produce saliva, which moistens food to help with chewing and swallowing. There ...

  12. Tumor-induced osteomalacia

    PubMed Central

    Chong, William H; Molinolo, Alfredo A; Chen, Clara C; Collins, Michael T

    2012-01-01

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare and fascinating paraneoplastic syndrome in which patients present with bone pain, fractures, and muscle weakness. The cause is high blood levels of the recently identified phosphate and vitamin D-regulating hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). In TIO, FGF23 is secreted by mesenchymal tumors that are usually benign, but are typically very small and difficult to locate. FGF23 acts primarily at the renal tubule and impairs phosphate reabsorption and 1?-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, leading to hypophosphatemia and low levels of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D. A step-wise approach utilizing functional imaging (F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and octreotide scintigraphy) followed by anatomical imaging (computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging), and, if needed, selective venous sampling with measurement of FGF23 is usually successful in locating the tumors. For tumors that cannot be located, medical treatment with phosphate supplements and active vitamin D (calcitriol or alphacalcidiol) is usually successful; however, the medical regimen can be cumbersome and associated with complications. This review summarizes the current understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease and provides guidance in evaluating and treating these patients. Novel imaging modalities and medical treatments, which hold promise for the future, are also reviewed. PMID:21490240

  13. Preoperative tumor embolization.

    PubMed

    Ashour, Ramsey; Aziz-Sultan, Ali

    2014-07-01

    In this article, the authors review general principles and technical details of preoperative embolization of various hypervascular head, neck, and spinal tumors encountered in contemporary neuroendovascular practice. Indications, treatment goals, techniques, outcomes, and complications are discussed, and illustrative case examples are presented. PMID:24994094

  14. Serodiagnosis for Tumor Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Brian J.; Labo, Nazzarena; Miley, Wendell J.; Whitby, Denise

    2015-01-01

    The known human tumor viruses include the DNA viruses Epstein-Barr virus, Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus, Merkel cell polyomavirus, human papillomavirus, and hepatitis B virus. RNA tumor viruses include Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type-1 and hepatitis C virus. The serological identification of antigens/antibodies in plasma serum is a rapidly progressing field with utility for both scientists and clinicians. Serology is useful for conducting seroepidemiology studies and to inform on the pathogenesis and host immune response to a particular viral agent. Clinically, serology is useful for diagnosing current or past infection and for aiding in clinical management decisions. Serology is useful for screening blood donations for infectious agents and for monitoring the outcome of vaccination against these viruses. Serodiagnosis of human tumor viruses has improved in recent years with increased specificity and sensitivity of the assays, as well as reductions in cost and the ability to assess multiple antibody/antigens in single assays. Serodiagnosis of tumor viruses plays an important role in our understanding of the prevalence and transmission of these viruses and ultimately in the ability to develop treatments/preventions for these globally important diseases. PMID:25843726

  15. Tumor Blood Vessel Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munn, Lance

    2009-11-01

    ``Normalization'' of tumor blood vessels has shown promise to improve the efficacy of chemotherapeutics. In theory, anti-angiogenic drugs targeting endothelial VEGF signaling can improve vessel network structure and function, enhancing the transport of subsequent cytotoxic drugs to cancer cells. In practice, the effects are unpredictable, with varying levels of success. The predominant effects of anti-VEGF therapies are decreased vessel leakiness (hydraulic conductivity), decreased vessel diameters and pruning of the immature vessel network. It is thought that each of these can influence perfusion of the vessel network, inducing flow in regions that were previously sluggish or stagnant. Unfortunately, when anti-VEGF therapies affect vessel structure and function, the changes are dynamic and overlapping in time, and it has been difficult to identify a consistent and predictable normalization ``window'' during which perfusion and subsequent drug delivery is optimal. This is largely due to the non-linearity in the system, and the inability to distinguish the effects of decreased vessel leakiness from those due to network structural changes in clinical trials or animal studies. We have developed a mathematical model to calculate blood flow in complex tumor networks imaged by two-photon microscopy. The model incorporates the necessary and sufficient components for addressing the problem of normalization of tumor vasculature: i) lattice-Boltzmann calculations of the full flow field within the vasculature and within the tissue, ii) diffusion and convection of soluble species such as oxygen or drugs within vessels and the tissue domain, iii) distinct and spatially-resolved vessel hydraulic conductivities and permeabilities for each species, iv) erythrocyte particles advecting in the flow and delivering oxygen with real oxygen release kinetics, v) shear stress-mediated vascular remodeling. This model, guided by multi-parameter intravital imaging of tumor vessel structure and function, provides a tool for identifying the structural and functional determinants of tumor vessel normalization.

  16. Circulating tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Raimondi, Cristina; Nicolazzo, Chiara; Gradilone, Angela; Giannini, Giuseppe; De Falco, Elena; Chimenti, Isotta; Varriale, Elisa; Hauch, Siegfried; Plappert, Linda; Cortesi, Enrico; Gazzaniga, Paola

    2014-01-01

    The hypothesis of the “liquid biopsy” using circulating tumor cells (CTCs) emerged as a minimally invasive alternative to traditional tissue biopsy to determine cancer therapy. Discordance for biomarkers expression between primary tumor tissue and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has been widely reported, thus rendering the biological characterization of CTCs an attractive tool for biomarkers assessment and treatment selection. Studies performed in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients using CellSearch, the only FDA-cleared test for CTCs assessment, demonstrated a much lower yield of CTCs in this tumor type compared with breast and prostate cancer, both at baseline and during the course of treatment. Thus, although attractive, the possibility to use CTCs as therapy-related biomarker for colorectal cancer patients is still limited by a number of technical issues mainly due to the low sensitivity of the CellSearch method. In the present study we found a significant discordance between CellSearch and AdnaTest in the detection of CTCs from mCRC patients. We then investigated KRAS pathway activating mutations in CTCs and determined the degree of heterogeneity for KRAS oncogenic mutations between CTCs and tumor tissues. Whether KRAS gene amplification may represent an alternative pathway responsible for KRAS activation was further explored. KRAS gene amplification emerged as a functionally equivalent and mutually exclusive mechanism of KRAS pathway activation in CTCs, possibly related to transcriptional activation. The serial assessment of CTCs may represent an early biomarker of treatment response, able to overcome the intrinsic limit of current molecular biomarkers represented by intratumor heterogeneity. PMID:24521660

  17. [Epidemiological features of brain tumors].

    PubMed

    Mihailović, Goran; Marković, Marko; Zivković, Nenad; Mihailović, Goran; Marković, Marko; Berisavac, Iva; Spaić, Milan

    2013-01-01

    Brain tumors account for 1.4% of all cancers and 2.4% of all cancer-related deaths. The incidence of brain tumors varies and it is higher in developed countries of Western Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand. In Serbia, according to data from 2009, malignant brain tumors account for 2.2 of all tumors, and from all cancer-related deaths, 3.2% is caused by malignant brain tumors. According to recent statistical reports, an overall incidence of brain tumors for benign and malignant tumors combined is 18.71 per 100,000 persons/year. The most common benign brain tumor in adults is meningioma, which is most present in women, and the most common malignant tumor is glioblastoma, which is most present in adult men. Due to high mortality, especially in patients diagnosed with glioblastoma and significant brain tumor morbidity, there is a constant interest in understanding its etiology in order to possibly prevent tumor occurrence in future and enable more efficient treatment strategies for this fatal brain disease. Despite the continuously growing number of epidemiological studies on possible factors of tumor incidence, the etiology remains unclear. The only established environmental risk factor of gliomas is ionizing radiation exposure. Exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields via cell phone use has gained a lot of attention as a potential risk factor of brain tumor development. However, studies have been inconsistent and inconclusive, so more definite results are still expected. PMID:24502107

  18. What Are Lung Carcinoid Tumors?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Atypical carcinoid tumor Typical carcinoid tumor Small cell lung cancer Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is one of the fastest growing and spreading of all cancers. It is discussed in Lung Cancer (Small Cell) . Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma Large cell ...

  19. Pituitary: Non-Secretory Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... that upset the balance of good health, other pituitary tumors do not secrete hormones. Instead, they cause health ... cause headaches and vision problems. This type of pituitary tumor also may cause hyposecretion, so the pituitary does ...

  20. Drugs Approved for Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Brain Tumors This page lists cancer drugs approved by ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Brain Tumors Afinitor (Everolimus) Afinitor Disperz (Everolimus) Avastin (Bevacizumab) ...

  1. Tumor heterogeneity: causes and consequences

    PubMed Central

    Marusyk, Andriy; Polyak, Kornelia

    2009-01-01

    With rare exceptions, spontaneous tumors originate from a single cell. Yet, at the time of clinical diagnosis, the majority of human tumors display startling heterogeneity in many morphological and physiological features, such as expression of cell surface receptors, proliferative and angiogenic potential. To a substantial extent, this heterogeneity might be attributed to morphological and epigenetic plasticity, but there is also strong evidence for the co-existence of genetically divergent tumor cell clones within tumors. In this perspective, we summarize the sources of intra-tumor phenotypic heterogeneity with emphasis on genetic heterogeneity. We review experimental evidence for the existence of both intra-tumor clonal heterogeneity as well as frequent evolutionary divergence between primary tumors and metastatic outgrowths. Furthermore, we discuss potential biological and clinical implications of intra-tumor clonal heterogeneity. PMID:19931353

  2. Spontaneous tumors of small mammals.

    PubMed

    Greenacre, Cheryl B

    2004-09-01

    The most common tumor of guinea pigs is bronchogenic papillary adenoma; of hedgehogs is mammary gland adenocarcinoma; of hamsters is adrenal cortical adenoma; of gerbils is ovarian granulosa cell and theca cell tumors; of mice is pulmonary carcinoma; and of rats is mammary fibroadenoma. A relatively low incidence of tumors is described for chinchillas and hamsters, whereas the incidence of tumors is high for gerbils, hedgehogs, mice, and rats. Limited literature regarding neoplasia exists for prairie dogs, sugar gliders, and chinchillas. PMID:15296867

  3. Synchronous multicentric giant cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Ranjana; Biswas, Saumitra; Bandyopadhyay, Sanjay K; Ray, M M

    2010-01-01

    Multicentric giant cell tumors represent less than 1% of all giant cell tumors of bones. We report a case of multicentric giant cell tumors around both the knee joints in a mentally and physically challenged adult male that resulted in rapidly progressive painful swelling, restricted mobility and, ultimately, fixed deformity. These tumors had typical radiological appearance and the diagnosis was confirmed on histopathology. PMID:20479561

  4. Extra-axial brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Drevelegas, Antonios

    2005-03-01

    Meningiomas, schwannomas, metastases, maldevelopmental cysts, epidermoids, dermoids and bone tumors represent the vast majority of extra-axial brain tumors. The location of extra-axial brain tumors affects treatment planning and predicts their prognosis. Computed tomography and particularly magnetic resonance imaging are used for diagnosis and localization. In this article, the imaging findings of the extra-axial brain tumors are discussed. PMID:15627190

  5. Strategy for management of retroperitoneal tumors with caval tumor thrombus.

    PubMed

    Khozeimeh, Nini; Sinha, Pranava; Dome, Jeffrey S; Guzzetta, Philip C

    2011-11-01

    The surgical management of retroperitoneal tumors extending into the inferior vena cava (IVC) can be challenging. Although Wilms' tumor is the most common retroperitoneal tumor extending into the IVC, one must approach these tumors systematically as other diagnoses are possible. We present 4 consecutive cases of retroperitoneal tumors with IVC extension as a basis for a management strategy in approaching these patients. Despite similar presentations, these cases illustrate the nuances in surgical management and need for multidisciplinary care with the pediatric oncologists, pediatric surgeons, and pediatric cardiac surgeons. PMID:22075334

  6. Tumor uptake of radioruthenium compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, S C; Richards, P; Meinken, G E; Larson, S M; Grunbaum, Z

    1980-01-01

    The use of ruthenium-97 as a scintigraphic agent, particularly for tumor localization, is investigated. The tumor uptake of ruthenium chloride and ruthenium-labelled transferrin is evaluated and their application as tumor-imagine agents is compared to gallium-67 citrate. (ACR)

  7. Nonodontogenic Tumors of the Jaws.

    PubMed

    Dyalram, Donita; Aslam-Pervez, Nawaf; Lubek, Joshua E

    2016-02-01

    Nonodontogenic tumors of the jaws are common in the pediatric population, accounting for approximately 70% of pediatric jaw tumors. This article focuses on the clinical characteristics and management of the benign nonodontogenic tumors (nonaggressive and aggressive) of the jaws most commonly encountered in children. PMID:26614701

  8. Unusual Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marina Reis; Gabrielli, Marisa Aparecida Cabrini; Gabrielli, Mario Francisco Real; Andrade, Cleverton Roberto de; Silva, Breno Nogueira; Pereira-Filho, Valfrido Antonio

    2016-03-01

    The adenomatoid odontogenic tumor is a rare benign neoplasm. It can, however, have locally aggressive behavior. This is a case of an adenomatoid odontogenic tumor of unusual location and behavior in a 15-year-old female patient. A panoramic radiograph revealed a large radiolucent lesion involving the retained tooth 33. Teeth involved in this lesion were displaced and with apparent root resorption. A prototype of the mandible showed a marked expansion of cortical bone, fenestration points in the lingual cortex, and fragility of the base of the mandible. Therefore, because of the risk of postoperative pathologic fracture the placement of a 2.4-mm reconstruction plate was indicated. Total enucleation of the lesion, as well as placement of a reconstruction plate were performed. Despite the large bone destruction, with the correct surgical procedure and the use of the reconstruction plate the patient recovered without incidents and a 24-month postoperative radiography showed satisfactory bone formation. PMID:26963303

  9. Fraction of the CoMoS phases accessible to NO in Co-Mo hydrodesulfurization catalysts.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Yasuaki; Kawano, Masatoshi; Kubota, Takeshi

    2003-05-01

    It is established by using Co-Mo model sulfide catalysts, XAFS and FTIR that Co atoms constituting CoMoS phases are not oxidized by NO adsorption and that only 55% of the CoMoS phases is susceptible to NO adsorption even at the maximum coordinative unsaturation attainable under usual HDS reaction conditions (623-673 K). PMID:12772915

  10. [Biomarkers in solid tumors].

    PubMed

    Nagy, Zsuzsanna

    2013-03-01

    In the past decade the revolutionary development of molecular technology contributed a lot to the increase of our knowledge on cancer. These informations led to the discovery and understanding of those key regulatory changes in the genesis and progression of malignancies that can serve as targets in tumor diagnostics and therapy. One of the main challenges in the research field is to identify the most important molecular networks, the molecular targets, the markers (biomarkers) which can predict therapeutic responsiveness in order to select the appropriate patients, as well as markers to judge the prognosis of the disease. The aims of our study approached some details of the biomarker area and reached certain conclusions: (1) The anti-EGFR therapy, used in the second line or even further, proved to be effective, providing clinical advantage (operability, regression) in 36% of patients carrying wild-type KRAS. G13D mutations were the most frequent among the KRAS-mutants, which, according to current data, could react to anti-EGFR therapy. (2) Extended immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis on colorectal cancer samples (using tissue microarray) found rather few correlations between the IHC estimation and the clinical characteristics related mainly to survival. According to the results with anti-EGFR antibodies in the diagnostic histological samples, the regulatory pathway which rules the proliferation of normal colonic mucosa is also present in colonic cancer cells. This finding is supported by the increased ativity of the downstream members (as RAS, RAF, ERK) of the EGFR signalling. (3) The level of D-dimer increased at least as much as the level of classical tumor markers in the early stages of tumor growth. D-dimer can be considered as a prognostic factor in tumor types studied (breast-, colorectal-, ovarian cancers) and its measurement is advised besides the classical markers. We hope that these results may contribute to the design of a more individual-based and more effective antitumor strategy. PMID:23573523

  11. Modeling tumor evolutionary dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Stransky, Beatriz; de Souza, Sandro J.

    2013-01-01

    Tumorigenesis can be seen as an evolutionary process, in which the transformation of a normal cell into a tumor cell involves a number of limiting genetic and epigenetic events, occurring in a series of discrete stages. However, not all mutations in a cell are directly involved in cancer development and it is likely that most of them (passenger mutations) do not contribute in any way to tumorigenesis. Moreover, the process of tumor evolution is punctuated by selection of advantageous (driver) mutations and clonal expansions. Regarding these driver mutations, it is uncertain how many limiting events are required and/or sufficient to promote a tumorigenic process or what are the values associated with the adaptive advantage of different driver mutations. In spite of the availability of high-quality cancer data, several assumptions about the mechanistic process of cancer initiation and development remain largely untested, both mathematically and statistically. Here we review the development of recent mathematical/computational models and discuss their impact in the field of tumor biology. PMID:23420281

  12. Familial pituitary tumors.

    PubMed

    Alband, Neda; Korbonits, Márta

    2014-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas are benign intracranial neoplasms that present a major clinical concern due to hormone overproduction and/or tumor mass effects. The majority of pituitary adenomas occur sporadically; however, familial cases are increasingly being recognized, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), Carney complex (CNC), and familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA). Familial pituitary tumors appear to differ from their sporadic counterparts both in their genetic basis and in clinical characteristics. Evidence suggests that, especially in MEN1 and FIPA, tumors are more aggressive and affect patients at a younger age, therefore justifying the importance of early diagnosis, while in Carney complex pituitary hyperplasia is common. The genetic alterations responsible for the formation of familial pituitary syndromes include the MEN1 gene, responsible for about 80% of MEN1 cases, the regulatory subunit of the protein kinase A, PRKAR1A, responsible for about 70% of Carney complex cases, and AIP, the gene coding the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein, responsible for about 20% of FIPA cases. Rarely other genes have also been found responsible for familial pituitary adenoma cases. McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) also has a genetic origin due to mosaic mutations in the G protein-coupled α subunit coded by the GNAS1 gene. In this chapter, we summarize the genetic and clinical characteristics of these familial pituitary syndromes and MAS. PMID:25248598

  13. Testis tumor associated to microlithiasis

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus, Lisieux Eyer; Maciel, Felipe; Monnerat, Andrea Lima C.; Fernandes, Marcia Antunes; Dekermache, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To discuss the relationship between testicular microlithiasis and testis tumors in children and to consider the chances of testis preserving surgery in specific cases. CASE DESCRIPTION: Pre-adolescent presenting testicular microlithiasis and a larger left testis, corresponding to a cystic testicular tumor. The tumor was excised, with ipsilateral testis preservation. Histology diagnosed a testis dermoid tumor. COMMENTS: The relationship between testis tumors and testicular microlithiasis is ill defined in children. Pediatric urologists need to develop specific follow-up protocols for pre-pubertal children. PMID:24473964

  14. Treatment Option Overview (Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professional Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors Treatment Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors Key Points Extragonadal germ cell tumors form ...

  15. General Information about Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professional Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors Treatment Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors Key Points Extragonadal germ cell tumors form ...

  16. Glomus tumor of the trachea.

    PubMed

    Norder, Emily; Kynyk, Jessica; Schmitt, Alessandra C; Gauhar, Umair; Islam, Shaheen

    2012-07-01

    Glomus tumors are uncommon soft tissue tumors that usually occur in the hands or feet but rarely have been described to appear in the tracheobronchial tree. Tracheal glomus tumors present with symptoms including cough, dyspnea, and wheezing that may be mistaken for other pulmonary disorders. Imaging and pulmonary function testing can detect tracheal obstruction, but pathology is necessary to differentiate glomus tumors from other airway tumors. On pathology, glomus tumors are made up of glomus cells, blood vessels, and smooth muscle and are classified based on the predominant cell type. The differential for this tumor includes carcinoid tumors, paragangliomas, and hemangiomas, and immunohistochemical stains can be used to obtain the correct diagnosis. The most common modality for treatment of these tracheal tumors has been surgical resection. However, there have been reported cases of successful removal with rigid or flexible bronchoscopy. We present a case of a tracheal glomus tumor that was successfully resected using electrocautery snare during flexible bronchoscopy. Our case adds to the evidence that flexible bronchoscopy is a safe, less invasive approach to management of tracheal glomus tumors in select patients. PMID:23207466

  17. Laser therapy in intraocular tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carstocea, Benone D.; Gafencu, Otilia L.; Apostol, Silvia

    1995-01-01

    Intraocular tumors present special problems of diagnosis and treatment. Diagnostic methods include, in addition to systemic and ophthalmological examinations, ancillary examinations such as transillumination, fluorescein angiography, ultrasonography, radioactive phosphorus uptake test, radiology, computerized tomography, and fine-needle aspiration biopsy with cytological analyses. Previously, enucleation of the involved eye was generally accepted as management of malignant tumors. Improved therapeutic methods such as photocoagulation and better surgical techniques now provide a variety of therapeutical alternatives. This study consists of 21 cases of intraocular tumors that were managed by Argon laser photocoagulation. Four cases were intraocular metastasis and 17 cases were primitive intraocular tumors. Argon laser therapy proved to be totally ineffective for the intraocular metastasis and a very adequate therapy for the primitive tumors. Tumor extirpations (choroidal, cillary body, or iris tumors) using laser lancet proved to be more suitable than classic surgery.

  18. Tumor size: effect on monoclonal antibody uptake in tumor models

    SciTech Connect

    Hagan, P.L.; Halpern, S.E.; Dillman, R.O.; Shawler, D.L.; Johnson, D.E.; Chen, A.; Krishnan, L.; Frincke, J.; Bartholomew, R.M.; David, G.S.

    1986-03-01

    Studies were performed to determine the effect of tumor size on the incorporation of radiolabeled monoclonal antitumor antibodies (MoAbs) into human tumors growing in nude mice. The colon tumors ranged in size from 0.03-1.6 g, the melanoma from 0.1 to 6.7 g, and the lymphoma from 0.06 to 10.2 g. Indium-111 was primarily used as the radiolabel, however, both 125I and 111In were used as tracers for the MoAb in one experiment. The per g radiopharmaceutical uptake by tumors was inversely proportional to tumor size when tumor specific MoAb was administered. This finding was independent of the radiolabel and was demonstrable when the mice bore two tumors of differing size. When the MoAb was not specific for the tumor, the data were less well defined and a statistically significant correlation with size did not occur. These data are strong evidence for a decrease in per g uptake of labeled tumor specific antibodies as tumors increase in size.

  19. Wnt5a Suppresses Tumor Formation and Redirects Tumor Phenotype in MMTV-Wnt1 Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Easter, Stephanie L.; Mitchell, Elizabeth H.; Baxley, Sarah E.; Desmond, Renee; Frost, Andra R.; Serra, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Wnt5a is a non-canonical signaling Wnt that has been implicated in tumor suppression. We previously showed that loss of Wnt5a in MMTV-PyVmT tumors resulted in a switch in tumor phenotype resulting in tumors with increased basal phenotype and high Wnt/β-catenin signaling. The object of this study was to test the hypothesis that Wnt5a can act to inhibit tumors formed by activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. To this end, we characterized tumor and non-tumor mammary tissue from MMTV-Wnt1 and double transgenic MMTV-Wnt1;MMTV-Wnt5a mice. Wnt5a containing mice demonstrated fewer tumors with increased latency when compared to MMTV-Wnt1 controls. Expression of markers for basal-like tumors was down-regulated in the tumors that formed in the presence of Wnt5a indicating a phenotypic switch. Reduced canonical Wnt signaling was detected in double transgenic tumors as a decrease in active β-catenin protein and a decrease in Axin2 mRNA transcript levels. In non-tumor tissues, over-expression of Wnt5a in MMTV-Wnt1 mammary glands resulted in attenuation of phenotypes normally observed in MMTV-Wnt1 glands including hyperbranching and increased progenitor and basal cell populations. Even though Wnt5a could antagonize Wnt/β-catenin signaling in primary mammary epithelial cells in culture, reduced Wnt/β-catenin signaling was not detected in non-tumor MMTV-Wnt1;Wnt5a tissue in vivo. The data demonstrate that Wnt5a suppresses tumor formation and promotes a phenotypic shift in MMTV-Wnt1 tumors. PMID:25401739

  20. Study of Kidney Tumors in Younger Patients

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-17

    Clear Cell Sarcoma of the Kidney; Congenital Mesoblastic Nephroma; Diffuse Hyperplastic Perilobar Nephroblastomatosis; Rhabdoid Tumor of the Kidney; Stage I Renal Cell Cancer; Stage I Wilms Tumor; Stage II Renal Cell Cancer; Stage II Wilms Tumor; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage III Wilms Tumor; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IV Wilms Tumor; Stage V Wilms Tumor

  1. Como Lo Hago Yo: Mielomeningocele En Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Dabdoub, Carlos F.; Dabdoub, Carlos B.; Villavicencio, Ramiro; Quevedo, Germán

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: Las malformaciones del tubo neural (MTN) representan la segunda causa más frecuente de anomalías congénitas, luego de las cardiopatías. En este grupo se destaca el mielomeningocele (MMC) por su mayor incidencia, y por ser la más incapacitante y la más compleja entre todas las demás malformaciones del sistema nervioso c`entral (SNC). En Bolivia, como en muchos países de Sudamérica, los bajos niveles socio-culturales y la debilidad en el sistema sanitario, hacen que su incidencia y su morbilidad, sean mayores que en las naciones más desarrolladas. Material y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo y descriptivo de 70 casos de MMC, atendidos por un equipo multidisciplinario en el Hospital Universitario Japonés (HUJ) de Santa Cruz de la Sierra, entre 2008-2011. De ellos, 60 fueron intervenidos quirúrgicamente. Resultados: Se realizaron controles prenatales sólo en 27 mujeres (38.6%), diagnosticándose una disrafia espinal en apenas dos casos (7.4%). La edad de ingreso del MMC en su mayoría fue después de las 24 horas (65.6%), predominando su localización en la región lumbosacra (64.3%). De ellos, 67.2% eran abiertos, presentando un 32.9% un daño neurológico motor parcial mientras que 47.1% tenían paraplejia por debajo de la lesión. De los 70 casos, tres (4.3%) no fueron intervenidos, por presentar defectos congénitos severos o estado general grave. Las principales complicaciones posoperatorias inmediatas fueron: dehiscencia de sutura y/o infección de la herida (16.6%), fístula de líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) (10%) e infección del SNC (11.7%). La mortalidad general y postoperatoria fue de 7.1% y 3.3%, respectivamente. Al mes de vida presentaban hidrocefalia un 80% de los pacientes operados, colocándose una derivación ventriculoperitoneal (DVP) de presión media. De 9 pacientes que tuvieron un acompanamiento de dos o más años, seis presentaron una médula anclada, que fueron intervenidas quirúrgicamente. Conclusión: En esta serie, el diagnóstico prenatal del MMC fue ocasional y la derivación al HUJ de los recién nacidos con esta malformación fue generalmente tardía. No hubo predominio de género y la mayoría de los casos presentaron sus lesiones en la región lumbar y lumbosacra. La mortalidad general y postoperatoria fue similar a la reportada en la literatura. Pocos enfermos realizaron controles posteriores al alta hospitalaria. Igual que otros países de Sudamérica, las falencias en el sistema público de salud y el nivel sociocultural, son factores determinantes para un mal pronóstico en estos niños. Por sus múltiples complicaciones, el MMC requiere de una especial atención gubernamental, sobre todo de carácter preventivo mediante el uso de ácido fólico en mujeres fértiles, como también de un equipo profesional multidisciplinario, a fin de realizar un tratamiento adecuado y oportuno. Al mismo tiempo, trabajos multicéntricos en hospitales de América Latina, ayudarán al mejor manejo de estos pacientes. PMID:24791220

  2. Primary Neuroendocrine Tumor of Liver (Rare Tumor of Liver)

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Seyed Reza; Ahadi, Mahsa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: A neuroendocrine tumor has known as a neuroendocrine system tumor. Rarely, neuroendocrines have found in other areas, like the liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, kidneys, ovaries or testicles. Case Presentation: We have a 41-year-old woman has referred to our medical center, complaining of fullness and vague pain on her right upper quadrant. The liver scan, sonography, MRI demonstrated multi lobular cysts in 6th and 7 th seg-ments of her liver and chest imaging was normal, oc-terotid scan has not shwon metastatic neuroendocrine tour of liver. Conclusions: Liver could be the location of metastatic neuroendo-crine tumors, for example metastatic carcinoid tumor. Therefore, it was so important to diffrentatiate pri-mary neuroendocrine tumor from metastatic neuro-endocrine tumors. PMID:26855717

  3. Targeting thapsigargin towards tumors

    PubMed Central

    Doan, Nhu Thi Quynh; Paulsen, Eleonora Sandholdt; Sehgal, Pankaj; Møller, Jesper Vuust; Nissen, Poul; Denmeade, Samuel R.; Isaacs, John T.; Dionne, Craig A.; Christensen, Søren Brøgger

    2015-01-01

    The skin irritating principle from Thapsia garganica was isolated, named thapsigargin and the structure elucidated. By inhibiting the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) thapsigargin provokes apoptosis in almost all cells. By conjugating thapsigargin to peptides, which are only substrates for either prostate specific antigen (PSA) or prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) prodrugs were created, which selectively affect prostate cancer cells or neovascular tissue in tumors. One of the prodrug is currently tested in clinical phase II. The prodrug under clinical trial has been named mipsagargin. PMID:25065587

  4. Modeling Tumor Invasion: Effects of Native Vascularity and Tumor Metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawlinski, Edward

    2001-03-01

    A hybrid cellular automaton model is described and used to simulate early tumor growth and examine the roles of host tissue vascular density and tumor metabolism in the ability of a small number of monoclonal transformed cells to develop into an invasive tumor. The model incorporates normal cells, tumor cells, necrotic or empty space, and a random network of native microvessels as components of a cellular automaton state vector. Diffusion of glucose and lactic acid (the latter resulting from the tumor's excessive reliance on anaerobic metabolism) to and from the microvessels, and their utilization or production by cells, is modeled through the solution of differential equations. In this way, the cells and microvessels affect the extracellular concentrations of glucose and acid which, in turn, affect the rules governing the evolution of the automaton's state vector. Simulations of the model demonstrate that: (i) high tumor acid production is favorable for tumor growth and invasion, however for every acid production rate, there exists a range of optimal microvessel densities (leading to a local pH favorable to tumor but not to normal cells) for which growth and invasion is most effective, (ii) at vascular densities below this range, both tumor and normal cells die due to excessively low pH, (iii) for vascular densities above the optimal range the microvessel network is highly efficient at removing acid and therefore the tumor cells lose their advantage over normal cells gained by high local acid concentration. While significant spatial gradients of glucose formed, no regions of detrimentally poor glucose perfusion (for either cell type) were observed, regardless of microvessel density. Depending on metabolic phenotype, a variety of tumor morphologies similar to those clinically observed were realized in the simulations. Lastly, a sharp transition (analogous to that of the adenoma-carcinoma sequence) between states of initial tumor confinement and efficient invasiveness was observed when acid production reached a critical value.

  5. Role of tumor associated macrophages in tumor angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Riabov, Vladimir; Gudima, Alexandru; Wang, Nan; Mickley, Amanda; Orekhov, Alexander; Kzhyshkowska, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Tumor angiogenesis is an essential process for supplying rapidly growing malignant tissues with essential nutrients and oxygen. An angiogenic switch allows tumor cells to survive and grow, and provides them access to vasculature resulting in metastatic disease. Monocyte-derived macrophages recruited and reprogrammed by tumor cells serve as a major source of angiogenic factors boosting the angiogenic switch. Tumor endothelium releases angiopoietin-2 and further facilitates recruitment of TIE2 receptor expressing monocytes (TEM) into tumor sites. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) sense hypoxia in avascular areas of tumors, and react by production of angiogenic factors such as VEGFA. VEGFA stimulates chemotaxis of endothelial cells (EC) and macrophages. In some tumors, TAM appeared to be a major source of MMP9. Elevated expression of MMP9 by TAM mediates extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and the release of bioactive VEGFA. Other angiogenic factors released by TAM include basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), thymidine phosphorylase (TP), urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), and adrenomedullin (ADM). The same factors used by macrophages for the induction of angiogenesis [like vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and MMP9] support lymphangiogenesis. TAM can express LYVE-1, one of the established markers of lymphatic endothelium. TAM support tumor lymphangiogenesis not only by secretion of pro-lymphangiogenic factors but also by trans-differentiation into lymphatic EC. New pro-angiogenic factor YKL-40 belongs to a family of mammalian chitinase-like proteins (CLP) that act as cytokines or growth factors. Human CLP family comprises YKL-40, YKL-39, and SI-CLP. Production of all three CLP in macrophages is antagonistically regulated by cytokines. It was recently established that YKL-40 induces angiogenesis in vitro and in animal tumor models. YKL-40-neutralizing monoclonal antibody blocks tumor angiogenesis and progression. The role of YKL-39 and SI-CLP in tumor angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis remains to be investigated. PMID:24634660

  6. Multiparametric Classification Links Tumor Microenvironments with Tumor Cell Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Gligorijevic, Bojana; Bergman, Aviv; Condeelis, John

    2014-01-01

    While it has been established that a number of microenvironment components can affect the likelihood of metastasis, the link between microenvironment and tumor cell phenotypes is poorly understood. Here we have examined microenvironment control over two different tumor cell motility phenotypes required for metastasis. By high-resolution multiphoton microscopy of mammary carcinoma in mice, we detected two phenotypes of motile tumor cells, different in locomotion speed. Only slower tumor cells exhibited protrusions with molecular, morphological, and functional characteristics associated with invadopodia. Each region in the primary tumor exhibited either fast- or slow-locomotion. To understand how the tumor microenvironment controls invadopodium formation and tumor cell locomotion, we systematically analyzed components of the microenvironment previously associated with cell invasion and migration. No single microenvironmental property was able to predict the locations of tumor cell phenotypes in the tumor if used in isolation or combined linearly. To solve this, we utilized the support vector machine (SVM) algorithm to classify phenotypes in a nonlinear fashion. This approach identified conditions that promoted either motility phenotype. We then demonstrated that varying one of the conditions may change tumor cell behavior only in a context-dependent manner. In addition, to establish the link between phenotypes and cell fates, we photoconverted and monitored the fate of tumor cells in different microenvironments, finding that only tumor cells in the invadopodium-rich microenvironments degraded extracellular matrix (ECM) and disseminated. The number of invadopodia positively correlated with degradation, while the inhibiting metalloproteases eliminated degradation and lung metastasis, consistent with a direct link among invadopodia, ECM degradation, and metastasis. We have detected and characterized two phenotypes of motile tumor cells in vivo, which occurred in spatially distinct microenvironments of primary tumors. We show how machine-learning analysis can classify heterogeneous microenvironments in vivo to enable prediction of motility phenotypes and tumor cell fate. The ability to predict the locations of tumor cell behavior leading to metastasis in breast cancer models may lead towards understanding the heterogeneity of response to treatment. PMID:25386698

  7. Tumores de hipófisis—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del tumor de hipófisis, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados.

  8. Tumores extracraneales de células germinativas—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre el tratamiento del tumor extracraneal de células germinativas en los niños, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

  9. Tumores extracraneales de células germinativas—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del tumor extracraneal de células germinativas en los niños, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

  10. [Germ cell and embryonal tumors].

    PubMed

    Reith, W; Mühl-Benninghaus, R; Simgen, A; Yilmaz, U

    2014-08-01

    Germ cell tumors, which constitute approximately 3-5% of tumors of the central nervous system (CNS), can be subdivided into germinomas, embryonal carcinomas, yolk sac tumors, choriocarcinomas, teratomas and mixed germ cell tumors. The diagnosis of intracranial germ cell tumor is based on the clinical symptoms, detection of tumor markers, such as alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and the beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and spinal cord, CSF cytology and histology. The diagnosis of a secreting germ cell tumor, i.e. a non-germinoma, can be made by the determination of AFP and hCG as tumor markers. Germinomas are radiosensitive but are equally as sensitive to chemotherapy. Teratomas of the CNS are mostly diagnosed in newborns and infants. The most decisive role in the treatment of teratomas is played by as complete a resection as possible. Chemotherapy and irradiation play a subordinate role.Embryonal tumors, which constitute approximately 15-20% of CNS tumors, include medulloblastomas, primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) of the CNS and the atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor of the CNS. Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in childhood and adolescence. The incidence peak is the fifth year of life with a male predisposition in a ratio of 1.5:1. Medulloblastomas constitute 12-25% of all pediatric CNS tumors and 30-40% of pediatric tumors of the posterior cranial fossa. At the time of diagnosis evidence of dissemination in the CSF cavity is found in approximately 40% of patients. The extreme cell density makes medulloblastomas hyperdense in computed tomography (CT) and can therefore be differentiated from hypodense astrocytomas. The PNETs are histologically related to medulloblastomas, pineoblastomas, atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors and peripheral neuroblastomas. They are relatively rare in children constituting less than 5% of supratentorial neoplasms. Patients are mostly clinically conspicuous due to macrocephalus and signs of brain pressure and/or seizures. In native CT the solid components of PNETs show a hyperdensity compared to the surrounding brain parenchyma probably due to the high cell density. Cysts and calcification are often detectable. The survival rate of children with CNS tumors has continuously increased in recent years. When corresponding clinical symptoms appear, such as headache, nausea or vomiting when fasting, all of which are evidence of increased intracranial pressure, MRI should be carried out as quickly as possible. Children should be treated in centers with departments of pediatric oncology and hematology and within the framework of studies. PMID:25119569

  11. Hypoxia imaging in brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Yetkin, F Zerrin; Mendelsohn, Dianne

    2002-11-01

    Assessment of the oxygenation status of brain tumors has been studied increasingly with imaging techniques in light of recent advances in oncology. Tumor oxygen tension is a critical factor influencing the effectiveness of radiation and chemotherapy and malignant progression. Hypoxic tumors are resistant to treatment, and prognostic value of tumor oxygen status is shown in head and neck tumors. Strategies increasing the tumor oxygenation are being investigated to overcome the compromising [figure: see text] effect of hypoxia on tumor treatment. Administration of nicotinamide and inhalation of various high oxygen concentrations have been implemented. Existing methods for assessment of tissue oxygen level are either invasive or insufficient. Accurate and noninvasive means to measure tumor oxygenation are needed for treatment planning, identification of patients who might benefit from oxygenation strategies, and assessing the efficacy of interventions aimed to increase the radiosensitivity of tumors. Of the various imaging techniques used to assess tissue oxygenation, MR spectroscopy and MR imaging are widely available, noninvasive, and clinically applicable techniques. Tumor hypoxia is related closely to insufficient blood flow through chaotic and partially nonfunctional tumor vasculature and the distance between the capillaries and the tumor cells. Information on characteristics of tumor vasculature such as blood volume, perfusion, and increased capillary permeability can be provided with MR imaging. MR imaging techniques can provide a measure of capillary permeability based on contrast enhancement and relative cerebral blood volume estimates using dynamic susceptibility MR imaging. Blood oxygen level dependent contrast MR imaging using gradient echo sequence is intrinsically sensitive to changes in blood oxygen level. Animal models using blood oxygen level-dependent contrast imaging reveal the different responses of normal and tumor vasculature under hyperoxia. Normobaric hyperoxia is used in MR studies as a method to produce MR contrast in tissues. Increased T2* signal intensity of brain tissue has been observed using blood oxygen level-dependent contrast MR imaging. Dynamic blood oxygen level-dependent contrast MR imaging during hyperoxia is suggested to image tumor oxygenation. Quantification of cerebral oxygen saturation using blood oxygen level-dependent MR imaging also has been reported. Quantification of cerebral blood oxygen saturation using MR imaging has promising clinical applications; however, technical difficulties have to be resolved. Blood oxygen level dependent MR imaging is an emerging technique to evaluate the cerebral blood oxygen saturation, and it has the potential and versatility to assess oxygenation status of brain tumors. Upon improvement and validation of current MR techniques, better diagnostic, prognostic, and treatment monitoring capabilities can be provided for patients with brain tumors. PMID:12687910

  12. Imaging Tumor Necrosis with Ferumoxytol

    PubMed Central

    Aghighi, Maryam; Golovko, Daniel; Ansari, Celina; Marina, Neyssa M.; Pisani, Laura; Kurlander, Lonnie; Klenk, Christopher; Bhaumik, Srabani; Wendland, Michael; Daldrup-Link, Heike E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIO) are promising contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). USPIO mediated proton relaxation rate enhancement is strongly dependent on compartmentalization of the agent and can vary depending on their intracellular or extracellular location in the tumor microenvironment. We compared the T1- and T2-enhancement pattern of intracellular and extracellular USPIO in mouse models of cancer and pilot data from patients. A better understanding of these MR signal effects will enable non-invasive characterizations of the composition of the tumor microenvironment. Materials and Methods Six 4T1 and six MMTV-PyMT mammary tumors were grown in mice and imaged with ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI. R1 relaxation rates were calculated for different tumor types and different tumor areas and compared with histology. The transendothelial leakage rate of ferumoxytol was obtained by our measured relaxivity of ferumoxytol and compared between different tumor types, using a t-test. Additionally, 3 patients with malignant sarcomas were imaged with ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI. T1- and T2-enhancement patterns were compared with histopathology in a descriptive manner as a proof of concept for clinical translation of our observations. Results 4T1 tumors showed central areas of high signal on T1 and low signal on T2 weighted MR images, which corresponded to extracellular nanoparticles in a necrotic core on histopathology. MMTV-PyMT tumors showed little change on T1 but decreased signal on T2 weighted images, which correlated to compartmentalized nanoparticles in tumor associated macrophages. Only 4T1 tumors demonstrated significantly increased R1 relaxation rates of the tumor core compared to the tumor periphery (p<0.001). Transendothelial USPIO leakage was significantly higher for 4T1 tumors (3.40.9x10-3 mL/min/100cm3) compared to MMTV-PyMT tumors (1.00.9x10-3 mL/min/100 cm3). Likewise, ferumoxytol imaging in patients showed similar findings with high T1 signal in areas of tumor necrosis and low signal in areas of intracellularly compartmentalized iron. Conclusion Differential T1- and T2-enhancement patterns of USPIO in tumors enable conclusions about their intracellular and extracellular location. This information can be used to characterize the composition of the tumor microenvironment. PMID:26569397

  13. Ghrelin and tumors.

    PubMed

    Papotti, Mauro; Duregon, Eleonora; Volante, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Since the original discovery of ghrelin and, subsequently, obestatin (the alternative product of the ghrelin gene), a major interest has been devoted to the investigation of their central and peripheral activities in physiological conditions as well as on their role in metabolic diseases. However, several studies with different methodological approaches variably identified ghrelin and obestatin synthesis and secretion in several neoplastic conditions, including neuroendocrine and non-neuroendocrine cancers of various sites. Moreover, in vitro studies showed the capability of ghrelin to modulate tumor cell functions such as cell proliferation, apoptosis and invasiveness, although with variable and even paradoxical effects in different cell models. Interestingly, in most studies, it was demonstrated that ghrelin exerts its pro- or antineoplastic properties by means of receptors other than GHSR1a, that still need to be identified. However, the possible usefulness of the modulation of the ghrelin/obestatin axis in neoplastic conditions using either synthetic agonists or antagonists, though interesting in perspective, is still far from clinical applicability, and probably more related to the regulation of specific metabolic pathways in tumor cells, including lipid and carbohydrate use, than to the specific modulation of cell proliferation. PMID:23652398

  14. Genetics of Primary Intraocular Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Nagarkatti-Gude, Nisha; Wang, Yujuan; Ali, Mohammad Javed; Honavar, Santosh G.; Jager, Martine J.; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2012-01-01

    Primary intraocular neoplasms are tumors that originate within the eye. The most common malignant primary intraocular tumor in adults is uveal melanoma and the second is primary intraocular lymphoma or vitreoretinal (intraocular) lymphoma. The most common malignant intraocular tumor in children is retinoblastoma. Genetics plays a vital role in the diagnosis and detection of ocular tumors. In uveal melanoma, monosomy 3 is the most common genetic alteration and somatic mutations of BAP1, a tumor suppressor gene, have been reported in nearly 50% of primary uveal melanomas. The retinoblastoma gene RB1 is the prototype tumor suppressor genemutations in RB1 alleles lead to inactivated RB protein and the development of retinoblastoma. Immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) or T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement is observed in B-cell or T-cell primary vitreoretinal lymphoma, respectively. Other factors related to the genetics of these three common malignancies in the eye are discussed and reviewed. PMID:22834783

  15. The dissociation of transplantable tumors.

    PubMed

    Noel, J S; Zucker, R M; Wu, N C; Demaray, S Y

    1977-07-01

    Four animal transplantable solid tumors, composed of varying morphologic architecture and intercellular specializations, were studied by light and electron microscopy. These tumors were dissociated into viable single cell populations using a combination of mechanical and enzymatic methods. The conditions necessary for optimal dissociation consisted of (a) preparation of the tumor to maximize the tissue surface area, (b) enzymatic digestion with continuous agitation and (c) additional agitation to release loosely attached cells. Other factors that influenced the dissociation were optimized and discussed. PMID:197162

  16. Tumor suppressor and hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Juliette; Dufour, Jean-Franois

    2008-01-01

    A few signaling pathways are driving the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma. Each of these pathways possesses negative regulators. These enzymes, which normally suppress unchecked cell proliferation, are circumvented in the oncogenic process, either the over-activity of oncogenes is sufficient to annihilate the activity of tumor suppressors or tumor suppressors have been rendered ineffective. The loss of several key tumor suppressors has been described in hepatocellular carcinoma. Here, we systematically review the evidence implicating tumor suppressors in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:18350603

  17. Primary tumors of the patella.

    PubMed

    Song, Mingzhi; Zhang, Zhen; Wu, Yuxuan; Ma, Kai; Lu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The patella is an uncommon location for cancerous occurrence and development. The majority of tumors of the patella are benign, with a significant incidence of giant cell tumors and chondroblastoma. With the development of modern diagnostic technologies, there appear however many other histological types which raise challenges of diagnosis and treatment. In this article, we review the reported histological types of primary patellar tumors. Specifically, epidemiology, symptomatology, imageology, histopathology, and treatment options for these histological lesions will be discussed, respectively. As there is an increasing focus on the diagnosis and the treatment of these lesions, the availability of the integrated information about primary patellar tumors becomes more significant. PMID:25906772

  18. Therapeutic Trial for Patients With Ewing Sarcoma Family of Tumor and Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-01

    Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor; Ewing Sarcoma of Bone or Soft Tissue; Localized Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  19. Intraoperative tumor lysis syndrome in a child with Wilms' tumor

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Mridul; Prakash, Shashi; Pandey, Vaibhav; Pai, Vishal Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Tumor lysis syndrome in an onco-metabolic emergency resulting from massive lysis of rapidly proliferating malignant cells seen commonly in patients with hematological malignancies such as acute lymphocytic leukemia and Burkitt's lymphoma and is quite rare in solid tumors. Spontaneous development of tumor lysis has been described among other trigger factors such as corticosteroid therapy, anesthesia, tumor manipulation during surgery and pyrexia. We describe such a case in a 5-year-old boy posted for excision and staging of a massive Wilms' tumor who developed a hyperkalemic cardiac arrest during the procedure and its subsequent intraoperative and postoperative management. Intraoperative cardiac arrest is a stressful situation for both the anesthesiologist and the surgeon, more so when it involves a child. The aim of this report is to make the anesthesiologist aware of the possibility and occurrence of such a phenomenon in children and be adequately prepared for such an emergency. PMID:26957712

  20. Intraoperative tumor lysis syndrome in a child with Wilms' tumor.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Mridul; Prakash, Shashi; Pandey, Vaibhav; Pai, Vishal Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Tumor lysis syndrome in an onco-metabolic emergency resulting from massive lysis of rapidly proliferating malignant cells seen commonly in patients with hematological malignancies such as acute lymphocytic leukemia and Burkitt's lymphoma and is quite rare in solid tumors. Spontaneous development of tumor lysis has been described among other trigger factors such as corticosteroid therapy, anesthesia, tumor manipulation during surgery and pyrexia. We describe such a case in a 5-year-old boy posted for excision and staging of a massive Wilms' tumor who developed a hyperkalemic cardiac arrest during the procedure and its subsequent intraoperative and postoperative management. Intraoperative cardiac arrest is a stressful situation for both the anesthesiologist and the surgeon, more so when it involves a child. The aim of this report is to make the anesthesiologist aware of the possibility and occurrence of such a phenomenon in children and be adequately prepared for such an emergency. PMID:26957712

  1. Childhood Brain Tumor Epidemiology: A Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium Review

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kimberly J.; Cullen, Jennifer; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.; Ostrom, Quinn T.; Langer, Chelsea E.; Turner, Michelle C.; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Fisher, James L.; Lupo, Philip J.; Partap, Sonia; Schwartzbaum, Judith A.; Scheurer, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood brain tumors are the most common pediatric solid tumor and include several histological subtypes. Although progress has been made in improving survival rates for some subtypes, understanding of risk factors for childhood brain tumors remains limited to a few genetic syndromes and ionizing radiation to the head and neck. In this report, we review descriptive and analytical epidemiology childhood brain tumor studies from the past decade and highlight priority areas for future epidemiology investigations and methodological work that is needed to advance our understanding of childhood brain tumor causes. Specifically, we summarize the results of a review of studies published since 2004 that have analyzed incidence and survival in different international regions and that have examined potential genetic, immune system, developmental and birth characteristics, and environmental risk factors. PMID:25192704

  2. Tumor-Related Hyponatremia

    PubMed Central

    Onitilo, Adedayo A.; Kio, Ebenezer; Doi, Suhail A. R.

    2007-01-01

    Hyponatremia is an important and common electrolyte disorder in tumor patients and one that has been reported in association with a number of different primary diagnoses. The correct diagnosis of the pathophysiological basis for each patient is important because it significantly alters the treatment approach. In this article, we review the epidemiology and presentation of patients with hyponatremia, the pathophysiologic groups for the disorder with respect to sodium and water balance and the diagnostic measures for determining the correct pathophysiologic groups. We then present the various treatment options based on the pathophysiologic groups including a mathematical approach to the use of hypertonic saline in management. In cancer patients, hyponatremia is a serious comorbidity that requires particular attention as its treatment varies by pathophysiologic groups, and its consequences can have a deleterious effect on the patient’s health. PMID:18086907

  3. Cystic Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sonal; Rahim, Ahmed Mujib Bangalore; Parakkat, Nithin Kavassery; Kapoor, Shekhar; Mittal, Kumud; Sharma, Bhushan; Shivappa, Anil Bangalore

    2015-01-01

    Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor (AOT) is a well-established benign epithelial lesion of odontogenic origin. Rightfully called “the master of disguise,” this lesion has been known for its varied clinical and histoarchitectural patterns. Not only does AOT predominantly present radiologically as a unilocular cystic lesion enclosing the unerupted tooth (which is commonly mistaken as a dentigerous cyst) but the lesion also presents rarely with a cystic component histopathologically. We present one such unusual case of cystic AOT associated with an impacted canine, mimicking a dentigerous cyst. The present case aims to highlight the difference between cystic AOT and dentigerous cyst radiographically. The exact histogenesis of AOT and its variants still remains obscure. An attempt has been made to hypothesize the new school of thought regarding the origin of AOT. PMID:26579317

  4. Cathepsins mediate tumor metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Gong-Jun; Peng, Zheng-Ke; Lu, Jin-Ping; Tang, Fa-Qing

    2013-01-01

    Cathepsins are highly expressed in various human cancers, associated with tumor metastasis. It is superfamily, concluding A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, L, K, O, S, V, and W family members. As a group of lysosomal proteinases or endopeptidases, each member has a different function, playing different roles in distinct tumorigenic processes such as proliferation, angiogenesis, metastasis, and invasion. Cathepsins belong to a diverse number of enzyme subtypes, including cysteine proteases, serine proteases and aspartic proteases. The contribution of cathepsins to invasion in human cancers is well documented, although the precise mechanisms by which cathepsins exert their effects are still not clear. In the present review, the role of cathepsin family members in cancer is discussed. PMID:24340132

  5. Hyperphosphatemic tumoral calcinosis.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Saumyaranjan; Ahmad, Zohra; Gupta, Arun K; Mathur, Sandeep R

    2013-01-01

    Tumoral calcinosis (TC) is a rare locally aggressive lesion characterised by extra-articular soft tissue deposition of the calcium phosphate around large joints. The exact aetiology is not known. A 19-year-old boy presented with a painful progressive swelling around the bilateral elbow and left hip joints over a 6-month duration. Routine laboratory results showed a normal haemogram, and normal calcium and high phosphate levels. Imaging showed a soft tissue calcified mass around these joints. The cut surface of the excised mass showed myxoid material with areas of calcification. On microscopy, there were typical features of TC. Our case is being presented due to the rarity of the entity and the peculiar dual energy CT (DECT) finding which are being described for the first time in this pathology. PMID:23645700

  6. From tanks to tumors.

    PubMed

    Paul, Jeffrey L; Lupo, Jasper C

    2002-01-01

    "Tanks to Tumors" succeeded in bringing several different communities together--medical, military, academic, industrial, and engineering. They worked together in panels to determine how the United States might adopt thermal imaging diagnostic technology in an orderly and demonstrable way for the early detection of breast cancer and other conditions. The panel recommendations will serve to guide the transition of military technology developments in ATR, the VDL, and IR sensors to the civilian medical community. The result will be a new tool in the war against breast cancer--a major benefit to the military and civilian population. A CD of the workshop proceedings is available at no cost through Advanced Concepts Analysis, Falls Church, Virginia; +1 703 914 9237; e-mail: diakides@erols.com. PMID:12613208

  7. 15. Como gatehouse (outlet tower) and access bridge, looking west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Como gatehouse (outlet tower) and access bridge, looking west from dam crest (Trash rack visible in reservoir pool behind and right of tower) - Bitter Root Irrigation Project, Como Dam, West of U.S. Highway 93, Darby, Ravalli County, MT

  8. Adolescent and Pediatric Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resource Center Pediatric Caregiver Center Request a Mentor Brain Tumor Research ABTA Research Grant Funding Opportunities ABTA Grant Application ... same difficult diagnosis and turn to the American Brain Tumor Association for ... resources, research and community of patients, survivors, caregivers and health ...

  9. Living with a Brain Tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resource Center Pediatric Caregiver Center Request a Mentor Brain Tumor Research ABTA Research Grant Funding Opportunities ABTA Grant Application Portal Research Funding FAQ's Newly Awarded ABTA Research Grants Outcome Reports for Funding Ending ... for Brain Tumors 5K Run & Walk Team Breakthrough Find an ...

  10. Feminizing adrenocortical tumors: Literature review

    PubMed Central

    Chentli, Farida; Bekkaye, Ilyes; Azzoug, Said

    2015-01-01

    Feminizing adrenal tumors (FAT) are extremely rare tumors prevailing in males. Clinical manifestations are gynecomastia and/or other hypogonadism features in adults. They are rarer in pediatric population and their main manifestation is peripheral sexual precocity. In women genital bleeding, uterus hypertrophy, high blood pressure and/or abdomen mass may be the only manifestations. On the biological point, estrogen overproduction with or without increase in other adrenal hormones are the main abnormalities. Radiological examination usually shows the tumor, describes its limits and its eventual metastases. Adrenal and endocrine origins are confirmed by biochemical assessments and histology, but that one is unable to distinguish between benign and malignant tumors, except if metastases are already present. Immunostaining using anti-aromatase antibodies is the only tool that distinguishes FAT from other adrenocortical tumors. Abdominal surgery is the best and the first line treatment. For large tumors (≥10 cm), an open access is preferred to coeliosurgery, but for the small ones, or when the surgeon is experienced, endoscopic surgery seems to give excellent results. Surgery can be preceded by adrenolytic agents such as ortho paraprime dichloro diphenyl dichloroethane (Mitotane), ketoconazole or by aromatase inhibitors, but till now there is not any controlled study to compare the benefit of different drugs. New anti-estrogens can be used too, but their results need to be confirmed in malignant tumors resistant to classical chemotherapy and to conventional radiotherapy. Targeted therapy can be used too, as in other adrenocortical tumors, but the results need to be confirmed. PMID:25932386

  11. Compensatory angiogenesis and tumor refractoriness

    PubMed Central

    Gacche, R N

    2015-01-01

    Since the establishment of tumor angiogenesis as a therapeutic target, an excitement in developing the anti-angiogenic agents was resulted in tailoring a humanized monoclonal antibody (Bevacizumab) against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF): a key factor in recruiting angiogenesis. The past three decades' research in the area of angiogenesis also invented a series of novel and effective anti-angiogenic agents targeting the VEGF signaling axis. Despite the demonstrable clinical benefits of anti-angiogenic therapy, the preclinical and clinical data of the current therapeutic settings clearly indicate the transient efficacy, restoration of tumor progression and aggressive recurrence of tumor invasion after the withdrawal of anti-angiogenic therapy. Therefore, the impact of this therapeutic regime on improving overall survival of patients has been disappointing in clinic. The recent advances in pathophysiology of tumor angiogenesis and related molecular and cellular underpinnings attributed the conspiracy of compensatory angiogenic pathways in conferring evasive and intrinsic tumor resistance to anti-angiogenic agents. The understandings of how these pathways functionally cross-talk for sustaining tumor angiogenesis during VEGF blockade is essential and perhaps may act as a basic prerequisite for designing novel therapeutic strategies to combat the growing arrogance of tumors toward anti-angiogenic agents. The present review offers a discourse on major compensatory angiogenic pathways operating at cellular and molecular levels and their attributes with resistance to anti-angiogenic agents along with strategic opinions on future setting in targeting tumor angiogenesis. PMID:26029827

  12. [Recent advances in transmissible tumors].

    PubMed

    Tingting, Yin; Lu, Wang; Guodong, Wang

    2015-11-01

    Transmissible tumors are a class of tumor that can be transmitted between individuals through living cells. So far, four types of transmissible tumors including canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT),Tasmanian devil facial tumor disease (DFTD), soft-shell clams leukemia (SSCL), and hamsters reticulum cell sarcoma (HRCS)have been discovered and identified. In the last decades, these transmissible tumors have been proved to be transmitted through living cells by cytological, histological and genetic studies. CTVT, the oldest mammalian somatic cell line, and DFTD originated from Schwann cell have been reported to avoid immunological recognition by down-regulating MHC expression, while a high copy number of Steamer retrotransposon is commonly exist in SSCL. In recent years, the whole-genome sequencing of CTVT and DFTD have been completed which facilitates studies on the mechanisms of tumorigenesis, transmission and evolution of transmissible tumors at the whole-genome level. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in transmissible tumors and discuss the research focus in next decade. PMID:26582522

  13. Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC)

    Cancer.gov

    The Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium is an open scientific forum organized to foster the development of multi-center, international and inter-disciplinary collaborations that will lead to a better understanding of the etiology, outcomes, and prevention of brain tumors.

  14. Compensatory angiogenesis and tumor refractoriness.

    PubMed

    Gacche, R N

    2015-01-01

    Since the establishment of tumor angiogenesis as a therapeutic target, an excitement in developing the anti-angiogenic agents was resulted in tailoring a humanized monoclonal antibody (Bevacizumab) against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF): a key factor in recruiting angiogenesis. The past three decades' research in the area of angiogenesis also invented a series of novel and effective anti-angiogenic agents targeting the VEGF signaling axis. Despite the demonstrable clinical benefits of anti-angiogenic therapy, the preclinical and clinical data of the current therapeutic settings clearly indicate the transient efficacy, restoration of tumor progression and aggressive recurrence of tumor invasion after the withdrawal of anti-angiogenic therapy. Therefore, the impact of this therapeutic regime on improving overall survival of patients has been disappointing in clinic. The recent advances in pathophysiology of tumor angiogenesis and related molecular and cellular underpinnings attributed the conspiracy of compensatory angiogenic pathways in conferring evasive and intrinsic tumor resistance to anti-angiogenic agents. The understandings of how these pathways functionally cross-talk for sustaining tumor angiogenesis during VEGF blockade is essential and perhaps may act as a basic prerequisite for designing novel therapeutic strategies to combat the growing arrogance of tumors toward anti-angiogenic agents. The present review offers a discourse on major compensatory angiogenic pathways operating at cellular and molecular levels and their attributes with resistance to anti-angiogenic agents along with strategic opinions on future setting in targeting tumor angiogenesis. PMID:26029827

  15. [Resection of chest wall tumors].

    PubMed

    Togashi, Ken-ichi; Yamato, Yasushi; Kitahara, Tetsuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Forty-six consecutive patients with chest wall tumors undergoing resection between 1981 and 2012 were analyzed. There were 29 male and 17 female patients, with ages ranging from 15 to 77 years. Seventeen patients had primary malignant neoplasms, 22 had benign tumors, and 7 metastases. The primary malignant tumors were located in the ribs in 16 patients and sternum in one. They were resected en bloc in all patients. Reconstruction was with Gore-Tex( expanded polytetrafluoroethylene:ePTFE) in 13 patients. There was no operative death and 1 hospital death. All patients with benign tumors survived. All patients with metastases died within 3 years. Seven patients with primary malignant neoplasms without reconstruction survived, while 5 of 10 patients undergoing reconstruction died between 5 and 99 months. Aggressive resection for a chest wall tumor with reliable reconstruction can be accomplished safely, and wide resection is a potentially curative treatment. PMID:24743409

  16. The History of Tumor Virology

    PubMed Central

    Javier, Ronald T.; Butel, Janet S.

    2012-01-01

    In the century since its inception, the field of tumor virology has provided groundbreaking insights into the causes of human cancer. Peyton Rous founded this scientific field in 1911 by discovering an avian virus that induced tumors in chickens; however, it took 40 years for the scientific community to comprehend the effect of this seminal finding. Later identification of mammalian tumor viruses in the 1930s by Richard Shope and John Bittner, and in the 1950s by Ludwik Gross, sparked the first intense interest in tumor virology by suggesting the possibility of a similar causal role for viruses in human cancers. This change in attitude opened the door in the 1960s and 1970s for the discovery of the first human tumor viruses—EBV, hepatitis B virus, and the papillomaviruses. Such knowledge proved instrumental to the development of the first cancer vaccines against cancers having an infectious etiology. Tumor virologists additionally recognized that viruses could serve as powerful discovery tools, leading to revolutionary breakthroughs in the 1970s and 1980s that included the concept of the oncogene, the identification of the p53 tumor suppressor, and the function of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor. The subsequent availability of more advanced molecular technologies paved the way in the 1980s and 1990s for the identification of additional human tumor viruses—human T-cell leukemia virus type 1, hepatitis C virus, and Kaposi’s sarcoma virus. In fact, current estimates suggest that viruses are involved in 15% to 20% of human cancers worldwide. Thus, viruses not only have been shown to represent etiologic agents for many human cancers but have also served as tools to reveal mechanisms that are involved in all human malignancies. This rich history promises that tumor virology will continue to contribute to our understanding of cancer and to the development of new therapeutic and preventive measures for this disease in the 21st century. PMID:18829521

  17. Advances in understanding pituitary tumors

    PubMed Central

    Renner, Ulrich; Karl Stalla, Günter

    2014-01-01

    Pituitary tumors are common in the general population. Since neuroimaging techniques have improved, pituitary tumors are more often diagnosed incidentally. About 16.7% of the general population show changes in the pituitary gland. Predominantly, pituitary tumors are benign pituitary adenomas. Pituitary carcinomas or aggressive pituitary tumors are extremely rare. They might develop from benign adenomas. New genetic and epigenetic abnormalities help us to understand pituitary tumorigenesis and might lead to therapeutical targeting drugs in the future. Macroadenomas (>1 cm) can lead to visual field disturbances, compression of cranial nerves, hypopituitarism, and infiltration of the cavernous sinuses. The functional status of the pituitary tumor is important. About half to one third of all pituitary tumors are non-functioning pituitary adenomas. The other pituitary tumors show a specific pattern of hormone secretion. About 25% to 41% of all pituitary tumors are prolactinomas, acromegaly with production of growth hormone represents 10% to 15% of adenomas, Cushing's disease with production of adrenocorticotropic hormone accounts for 10%, and other hormonal characteristics are less common. Transsphenoidal resection and total adenomectomy are desirable. Radiosurgery has enriched the surgical treatment options. Surgical treatment is the intervention of choice except for prolactinomas, where pharmaceutical treatment is recommended. Pharmaceutical treatment consists of dopamine agonists such as cabergoline and somatostatin analogues that include octreotide and pasireotide; retinoic acid is of theoretical interest while peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma-ligands are not clinically useful. In acromegaly, pegvisomant is a further treatment option. Temozolomide should be considered in aggressive pituitary tumors. In general, pharmaceutical options developed recently have extended the repertoire of treatment possibilities of pituitary tumors. PMID:24592317

  18. Tumor-to-tumor metastasis: pathology and neuroimaging considerations

    PubMed Central

    Moody, Patricia; Murtagh, Kevin; Piduru, Sarat; Brem, Steven; Murtagh, Reed; Rojiani, Amyn M

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of tumor-to-tumor metastasis has been reported in the literature for over a century. However, it remains fairly uncommon, with fewer than 100 cases being described during that time. Virtually any benign or malignant tumor can be a recipient, but meningiomas have been implicated as the most common intracranial neoplasm to harbor metastasis. The donor neoplasm is most frequently lung or breast carcinoma, while rare cases of metastasis from other primary tumors have been reported. We report here three examples of such rare metastases. This case series reports the first documented instance involving rectal adenocarcinoma. In addition, we report two cases of metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma to a meningioma; to date of which only three cases have been published. The terms “tumor-to-tumor metastasis” and “collision tumor” are addressed, as are details of the pathology. The limitations of standard radiological imaging techniques, such as standard CT and MR, which cannot reliably identify the presence of metastasis within a meningioma are compared with physiology-based neuroimaging methods, such as perfusion MR and MR spectroscopy, which may be more useful in noninvasively differentiating tumor histology. PMID:22670183

  19. Regorafenib in Treating Patients With Advanced or Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-29

    Gastrinoma; Glucagonoma; Insulinoma; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Pulmonary Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma; Somatostatinoma

  20. Cushing syndrome due to adrenal tumor

    MedlinePlus

    Adrenal tumor - Cushing syndrome ... Cushing syndrome is a disorder that occurs when your body has a higher than normal level of the ... or cancerous (malignant). Noncancerous tumors that can cause ... Adrenal adenomas Micronodular hyperplasia Cancerous tumors that ...

  1. What Happens After Treatment for Pituitary Tumors?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tumors? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Pituitary Tumors Talking With Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Pituitary Tumors Research? Other Resources ...

  2. Spontaneous Tumor Lysis Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kimple, Michelle E.

    2015-01-01

    Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a known complication of malignancy and its treatment. The incidence varies on malignancy type, but is most common with hematologic neoplasms during cytotoxic treatment. Spontaneous TLS is thought to be rare. This case study is of a 62-year-old female admitted with multisystem organ failure, with subsequent diagnosis of aggressive B cell lymphoma. On admission, laboratory abnormalities included renal failure, elevated uric acid (20.7 mg/dL), and 3+ amorphous urates on urinalysis. Oliguric renal failure persisted despite aggressive hydration and diuretic use, requiring initiation of hemodialysis prior to chemotherapy. Antihyperuricemic therapy and hemodialysis were used to resolve hyperuricemia. However, due to multisystem organ dysfunction syndrome with extremely poor prognosis, the patient ultimately expired in the setting of a terminal ventilator wean. Although our patient did not meet current TLS criteria, she required hemodialysis due to uric acid nephropathy, a complication of TLS. This poses the clinical question of whether adequate diagnostic criteria exist for spontaneous TLS and if the lack of currently accepted guidelines has resulted in the underestimation of its incidence. Allopurinol and rasburicase are commonly used for prevention and treatment of TLS. Although both drugs decrease uric acid levels, allopurinol mechanistically prevents formation of the substrate rasburicase acts to solubilize. These drugs were administered together in our patient, although no established guidelines recommend combined use. This raises the clinical question of whether combined therapy is truly beneficial or, conversely, detrimental to patient outcomes. PMID:26904699

  3. Laser therapy in ocular tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carstocea, Benone D.; Gafencu, Otilia L.; Apostol, Silvia; Ionita, Marcel A.; Moroseanu, A.; Dascalu, Traian; Lupei, Voicu; Ionita-Manzatu, V.

    1998-07-01

    The medical laser equipments made at NILPRP have been exploited intensively for more than 10 years at CMH. The availability and reliability of the first like-on equipment have increased, following improvements in optical delivery system and cooling circuit. This paper shows the impact of technical advances on the development of ophthalmologic laser therapy. Intraocular tumors pose special problems of diagnosis and treatment. Diagnostic methods include addition to systemic and ophthalmologic examinations, ancillary examinations, such as transillumination, fluorescence angiography, ultrasonography, radioactive phosphorus uptake tests, radiology, computerized tomography and fine-needle aspiration biopsy with cytological analyses. The enucleation of the involved eye used to be a generally accepted management of malignant tumors. Improved therapeutic methods such as photocoagulation and better surgical techniques now provide a variety of therapeutic alternatives. This study covers 31 cases of intraocular tumors that were managed either by Argon Laser photocoagulation and/or by Nd:YAG laser surgical treatment. Four cases were intraocular metastasse and 17 cases were primitive intraocular tumors. Argon laser therapy proved to be totally ineffective for intraocular metastasse but very adequate therapy for primitive tumors. Tumor extirpations (choroidal, cillary body or iris tumors) using Nd:YAG laser lancet proved to be more suitable than classic surgery.

  4. Ovarian tumors of the hen.

    PubMed Central

    Fredrickson, T N

    1987-01-01

    Present available information regarding ovarian tumors in hens is incomplete in most aspects, and this lack of knowledge hampers use of hens as models for study of ovarian cancer. A study of 466 hens ranging from 2 to 7 years of age and covering a period of more than 3 years has provided much needed information relative to reproductive tract neoplasia. On the basis of this study, it is apparent that hens have a high rate of ovarian tumors, but that such tumors are uncommon in hens less than 2 years of age. Adenocarcinomas with a high degree of morphologic variability are the most common ovarian tumors in hens. Hormonal imbalance does not appear to be a factor in the development of these adenocarcinomas. Steroidogenic and morphologically distinctive granulosa cell tumors originating from follicles in atrophic ovaries represent another common ovarian tumor type. Unique to the hen are oviductal adenocarcinomas. These tumors arise from the albumin-secreting glands of the oviduct, occur with relatively high frequency, and must be differentiated from ovarian adenocarcinomas. Images PLATE 1. PLATE 2. PLATE 3. PLATE 4. PLATE 5. PLATE 6. PLATE 7. PLATE 8. PLATE 9. PLATE 10. PLATE 11. PLATE 12. PLATE 13. PLATE 14. PLATE 15. PLATE 16. PLATE 17. PLATE 18. PLATE 19. PLATE 20. PLATE 21. PLATE 22. PLATE 23. PLATE 24. PLATE 25. PMID:3665870

  5. Tumor Targeting via Integrin Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Marelli, Udaya Kiran; Rechenmacher, Florian; Sobahi, Tariq Rashad Ali; Mas-Moruno, Carlos; Kessler, Horst

    2013-01-01

    Selective and targeted delivery of drugs to tumors is a major challenge for an effective cancer therapy and also to overcome the side-effects associated with current treatments. Overexpression of various receptors on tumor cells is a characteristic structural and biochemical aspect of tumors and distinguishes them from physiologically normal cells. This abnormal feature is therefore suitable for selectively directing anticancer molecules to tumors by using ligands that can preferentially recognize such receptors. Several subtypes of integrin receptors that are crucial for cell adhesion, cell signaling, cell viability, and motility have been shown to have an upregulated expression on cancer cells. Thus, ligands that recognize specific integrin subtypes represent excellent candidates to be conjugated to drugs or drug carrier systems and be targeted to tumors. In this regard, integrins recognizing the RGD cell adhesive sequence have been extensively targeted for tumor-specific drug delivery. Here we review key recent examples on the presentation of RGD-based integrin ligands by means of distinct drug-delivery systems, and discuss the prospects of such therapies to specifically target tumor cells. PMID:24010121

  6. Phyllodes tumor of the breast

    PubMed Central

    Herazo, Fernando; Gil, Monica; Echeverri, Carolina; Ángel, Gonzalo; Borrero, Mauricio; Madrid, Jorge; Jaramillo, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Breast Phyllodes tumors are rare breast tumors present in less than 1% of new cases of breast cancer, usually occurring among middle-aged women (40-50 yrs). Objective: This study shows diagnostic experience, surgical management and follows up of patients with this disease during a period of ten years in a oncology referral center. Methods: Retrospectively, breast cancer registries at the institution were reviewed, identifying 77 patients with Phyllodes tumors between 2002 and 2012, who had been operated on at the Instituto de Cancerología - Clínica Las Américas, in Medellín (Colombia). Clinical and histopathological data belonging to these cases was captured and analyzed and descriptive statistics were used. Results: The follow up median was 22.5 months (IQR: 10.5-60.0), average age was 47.2 yrs (SD: 12.4), mean tumor size was 3.6 cm (SD: 4.6), 88.3% of the patients (68 cases) presented negative margins and none of them received adjuvant chemotherapy. Of the patients with Phyllodes tumors; 33.8% had benign, 31.2% had borderline and 35.0% had malignant tumor. Disease-free survival was 85.8% and overall survival was 94.5%. Discussion: Reported data in this article is in accordance with what has been reported in worldwide literature. In our cohort even the high mean size of the tumors, the risk of local relapse and metastatic disease is low than previously reported in literature. Trials with longer follow up and molecular trials in Phyllodes tumors are necessary to understand the behavior of these tumors in Hispanics population. PMID:26600624

  7. Therapeutic modalities for Pancoast tumors

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaos, Panagopoulos; Vasilios, Livaditis; Efstratios, Koletsis; Panagiotis, Alexopoulos; Christos, Prokakis; Nikolaos, Baltayiannis; Antonios, Hatzimichalis; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Tsiouda, Theodora; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Madesis, Athanasios; Vretzakis, Georgios; Kolettas, Alexandros; Dimitrios, Dougenis

    2014-01-01

    A Pancoast tumor, also called a pulmonary sulcus tumor or superior sulcus tumor, is a tumor of the pulmonary apex. It is a type of lung cancer defined primarily by its location situated at the top end of either the right or left lung. It typically spreads to nearby tissues such as the ribs and vertebrae. Most Pancoast tumors are non-small cell cancers. The growing tumor can cause compression of a brachiocephalic vein, subclavian artery, phrenic nerve, recurrent laryngeal nerve, vagus nerve, or, characteristically, compression of a sympathetic ganglion resulting in a range of symptoms known as Horner’s syndrome. Pancoast tumors are named for Henry Pancoast, a US radiologist, who described them in 1924 and 1932.The treatment of a Pancoast lung cancer may differ from that of other types of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Its position and close proximity to vital structures may make surgery difficult. As a result, and depending on the stage of the cancer, treatment may involve radiation and chemotherapy given prior to surgery. Surgery may consist of the removal of the upper lobe of a lung together with its associated structures as well as mediastinal lymphadenectomy. Surgical access may be via thoracotomy from the back or the front of the chest and modification. Careful patient selection, improvements in imaging such as the role of PET-CT in restaging of tumors, radiotherapy and surgical advances, the management of previously inoperable lesions by a combined experienced thoracic-neurosurgical team and prompt recognition and therapy of postoperative complications has greatly increased local control and overall survival for patients with these tumors. PMID:24672693

  8. Tumor growth modeling based on cell and tumor lifespans.

    PubMed

    Keinj, R; Bastogne, T; Vallois, P

    2012-11-01

    This paper deals with the lifespan modeling of heterogenous tumors treated by radiotherapy. A bi-scale model describing the cell and tumor lifespans by random variables is proposed. First- and second-order moments as well as the cumulative distribution functions and confidence intervals are expressed for the two lifespans with respect to the model parameters. One interesting result is that the mean value of the tumor lifespan can be approached by a logarithmic function of the initial cancer cell number. Moreover, we show that TCP and NTCP, used in radiotherapy to evaluate, optimize and compare treatment plans, can be derived from the tumor lifespan and the surrounding healthy tissue, respectively. Finally, we propose a ROC curve, entitled ECT (Efficiency-Complication Trade-off), suited to the selection by clinicians of the appropriate treatment planning. PMID:22820494

  9. Concepts in solid tumor evolution

    PubMed Central

    Sidow, Arend; Spies, Noah

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary mechanisms in cancer progression give tumors their individuality. Cancer evolution is different from organismal evolution, however, and here we discuss where concepts from evolutionary genetics are useful or limited in facilitating an understanding of cancer. Based on these concepts we construct and apply the simplest plausible model of tumor growth and progression. Simulations using this simple model illustrate the importance of stochastic events early in tumorigenesis, highlight the dominance of exponential growth over linear growth and differentiation, and explain the clonal substructure of tumors. PMID:25733351

  10. Crown Gall Tumor Disc Bioassay

    PubMed Central

    Galsky, Alan G.; Wilsey, James P.; Powell, Richard G.

    1980-01-01

    Seventeen samples consisting of purified compounds and various ethanol extracts from plant sources were tested for activity on the initiation of crown gall tumors on potato discs. The results demonstrated definite correlation between the ability of these samples to inhibit the formation of crown gall tumors and their activity on the P388 leukemia system in mice. Samples showing only cytotoxic effects in KB cell cultures did not affect tumor initiation in our system. The active materials had no effects on bacterial viability or on the ability of the bacteria to attach to a tumorbinding site. PMID:16661157

  11. Brain tumors in irradiated monkeys.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haymaker, W.; Miquel, J.; Rubinstein, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    A study was made of 32 monkeys which survived one to seven years after total body exposure to protons or to high-energy X rays. Among these 32 monkeys there were 21 which survived two years or longer after exposure to 200 to 800 rad. Glioblastoma multiforme developed in 3 of the 10 monkeys surviving three to five years after receiving 600 or 800 rad 55-MeV protons. Thus, the incidence of tumor development in the present series was far higher than the incidence of spontaneously developing brain tumors in monkeys cited in the literature. This suggests that the tumors in the present series may have been radiation-induced.

  12. A collision tumor of esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Bin; Guan, Shanghui; Huang, Xiaochen; Su, Peng; Song, Qingxu; Cheng, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    The collision tumor is defined by Meyer as that arisen from the accidental meeting and eventual intermingling of two independent neoplasms, which is quite rare. Most of them occur in the junction of different epithelial types of tissue such as oral cavity, esophagogastric junction, anorectaljunction and cervix, while collision tumors occurring in the liver, gallbladder, pancreatic, urinary bladder also have been reported. Here we present a case of 55-year-old Chinese man diagnosed as a collision tumor composed of leiomyosarcoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) in the lower third part of esophagus with 6 years survival after surgery and radiotherapy. PMID:26823858

  13. Histopathology of gastrointestinal stromal tumor.

    PubMed

    Miettinen, Markku; Lasota, Jerzy

    2011-12-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), generally driven by oncogenic KIT or PDGFRA mutations, is the most common mesenchymal tumor of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. GIST is most common in the stomach (60%) and small intestine (30%), but can occur anywhere in the GI-tract and the intra-abdominal soft tissues. GIST can show spindle cell or epithelioid morphology, and mitotic count and tumor size are most important prognostic parameters. GISTs in NF1 patients and children are distinctive clinicopathologic groups. Immunohistochemical testing for KIT and sometimes for DOG1/Ano 1 is essential in confirming the diagnosis. PMID:22069171

  14. Differentiated thyroid tumors: surgical indications

    PubMed Central

    LUCCHINI, R.; MONACELLI, M.; SANTOPRETE, S.; TRIOLA, R.; CONTI, C.; PECORIELLO, R.; FAVORITI, P.; DI PATRIZI, M.S.; BARILLARO, I.; BOCCOLINI, A.; AVENIA, S.; D’AJELLO, M.; SANGUINETTI, A.; AVENIA, N.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Thyroid gland tumors represent 1% of malignant tumors. In Italy their incidence is in constant growth. The aggressiveness depends on the histological type. The relative non-aggressive grade of different forms of tumors is the basis for discussing the treatment of choice: total thyroidectomy vs lobectomy with or without lymphadenectomy of the sixth level in the absence of metastasis. Authors report about their experience, and they advocate, given the high percentage of multicentric forms, total thyroidectomy as treatment of choice. PMID:23837952

  15. Adult Pleomorphic Juxtaglomerular Cell Tumor.

    PubMed

    Soni, Abha; Gordetsky, Jennifer B

    2016-01-01

    A 40-year-old male with chronic hypertension since his teens presented to the emergency department following a motor vehicle collision. Computed tomography scan demonstrated an incidental 1.8-cm renal mass. Partial nephrectomy revealed a vascular tumor with predominantly monomorphic epithelioid cells arranged in sheets and trabeculae with foci of nuclear pleomorphism. Tumor cells were positive for vimentin, CD34, and c-KIT. Juxtaglomerular cell tumor is a rare, benign neoplasm typically found in young adults. Pleomorphism is uncommon and, in combination with older age at diagnosis, can lead to an inaccurate malignant diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry and clinical history helps in correctly diagnosing this benign entity. PMID:26435458

  16. Translationally controlled tumor protein is a target of tumor reversion.

    PubMed

    Tuynder, Marcel; Fiucci, Giusy; Prieur, Sylvie; Lespagnol, Alexandra; Gant, Anne; Beaucourt, Sverine; Duflaut, Dominique; Besse, Stphanie; Susini, Laurent; Cavarelli, Jean; Moras, Dino; Amson, Robert; Telerman, Adam

    2004-10-26

    By analyzing the gene expression profile between tumor cells and revertant counterparts that have a suppressed malignant phenotype, we previously reported a significant down-regulation of translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) in the revertants. In the present study, we derived, by using the H1 parvovirus as a selective agent, revertants from three major solid cancers: colon, lung, and melanoma cell lines. These cells have a strongly suppressed malignant phenotype both in vitro and in vivo. The level of TCTP is decreased in most of the revertants. To verify whether inhibition of TCTP expression induces changes in the malignant phenotype, in the classical, well established model of "flat reversion," v-src-transformed NIH3T3 cells were transfected with antisense TCTP. By inhibiting the expression of TCTP, the number of revertant cells was raised to 30%, instead of the reported rate for spontaneous flat revertants of 10(-6). Because TCTP encodes for a histamine-releasing factor, we tested the hypothesis that inhibitors of the histaminic pathway could be effective against tumor cells. We show that some antihistaminic compounds (hydroxyzine and promethazine) and other pharmacological compounds with a related structure (including thioridazine and sertraline) kill tumor cells and significantly decrease the level of TCTP. All together, these data suggest that, with tumor reversion used as a working model, TCTP was identified as a target and drugs were selected that decrease its expression and kill tumor cells. PMID:15489264

  17. BCCIP Suppresses Tumor Initiation but is Required for Tumor Progression

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yi-Yuan; Dai, Li; Gaines, Dakim; Droz-Rosario, Roberto; Lu, Huimei; Liu, Jingmei; Shen, Zhiyuan

    2013-01-01

    Dysfunctions of genome caretaker genes contribute to genomic instability and tumor initiation. Because many of the caretaker genes are also essential for cell viability, permanent loss of function of these genes would prohibit further tumor progression. How essential caretaker genes contribute to tumorigenesis is not fully understood. Here, we report a hit-and-run mode of action for an essential caretaker gene in tumorigenesis. Using a BRCA2-interacting protein BCCIP as a platform, we found that a conditional BCCIP knockdown and concomitant p53 deletion caused rapid development of medulloblastomas, which bear a wide spectrum of alternations involving the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway, consistent with a caretaker responsibility of BCCIP on genomic integrity. Surprisingly, the progressed tumors have spontaneously lost the transgenic BCCIP knockdown cassette and restored BCCIP expression. Thus, a transient down-regulation of BCCIP, but not necessarily a permanent mutation, is sufficient to initiate tumorigenesis. Once the malignant transformation has been accomplished and autonomous cancer growth has been established, BCCIP reverses its role from a tumor initiation suppressor to become a requisite for progression. This exemplifies a new type of tumor suppressor, which is distinct from the classical tumor suppressors that are often permanently abrogated during tumorigenesis. It has major implications on how a non-mutagenic or transient regulation of essential caretaker gene contributes to tumorigenesis. We further suggest that BCCIP represents a paradoxical class of modulators for tumorigenesis, as a Suppressor for Initiation but a Requisite for Progression (SIRP). PMID:24145349

  18. Macrophages in Tumor Microenvironments and the Progression of Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Ning-Bo; Lü, Mu-Han; Fan, Ya-Han; Cao, Ya-Ling; Zhang, Zhi-Ren; Yang, Shi-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Macrophages are widely distributed innate immune cells that play indispensable roles in the innate and adaptive immune response to pathogens and in-tissue homeostasis. Macrophages can be activated by a variety of stimuli and polarized to functionally different phenotypes. Two distinct subsets of macrophages have been proposed, including classically activated (M1) and alternatively activated (M2) macrophages. M1 macrophages express a series of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and effector molecules, such as IL-12, IL-23, TNF-α, iNOS and MHCI/II. In contrast, M2 macrophages express a wide array of anti-inflammatory molecules, such as IL-10, TGF-β, and arginase1. In most tumors, the infiltrated macrophages are considered to be of the M2 phenotype, which provides an immunosuppressive microenvironment for tumor growth. Furthermore, tumor-associated macrophages secrete many cytokines, chemokines, and proteases, which promote tumor angiogenesis, growth, metastasis, and immunosuppression. Recently, it was also found that tumor-associated macrophages interact with cancer stem cells. This interaction leads to tumorigenesis, metastasis, and drug resistance. So mediating macrophage to resist tumors is considered to be potential therapy. PMID:22778768

  19. renal tumors and tumor-like lesions in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Kissane, J M; Dehner, L P

    1992-07-01

    Renal enlargement presenting as an abdominal mass(es) is attended by a lengthly differential diagnosis of non-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions with a range in serious connotations and consequences. Simple compensatory hypertrophy and unilateral multicystic dysplasia are relatively innocuous and easily recognized with appropriate imaging studies; they are also related in the sense that the normal contralateral kidney hypertrophies in the absence of a non-functioning dysplastic kidney. Bilateral nephromegaly in a neonate is generally a sign of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease or multicystic dysplasia secondary to distal obstructive uropathy. Primary neoplasms of kidney in the pediatric population in the past were traditionally classified as Wilms' tumors, but that erroneous practice has been eliminated with the recognition of several distinctive neoplasms in addition to classic Wilms' tumor. Separating a typical Wilms' tumor from mesoblastic nephroma, clear cell sarcoma of the kidney and the malignant rhabdoid tumor, for treatment and prognostic purposes, has become the accepted norm in the past 12-13 years. Another important advance at the cellular level is the recognition of a deletion in the short arm of chromosome 11 in the cultured cells of Wilms' tumor and in the germ cell line in certain clinical settings of Wilms' tumors. A dramatic expansion in the understanding and management of childhood renal neoplasms has occurred through the multimodality approach of laboratory investigation and applied clinical research. PMID:1323320

  20. Peri-tumoral leakage during intra-tumoral convection-enhanced delivery has implications for efficacy of peri-tumoral infusion before removal of tumor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoliang; Saito, Ryuta; Nakamura, Taigen; Zhang, Rong; Sonoda, Yukihiko; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Forsayeth, John; Bankiewicz, Krystof; Tominaga, Teiji

    2016-03-01

    In cases of malignant brain tumors, infiltrating tumor cells that exist at the tumor-surrounding brain tissue always escape from cytoreductive surgery and, protected by blood-brain barrier (BBB), survive the adjuvant chemoradiotherapy, eventually leading to tumor recurrence. Local interstitial delivery of chemotherapeutic agents is a promising strategy to target these cells. During our effort to develop effective drug delivery methods by intra-tumoral infusion of chemotherapeutic agents, we found consistent pattern of leakage from the tumor. Here we describe our findings and propose promising strategy to cover the brain tissue surrounding the tumor with therapeutic agents by means of convection-enhanced delivery. First, the intracranial tumor isograft model was used to define patterns of leakage from tumor mass after intra-tumoral infusion of the chemotherapeutic agents. Liposomal doxorubicin, although first distributed inside the tumor, distributed diffusely into the surrounding normal brain once the leakage happen. Trypan blue dye was used to evaluate the distribution pattern of peri-tumoral infusions. When infused intra- or peri-tumorally, infusates distributed robustly into the tumor border. Subsequently, volume of distributions with different infusion scheduling; including intra-tumoral infusion, peri-tumoral infusion after tumor resection, peri-tumoral infusion without tumor removal with or without systemic infusion of steroids, were compared with Evans-blue dye. Peri-tumoral infusion without tumor removal resulted in maximum volume of distribution. Prior use of steroids further increased the volume of distribution. Local interstitial drug delivery targeting tumor surrounding brain tissue before tumor removal should be more effective when targeting the invading cells. PMID:24865286

  1. Renal tumor ablation.

    PubMed

    Georgiades, Christos; Rodriguez, Ronald

    2013-12-01

    Percutaneous, image-guided ablation for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is an important treatment option for many patients. With more than 60,000 new cases every year and nearly three-fourths of those presenting as stage 1A, minimally invasive, nephron-sparing therapies have become the standard of care. Stage 1 A (<4cm, organ confined) disease presents the best scenario for percutaneous ablation. Various other factors influence the decision-making tree, such as patient age, life expectancy, comorbid condition, renal function, and the risk of metachronous lesions. Preparation aims at minimizing risks and has been discussed in detail. Computed tomography guidance remains the best option, and conscious sedation is adequate for most cases. Ultrasound and more recently magnetic resonance guidance are becoming viable alternatives. Whether radiofrequency or cryoablation are chosen, a margin of at least 5mm and up to 10mm is recommended. Various maneuvers required for optimum outcome, including hydrodissection and preoperative embolization are also discussed. Most renal ablations can be performed on an outpatient basis. Reasons to admit include complications, high-risk patients, and the need for symptom management. Follow-up aims at (1) ensuring complete ablation and (2) monitoring against a metachronous lesion. For the former, a 3-month contrast computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging is required and for the latter an annual examination is recommended. Though partial nephrectomy remains the gold standard, image-guided, percutaneous ablation for RCC can result in very similar outcomes. Over the last 10 years, there have been numerous studies reporting the efficacy and safety of ablation, and more recently, long-term studies have confirmed those numbers. Overall, the efficacy for percutaneous ablation for RCC stands at 90%-95% with a complication rate of 6%-7%. The most important factors for positive outcome are patient or tumor selection and operator experience. PMID:24238378

  2. Benign ear cyst or tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... tumors of the sinonasal tract. In: Cummings CW, Flint PW, Haughey BH, et al, eds. Otolaryngology: Head & ... temporal bone and skull base. In: Cummings CW, Flint PW, Haughey BH, et al, eds. Otolaryngology: Head & ...

  3. Drug Delivery to Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Blakeley, Jaishri

    2014-01-01

    A prerequisite for the efficacy of any cancer drug is that it reaches the tumor in therapeutic concentrations. This is difficult to accomplish in most systemic solid tumors because of factors such as variable hypoxia, intratumoral pressure gradients, and abnormal vasculature within the tumors. In brain cancer, the situation is complicated by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier, which serve as physical and physiologic obstacles for delivery of drugs to the central nervous sys tem. Many approaches to overcome, circumvent, disrupt, or manipulate the BBB to enhance delivery of drugs to brain tumors have been devised and are in active investi gation. These approaches include high-dose intravenous chemotherapy, intra-arterial drug delivery, local drug delivery via implanted polymers or catheters, BBB dis ruption, and biochemical modulation of drugs. PMID:18541119

  4. Brain tumor survivors speak out.

    PubMed

    Carlson-Green, Bonnie

    2009-01-01

    Although progress has been made in the treatment of childhood brain tumors,work remains to understand the complexities of disease, treatment, and contextual factors that underlie individual differences in outcome. A combination of both an idiographic approach (incorporating observations made by adult survivors of childhood brain tumors) and a nomothetic approach (reviewing the literature for brain tumor survivors as well as childhood cancer survivors) is presented. Six areas of concern are reviewed from both an idiographic and nomothetic perspective, including social/emotional adjustment, insurance, neurocognitive late effects, sexuality and relationships, employment, and where survivors accessed information about their disease and treatment and possible late effects. Guidelines to assist health care professionals working with childhood brain tumor survivors are offered with the goal of improving psychosocial and neurocognitive outcomes in this population. PMID:19837957

  5. Gallium-positive tumor thrombus

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    A case is presented in which both a clear cell renal tumor and its accurate intravenous propagation were preoperatively depicted by combined information from tomographic gallium imaging and CT scanning.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: desmoid tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... in my area? Other Names for This Condition aggressive fibromatosis deep fibromatosis desmoid fibromatosis familial infiltrative fibromatosis ... catenin protein and somatic APC mutations in sporadic aggressive fibromatoses (desmoid tumors). Am J Pathol. 1997 Aug; ...

  7. Drugs Approved for Wilms Tumor

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for Wilms tumor and other childhood kidney cancers. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  8. Cytogenetics of human brain tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Finkernagel, S.W.; Kletz, T.; Day-Salvatore, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    Chromosome studies of 55 brain tumors, including meningiomas, gliomas, astrocyomas and pituatary adenomas, were performed. Primary and first passage cultures were successfully obtained in 75% of these samples with an average of 18 G-banded metaphases analyzed per tumor. 44% of all the brain tumors showed numerical and or structural abnormalities. 46% of the primary and 38% of the first passage cultures showed similar numerical gains/losses and complex karyotypic changes. The most frequent numerical abnormalities (n {ge} 5) included loss of chromosomes 10, 22, and Y. The structural abnormalities most often seen involved 1p, 2, 5, 7, 17q and 19. This is an ongoing study which will attempt to correlate tumor type with specific karyotypic changes and to see if any of the observed chromosomal abnormalities provide prognostic indicators.

  9. Radiation therapy for brain tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Wara, W.M.

    1985-05-01

    Results of radiation therapy obtained at the University of California, San Francisco over the last 25 years for various adult types of brain tumors are presented. Included are astrocytomas, ependymomas, pineal and suprasellar tumors, meningiomas, and malignant gliomas. For each tumor type considered, the disease-free survival rate appeared to be improved when subtotal resection was followed by irradiation. The lack of improvement in survival with malignant gliomas has prompted investigation into more aggressive multimodality therapies. These are discussed along with a new program using high-activity iodine 125 sources to deliver high-dose radiotherapy to malignant gliomas. It is possible that this new approach will lead to improved survival rates and be applicable to many tumors within the central nervous system.

  10. Beet Tumor or Crown Wart

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beet tumor or crown wart has been reported from most beet growing areas, but is not considered an economic problem. This chapter describes the disease and the chytrid pathogen, Physoderma leproides....

  11. Infantile pericardial round cell tumor

    PubMed Central

    Sridevi, KH; Awasthy, Neeraj; Singh, Virender; Rana, Seema; Sharma, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac malignancies presenting in infancy are rare. Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare occurrence in this age group. No case of intrapericardial DSRCT has been reported in the literature in infants. PMID:26085774

  12. Markers of bile duct tumors

    PubMed Central

    Malaguarnera, Giulia; Giordano, Maria; Paladina, Isabella; Rando, Alessandra; Uccello, Mario; Basile, Francesco; Biondi, Antonio; Carnazzo, Santo; Alessandria, Innocenza; Mazzarino, Clorinda

    2011-01-01

    Biliary tract carcinomas are relatively rare, representing less than 1% of cancers. However, their incidence has increased in Japan and in industrialized countries like the USA. Biliary tract tumors have a poor prognosis and a high mortality rate because they are usually detected late in the course of the disease; therapeutic treatment options are often limited and of minimal utility. Recent studies have shown the importance of serum and molecular markers in the diagnosis and follow up of biliary tract tumors. This review aims to introduce the main features of the most important serum and molecular markers of biliary tree tumors. Some considerable tumor markers are cancer antigen 125, carbohydrate antigen 19-9, carcinoembryonic antigen, chromogranin A, mucin 1, mucin 5, alpha-fetoprotein, claudins and cytokeratins. PMID:21528090

  13. Dendrimer technologies for brain tumor.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Vijay; Kesharwani, Prashant

    2016-05-01

    Despite low prevalence, brain tumors are one of the most lethal forms of cancer. Unfortunately the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a highly regulated, well coordinated and efficient barrier, checks the permeation of most of the drugs across it. Hence, crossing this barrier is one of the most significant challenges in the development of efficient central nervous system therapeutics. Surface-engineered dendrimers improve biocompatibility, drug-release kinetics and aptitude to target the BBB and/or tumors and facilitate transportation of anticancer bioactives across the BBB. This review sheds light on different aspects of brain tumors and dendrimers based on different approaches for treatment including recent research, opportunities and challenges encountered in development of novel and efficient dendrimer-based therapeutics for the treatment of brain tumors. PMID:26891979

  14. Tumor Acidity as Evolutionary Spite

    PubMed Central

    Alfarouk, Khalid O.; Muddathir, Abdel Khalig; Shayoub, Mohammed E. A.

    2011-01-01

    Most cancer cells shift their metabolic pathway from a metabolism reflecting the Pasteur-effect into one reflecting the Warburg-effect. This shift creates an acidic microenvironment around the tumor and becomes the driving force for a positive carcinogenesis feedback loop. As a consequence of tumor acidity, the tumor microenvironment encourages a selection of certain cell phenotypes that are able to survive in this caustic environment to the detriment of other cell types. This selection can be described by a process which can be modeled upon spite: the tumor cells reduce their own fitness by making an acidic environment, but this reduces the fitness of their competitors to an even greater extent. Moreover, the environment is an important dimension that further drives this spite process. Thus, diminishing the selective environment most probably interferes with the spite process. Such interference has been recently utilized in cancer treatment. PMID:24310355

  15. Beta-2 Microglobulin Tumor Marker

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Beta-2 Microglobulin Tumor Marker Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: B2M; B 2 M; β2-Microglobulin; Thymotaxin Formal name: Beta 2 ...

  16. Brain tumor-targeted drug delivery strategies

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaoli; Chen, Xishan; Ying, Man; Lu, Weiyue

    2014-01-01

    Despite the application of aggressive surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy in clinics, brain tumors are still a difficult health challenge due to their fast development and poor prognosis. Brain tumor-targeted drug delivery systems, which increase drug accumulation in the tumor region and reduce toxicity in normal brain and peripheral tissue, are a promising new approach to brain tumor treatments. Since brain tumors exhibit many distinctive characteristics relative to tumors growing in peripheral tissues, potential targets based on continuously changing vascular characteristics and the microenvironment can be utilized to facilitate effective brain tumor-targeted drug delivery. In this review, we briefly describe the physiological characteristics of brain tumors, including blood–brain/brain tumor barriers, the tumor microenvironment, and tumor stem cells. We also review targeted delivery strategies and introduce a systematic targeted drug delivery strategy to overcome the challenges. PMID:26579383

  17. Comprehensive management of head and neck tumors, volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Thawley, S.E.; Panje, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    This book consists of 14 parts, each containing several papers. The parts are: General Considerations in the Management of Patients with Head and Neck Tumors, Tumors of the Ear, Tumors of the Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinuses, Tumors of the Oral Cavity, Tumors of the Pharynx, Tumors of the Larynx, Tumors of the Skin, Dental and Jaw Tumors, Tumors of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands, Tumors of the Trachea, Tumors of the Eye, Orbit, and Lacrimal Apparatus, and Special Topics.

  18. Is PML a Tumor Suppressor?

    PubMed Central

    Mazza, Massimiliano; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The role of the promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein has been widely tested in many different contexts, as attested by the hundreds of papers present in the literature. In most of these studies, PML is regarded as a tumor suppressor, a notion on the whole accepted by the scientific community. In this review, we examine how the concept of tumor-suppressor gene has evolved until now and then systematically assess whether this assumption for PML is supported by unambiguous experimental evidence. PMID:23847764

  19. Translational progress on tumor biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hongwei; Zhou, Xiaolin; Lu, Yi; Xie, Liye; Chen, Qian; Keller, Evan T; Liu, Qian; Zhou, Qinghua; Zhang, Jian

    2015-11-01

    There is an urgent need to apply basic research achievements to the clinic. In particular, mechanistic studies should be developed by bench researchers, depending upon clinical demands, in order to improve the survival and quality of life of cancer patients. To date, translational medicine has been addressed in cancer biology, particularly in the identification and characterization of novel tumor biomarkers. This review focuses on the recent achievements and clinical application prospects in tumor biomarkers based on translational medicine. PMID:26557902

  20. Pathological aspects of brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Soetrisno, E; Tjahjadi, G

    2000-05-01

    Brain tumors based on their histogenesis, consist of all tumors, derive from the entirely tissue in the intracranial space, both from the neuro-ectodermal/neuro-epithelial tissue and the mesenchymal tissue. By their location they can be divided into infratentorial or supratentorial, and further into deep vs. superficial. The interesting and unique, there are age distribution or location-sex specificity of some brain tumors (BT). WHO Histopathological Typing of Tumors by the CNS, also showing progress on both of their members and new special types of some BT, especially for the meningiomas and neuro-epithelial/neuroglial type. Periodic investigations by the Department of Anatomic Pathology, the Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia did not show major changes in their BT types, but there was on their tumors ranging. Astrocytoma (including glioblastoma multiforma) for a while was replaced by meningioma as the most common CNS/Intracranial tumor. There are some techniques for the handling of CNS specimens depending on further purposes through on biomolecular activities or defects. The routine technique using light microscope examination was the most useful one for daily diagnosis for many years. Some immunohistochemistry techniques are needed for difficult cases, e.g., GFAP, NE 14, NSE, S100, and MBP. Diagnostic problems could be caused by tissue- or cell-sampling errors, which are influenced by the tumor location itself. Thus, neurosurgeons encounter problems to pick biopsy intraoperative, or by mishandling by the laboratory of anatomic pathology. Formerly, as final diagnosis, grading of CNS tumors must be put according to the Clinical interest for further management of the patient. CNS grading ranges from grade I (benign looking) to IV (malignant). Morphological grading is based on Kernohan and Adson (1949), or Kernohan and Sayre (1952). PMID:10895165

  1. Extragastrointestinal Stromal Tumor during Pregnacy.

    PubMed

    Gözükara, Ilay; Dilek, T U Kutlu; Durukan, Hüseyin; Düsmez Apa, Duygu; Kabil Kucur, Suna; Dilek, Saffet

    2012-01-01

    Extragastrointestinal stromal tumors (EGISTs) are mesenchymal neoplasms without connection to the gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) and EGIST are similar according to their clinicopathologic and histomorphologic features. Both of them most often express immunoreactivity for CD-117, a c-kit proto-oncogene protein. The coexistence of GIST and pregnancy is very rare, with only two cases reported in the literature. In this paper, we presented the first EGIST case during pregnancy in the literature. PMID:23119199

  2. Extragastrointestinal Stromal Tumor during Pregnacy

    PubMed Central

    Gözükara, Ilay; Dilek, T. U. Kutlu; Durukan, Hüseyin; Düsmez Apa, Duygu; Kabil Kucur, Suna; Dilek, Saffet

    2012-01-01

    Extragastrointestinal stromal tumors (EGISTs) are mesenchymal neoplasms without connection to the gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) and EGIST are similar according to their clinicopathologic and histomorphologic features. Both of them most often express immunoreactivity for CD-117, a c-kit proto-oncogene protein. The coexistence of GIST and pregnancy is very rare, with only two cases reported in the literature. In this paper, we presented the first EGIST case during pregnancy in the literature. PMID:23119199

  3. Translational progress on tumor biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hongwei; Zhou, Xiaolin; Lu, Yi; Xie, Liye; Chen, Qian; Keller, Evan T; Liu, Qian; Zhou, Qinghua; Zhang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need to apply basic research achievements to the clinic. In particular, mechanistic studies should be developed by bench researchers, depending upon clinical demands, in order to improve the survival and quality of life of cancer patients. To date, translational medicine has been addressed in cancer biology, particularly in the identification and characterization of novel tumor biomarkers. This review focuses on the recent achievements and clinical application prospects in tumor biomarkers based on translational medicine. PMID:26557902

  4. Killian's polyp mimicking malignant tumor

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Jagdeep S.; Chaitanya, Avinash; Minhas, R. S.; Azad, R. K.; Sharma, D. R.; Mohindroo, N. K.

    2015-01-01

    Killian polyp is predominantly found in children and any sinonasal tumor in elderly presenting with epistaxis and pain usually indicates malignant growth until proved otherwise. We present an unusual case of Killian polyp in an elderly patient that behaved as a malignant tumor. This case report reminded us that paranasal sinuses are still dark hollow mysterious cavities, and we should take utmost clinical acumen in managing such cases.

  5. Diffusion Imaging of Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Stephan E.; Sun, Yanping; Mulkern, Robert V.

    2010-01-01

    MR imaging offers a tremendous armamentarium of different methods that can be employed in brain tumor characterization. MR diffusion imaging has become a widely accepted method for probing the presence of fluid pools and molecular tissue water mobility. For most clinical applications of diffusion imaging, it is assumed that the diffusion signal vs diffusion weighting factor b decays monoexponentially. Within this framework, measurement of a single diffusion coefficient in brain tumors permits an approximate categorization of tumor type and for some tumors definitive diagnosis. In most brain tumors, when compared to normal brain tissue, the diffusion coefficient is elevated. The presence of peritumoral edema, which also exhibits an elevated diffusion coefficient, often precludes delineation of the tumor based on diffusion information alone. Serially obtained diffusion data is useful to document and even predict cellular response to drug or radiation therapy. Diffusion measurements in tissues over an extended range of b-factors have clearly shown that the mono-parametric description of the MR diffusion signal decay is incomplete. Very high diffusion weighting on clinical systems requires substantial compromise in spatial resolution. But after suitable analysis, superior separation of malignant brain tumors, peritumoral edema, and normal brain tissue can be achieved. These findings are also discussed in light of tissue-specific differences in membrane structure and the restrictions membranes exert on diffusion. Finally, measurement of the directional dependence of diffusion permits assessment of white matter integrity and dislocation. Such information, particularly in conjunction with advanced post-processing, is considered immensely useful for therapy planning. Diffusion imaging, which permits monoexponential analysis and provides directional diffusion information, is performed routinely in brain tumor patients. More advanced methods require improvement in acquisition speed and spatial resolution to gain clinical acceptance. PMID:20886568

  6. Tumoral calcinosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Nardello, Oreste; Muggianu, Marilena; Cagetti, Marino

    2005-01-01

    Tumoral calcinosis is a rare tumour-like mass characterized by soft tissue calcification of obscure aetiology. A case of tumoral calcinosis is presented here, and its clinical, radiological and pathological features are described. The differential diagnosis versus hydatid cyst is discussed. Diagnosis is possible with imaging techniques but histopathological study is essential to establish it with certainty. Complete surgical excision appears to be the only effective treatment. PMID:15832746

  7. Scintigraphic imaging of carcinoid tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, M.; Kamanabroo, D.

    1985-05-01

    131-1-metaiodobenzylguanidine (131-1-MIBG) is used for scintigraphic localization and treatment of pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma. Several other tumors, deriving from neuroectoderm (APUD tumors) may also produce catecholamines. 4 patients with surgically proven carcinoid tumors were studied by 131-1-MIBG scintigraphy. Scintigraphic images were performed with a computer assisted gamma camera 2.24, 48 and 72 hours after IV injection of 26 MBq 131-I-MIBG. In one patient single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 185 Mgq 123-I-MIBG was performed additionally. Catecholamines were determined in 24-hours-urinary samples by HPLC. Serotonine was determined in plasma. Catecholamine excretion was normal in all patients, whereas serotonine was elevated in all of them. In 2 of 4 patients slight tracer uptake was observed in some of liver metastases, whereas other metastases in the liver and the primary tumor did not show 131-1-MIBG uptake. In one patient with a carcinoid tumor of the pancreas 131-1-MIBG scintigraphy and SPECT with 123-1-MIBG was positive. In one patient scintigraphy was false negative. MIBG scintigraphy is not only suitable for imaging pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma, but may also localize carcinoid tumors and their metastases.

  8. Glomus Tumor of the Hand

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won; Kwon, Soon Beom; Eo, Su Rak; Kwon, Chan

    2015-01-01

    Background Glomus tumors were first described by Wood in 1812 as painful subcutaneous tubercles. It is an uncommon benign neoplasm involving the glomus body, an apparatus that involves in thermoregulation of cutaneous microvasculature. Glomus tumor constitutes 1%-5% of all hand tumors. It usually occurs at the subungual region and more commonly in aged women. Its classical clinical triad consists of pain, tenderness and temperature intolerance, especially cold sensitivity. This study reviews 15 cases of glomus tumor which were analyzed according to its anatomic location, surgical approach and histologic findings. Methods Fifteen patients with subungual glomus tumors of the hand operated on between January 2006 and March 2013, were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were evaluated preoperatively with standard physical examination including ice cube test and Love's test. Diagnostic imaging consisted of ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. All procedures were performed with tourniquet control under local anesthesia. Eleven patients underwent excision using the transungual approach, 3 patients using the volar approach and 1 patient using the lateral subperiosteal approach. Results Total of 15 cases were reviewed. 11 tumors were located in the nail bed, 3 in the volar pulp and 1 in the radial aspect of the finger tip. After complete excision, patients remained asymptomatic in the immediate postoperative period. In the long term follow up, patients exhibited excellent cosmetic results with no recurrence. Conclusions Accurate diagnosis should be made by physical, radiologic and pathologic examinations. Preoperative localization and complete extirpation is essential in preventing recurrence and subsequent nail deformity. PMID:26015884

  9. Glomus Tumors of the Hand

    PubMed Central

    Hazani, Ron; Houle, John M.; Kasdan, Morton L.; Wilhelmi, Bradon J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to present a review of the current understanding of glomus tumors of the hand. Methods: Clinical cases are used to demonstrate the relevance of history and physical examination in deriving the diagnosis of this rare, but important entity. Treatment, complications, and review of the literature are presented. Results: Glomus tumors are rare vascular lesions representing approximately 1% of all hand tumors. Derived from the glomus body, they are usually found at the tip of digits and present as a classic triad of severe pain, point tenderness, and cold sensitivity. Clinical features include blue discoloration, palpable nodule, and nail deformity in subungual tumors. The Hildreth's test and the Love's pin test are reliable methods of diagnosing glomus hand tumors with sensitivity and specificity exceeding 90%. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice. Possible complications following operative management include recurrence and nail deformity. Conclusion: This article outlines the current knowledge relating to the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of glomus tumors of the hand. PMID:18997858

  10. Immunotherapy of malignant brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Duane A.; Fecci, Peter E.; Sampson, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Despite aggressive multi-modality therapy including surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, the prognosis for patients with malignant primary brain tumors remains very poor. Moreover, the non-specific nature of conventional therapy for brain tumors often results in incapacitating damage to surrounding normal brain and systemic tissues. Thus, there is an urgent need for the development of therapeutic strategies that precisely target tumor cells while minimizing collateral damage to neighboring eloquent cerebral cortex. The rationale for using the immune system to target brain tumors is based on the premise that the inherent specificity of immunologic reactivity could meet the clear need for more specific and precise therapy. The success of this modality is dependent on our ability to understand the mechanisms of immune regulation within the central nervous system (CNS), as well as counter the broad defects in host cell-mediated immunity that malignant gliomas are known to elicit. Recent advances in our understanding of tumor-induced and host-mediated immunosuppressive mechanisms, the development of effective strategies to combat these suppressive effects, and a better understanding of how to deliver immunologic effector molecules more efficiently to CNS tumors have all facilitated significant progress toward the realization of true clinical benefit from immunotherapeutic treatment of malignant gliomas. PMID:18363995

  11. Immunotherapy of malignant brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Duane A; Fecci, Peter E; Sampson, John H

    2008-04-01

    Despite aggressive multi-modality therapy including surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, the prognosis for patients with malignant primary brain tumors remains very poor. Moreover, the non-specific nature of conventional therapy for brain tumors often results in incapacitating damage to surrounding normal brain and systemic tissues. Thus, there is an urgent need for the development of therapeutic strategies that precisely target tumor cells while minimizing collateral damage to neighboring eloquent cerebral cortex. The rationale for using the immune system to target brain tumors is based on the premise that the inherent specificity of immunologic reactivity could meet the clear need for more specific and precise therapy. The success of this modality is dependent on our ability to understand the mechanisms of immune regulation within the central nervous system (CNS), as well as counter the broad defects in host cell-mediated immunity that malignant gliomas are known to elicit. Recent advances in our understanding of tumor-induced and host-mediated immunosuppressive mechanisms, the development of effective strategies to combat these suppressive effects, and a better understanding of how to deliver immunologic effector molecules more efficiently to CNS tumors have all facilitated significant progress toward the realization of true clinical benefit from immunotherapeutic treatment of malignant gliomas. PMID:18363995

  12. Unraveling tumor grading and genomic landscape in lung neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Pelosi, Giuseppe; Papotti, Mauro; Rindi, Guido; Scarpa, Aldo

    2014-06-01

    Currently, grading in lung neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) is inherently defined by the histological classification based on cell features, mitosis count, and necrosis, for which typical carcinoids (TC) are low-grade malignant tumors with long life expectation, atypical carcinoids (AC) intermediate-grade malignant tumors with more aggressive clinical behavior, and large cell NE carcinomas (LCNEC) and small cell lung carcinomas (SCLC) high-grade malignant tumors with dismal prognosis. While Ki-67 antigen labeling index, highlighting the proportion of proliferating tumor cells, has largely been used in digestive NETs for assessing prognosis and assisting therapy decisions, the same marker does not play an established role in the diagnosis, grading, and prognosis of lung NETs. Next generation sequencing techniques (NGS), thanks to their astonishing ability to process in a shorter timeframe up to billions of DNA strands, are radically revolutionizing our approach to diagnosis and therapy of tumors, including lung cancer. When applied to single genes, panels of genes, exome, or the whole genome by using either frozen or paraffin tissues, NGS techniques increase our understanding of cancer, thus realizing the bases of precision medicine. Data are emerging that TC and AC are mainly altered in chromatin remodeling genes, whereas LCNEC and SCLC are also mutated in cell cycle checkpoint and cell differentiation regulators. A common denominator to all lung NETs is a deregulation of cell proliferation, which represents a biological rationale for morphologic (mitoses and necrosis) and molecular (Ki-67 antigen) parameters to successfully serve as predictors of tumor behavior (i.e., identification of pathological entities with clinical correlation). It is envisaged that a novel grading system in lung NETs based on the combined assessment of mitoses, necrosis, and Ki-67 LI may offer a better stratification of prognostic classes, realizing a bridge between molecular alterations, morphological features, and clinical behavior. PMID:24771462

  13. Integrated Analysis of Tumor Samples Sheds Light on Tumor Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Parisi, Fabio; Micsinai, Mariann; Strino, Francesco; Ariyan, Stephan; Narayan, Deepak; Bacchiocchi, Antonella; Cheng, Elaine; Xu, Fang; Li, Peining; Kluger, Harriet; Halaban, Ruth; Kluger, Yuval

    2012-01-01

    The heterogeneity of tumor samples is a major challenge in the analysis of high-throughput profiling of tumor biopsies and cell lines. The measured aggregate signals of multigenerational progenies often represent an average of several tumor subclones with varying genomic aberrations and different gene expression levels. The goal of the present study was to integrate copy number analyses from SNP-arrays and karyotyping, gene expression profiling, and pathway analyses to detect heterogeneity, identify driver mutations, and explore possible mechanisms of tumor evolution. We showed the heterogeneity of the studied samples, characterized the global copy number alteration profiles, and identified genes whose copy number status and expression levels were aberrant. In particular, we identified a recurrent association between two BRAFV600E and BRAFV600K mutations and changes in DKK1 gene expression levels, which might indicate an association between the BRAF and WNT pathways. These findings show that the integrated approaches used in the present study can robustly address the challenging issue of tumor heterogeneity in high-throughput profiling. PMID:23012583

  14. CD44 enhances tumor aggressiveness by promoting tumor cell plasticity.

    PubMed

    Paulis, Yvette W J; Huijbers, Elisabeth J M; van der Schaft, Daisy W J; Soetekouw, Patricia M M B; Pauwels, Patrick; Tjan-Heijnen, Vivianne C G; Griffioen, Arjan W

    2015-08-14

    Aggressive tumor cells can obtain the ability to transdifferentiate into cells with endothelial features and thus form vasculogenic networks. This phenomenon, called vasculogenic mimicry (VM), is associated with increased tumor malignancy and poor clinical outcome. To identify novel key molecules implicated in the process of vasculogenic mimicry, microarray analysis was performed to compare gene expression profiles of aggressive (VM+) and non-aggressive (VM-) cells derived from Ewing sarcoma and breast carcinoma. We identified the CD44/c-Met signaling cascade as heavily relevant for vasculogenic mimicry. CD44 was at the center of this cascade, and highly overexpressed in aggressive tumors. Both CD44 standard isoform and its splice variant CD44v6 were linked to increased aggressiveness in VM. Since VM is most abundant in Ewing sarcoma tumors functional analyses were performed in EW7 cells. Overexpression of CD44 allowed enhanced adhesion to its extracellular matrix ligand hyaluronic acid. CD44 expression also facilitated the formation of vasculogenic structures in vitro, as CD44 knockdown experiments repressed migration and vascular network formation. From these results and the observation that CD44 expression is associated with vasculogenic structures and blood lakes in human Ewing sarcoma tissues, we conclude that CD44 increases aggressiveness in tumors through the process of vasculogenic mimicry. PMID:26189059

  15. Kidney Tumors | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Pediatric kidney tumors fall into four primary categories: Wilms tumors (~85% of all cases), clear cell sarcomas of the kidney (~5%), congenital mesoblastic nephromas (~4%), and rhabdoid tumors of the kidney (~3%). The TARGET initiative is investigating three of these tumor types.

  16. Tumor suppressor molecules and methods of use

    DOEpatents

    Welch, Peter J.; Barber, Jack R.

    2004-09-07

    The invention provides substantially pure tumor suppressor nucleic acid molecules and tumor suppressor polypeptides. The invention also provides hairpin ribozymes and antibodies selective for these tumor suppressor molecules. Also provided are methods of detecting a neoplastic cell in a sample using detectable agents specific for the tumor suppressor nucleic acids and polypeptides.

  17. Inhibition of IL-17A in tumor microenvironment augments cytotoxicity of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Hayata, Keiji; Iwahashi, Makoto; Ojima, Toshiyasu; Katsuda, Masahiro; Iida, Takeshi; Nakamori, Mikihito; Ueda, Kentaro; Nakamura, Masaki; Miyazawa, Motoki; Tsuji, Toshiaki; Yamaue, Hiroki

    2013-01-01

    It remains controversial whether IL-17A promotes or inhibits cancer progression. We hypothesized that IL-17A that is locally produced in the tumor microenvironment has an important role in angiogenesis and tumor immunity. We investigated the effect of inhibiting IL-17A at tumor sites on tumor growth and on local and systemic anti-tumor immunity. MC38 or B16 cells were inoculated subcutaneously into mice, and intratumoral injection of an adenovirus vector expressing siRNA against the mouse IL-17A gene (Ad-si-IL-17) significantly inhibited tumor growth in both tumor models compared with control mice. Inhibition of IL-17A at tumor sites significantly suppressed CD31, MMP9, and VEGF expression in tumor tissue. The cytotoxic activity of CD8(+) T cells from tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in mice treated with Ad-si-IL-17 was significantly higher than in control mice; however, CD8(+) T cells from splenocytes had similar activity levels. Suppression of IL-17A at tumor sites led to a Th1-dominant environment, and moreover, eliminated myeloid-derived suppressor cells and regulatory T cells at tumor sites but not in splenocytes. In conclusion, blockade of IL-17A at tumor sites helped suppress tumor growth by inhibiting angiogenesis as well as cytotoxic T lymphocytes activation at tumor sites. PMID:23372655

  18. WWOX: a fragile tumor suppressor

    PubMed Central

    Schrock, Morgan S.; Huebner, Kay

    2015-01-01

    WWOX, the WW domain-containing oxidoreductase gene at chromosome region 16q23.3-q24.1, spanning chromosomal fragile site FRA16D, encodes the 46 kDa Wwox protein. WWOX is a tumor suppressor that is lost or reduced in expression in a wide variety of cancers, including breast, prostate, ovarian, and lung. The function of WWOX as a tumor suppressor implies that it serves an essential function in the prevention of carcinogenesis. Indeed, in vitro studies show that Wwox protein interacts with many binding partners to regulate cellular apoptosis, proliferation and/or maturation. It has been reported that newborn Wwox knockout mice exhibit nascent osteosarcomas while Wwox+/- mice exhibit increased incidence of spontaneous and induced tumors. Furthermore, absence or reduction of Wwox expression in mouse xenograft models results in increased tumorigenesis, which can be rescued by Wwox re-expression, though there is not universal agreement among investigators regarding the role of Wwox loss in these experimental models. Despite this proposed tumor suppressor function, the overlap of WWOX with FRA16D sensitizes the gene to protein-inactivating deletions caused by replication stress. The high frequency of deletions within the WWOX locus in cancers of various types, without the hallmark protein inactivation-associated mutations of ‘classical’ tumor suppressors, has led to the proposal that WWOX deletions in cancers are passenger events that occur in early cancer progenitor cells due to fragility of the genetic locus, rather than driver events which provide the cancer cell a selective advantage. Recently, a proposed epigenetic cause of chromosomal fragility has suggested a novel mechanism for early fragile site instability and has implications regarding the involvement of tumor suppressor genes at CFSs in cancer. In this review, we provide an overview of the evidence for WWOX as a tumor suppressor gene and put this into the context of fragility associated with the FRA16D locus. PMID:25538133

  19. Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Fisseler-Eckhoff, Annette; Demes, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors may develop throughout the human body with the majority being found in the gastrointestinal tract and bronchopulmonary system. Neuroendocrine tumors are classified according to the grade of biological aggressiveness (G1–G3) and the extent of differentiation (well-differentiated/poorly-differentiated). The well-differentiated neoplasms comprise typical (G1) and atypical (G2) carcinoids. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas as well as small cell carcinomas (G3) are poorly-differentiated. The identification and differentiation of atypical from typical carcinoids or large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas and small cell carcinomas is essential for treatment options and prognosis. Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors are characterized according to the proportion of necrosis, the mitotic activity, palisading, rosette-like structure, trabecular pattern and organoid nesting. The given information about the histopathological assessment, classification, prognosis, genetic aberration as well as treatment options of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors are based on own experiences and reviewing the current literature available. Most disagreements among the classification of neuroendocrine tumor entities exist in the identification of typical versus atypical carcinoids, atypical versus large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas versus small cell carcinomas. Additionally, the classification is restricted in terms of limited specificity of immunohistochemical markers and possible artifacts in small biopsies which can be compressed in cytological specimens. Until now, pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors have been increasing in incidence. As compared to NSCLCs, only little research has been done with respect to new molecular targets as well as improving the classification and differential diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors of the lung. PMID:24213466

  20. Phyllodes Tumor of the Breast

    SciTech Connect

    Belkacemi, Yazid Bousquet, Guilhem; Marsiglia, Hugo; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Magne, Nicolas; Malard, Yann; Lacroix, Magalie; Gutierrez, Cristina; Senkus, Elzbieta; Christie, David; Drumea, Karen; Lagneau, Edouard; Kadish, Sidney P.; Scandolaro, Luciano; Azria, David; Ozsahin, Mahmut

    2008-02-01

    Purpose: To better identify prognostic factors for local control and survival, as well as the role of different therapeutic options, for phyllodes tumors, a rare fibroepithelial neoplasm of the breast. Methods and Materials: Data from 443 women treated between 1971 and 2003 were collected from the Rare Cancer Network. The median age was 40 years (range, 12-87 years). Tumors were benign in 284 cases (64%), borderline in 80 cases (18%), and malignant in 79 cases (18%). Surgery consisted of breast-conserving surgery (BCS) in 377 cases (85%) and total mastectomy (TM) in 66 cases (15%). Thirty-nine patients (9%) received adjuvant radiotherapy (RT). Results: After a median follow-up of 106 months, local recurrence (LR) and distant metastases rates were 19% and 3.4%, respectively. In the malignant and borderline group (n = 159), RT significantly decreased LR (p = 0.02), and TM had better results than BCS (p = 0.0019). Multivariate analysis revealed benign histology, negative margins, and no residual disease (no RD) after initial treatment and RT delivery as independent favorable prognostic factors for local control; benign histology and low number of mitosis for disease-free survival; and pathologic tumor size tumor necrosis for overall survival. In the malignant and borderline subgroup multivariate analysis TM was the only favorable independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival. Conclusions: This study showed that phyllodes tumor patients with no RD after treatment have better local control. Benign tumors have a good prognosis after surgery alone. In borderline and malignant tumors, TM had better results than BCS. Thus, in these forms adjuvant RT should be considered according to histologic criteria.

  1. Status of gallium-67 in tumor detector

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffer, P.

    1980-04-01

    The efficacy of gallium-67 citrate in detecting specific tumors is discussed. Tumors in which gallium-67 imaging is useful as a diagnostic tool include Hodgkin's disease, histiocystic lymphoma, Burkitt's lymphoma, hepatoma melanoma, and leukemia. It has not been found to be effective in diagnosing head and neck tumors, gastrointestinal tumors, genitourinary tract tumors, breast tumors, and pediatric tumors. Gallium may be useful in the evaluation of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, testicular carcinoma, mesothelioma, and carcinoma of the lung. It may also be useful for determining response to treatment and prognosis in some neoplasms.

  2. Rare Primary Central Nervous System Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kubicky, Charlotte Dai; Sahgal, Arjun; Chang, Eric L.; Lo, Simon S.

    2014-01-01

    There are close to 70,000 new cases of primary central nervous system tumors diagnosed annually in the United States. Meningiomas, gliomas, nerve sheath tumors and pituitary tumors account for 85% of them. There is abundant literature on these commonly occurring tumors but data from the literature on infrequently encountered tumors such as atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, choroid plexus carcinoma, ganglioglioma, hemangiopericytoma, and pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma are limited. This review provides an overview of the clinicopathologic and therapeutic aspects of these rare primary central nervous system tumors. PMID:25276324

  3. Macroscopic Stiffness of Breast Tumors Predicts Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Fenner, Joseph; Stacer, Amanda C.; Winterroth, Frank; Johnson, Timothy D.; Luker, Kathryn E.; Luker, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical properties of tumors differ substantially from normal cells and tissues. Changes in stiffness or elasticity regulate pro-metastatic behaviors of cancer cells, but effects have been documented predominantly in isolated cells or in vitro cell culture systems. To directly link relative stiffness of tumors to cancer progression, we combined a mouse model of metastatic breast cancer with ex vivo measurements of bulk moduli of freshly excised, intact tumors. We found a high, inverse correlation between bulk modulus of resected tumors and subsequent local recurrence and metastasis. More compliant tumors were associated with more frequent, larger local recurrences and more extensive metastases than mice with relatively stiff tumors. We found that collagen content of resected tumors correlated with bulk modulus values. These data establish that relative differences in tumor stiffness correspond with tumor progression and metastasis, supporting further testing and development of tumor compliance as a prognostic biomarker in breast cancer. PMID:24981707

  4. Angiogenesis in spontaneous tumors and implications for comparative tumor biology.

    PubMed

    Benazzi, C; Al-Dissi, A; Chau, C H; Figg, W D; Sarli, G; de Oliveira, J T; Gärtner, F

    2014-01-01

    Blood supply is essential for development and growth of tumors and angiogenesis is the fundamental process of new blood vessel formation from preexisting ones. Angiogenesis is a prognostic indicator for a variety of tumors, and it coincides with increased shedding of neoplastic cells into the circulation and metastasis. Several molecules such as cell surface receptors, growth factors, and enzymes are involved in this process. While antiangiogenic therapy for cancer has been proposed over 20 years ago, it has garnered much controversy in recent years within the scientific community. The complex relationships between the angiogenic signaling cascade and antiangiogenic substances have indicated the angiogenic pathway as a valid target for anticancer drug development and VEGF has become the primary antiangiogenic drug target. This review discusses the basic and clinical perspectives of angiogenesis highlighting the importance of comparative biology in understanding tumor angiogenesis and the integration of these model systems for future drug development. PMID:24563633

  5. Targeting tumor-necrosis factor receptor pathways for tumor immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Schaer, David A; Hirschhorn-Cymerman, Daniel; Wolchok, Jedd D

    2014-01-01

    With the success of ipilimumab and promise of programmed death-1 pathway-targeted agents, the field of tumor immunotherapy is expanding rapidly. Newer targets for clinical development include select members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family. Agonist antibodies to these co-stimulatory molecules target both T and B cells, modulating T-cell activation and enhancing immune responses. In vitro and in vivo preclinical data have provided the basis for continued development of 4-1BB, OX40, glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related gene, herpes virus entry mediator, and CD27 as potential therapies for patients with cancer. In this review, we summarize the immune response to tumors, consider preclinical and early clinical data on select TNFR family members, discuss potential translational challenges and suggest possible combination therapies with the aim of inducing durable antitumor responses. PMID:24855562

  6. Angiogenesis in Spontaneous Tumors and Implications for Comparative Tumor Biology

    PubMed Central

    Benazzi, C.; Al-Dissi, A.; Chau, C. H.; Figg, W. D.; Sarli, G.; de Oliveira, J. T.; Gärtner, F.

    2014-01-01

    Blood supply is essential for development and growth of tumors and angiogenesis is the fundamental process of new blood vessel formation from preexisting ones. Angiogenesis is a prognostic indicator for a variety of tumors, and it coincides with increased shedding of neoplastic cells into the circulation and metastasis. Several molecules such as cell surface receptors, growth factors, and enzymes are involved in this process. While antiangiogenic therapy for cancer has been proposed over 20 years ago, it has garnered much controversy in recent years within the scientific community. The complex relationships between the angiogenic signaling cascade and antiangiogenic substances have indicated the angiogenic pathway as a valid target for anticancer drug development and VEGF has become the primary antiangiogenic drug target. This review discusses the basic and clinical perspectives of angiogenesis highlighting the importance of comparative biology in understanding tumor angiogenesis and the integration of these model systems for future drug development. PMID:24563633

  7. Metastasis Suppressors and the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Leah M.; Hurst, Douglas R.; Welch, Danny R.

    2011-01-01

    The most lethal and debilitating attribute of cancer cells is their ability to metastasize. Throughout the process of metastasis, tumor cells interact with other tumor cells, host cells and a variety of molecules. Tumor cells are also faced with a number of insults, such as hemodynamic sheer pressure and immune selection. This brief review explores how metastasis suppressor proteins regulate interactions between tumor cells and the microenvironments in which tumor cells find themselves. PMID:21168504

  8. Multiple Glomus Tumors of the Omentum

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Won Beom; Park, In Ja; Song, Joon Seon; Cho, Kyung-Ja

    2015-01-01

    A glomus tumor is a very rare neoplasm consisting of cells that resemble the modified smooth muscle cells of normal glomus bodies. Here, we report a case of a 39-year-old male with multiple omental glomus tumors. The patient underwent a complete resection of the glomus tumors. This is a rare case of omental glomus tumors, and to our knowledge, this patient is the first with multiple omental glomus tumors to be described. PMID:26361617

  9. Expression of Hyaluronan in human tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    Boregowda, Rajeev K; Appaiah, Hitesh N; Siddaiah, Manjunath; Kumarswamy, Sunil B; Sunila, Sunila; KN, Thimmaiah; Mortha, KarunaKumar; Toole, Bryan; Banerjee, Shib d

    2006-01-01

    Background The development and progression of human tumors is accompanied by various cellular, biochemical and genetic alterations. These events include tumor cells interaction with extracellular matrix molecules including hyaluronan (HA). Hyaluronan is a large polysaccharide associated with pericellular matrix of proliferating, migrating cells. Its implication in malignant transformation, tumor progression and with the degree of differentiation in various invasive tumors has well accepted. It has been well known the role HA receptors in tumor growth and metastasis in various cancer tissues. Previously we have observed the unified over expression of Hyaluronic Acid Binding Protein (HABP), H11B2C2 antigen by the tumor cells in various types progressing tumor tissues with different grades. However, the poor understanding of relation between HA and HA-binding protein expression on tumor cells during tumor progression as well as the asymmetric observations of the role of HA expression in tumor progression prompted us to examine the degree of HA expression on tumor cells vs. stroma in various types of human tumors with different grades. Methods In the present study clinically diagnosed tumor tissue samples of different grades were used to screen the histopathological expression of hyaluronan by using b-PG (biotinylated proteoglycan) as a probe and we compared the relative HA expression on tumor cells vs. stroma in well differentiated and poorly differentiated tumors. Specificity of the reaction was confirmed either by pre-digesting the tissue sections with hyaluronidase enzyme or by staining the sections with pre-absorbed complex of the probe and HA-oligomers. Results We show here the down regulation of HA expression in tumor cells is associated with progression of tumor from well differentiated through poorly differentiated stage, despite the constant HA expression in the tumor associated stroma. Conclusion The present finding enlighten the relative roles of HA expression on tumor vs. stroma during the progression of tumors. PMID:16401353

  10. Cellular Potts Modeling of Tumor Growth, Tumor Invasion, and Tumor Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Szabó, András; Merks, Roeland M. H.

    2013-01-01

    Despite a growing wealth of available molecular data, the growth of tumors, invasion of tumors into healthy tissue, and response of tumors to therapies are still poorly understood. Although genetic mutations are in general the first step in the development of a cancer, for the mutated cell to persist in a tissue, it must compete against the other, healthy or diseased cells, for example by becoming more motile, adhesive, or multiplying faster. Thus, the cellular phenotype determines the success of a cancer cell in competition with its neighbors, irrespective of the genetic mutations or physiological alterations that gave rise to the altered phenotype. What phenotypes can make a cell “successful” in an environment of healthy and cancerous cells, and how? A widely used tool for getting more insight into that question is cell-based modeling. Cell-based models constitute a class of computational, agent-based models that mimic biophysical and molecular interactions between cells. One of the most widely used cell-based modeling formalisms is the cellular Potts model (CPM), a lattice-based, multi particle cell-based modeling approach. The CPM has become a popular and accessible method for modeling mechanisms of multicellular processes including cell sorting, gastrulation, or angiogenesis. The CPM accounts for biophysical cellular properties, including cell proliferation, cell motility, and cell adhesion, which play a key role in cancer. Multiscale models are constructed by extending the agents with intracellular processes including metabolism, growth, and signaling. Here we review the use of the CPM for modeling tumor growth, tumor invasion, and tumor progression. We argue that the accessibility and flexibility of the CPM, and its accurate, yet coarse-grained and computationally efficient representation of cell and tissue biophysics, make the CPM the method of choice for modeling cellular processes in tumor development. PMID:23596570

  11. Cellular potts modeling of tumor growth, tumor invasion, and tumor evolution.

    PubMed

    Szabó, András; Merks, Roeland M H

    2013-01-01

    Despite a growing wealth of available molecular data, the growth of tumors, invasion of tumors into healthy tissue, and response of tumors to therapies are still poorly understood. Although genetic mutations are in general the first step in the development of a cancer, for the mutated cell to persist in a tissue, it must compete against the other, healthy or diseased cells, for example by becoming more motile, adhesive, or multiplying faster. Thus, the cellular phenotype determines the success of a cancer cell in competition with its neighbors, irrespective of the genetic mutations or physiological alterations that gave rise to the altered phenotype. What phenotypes can make a cell "successful" in an environment of healthy and cancerous cells, and how? A widely used tool for getting more insight into that question is cell-based modeling. Cell-based models constitute a class of computational, agent-based models that mimic biophysical and molecular interactions between cells. One of the most widely used cell-based modeling formalisms is the cellular Potts model (CPM), a lattice-based, multi particle cell-based modeling approach. The CPM has become a popular and accessible method for modeling mechanisms of multicellular processes including cell sorting, gastrulation, or angiogenesis. The CPM accounts for biophysical cellular properties, including cell proliferation, cell motility, and cell adhesion, which play a key role in cancer. Multiscale models are constructed by extending the agents with intracellular processes including metabolism, growth, and signaling. Here we review the use of the CPM for modeling tumor growth, tumor invasion, and tumor progression. We argue that the accessibility and flexibility of the CPM, and its accurate, yet coarse-grained and computationally efficient representation of cell and tissue biophysics, make the CPM the method of choice for modeling cellular processes in tumor development. PMID:23596570

  12. [Surgical treatment for Pancoast tumor].

    PubMed

    Tanahashi, Masayuki; Niwa, Hiroshi

    2013-07-01

    Pancoast tumor has been considered to be associated with a poor prognosis in the presence of severe chest pain and brachial and/or antebrachial pain because of brachial plexus infiltration. However, the treatment outcome was markedly improved by the introduction of trimodality therapy comprising advanced surgical resection, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Surgical resection after preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy has now been established as the standard treatment strategy. Pancoast tumor invades the surrounding tissues of the thoracic inlet area where important blood vessels and nerves run, making the surgical procedure difficult. However, there have been many advances in radical resection aiming for an improved outcome. Thus, it is possible for surgeons to select the proper surgical approach according to the location of the tumor mass. We should be careful regarding oversurgery after induction chemoradiotherapy. Therefore, the selection of patients who may benefit from surgery and improvement of surgical techniques for reduced invasiveness and complications are necessary. PMID:23898706

  13. Tumoral calcinosis of the hand

    PubMed Central

    Amati, Carlo; Pesce, Vito; Armenio, Andrea; Solarino, Giuseppe; Moretti, Biagio

    2015-01-01

    Tumoral calcinosis is a rare condition described in literature as a deposition of calcium salts in soft tissues. We here report a rare case of Tumoral calcinosis in the index finger of a hand in a 22-year-old woman. Because of the absence of any trauma, normal serum phosphate and calcium levels and no symptoms but a cosmetic defect, our case is classified as a primary tumoral calcinosis. As well as described in literature, also in this case the surgical excision was the mainstay treatment for this benign pathology. For the particular area involved we performed a radical excision followed by an interesting reverse homodigital artery flap from the ulnar side of the index. PMID:25858267

  14. Update on pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors

    PubMed Central

    McKenna, Logan R.

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) are relatively rare tumors comprising 1-2% of all pancreas neoplasms. In the last 10 years our understanding of this disease has increased dramatically allowing for advancements in the treatment of pNETs. Surgical excision remains the primary therapy for localized tumors and only potential for cure. New surgical techniques using laparoscopic approaches to complex pancreatic resections are a major advancement in surgical therapy and increasingly possible. With early detection being less common, most patients present with metastatic disease. Management of these patients requires multidisciplinary care combining the best of surgery, chemotherapy and other targeted therapies. In addition to surgical advances, recently, there have been significant advances in systemic therapy and targeted molecular therapy. PMID:25493258

  15. Notch Signaling in Neuroendocrine Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Crabtree, Judy S.; Singleton, Ciera S.; Miele, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoids and neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a heterogeneous group of tumors that arise from the neuroendocrine cells of the GI tract, endocrine pancreas, and the respiratory system. NETs remain significantly understudied with respect to molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis, particularly the role of cell fate signaling systems such as Notch. The abundance of literature on the Notch pathway is a testament to its complexity in different cellular environments. Notch receptors can function as oncogenes in some contexts and tumor suppressors in others. The genetic heterogeneity of NETs suggests that to fully understand the roles and the potential therapeutic implications of Notch signaling in NETs, a comprehensive analysis of Notch expression patterns and potential roles across all NET subtypes is required. PMID:27148486

  16. Epilepsy associated tumors: Review article

    PubMed Central

    Giulioni, Marco; Marucci, Gianluca; Martinoni, Matteo; Marliani, Anna Federica; Toni, Francesco; Bartiromo, Fiorina; Volpi, Lilia; Riguzzi, Patrizia; Bisulli, Francesca; Naldi, Ilaria; Michelucci, Roberto; Baruzzi, Agostino; Tinuper, Paolo; Rubboli, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Long-term epilepsy associated tumors (LEAT) represent a well known cause of focal epilepsies. Glioneuronal tumors are the most frequent histological type consisting of a mixture of glial and neuronal elements and most commonly arising in the temporal lobe. Cortical dysplasia or other neuronal migration abnormalities often coexist. Epilepsy associated with LEAT is generally poorly controlled by antiepileptic drugs while, on the other hand, it is high responsive to surgical treatment. However the best management strategy of tumor-related focal epilepsies remains controversial representing a contemporary issues in epilepsy surgery. Temporo-mesial LEAT have a widespread epileptic network with complex epileptogenic mechanisms. By using an epilepsy surgery oriented strategy LEAT may have an excellent seizure outcome therefore surgical treatment should be offered early, irrespective of pharmacoresistance, avoiding both the consequences of uncontrolled seizures as well as the side effects of prolonged pharmacological therapy and the rare risk of malignant transformation. PMID:25405186

  17. Tumoral calcinosis of the hand.

    PubMed

    Amati, Carlo; Pesce, Vito; Armenio, Andrea; Solarino, Giuseppe; Moretti, Biagio

    2015-01-01

    Tumoral calcinosis is a rare condition described in literature as a deposition of calcium salts in soft tissues. We here report a rare case of Tumoral calcinosis in the index finger of a hand in a 22-year-old woman. Because of the absence of any trauma, normal serum phosphate and calcium levels and no symptoms but a cosmetic defect, our case is classified as a primary tumoral calcinosis. As well as described in literature, also in this case the surgical excision was the mainstay treatment for this benign pathology. For the particular area involved we performed a radical excision followed by an interesting reverse homodigital artery flap from the ulnar side of the index. PMID:25858267

  18. Gyromitrin as a tumor inducer.

    PubMed

    Toth, B; Patil, K

    1981-01-01

    Acetaldehyde methylformylhydrazone (gyromitrin) was administered in propylene glycol as 12 weekly subcutaneous injections of 50 micrograms/g weight to randomly bred Swiss mice. The treatment induced lung and preputial gland tumors in incidences of 51 and 0% in females and 46 and 28% in males, respectively. In the propylene glycol injected control groups, the corresponding tumor incidences were 28 and 0% in females and 32 and 0% in males. Histopathologically, the tumors were classified as adenomas and adenocarcinomas of the lungs and squamous cell papillomas and carcinomas and adenocarcinomas of preputial glands. Gyromitrin is an ingredient of the wild edible false morel mushroom Gyromitrin esculenta. The environmental significance of the findings is discussed. PMID:7198186

  19. Tumor Targeting, Trifunctional Dendritic Wedge

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report in vitro and in vivo evaluation of a newly designed trifunctional theranostic agent for targeting solid tumors. This agent combines a dendritic wedge with high boron content for boron neutron capture therapy or boron MRI, a monomethine cyanine dye for visible-light fluorescent imaging, and an integrin ligand for efficient tumor targeting. We report photophysical properties of the new agent, its cellular uptake and in vitro targeting properties. Using live animal imaging and intravital microscopy (IVM) techniques, we observed a rapid accumulation of the agent and its retention for a prolonged period of time (up to 7 days) in fully established animal models of human melanoma and murine mammary adenocarcinoma. This macromolecular theranostic agent can be used for targeted delivery of high boron load into solid tumors for future applications in boron neutron capture therapy. PMID:25350602

  20. Neuroendocrine regulation and tumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Toni, R; Mirandola, P; Gobbi, G; Vitale, M

    2007-01-01

    The morphogenetic events leading to the transendothelial passage of lymphoid and tumoral cells are analyzed in light of a very recent and global theory of intercellular communication designated as the Triune Information Network (TIN). The TIN system is based on the assumption that cell-cell interactions primarily occur through cell surface informations or topobiological procesess, whose mechanisms rely upon expression of adhesion molecules, and are regulated by an array of locally-borne (autocrine/paracrine signals and autonomic inputs) and distantly-borne (endocrine secretions) messages. The final aim of the TIN is to control homeostatic functions crucial for the organism survival, like morphogenesis. Knowledge of the TIN signals involved in lymphoid and tumoral cell intravasation might offer a new perspetive to study the mechanisms of tumor immunity. Recognition of tumor target cells by immune cytotoxic effectors, in fact, can be considered a notable case of TIN-mediated cell to cell interaction. In particular, Natural Killer (NK) cells play a role in the cell-mediated control of tumor growth and metastatic spreading. Cell targeting and killing are dependent on the different NK cell receptors and on the efficacy of NK cells after cytokine and monoclonal antibody administration in cancer therapy. Since efficacy of NK cell-based immunotheraphy has been proven in KIR-mismatch regimens or in TRAIL-dependent apoptosis, the ability to manipulate the balance of activating and inhibitory receptors on NK cells and of their cognate ligands as well as the sensitivity of tumor cells to apoptosis, opens new perspectives for NK cell based immunotherapy. PMID:17703604

  1. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: A Review.

    PubMed

    Asija, Aakanksha Prasad; Mejia, Alex V; Prestipino, Anthony; Pillai, Madhavan V

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of aberrant molecular pathways that result in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) and the rapid development of molecular therapies that target these pathways represent one of the great milestones in translational oncology. The story of GIST is unique in that targeted molecular therapy was successfully applied in clinical therapeutics, with dramatic results redefining the management of these traditionally chemotherapy-resistant tumors. We briefly review the molecular biology and clinical presentation of GIST and then discuss the adjuvant and neoadjuvant use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in early-stage GIST and their use in metastatic disease. Newer therapeutic advances in the rapidly changing field of GIST management are also discussed. PMID:23942136

  2. Imaging of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Tan, Eik Hock; Tan, Cher Heng

    2011-01-10

    Imaging of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors can be broadly divided into anatomic and functional techniques. Anatomic imaging determines the local extent of the primary lesion, providing crucial information required for surgical planning. Functional imaging, not only determines the extent of metastatic disease spread, but also provides important information with regard to the biologic behavior of the tumor, allowing clinicians to decide on the most appropriate forms of treatment. We review the current literature on this subject, with emphasis on the strengths of each imaging modality. PMID:21603312

  3. Acute spontaneous tumor lysis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jasek, A M; Day, H J

    1994-10-01

    An 83-year-old woman with no previous history of malignancy was admitted to our institution with weakness and anemia and subsequently developed acute tumor lysis syndrome secondary to newly diagnosed Burkitt's leukemia/lymphoma. This syndrome has been previously described in patients with hematologic malignancies; however, its development has been related to the administration of chemotherapy, steroids, or radiotherapy. The spontaneous occurrence of tumor lysis syndrome has not been previously reported; however, Cohen et al. [Am J Med 58:486-491, 1980] report 8 of 37 patients with "clinically insignificant pretreatment derangements" of serum potassium, phosphate, and calcium. PMID:8092128

  4. Ectomesenchymal chondromyxoid tumor of tongue.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shan-Yin; Chang, Kung-Chao; Tsai, Hung-Wen; D D S, Ying-Tai Jin

    2012-01-01

    Ectomesenchymal chondromyxoid tumor (ECMT) is a rare entity of the dorsal tongue first described in 1995. Herein, we report a rare case of lingual ECMT in a 41-year-old man. Patient presented with an asymptomatic, small nodule (0.5 cm in diameter) in the anterior tongue. The pathological findings showed uni-lobular proliferation of fusiform cells, arranged in net-like sheets or swirls, in a chondromyxoid background. The tumor cells were immunoreactive for S-100 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), but negative for epithelial markers. Familiarity with this entity helps pathologists make a correct diagnosis. PMID:23455793

  5. Cytosine Methyltransferases as Tumor Markers

    PubMed Central

    Pavlopoulou, Athanasia; Kossida, Sophia

    2010-01-01

    Changes in DNA methylation patterns is a prominent characteristic of human tumors. Tumor cells display reduced levels of genomic DNA methylation and site-specific CpG island hypermethylation. Methylation of CpG dinucleotides is catalyzed by the enzyme family of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). In this review, the role of DNA methylation and DNMTs as key determinants of carcinogenesis is further elucidated. The chromatin modifying proteins that are known to interact with DNMTs are also described. Finally, the role of DNMTs as potential therapeutic targets is addressed. PMID:21629434

  6. Adult Wilms tumor: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Morabito, V.; Guglielmo, N.; Melandro, F.; Mazzesi, G.; Alesini, F.; Bosco, S.; Berloco, P.B.

    2014-01-01

    Wilms tumor (WT) occurs infrequently in adults. Even rarer is adult WT with extension by direct intravascular spread into the right side of the heart. The present report describes a WT with intracaval and intracardiac extension in a 38-year-young man. In addition, thrombus extension above the infrahepatic IVC represents a major technical topic for surgeons because of the possible occurrence of uncontrollable hemorrhages and tumor fragmentation. We report the results of a surgical approach to caval thrombosis including the isolation of the IVC from the liver as routinely performed during liver harvesting. The morphologic and immune-histochemical findings confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:25553532

  7. An exceptional collision tumor: gastric calcified stromal tumor and pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Hicham; Elfahssi, Mohamed; Belhamidi, Mohamed Said; Elhjouji, Abderrahman; Bounaim, Ahmed; Ali, Abdelmounaim Ait; Sair, Khalid; Zentar, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    The authors report an exceptional case of collision tumor comprised of a gastric calcified stromal tumor and a pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The pancreatic tumor was detected fortuitously on the histological exam of resection specimen.

  8. Biomarkers in Tissue Samples From Patients With High-Risk Wilms Tumor

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-17

    Clear Cell Sarcoma of the Kidney; Recurrent Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors; Rhabdoid Tumor of the Kidney; Stage I Wilms Tumor; Stage II Wilms Tumor; Stage III Wilms Tumor; Stage IV Wilms Tumor; Stage V Wilms Tumor

  9. Tumor-Host Cell Hybrids in Radiochimeras

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, Francis; Fenyö, Eva Maria; Klein, George

    1974-01-01

    F1 hybrid mice syngeneic or semiallogeneic with respect to the relevant tumor were lethally irradiated and then reconstituted with hemopoietic cells from strain CBAT6T6 mice. After chimerism had been established, the animals were inoculated with solid or ascites tumors. Tumor-host cell hybrids were selected from enzyme-deficient solid tumors by explanting the tumor cell suspension into hypoxanthine-amethopterin-thymidine containing medium. The selection of hybrid cells from ascites tumors was achieved by exploiting the difference between the ascites tumor cells and hybrid cells in their ability to adhere to the surface of culture vessels. T6T6 chromosomal and H-2 antigenic markers served to distinguish between the hemopoietic cells derived from the donor graft and the cells of the host. All solid tumors tested fused with cells of the irradiated host, whereas ascites tumors fused with repopulating cells of hemopoietic origin. Images PMID:4521047

  10. An isolated tumor perfusion model in mice

    PubMed Central

    Duyverman, Annique M M J; Kohno, Mitsutomo; Roberge, Sylvie; Fukumura, Dai; Duda, Dan G; Jain, Rakesh K

    2012-01-01

    The role of stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment has been extensively characterized. We and others have shown that stromal cells may participate in several steps of the metastatic cascade. This protocol describes an isolated tumor perfusion model that enables studies of cancer and stromal cell shedding. It could also be used to study the effects of therapies interfering with the shedding of tumor cells or fragments, circulating (stem) cells or biomarkers. Primary tumors are grown in a microenvironment in which stromal cells express GFP ubiquitously. Tumors are implanted orthotopically or can be implanted ectopically. As a result, all tumor-associated stromal cells express GFP. This technique can be used to detect and study the role of stromal cells in tumor fragments within the circulation in mice. Studying the role of stromal cells in circulating tumor fragments using this model may take 210 weeks, depending on the growth rate of the primary tumor. PMID:22441293

  11. Management of neuroendocrine tumors of unknown origin.

    PubMed

    Polish, Ariel; Vergo, Maxwell T; Agulnik, Mark

    2011-12-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of unknown origin account for more than 10% of all NETs. Most of these tumors are poorly differentiated and, thus, very aggressive. Establishing the location of the primary tumor can be challenging. Workup of these NETs of unknown origin includes a thorough family history, immunohistochemistry, imaging, and OctreoScan. If the location of the primary malignancy is not determined, treatment is often initiated based on the grade and level of differentiation of the tumor, with well- and moderately differentiated tumors treated as carcinoid tumors, whereas poorly differentiated tumors are treated similarly to small cell tumors. Therapy is chosen based on symptoms and with the goal of debulking tumor when feasible and safe. PMID:22157557

  12. Pericyte Antigens in Perivascular Soft Tissue Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jia; Shrestha, Swati; Yen, Yu-Hsin; Asatrian, Greg; Mravic, Marco; Soo, Chia; Ting, Kang; Dry, Sarah M.; Peault, Bruno; James, Aaron W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Perivascular soft tissue tumors are relatively uncommon neoplasms of unclear line of differentiation, although most are presumed to originate from pericytes or modified perivascular cells. Among these, glomus tumor, myopericytoma, and angioleiomyoma share a spectrum of histologic findings and a perivascular growth pattern. In contrast, solitary fibrous tumor (previously termed hemangiopericytoma) was once hypothesized to have pericytic differentiation. Methods Here, we systematically examine pericyte immunohistochemical markers among glomus tumor (including malignant glomus tumor), myopericytoma, angioleiomyoma, and solitary fibrous tumor. Immunohistochemical staining and semiquantification was performed using well-defined pericyte antigens, including ?SMA, CD146, and PDGFR?. Results Glomus tumor and myopericytoma demonstrate diffuse staining for all pericyte markers, including immunohistochemical reactivity for ?SMA, CD146, and PDGFR?. Malignant glomus tumors all showed some degree of pericyte marker immunoreactivity, although it was significantly reduced. Angioleiomyoma shared a similar ?SMA + CD146 + PDGFR?+ immunophenotype; however, this was predominantly seen in the areas of perivascular tumor growth. Solitary fibrous tumors showed patchy PDGFR? immunoreactivity only. Discussion In summary, pericyte marker expression is a ubiquitous finding in glomus tumor, myopericytoma, and angioleiomyoma. Malignant glomus tumor shows a comparative reduction in pericyte marker expression, which may represent partial loss of pericytic differentiation. Pericyte markers are essentially not seen in solitary fibrous tumor. The combination of ?SMA, CD146, and PDGFR? immunohistochemical stainings may be of utility for the evaluation of pericytic differentiation in soft tissue tumors. PMID:26085647

  13. Targeting tumor microenvironment: crossing tumor interstitial fluid by multifunctional nanomedicines

    PubMed Central

    Omidi, Yadollah; Barar, Jaleh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The genesis of cancer appears to be a complex matter, which is not simply based upon few genetic abnormalities/alteration. In fact, irregular microvasculature and aberrant interstitium of solid tumors impose significant pathophysiologic barrier functions against cancer treatment modalities, hence novel strategies should holistically target bioelements of tumor microenvironment (TME). In this study, we provide some overview and insights on TME and important strategies used to control the impacts of such pathophysiologic barriers. Methods: We reviewed all relevant literature for the impacts of tumor interstitium and microvasculature within the TME as well as the significance of the implemented strategies. Results: While tumorigenesis initiation seems to be in close relation with an emergence of hypoxia and alterations in epigenetic/genetic materials, large panoplies of molecular events emerge as intricate networks during oncogenesis to form unique lenient TME in favor of tumor progression. Within such irregular interstitium, immune system displays defective surveillance functionalities against malignant cells. Solid tumors show multifacial traits with coadaptation and self-regulation potentials, which bestow profound resistance against the currently used conventional chemotherapy and immunotherapy agents that target solely one face of the disease. Conclusion: The cancerous cells attain unique abilities to form its permissive microenvironment, wherein (a) extracellular pH is dysregulated towards acidification, (b) extracellular matrix (ECM) is deformed, (c) stromal cells are cooperative with cancer cells, (d) immune system mechanisms are defective, (e) non-integrated irregular microvasculature with pores (120-1200 nm) are formed, and (h) interstitial fluid pressure is high. All these phenomena are against cancer treatment modalities. As a result, to control such abnormal pathophysiologic traits, novel cancer therapy strategies need to be devised using multifunctional nanomedicines and theranostics. PMID:25035848

  14. Ceramide Kinase Promotes Tumor Cell Survival and Mammary Tumor Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Ania W.; Pant, Dhruv K.; Pan, Tien-chi; Chodosh, Lewis A.

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent breast cancer is typically an incurable disease and, as such, is disproportionately responsible for deaths from this disease. Recurrent breast cancers arise from the pool of disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) that survive adjuvant or neoadjuvant therapy, and patients with detectable DTCs following therapy are at substantially increased risk for recurrence. Consequently, the identification of pathways that contribute to the survival of breast cancer cells following therapy could aid in the development of more effective therapies that decrease the burden of residual disease and thereby reduce the risk of breast cancer recurrence. We now report that Ceramide Kinase (Cerk) is required for mammary tumor recurrence following HER2/neu pathway inhibition and is spontaneously up-regulated during tumor recurrence in multiple genetically engineered mouse models for breast cancer. We find that Cerk is rapidly up-regulated in tumor cells following HER2/neu down-regulation or treatment with Adriamycin and that Cerk is required for tumor cell survival following HER2/neu down-regulation. Consistent with our observations in mouse models, analysis of gene expression profiles from over 2,200 patients revealed that elevated CERK expression is associated with an increased risk of recurrence in women with breast cancer. Additionally, although CERK expression is associated with aggressive subtypes of breast cancer, including those that are ER–, HER2+, basal-like, or high grade, its association with poor clinical outcome is independent of these clinicopathological variables. Together, our findings identify a functional role for Cerk in breast cancer recurrence and suggest the clinical utility of agents targeted against this pro-survival pathway. PMID:25164007

  15. Harold Varmus investido bajo juramento como 14.º director d

    Cancer.gov

    Ganador del Premio Nobel, doctor Harold E. Varmus, prestó juramento hoy como 14.º director del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI).  "Es muy estimulante que estés de regreso con nosotros", dijo la secretaria del Departamento de Salud y Servicios Humanos K

  16. An Unusual Late Recurrence of Wilms Tumor.

    PubMed

    Sudour-Bonnange, Hélène; Lervat, Cyril; Renaud, Florence; Gauthier, Hélène; Rocourt, Nathalie

    2016-05-01

    Wilms tumor is the most common renal tumor in children, and the 5-year survival rate is approximately 85%. The majority of relapses occur in the lung, tumor bed, and liver within 2 years of diagnosis. In this study, we describe an unusual late tumor recurrence that occurred 9.5 years after the primary diagnosis. The patient presented with a slow growing cervical lymphadenopathy. The recurrent tumor showed the same histologic features as the original tumor. The patient was treated with surgery and radiotherapy without chemotherapy. The patient remained disease free 15 months after treatment. The possible effect of treatment and other mechanisms of this late relapse are discussed. PMID:26907648

  17. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor surgery and adjuvant therapy.

    PubMed

    Grignol, Valerie P; Termuhlen, Paula M

    2011-10-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are a unique class of mesenchymal tumors identified within the past decade. Intense molecular and genetic study has been used to characterize these tumors and develop treatment strategies. Although the mainstay of treatment remains surgical resection, therapy targeted at inhibiting tyrosine kinases has had dramatic results. Because of the rapid accumulation of information about the diagnosis and treatment of these tumors, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network convened a GIST task force to provide updated recommendations in 2010. As understanding of these tumors advances, rapid changes in recommendations will continue and should warrant regular updates in tumor management. PMID:21889030

  18. Therapeutic Targeting of Tumor Suppressor Genes

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Luc G. T.; Chan, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    Carcinogenesis is a multistep process attributable to both gain-of-function mutations in oncogenes and loss-of-function mutations in tumor suppressor genes. Currently, most molecular targeted therapies are inhibitors of oncogenes, because inactivated tumor suppressor genes have proven harder to drug. Nevertheless, in cancers, tumor suppressor genes undergo alteration more frequently than do oncogenes. In recent years, several promising strategies directed at tumor suppressor genes, or the pathways controlled by these genes, have emerged. Here, we describe advances in a number of different methodologies aimed at therapeutically targeting tumors driven by inactivated tumor suppressor genes. PMID:25557041

  19. Cathepsin S from both tumor and tumor-associated cells promote cancer growth and neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Small, Donna M; Burden, Roberta E; Jaworski, Jakub; Hegarty, Shauna M; Spence, Shaun; Burrows, James F; McFarlane, Cheryl; Kissenpfennig, Adrien; McCarthy, Helen O; Johnston, James A; Walker, Brian; Scott, Christopher J

    2013-11-01

    Recent murine studies have demonstrated that tumor-associated macrophages in the tumor microenvironment are a key source of the pro-tumorigenic cysteine protease, cathepsin S. We now show in a syngeneic colorectal carcinoma murine model that both tumor and tumor-associated cells contribute cathepsin S to promote neovascularization and tumor growth. Cathepsin S depleted and control colorectal MC38 tumor cell lines were propagated in both wild type C57Bl/6 and cathepsin S null mice to provide stratified depletion of the protease from either the tumor, tumor-associated host cells, or both. Parallel analysis of these conditions showed that deletion of cathepsin S inhibited tumor growth and development, and revealed a clear contribution of both tumor and tumor-associated cell derived cathepsin S. The most significant impact on tumor development was obtained when the protease was depleted from both sources. Further characterization revealed that the loss of cathepsin S led to impaired tumor vascularization, which was complemented by a reduction in proliferation and increased apoptosis, consistent with reduced tumor growth. Analysis of cell types showed that in addition to the tumor cells, tumor-associated macrophages and endothelial cells can produce cathepsin S within the microenvironment. Taken together, these findings clearly highlight a manner by which tumor-associated cells can positively contribute to developing tumors and highlight cathepsin S as a therapeutic target in cancer. PMID:23629809

  20. [Rectal neuroendocrine tumors: endoscopic therapy].

    PubMed

    Eick, J; Steinberg, J; Schwertner, C; Ring, W; Scherübl, H

    2016-04-01

    Clinically detected neuroendocrine neoplasms of the rectum have increased 10- to 30-fold in frequency over the past 45 years in Germany. Endoscopic ultrasonography is the method of choice for exact determination of the size of the tumor, depth of infiltration and detection of local lymph node metastases. Well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors ≤ 10.0 mm in size that do not infiltrate the muscularis propria can be endoscopically resected. In the case of lymphatic or blood vessel invasion or spread to lymph nodes, surgical lymph node dissection is indicated. The management of well-differentiated, neuroendocrine rectal tumors 10.1-20 mm in size is still a matter of debate. Old age and multimorbidity favor a conservative endoscopic approach; however, in the case of fit young patients, surgical management has to be considered. For neuroendocrine rectal neoplasms ≥ 20 mm in size, the risk of metastatic spread increases to 60-80 % indicating that an endoscopic resection is not adequate. Due to the introduction of screening colonoscopy, neuroendocrine rectal tumors are nowadays diagnosed mostly at a prognostically favorable early stage. PMID:26801755

  1. Expanding Therapy for Neuroendocrine Tumors.

    PubMed

    2016-03-01

    Results from two phase III studies suggest that everolimus, an mTOR inhibitor, and (177)Lutetium-DOTATATE, a radiopharmaceutical, may be effective new options for patients with advanced neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. Both therapies were well tolerated and significantly prolonged progression-free survival. PMID:26826165

  2. Carcinoid Tumor: Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... encourage a high protein diet and that includes lean meat (beef, pork and lamb all have lean parts that would fall into this category). Tryptophan ... life. See article by Moertel et. al. The management of patients with advanced carcinoid tumors and islet ...

  3. Pancreatic tumors imaging: An update.

    PubMed

    Scialpi, Michele; Reginelli, Alfonso; D'Andrea, Alfredo; Gravante, Sabrina; Falcone, Giuseppe; Baccari, Paolo; Manganaro, Lucia; Palumbo, Barbara; Cappabianca, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    Currently, ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance imaging (MRI) represent the mainstay in the evaluation of pancreatic solid and cystic tumors affecting pancreas in 80-85% and 10-15% of the cases respectively. Integration of US, CT or MR imaging is essential for an accurate assessment of pancreatic parenchyma, ducts and adjacent soft tissues in order to detect and to stage the tumor, to differentiate solid from cystic lesions and to establish an appropriate treatment. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of pancreatic tumors and the role of imaging in their diagnosis and management. In order to a prompt and accurate diagnosis and appropriate management of pancreatic lesions, it is crucial for radiologists to know the key findings of the most frequent tumors of the pancreas and the current role of imaging modalities. A multimodality approach is often helpful. If multidetector-row CT (MDCT) is the preferred initial imaging modality in patients with clinical suspicion for pancreatic cancer, multiparametric MRI provides essential information for the detection and characterization of a wide variety of pancreatic lesions and can be used as a problem-solving tool at diagnosis and during follow-up. PMID:26777740

  4. Tumor Immunotargeting Using Innovative Radionuclides

    PubMed Central

    Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Rousseau, Caroline; Bodet-Milin, Caroline; Mathieu, Cédric; Guérard, François; Frampas, Eric; Carlier, Thomas; Chouin, Nicolas; Haddad, Ferid; Chatal, Jean-François; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Chérel, Michel; Barbet, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality. PMID:25679452

  5. Tumors of the Infratemporal Fossa

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Rammohan; Quak, Jasper; Egeler, Saskia; Smeele, Ludi; Waal, Isaac v.d.; Valk, Paul v.d.; Leemans, Rene

    2000-01-01

    Neoplastic processes involving the infratemporal fossa may originate from the tissues in the region, but more often are the result of extension from neighboring structures. Metastatic lesions located in the region are rarely encountered. Because of its concealed localization, tumors may remain unnoticed for some time. Clinical signs and symptoms often arise late, are insidious, and may be mistakenly attributed to other structures. The close proximity of the area to the intracranial structures, the orbit, the paranasal sinuses, the nasopharynx, and the facial area demands careful planning of surgical excision and combined procedures may be called for. Modern imaging techniques have made three-dimensional visualization of the extent of the pathology possible. Treatment depends on the histopathology and staging of the tumor. Several surgical approaches have been developed over the years. Radical tumor excision with preservation of the quality of life remain the ultimate goal for those tumors where surgery is indicated. Experience over a decade with various pathologies is presented. ImagesFigure 1p6-bFigure 2Figure 3 PMID:17171095

  6. Laser application in tracheobronchial tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, B. Krishna; Krishna, Sharon

    2004-09-01

    Ninety three patients with obstructing tracheobronchial tumors were treated with Neodymium: Yttrium - Aluminum - Garnet (Nd:YAG) laser photocoagulation over a period of six years. There were sixty seven Males and 26 Females with a mean age of 44.3 years (range 6- 79 years). 21 benign and 72 malignant lesions were treated with a total 212 sessions of laser photocoagulation (mean 2.4 sessions). The anatomical distribution of lesions were as follows; larynx 9 (three benign and 6 malignant) trachea 39 (27 benign and 12 malignant) left main bronchus 27 (14 malignant) right main bronchus 24 (14 malignant) and vocal cords - 9 (three malignant). There were 21 patients with squamous cell carcinoma, two adenocarcinomas, one adenoid cystic carcinoma, 7 cases of locally infiltrating tumors from thyroid and esophagus, 6 cases of carcinoid tumor and 16 benign lesions. Twenty one patients had a tracheostomy tube in place when treatment was started. Eighteen of the 21 patients with tracheostomy were weaned off the tube in a mean of 5.5 days from the start of treatment. Lumen was restored in 31 (79.4%) patients. In the other eight (20.6%), lumen was achieved, but not sustained. Complications included bleeding in three cases which were managed conservatively, two cases of pneumothorax, and four cases of bronchospasm. There were six deaths during the follow up but none attributable to the procedure. Laser photocoagulation offered effective treatment in the majority of patients with obstructing tracheobronchial tumors, with acceptable morbidity.

  7. Tumor immunotargeting using innovative radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Rousseau, Caroline; Bodet-Milin, Caroline; Mathieu, Cédric; Guérard, François; Frampas, Eric; Carlier, Thomas; Chouin, Nicolas; Haddad, Ferid; Chatal, Jean-François; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Chérel, Michel; Barbet, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality. PMID:25679452

  8. Evolution of Avian Tumor Viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virus-induced neoplastic diseases of poultry, namely Marek’s disease (MD), induced by a herpesvirus, and the avian leukosis and reticuloendotheliosis induced by retroviruses, can cause significant economic losses from tumor mortality as well as poor performance. Successful control of MD is and has ...

  9. Palifosfamide in Treating Patients With Recurrent Germ Cell Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-11

    Adult Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Adult Teratoma; Malignant Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Malignant Extragonadal Non-Seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor; Extragonadal Seminoma; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Extragonadal Non-Seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Extragonadal Seminoma; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor

  10. Human polyomaviruses and brain tumors.

    PubMed

    White, Martyn K; Gordon, Jennifer; Reiss, Krzysztof; Del Valle, Luis; Croul, Sidney; Giordano, Antonio; Darbinyan, Armine; Khalili, Kamel

    2005-12-01

    Polyomaviruses are DNA tumor viruses with small circular genomes. Three polyomaviruses have captured attention with regard to their potential role in the development of human brain tumors: JC virus (JCV), BK virus (BKV), and simian vacuolating virus 40 (SV40). JCV is a neurotropic polyomavirus that is the etiologic agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a fatal demyelinating disease of the central nervous system occurring mainly in AIDS patients. BKV is the causative agent of polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PVN) which occurs after renal transplantation when BKV reactivates from a latent state during immunosuppressive therapy to cause allograft failure. SV40, originating in rhesus monkeys, gained notoriety when it entered the human population via contaminated polio vaccines. All three viruses are highly oncogenic when injected into the brain of experimental animals. Reports indicate that these viruses, especially JCV, are associated with brain tumors and other cancers in humans as evidenced from the analysis of clinical samples for the presence of viral DNA sequences and expression of viral proteins. Human polyomaviruses encode three non-capsid regulatory proteins: large T-antigen, small t-antigen, and agnoprotein. These proteins interact with a number of cellular target proteins to exert effects that dysregulate pathways involved in the control of various host cell functions including the cell cycle, DNA repair, and others. In this review, we describe the three polyomaviruses, their abilities to cause brain and other tumors in experimental animals, the evidence for an association with human brain tumors, and the latest findings on the molecular mechanisms of their actions. PMID:15982744

  11. [Cytogenetics of oral solid tumors].

    PubMed

    Manor, E; Bodner, L

    2011-10-01

    The tumorigenesiss of oral solid tumors is still uncertain. The underlying mechanisms of epithelial or connective tissue proliferation are not yet fully understood. Also, the transformation of a benign tumor into malignant is obscure. Cytogenetics is the study of chromosome number and structure using a light microscope. Human chromosome nomenclature is based on An International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature (ISCN). The normal human somatic cells have 46 chromosomes, including 22 pairs of autosomes and two sex chromosomes, XX in female and XY in male. The chromosome abnormalities can be numerical and structural. Both types can occur concurrently. Numerical abnormalities involve the loss and/or gain of a whole chromosome and can include both autosomes and sex chromosomes. Cells which have lost a chromosome are categorized as a monosomy, while those with an extra chromosome are trisomy. Structural abnormalities include translocations, deletions, inversions and insertions. Cancer, in its various forms is a result of genetic changes. This concept comes from the finding of chromosomal abnormalities. These abnormalities may arise as a consequence of random replication errors; exposure to carcinogens; or damaged DNA repair process. In clinical oncology, the study of chromosome abnormalities in solid tumors provides valuable information for the diagnosis, evaluating treatment response of metastatic cancer, marker for prognosis and targeted therapy. In tumors which histologic features overlap, cytogenetics plays an important role for diagnosis. Cytogenetics has also been used to monitor the surgical margins of the resection in head and neck carcinoma, where the histology was not definitive. The present report will focus on the role of cytogenetics in the diagnosis and prognosis of benign and malignant oral solid tumors. PMID:22471156

  12. TUMOR CONTAMINATION IN THE BIOPSY PATH OF PRIMARY MALIGNANT BONE TUMORS

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Marcelo Parente; Lima, Pablo Moura de Andrade; de Mello, Roberto José Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study factors possibly associated with tumor contamination in the biopsy path of primary malignant bone tumors. Method: Thirty-five patients who underwent surgical treatment with diagnoses of osteosarcoma, Ewing's tumor and chondrosarcoma were studied retrospectively. The sample was analyzed to characterize the biopsy technique used, histological type of the tumor, neoadjuvant chemotherapy used, local recurrences and tumor contamination in the biopsy path. Results: Among the 35 patients studied, four cases of contamination occurred (11.43%): one from osteosarcoma, two from Ewing's tumor and one from chondrosarcoma. There was no association between the type of tumor and presence of tumor contamination in the biopsy path (p = 0.65). There was also no association between the presence of tumor contamination and the biopsy technique (p = 0.06). On the other hand, there were associations between the presence of tumor contamination and local recurrence (p = 0.01) and between tumor contamination and absence of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (p = 0.02). Conclusion: Tumor contamination in the biopsy path of primary malignant bone tumors was associated with local recurrence. On the other hand, the histological type of the tumor and the type of biopsy did not have an influence on tumor contamination. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy had a protective effect against this complication. Despite these findings, tumor contamination is a complication that should always be taken into consideration, and removal of the biopsy path is recommended in tumor resection surgery.

  13. Analysis of tumor suppressor gene p53 in chicken lymphoblastoid tumor cell lines and field tumors.

    PubMed

    Takagi, M; Ohashi, K; Morimura, T; Sugimoto, C; Onuma, M

    1998-08-01

    To determine whether there is any abnormalities of the p53 gene in chicken lymphoblastoid tumor cell lines derived from Marek's disease (MD), lymphoid leukosis, reticuloendotheliosis, and field tumors, some portions of p53 cDNA corresponding to core and C-terminal domains (nucleotide positions 277-1104 in the p53 open reading frame (ORF)) were sequenced. Several mutations were identified in both cell lines and field tumors. However, none of these mutations is localized at the "hot spot", which has been reported as the site for transformation-activating mutations. Moreover, partial cDNA clones with a 122-bp deletion in the p53 ORF were identified in two cell lines, MSB1 and MTB1 derived from MD tumors. Southern blot analysis showed that no deletion occurred in the genome of p53 in MSB1, indicating that deletion occurred at the transcriptional level. This deletion could cause a frame shift of the encoding p53 protein, possibly resulting in the generation of a functionally different p53 protein. However, we confirmed that p53 mRNA without deletion is also present in each of these cell lines. These mutations of the p53 gene and deletion in the p53 transcript may be ones of molecular changes specific to the transformation induced by MD virus. PMID:9764405

  14. Diagnostic Study of Tumor Characteristics in Patients With Ewing's Sarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-20

    Localized Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  15. Liquid Biopsies: Genotyping Circulating Tumor DNA

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Luis A.; Bardelli, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Genotyping tumor tissue in search of somatic genetic alterations for actionable information has become routine practice in clinical oncology. Although these sequence alterations are highly informative, sampling tumor tissue has significant inherent limitations; tumor tissue is a single snapshot in time, is subject to selection bias resulting from tumor heterogeneity, and can be difficult to obtain. Cell-free fragments of DNA are shed into the bloodstream by cells undergoing apoptosis or necrosis, and the load of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) correlates with tumor staging and prognosis. Moreover, recent advances in the sensitivity and accuracy of DNA analysis have allowed for genotyping of cfDNA for somatic genomic alterations found in tumors. The ability to detect and quantify tumor mutations has proven effective in tracking tumor dynamics in real time as well as serving as a liquid biopsy that can be used for a variety of clinical and investigational applications not previously possible. PMID:24449238

  16. [Malignant bone tumors of the hand].

    PubMed

    Schnürer, S; Horch, R E

    2013-06-01

    Malignant bone tumors are very rare entities in the bones of the hand. The histologic subtypes (chondrosarcoma, osteosarcoma, Ewing-sarcoma) preferentially manifest in varying regions of the skeleton. Chondrosarcomas are the most frequent malignant bone tumor type in the hand. Cardinal symptoms of malignant bone tumors in the hand and in general are a new swelling and pain in the affected bones. The primary diagnostic tools are radiologic techniques (x-ray, CT, MRI) for assessment of local tumor growth and the oncologic staging. A definitive treatment of malignant bone tumors should be carried out in specialized centers, as these tumors are rare. Surgical therapy is completed by chemo- or radiotherapy, if required because of histologic subtype and local or systemic spreading. Safe margins of tumor resection should be preferred to function-preserving treatment for tumors of the hand while the preservation of functional units should be pursued whenever possible. PMID:23860700

  17. Deciphering and Reversing Tumor Immune Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Motz, Greg T.; Coukos, George

    2013-01-01

    Generating an anti-tumor immune response is a multi-step process that is executed by effector T cells that can recognize and kill tumor targets. However, tumors employ multiple strategies to attenuate the effectiveness of T cell-mediated attack. This is achieved by interfering with nearly every step required for effective immunity, from deregulation of antigen-presenting cells, to establishment of a physical barrier at the vasculature that prevents homing of effector tumor-rejecting cells, and through the suppression of effector lymphocytes through the recruitment and activation of immunosuppressive cells like myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), tolerogenic monocytes and T regulatory cells (Tregs). Here, we review the ways in which tumors exert immune suppression and highlight the new therapies that seek to reverse this phenomenon and promote anti-tumor immunity. Understanding anti-tumor immunity, and how it becomes disabled by tumors, will ultimately lead to improved immune therapies and prolonged survival of patients. PMID:23890064

  18. What Are the Symptoms of Pituitary Tumors?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources and Publications What are the symptoms of pituitary tumors? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... growth and sexual development Other General Symptoms of Pituitary Tumors Nausea and vomiting Confusion Dizziness Seizure Runny or ...

  19. Papillary endolymphatic sac tumor: a case report.

    PubMed

    Arava, S; Soumya, R M; Chitragar, S; Safaya, R; Chandrashekhar, S H; Thakar, Alok

    2012-01-01

    Glandular tumors involving the middle ear are rare and distinguishing between adenoma and adenocarcinoma remains difficult. A distinct subclass of these tumors demonstrates microscopic papillary architecture and has a propensity to erode the petrous bone and extend intracranially. The term "aggressive papillary middle ear tumor" has recently been proposed to describe this more invasive type of middle ear tumor. These tumors cause symptoms even when microscopic in size. Although histologically benign, they have been locally destructive with frequent intracranial extension and patients may die of uncontrolled local disease. These tumors do not metastasize but there is single case report of drop metastasis to the spine in the literature. Hence this tumor must be distinguished from other benign tumors of the middle ear. These rare neoplasms constitute a distinct pathological entity and deserve wider recognition. PMID:22953101

  20. Treatment of Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors by Stage

    MedlinePlus

    ... often treated by removing them completely through an endoscope. The other option is to watch the tumors ... tumors need to be removed, either through an endoscope or in a regular operation through an incision ...

  1. Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults Download Printable ... the topics below to get started. What Is Brain/CNS Tumors In Adults? What are adult brain ...

  2. Deregulated proliferation and differentiation in brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Swartling, Fredrik J; Čančer, Matko; Frantz, Aaron; Weishaupt, Holger; Persson, Anders I

    2014-01-01

    Neurogenesis, the generation of new neurons, is deregulated in neural stem cell (NSC)- and progenitor-derived murine models of malignant medulloblastoma and glioma, the most common brain tumors of children and adults, respectively. Molecular characterization of human malignant brain tumors, and in particular brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs), has identified neurodevelopmental transcription factors, microRNAs, and epigenetic factors known to inhibit neuronal and glial differentiation. We are starting to understand how these factors are regulated by the major oncogenic drivers in malignant brain tumors. In this review, we will focus on the molecular switches that block normal neuronal differentiation and induce brain tumor formation. Genetic or pharmacological manipulation of these switches in BTSCs has been shown to restore the ability of tumor cells to differentiate. We will discuss potential brain tumor therapies that will promote differentiation in order to reduce treatment-resistance, suppress tumor growth, and prevent recurrence in patients. PMID:25416506

  3. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Mimicking as Ovarian Tumor in Gynaecologic Oncology.

    PubMed

    Ijeri, Santosh K; Rathod, Praveen S; Kundargi, Rajshekar; Pallavi, V R; Shobha, K; Shankaranand; Vijay, C R; Uma Devi, K; Bafna, Uttam D

    2016-03-01

    To report the clinical presentation and outcomes of a series of patients who presented with abdominal/pelvic mass or pelvic pain and were diagnosed with a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Retrospective data were collected of all patients who presented with an abdominal/pelvic mass or pelvic pain between January 2010 and July 2015 and who were ultimately diagnosed with a GIST. The patients' medical records were reviewed. A literature review was also conducted. The event free survival and overall survival was calculated for all patients using Kaplan Meier curve (SPSS19-SPSS Inc. USA). A total ten patients were identified with GIST during the study period. Eight of ten patients had a tumor in the small intestine, one in sigmoid colon and one in base of small bowel mesentry. The mean tumor size was 13.9 cm (range, 3.9 to 24 cm). A complete resection was achieved in all 10 patients. No patient had distance metastasis. There were no intraoperative complications. One patient developed postoperative intestinal fistula and was managed conservatively. All patients were treated with imatinib after surgery. The mean follow-up time was 18 months (range, 2 to 47 months). The seven of the 10 patients (70 %) with no evidence of disease, two (20 %) lost follow up and one patient developed recurrence during follow up period and was started on sunitinib and patient died during follow up period because of disease. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with an abdominal/pelvic mass or pelvic pain in Gynaecologic oncology department. In such unusual circumstances the complete resection and appropriate adjuvant treatment results in complete durable remission. PMID:27065683

  4. Tumor size and prognosis in patients with Wilms tumor

    PubMed Central

    Provenzi, Valentina Oliveira; Rosa, Rafael Fabiano Machado; Rosa, Rosana Cardoso Manique; Roehe, Adriana Vial; dos Santos, Pedro Paulo Albino; Faulhaber, Fabrízia Rennó Sodero; de Oliveira, Ceres Andréia Vieira; Zen, Paulo Ricardo Gazzola

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Investigate the relationship of the tumor volume after preoperative chemotherapy (TVAPQ) and before preoperative chemotherapy (TVBPQ) with overall survival at two and at five years, and lifetime. METHODS: Our sample consisted of consecutive patients evaluated in the period from 1989 to 2009 in an Onco-Hematology Service. Clinical, histological and volumetric data were collected from the medical records. For analysis, chi-square, Kaplan-Meier, log-rank and Cox regression tests were used. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 32 patients, 53.1% were male with a median age at diagnosis of 43 months. There was a significant association between TVAPQ>500mL and the difference between the TVBPQ and TVAPQ (p=0.015) and histologic types of risk (p=0.008). It was also verified an association between the difference between the TVBPQ and TVAPQ and the predominant stromal tumor (p=0.037). When assessing the TVAPQ of all patients, without a cutoff, there was an association of the variable with lifetime (p=0.013), i.e., for each increase of 10mL in TVAPQ there was an average increase of 2% in the risk of death. CONCLUSIONS: Although our results indicate that the TVAPQ could be considered alone as a predictor of poor prognosis regardless of the cutoff suggested in the literature, more studies are needed to replace the histology and staging by tumor size as best prognostic variable. PMID:25623730

  5. Tumors of the ocular surface: A review

    PubMed Central

    Honavar, Santosh G; Manjandavida, Fairooz P

    2015-01-01

    Tumors of the Ocular Surface clinically manifest with a very wide spectrum and include several forms of epithelial, stromal, caruncular, and secondary tumors. As a group, these tumors are seen commonly in the clinical practice of a comprehensive ophthalmologist, cornea specialist, and an ocular oncologist. This review is aimed to discuss the common tumors of the ocular surface and emphasize on their clinical diagnosis and appropriate management. PMID:25971163

  6. Onychomatricoma with Concomitant Subungual Glomus Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Kallis, Penelope; Miteva, Mariya; Patel, Tejas; Zaiac, Martin; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Onychomatricoma and glomus tumor are two rare subungual neoplasms with distinct clinical and histopathological features. We report a case of onychomatricoma associated with a glomus tumor in the subungual region of the same finger in a 45-year-old woman. Histopathological examination revealed characteristic findings of both onychomatricoma and glomus tumor. To the best of our knowledge, these two subungual tumors have never before been described occurring concomitantly.

  7. RECIST Applied to Realistic Tumor Models

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Zachary H.; Galloway, Benjamin R.; Peskin, Adele P.

    2011-01-01

    RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors) is a linear measure intended to predict tumor size in medical computed tomography (CT). In this work, using purely geometrical considerations, we estimate how well RECIST can predict the volume of randomly-oriented tumor models, each composed of the union of ellipsoids. The principal conclusion is that RECIST is likely to work less well for realistic tumors than for ellipsoids.

  8. Cystic adenomatoid tumor of the uterus.

    PubMed

    Manucha, Varsha; Azar, Azniv; Shwayder, James M; Hudgens, Joseph L; Lewin, Jack

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of a cystic adenomatoid tumor in a 40-year-old woman. The tumor was an intramural multicystic mass, histologically similar to a multicystic mesothelioma. Cystic adenomatoid tumors of the uterus are extremely rare. They present with a wide differential diagnosis in radiology. The tumors are known to be benign and awareness of this rare entity is the key to its diagnosis for a pathologist. PMID:26881558

  9. LA BIOÉTICA COMO QUEHACER FILOSÓFICO

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Jorge José

    2009-01-01

    El artículo examina el estatuto epistemológico de la bioética como disciplina académica. El autor sostiene que el estatuto epistemológico de un discurso lo determina la pregunta fundamental que se plantea y la respuesta que se busca, focos integradores del discurso. En el caso de la bioética, la pregunta fundamental es de índole moral. La bioética es pues una disciplina ética que tiene su hogar epistemológico en la filosofía. El autor también defiende el concepto de “éticas aplicadas”. Sugiere finalmente que el método de la bioética, sobre todo la que se hace desde nuestras latitudes, debería adoptar el círculo hermenéutico como metodología para su filosofar. PMID:20463860

  10. Rare tumors of the rectum. Narrative review.

    PubMed

    Errasti Alustiza, José; Espín Basany, Eloy; Reina Duarte, Angel

    2014-11-01

    Most rectal neoplasms are adenocarcinomas, but there is a small percentage of tumors which are of other histological cell lines such as neuroendocrine tumors, sarcomas, lymphomas and squamous cell carcinomas, which have special characteristics and different treatments. We have reviewed these rare tumors of the rectum from a clinical and surgical point of view. PMID:24629769

  11. The angiographic features of extraabdominal desmoid tumors.

    PubMed

    Miller, E M; Newton, T H

    1979-08-01

    Extraabdominal desmoid tumors are nonencapsulated locally invasive neoplasms of fibrous tissue. The angiographic features include arterial stretching, neovascularity, and tumor staining (4 of 6 cases in this series). Although benign, these tumors are difficult to cure because they tend to recur locally. PMID:461785

  12. Non-functioning pituitary tumors: 2012 update.

    PubMed

    Cámara Gómez, Rosa

    2014-03-01

    Non-functioning pituitary adenomas are the most common pituitary macroadenomas in adults, accounting for approximately 14%-28% of all clinically relevant pituitary tumors. They are a heterogeneous group of tumors that cause symptoms by compression and/or hormone deficiencies. The possibility of tumor growth is increased in macroadenomas and solid tumors as compared to microadenomas and cystic tumors. Diagnosis is based on imaging procedures (magnetic resonance imaging), but there are studies reporting promising potential biomarkers. Transsphenoidal surgery remains the first therapeutic option for large tumors with compressive symptoms. There is no evidence that endoscopic procedures improve outcomes, but they decrease morbidity. There is no unanimity in finding prognostic predictors of recurrence. Radiosurgery achieves tumor control and, sometimes, adenoma size reduction. Its adverse effects increase with higher doses and tumor sizes>4cm(3). Drug treatment is of little value. In aggressive non-functioning tumors, temozolomide (TMZ) may be used with caution because no controlled studies are available. TMZ achieves tumor control in 38%-40% of aggressive non-functioning tumors. The optimal treatment regimen and duration have not been defined yet. Lack of response to TMZ after 3 cycles predicts for treatment resistance, but initial response does not ensure optimal mid or long-term results. O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase expression has a limited predictive value of response to treatment with TMZ in aggressive non-functioning tumors. It should therefore not be a determinant factor in selection of patients to be treated with TMZ. PMID:24035732

  13. Multiple Brown Tumors Caused by a Parathyroid Adenoma Mimicking Metastatic Bone Disease from Giant Cell Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Phulsunga, Rohit Kumar; Parghane, Rahul Vithalrao; Kanojia, Rajendra K.; Gochhait, Debasis; Sood, Ashwani; Bhattacharya, Anish; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2016-01-01

    Brown tumor affects multiple bones in the body with variable clinical symptoms, which may be misdiagnosed as multiple bone metastases or primary bone tumor. In the present case report, we report the usefulness of 99mTc-MDP bone scan and 99mTc-MIBI whole body scan in differentiating brown tumor of hyperparathyroidism from giant cell tumor. PMID:26912981

  14. Sox17 promotes tumor angiogenesis and destabilizes tumor vessels in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hanseul; Lee, Sungsu; Lee, Seungjoo; Kim, Kangsan; Yang, Yeseul; Kim, Jeong Hoon; Adams, Ralf H.; Wells, James M.; Morrison, Sean J.; Koh, Gou Young; Kim, Injune

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the transcriptional regulation of tumor angiogenesis, and tumor ECs (tECs) remain poorly characterized. Here, we studied the expression pattern of the transcription factor Sox17 in the vasculature of murine and human tumors and investigated the function of Sox17 during tumor angiogenesis using Sox17 genetic mouse models. Sox17 was specifically expressed in tECs in a heterogeneous pattern; in particular, strong Sox17 expression distinguished tECs with high VEGFR2 expression. Whereas overexpression of Sox17 in tECs promoted tumor angiogenesis and vascular abnormalities, Sox17 deletion in tECs reduced tumor angiogenesis and normalized tumor vessels, inhibiting tumor growth. Tumor vessel normalization by Sox17 deletion was long lasting, improved anticancer drug delivery into tumors, and inhibited tumor metastasis. Sox17 promoted endothelial sprouting behavior and upregulated VEGFR2 expression in a cell-intrinsic manner. Moreover, Sox17 increased the percentage of tumor-associated CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells within tumors. The vascular effects of Sox17 persisted throughout tumor growth. Interestingly, Sox17 expression specific to tECs was also observed in highly vascularized human glioblastoma samples. Our findings establish Sox17 as a key regulator of tumor angiogenesis and tumor progression. PMID:23241958

  15. Senescent cells in growing tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapperi, Stefano; La Porta, Caterina A. M.; Sethna, James P.

    2012-02-01

    Tumors are defined by their intense proliferation, but sometimes cancer cells turn senescent and stop replicating. In the stochastic cancer model in which all cells are tumorigenic, senescence is seen as the result of random mutatations, suggesting that it could represent a barrier to tumor growth. In the hierarchical cancer model a subset of the cells, the cancer stem cells, divide indefinitely while other cells eventually turn senescent. Here we formulate cancer growth in mathematical terms and obtain distinct predictions for the evolution of senescence in the two models. We perform experiments in human melanoma cells which confirm the predictions of the hierarchical model and show that senescence is a reversible process controlled by survivin. We conclude that enhancing senescence is unlikely to provide a useful therapeutic strategy to fight cancer, unless the cancer stem cells are specifically targeted.

  16. Tumor Metabolism of Malignant Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Ru, Peng; Williams, Terence M.; Chakravarti, Arnab; Guo, Deliang

    2013-01-01

    Constitutively activated oncogenic signaling via genetic mutations such as in the EGFR/PI3K/Akt and Ras/RAF/MEK pathways has been recognized as a major driver for tumorigenesis in most cancers. Recent insights into tumor metabolism have further revealed that oncogenic signaling pathways directly promote metabolic reprogramming to upregulate biosynthesis of lipids, carbohydrates, protein, DNA and RNA, leading to enhanced growth of human tumors. Therefore, targeting cell metabolism has become a novel direction for drug development in oncology. In malignant gliomas, metabolism pathways of glucose, glutamine and lipid are significantly reprogrammed. Moreover, molecular mechanisms causing these metabolic changes are just starting to be unraveled. In this review, we will summarize recent studies revealing critical gene alterations that lead to metabolic changes in malignant gliomas, and also discuss promising therapeutic strategies via targeting the key players in metabolic regulation. PMID:24217114

  17. Elastofibroma: An Uncommon Tumor Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Patnayak, Rashmi; Jena, Amitabh; Settipalli, Sarla; Nagesh, N

    2016-01-01

    Elastofibromas are rare benign, soft-tissue slow-growing tumors seen predominantly in elderly females. The most common location is the infrascapular region. These benign tumors require resection only in symptomatic cases. We present a case of elastofibroma in a 46-year-old female. She presented with gradually increasing soft-tissue swelling of 8 cm × 6 cm in the right inferior subscapular region for the last 2 years. She underwent excisional biopsy and the histopathology was reported as elastofibroma. Microscopically, the mass showed numerous characteristic eosinophilic, beaded elastic fibers. These fibers were highlighted by the Verhoeff's elastic stain. We present this uncommon case to emphasize the important role of histopathology in diagnosis. A definitive diagnosis helps to avoid unnecessary wide and radical resection.

  18. Duodenal involvement by seminomatous tumors.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Lopez, Mario; Velasco-López, Rosalía; Mambrilla-Herrero, Sara; Bailon-Cuadrado, Martin; Plua, Katherine T; Diez-González, Luis M; Blanco-Álvarez, Jose I; Asensio-Díaz, Enrique; Gonzalo-Martín, Marta; Pérez-Saborido, Baltasar; Marcos-Rodríguez, Jose L

    2015-10-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors, though rare (1%), represent the most common neoplasm among young men. Gastrointestinal involvement from these malignancies usually presents as bowel obstruction and digestive bleeding, but their frequency is low (5%). The patterns of this involvement are: infiltration from affected retroperitoneal lymph nodes or, less frequently, by peritoneal seeding and direct hematogenous spread. Particularly, infiltration of duodenum is also rare, though its real frequency is not well defined. Moreover, the affinity for GI tract differs among the histological types of GCT, being seminomatous tumors an exceedingly unfrequent cause of duodenal infiltration. We herein present a recent case in our institution of severe anemia due to gastrointestinal bleeding in the context of giant retroperitoneal bulky metastatic mass infiltrating duodenum as first manifestation of a testicular pure seminoma. PMID:26437983

  19. The Pathobiology of Glioma Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Gladson, Candece L.; Prayson, Richard A.; Liu, Wei (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    The ongoing characterization of the genetic and epigenetic alterations in the gliomas has already improved the classification of these heterogeneous tumors and enabled the development of rodent models for analysis of the molecular pathways underlying their proliferative and invasive behavior. Effective application of the targeted therapies that are now in development will depend on pathologists’ ability to provide accurate information regarding the genetic alterations and the expression of key receptors and ligands in the tumors. Here we review the mechanisms that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of the gliomas and provide examples of the cooperative nature of the pathways involved, which may influence the initial therapeutic response and the potential for development of resistance. PMID:19737106

  20. [Glomus tumor of the thumb].

    PubMed

    Zapotoczny, Stanis?aw; Marniok, Beata; Gradzik, Robert; Arendt, Jerzy; Zajecki, Wojciech

    2004-01-01

    The article presents a case of 42-year-old patient with Recklinghausen disease treated in the outpatient clinic for 5 years for hyperaesthesia of a thumb. On physical examination the thumb was painful but smooth, soft with no features of infection. Neuralgia and Raynaud syndrome were suspected. Additional investigations did not show significant abnormalities, however, successive forms of conservative treatment (including denervation of the thumb) were not successful. Instant, persistent pain caused by even a slight touch or thermal changes suggested glomus tumor of the thumb. Physical examination did not confirm a lump typical in this disease. Finally partial resection of the digital pulp was performed, which led to complete recovery. Histopathological examination confirmed glomus tumor of the thumb. PMID:15181759

  1. Hybrid Models of Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Rejniak, Katarzyna A.; Anderson, Alexander R. A.

    2010-01-01

    Cancer is a complex, multiscale process, in which genetic mutations occurring at a subcellular level manifest themselves as functional changes at the cellular and tissue scale. The multiscale nature of cancer requires mathematical modeling approaches that can handle multiple intra- and extracellular factors acting on different time and space scales. Hybrid models provide a way to integrate both discrete and continuous variables that are used to represent individual cells and concentration or density fields, respectively. Each discrete cell can also be equipped with sub-models that drive cell behavior in response to microenvironmental cues. Moreover, the individual cells can interact with one another to form and act as an integrated tissue. Hybrid models form part of a larger class of individual-based-models that can naturally connect with tumor cell biology and allow for the integration of multiple interacting variables both intrinsically and extrinsically and are therefore perfectly suited to a systems biology approach to tumor growth. PMID:21064037

  2. Endoscopic resection of subepithelial tumors

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Arthur; Bauder, Markus; Riecken, Bettina; Caca, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Management of subepithelial tumors (SETs) remains challenging. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has improved differential diagnosis of these tumors but a definitive diagnosis on EUS findings alone can be achieved in the minority of cases. Complete endoscopic resection may provide a reasonable approach for tissue acquisition and may also be therapeutic in case of malignant lesions. Small SET restricted to the submucosa can be removed with established basic resection techniques. However, resection of SET arising from deeper layers of the gastrointestinal wall requires advanced endoscopic methods and harbours the risk of perforation. Innovative techniques such as submucosal tunneling and full thickness resection have expanded the frontiers of endoscopic therapy in the past years. This review will give an overview about endoscopic resection techniques of SET with a focus on novel methods. PMID:25512768

  3. Tumor sialylation impedes T cell mediated anti-tumor responses while promoting tumor associated-regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Perdicchio, Maurizio; Cornelissen, Lenneke A M; Streng-Ouwehand, Ingeborg; Engels, Steef; Verstege, Marleen I; Boon, Louis; Geerts, Dirk; van Kooyk, Yvette; Unger, Wendy W J

    2016-02-23

    The increased presence of sialylated glycans on the tumor surface has been linked to poor prognosis, yet the effects on tumor-specific T cell immunity are hardly studied. We here show that hypersialylation of B16 melanoma substantially influences tumor growth by preventing the formation of effector T cells and facilitating the presence of high regulatory T cell (Treg) frequencies. Knock-down of the sialic acid transporter created "sialic acid low" tumors, that grew slower in-vivo than hypersialylated tumors, altered the Treg/Teffector balance, favoring immunological tumor control. The enhanced effector T cell response in developing "sialic acid low" tumors was preceded by and dependent on an increased influx and activity of Natural Killer (NK) cells. Thus, tumor hypersialylation orchestrates immune escape at the level of NK and Teff/Treg balance within the tumor microenvironment, herewith dampening tumor-specific T cell control. Reducing sialylation provides a therapeutic option to render tumors permissive to immune attack. PMID:26741508

  4. Romidepsin in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    Gastrinoma; Glucagonoma; Insulinoma; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Pulmonary Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma; Regional Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Somatostatinoma

  5. Percutaneous Tumor Ablation with Radiofrequency

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Bradford J.; Ramkaransingh, Jeffrey R.; Fojo, Tito; Walther, McClellan M.; Libutti, Stephen K.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFA) is a new minimally invasive treatment for localized cancer. Minimally invasive surgical options require less resources, time, recovery, and cost, and often offer reduced morbidity and mortality, compared with more invasive methods. To be useful, image-guided, minimally invasive, local treatments will have to meet those expectations without sacrificing efficacy. METHODS Image-guided, local cancer treatment relies on the assumption that local disease control may improve survival. Recent developments in ablative techniques are being applied to patients with inoperable, small, or solitary liver tumors, recurrent metachronous hereditary renal cell carcinoma, and neoplasms in the bone, lung, breast, and adrenal gland. RESULTS Recent refinements in ablation technology enable large tumor volumes to be treated with image-guided needle placement, either percutaneously, laparoscopically, or with open surgery. Local disease control potentially could result in improved survival, or enhanced operability. CONCLUSIONS Consensus indications in oncology are ill-defined, despite widespread proliferation of the technology. A brief review is presented of the current status of image-guided tumor ablation therapy. More rigorous scientific review, long-term follow-up, and randomized prospective trials are needed to help define the role of RFA in oncology. PMID:11900230

  6. Microwave Therapy for Bone Tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takakuda, Kazuo; Inaoka, Shuken; Saito, Hirokazu; Hassan, Moinuddin; Koyama, Yoshikazu; Kuroda, Hiroshi; Kanaya, Tomohiro; Kosaka, Toshifumi; Tanaka, Shigeo; Miyairi, Hiroo; Shinomiya, Kenichi

    In vivo microwave treatments for bone tumor are designed, which enable us to conserve the activity and functionality of the matrix of living tissues. This treatment is composed of two steps. In the first step, the tumor was coagulated by the application of microwaves emitted from the antenna inserted into the tumor tissue, and then removed. In the second step, the surrounding tissue suspected to be invaded with transformed cells was covered with hydro gels and heated similarly. The tissue itself was heated by the conduction from the gels. The tissue temperature should be kept at 60°C for 30 minutes. This treatment should kill the whole cells within the tissues, but the mechanical strength and the biochemical activity of the matrix should be left intact. The matrix preserves the mechanical functions and ensures the maximum regeneration ability of the tissue. In this study, various hydro gels were examined and the most promising one was selected. Animal experiments were carried out and successful heating verified the applicability of the treatment.

  7. Tumor Mechanics and Metabolic Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Jason C.; Barnes, J. Matthew; Desai, Shraddha R.; Sistrunk, Christopher; Conklin, Matthew; Schedin, Pepper; Keely, Patricia J.; Seewaldt, Victoria L.; Weaver, Valerie M.

    2015-01-01

    Desmosplasia is a characteristic of most solid tumors and leads to fibrosis through abnormal extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition, remodeling and post translational modifications. The resulting stiff tumor stroma not only compromises vascular integrity to induce hypoxia and impede drug delivery, but also promotes aggressiveness by potentiating the activity of key growth, invasion, and survival pathways. Intriguingly, many of the pro-tumorigenic signaling pathways which are mechanically activated by ECM stiffness also promote glucose uptake and aerobic glycolysis, and an altered metabolism is a recognized hallmark of cancer. Indeed, emerging evidence suggests that metabolic alterations and an abnormal ECM may cooperatively drive cancer cell aggression and treatment resistance. Accordingly, improved methods to monitor tissue mechanics and metabolism promise to improve diagnostics and treatments to ameliorate ECM stiffening and elevated mechanosignaling may improve patient outcome. Here we discuss the interplay between ECM mechanics and metabolism in tumor biology and suggest that monitoring these processes and targeting their regulatory pathways may improve diagnostics, therapy, and the prevention of malignant transformation. PMID:25532934

  8. Dendritic cells and tumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Gunzer, M; Jänich, S; Varga, G; Grabbe, S

    2001-10-01

    Researchers and clinicians have tried for decades to use the mechanisms of immunity for the fight against cancer. Early attempts aimed at the instrumentation of soluble immune mediators such as antibodies or cytotoxic proteins for the therapy of malignancies. Major improvements in understanding the induction and regulation of cellular immunity have now made it possible to generate effector cells in cancer patients which are specific for the neoplastic disease. At the beginning of every cellular immune reaction against cancers tumor antigens have to be presented to T cells in order to activate them and drive them into clonal expansion. This is done by antigen presenting cells, the most powerful of which is the dendritic cell (DC). While DC were hard to isolate initially, they can be generated in large numbers in vitro today and manipulated in multiple ways before given back to a patient to induce tumor immunity. Thus, a great amount of hope lies in the use of DC as inducers of tumor immunity. However, the first clinical studies, which have now been completed with only limited success make clear, that still a lot of open questions remain to be answered. This review tries to give an overview of this rapidly developing field, mentioning the major conceptual approaches and techniques, but also discussing important caveats. The next years will show whether we can improve our understanding of DC biology and the mechanisms of immune induction strongly enough to effectively employ DC for immunotherapy of cancer. PMID:11502164

  9. Tumor pathology of the orbit.

    PubMed

    Héran, F; Bergès, O; Blustajn, J; Boucenna, M; Charbonneau, F; Koskas, P; Lafitte, F; Nau, E; Roux, P; Sadik, J C; Savatovsky, J; Williams, M

    2014-10-01

    The term orbital tumor covers a wide range of benign and malignant diseases affecting specific component of the orbit or developing in contact with them. They are found incidentally or may be investigated as part of the assessment of a systemic disorder or because of orbital signs (exophthalmos, pain, etc.). Computed tomography, MRI and Color Doppler Ultrasound (CDU), play a varying role depending on the clinical presentation and the disease being investigated. This article reflects long experience in a reference center but does not claim to be exhaustive. We have chosen to consider these tumors from the perspective of their usual presentation, emphasizing the most common causes and suggestive radiological and clinical presentations (progressive or sudden-onset exophthalmos, children or adults, lacrimal gland lesions, periorbital lesions and enophthalmos). We will describe in particular muscle involvement (thyrotoxicosis and tumors), vascular lesions (cavernous sinus hemangioma, orbital varix, cystic lymphangioma), childhood lesions and orbital hematomas. We offer straightforward useful protocols for simple investigation and differential diagnosis. Readers who wish to go further to extend their knowledge in this fascinating area can refer to the references in the bibliography. PMID:25195185

  10. Sensitivity of Hydrologic Partitioning to Snowpack Dynamics, Como Creek, CO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhart, T. B.; Molotch, N. P.; Harpold, A. A.; Knowles, J. F.; Anderson, S. P.

    2014-12-01

    Snowmelt is the primary source of surface water in the western United States and many other regions on Earth. Climate warming is forecast to impact the amount of precipitation that falls as snow and forms the mountain snowpack. Climate change induced alterations to snowpack translate to changes in snowpack magnitude, the timing of snowmelt, and changes in snowmelt rate. We ask how these perturbations may impact how snowmelt is partitioned between evapotranspiration (ET) and runoff (R) at Como Creek, a snowmelt dominated catchment on the Colorado Front Range. Como Creek is a 4.5 km2 headwater catchment spanning 2900-3560 m and is part of the Niwot Ridge Long Term Ecological Research Station and the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory. We use observations of snow water equivalent (SWE), ET, and precipitation (P) from Niwot Ridge, CO, and discharge from Como Creek to explore relationships between snowpack dynamics and snowmelt partitioning. Measurements of ET are collected adjacent to Como Creek at the Niwot Ridge Ameriflux site and are assumed representative of the hydrologic fluxes in Como Creek. Analyses from point data show that years with higher peak SWE/P ratios partition proportionally more snowmelt to ET (pValue: 0.045). For example, water year (WY) 2005 has a peak SWE/P ratio of 0.49 and a growing season ET normalized by WY precipitation (ET/P) ratio of 0.48 while WY 2008 has a peak SWE/P ratio of 0.83 and an ET/P ratio of 0.82. Observations also show that years that experience later peak SWE (DOY=142) partition proportionally less snowmelt into ET (ET/P=0.42) compared to years that experience earlier peak SWE (DOY=86) and partition proportionally more snowmelt to ET (ET/P=0.56). Further point analyses also suggest that more rapid snowmelt results in proportionally less snowmelt partitioned to ET and more partitioned to runoff. To explore the underlying processes responsible for these relationships at the catchment scale we use the Regional Hydro-Ecologic Simulation System (RHESSys) to model how snowmelt is partitioned between ET and R under observed conditions and under a variety of climate change induced snowmelt timing, magnitude, and rate scenarios.

  11. Tongue tumor detection in medical hyperspectral images.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi; Wang, Hongjun; Li, Qingli

    2012-01-01

    A hyperspectral imaging system to measure and analyze the reflectance spectra of the human tongue with high spatial resolution is proposed for tongue tumor detection. To achieve fast and accurate performance for detecting tongue tumors, reflectance data were collected using spectral acousto-optic tunable filters and a spectral adapter, and sparse representation was used for the data analysis algorithm. Based on the tumor image database, a recognition rate of 96.5% was achieved. The experimental results show that hyperspectral imaging for tongue tumor diagnosis, together with the spectroscopic classification method provide a new approach for the noninvasive computer-aided diagnosis of tongue tumors. PMID:22368462

  12. Islet Cell Tumors of the Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Amin, Sunil; Kim, Michelle Kang

    2016-03-01

    Islet cell tumors of the pancreas, also known as pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, constitute less than 5% of pancreatic tumors, and 7% of all neuroendocrine tumors. Most are non-functional, and patients often present with metastatic disease. Functional tumors present with distinct clinical syndromes. Accurate staging is critical as surgery is both the cornerstone of treatment, and the only hope for cure. Medical management involves treating the manifestations of hormonal excess, and using somatastatin analogues when appropriate. Systemic chemotherapy, targeted molecular therapy, and peptide receptor radiotherapy may be used for refractory disease in lieu of or as an adjunct to surgery. PMID:26895682

  13. Mesothelioma following Wilms' tumor in childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Antman, K.H.; Ruxer, R.L. Jr.; Aisner, J.; Vawter, G.

    1984-07-15

    A high percentage of children with Wilms' tumor are cured with multimodal treatment. A small percentage of these children will develop second tumors, perhaps related to a genetic predisposition to neoplasia or possibly secondary to the treatment utilized for Wilms' tumor. Malignant mesothelioma has been associated with contact with asbestos but has also been reported after radiation exposure. Two patients are reported who developed malignant mesothelioma of the pleura after treatment for Wilms' tumor in childhood. Both received orthovoltage radiation; one patient also received triethylenemelamine (TEM), an alkylating agent closely related to nitrogen mustard, for 5 years. Factors in the development of second tumors are discussed.

  14. Endovascular Embolization of Head and Neck Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Lazzaro, Marc A.; Badruddin, Aamir; Zaidat, Osama O.; Darkhabani, Ziad; Pandya, Dhruvil J.; Lynch, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Endovascular tumor embolization as adjunctive therapy for head and neck cancers is evolving and has become an important part of the tools available for their treatment. Careful study of tumor vascular anatomy and adhering to general principles of intra-arterial therapy can prove this approach to be effective and safe. Various embolic materials are available and can be suited for a given tumor and its vascular supply. This article aims to summarize current methods and agents used in endovascular head and neck tumor embolization and discuss important angiographic and treatment characteristics of selected common head and neck tumors. PMID:22022319

  15. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the heart.

    PubMed

    Nwaejike, Nnamdi; Rassl, Doris; Ford, Hugo; Large, Stephen R

    2012-02-01

    We present a case of primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the left atrium with involvement of the coronary sinus. The initial presentation was of cardiac tamponade resulting from the size of the tumor. There was no evidence of tumor elsewhere, and after complete resection and without adjuvant chemotherapy the patient is well at 2-year follow-up. There has been no evidence of tumor recurrence. This is a rare reported case of resection of a cardiac primitive neuroectodermal tumor without adjuvant chemotherapy. Other cases in the literature have been treated by orthoptic transplantation and resection with chemotherapy. PMID:22269764

  16. Genetically Engineered Mouse Models of Pituitary Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Cano, David A.; Soto-Moreno, Alfonso; Leal-Cerro, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Animal models constitute valuable tools for investigating the pathogenesis of cancer as well as for preclinical testing of novel therapeutics approaches. However, the pathogenic mechanisms of pituitary-tumor formation remain poorly understood, particularly in sporadic adenomas, thus, making it a challenge to model pituitary tumors in mice. Nevertheless, genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) of pituitary tumors have provided important insight into pituitary tumor biology. In this paper, we review various GEMMs of pituitary tumors, highlighting their contributions and limitations, and discuss opportunities for research in the field. PMID:25136513

  17. Tongue Tumor Detection in Medical Hyperspectral Images

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi; Wang, Hongjun; Li, Qingli

    2012-01-01

    A hyperspectral imaging system to measure and analyze the reflectance spectra of the human tongue with high spatial resolution is proposed for tongue tumor detection. To achieve fast and accurate performance for detecting tongue tumors, reflectance data were collected using spectral acousto-optic tunable filters and a spectral adapter, and sparse representation was used for the data analysis algorithm. Based on the tumor image database, a recognition rate of 96.5% was achieved. The experimental results show that hyperspectral imaging for tongue tumor diagnosis, together with the spectroscopic classification method provide a new approach for the noninvasive computer-aided diagnosis of tongue tumors. PMID:22368462

  18. A new ODE tumor growth modeling based on tumor population dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oroji, Amin; Omar, Mohd bin; Yarahmadian, Shantia

    2015-10-01

    In this paper a new mathematical model for the population of tumor growth treated by radiation is proposed. The cells dynamics population in each state and the dynamics of whole tumor population are studied. Furthermore, a new definition of tumor lifespan is presented. Finally, the effects of two main parameters, treatment parameter (q), and repair mechanism parameter (r) on tumor lifespan are probed, and it is showed that the change in treatment parameter (q) highly affects the tumor lifespan.

  19. What Should You Ask Your Doctor about Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors?

    MedlinePlus

    ... gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors? What should you ask your doctor about gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors? It is important to ... Staging Treating Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors Talking With Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors ...

  20. What You Need to Know about Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications Reports What You Need To Know About™ Brain Tumors This booklet is about tumors that begin in the brain. These tumors are called primary brain tumors. Cancer that spreads to the brain from another ...

  1. Aflac ST0901 CHOANOME - Sirolimus in Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-11

    Ewing's Sarcoma; Osteosarcoma; Astrocytoma; Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Ependymoma; Germ Cell Tumor; Glioma; Medulloblastoma; Rhabdoid Tumor; Retinoblastoma; Clear Cell Sarcoma; Renal Cell Carcinoma; Wilms Tumor; Hepatoblastoma; Neuroblastoma; Rhabdomyosarcoma

  2. Bayesian Inference of Tumor Hypoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawan, R.; Tenti, G.; Sivaloganathan, S.

    2009-12-01

    Tumor hypoxia is a state of oxygen deprivation in tumors. It has been associated with aggressive tumor phenotypes and with increased resistance to conventional cancer therapies. In this study, we report on the application of Bayesian sequential analysis in estimating the most probable value of tumor hypoxia quantification based on immunohistochemical assays of a biomarker. The `gold standard' of tumor hypoxia assessment is a direct measurement of pO2 in vivo by the Eppendorf polarographic electrode, which is an invasive technique restricted to accessible sites and living tissues. An attractive alternative is immunohistochemical staining to detect proteins expressed by cells during hypoxia. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is an enzyme expressed on the cell membrane during hypoxia to balance the immediate extracellular microenvironment. CAIX is widely regarded as a surrogate marker of chronic hypoxia in various cancers. The study was conducted with two different experimental procedures. The first data set was a group of three patients with invasive cervical carcinomas, from which five biopsies were obtained. Each of the biopsies was fully sectioned and from each section, the proportion of CAIX-positive cells was estimated. Measurements were made by image analysis of multiple deep sections cut through these biopsies, labeled for CAIX using both immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical techniques [1]. The second data set was a group of 24 patients, also with invasive cervical carcinomas, from which two biopsies were obtained. Bayesian parameter estimation was applied to obtain a reliable inference about the proportion of CAIX-positive cells within the carcinomas, based on the available biopsies. From the first data set, two to three biopsies were found to be sufficient to infer the overall CAIX percentage in the simple form: best estimate±uncertainty. The second data-set led to a similar result in 70% of the cases. In the remaining cases Bayes' theorem warned us automatically that the inference from the data could not be summarized by just two numbers, but the full posterior probability density function (pdf) had to be used.

  3. Recent DDT and PCB contamination in the sediment and biota of the Como Bay (Lake Como, Italy).

    PubMed

    Bettinetti, R; Quadroni, S; Boggio, E; Galassi, S

    2016-01-15

    Due to its peculiar geographical and morphological characteristics, Lake Como (Northern Italy) represents an interesting study-case for investigating the sub-basin scale circulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that, despite being banned since the 1970s, have reached surprisingly high concentrations in some southern alpine lakes as a consequence of their release from melting glaciers in recent years. In particular, the Como Bay, which is located in the city of Como, seems noteworthy because its waters have a longer residence time than the other areas of the lake. The analyses of the historical concentration of PCBs, pp′DDT and its metabolites in a sediment core sampled from the Como Bay covering a time-period from their ban to recent times, showed that the DDTs have never experienced a significant (p < 0.05) decrease over time, with concentrations of the most abundant homologue, pp′DDE, ranging from 27 to 75 ng g(-1) d.w. Conversely PCBs significantly (p < 0.05) decreased towards recent times, reaching concentrations around 80 ng g(-1) d.w. The contribution of high altitude and local sources was recorded also in the food web: both zooplankton and the zooplanktivorous fish agone were mainly contaminated by pp′DDE (81.4 ng g(-1) w.w. and 534.6 ng g(-1) w.w. respectively) and by the PCB metabolite hexa-CB (449.7 ng g(-1) w.w. and 1672.1 ng g(-1) w.w. respectively). The DDT concentrations in the agone (sampled during the years 2006–2009) never exceeded the limits for human consumption in Italy, while concentrations of six selected PCBs exceeded human health advisory recommendations in one of the fish samples analysed, when it was approximately two times higher than the recommended value of 125 ng g(-1) w.w. PMID:26520265

  4. Genomic landscapes of breast fibroepithelial tumors.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jing; Ong, Choon Kiat; Lim, Weng Khong; Ng, Cedric Chuan Young; Thike, Aye Aye; Ng, Ley Moy; Rajasegaran, Vikneswari; Myint, Swe Swe; Nagarajan, Sanjanaa; Thangaraju, Saranya; Dey, Sucharita; Nasir, Nur Diyana Md; Wijaya, Giovani Claresta; Lim, Jing Quan; Huang, Dachuan; Li, Zhimei; Wong, Bernice Huimin; Chan, Jason Yong Sheng; McPherson, John R; Cutcutache, Ioana; Poore, Gregory; Tay, Su Ting; Tan, Wai Jin; Putti, Thomas Choudary; Ahmad, Buhari Shaik; Iau, Philip; Chan, Ching Wan; Tang, Anthony P H; Yong, Wei Sean; Madhukumar, Preetha; Ho, Gay Hui; Tan, Veronique Kiak Mien; Wong, Chow Yin; Hartman, Mikael; Ong, Kong Wee; Tan, Benita K T; Rozen, Steven G; Tan, Patrick; Tan, Puay Hoon; Teh, Bin Tean

    2015-11-01

    Breast fibroepithelial tumors comprise a heterogeneous spectrum of pathological entities, from benign fibroadenomas to malignant phyllodes tumors. Although MED12 mutations have been frequently found in fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumors, the landscapes of genetic alterations across the fibroepithelial tumor spectrum remain unclear. Here, by performing exome sequencing of 22 phyllodes tumors followed by targeted sequencing of 100 breast fibroepithelial tumors, we observed three distinct somatic mutation patterns. First, we frequently observed MED12 and RARA mutations in both fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumors, emphasizing the importance of these mutations in fibroepithelial tumorigenesis. Second, phyllodes tumors exhibited mutations in FLNA, SETD2 and KMT2D, suggesting a role in driving phyllodes tumor development. Third, borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors harbored additional mutations in cancer-associated genes. RARA mutations exhibited clustering in the portion of the gene encoding the ligand-binding domain, functionally suppressed RARA-mediated transcriptional activation and enhanced RARA interactions with transcriptional co-repressors. This study provides insights into the molecular pathogenesis of breast fibroepithelial tumors, with potential clinical implications. PMID:26437033

  5. MicroRNA regulons in tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, H I; Katsura, A; Matsuyama, H; Miyazono, K

    2015-01-01

    Cancer initiation and progression are defined by the behavior of cancer cells per se and the development of tumor tissues, both of which are modulated by crosstalk between cancer cells and the surrounding microenvironment. Advances in cancer research have highlighted the significance of constant evolution of the tumor microenvironment, leading to tumor formation, metastasis and refractoriness to therapy. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that function as major players of posttranscriptional gene regulation in diverse biological processes. They function as both tumor suppressors and promoters in many aspects of the autonomous behavior of cancer cells. Theoretically, dysfunction in the gene regulatory networks of cancer cells is one of the major driving forces for alterations of ostensibly normal surrounding cells. In this context, the core targets of miRNAs, termed miRNA regulons, are currently being expanded to include various modulators of the tumor microenvironment. Recent advances have highlighted two important roles played by miRNAs in the evolution of tumor microenvironments: miRNAs in tumor cells transform the microenvironment via non-cell-autonomous mechanisms, and miRNAs in neighboring cells stabilize cancer hallmark traits. These observations epitomize the distal and proximal functions of miRNAs in tumor microenvironments, respectively. Such regulation by miRNAs affects tumor angiogenesis, immune invasion and tumorstromal interactions. This review summarizes recent findings on the mechanisms of miRNA-mediated regulation of tumor microenvironments, with a perspective on the design of therapeutic interventions. PMID:25132266

  6. Tumor antigens discovery: perspectives for cancer therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, R. F.

    1997-01-01

    The adoptive transfer of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) derived from tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) along with interleukin 2 (IL-2) into autologous patients with cancer resulted in the objective regression of tumor, indicating that these CTLs recognized cancer rejection antigens on tumor cells. To understand the molecular basis of T cell-mediated antitumor immunity, several groups started to search for such tumor antigens in melanoma as well as in other types of cancers. This led to the subject I will review in this article. A number of tumor antigens were isolated by the use of cDNA expression systems and biochemical approaches. These tumor antigens could be classified into several categories: tissue-specific differentiation antigens, tumor-specific shared antigens, and tumor-specific unique antigens. However, the majority of tumor antigens identified to date are nonmutated, self proteins. This raises important questions regarding the mechanism of antitumor activity and autoimmune disease. The identification of human tumor rejection antigens provides new opportunities for the development of therapeutic strategies against cancer. This review will summarize the current status and progress toward identifying human tumor antigens and their potential applications to cancer treatment. PMID:9407548

  7. [Radiotherapy of eye and orbit tumors].

    PubMed

    Kuhnt, T; Müller, A-C; Werschnik, C; Janich, M; Gerlach, R; Dunst, J

    2004-12-01

    Malignant diseases of the orbit are multifaceted and require in the majority of the cases an interdisciplinary treatment. Advances in radiotherapy, surgery and chemotherapy make a high cure rate possible, especially in children's tumors. In adults these tumors reach a tumor control rate of nearly 90 %, even with preservation of the eye in most of the cases. There are only two curative therapy options for tumors in this region: radiotherapy and surgery. The therapy for tumors of the eye and the orbit require the total spectrum of the radiotherapeutic techniques depending on the tumor entity, its spread and localization. In a prevailing number of malignant tumors (tumors of the eyelids, tear glands, orbit, metastases) the application of the radiotherapy as an external, fractionated radiotherapy is standard practice, if necessary in combination with operation and/or chemotherapy. Particularly in the therapy for ocular tumors brachytherapy with radionuclides (e. g., ruthenium) is possible and in a few centers world-wide proton therapy is available. As an alternative procedure in special modalities, stereotactic radiotherapy may be considered. Altogether the new radiotherapy techniques permit a dose increase in the tumor region and/or a reduction of the doses to healthy tissues and lead so to a better local tumor control rate and a decrease in acute and chronic side effects. PMID:15599810

  8. The retinoblastoma gene in human pituitary tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Cryns, V.L.; Arnold, A.; Alexander, J.M.; Klibanski, A. )

    1993-09-01

    Functional inactivation of the retinoblastoma (RB) tumor suppressor gene is important in the pathogenesis of many human tumors. Recently, the frequent occurrence of pituitary tumors was reported in mice genetically engineered to have one defective RB allele, a genetic background analogous to that of patients with familial retinoblastoma. The molecular pathogenesis of human pituitary tumors is largely unknown, and the potential role of RB gene inactivation in these neoplasms has not been examined. Consequently, the authors studied 20 human pituitary tumors (12 clinically nonfunctioning tumors, 4 somatotroph adenomas, 2 prolactinomas, and 2 corticotrophy adenomas) for tumor-specific allelic loss of the RB gene using a highly informative polymorphic locus within the gene. Control leukocyte DNA samples from 18 of these 20 patients were heterozygous at this locus, permitting genetic evaluation of their paired tumor specimens. In contrast to the pituitary tumors in the mouse model, none of these 18 human tumors exhibited RB allelic loss. These findings indicate that RB gene inactivation probably does not play an important role in the pathogenesis of common types of human pituitary tumors. 24 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Tumor angiogenesis in mice and men.

    PubMed

    Alani, Rhoda M; Silverthorn, Courtney F; Orosz, Kate

    2004-06-01

    Over the past decade much research has focused on understanding the molecular pathways that regulate the development of a tumor-associated vasculature. In 1999, Lyden and colleagues showed that mice deficient in one to three Id1 or Id3 alleles could not support the growth of tumor xenografts due to defects in tumor-associated angiogenesis. Three recently published manuscripts have now re-examined the role of Id genes in the development of a tumor-associated vasculature using more clinically relevant tumor model systems. Remarkably, all three studies have found strikingly different results compared to the original xenograft data published in 1999. Below we review the current understanding of the role of Id genes in the development of a tumor-associated vasculature given the most recent data and suggest ways in which animal tumor model systems might be put to better use to provide more clinically relevant information. PMID:15153806

  10. Cancer stem cells and tumor metastasis

    PubMed Central

    LI, SHUANG; LI, QIN

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that tumors can induce angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, which plays an important role in promoting hematogenous and lymphogenous spread. In recent years, the cancer stem cell (CSC) theory has emerged as an attractive hypothesis for tumor development and progression. The theory proposes that one small subset of cancer cells has the characteristics of stem cells. These CSCs have the capability of both self-renewal and differentiation into diverse cancer cells, which play a decisive role in maintaining capacity for malignant proliferation, invasion, metastasis, and tumor recurrence. CSCs are involved in tumor metastasis, however, the details, and the possible relationship of CSCs, angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and tumor metastasis is still ambiguous. The aim of this report is to summarize current studies of CSCs and tumor metastasis at the cellular level, with the goal of bringing new insights into understanding the role of CSCs in tumor metastasis. PMID:24691919

  11. Prospective sonographic study of 3093 breast tumors.

    PubMed

    Chao, T C; Lo, Y F; Chen, S C; Chen, M F

    1999-05-01

    To evaluate the predictive ability of sonographic tumor characteristics to differentiate benign from malignant tumors, we examined 3093 breast tumors (2360 benign and 733 malignant tumors) with ultrasonography. The ratio of the longest dimension to the anteroposterior diameter of benign tumors was significantly larger than that of malignant tumors (1.88+/-0.1 versus 1.69+/-0.02, P < 0.0001). Shape, margins, echogenicity, internal echo pattern, retrotumor acoustic shadowing, compressibility, and microcalcification were significant factors in the logistic regression model. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of breast sonography for malignancy were 86.1, 66.1, 44.1, 93.9, and 70.8%, respectively. Biopsy of the tumor for pathologic diagnosis is recommended if sonographic features are suggestive of malignancy. PMID:10327015

  12. Role of the tumor microenvironment in tumor progression and the clinical applications (Review).

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yao; Jiang, Yu-Chen; Sun, Chong-Kui; Chen, Qian-Ming

    2016-05-01

    Oncogene activation and tumor-suppressor gene inactivation are considered as the main causes driving the transformation of normal somatic cells into malignant tumor cells. Cancer cells are the driving force of tumor development and progression. Yet, cancer cells are unable to accomplish this alone. The tumor microenvironment is also considered to play an active role rather than simply acting as a by-stander in tumor progression. Through different pathways, tumor cells efficiently recruit stromal cells, which in turn, provide tumor cell growth signals, intermediate metabolites, and provide a suitable environment for tumor progression as well as metastasis. Through reciprocal communication, cancer cells and the microenvironment act in collusion leading to high proliferation and metastatic capability. Understanding the role of the tumor microenvironment in tumor progression provides us with novel approaches through which to target the tumor microenvironment for efficient anticancer treatment. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms involved in the recruitment of stromal cells by tumor cells to the primary tumor site and highlight the role of the tumor microenvironment in the regulation of tumor progression. We further discuss the potential approaches for cancer therapy. PMID:26986034

  13. [Ovarian tumor markers of presumed benign ovarian tumors].

    PubMed

    Lahlou, N; Brun, J-L

    2013-12-01

    Cancer Antigen 125 (CA125) and Human Epididymis Protein 4 (HE4) are the most studied ovarian tumor markers. Their diagnostic performance for identification of ovarian cancer are superior to CA19-9, CA72-4, and carcinoembryonic antigen, which are no more recommended for the diagnosis of presumed benign ovarian tumor. HE4 (>140 pmol/L) is superior to CA125 (>30 U/mL) in terms of specificity and positive likelihood ratio. CA125 and HE4 can be combined into an algorithm ROMA, or associated to clinical information (composite index), biological data (OVA1) or imaging (Risk for Malignancy Index (RMI), LR2). ROMA algorithm is an exponential equation combining plasmatic concentrations of HE4 and CA125. ROMA is more sensitive and less specific than HE4 in predicting epithelial ovarian cancer. ROMA is more accurate in post-menopausal women. The performance of ROMA is lower than the ultrasound model LR2 in differentiating malignant from benign ovarian tumors, whatever the hormonal status. The composite index combining CA125 with a symptoms index (pain, abdominal distension, bloating, difficulty eating) has a good sensitivity in a screening program, but because of a 12% false positive rate, ultrasound is required before management. The RMI algorithm is based on serum CA125, ultrasound findings (septation, solid zones, metastases, ascite, bilaterality) and menopausal status. RMI is less sensitive, but more specific than ROMA or OVA1 for the classification of ovarian masses. The addition of HE4 to RMI seems to be the most accurate. The subjective evaluation of ovarian cysts by sonography and color Doppler is better than ROMA and RMI algorithms, and not affected by the hormonal status. PMID:24210243

  14. Targeting the tumor stroma in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Heindryckx, Femke; Gerwins, Pär

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common and deadly cancers worldwide. In ninety percent of the cases it develops as a result of chronic liver damage and it is thus a typical inflammation-related cancer characterized by the close relation between the tumor microenvironment and tumor cells. The stromal environment consists out of several cell types, including hepatic stellate cells, macrophages and endothelial cells. They are not just active bystanders in the pathogenesis of HCC, but play an important and active role in tumor initiation, progression and metastasis. Furthermore, the tumor itself influences these cells to create a background that is beneficial for sustaining tumor growth. One of the key players is the hepatic stellate cell, which is activated during liver damage and differentiates towards a myofibroblast-like cell. Activated stellate cells are responsible for the deposition of extracellular matrix, increase the production of angiogenic factors and stimulate the recruitment of macrophages. The increase of angiogenic factors (which are secreted by macrophages, tumor cells and activated stellate cells) will induce the formation of new blood vessels, thereby supplying the tumor with more oxygen and nutrients, thus supporting tumor growth and offering a passageway in the circulatory system. In addition, the secretion of chemokines by the tumor cells leads to the recruitment of tumor associated macrophages. These tumor associated macrophages are key actors of cancer-related inflammation, being the main type of inflammatory cells infiltrating the tumor environment and exerting a tumor promoting effect by secreting growth factors, stimulating angiogenesis and influencing the activation of stellate cells. This complex interplay between the several cell types involved in liver cancer emphasizes the need for targeting the tumor stroma in HCC patients. PMID:25729472

  15. Bladder tumor markers: need, nature and application. 2. Tumor and tumor-associated antigens.

    PubMed

    Kirollos, M M; McDermott, S; Bradbrook, R A

    1998-01-01

    Despite the diversity of the available markers, none is truly specific to transitional epithelium, let alone its tumors. Some of the markers used, such as hCG and CEA, are far better known in other fields and seem to be expressed in only a minority of urothelial tumors. The majority of the available markers are tumor associated and should perhaps be considered as by-products of the process of malignancy in the urinary tract. Newer tests which are simple, rapid and easy to use have a practical advantage. These are currently the Bard BTA, BTA Stat and Aura-Tek FDP tests. So far, these markers have achieved only an arguable and marginal role in daily clinical practice, challenging the role of cytology and helping decide the type of cystoscopy. A more substantial role awaits a test with higher and more consistent sensitivity and specificity, together with the capability to provide independent diagnostic and/or prognostic information. In this part of the review we examine the literature view of the above-mentioned tests, as well as other new and some older tests such as blood group-related antigens, Lewis antigen, cytokeratins and others. PMID:9795829

  16. Evaluation of Tumor-infiltrating Leukocyte Subsets in a Subcutaneous Tumor Model

    PubMed Central

    Pachynski, Russell K.; Scholz, Alexander; Monnier, Justin; Butcher, Eugene C.; Zabel, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Specialized immune cells that infiltrate the tumor microenvironment regulate the growth and survival of neoplasia.  Malignant cells must elude or subvert anti-tumor immune responses in order to survive and flourish. Tumors take advantage of a number of different mechanisms of immune “escape,” including the recruitment of tolerogenic DC, immunosuppressive regulatory T cells (Tregs), and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) that inhibit cytotoxic anti-tumor responses. Conversely, anti-tumor effector immune cells can slow the growth and expansion of malignancies: immunostimulatory dendritic cells, natural killer cells which harbor innate anti-tumor immunity, and cytotoxic T cells all can participate in tumor suppression. The balance between pro- and anti-tumor leukocytes ultimately determines the behavior and fate of transformed cells; a multitude of human clinical studies have borne this out. Thus, detailed analysis of leukocyte subsets within the tumor microenvironment has become increasingly important. Here, we describe a method for analyzing infiltrating leukocyte subsets present in the tumor microenvironment in a mouse tumor model. Mouse B16 melanoma tumor cells were inoculated subcutaneously in C57BL/6 mice. At a specified time, tumors and surrounding skin were resected en bloc and processed into single cell suspensions, which were then stained for multi-color flow cytometry. Using a variety of leukocyte subset markers, we were able to compare the relative percentages of infiltrating leukocyte subsets between control and chemerin-expressing tumors. Investigators may use such a tool to study the immune presence in the tumor microenvironment and when combined with traditional caliper size measurements of tumor growth, will potentially allow them to elucidate the impact of changes in immune composition on tumor growth. Such a technique can be applied to any tumor model in which the tumor and its microenvironment can be resected and processed. PMID:25938949

  17. Chemotherapy of WAP-T mouse mammary carcinomas aggravates tumor phenotype and enhances tumor cell dissemination.

    PubMed

    Jannasch, Katharina; Wegwitz, Florian; Lenfert, Eva; Maenz, Claudia; Deppert, Wolfgang; Alves, Frauke

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the effects of the standard chemotherapy, cyclophosphamide/adriamycin/5-fluorouracil (CAF) on tumor growth, dissemination and recurrence after orthotopic implantation of murine G-2 cells were analyzed in the syngeneic immunocompetent whey acidic protein-T mouse model (Wegwitz et al., PLoS One 2010; 5:e12103; Schulze-Garg et al., Oncogene 2000; 19:1028-37). Single-dose CAF treatment reduced tumor size significantly, but was not able to eradicate all tumor cells, as recurrent tumor growth was observed 4 weeks after CAF treatment. Nine days after CAF treatment, residual tumors showed features of regressive alterations and were composed of mesenchymal-like tumor cells, infiltrating immune cells and some tumor-associated fibroblasts with an intense deposition of collagen. Recurrent tumors were characterized by coagulative necrosis and less tumor cell differentiation compared with untreated tumors, suggesting a more aggressive tumor phenotype. In support, tumor cell dissemination was strongly enhanced in mice that had developed recurrent tumors in comparison with untreated controls, although only few disseminated tumor cells could be detected in various organs 9 days after CAF application. In vitro experiments revealed that CAF treatment of G-2 cells eliminates the vast majority of epithelial tumor cells, whereas tumor cells with a mesenchymal phenotype survive. These results together with the in vivo findings suggest that tumor cells that underwent epithelial-mesenchymal transition and/or exhibit stem-cell-like properties are difficult to eliminate using one round of CAF chemotherapy. The model system described here provides a valuable tool for the characterization of the effects of chemotherapeutic regimens on recurrent tumor growth and on tumor cell dissemination, thereby enabling the development and preclinical evaluation of novel therapeutic strategies to target mammary carcinomas. PMID:25449528

  18. Lactic acid polarizes macrophages to a tumor-promoting state

    PubMed Central

    Colegio, Oscar R

    2016-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages have been associated with a poor prognosis in most types of tumors. However, tumor-derived signals that activate macrophages have not been well defined. We review our recent finding that tumor-derived lactic acid is necessary and sufficient to polarize tumor-associated macrophages to a tumor-promoting state. PMID:27141329

  19. Sunitinib in Treating Young Patients With Refractory Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-01-27

    Central Nervous System Metastases; Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  20. Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Young Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-05-01

    Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  1. Study of the Glutaminase Inhibitor CB-839 in Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-27

    Solid Tumors; Triple-Negative Breast Cancer; Non Small Cell Lung Cancer; Renal Cell Carcinoma; Mesothelioma; Fumarate Hydratase (FH)-Deficient Tumors; Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH)-Deficient Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GIST); Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH)-Deficient Non-gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors; Tumors Harboring Isocitrate Dehydrogenase-1 (IDH1) and IDH2 Mutations; Tumors Harboring Amplifications in the cMyc Gene

  2. Valorisation of Como Historical Cadastral Maps Through Modern Web Geoservices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brovelli, M. A.; Minghini, M.; Zamboni, G.

    2012-07-01

    Cartographic cultural heritage preserved in worldwide archives is often stored in the original paper version only, thus restricting both the chances of utilization and the range of possible users. The Web C.A.R.T.E. system addressed this issue with regard to the precious cadastral maps preserved at the State Archive of Como. Aim of the project was to improve the visibility and accessibility of this heritage using the latest free and open source tools for processing, cataloguing and web publishing the maps. The resulting architecture should therefore assist the State Archive of Como in managing its cartographic contents. After a pre-processing consisting of digitization and georeferencing steps, maps were provided with metadata, compiled according to the current Italian standards and managed through an ad hoc version of the GeoNetwork Opensource geocatalog software. A dedicated MapFish-based webGIS client, with an optimized version also for mobile platforms, was built for maps publication and 2D navigation. A module for 3D visualization of cadastral maps was finally developed using the NASA World Wind Virtual Globe. Thanks to a temporal slidebar, time was also included in the system producing a 4D Graphical User Interface. The overall architecture was totally built with free and open source software and allows a direct and intuitive consultation of historical maps. Besides the notable advantage of keeping original paper maps intact, the system greatly simplifies the work of the State Archive of Como common users and together widens the same range of users thanks to the modernization of map consultation tools.

  3. ROLE OF CHEMOKINES IN TUMOR GROWTH

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Dayanidhi; Baugher, Paige J.; Thu, Yee Mon; Richmond, Ann

    2007-01-01

    Chemokines play a paramount role in the tumor progression. Chronic inflammation promotes tumor formation. Both tumor cells and stromal cells elaborate chemokines and cytokines. These act either by autocrine or paracrine mechanisms to sustain tumor cell growth, induce angiogenesis and facilitate evasion of immune surveillance through immunoediting. The chemokine receptor CXCR2 and its ligands promote tumor angiogenesis and leukocyte infiltration into the tumor microenvironment. In harsh acidic and hypoxic microenvironmental conditions tumor cells up-regulate their expression of CXCR4, which equips them to migrate up a gradient of CXCL12 elaborated by carcinoma associated fibroblasts (CAFs) to a normoxic microenvironment. The CXCL12-CXCR4 axis facilitates metastasis to distant organs and the CCL21-CCR7 chemokine ligand-receptor pair favors metastasis to lymph nodes. These two chemokine ligand-receptor systems are common key mediators of tumor cell metastasis for several malignancies and as such provide key targets for chemotherapy. In this paper, the role of specific chemokines/chemokine receptor interactions in tumor progression, growth and metastasis and the role of chemokine/chemokine receptor interactions in the stromal compartment as related to angiogenesis, metastasis, and immune response to the tumor are reviewed. PMID:17629396

  4. Maximizing Tumor Immunity With Fractionated Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Schaue, Dörthe; Ratikan, Josephine A.; Iwamoto, Keisuke S.; McBride, William H.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE Technological advances have led to increased clinical use of higher sized fractions of radiation dose and higher total doses. How these modify the pathways involved in tumor cell death, normal tissue response, and signaling to the immune system has been inadequately explored. Here we ask how radiation dose and fraction size affect anti-tumor immunity, the suppression thereof and how this might relate to tumor control. MATERIALS and METHODS Mice bearing B16-OVA murine melanoma were treated with up to 15Gy radiation given in various sized fractions and tumor growth followed. The tumor-specific immune response in the spleen was assessed by IFNγ-Enzyme-Linked Immuno-Spot (ELISPOT) assay with ovalbumin (OVA) as the surrogate tumor antigen and the contribution of regulatory T cells (Tregs) determined by the proportion of CD4+CD25hiFoxp3+ T cells. RESULTS After single doses, tumor control increased with the size of radiation dose, as did the number of tumor-reactive T cells. This was offset at the highest dose by an increase in Treg representation. Fractionated treatment with medium-size radiation doses of 7.5Gy/fraction gave the best tumor control and tumor immunity while maintaining low Treg numbers. CONCLUSIONS Radiation can be an immune adjuvant but the response varies with the size of dose per fraction. The ultimate challenge is to optimally integrate cancer immunotherapy into radiation therapy. PMID:22208977

  5. Hyaluronan: A modulator of the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Chanmee, Theerawut; Ontong, Pawared; Itano, Naoki

    2016-05-28

    Tumors are cellular masses formed through dynamic interactions between tumor cells and a mixed population of stromal cells. Crosstalk between oncogenic and adjacent stromal cells contributes to the formation of a "tumor microenvironment" influencing the tumor cell behaviors of proliferation, invasion, and metastatic spread throughout cancer progression. The composition and structure of the tumor microenvironment vary among different types of tumors and are extensively remodeled in close association with tumor advancement. The tumor microenvironment is composed not only of cellular compartments, such as endothelial cells, fibroblasts, inflammatory cells, and immune cells, but also of bioactive substances, including growth factors and the extracellular matrix. Hyaluronan (HA) is a major component of the extracellular matrix, and the degree of HA accumulation is strongly correlated with a poor prognosis in advanced cancer patients. Emerging evidence has suggested that HA creates a specific microenvironment that is favorable for tumor angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. This review highlights the prominent roles of HA as a modulator of the tumor microenvironment and addresses the recent advances regarding HA function in cancer stem cell niches. PMID:26921785

  6. Imaging Tumor Hypoxia to Advance Radiation Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chen-Ting; Boss, Mary-Keara

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Most solid tumors contain regions of low oxygenation or hypoxia. Tumor hypoxia has been associated with a poor clinical outcome and plays a critical role in tumor radioresistance. Recent Advances: Two main types of hypoxia exist in the tumor microenvironment: chronic and cycling hypoxia. Chronic hypoxia results from the limited diffusion distance of oxygen, and cycling hypoxia primarily results from the variation in microvessel red blood cell flux and temporary disturbances in perfusion. Chronic hypoxia may cause either tumor progression or regressive effects depending on the tumor model. However, there is a general trend toward the development of a more aggressive phenotype after cycling hypoxia. With advanced hypoxia imaging techniques, spatiotemporal characteristics of tumor hypoxia and the changes to the tumor microenvironment can be analyzed. Critical Issues: In this review, we focus on the biological and clinical consequences of chronic and cycling hypoxia on radiation treatment. We also discuss the advanced non-invasive imaging techniques that have been developed to detect and monitor tumor hypoxia in preclinical and clinical studies. Future Directions: A better understanding of the mechanisms of tumor hypoxia with non-invasive imaging will provide a basis for improved radiation therapeutic practices. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 313–337. PMID:24329000

  7. [Molecular diagnosis of melanocytic tumors].

    PubMed

    Bauer, J

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma therapy has undergone a paradigm shift. Classic chemotherapies with poor treatment responses have been replaced by modern immune checkpoint blockades and targeted therapies with excellent responses. The latter require precise diagnosis of mutations in the melanoma genome as molecular targets for the small molecules. The diagnosis of melanomas has also been supplemented by molecular techniques. Differential diagnosis of melanoma and melanoma simulators such as atypical Spitz nevi can be supported by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Here we review the indications and methods for molecular diagnosis of melanocytic tumors. PMID:26589514

  8. Genomics of brain tumor imaging.

    PubMed

    Pope, Whitney B

    2015-02-01

    Imaging genomics combines imaging-defined phenotypes with molecular determinants of disease. Recent studies have examined the relationship between MRI-derived feature sets and gene expression in gliomas, including glioblastoma (GBM). Several groups have identified correlations between the expression of particular molecularly defined oncogenic pathways in GBM and malignant phenotypes on MRI. The combination of clinical, genetic, and imaging data has improved prognostic modeling and has identified potential therapeutic targets. Many challenges remain in fully leveraging the associations between such large datasets, but even current methodology shows promise in helping to craft individually tailored treatments to patients with brain tumors and other diseases. PMID:25476516

  9. Metabolic reprogramming of the tumor.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, L M R; Hebrant, A; Dumont, J E

    2012-09-01

    Cancer is classically considered as a genetic and, more recently, epigenetic multistep disease. Despite seminal studies in the 1920s by Warburg showing a characteristic metabolic pattern for tumors, cancer bioenergetics has often been relegated to the backwaters of cancer biology. This review aims to provide a historical account on cancer metabolism research, and to try to integrate and systematize the metabolic strategies in which cancer cells engage to overcome selective pressures during their inception and evolution. Implications of this renovated view on some common concepts and in therapeutics are also discussed. PMID:22231450

  10. Surgical Treatment of Gastric Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Seong-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumor is the most common mesenchymal tumor in the gastrointestinal tract and is most frequently developed in the stomach in the form of submucosal tumor. The incidence of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor is estimated to be as high as 25% of the population when all small and asymptomatic tumors are included. Because gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor is not completely distinguished from other submucosal tumors, a surgical excisional biopsy is recommended for tumors >2 cm. The surgical principles of gastrointestinal stromal tumor are composed of an R0 resection with a normal mucosa margin, no systemic lymph node dissection, and avoidance of perforation, which results in peritoneal seeding even in cases with otherwise low risk profiles. Laparoscopic surgery has been indicated for gastrointestinal stromal tumors <5 cm, and the indication for laparoscopic surgery is expanded to larger tumors if the above mentioned surgical principles can be maintained. A simple exogastric resection and various transgastric resection techniques are used for gastrointestinal stromal tumors in favorable locations (the fundus, body, greater curvature side). For a lesion at the gastroesophageal junction in the posterior wall of the stomach, enucleation techniques have been tried preserve the organ's function. Those methods have a theoretical risk of seeding a ruptured tumor, but this risk has not been evaluated by well-designed clinical trials. While some clinical trials are still on-going, neoadjuvant imatinib is suggested when marginally unresectable or multiorgan resection is anticipated to reduce the extent of surgery and the chance of incomplete resection, rupture or bleeding. PMID:23610714

  11. Patient-Derived Tumor Xenografts Are Susceptible to Formation of Human Lymphocytic Tumors1

    PubMed Central

    Bondarenko, Gennadiy; Ugolkov, Andrey; Rohan, Stephen; Kulesza, Piotr; Dubrovskyi, Oleksii; Gursel, Demirkan; Mathews, Jeremy; O’Halloran, Thomas V.; Wei, Jian J.; Mazar, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) tumor models have emerged as a new approach to evaluate the effects of cancer drugs on patients’ personalized tumor grafts enabling to select the best treatment for the cancer patient and providing a new tool for oncology drug developers. Here, we report that human tumors engrafted in immunodeficient mice are susceptible to formation of B-and T-cell PDX tumors. We xenografted human primary and metastatic tumor samples into immunodeficient mice and found that a fraction of PDX tumors generated from patients’ samples of breast, colon, pancreatic, bladder and renal cancer were histologically similar to lymphocytic neoplasms. Moreover, we found that the first passage of breast and pancreatic cancer PDX tumors after initial transplantation of the tumor pieces from the same human tumor graft could grow as a lymphocytic tumor in one mouse and as an adenocarcinoma in another mouse. Whereas subcutaneous PDX tumors resembling human adenocarcinoma histology were slow growing and non-metastatic, we found that subcutaneous PDX lymphocytic tumors were fast growing and formed large metastatic lesions in mouse lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and spleen. PDX lymphocytic tumors were comprised of B-cells which were Epstein-Barr virus positive and expressed CD45 and CD20. Because B-cells are typically present in malignant solid tumors, formation of B-cell tumor may evolve in a wide range of PDX tumor models. Although PDX tumor models show great promise in the development of personalized therapy for cancer patients, our results suggest that confidence in any given PDX tumor model requires careful screening of lymphocytic markers. PMID:26476081

  12. Patient-Derived Tumor Xenografts Are Susceptible to Formation of Human Lymphocytic Tumors.

    PubMed

    Bondarenko, Gennadiy; Ugolkov, Andrey; Rohan, Stephen; Kulesza, Piotr; Dubrovskyi, Oleksii; Gursel, Demirkan; Mathews, Jeremy; O'Halloran, Thomas V; Wei, Jian J; Mazar, Andrew P

    2015-09-01

    Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) tumor models have emerged as a new approach to evaluate the effects of cancer drugs on patients' personalized tumor grafts enabling to select the best treatment for the cancer patient and providing a new tool for oncology drug developers. Here, we report that human tumors engrafted in immunodeficient mice are susceptible to formation of B-and T-cell PDX tumors. We xenografted human primary and metastatic tumor samples into immunodeficient mice and found that a fraction of PDX tumors generated from patients' samples of breast, colon, pancreatic, bladder and renal cancer were histologically similar to lymphocytic neoplasms. Moreover, we found that the first passage of breast and pancreatic cancer PDX tumors after initial transplantation of the tumor pieces from the same human tumor graft could grow as a lymphocytic tumor in one mouse and as an adenocarcinoma in another mouse. Whereas subcutaneous PDX tumors resembling human adenocarcinoma histology were slow growing and non-metastatic, we found that subcutaneous PDX lymphocytic tumors were fast growing and formed large metastatic lesions in mouse lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and spleen. PDX lymphocytic tumors were comprised of B-cells which were Epstein-Barr virus positive and expressed CD45 and CD20. Because B-cells are typically present in malignant solid tumors, formation of B-cell tumor may evolve in a wide range of PDX tumor models. Although PDX tumor models show great promise in the development of personalized therapy for cancer patients, our results suggest that confidence in any given PDX tumor model requires careful screening of lymphocytic markers. PMID:26476081

  13. Epigenetic states of cells of origin and tumor evolution drive tumor-initiating cell phenotype and tumor heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Chow, Kin-Hoe; Shin, Dong-Mi; Jenkins, Molly H; Miller, Emily E; Shih, David J; Choi, Seungbum; Low, Benjamin E; Philip, Vivek; Rybinski, Brad; Bronson, Roderick T; Taylor, Michael D; Yun, Kyuson

    2014-09-01

    A central confounding factor in the development of targeted therapies is tumor cell heterogeneity, particularly in tumor-initiating cells (TIC), within clinically identical tumors. Here, we show how activation of the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) pathway in neural stem and progenitor cells creates a foundation for tumor cell evolution to heterogeneous states that are histologically indistinguishable but molecularly distinct. In spontaneous medulloblastomas that arise in Patched (Ptch)(+/-) mice, we identified three distinct tumor subtypes. Through cell type-specific activation of the SHH pathway in vivo, we determined that different cells of origin evolved in unique ways to generate these subtypes. Moreover, TICs in each subtype had distinct molecular and cellular phenotypes. At the bulk tumor level, the three tumor subtypes could be distinguished by a 465-gene signature and by differential activation levels of the ERK and AKT pathways. Notably, TICs from different subtypes were differentially sensitive to SHH or AKT pathway inhibitors, highlighting new mechanisms of resistance to targeted therapies. In summary, our results show how evolutionary processes act on distinct cells of origin to contribute to tumoral heterogeneity, at both bulk tumor and TIC levels. PMID:25136069

  14. Targeted delivery of let-7b to reprogramme tumor-associated macrophages and tumor infiltrating dendritic cells for tumor rejection.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhen; Gan, Jingjing; Long, Ziyan; Guo, Guangxing; Shi, Xiafei; Wang, Chunming; Zang, Yuhui; Ding, Zhi; Chen, Jiangning; Zhang, Junfeng; Dong, Lei

    2016-06-01

    Both tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) and tumor infiltrating dendritic cells (TIDCs) are important components in the tumor microenvironment that mediate tumor immunosuppression and promote cancer progression. Targeting these cells and altering their phenotypes may become a new strategy to recover their anti-tumor activities and thereby restore the local immune surveillance against tumor. In this study, we constructed a nucleic acid delivery system for the delivery of let-7b, a synthetic microRNA mimic. Our carrier has an affinity for the mannose receptors on TAMs/TIDCs and is responsive to the low-pH tumor microenvironment. The delivery of let-7b could reactivate TAMs/TIDCs by acting as a TLR-7 agonist and suppressing IL-10 production in vitro. In a breast cancer mouse model, let-7b delivered by this system efficiently reprogrammed the functions of TAMs/TIDCs, reversed the suppressive tumor microenvironment, and inhibited tumor growth. Taken together, this strategy, designed based upon TAMs/TIDCs-targeting delivery and the dual biological functions of let-7b (TLR-7 ligand and IL-10 inhibitor), may provide a new approach for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:26994345

  15. Malignant Trigeminal Nerve Sheath Tumor and Anaplastic Astrocytoma Collision Tumor with High Proliferative Activity and Tumor Suppressor P53 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ardati, Hosam; Baeesa, Saleh S.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The synchronous development of two primary brain tumors of distinct cell of origin in close proximity or in contact with each other is extremely rare. We present the first case of collision tumor with two histological distinct tumors. Case Presentation. A 54-year-old woman presented with progressive atypical left facial pain and numbness for 8 months. MRI of the brain showed left middle cranial fossa heterogeneous mass extending into the infratemporal fossa. At surgery, a distinct but intermingled intra- and extradural tumor was demonstrated which was completely removed through left orbitozygomatic-temporal craniotomy. Histopathological examination showed that the tumor had two distinct components: malignant nerve sheath tumor of the trigeminal nerve and temporal lobe anaplastic astrocytoma. Proliferative activity and expressed tumor protein 53 (TP53) gene mutations were demonstrated in both tumors. Conclusions. We describe the first case of malignant trigeminal nerve sheath tumor (MTNST) and anaplastic astrocytoma in collision and discuss the possible hypothesis of this rare occurrence. We propose that MTNST, with TP53 mutation, have participated in the formation of anaplastic astrocytoma, or vice versa. PMID:25386378

  16. Epigenetic states of cells of origin and tumor evolution drive tumor initiating cell phenotype and tumor heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Kin-Hoe; Shin, Dong-Mi; Jenkins, Molly H.; Miller, Emily E.; Shih, David J.; Choi, Seungbum; Low, Benjamin E.; Philip, Vivek; Rybinski, Brad; Bronson, Roderick T.; Taylor, Michael D.; Yun, Kyuson

    2014-01-01

    A central confounding factor in the development of targeted therapies is tumor cell heterogeneity, including as it occurs in tumor-initiating cells (TIC) within clinically identical tumors. Here we show how activation of the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) pathway in neural stem and progenitor cells creates a foundation for tumor cell evolution to heterogeneous states that are histologically indistinguishable but molecularly distinct. In spontaneous medulloblastomas that arise in Patched (Ptch)+/− mice, we identified three distinct tumor subtypes. Through cell type-specific activation of the SHH pathway in vivo, we determined that different cells of origin evolved in unique ways to generate these subtypes. Moreover, TICs in each subtype had distinct molecular and cellular phenotypes. At the bulk tumor level, the three tumor subtypes could be distinguished by a 465-gene signature and by differential activation levels of the ERK and AKT pathways. Notably, TICs from different subtypes were differentially sensitive to SHH or AKT pathway inhibitors, highlighting new mechanisms of resistance to targeted therapies. In summary, our results show how evolutionary processes act on distinct cells of origin to contribute to tumoral heterogeneity, at both bulk tumor and TIC levels. PMID:25136069

  17. Malignant trigeminal nerve sheath tumor and anaplastic astrocytoma collision tumor with high proliferative activity and tumor suppressor p53 expression.

    PubMed

    Kurdi, Maher; Al-Ardati, Hosam; Baeesa, Saleh S

    2014-01-01

    Background. The synchronous development of two primary brain tumors of distinct cell of origin in close proximity or in contact with each other is extremely rare. We present the first case of collision tumor with two histological distinct tumors. Case Presentation. A 54-year-old woman presented with progressive atypical left facial pain and numbness for 8 months. MRI of the brain showed left middle cranial fossa heterogeneous mass extending into the infratemporal fossa. At surgery, a distinct but intermingled intra- and extradural tumor was demonstrated which was completely removed through left orbitozygomatic-temporal craniotomy. Histopathological examination showed that the tumor had two distinct components: malignant nerve sheath tumor of the trigeminal nerve and temporal lobe anaplastic astrocytoma. Proliferative activity and expressed tumor protein 53 (TP53) gene mutations were demonstrated in both tumors. Conclusions. We describe the first case of malignant trigeminal nerve sheath tumor (MTNST) and anaplastic astrocytoma in collision and discuss the possible hypothesis of this rare occurrence. We propose that MTNST, with TP53 mutation, have participated in the formation of anaplastic astrocytoma, or vice versa. PMID:25386378

  18. TUSC1, a putative tumor suppressor gene, reduces tumor cell growth in vitro and tumor growth in vivo.

    PubMed

    Shan, Zhihong; Shakoori, Abbas; Bodaghi, Sohrab; Goldsmith, Paul; Jin, Jen; Wiest, Jonathan S

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported the identification of TUSC1 (Tumor Suppressor Candidate 1), as a novel intronless gene isolated from a region of homozygous deletion at D9S126 on chromosome 9p in human lung cancer. In this study, we examine the differential expression of TUSC1 in human lung cancer cell lines by western blot and in a primary human lung cancer tissue microarray by immunohistochemical analysis. We also tested the functional activities and mechanisms of TUSC1 as a tumor suppressor gene through growth suppression in vitro and in vivo. The results showed no expression of TUSC1 in TUSC1 homozygously deleted cells and diminished expression in some tumor cell lines without TUSC1 deletion. Interestingly, the results from a primary human lung cancer tissue microarray suggested that higher expression of TUSC1 was correlated with increased survival times for lung cancer patients. Our data demonstrated that growth curves of tumor cell lines transfected with TUSC1 grew slower in vitro than those transfected with the empty vector. More importantly, xenograph tumors in nude mice grew significantly slower in vivo in cells stably transfected with TUSC1 than those transfected with empty vector. In addition, results from confocal microscopy and immunohistochemical analyses show distribution of TUSC1 in the cytoplasm and nucleus in tumor cell lines and in normal and tumor cells in the lung cancer tissue microarray. Taken together, our results support TUSC1 has tumor suppressor activity as a candidate tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome 9p. PMID:23776618

  19. Non-pancreatic cancer tumors in the pancreatic region

    PubMed Central

    Andrén-Sandberg, Åke

    2011-01-01

    Most of tumors found in the pancreas are adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. A small number of tumors in the pancreas, such as islet cell tumors or neuroendocrine tumors, papillary cystic neoplasms, lymphoma, acinar cell tumors, metastatic tumors to the pancreas often, have a far better prognosis, and the majority of these tumors are non-malignant or benign. The author reviewed the recent literatures, and summarized where the tumor comes originally in the pancreas, what is the type of the tumor, and how to treat the tumor. PMID:22540066

  20. Ion transporters in brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Damin; Zhu, Wen; Kuo, John S.; Hu, Shaoshan; Sun, Dandan

    2015-01-01

    Ion transporters are important in regulation of ionic homeostasis, cell volume, and cellular signal transduction under physiological conditions. They have recently emerged as important players in cancer progression. In this review, we discussed two important ion transporter proteins, sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter isoform 1 (NKCC-1) and sodium-hydrogen exchanger isoform 1 (NHE-1) in Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and other malignant tumors. NKCC-1 is a Na+-dependent Cl− transporter that mediates the movement of Na+, K+, and Cl− ions across the plasma membrane and maintains cell volume and intracellular K+ and Cl− homeostasis. NHE-1 is a ubiquitously expressed cell membrane protein which regulates intracellular pH (pHi) and extracellular microdomain pH (pHe) homeostasis and cell volume. Here, we summarized recent pre-clinical experimental studies on NKCC-1 and NHE-1 in GBM and other malignant tumors, such as breast cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, and lung cancer. These studies illustrated that pharmacological inhibition or down-regulation of these ion transporter proteins reduces proliferation, increases apoptosis, and suppresses migration and invasion of cancer cells. These new findings reveal the potentials of these ion transporters as new targets for cancer diagnosis and/or treatment. PMID:25620102

  1. Tumor cell autocrine motility factor.

    PubMed Central

    Liotta, L A; Mandler, R; Murano, G; Katz, D A; Gordon, R K; Chiang, P K; Schiffmann, E

    1986-01-01

    A cell motility-stimulating factor has been isolated, purified, and partially characterized from the serum-free conditioned medium of human A2058 melanoma cells. We term this activity "autocrine motility factor" (AMF). AMF has the properties of a protein with an estimated size of 55 kDa. At concentrations of 10 nM or less, AMF stimulated the random or directed motility of the producer cells. However, AMF is not an attractant for neutrophils. Amino acid analysis of the purified AMF protein revealed a high content of serine, glycine, glutamic acid, and aspartic acid residues. The activity of AMF was not replaced or blocked by known growth factors such as epidermal growth factor or type beta transforming growth factor. Mechanistic studies showed that AMF stimulated the incorporation of [3H]methyl into cell membrane phospholipids after incubation with [methyl-3H]methionine with a sustained increase in the methylation of phosphatidyldimethylethanolamine to phosphatidylcholine. In contrast, AMF did not affect the incorporation of [1,2-14C]choline into phosphatidylcholine. AMF was produced in large amounts by three different clones of ras oncogene-transfected metastatic NIH 3T3 cells but not by the nontransformed parental cells. AMF may play a major role in the local invasive behavior of tumor cells and may also facilitate the concerted invasion by groups of tumor cells. Images PMID:3085086

  2. [Anaesthesia for endocrine tumor removal].

    PubMed

    Billard, V; Cheikh, M; Delaporte-Cerceau, S; Raffin-Sanson, M-L

    2009-06-01

    Endocrine tumors could be defined by their ability to produce structural proteins or hormones common to nervous and endocrine cells. They might induce physiological transforms or outcome adverse events which should be well known in order to prevent or treat them early. The goal of this review was to describe these changes, to describe preoperative assessment, and to discuss intraoperative monitoring and drugs choice based on the literature from the last 30 years. As an example, it should be noticed that: (1) preoperative blood pressure control is essential to prepare phaeochromocytoma for surgery. It should be followed during anaesthesia by intensive fluid load, reversible anaesthetic drugs and rational cardiovascular medications use (as for example remifentanil, sevoflurane, calcium channel blockers and esmolol), and after surgery by narrow clinical and biological monitoring; (2) after medullar thyroid cancer, main adverse events include cervical compressive haematoma and recurrent laryngeal nerve injury as for any thyroid surgery; (3) during pituitary surgery, air embolism might be expected, whereas water dysregulation (diabetes insipidus), corticotroph insufficiency, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak might occur postoperatively. In acromegaly, difficult endotracheal intubation is possible whereas severe Cushing's syndrome may be complicated with hypertensive cardiac failure, infections, thrombosis, delayed cicatrisation; (4) somatostatine analogs are a keystone in carcinoid tumors preoperative and anaesthetic management. PMID:19467826

  3. Tumor Bioengineering Using a Transglutaminase Crosslinked Hydrogel

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Josephine Y.; Tan, Shih-Jye; Yang, Zhi; Tayag, Charisse; Han, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Development of a physiologically relevant 3D model system for cancer research and drug development is a current challenge. We have adopted a 3D culture system based on a transglutaminase-crosslinked gelatin gel (Col-Tgel) to mimic the tumor 3D microenvironment. The system has several unique advantages over other alternatives including presenting cell-matrix interaction sites from collagen-derived peptides, geometry-initiated multicellular tumor spheroids, and metabolic gradients in the tumor microenvironment. Also it provides a controllable wide spectrum of gel stiffness for mechanical signals, and technical compatibility with imaging based screening due to its transparent properties. In addition, the Col-Tgel provides a cure-in-situ delivery vehicle for tumor xenograft formation in animals enhancing tumor cell uptake rate. Overall, this distinctive 3D system could offer a platform to more accurately mimic in vivo situations to study tumor formation and progression both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25133673

  4. Podocalyxin expression in malignant astrocytic tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Hayatsu, Norihito; Kaneko, Mika Kato; Mishima, Kazuhiko; Nishikawa, Ryo; Matsutani, Masao; Price, Janet E.; Kato, Yukinari

    2008-09-19

    Podocalyxin is an anti-adhesive mucin-like transmembrane sialoglycoprotein that has been implicated in the development of aggressive forms of cancer. Podocalyxin is also known as keratan sulfate (KS) proteoglycan. Recently, we revealed that highly sulfated KS or another mucin-like transmembrane sialoglycoprotein podoplanin/aggrus is upregulated in malignant astrocytic tumors. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between podocalyxin expression and malignant progression of astrocytic tumors. In this study, 51 astrocytic tumors were investigated for podocalyxin expression using immunohistochemistry, Western blot analysis, and quantitative real-time PCR. Immunohistochemistry detected podocalyxin on the surface of tumor cells in six of 14 anaplastic astrocytomas (42.9%) and in 17 of 31 glioblastomas (54.8%), especially around proliferating endothelial cells. In diffuse astrocytoma, podocalyxin expression was observed only in vascular endothelial cells. Podocalyxin might be associated with the malignant progression of astrocytic tumors, and be a useful prognostic marker for astrocytic tumors.

  5. Tumors and mitochondrial respiration: a neglected connection.

    PubMed

    Viale, Andrea; Corti, Denise; Draetta, Giulio F

    2015-09-15

    For decades, tumor cells have been considered defective in mitochondrial respiration due to their dominant glycolytic metabolism. However, a growing body of evidence is now challenging this assumption, and also implying that tumors are metabolically less homogeneous than previously supposed. A small subpopulation of slow-cycling cells endowed with tumorigenic potential and multidrug resistance has been isolated from different tumors. Deep metabolic characterization of these tumorigenic cells revealed their dependency on mitochondrial respiration versus glycolysis, suggesting the existence of a common metabolic program active in slow-cycling cells across different tumors. These findings change our understanding of tumor metabolism and also highlight new vulnerabilities that can be exploited to eradicate cancer cells responsible for tumor relapse. PMID:26374463

  6. What underlies the diversity of brain tumors?

    PubMed Central

    Swartling, Fredrik J.; Hede, Sanna-Maria; Weiss, William A.

    2012-01-01

    Glioma and medulloblastoma represent the most commonly occurring malignant brain tumors in adults and in children respectively. Recent genomic and transcriptional approaches present a complex group of diseases, and delineate a number of molecular subgroups within tumors that share a common histopathology. Differences in cells of origin, regional niches, developmental timing and genetic events all contribute to this heterogeneity. In an attempt to recapitulate the diversity of brain tumors, an increasing array of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) has been developed. These models often utilize promoters and genetic drivers from normal brain development, and can provide insight into specific cells from which these tumors originate. GEMMs show promise in both developmental biology and developmental therapeutics. This review describes numerous murine brain tumor models in the context of normal brain development, and the potential for these animals to impact brain tumor research. PMID:23085857

  7. Case of retroperitoneal solitary fibrous tumor.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Shinichi; Tochigi, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Sadafumi; Aoki, Hiroshi; Tateno, Hiroo; Kuwahara, Masaaki

    2007-07-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the retroperitoneal space is rare. We report a case of retroperitoneal tumor, diagnosed as SFT. A 69-year-old woman presented with right lower abdominal swelling, and was referred to our hospital with suspicion of right renal tumor. Abdominal ultrasound and computerized tomography (CT) showed a mass (about 15 x 14 x 10 cm) in the right abdomen. The tumor was thought to be right renal rumor, and right radical nephrectomy was performed. In the excised specimen the tumor was not connected to gastrointestinal tract, peritoneum, or right kidney. The histological and immunohistochemical examination of the specimen revealed SFT. The tumor has malignant potential with partially increased mitotic activity and cellularity in the histological examination. The patient is healthy and without evidence of recurrence or metastasis 26 months from surgery. PMID:17702181

  8. Embryonal brain tumors and developmental control genes

    SciTech Connect

    Aguzzi, A.

    1995-12-31

    Cell proliferation in embryogenesis and neoplastic transformation is thought to be controlled by similar sets of regulatory genes. This is certainly true for tumors of embryonic origin, such as Ewing sarcoma, Wilms` tumor and retinoblastoma, in which developmental control genes are either activated as oncogenes to promote proliferation, or are inactivated to eliminate their growth suppressing function. However, to date little is known about the genetic events underlying the pathogenesis of medulloblastoma, the most common brain tumor in children, which still carries an unfavourable prognosis. None of the common genetic alterations identified in other neuroectodermal tumors, such as mutation of the p53 gene or amplification of tyrosine kinase receptor genes, could be uncovered as key events in the formation of medulloblastoma. The identification of regulatory genes which are expressed in this pediatric brain tumor may provide an alternative approach to gain insight into the molecular aspects of tumor formation.

  9. Tumor lysis syndrome: A clinical review

    PubMed Central

    Mirrakhimov, Aibek E; Voore, Prakruthi; Khan, Maliha; Ali, Alaa M

    2015-01-01

    Tumor lysis syndrome is an oncometabolic emergency resulting from rapid cell death. Tumor lysis syndrome can occur as a consequence of tumor targeted therapy or spontaneously. Clinicians should stratify every hospitalized cancer patient and especially those receiving chemotherapy for the risk of tumor lysis syndrome. Several aspects of prevention include adequate hydration, use of uric acid lowering therapies, use of phosphate binders and minimization of potassium intake. Patients at high risk for the development of tumor lysis syndrome should be monitored in the intensive care unit. Established tumor lysis syndrome should be treated in the intensive care unit by aggressive hydration, possible use of loop diuretics, possible use of phosphate binders, use of uric acid lowering agents and dialysis in refractory cases. PMID:25938028

  10. [Typical tumors of the petrous bone].

    PubMed

    Ahlhelm, F; Müller, U; Ulmer, S

    2014-04-01

    In the region of the petrous bone, inner acoustic canal and cerebellopontine angle, a variety of different tissues can be found, such as bony, epithelial, neural and vascular structures. Tumorous or tumor-like lesions, vascular or bony malformations or other pathologies can therefore be found in all of these areas. We discuss various frequently occurring tumorous or tumor-like pathologies including congential lesions, such as mucoceles, inflammatory disorders including osteomyelitis, pseudotumors and Wegener's granulomatosis. Benign non-neoplastic lesions, such as cholesteatoma, cholesterol granuloma, epidermoid and benign neoplastic tumors, such as the most commonly found vestibular schwannoma, meningeoma, paraganglioma, vascular pathologies and finally malignant lesions, such as metastasis, chordoma or chondrosarcoma and endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) are also discussed. The emphasis of this article is on the appearance of these entities in computed tomography (CT) and more so magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), it provides key facts and typical images and discusses possibilities how to distinguish these pathologies. PMID:24692010

  11. [Tumors of the sacrococcygeal region (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Krebs, H; Baca, I

    1979-01-01

    In the world literature is reported about 584 tumors of the sacrococcygeal region, 484 of them are analysed exactly. The symptoms of the various tumors are about the same, pain and nerval irritation were seen in the most cases. Rectal-digital examination mostly leads to diagnosis. Computertomography is of special diagnostic value since some years. Because of the localisation of the tumor therapy often is difficult. Operation is the only way to remove the tumor and should be done so radically as possible. Radiation therapy may induce malignant degeneration. Adjuvant chemotherapy till now is without of any any effect. In the paper we report about the very seldom malignant meningeoma of the sacrum, in the literature we could not find any other case. Besides this and the 584 cases of the literature there is reported about 4 other own cases of sacrococcygeal tumors, one neurofibroma and three giant cell tumors of the Os sacrum. PMID:296884

  12. Radiation-induced nitric oxide mitigates tumor hypoxia and radioresistance in a murine SCCVII tumor model

    SciTech Connect

    Nagane, Masaki; Yasui, Hironobu; Yamamori, Tohru; Zhao, Songji; Kuge, Yuji; Tamaki, Nagara; Kameya, Hiromi; Nakamura, Hideo; Fujii, Hirotada; Inanami, Osamu

    2013-08-02

    Highlights: •IR-induced NO increased tissue perfusion and pO{sub 2}. •IR increased NO production in tumors without changes in the mRNA and protein levels of NOS isoforms. •NOS activity assay showed that IR upregulated eNOS activity in tumors. •IR-induced NO decreased tumor hypoxia and altered tumor radiosensitivity. -- Abstract: Tumor hypoxia, which occurs mainly as a result of inadequate tissue perfusion in solid tumors, is a well-known challenge for successful radiotherapy. Recent evidence suggests that ionizing radiation (IR) upregulates nitric oxide (NO) production and that IR-induced NO has the potential to increase intratumoral circulation. However, the kinetics of NO production and the responsible isoforms for NO synthase in tumors exposed to IR remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the mechanism by which IR stimulates NO production in tumors and the effect of IR-induced NO on tumor radiosensitivity. Hoechst33342 perfusion assay and electron spin resonance oxymetry showed that IR increased tissue perfusion and pO{sub 2} in tumor tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis using two different hypoxic probes showed that IR decreased hypoxic regions in tumors; treatment with a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, L-NAME, abrogated the effects of IR. Moreover, IR increased endothelial NOS (eNOS) activity without affecting its mRNA or protein expression levels in SCCVII-transplanted tumors. Tumor growth delay assay showed that L-NAME decreased the anti-tumor effect of fractionated radiation (10 Gy × 2). These results suggested that IR increased eNOS activity and subsequent tissue perfusion in tumors. Increases in intratumoral circulation simultaneously decreased tumor hypoxia. As a result, IR-induced NO increased tumor radiosensitivity. Our study provides a new insight into the NO-dependent mechanism for efficient fractionated radiotherapy.

  13. Simulation of Complex Transport of Nanoparticles around a Tumor Using Tumor-Microenvironment-on-Chip

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Bongseop; Ozcelikkale, Altug; Shin, Crystal S.; Park, Kinam; Han, Bumsoo

    2014-01-01

    Delivery of therapeutic agents selectively to tumor tissue, which is referred as “targeted delivery,” is one of the most ardently pursued goals of cancer therapy. Recent advances in nanotechnology enable numerous types of nanoparticles (NPs) whose properties can be designed for targeted delivery to tumors. In spite of promising early results, the delivery and therapeutic efficacy of the majority of NPs are still quite limited. This is mainly attributed to the limitation of currently available tumor models to test these NPs and systematically study the effects of complex transport and pathophysiological barriers around the tumors. In this study, thus, we developed a new in vitro tumor model to recapitulate the tumor microenvironment determining the transport around tumors. This model, named tumor-microenvironment-on-chip (T-MOC), consists of 3-dimensional microfluidic channels where tumor cells and endothelial cells are cultured within extracellular matrix under perfusion of interstitial fluid. Using this T-MOC platform, the transport of NPs and its variation due to tumor microenvironmental parameters have been studied including cut-off pore size, interstitial fluid pressure, and tumor tissue microstructure. The results suggest that T-MOC is capable of simulating the complex transport around the tumor, and providing detailed information about NP transport behavior. This finding confirms that NPs should be designed considering their dynamic interactions with tumor microenvironment. PMID:25194778

  14. Different staining patterns of ovarian Brenner tumor and the associated mucinous tumor.

    PubMed

    Roma, Andres A; Masand, Ramya P

    2015-02-01

    The association of ovarian Brenner tumors and adjacent mucinous tumors is well known but not completely understood. In this study, we analyzed immunohistochemical markers on Brenner tumors and their associated mucinous tumor to explore Mullerian as well as Wolffian and germ cell derivation and determine if the mucinous component is independent or related to the Brenner tumor. Of 32 consecutive cases of Brenner tumors, 8 were identified with significant mucinous component, and 7 additional cases included foci of mucinous epithelium within the Brenner transitional nests. All Brenner tumors were diffusely positive for GATA3 and negative for Paired box gene 8, PAX2, and Sal-like protein 4. Interestingly, the areas of mucinous epithelium as well as mucinous tumors, intermixed and adjacent to the Brenner tumor, were negative for all 4 markers; however, occasional basal-like cells retained expression of GATA3. The immunoprofile of mucinous tumors associated with Brenner tumors shares the lack of Mullerian markers PAX2 and Paired box gene 8 with the Brenner tumor but differs in the expression of GATA3 only in the Brenner tumor component. PMID:25596159

  15. CT demonstration of postpneumonectomy tumor recurrence

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, J.C.; Desai, K.K.

    1983-08-01

    Seven patients with suspected recurrent tumor who had undergone pneumonectomy for cancinoma of the lung were studied by computed tomography (CT) to evaluate the location, extent, and nature of the tumor. In six patients with proven recurrence in the chest, CT demonstrated the tumor in five, four as a mass near the bronchial stump and one as a parasternal mass. (In one patient, surgical clip artifacts prevented interpretation.) This inforamtion was useful in planning radiation therapy treatments in four patients.

  16. Radiological evaluation of Pott puffy tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, R.G.; Sty, J.R.; Landers, A.D.

    1986-03-14

    The Pott puffy tumor represents frontal osteomyelitis with subperiosteal (pericranial) abscess, secondary to frontal sinusitis. Pott puffy tumor is one of several potential complications of infection of a frontal sinus. Computed tomography (CT) and radionuclide bone imaging have proved to be invaluable tools in the diagnosis of frontal sinusitis, osteomyelitis, and intracranial infection. This article details the radionuclide bone imaging and findings on CT in three children with Pott puffy tumor, as well as the clinical features and pathophysicological mechanisms.

  17. Multiscale tumor spatiokinetic model for intraperitoneal therapy.

    PubMed

    Au, Jessie L-S; Guo, Peng; Gao, Yue; Lu, Ze; Wientjes, Michael G; Tsai, Max; Wientjes, M Guillaume

    2014-05-01

    This study established a multiscale computational model for intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy, to depict the time-dependent and spatial-dependent drug concentrations in peritoneal tumors as functions of drug properties (size, binding, diffusivity, permeability), transport mechanisms (diffusion, convection), spatial-dependent tumor heterogeneities (vessel density, cell density, pressure gradient), and physiological properties (peritoneal pressure, peritoneal fluid volume). Equations linked drug transport and clearance on three scales (tumor, IP cavity, whole organism). Paclitaxel was the test compound. The required model parameters (tumor diffusivity, tumor hydraulic conductivity, vessel permeability and surface area, microvascular hydrostatic pressure, drug association with cells) were obtained from literature reports, calculation, and/or experimental measurements. Drug concentration-time profiles in peritoneal fluid and plasma were the boundary conditions for tumor domain and blood vessels, respectively. The finite element method was used to numerically solve the nonlinear partial differential equations for fluid and solute transport. The resulting multiscale model accounted for intratumoral spatial heterogeneity, depicted diffusive and convective drug transport in tumor interstitium and across blood vessels, and provided drug flux and concentration as a function of time and spatial position in the tumor. Comparison of model-predicted tumor spatiokinetics with experimental results (autoradiographic data of 3H-paclitaxel in IP ovarian tumors in mice, 6 h posttreatment) showed good agreement (1% deviation for area under curve and 23% deviations for individual data points, which were several-fold lower compared to the experimental intertumor variations). The computational multiscale model provides a tool to quantify the effects of drug-, tumor-, and host-dependent variables on the concentrations and residence time of IP therapeutics in tumors. PMID:24570339

  18. Inhibition of Vascularization in Tumor Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalerandi, M.; Sansone, B. Capogrosso

    2002-11-01

    The transition to a vascular phase is a prerequisite for fast tumor growth. During the avascular phase, the neoplasm feeds only from the (relatively few) existing nearby blood vessels. During angiogenesis, the number of capillaries surrounding and infiltrating the tumor increases dramatically. A model which includes physical and biological mechanisms of the interactions between the tumor and vascular growth describes the avascular-vascular transition. Numerical results agree with clinical observations and predict the influence of therapies aiming to inhibit the transition.

  19. Scintigraphic Images of Massive Tumoral Calcinosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiyan

    2016-06-01

    Tumoral calcinosis is a rare family disorder characterized by massive periarticular calcification deposits of the soft tissue. Although radiographic findings of tumoral calcinosis are recognized, there were very scant publications of scintigraphic imaging of the disease. We present here the images of FDG PET/CT and bone scintigraphy in a patient with idiopathic tumoral calcinosis, which are unique in the locations of the lesions and distribution of abnormal uptake. PMID:26909717

  20. Torsion of ovarian tumors: a clinicopathological study.

    PubMed

    Lee, C H; Raman, S; Sivanesaratnam, V

    1989-01-01

    Torsion of ovarian tumors occurred predominantly in the reproductive age group. The majority of the cases presented in pregnant (22.7%) than in non-pregnant (6.1%) women. The major presenting symptom was pain but an abdominal mass was palpable in 79.4% of cases. Torsion was more common on the right ovary and 50% were gangrenous at laparotomy. Most of the tumors were benign cystic teratomas. Only 8.7% of the tumors were malignant. PMID:2565826

  1. Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-07-01

    Bladder Cancer; Breast Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Kidney Cancer; Lung Cancer; Ovarian Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  2. Bone tumor mimickers: A pictorial essay

    PubMed Central

    Mhuircheartaigh, Jennifer Ni; Lin, Yu-Ching; Wu, Jim S

    2014-01-01

    Focal lesions in bone are very common and many of these lesions are not bone tumors. These bone tumor mimickers can include numerous normal anatomic variants and non-neoplastic processes. Many of these tumor mimickers can be left alone, while others can be due to a significant disease process. It is important for the radiologist and clinician to be aware of these bone tumor mimickers and understand the characteristic features which allow discrimination between them and true neoplasms in order to avoid unnecessary additional workup. Knowing which lesions to leave alone or which ones require workup can prevent misdiagnosis and reduce patient anxiety. PMID:25114385

  3. Exploiting tumor epigenetics to improve oncolytic virotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Nicole E.; Abdelbary, Hesham; Lupien, Mathieu; Bell, John C.; Diallo, Jean-Simon

    2013-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses (OVs) comprise a versatile and multi-mechanistic therapeutic platform in the growing arsenal of anticancer biologics. These replicating therapeutics find favorable conditions in the tumor niche, characterized among others by increased metabolism, reduced anti-tumor/antiviral immunity, and disorganized vasculature. Through a self-amplification that is dependent on multiple cancer-specific defects, these agents exhibit remarkable tumor selectivity. With several OVs completing or entering Phase III clinical evaluation, their therapeutic potential as well as the challenges ahead are increasingly clear. One key hurdle is tumor heterogeneity, which results in variations in the ability of tumors to support productive infection by OVs and to induce adaptive anti-tumor immunity. To this end, mounting evidence suggests tumor epigenetics may play a key role. This review will focus on the epigenetic landscape of tumors and how it relates to OV infection. Therapeutic strategies aiming to exploit the epigenetic identity of tumors in order to improve OV therapy are also discussed. PMID:24062768

  4. Histamine in brain development and tumors.

    PubMed

    Panula, P; Lintunen, M; Karlstedt, K

    2000-02-01

    Histamine is found in developing mammalian brain in both neurons and mast cells. Under normal conditions, histamine H1 and H2 receptors are found in neural, glial and endothelial cells, and H3 receptors at least on neurons. Experimental brain tumors display both H1 and H2 receptors, and histamine increases permeability in the tumors and in the neighboring areas. Many studies have addressed histaminergic signalling mechanisms in cell lines originating from brain tumors. However, the role of histamine in normal development of brain structures, proliferation and differentiation of neurons and glial cells, and growth of malignant tumors in situ is still poorly understood. PMID:10888266

  5. Are biomechanical changes necessary for tumor progression?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kas, Josef A.; Fritsch, Anatol; Kiessling, Tobias; Nnetu, David K.; Pawlizak, Steve; Wetzel, Franziska; Zink, Mareike

    2011-03-01

    With an increasing knowledge in tumor biology an overwhelming complexity becomes obvious which roots in the diversity of tumors and their heterogeneous molecular composition. Nevertheless in all solid tumors malignant neoplasia, i.e. uncontrolled growth, invasion of adjacent tissues, and metastasis, occurs. Physics sheds some new light on cancer by approaching this problem from a functional, materials perspective. Recent results indicate that all three pathomechanisms require changes in the active and passive cellular biomechanics. Malignant transformation causes cell softening for small deformations which correlates with an increased rate of proliferation and faster cell migration. The tumor cell's ability to strain harden permits tumor growth against a rigid tissue environment. A highly mechanosensitive, enhanced cell contractility is a prerequisite that tumor cells can cross its tumor boundaries and that this cells can migrate through the extracellular matrix. Insights into the biomechanical changes during tumor progression may lead to selective treatments by altering cell mechanics. Such drugs would not cure by killing cancer cells, but slow down tumor progression with only mild side effects and thus may be an option for older and frail patients.

  6. Electric Field Analysis of Breast Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sree, V. Gowri; Udayakumar, K.; Sundararajan, R.

    2011-01-01

    An attractive alternative treatment for malignant tumors that are refractive to conventional therapies, such as surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, is electrical-pulse-mediated drug delivery. Electric field distribution of tissue/tumor is important for effective treatment of tissues. This paper deals with the electric field distribution study of a tissue model using MAXWELL 3D Simulator. Our results indicate that tumor tissue had lower electric field strength compared to normal cells, which makes them susceptible to electrical-pulse-mediated drug delivery. This difference could be due to the altered properties of tumor cells compared to normal cells, and our results corroborate this. PMID:22295214

  7. Anopheles mosquito transmission of brain tumor.

    PubMed

    Lehrer, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Some investigators have postulated a viral cause of malignant glioma, possibly SV40 [Miller G. Brain cancer. A viral link to glioblastoma? Science 2009;323(5910):30-1] or cytomegalovirus (CMV). A source of other brain tumor viruses might be the anopheles mosquito, the vector of malaria. Evidence of an association of anopheles with brain tumors can be found in the relationship between malaria outbreaks in United States and reports of brain tumor incidence by state. There is a significant association between US malaria outbreaks in 2004 and the reports of brain tumor incidence 2000-2004 from 19 US states (p<0.001). Because increased numbers of both malaria cases and brain tumors could be due solely to the fact that some states, such as New York, have much larger populations than other states, such as North Dakota, multiple linear regression was performed with number of brain tumors as the dependent variable, malaria and population as independent variables. The effect of malaria was significant (p<0.001), and independent of the effect of population (p<0.001). Perhaps anopheles transmits an obscure virus that initially causes only a mild transitory illness but much later a brain tumor. If a mosquito-transmitted brain tumor virus could be identified, development of a brain tumor vaccine might be possible. PMID:19656635

  8. Malignant and metastatic tumors of the hand.

    PubMed

    Puhaindran, Mark E; Athanasian, Edward A

    2010-11-01

    Malignant tumors of the hand are rare, although there remain many instances in which marginal excisions are performed for unsuspected malignant hand lesions. Suboptimal biopsy incisions and inadvertent contamination during these excisions may result in larger resections or amputations being necessary to ensure complete removal of the tumor with negative margins. This article provides an update for the current management of patients with primary malignant and metastatic tumors of the hand, including the roles of adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy for the more common hand tumors. PMID:21050968

  9. Tumor cell migration in complex microenvironments

    PubMed Central

    Polacheck, William J.; Zervantonakis, Ioannis K.; Kamm, Roger D.

    2012-01-01

    Tumor cell migration is essential for invasion and dissemination from primary solid tumors and for the establishment of lethal secondary metastases at distant organs. In vivo and in vitro models enabled identification of different factors in the tumor microenvironment that regulate tumor progression and metastasis. However, the mechanisms by which tumor cells integrate these chemical and mechanical signals from multiple sources to navigate the complex microenvironment remain poorly understood. In this review, we discuss the factors that influence tumor cell migration with a focus on the migration of transformed carcinoma cells. We provide an overview of the experimental and computational methods that allow the investigation of tumor cell migration, and we highlight the benefits and shortcomings of the various assays. We emphasize that the chemical and mechanical stimulus paradigms are not independent and that crosstalk between them motivates the development of new assays capable of applying multiple, simultaneous stimuli and imaging the cellular migratory response in real-time. These next-generation assays will more closely mimic the in vivo microenvironment to provide new insights into tumor progression, inform techniques to control tumor cell migration, and render cancer more treatable. PMID:22926411

  10. Photodynamic therapy of head and neck tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakoulovskaya, Elena G.; Shental, Victor V.; Abdoullin, N. A.; Kuvshinov, Yury P.; Tabolinovskaia, T. D.; Edinak, N. J.; Poddubny, Boris K.; Lioubaev, V. L.; Boikov, V. P.; Kondratjeva, T. T.; Meerovich, Gennadii A.; Stratonnikov, Alexander A.; Linkov, Kirill G.; Agafonov, Valery V.

    1996-12-01

    This paper deals with the results of stage 1 clinical trials for sulfated aluminum phthalocyanine (PHS) (Photosens, Russia) in 1994-1996. The results of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of head and neck tumors (HNT), side effects and ways of their correction and prevention, as well as changes in doses of injected photosensitizer (PS), regimes of light irradiation, choice of laser and type of irradiation (surface or interstitial) are discussed. PDT have been provided in 42 patients (93 tumor sites) with different head and neck tumors. Fluorescent diagnostics of tumor, accumulation of PS in tumor, adjacent tissue has been fulfilled. Total 78 PDT sessions have been done. As a source of light we used: quantoscope, solid laser, krypton laser, tunable dye laser, He-Ne-laser. In 38 tumor sites (21 patients) -- 40.8% -- we had clinical response, in 27 tumor sites (16 patients) -- 29.0% -- we had partial response, in 28 tumor sites (8 patients) -- 30.2% -- we had no response. Our experience shows pronounced efficacy of PDT for HNT, except of melanoma. Providing PDT twice with the interval 24 - 72 hours when retention of PS is sufficient for treatment, did additive effect to the tumor, but didn't increase adjacent tissue damage.

  11. Cellular immunotherapy for pediatric solid tumors

    PubMed Central

    HEGDE, MEENAKSHI; MOLL, ALEXANDER; BYRD, TIARA T.; LOUIS, CHRYSTAL U.; AHMED, NABIL

    2015-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made in the treatment of pediatric solid tumors over the past 4 decades. However, children with metastatic and or recurrent disease continue to do poorly despite the aggressive multi-modality conventional therapies. The increasing understanding of the tumor biology and the interaction between the tumor and the immune system over the recent years have led to the development of novel immune-based therapies as alternative options for some of these high-risk malignancies. The safety and anti-tumor efficacy of various tumor vaccines and tumor-antigen specific immune cells are currently being investigated for various solid tumors. In early clinical trials, most of these cellular therapies have been well tolerated and have shown promising clinical responses. Although substantial work is being done in this field, the available knowledge for pediatric tumors remains limited. We review the contemporary early phase cell-based immunotherapy efforts for pediatric solid tumors and discuss the rationale and the challenges thereof. PMID:25082406

  12. PT-12SURGICAL APPROACH FOR THALAMIC TUMORS

    PubMed Central

    Smrcka, Martin; Priban, Vladimír; Brichtova, Eva; Juran, Vilem

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Thalamic tumors are relatively rare tumors growing in a highly functional part of brain. They are more frequent in pediatric population. Their surgery is challenging and a high morbidity is possible. Relatively benign nature of many of these tumors means that an attempt for radical resection should frequently be performed. The approach has to be very carefully planned, sometimes with the help of modern diagnostic methods like DTI. The location and projection of the tumor in the thalamus plays an important role in choosing the approach. MATERIAL: We have studied a group of 12 patients with thalamic tumors treated from 2005 - 2012. There were 10 males and 2 females, age ranged from 1 - 64 years (mean 17,5 years). Transcortical approach was used 6x, transcallosal 3x, transsylvian 2x and supracerebellar infratentorial 1x. One patient is being observed only. RESULTS: Gross total resection was achieved in 6 cases, subtotal in 2 and partial in 3. There were 7 pilocytic astrocytomas, one subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, one diffuse astrocytoma G II and two glioblastomas. All patients are still alive with the mean follow-up 4 years. There was no permanent morbidity in this group. CONCLUSION: Thalamic tumors might be safely radically resected if correct approach is used. The choice of approach is based in the projection of the tumor. Smaller tumors which are not close to the thalamic surface might be followed or biopsied if there is a likelihood of its malignant nature. Oncological treatment should be reserved for malignant tumors.

  13. Diffuse soft tissue calcification in tumoral calcinosis

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, E.S.; Schumacher, H.R.; Dalinka, M.K.

    1981-10-01

    Tumoral calcinosis is a rare disease characterized biochemically by hyperphosphatemia, normocalcemia, and reduced fractional excretion of phosphate. Radiographically, it has been defined by the presence of large, amorphous juxtaarticular calcific deposits. A 53-year-old woman with tumoral calcinosis was found to have unusual diffuse soft tissue calcification indistinguishable from that usually seen in collagen vascular disease and previously referred to as calcinosis universalis. It is suggested that tumoral calcinosis is a misnomer as the calcification seen in patients with this disease may be 'tumoral' or diffuse.

  14. SYNOVIAL GIANT CELL TUMOR OF THE KNEE

    PubMed Central

    Abdalla, Rene Jorge; Cohen, Moisés; Nóbrega, Jezimar; Forgas, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Synovial giant cell tumor is a benign neoplasm, rarely reported in the form of malignant metastasis. Synovial giant cell tumor most frequently occurs on the hand, and, most uncommon, on the ankle and knee. In the present study, the authors describe a rare case of synovial giant cell tumor on the knee as well as the treatment approach. Arthroscopy has been shown, in this case, to be the optimal method for treating this kind of lesion, once it allowed a less aggressive approach, while providing good visualization of all compartments of knee joint and full tumor resection.

  15. Imaging Tumor Cell Movement In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Entenberg, David; Kedrin, Dmitriy; Wyckoff, Jeffrey; Sahai, Erik; Condeelis, John; Segall, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    This unit describes the methods that we have been developing for analyzing tumor cell motility in mouse and rat models of breast cancer metastasis. Rodents are commonly used both to provide a mammalian system for studying human tumor cells (as xenografts in immunocompromised mice) as well as for following the development of tumors from a specific tissue type in transgenic lines. The Basic Protocol in this unit describes the standard methods used for generation of mammary tumors and imaging them. Additional protocols for labeling macrophages, blood vessel imaging, and image analysis are also included. PMID:23456602

  16. Maximizing Tumor Immunity With Fractionated Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Schaue, Doerthe; Ratikan, Josephine A.; Iwamoto, Keisuke S.; McBride, William H.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Technologic advances have led to increased clinical use of higher-sized fractions of radiation dose and higher total doses. How these modify the pathways involved in tumor cell death, normal tissue response, and signaling to the immune system has been inadequately explored. Here we ask how radiation dose and fraction size affect antitumor immunity, the suppression thereof, and how this might relate to tumor control. Methods and Materials: Mice bearing B16-OVA murine melanoma were treated with up to 15 Gy radiation given in various-size fractions, and tumor growth followed. The tumor-specific immune response in the spleen was assessed by interferon-{gamma} enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay with ovalbumin (OVA) as the surrogate tumor antigen and the contribution of regulatory T cells (Tregs) determined by the proportion of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup hi}Foxp3{sup +} T cells. Results: After single doses, tumor control increased with the size of radiation dose, as did the number of tumor-reactive T cells. This was offset at the highest dose by an increase in Treg representation. Fractionated treatment with medium-size radiation doses of 7.5 Gy/fraction gave the best tumor control and tumor immunity while maintaining low Treg numbers. Conclusions: Radiation can be an immune adjuvant, but the response varies with the size of dose per fraction. The ultimate challenge is to optimally integrate cancer immunotherapy into radiation therapy.

  17. Proliferating trichilemmal tumor of the nose*

    PubMed Central

    Rosmaninho, Aristóteles; Caetano, Mónica; Oliveira, Ana; de Almeida, Teresa Pinto; Selores, Manuela; Alves, Rosário

    2012-01-01

    Proliferating trichilemmal tumor is a rare tumor originating in the external root sheath, that is usually found in the scalp of middle-aged or elderly females. Its histologic appearance may not correlate with its clinical behavior. In addition, there are no guidelines available for the treatment of these tumors, making its management a challenge for physicians. We report the case of a 53 year-old woman with a proliferating trichilemmal tumor on her nose, which is a very uncommon location for these lesions. PMID:23197215

  18. Cancer Nanomedicines Targeting Tumor Extracellular pH

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Li; Bae, You Han

    2011-01-01

    Tumors have been a highlight in the research of nanomedicine for decades. Despite all the efforts in the decoration of the nano systems, tumor specific targeting is still an issue due to the heterogeneous nature of tumors. Hypoxia is frequently observed in solid tumors. The consequent acidification of tumor extracellular matrices may bring new insight to tumor targeting. In this review, we present the polymeric nano systems that target tumor extracellular pH (pHe). PMID:22078927

  19. Recent Advances in Targeting Tumor Energy Metabolism with Tumor Acidosis as a Biomarker of Drug Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Akhenblit, Paul J; Pagel, Mark D

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells employ a deregulated cellular metabolism to leverage survival and growth advantages. The unique tumor energy metabolism presents itself as a promising target for chemotherapy. A pool of tumor energy metabolism targeting agents has been developed after several decades of efforts. This review will cover glucose and fatty acid metabolism, PI3K/AKT/mTOR, HIF-1 and glutamine pathways in tumor energy metabolism, and how they are being exploited for treatments and therapies by promising pre-clinical or clinical drugs being developed or investigated. Additionally, acidification of the tumor extracellular microenvironment is hypothesized to be the result of active tumor metabolism. This implies that tumor extracellular pH (pHe) can be a biomarker for assessing the efficacy of therapies that target tumor metabolism. Several translational molecular imaging methods (PET, MRI) for interrogating tumor acidification and its suppression are discussed as well. PMID:26962408

  20. Hand tumors: II. Benign and malignant bone tumors of the hand.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Megan; Neumeister, Michael W; Bueno, Reuben A

    2014-06-01

    The incidence of both benign and malignant bone tumors arising in the hand is relatively low in comparison with other locations. Although the overwhelming majority of these tumors are benign, even benign tumors can be locally destructive and compromise hand function. Intralesional tumor excision is the most appropriate surgical intervention for many benign bone tumors of the hand; however, destructive or malignant tumors may require wide local excision or even amputation to achieve complete tumor eradication. The purpose of this review article is to provide an overview of the pertinent benign and malignant bone tumors that may be encountered by hand surgeons. Clinical presentation, radiographic features, recommended workup, and available treatment options are all reviewed. PMID:24867740

  1. NMR characterization of pituitary tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Osbakken, M.; Gonzales, J.; Page, R.

    1984-01-01

    Twelve patients (5 male, 7 female, mean age 37.9 +- 20) with pituitary tumors were extensively evaluated with NMR imaging using a 1.5K gauss resistive magnet. Saturation recovery (SR), inversion recovery (IR) and spin echo (SE) pulse sequences were used for qualitative characterization of the lesions. T/sub 1/ calculations were also performed for brain and pituitary. Tumor histology and endocrine status were correlated with NMR data. All tumors were large with suprasellar extension (6 with prolactin secretion, 6 without). Pituitary T/sub 1/'s ranged from .2 to .64, the mean T/sub 1/ being longer than that of brain (Brain = .4 +- .04; Pit = .48 +- .14). 3 patients with histological evidence of homogeneous adenomas had long T/sub 1/'s (0.58 +- .05). 3 patients with evidence of recent or old hemorhage into the pituitary had much shorter T/sub 1/'s (0.29 +- .12). There was no relationship between prolactin secretion and T/sub 1/. Qualitative T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ information can be obtained by using a combination of SR, IR, and SE images. Using this method in the patients, homogeneous adenomas had similar T/sub 1/'s and longer T/sub 2/'s compared to the brain, while patients with bleeds had shorter T/sub 1/'s and T/sub 2/'s. Image T/sub 1/ characteristics correlated well with the calculated T/sub 1/ values. The range of T/sub 1/ (and potentially T/sub 2/) values which occur in apparently similar lesions are most likely due to anatomical and pathophysiological variations in these lesions. It may be ultimately possible to separate different types of pathological processes based on NMR image T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ characteristics after careful comparative studies of NMR and histological data are completed. The combination of calculated T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ with image T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ information may also be useful in further characterization of lesions.

  2. 78 FR 36163 - Bitterroot National Forest, Darby Ranger District, Como Forest Health Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... FHP covers approximately 5,640 acres of national forest land between Lake Como and Lost Horse Roads... project area lies between Lake Como Road and Lost Horse Road, about three miles northwest of...

  3. Characterization of Circulating Tumor DNA for Genetic Assessment of solid Tumors.

    PubMed

    Dorner, A J; Badola, S; Niu, H

    2015-07-01

    Personalized cancer therapy requires characterization of the current status of an individual's cancer, necessitating invasive tumor tissue biopsies at diagnosis, during treatment and at progression. Serial acquisition of solid tumor biopsies during treatment to characterize mutations related to acquired resistance may not be medically feasible. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in plasma offers a possible noninvasive "real time" tool for tumor characterization, providing accessible genetic biomarkers for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and response to therapy. PMID:25858882

  4. Idiopathic periscapular tumoral calcinosis mimicking and presenting as extraskeletal chondromatous tumor.

    PubMed

    Jayendra, Palan; Ganesh, Mandakulutur S; Siddappa, Kadanapuradadoddi T

    2012-12-01

    Tumoral calcinosis is a rare, benign condition of extra-osseous calcification. The term tumoral calcinosis has been liberally and imprecisely used to describe any massive collection of periarticular calcification.It is important to diagnose and differentiate it from other similar conditions causing extra-osseous calcification. The authors report here one such case having tumoral calcinosis around scapula mimicking as chondromatous tumor. PMID:22237636

  5. Morphological investigation of nanostructured CoMo catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawelec, B.; Castaño, P.; Zepeda, T. A.

    2008-04-01

    This work reports the morphological investigation of nanostructured sulfided CoMo catalysts by means of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The catalysts were supported on Ti-modified hexagonal mesoporous silica (HMS-Ti) and P-modified HMS-Ti (P/HMS-Ti) materials. The oxide precursors were characterized by specific surface area (S BET), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy in the OH region (DRIFTS-OH) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in order to elucidate the influence of the impregnation sequence (successive vs. simultaneous) and the effect of P-incorporation into HMS-Ti material on the morphology of calcined CoMo catalysts. Both TPR and XPS measurements indicate that the catalysts prepared by successive impregnation possess well-dispersed MoO 3 and CoO phases, whereas their counterparts prepared by simultaneous impregnation additionally possess the CoMoO 4 phase. For all sulfided catalysts, the presence of MoS 2 phase with particle size in the range 3.3-4.4 nm was confirmed by HRTEM. Catalytic activity was evaluated in the reaction of hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT) carried out in a flow reactor at 593 K and hydrogen pressure of 5.5 MPa. P-incorporation into the HMS-Ti material led to an overall increase in HDS activity and the hydrogenation ability of the sulfided catalysts. All catalysts proved to be stable during 10 h time-on-stream (TOS) operation. The activity of sulfide catalysts in the target reaction depends linearly on the surface exposure of Co species in the oxide precursors, as determined by XPS, and on the morphology of the sulfide form of catalysts (surface density of MoS 2 particles and their sizes) as determined by HRTEM.

  6. Radiometallacarboranes as tumor imaging reagents

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, M.F.; Varadarajan, A.; Knobler, C.B.; Chakrabarti, S. ); Paxton, R.J.; Beatty, B.G.; Curtis, F.L. )

    1990-06-20

    Monoclonal antibodies (Mab), when conjugated with bifunctional chelation reagents containing a radiometal, have provided sensitive and accurate imaging agents for the detection of cancer and other diseases. The bifunctional chelates presently in use are generally of the aminocarboxylate family and subject to catabolism with release of metal ion in vivo. The authors have now designed, synthesized, and evaluated a functionalized cluster containing a radiotransition metal (venus flytrap cluster, VFC) which makes use of an inorganic ligand set, incorporates exceedingly strong cluster bonding based upon a bridged commo-bis(dicarbollide) structure, and can be prepared in the aqueous media commonly used to supply radiometal salts. The species reported here presages the existence of a large family of functionalized metallacarborane clusters which may serve as biologically inviolable radio-transition-metal carriers for the antibody-mediated {gamma}-imaging or {beta}-therapy of tumors.

  7. Controversies in borderline ovarian tumors

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Seok Ju; Kim, Mi Kyoung; Song, Taejong

    2015-01-01

    Borderline ovarian tumors (BOTs) represent about 15% to 20% of all ovarian malignancies and differ from invasive ovarian cancers (IOCs) by many characters. Historically, standard management of BOT is peritoneal washing cytology, hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, omentectomy, complete peritoneal resection of macroscopic lesions; in case of mucinous BOTs, appendectomy should be performed. Because BOTs are often diagnosed at earlier stage, in younger age women and have better prognosis, higher survival rate than IOCs, fertility-sparing surgery is one of the option to preserve childbearing capacity. The study of such conservative surgery is being released, and still controversial. After surgery, pregnancy and ovarian induction followed by in vitro fertilization are also significant issues. In surgery, laparoscopic technique can be used by a gynecologic oncology surgeon. So far postoperative chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormone therapy are not recommended. We will discuss controversial issues of BOTs on this review and present the outline of the management of BOTs. PMID:26404125

  8. HIPEC in controversial digestive tumors.

    PubMed

    Tentes, Antonios-Apostolos K

    2015-05-01

    Local-regional and peritoneal metastases still develop despite improvements in surgical techniques. Intraperitoneal chemotherapy has been proved to be effective in reducing the rate of local-regional and peritoneal metastases in many malignancies. There is adequate evidence that intraperitoneal perioperative chemotherapy after aggressive resection of locally advanced tumors of the digestive system may be helpful in decreasing the rate of local-regional and peritoneal metastases. Prospective trials and meta-analyses have shown that patients with locally advanced gastric or colorectal carcinomas are offered significant survival benefit and develop reduced number of local-regional metastases with surgery combined with perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy. In pancreatic cancer the preliminary results have shown that these patients do not develop local-regional recurrences with R0 resection in combination with hyperthermic intraoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). Further studies are required to document these findings. PMID:26051333

  9. Transplantation of kidneys with tumors.

    PubMed

    Frascà, Giovanni M; D'Errico, Antonia; Malvi, Deborah; Porta, Camillo; Cosmai, Laura; Santoni, Matteo; Sandrini, Silvio; Salviani, Chiara; Gallieni, Maurizio; Balestra, Emilio

    2016-04-01

    The shortage of donors in the face of the increasing number of patients wait-listed for renal transplantation has prompted several strategies including the use of kidneys with a tumor, whether found by chance on harvesting from a deceased donor or intentionally removed from a living donor and transplanted after excision of the lesion. Current evidence suggests that a solitary well-differentiated renal cell carcinoma, Fuhrman nuclear grade I-II, less than 1 cm in diameter and resected before grafting may be considered at minimal risk of recurrence in the recipient who, however, should be informed of the possible risk and consent to receive such a graft. PMID:26588915

  10. Lymph nodes and human tumors (review).

    PubMed

    Lores, B; García-Estevez, J M; Arias, C

    1998-04-01

    This review examines the crucial role of regional lymph nodes (RLN) in defense against tumor progression. RLN are one of the first major components of the immune system to come into contact with tumor cells or tumor-cell products and are important in the generation of tumor-directed immune responses. Involvement of RLN by tumor cells is a prognostic index of survival and a biological indicator of a more distant metastatic disease. Enlargement of lymph nodes as a consequence of the increase in the number of lymphoid cells, is a common finding in humans. These changes of cellular organization display the most decisive evidence of the existence of an immune response within a draining lymph node. The variety of cells mediating immune response to tumors are summarized briefly. The lymphocyte subpopulations involved reflect the nature of the response and may determine the outcome of the tumor-host interaction. The composition of the lymphocyte subpopulations can be recognized in tumor-draining lymph nodes by distinctive surface-membrane markers assessable by flow cytometry. In human patients with solid tumors limited quantification of the lymphocyte subpopulations within RLN has been carried out using this technique and the results indicated that an increase in B lymphocytes in tumor-reactive lymph nodes is marked in the adenocarcinomas (colon and breast) while in other tumors, such as melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma, this increase in B lymphocytes is less pronounced. The increased number of B lymphocytes in the reactive lymph nodes suggests the existence of an immune response involving interactions between T and B cells. B lymphocytes expression of CD80 appears to increase in some reactive lymph nodes to adenocarcinomas, possibly indicating the state of activation of CD80+ B cells, and their role as antigen-presenting cells. Any improvement in the antitumor activity of RLN would be important in the immunotherapy of cancer patients. The ability to generate a large number of tumor-reactive T lymphocytes is a critical requirement for adoptive immunotherapy. Tumor-draining lymph nodes (TDLN) are an excellent source of tumor-reactive T lymphocytes and the adoptive transfer of these cells is capable of mediating the regression of tumors established both in the lung and in the brain. Although cancers elicit a vigorous immune response during the early part of their growth, the immune response is soon downregulated, permitting progressive cancer growth. Furthermore, there are date suggesting the existence of immunosuppressive mechanisms within RLN in the antitumor response. However, there are no yet conclusive data concerning the characteristics of the response or its effectiveness. PMID:9852289

  11. Characteristics of endobronchial primitive tumors in children.

    PubMed

    Eyssartier, E; Ang, P; Bonnemaison, E; Gibertini, I; Diot, P; Carpentier, E; Chantepie, A; Leclair, M D; Brouard, J; Boutard, P; Deneuville, E; Marie-Cardine, A; Lardy, H

    2014-06-01

    Primary endobronchial tumors are rare in children and they include a broad spectrum of lesions. The aim of this study was to determine the characteristic features, treatments and outcomes of these tumors. We report a retrospective analysis of all patients treated for endobronchial tumor in nine French hospitals between 1990 and 2010 and a comparison of the results with those reported in the medical literature. Twelve tumors were reported: five low grade muco epidermoid carcinomas, two inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors, two hemangiomas, one anaplastic large cell lymphoma, one carcinoid tumor, and one juvenile xanthogranuloma. The mean age of the patients was 7.5??3.5 years. The most common sign revealing the disease was persistent atelectasis or recurrent pneumonia (eight cases). The other revealing signs were a persistent bronchospasm (three cases) and hemoptysis (one case). The clinical presentation, biology, serum tumor markers, and chest X-ray abnormalities were not specific to a particular histological diagnosis. Chest CT scan revealed the presence of an endobronchial tumor in 11 cases. Nine tumors could be diagnosed from a biopsy obtained by video endoscopy. Complete surgical resection was performed in seven patients. Bronchoscopic removal was performed in five cases and was successful in three. There were no deaths. Endobronchial tumors are rare in childhood and their histology is diverse. Chest CT scan and per-endoscopic endobronchial biopsies are required for diagnosis, when possible. Surgical or endoscopic treatment should be discussed by a multidisciplinary team. Despite the multiple etiologies, the prognosis of these tumors is good if diagnosis is early and if resection is complete. Long-term recurrences have been described, so long-term follow-up of these children is recommended. PMID:24532419

  12. Diffusion characteristics of pediatric pineal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, Matthew T; Siddiqui, Adeel; Klimo, Paul; Boop, Frederick A

    2015-01-01

    Background Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) has been shown to be helpful in characterizing tumor cellularity, and predicting histology. Several works have evaluated this technique for pineal tumors; however studies to date have not focused on pediatric pineal tumors. Objective We evaluated the diffusion characteristics of pediatric pineal tumors to confirm if patterns seen in studies using mixed pediatric and adult populations remain valid. Materials and methods This retrospective study was performed after Institutional Review Board approval. We retrospectively evaluated all patients 18 years of age and younger with pineal tumors from a single institution where preoperative diffusion weighted imaging as well as histologic characterization was available. Results Twenty patients (13 male, 7 female) with pineal tumors were identified: seven with pineoblastoma, four with Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET), two with other pineal tumors, and seven with germ cell tumors including two germinomas, three teratomas, and one mixed germinoma-teratoma. The mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in pineoblastoma (544 ± 65 × 10–6 mm2/s) and pineoblastoma/PNET (595 ± 144 × 10–6 mm2/s) was lower than that of the germ cell tumors (1284 ± 334 × 10–6 mm2/s; p < 0.0001 vs pineoblastoma). One highly cellular germinoma had an ADC value of 694 × 10–6 mm2/s. Conclusion ADC values can aid in differentiation of pineoblastoma/PNET from germ cell tumors in a population of children with pineal masses. PMID:25963154

  13. Genetics of Bladder Malignant Tumors in Childhood.

    PubMed

    Zangari, Andrea; Zaini, Johan; Gulìa, Caterina

    2016-02-01

    Bladder masses are represented by either benign or malignant entities. Malignant bladder tumors are frequent causes of disease and death in western countries. However, in children they are less common. Additionally, different features are found in childhood, in which non epithelial tumors are more common than epithelial ones. Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common pediatric bladder tumor, but many other types of lesions may be found, such as malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT), inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor and neuroblastoma. Other rarer tumors described in literature include urothelial carcinoma and other epithelial neoplasms. Rhabdomyosarcoma is associated to a variety of genetic syndromes and many genes are involved in tumor development. PAX3-FKHR and PAX7-FKHR (P-F) fusion state has important implications in the pathogenesis and biology of RMS, and different genes alterations are involved in the pathogenesis of P-F negative and embryonal RMS, which are the subsets of tumors most frequently affecting the bladder. These genes include p53, MEF2, MYOG, Ptch1, Gli1, Gli3, Myf5, MyoD1, NF1, NRAS, KRAS, HRAS, FGFR4, PIK3CA, CTNNB1, FBXW7, IGF1R, PDGFRA, ERBB2/4, MET, BCOR. Malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT) usually shows SMARCB1/INI1 alterations. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene translocations are the most frequently associated alterations in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT). Few genes alterations in urothelial neoplasms have been reported in the paediatric population, which are mainly related to deletion of p16/lnk4, overexpression of CK20 and overexpression of p53. Here, we reviewed available literature to identify genes associated to bladder malignancies in children and discussed their possible relationships with these tumors. PMID:27013922

  14. Autologous tumor immunizing devascularization in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Kalina, Vladimir; Kopsky, David J

    2016-04-01

    Tumor vaccination depending on specific antigens, autologous tumor vaccination involving wide range of antigens, immunomodulating cytokines and bacterial agents have been studied extensively with the purpose of stimulating the antitumor immune response. Unfortunately these therapies showed disappointing results mainly due to undesirable mechanisms tending to dampen the antitumor immune response. We will discuss a novel approach of autologous tumor immunization using a surgical technique: autologous tumor immunizing devascularization (ATID). This approach involves complete surgical devascularization of a tumor which is then left isolated in situ in the body. The stressing pathophysiological condition of the completely isolated tumor provokes a generalized immune response which, as shown from clinical cases, leads to the elimination of the devascularized tumor and distant metastases without causing sepsis. Until now no clinical study was properly executed. The possible significance of this method which resides in its curative potential has thus escaped attention in the field of cancer therapy. This article will hypothesize optimal physiological criteria and necessary clinical conditions for ATID to be performed effectively. The main criteria are (1) complete isolation of the tumor from the vascular system, (2) sufficient devascularized tumor load to trigger a sustained generalized immune response to cancer antigens until elimination of all cancer loci, (3) tumor cell killing rate corresponding to the elicited immune response is higher than the tumor cell growth rate, and (4) patients with an uncompromised immune system. Future studies have to be performed under the indicated conditions in order to confirm the efficacy and safety of ATID as a novel approach in the treatment of cancer. PMID:26968914

  15. Radiotherapy for Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Contessa, Joseph N.; Griffith, Kent A.; Wolff, Elizabeth; Ensminger, William; Zalupski, Mark; Ben-Josef, Edgar

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNTs) are rare malignant neoplasms considered to be resistant to radiotherapy (RT), although data on efficacy are scarce. We reviewed our institutional experience to further delineate the role of RT for patients with PNTs. Methods and Materials: Between 1986 and 2006, 36 patients with PNTs were treated with RT to 49 sites. Of these 36 patients, 23 had radiographic follow-up data, which were used to determine the tumor response rate and freedom from local progression. Long-term toxicity was graded according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Results: The overall response rate to RT was 39% (13% complete response, 26% partial response, 56% stable disease, and 4% progressive disease). A significant difference in the freedom from local progression between the groups receiving either greater than or less than the median 2 Gy/fraction biologically equivalent dose of 49.6 Gy was found, with all radiographic progression occurring in patients who had received <=32 Gy. The actuarial 3-year local freedom from progression rate was 49%. Palliation was achieved in 90% of patients, with either improvement or resolution of symptoms after RT. Of 35 patients, 33 had metastatic disease at their referral for RT, and the median overall survival for this patient population was 2 years. Three long-term Grade 3 or greater toxicities were recorded. Conclusion: RT is an effective modality for achieving local control in patients with PNTs. RT produces high rates of symptomatic palliation and freedom from local progression. Prospective trials of radiotherapy for PNTs are warranted.

  16. Maspin expression in prostate tumor elicits host anti-tumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    Dzinic, Sijana H.; Chen, Kang; Thakur, Archana; Kaplun, Alexander; Daniel Bonfil, R.; Li, Xiaohua; Liu, Jason; Margarida Bernardo, M.; Saliganan, Allen; Back, Jessica B.; Yano, Hiroshi; Schalk, Dana L.; Tomaszewski, Elyse N.; Beydoun, Ahmed S.; Dyson, Gregory; Mujagic, Adelina; Krass, David; Dean, Ivory; Mi, Qing-Sheng; Heath, Elisabeth; Sakr, Wael; Lum, Lawrence G.; Sheng, Shijie

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the current study is to examine the biological effects of epithelial-specific tumor suppressor maspin on tumor host immune response. Accumulated evidence demonstrates an anti-tumor effect of maspin on tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. The molecular mechanism underlying these biological functions of maspin is thought to be through histone deacetylase inhibition, key to the maintenance of differentiated epithelial phenotype. Since tumor-driven stromal reactivities co-evolve in tumor progression and metastasis, it is not surprising that maspin expression in tumor cells inhibits extracellular matrix degradation, increases fibrosis and blocks hypoxia-induced angiogenesis. Using the athymic nude mouse model capable of supporting the growth and progression of xenogeneic human prostate cancer cells, we further demonstrate that maspin expression in tumor cells elicits neutrophil- and B cells-dependent host tumor immunogenicity. Specifically, mice bearing maspin-expressing tumors exhibited increased systemic and intratumoral neutrophil maturation, activation and antibody-dependent cytotoxicity, and decreased peritumoral lymphangiogenesis. These results reveal a novel biological function of maspin in directing host immunity towards tumor elimination that helps explain the significant reduction of xenograft tumor incidence in vivo and the clinical correlation of maspin with better prognosis of several types of cancer. Taken together, our data raised the possibility for novel maspin-based cancer immunotherapies. PMID:25373490

  17. Differential potency of regulatory T cell-mediated immunosuppression in kidney tumors compared to subcutaneous tumors

    PubMed Central

    Devaud, Christel; Westwood, Jennifer A; Teng, Michele WL; John, Liza B; Yong, Carmen SM; Duong, Connie PM; Smyth, Mark J; Darcy, Phillip K; Kershaw, Michael H

    2014-01-01

    In many cancers, regulatory T cells (Treg) play a crucial role in suppressing the effector immune response thereby permitting tumor development. Indeed, in mouse models, their depletion can promote the regression of tumors of various origins, including renal cell carcinoma when located subcutaneous (SC). In the present study, we aimed to assess the importance of Treg immunosuppression in the physiologic context of metastatic renal carcinoma (Renca) disease. To that purpose we inoculated renal tumors orthotopically, intra-kidney (IK), in mice. Treg depletions were performed using anti-CD4 antibody in wild type mice or diphtheria toxin (DT) in Foxp3DTR transgenic mice. Our main observation was that Treg were not the key immunosuppressive component of the IK tumoral microenvironment, compared to the same tumors located SC. We demonstrated that the CD8+ effector immune response was still suppressed in IK tumors when compared to SC tumors, following Treg depletion. Furthermore, the level of program cell death protein (PD)-1 was increased on the surface of CD4+ T cells infiltrating IK tumors compared to SC tumors. Finally, the Treg-independent immunosuppression, occurring in IK tumors, was potent enough to inhibit regression of concomitant SC tumors, normally responsive to Treg depletion. Our findings provide further insight into the immunosuppressive nature of the immune response generated in the kidney microenvironment, suggesting that it can have additional mechanisms in addition to Treg. These observations might help to identify better targets from the kidney tumor microenvironment for future cancer therapies. PMID:25941590

  18. Immunotherapy using slow-cycling tumor cells prolonged overall survival of tumor-bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite considerable progress in the development of anticancer therapies, there is still a high mortality rate caused by cancer relapse and metastasis. Dormant or slow-cycling residual tumor cells are thought to be a source of tumor relapse and metastasis, and are therefore an obstacle to therapy. In this study, we assessed the drug resistance of tumor cells in mice, and investigated whether vaccination could promote survival. Methods The mouse colon carcinoma cell line CT-26 was treated with 5-fluorouracil to assess its sensitivity to drug treatment. Mice with colon tumors were immunized with inactivated slow-cycling CT-26 cells to estimate the efficacy of this vaccine. Results We identified a small population of slow-cycling tumor cells in the mouse colon carcinoma CT-26 cell line, which was resistant to conventional chemotherapy. To inhibit tumor recurrence and metastasis more effectively, treatments that selectively target the slow-cycling tumor cells should be developed to complement conventional therapies. We found that drug-treated, slow-cycling tumor cells induced a more intense immune response in vitro. Moreover, vaccination with inactivated slow-cycling tumor cells caused a reduction in tumor volume and prolonged the overall survival of tumor-bearing mice. Conclusions These findings suggest that targeting of slow-cycling tumor cells application using immunotherapy is a possible treatment to complement traditional antitumor therapy. PMID:23270473

  19. Sleeping Parathyroid Tumor: Rapid Hyperfunction after Removal of the Dominant Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Simonds, William F.; Weinstein, Lee S.; Collins, Michael T.; Kebebew, Electron; Nilubol, Naris; Phan, Giao Q.; Libutti, Steven K.; Remaley, Alan T.; Van Deventer, Manuel; Marx, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Due to frequent multiplicity of tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, it may be difficult to decide when to stop a parathyroid exploration. A fall of intraoperative serum PTH by a certain percentage during parathyroid surgery is often used as one criterion for ending the operation. Results: We report two patients with primary hyperparathyroidism due to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 who had their first parathyroidectomy at the National Institutes of Health. In both cases, two and a half glands were removed, an extensive search was done for an occult parathyroid tumor, and intraoperative PTH decreased markedly to the lower limits of normal, suggesting a successful operation. Despite this, both patients became hypercalcemic within 3 d after the operation and showed persistent primary hyperparathyroidism. Detailed findings suggest the following course: chronic hypercalcemia had caused near total suppression of PTH secretion by an undiscovered parathyroid tumor (sleeping parathyroid tumor). When the hypercalcemia decreased after surgery due to the removal of the dominant parathyroid tumor(s), the abnormal yet previously suppressed tumor rapidly began to oversecrete PTH and thus caused postoperative hypercalcemia. Conclusions: Even a fall of the intraoperative PTH to the lower limits of the normal range cannot guarantee that removal of all parathyroid tumors has been complete in cases with multiple tumors. These findings likely reflect strikingly differing PTH secretory functions among distinct tumors in the same patient, with hypercalcemia at least from a dominant tumor suppressing PTH secretion by one or more other parathyroid tumors. PMID:22508712

  20. Maspin expression in prostate tumor elicits host anti-tumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Dzinic, Sijana H; Chen, Kang; Thakur, Archana; Kaplun, Alexander; Bonfil, R Daniel; Li, Xiaohua; Liu, Jason; Bernardo, M Margarida; Saliganan, Allen; Back, Jessica B; Yano, Hiroshi; Schalk, Dana L; Tomaszewski, Elyse N; Beydoun, Ahmed S; Dyson, Gregory; Mujagic, Adelina; Krass, David; Dean, Ivory; Mi, Qing-Sheng; Heath, Elisabeth; Sakr, Wael; Lum, Lawrence G; Sheng, Shijie

    2014-11-30

    The goal of the current study is to examine the biological effects of epithelial-specific tumor suppressor maspin on tumor host immune response. Accumulated evidence demonstrates an anti-tumor effect of maspin on tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. The molecular mechanism underlying these biological functions of maspin is thought to be through histone deacetylase inhibition, key to the maintenance of differentiated epithelial phenotype. Since tumor-driven stromal reactivities co-evolve in tumor progression and metastasis, it is not surprising that maspin expression in tumor cells inhibits extracellular matrix degradation, increases fibrosis and blocks hypoxia-induced angiogenesis. Using the athymic nude mouse model capable of supporting the growth and progression of xenogeneic human prostate cancer cells, we further demonstrate that maspin expression in tumor cells elicits neutrophil- and B cells-dependent host tumor immunogenicity. Specifically, mice bearing maspin-expressing tumors exhibited increased systemic and intratumoral neutrophil maturation, activation and antibody-dependent cytotoxicity, and decreased peritumoral lymphangiogenesis. These results reveal a novel biological function of maspin in directing host immunity towards tumor elimination that helps explain the significant reduction of xenograft tumor incidence in vivo and the clinical correlation of maspin with better prognosis of several types of cancer. Taken together, our data raised the possibility for novel maspin-based cancer immunotherapies. PMID:25373490

  1. Enhanced delivery of liposomes to lung tumor through targeting interleukin-4 receptor on both tumor cells and tumor endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chi, Lianhua; Na, Moon-Hee; Jung, Hyun-Kyung; Vadevoo, Sri Murugan Poongkavithai; Kim, Cheong-Wun; Padmanaban, Guruprasath; Park, Tae-In; Park, Jae-Yong; Hwang, Ilseon; Park, Keon Uk; Liang, Frank; Lu, Maggie; Park, Jiho; Kim, In-San; Lee, Byung-Heon

    2015-07-10

    A growing body of evidence suggests that pathological lesions express tissue-specific molecular targets or biomarkers within the tissue. Interleukin-4 receptor (IL-4R) is overexpressed in many types of cancer cells, including lung cancer. Here we investigated the properties of IL-4R-binding peptide-1 (IL4RPep-1), a CRKRLDRNC peptide, and its ability to target the delivery of liposomes to lung tumor. IL4RPep-1 preferentially bound to H226 lung tumor cells which express higher levers of IL-4R compared to H460 lung tumor cells which express less IL-4R. Mutational analysis revealed that C1, R2, and R4 residues of IL4RPep-1 were the key binding determinants. IL4RPep-1-labeled liposomes containing doxorubicin were more efficiently internalized in H226 cells and effectively delivered doxorubicin into the cells compared to unlabeled liposomes. In vivo fluorescence imaging of nude mice subcutaneously xenotransplanted with H226 tumor cells indicated that IL4RPep-1-labeled liposomes accumulate more efficiently in the tumor and inhibit tumor growth more effectively compared to unlabeled liposomes. Interestingly, expression of IL-4R was high in vascular endothelial cells of tumor, while little was detected in vascular endothelial cells of control organs including the liver. IL-4R expression in cultured human vascular endothelial cells was also up-regulated when activated by a pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α. Moreover, the up-regulation of IL-4R expression was observed in primary human lung cancer tissues. These results indicate that IL-4R-targeting nanocarriers may be a useful strategy to enhance drug delivery through the recognition of IL-4R in both tumor cells and tumor endothelial cells. PMID:25979323

  2. Inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis by photoimmunotherapy targeting tumor-associated macrophage in a sorafenib-resistant tumor model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chenran; Gao, Liquan; Cai, Yuehong; Liu, Hao; Gao, Duo; Lai, Jianhao; Jia, Bing; Wang, Fan; Liu, Zhaofei

    2016-04-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play essential roles in tumor invasion and metastasis, and contribute to drug resistance. Clinical evidence suggests that TAM levels are correlated with local tumor relapse, distant metastasis, and poor prognosis in patients. In this study, we synthesized a TAM-targeted probe (IRD-αCD206) by conjugating a monoclonal anti-CD206 antibody with a near-infrared phthalocyanine dye. We then investigated the potential application of the IRD-αCD206 probe to near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging and photoimmunotherapy (PIT) of tumors resistant to treatment with the kinase inhibitor sorafenib. Sorafenib treatment had no effect on tumor growth in a 4T1 mouse model of breast cancer, but induced M2 macrophage polarization in tumors. M2 macrophage recruitment by sorafenib-treated 4T1 tumors was noninvasively visualized by in vivo NIRF imaging of IRD-αCD206. Small-animal single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT and intratumoral microdistribution analysis indicated TAM-specific localization of the IRD-αCD206 probe in 4T1 tumors after several rounds of sorafenib treatment. Upon light irradiation, IRD-αCD206 suppressed the growth of sorafenib-resistant tumors. In vivo CT imaging and ex vivo histological analysis confirmed the inhibition of lung metastasis in mice by IRD-αCD206 PIT. These results demonstrate the utility of the IRD-αCD206 probe for TAM-targeted diagnostic imaging and treatment of tumors that are resistant to conventional therapeutics. PMID:26803407

  3. Cancer-associated fibroblasts in digestive tumors

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lei; Xu, A-Man; Liu, Sha; Liu, Wei; Li, Tuan-Jie

    2014-01-01

    The significant influence of tumor stroma on malignant cells has been extensively investigated in this era of targeted therapy. The tumor microenvironment, as a dynamic system, is orchestrated by various cells including tumor vascular composing cells, inflammatory cells and fibroblasts. As a major and important component in tumor stroma, increasing evidence has shown that spindle-shaped cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are a significant modifier of cancer evolution, and promote tumorigenesis, tumor invasion and metastasis by stimulating angiogenesis, malignant cell survival, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and proliferation via direct cell-to-cell contact or secretion of soluble factors in most digestive solid tumors. CAFs are thought to be activated, characterized by the expression of α-smooth muscle actin, fibroblast activated protein, fibroblast specific protein, vimentin, fibronectin, etc. They are hypothesized to originate from normal or aged fibroblasts, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells, or vascular endothelial cells. EMT may also be an important process generating CAFs, and most probably, CAFs may originate from multiple cells. A close link exists between EMT, tumor stem cells, and chemo-resistance of tumor cells, which is largely orchestrated by CAFs. CAFs significantly induce immunosuppression, and may be a prognostic marker in various malignancies. Targeted therapy toward CAFs has displayed promising anticancer efficacy, which further reinforces the necessity to explore the relationship between CAFs and their hosts. PMID:25548479

  4. Breast cancer intra-tumor heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In recent years it has become clear that cancer cells within a single tumor can display striking morphological, genetic and behavioral variability. Burgeoning genetic, epigenetic and phenomenological data support the existence of intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity in breast cancers; however, its basis is yet to be fully defined. Two of the most widely evoked concepts to explain the origin of heterogeneity within tumors are the cancer stem cell hypothesis and the clonal evolution model. Although the cancer stem cell model appeared to provide an explanation for the variability among the neoplastic cells within a given cancer, advances in massively parallel sequencing have provided several lines of evidence to suggest that intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity likely plays a fundamental role in the phenotypic heterogeneity observed in cancers. Many challenges remain, however, in the interpretation of the next generation sequencing results obtained so far. Here we review the models that explain tumor heterogeneity, the causes of intra-tumor genetic diversity and their impact on our understanding and management of breast cancer, methods to study intra-tumor heterogeneity and the assessment of intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity in the clinic. PMID:25928070

  5. Genomic tumor evolution of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sato, Fumiaki; Saji, Shigehira; Toi, Masakazu

    2016-01-01

    Owing to recent technical development of comprehensive genome-wide analysis such as next generation sequencing, deep biological insights of breast cancer have been revealed. Information of genomic mutations and rearrangements in patients' tumors is indispensable to understand the mechanism in carcinogenesis, progression, metastasis, and resistance to systemic treatment of breast cancer. To date, comprehensive genomic analyses illustrate not only base substitution patterns and lists of driver mutations and key rearrangements, but also a manner of tumor evolution. Breast cancer genome is dynamically changing and evolving during cancer development course from non-invasive disease via invasive primary tumor to metastatic tumor, and during treatment exposure. The accumulation pattern of base substitution and genomic rearrangement looks gradual and punctuated, respectively, in analogy with contrasting theories for evolution manner of species, Darwin's phyletic gradualism, and Eldredge and Gould's "punctuated equilibrium". Liquid biopsy is a non-invasive method to detect the genomic evolution of breast cancer. Genomic mutation patterns in circulating tumor cells and circulating cell-free tumor DNA represent those of tumors existing in patient body. Liquid biopsy methods are now under development for future application to clinical practice of cancer treatment. In this article, latest knowledge regarding breast cancer genome, especially in terms of 'tumor evolution', is summarized. PMID:25998191

  6. Discovery of Tumor Suppressor Gene Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheimer, Steven B.

    1995-01-01

    This is an update of a 1991 review on tumor suppressor genes written at a time when understanding of how the genes work was limited. A recent major breakthrough in the understanding of the function of tumor suppressor genes is discussed. (LZ)

  7. Targeting Tumor Suppressor Networks for Cancer Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xuning Emily; Ngo, Bryan; Modrek, Aram Sandaldjian; Lee, Wen-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a consequence of mutations in genes that control cell proliferation, differentiation and cellular homeostasis. These genes are classified into two categories: oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Together, overexpression of oncogenes and loss of tumor suppressors are the dominant driving forces for tumorigenesis. Hence, targeting oncogenes and tumor suppressors hold tremendous therapeutic potential for cancer treatment. In the last decade, the predominant cancer drug discovery strategy has relied on a traditional reductionist approach of dissecting molecular signaling pathways and designing inhibitors for the selected oncogenic targets. Remarkable therapies have been developed using this approach; however, targeting oncogenes is only part of the picture. Our understanding of the importance of tumor suppressors in preventing tumorigenesis has also advanced significantly and provides a new therapeutic window of opportunity. Given that tumor suppressors are frequently mutated, deleted, or silenced with loss-of-function, restoring their normal functions to treat cancer holds tremendous therapeutic potential. With the rapid expansion in our knowledge on cancer over the last several decades, developing effective anticancer regimens against tumor suppressor pathways has never been more promising. In this article, we will review the concept of tumor suppression, and outline the major therapeutic strategies and challenges of targeting tumor suppressor networks for cancer therapeutics. PMID:24387338

  8. Connective tissue growth factor in tumor pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Key roles for connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) are demonstrated in the wound repair process where it promotes myofibroblast differentiation and angiogenesis. Similar mechanisms are active in tumor-reactive stroma where CTGF is expressed. Other potential roles include prevention of hypoxia-induced apoptosis and promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transistion (EMT). CTGF expression in tumors has been associated to both tumor suppression and progression. For example, CTGF expression in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, breast, pancreas and gastric cancer correlates to worse prognosis whereas the opposite is true for colorectal, lung and ovarian cancer. This discrepancy is not yet understood. High expression of CTGF is a hallmark of ileal carcinoids, which are well-differentiated endocrine carcinomas with serotonin production originating from the small intestine and proximal colon. These tumors maintain a high grade of differentiation and low proliferation. Despite this, they are malignant and most patients have metastatic disease at diagnosis. These tumors demonstrate several phenotypes potentially related to CTGF function namely: cell migration, absent tumor cell apoptosis, as well as, reactive and well vascularised myofibroblast rich stroma and fibrosis development locally and in distal organs. The presence of CTGF in other endocrine tumors indicates a role in the progression of well-differentiated tumors. PMID:23259759

  9. Vaccines targeting the neovasculature of tumors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Angiogenesis has a critical role in physiologic and disease processes. For the growth of tumors, angiogenesis must occur to carry sufficient nutrients to the tumor. In addition to growth, development of new blood vessels is necessary for invasion and metastases of the tumor. A number of strategies have been developed to inhibit tumor angiogenesis and further understanding of the interplay between tumors and angiogenesis should allow new approaches and advances in angiogenic therapy. One such promising angiogenic approach is to target and inhibit angiogenesis with vaccines. This review will discuss recent advances and future prospects in vaccines targeting aberrant angiogenesis of tumors. The strategies utilized by investigators have included whole endothelial cell vaccines as well as vaccines with defined targets on endothelial cells and pericytes of the developing tumor endothelium. To date, several promising anti-angiogenic vaccine strategies have demonstrated marked inhibition of tumor growth in pre-clinical trials with some showing no observed interference with physiologic angiogenic processes such as wound healing and fertility. PMID:21385454

  10. Skin manifestations of endocrine and neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Leventhal, Jonathan S; Braverman, Irwin M

    2016-06-01

    The skin signs of benign and malignant endocrine and neuroendocrine tumors are manifold and early identification of these dermatologic features is crucial in initiating timely diagnosis and management. This article reviews the salient cutaneous features of these tumors that arise in the classic endocrine glands, lung and gastrointestinal tract either as individual neoplasms or as part of a syndrome. PMID:27178685

  11. [Intraoperative radiotherapy in malignant bone tumors].

    PubMed

    Yamamuro, T; Kotoura, Y

    1993-06-01

    When a bone tumor is confirmed to be malignant by biopsy and has not expanded into the soft tissue, intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) is indicated for most parts of the four extremities. The irradiation area is exposed through an extensive skin incision, and the soft tissues are opened and retracted away from the irradiation area, leaving a layer of normal tissue directly covering the tumor. The irradiation is performed with 12-26 MeV electron beams from a betatron at a dose of 50-100 Gy, depending on the radiosensitivity of each tumor. The multifocal bilateral irradiation method is the best for minimizing complications of the soft tissues. Since 1978, we have performed IORT in combination with chemotherapy in 41 cases of malignant bone tumors and experienced only five cases of tumor recurrence one in the irradiated area and four in the non-irradiated area. Joint function in the irradiated limb was excellent. However, due to the high incidence of pathological fracture after IORT in osteolytic tumors, the limb eventually had to be replaced by a prosthesis. After 1984 when cisplatinum was introduced to our chemotherapy protocol, the cumulative 5 year survival rate increased to 81%, with the irradiated lesion preserved in situ in osteoblastic tumors and replaced with a prosthesis in osteolytic tumors. PMID:8341560

  12. Altered Tumor-Cell Glycosylation Promotes Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Häuselmann, Irina; Borsig, Lubor

    2014-01-01

    Malignant transformation of cells is associated with aberrant glycosylation presented on the cell-surface. Commonly observed changes in glycan structures during malignancy encompass aberrant expression and glycosylation of mucins; abnormal branching of N-glycans; and increased presence of sialic acid on proteins and glycolipids. Accumulating evidence supports the notion that the presence of certain glycan structures correlates with cancer progression by affecting tumor-cell invasiveness, ability to disseminate through the blood circulation and to metastasize in distant organs. During metastasis tumor-cell-derived glycans enable binding to cells in their microenvironment including endothelium and blood constituents through glycan-binding receptors – lectins. In this review, we will discuss current concepts how tumor-cell-derived glycans contribute to metastasis with the focus on three types of lectins: siglecs, galectins, and selectins. Siglecs are present on virtually all hematopoietic cells and usually negatively regulate immune responses. Galectins are mostly expressed by tumor cells and support tumor-cell survival. Selectins are vascular adhesion receptors that promote tumor-cell dissemination. All lectins facilitate interactions within the tumor microenvironment and thereby promote cancer progression. The identification of mechanisms how tumor glycans contribute to metastasis may help to improve diagnosis, prognosis, and aid to develop clinical strategies to prevent metastasis. PMID:24592356

  13. Visualizing extravasation dynamics of metastatic tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Stoletov, Konstantin; Kato, Hisashi; Zardouzian, Erin; Kelber, Jonathan; Yang, Jing; Shattil, Sanford; Klemke, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about how metastatic cancer cells arrest in small capillaries and traverse the vascular wall during extravasation in vivo. Using real-time intravital imaging of human tumor cells transplanted into transparent zebrafish, we show here that extravasation of cancer cells is a highly dynamic process that involves the modulation of tumor cell adhesion to the endothelium and intravascular cell migration along the luminal surface of the vascular wall. Tumor cells do not damage or induce vascular leak at the site of extravasation, but rather induce local vessel remodeling characterized by clustering of endothelial cells and cell-cell junctions. Intravascular locomotion of tumor cells is independent of the direction of blood flow and requires β1-integrin-mediated adhesion to the blood-vessel wall. Interestingly, the expression of the pro-metastatic gene Twist in tumor cells increases their intravascular migration and extravasation through the vessel wall. However, in this case, Twist expression causes the tumor cells to switch to a β1-integrin-independent mode of extravasation that is associated with the formation of large dynamic rounded membrane protrusions. Our results demonstrate that extravasation of tumor cells is a highly dynamic process influenced by metastatic genes that target adhesion and intravascular migration of tumor cells, and induce endothelial remodeling. PMID:20530574

  14. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor occurs in the mediastinum.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiangjiao; Wang, Renben

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare disease. We report a rare case of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor occurs in the mediastinum. Chest contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) showed a heterogeneously enhanced irregular mass in the anterior mediastinum; a small pericardial effusion was also noted. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology and immunohistochemical study. PMID:24518726

  15. Transmissible Tumors: Breaking the Cancer Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Ostrander, Elaine A; Davis, Brian W; Ostrander, Gary K

    2016-01-01

    Transmissible tumors are those that have transcended the bounds of their incipient hosts by evolving the ability to infect another individual through direct transfer of cancer cells, thus becoming parasitic cancer clones. Coitus, biting, and scratching are transfer mechanisms for the two primary species studied, the domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) and the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii). Canine transmissible venereal tumors (CTVT) are likely thousands of years old, and have successfully travelled from host to host around the world, while the Tasmanian devil facial tumor disease (DFTD) is much younger and geographically localized. The dog tumor is not necessarily lethal, while the devil tumor has driven the population to near extinction. Transmissible tumors are uniform in that they have complex immunologic profiles, which allow them to escape immune detection by their hosts, sometimes for long periods of time. In this review, we explore how transmissible tumors in CTVT, DFTD, and as well as the soft-shell clam and Syrian hamster, can advance studies of tumor biology. PMID:26686413

  16. Recurrent brain tumor with hydrocephalus in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Taylan, Enes; Akdemir, Ali; Zeybek, Burak; Ergenoglu, Ahmet Mete; Yeniel, Ahmet Ozgur

    2015-03-01

    Brain tumors during pregnancy are very rare. Diagnosis of this condition is difficult because the symptoms imitate pregnancy-related ailments. The management of this condition also presents challenges. This case report aims to present a successful treatment and delivery of a patient with recurrent brain tumor during pregnancy with hydrocephalus. PMID:25332049

  17. Towards the Standardization of Tumor Diagnosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The differential diagnosis of chicken tumors is important but has been difficult in practice for a variety of reasons. Methods and criteria have varied among laboratories. This poster is based on a new publication (1) designed to encourage greater standardization of tumor diagnosis. The use of a...

  18. Whole Tumor Antigen Vaccines: Where Are We?

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Cheryl Lai-Lai; Coukos, George; Kandalaft, Lana E.

    2015-01-01

    With its vast amount of uncharacterized and characterized T cell epitopes available for activating CD4+ T helper and CD8+ cytotoxic lymphocytes simultaneously, whole tumor antigen represents an attractive alternative source of antigens as compared to tumor-derived peptides and full-length recombinant tumor proteins for dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy. Unlike defined tumor-derived peptides and proteins, whole tumor lysate therapy is applicable to all patients regardless of their HLA type. DCs are essentially the master regulators of immune response, and are the most potent antigen-presenting cell population for priming and activating naïve T cells to target tumors. Because of these unique properties, numerous DC-based immunotherapies have been initiated in the clinics. In this review, we describe the different types of whole tumor antigens that we could use to pulse DCs ex vivo and in vivo. We also discuss the different routes of delivering whole tumor antigens to DCs in vivo and activating them with toll-like receptor agonists. PMID:26343191

  19. Dependence of FDG uptake on tumor microenvironment

    SciTech Connect

    Pugachev, Andrei . E-mail: pugachea@mskcc.org; Ruan, Shutian; Carlin, Sean; Larson, Steven M.; Campa, Jose; Ling, C. Clifton; Humm, John L.

    2005-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the factors affecting the {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) uptake in tumors at a microscopic level, by correlating it with tumor hypoxia, cellular proliferation, and blood perfusion. Methods and Materials: Nude mice bearing Dunning prostate tumors (R3327-AT) were injected with {sup 18}F-FDG and pimonidazole, bromodeoxyuridine, and, 1 min before sacrifice, with Hoechst 33342. Selected tumor sections were imaged by phosphor plate autoradiography, while adjacent sections were used to obtain the images of the spatial distribution of Hoechst 33342, pimonidazole, and bromodeoxyuridine. The images were co-registered and analyzed on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Results: Statistical analysis of the data obtained from these tumors demonstrated that {sup 18}F-FDG uptake was positively correlated with pimonidazole staining intensity in each data set studied. Correlation of FDG uptake with bromodeoxyuridine staining intensity was always negative. In addition, FDG uptake was always negatively correlated with the staining intensity of Hoechst 33342. Conclusions: For the Dunning prostate tumors studied, FDG uptake was always positively correlated with hypoxia and negatively correlated with both cellular proliferation and blood flow. Therefore, for the tumor model studied, higher FDG uptake is indicative of tumor hypoxia, but neither blood flow nor cellular proliferation.

  20. Preoperative transarterial Embolisation in bone tumors

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Pankaj; Gamanagatti, Shivanand

    2012-01-01

    Bone tumors include a variety of lesions, both primary and metastatic. The treatment modalities for bone tumors vary with the individual lesion, but in general surgical excision is the treatment of choice with other adjunctive therapies. However, surgery for many bone tumors is complex due to several factors including tumor bulk, vascularity, vicinity to vital structures and potentially inaccessible location of the lesion. Transarterial Embolisation (TAE) is one of the important adjuvant treatment modalities and in some cases it may be the primary and curative treatment. Preoperative TAE has proved to be effective in both primary and metastatic bone tumors. It reduces tumor vascularity and intraoperative blood loss, the need for blood transfusion and associated complications, allows better definition of tissue planes at surgery affording more complete excision, and hence reduced recurrence. Preoperative chemoEmbolisation has also been shown to increase the sensitivity of some tumors to subsequent chemotherapy and radiotherapy. There are several techniques and embolic agents available for this purpose, but the ultimate aim is to achieve tumor devascularization. In this review, we discuss the techniques including the choice of embolic agent, application to individual lesions and potential complications. PMID:22761978

  1. Simulating tumor growth in confined heterogeneous environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gevertz, Jana L.; Gillies, George T.; Torquato, Salvatore

    2008-09-01

    The holy grail of computational tumor modeling is to develop a simulation tool that can be utilized in the clinic to predict neoplastic progression and propose individualized optimal treatment strategies. In order to develop such a predictive model, one must account for many of the complex processes involved in tumor growth. One interaction that has not been incorporated into computational models of neoplastic progression is the impact that organ-imposed physical confinement and heterogeneity have on tumor growth. For this reason, we have taken a cellular automaton algorithm that was originally designed to simulate spherically symmetric tumor growth and generalized the algorithm to incorporate the effects of tissue shape and structure. We show that models that do not account for organ/tissue geometry and topology lead to false conclusions about tumor spread, shape and size. The impact that confinement has on tumor growth is more pronounced when a neoplasm is growing close to, versus far from, the confining boundary. Thus, any clinical simulation tool of cancer progression must not only consider the shape and structure of the organ in which a tumor is growing, but must also consider the location of the tumor within the organ if it is to accurately predict neoplastic growth dynamics.

  2. Simulating tumor growth in confined heterogeneous environments.

    PubMed

    Gevertz, Jana L; Gillies, George T; Torquato, Salvatore

    2008-01-01

    The holy grail of computational tumor modeling is to develop a simulation tool that can be utilized in the clinic to predict neoplastic progression and propose individualized optimal treatment strategies. In order to develop such a predictive model, one must account for many of the complex processes involved in tumor growth. One interaction that has not been incorporated into computational models of neoplastic progression is the impact that organ-imposed physical confinement and heterogeneity have on tumor growth. For this reason, we have taken a cellular automaton algorithm that was originally designed to simulate spherically symmetric tumor growth and generalized the algorithm to incorporate the effects of tissue shape and structure. We show that models that do not account for organ/tissue geometry and topology lead to false conclusions about tumor spread, shape and size. The impact that confinement has on tumor growth is more pronounced when a neoplasm is growing close to, versus far from, the confining boundary. Thus, any clinical simulation tool of cancer progression must not only consider the shape and structure of the organ in which a tumor is growing, but must also consider the location of the tumor within the organ if it is to accurately predict neoplastic growth dynamics. PMID:18824788

  3. Tumorous diseases of turkeys - an update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This update is primarily focused on addressing various aspects of virus-induced tumorous diseases of turkeys including review of current methods for diagnosis and control of these diseases of turkeys. Virus-induced tumorous diseases of turkeys are caused primarily by retroviruses, namely reticuloend...

  4. An overview of tumorous diseases of turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This overview is primarily aimed at addressing various aspects of virus-induced tumorous diseases of turkeys including review of current methods for diagnosis and control of these diseases of turkeys. Virus-induced tumorous diseases of turkeys are caused primarily by retroviruses, namely reticuloend...

  5. TUMOR HAPLOTYPE ASSEMBLY ALGORITHMS FOR CANCER GENOMICS

    PubMed Central

    AGUIAR, DEREK; WONG, WENDY S.W.; ISTRAIL, SORIN

    2014-01-01

    The growing availability of inexpensive high-throughput sequence data is enabling researchers to sequence tumor populations within a single individual at high coverage. But, cancer genome sequence evolution and mutational phenomena like driver mutations and gene fusions are difficult to investigate without first reconstructing tumor haplotype sequences. Haplotype assembly of single individual tumor populations is an exceedingly difficult task complicated by tumor haplotype heterogeneity, tumor or normal cell sequence contamination, polyploidy, and complex patterns of variation. While computational and experimental haplotype phasing of diploid genomes has seen much progress in recent years, haplotype assembly in cancer genomes remains uncharted territory. In this work, we describe HapCompass-Tumor a computational modeling and algorithmic framework for haplotype assembly of copy number variable cancer genomes containing haplotypes at different frequencies and complex variation. We extend our polyploid haplotype assembly model and present novel algorithms for (1) complex variations, including copy number changes, as varying numbers of disjoint paths in an associated graph, (2) variable haplotype frequencies and contamination, and (3) computation of tumor haplotypes using simple cycles of the compass graph which constrain the space of haplotype assembly solutions. The model and algorithm are implemented in the software package HapCompass-Tumor which is available for download from http://www.brown.edu/Research/Istrail_Lab/. PMID:24297529

  6. Endoscopic management of benign tracheobronchial tumors

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hui; Ding, Xin; Wei, Dong; Cheng, Peng; Su, Xiaomei; Liu, Huanyi; Zhang, Tao

    2011-01-01

    Even though benign tracheobronchial tumors are quite rare, they still can induce airway obstruction, result in suffocation, and need emergent management to remove the obstructing lesions and make the respiratory tracts unobstructed. Although the preferred therapy is surgery, it is still difficult to deal with the tumors in some cases, and the complications of surgery are common. Therefore, bronchoscopic managements, such as Nd: YAG laser, electrocautery, APC and Cryotherapy, are very important to treat benign tracheobronchial tumors and can cure most of them. The efficacy of therapeutic endoscopy for the treatment of patients with benign airways obstruction has been established. However, in order to maximally eradicate the benign tumors with minimal damage to patients, the success of bronchoscopic managements for the treatment strongly depends on the diligent identification of the various factors, including the location, size, shape of tumor, and the age, status, cardio respiratory function of patients, and full comprehension of the limits and potential of each particular technique. Because the advantages and disadvantages of above mentioned interventional methods, single method can not solve all clinical issues. Therefore, in order to remove benign tracheobronchial tumors completely, and reduce the incidence of recurrence as far as possible, many doctors combine several methods of them to treat complicated benign tracheobronchial tumors. This article reviews the core principles and techniques available to the bronchoscope managing benign tracheobronchial tumors. PMID:22263100

  7. Deformability of Tumor Cells versus Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shaw Bagnall, Josephine; Byun, Sangwon; Begum, Shahinoor; Miyamoto, David T.; Hecht, Vivian C.; Maheswaran, Shyamala; Stott, Shannon L.; Toner, Mehmet; Hynes, Richard O.; Manalis, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    The potential for circulating tumor cells (CTCs) to elucidate the process of cancer metastasis and inform clinical decision-making has made their isolation of great importance. However, CTCs are rare in the blood, and universal properties with which to identify them remain elusive. As technological advancements have made single-cell deformability measurements increasingly routine, the assessment of physical distinctions between tumor cells and blood cells may provide insight into the feasibility of deformability-based methods for identifying CTCs in patient blood. To this end, we present an initial study assessing deformability differences between tumor cells and blood cells, indicated by the length of time required for them to pass through a microfluidic constriction. Here, we demonstrate that deformability changes in tumor cells that have undergone phenotypic shifts are small compared to differences between tumor cell lines and blood cells. Additionally, in a syngeneic mouse tumor model, cells that are able to exit a tumor and enter circulation are not required to be more deformable than the cells that were first injected into the mouse. However, a limited study of metastatic prostate cancer patients provides evidence that some CTCs may be more mechanically similar to blood cells than to typical tumor cell lines. PMID:26679988

  8. High Efficiency Diffusion Molecular Retention Tumor Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanyan; Yuan, Hushan; Cho, Hoonsung; Kuruppu, Darshini; Jokivarsi, Kimmo; Agarwal, Aayush; Shah, Khalid; Josephson, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Here we introduce diffusion molecular retention (DMR) tumor targeting, a technique that employs PEG-fluorochrome shielded probes that, after a peritumoral (PT) injection, undergo slow vascular uptake and extensive interstitial diffusion, with tumor retention only through integrin molecular recognition. To demonstrate DMR, RGD (integrin binding) and RAD (control) probes were synthesized bearing DOTA (for 111 In3+), a NIR fluorochrome, and 5 kDa PEG that endows probes with a protein-like volume of 25 kDa and decreases non-specific interactions. With a GFP-BT-20 breast carcinoma model, tumor targeting by the DMR or IV methods was assessed by surface fluorescence, biodistribution of [111In] RGD and [111In] RAD probes, and whole animal SPECT. After a PT injection, both probes rapidly diffused through the normal and tumor interstitium, with retention of the RGD probe due to integrin interactions. With PT injection and the [111In] RGD probe, SPECT indicated a highly tumor specific uptake at 24 h post injection, with 352%ID/g tumor obtained by DMR (vs 4.14%ID/g by IV). The high efficiency molecular targeting of DMR employed low probe doses (e.g. 25 ng as RGD peptide), which minimizes toxicity risks and facilitates clinical translation. DMR applications include the delivery of fluorochromes for intraoperative tumor margin delineation, the delivery of radioisotopes (e.g. toxic, short range alpha emitters) for radiotherapy, or the delivery of photosensitizers to tumors accessible to light. PMID:23505478

  9. Rare breast tumors: Review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, Catalina; Amaya, Claudia; López-Guerra, Jose-Luis

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer tumors have different morphological phenotypes and specific histopathological types with particular prognostic and clinical characteristics. The treatment of rare malignant lesions is frequently controversial due to the absence of trials to determine the optimal managements. This review describes the spectrum of rare breast tumors indicating the clinical, epidemiological and treatment characteristics. PMID:25061520

  10. High-Dose Thiotepa Plus Peripheral Stem Cell Transplantation in Treating Patients With Refractory Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-03-06

    Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors; Childhood Germ Cell Tumor; Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Cancer; Retinoblastoma; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  11. Auto Transplant for High Risk or Relapsed Solid or CNS Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-22

    Ewing's Family Tumors; Renal Tumors; Hepatoblastoma; Rhabdomyosarcoma; Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Primary Malignant Brain Neoplasms; Retinoblastoma; Medulloblastoma; Supra-tentorial Primative Neuro-Ectodermal Tumor (PNET); Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor (AT/RT); CNS Tumors; Germ Cell Tumors

  12. Metastatic Spermatic Cord Tumor From Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ji Geon; Jeong, Hye Yun; Kim, Ki Soo; Lee, Jin Sook; Kim, Sang Su; Kim, Ho Young

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic tumors of the spermatic cord are extremely rare, and the prognosis for patients is typically poor. In the majority of cases, the primary tumor occurs in the gastrointestinal tract. We report a case of a 62-year-old man with a metastatic spermatic cord tumor. The patient complained of groin discomfort with a tender mass in the right inguinal area. An excisional biopsy was performed, and the pathologic finding was a metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma. We performed a systemic evaluation including colonoscopy, abdominal computed tomography, and total-body positron emission tomography, and the primary tumor was confirmed to involve the total colon, including the cecum, sigmoid colon, and rectum. The pathologic finding for rectum revealed a mucinous adenocarcinoma compatible with a metastatic spermatic cord tumor. PMID:26576400

  13. Bloodstream infections in patients with solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Gudiol, Carlota; Aguado, José María; Carratalà, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Little information is currently available regarding bloodstream infection (BSI) in patients with solid tumors who, for a variety of reasons, are particularly predisposed to develop this condition. In this review we focus on the incidence, epidemiology, clinical features, etiology, antimicrobial resistance, and outcomes of BSI of adult cancer patients with solid tumors. Most episodes of BSI occur in non-neutropenic patients, in whom the site of primary or metastatic tumor often serves as the portal of entry. The urinary tract and the abdomen are the most frequent sources of infection, and cholangitis is the most common recurrent source of BSI. Gram-negative bacilli are becoming the leading cause of BSI in patients with solid tumors, and the rate of multidrug resistance is increasingly being recognized. The case-fatality rate in patients with solid tumors and BSI is high, especially among those with comorbidities, advanced neoplasms, corticosteroid therapy, and shock at presentation. PMID:26787095

  14. Morphogenesis and Complexity of the Tumor Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izquierdo-Kulich, E.; Nieto-Villar, J. M.

    A mechanism to describe the apoptosis process at mesoscopic level through p53 is proposed in this paper. A deterministic model given by three differential equations is deduced from the mesoscopic approach, which exhibits sustained oscillations caused by a supercritical Andronov-Hopf bifurcation. Taking as hypothesis that the p53 sustained oscillation is the fundamental mechanism for apoptosis regulation; the model predicts that it is necessary a strict control of p53 to stimulated it, which is an important consideration to established new therapy strategy to fight cancer. The mathematical modeling of tumor growth allows us to describe the most important regularities of these systems. A stochastic model, based on the most important processes that take place at the level of individual cells, is proposed to predict the dynamical behavior of the expected radius of the tumor and its fractal dimension. It was found that the tumor has a characteristic fractal dimension, which contains the necessary information to predict the tumor growth until it reaches a stationary state. The mathematical modeling of tumor growth is an approach to explain the complex nature of these systems. A model that describes tumor growth was obtained by using a mesoscopic formalism and fractal dimension. This model theoretically predicts the relation between the morphology of the cell pattern and the mitosis/apoptosis quotient that helps to predict tumor growth from tumoral cells fractal dimension. The relation between the tumor macroscopic morphology and the cell pattern morphology is also determined. This could explain why the interface fractal dimension decreases with the increase of the cell pattern fractal dimension and consequently with the increase of the mitosis/apoptosis relation. Indexes to characterize tumoral cell proliferation and invasion capacities are proposed and used to predict the growth of different types of tumors. These indexes also show that the proliferation capacity is directly proportional to the invasion capacity. The proposed model assumes: i) only interface cells proliferate and invade the host, and ii) the fractal dimension of tumoral cell patterns, can reproduce the Gompertzian growth law. A mathematical model was obtained to describe the relation between the tissue morphology of cervix carcinoma and both dynamic processes of mitosis and apoptosis, and an expression to quantify the tumor aggressiveness, which in this context is associated with the tumor growth rate. The proposed model was applied to Stage III cervix carcinoma in vivo studies. In this study we found that the apoptosis rate was significantly smaller in the tumor tissues and both the mitosis rate and aggressiveness index decrease with Stage III patient's age. These quantitative results correspond to observed behavior in clinical and genetics studies. Finally, the entropy production rate was determined for avascular tumor growth. The proposed formula relates the fractal dimension of the tumor contour with the quotient between mitosis and apoptosis rate, which can be used to characterize the degree of proliferation of tumor cells. The entropy production rate was determined for fourteen tumor cell lines as a physical function of cancer robustness. The entropy production rate is a hallmark that allows us the possibility of prognosis of tumor proliferation and invasion capacities, key factors to improve cancer therapy.

  15. Tumor lymphangiogenesis and new drug development.

    PubMed

    Dieterich, Lothar C; Detmar, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Traditionally, tumor-associated lymphatic vessels have been regarded as passive by-standers, serving simply as a drainage system for interstitial fluid generated within the tumor. However, with growing evidence that tumors actively induce lymphangiogenesis, and that the number of lymphatic vessels closely correlates with metastasis and clinical outcome in various types of cancer, this picture has changed dramatically in recent years. Tumor-associated lymphatic vessels have now emerged as a valid therapeutic target to control metastatic disease, and the first specific anti-lymphangiogenic drugs have recently entered clinical testing. Furthermore, we are just beginning to understand the whole functional spectrum of tumor-associated lymphatic vessels, which not only concerns transport of fluid and metastatic cells, but also includes the regulation of cancer stemness and specific inhibition of immune responses, opening new venues for therapeutic applications. Therefore, we predict that specific targeting of lymphatic vessels and their function will become an important tool for future cancer treatment. PMID:26705849

  16. Diagnosis and treatment of pineal region tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Neuwelt, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this volume is to review the pertinent literature dealing with pineal tumors and thus aid in the handling of these rather uncommon lesions. After the first, introductory, chapter, three chapters treat the pathology and diagnosis of pineal tumors. There is also one chapter on intracranial germ cell tumors (natural history and pathogenesis) and one on the normal function of the pineal gland. With the exception of the chapter on diagnostic radiology of pineal tumors, which seems somewhat superficial, these five chapters summarize current knowledge about the nature of these complex lesions and their symptomatology very well. The next nine chapters deal with biopsy and surgery of these tumors and how to manage the patient. The first of these gives a historical review of the development of surgical techniques - from the first attempt by Horsley in 1905 to the microsurgical techniques of today. It is followed by a very important and detailed description of the microsurgical anatomy of the pineal region.

  17. Phyllodes Tumor in a Lactating Breast

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Sudha S.; Raju, K. V. V. N.; Nair, Haripreetha G.

    2016-01-01

    Phyllodes tumor is attributed to a small fraction of primary tumors of the breast. Such tumors occur rarely in pregnancy and lactation. We report a case of a 25-year-old lactating mother presenting with a lump in the left breast. Core needle biopsy was opined as phyllodes tumor with lactational changes, and subsequent wide local excision confirmed the diagnosis of benign phyllodes tumor with lactational changes. The characteristic gross and microscopic findings of a well-circumscribed lesion with leaf-like fibroepithelial growth pattern and typical nonuniform or diffuse stromal proliferation with periductal accentuation even in the absence of mitotic figures can help clinch the diagnosis. Benign phyllodes is known for its recurrence and requires wide excision and close follow-up. It is vital to identify these lesions even on limited biopsies as therapeutic options differ. This case is presented for its rarity and the diagnostic challenge it poses in limited biopsy. PMID:27081326

  18. Blood porphyrin luminescence and tumor growth correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courrol, Lilia Coronato; Silva, Flávia Rodrigues de Oliveira; Bellini, Maria Helena; Mansano, Ronaldo Domingues; Schor, Nestor; Vieira, Nilson Dias, Jr.

    2007-02-01

    Fluorescence technique appears very important for the diagnosis of cancer. Fluorescence detection has advantages over other light-based investigation methods: high sensitivity, high speed, and safety. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for approximately 3% of new cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. Unfortunately many RCC masses remain asymptomatic and nonpalpable until they are advanced. Diagnosis and localization of early carcinoma play an important role in the prevention and curative treatment of RCC. Certain drugs or chemicals such as porphyrin derivatives accumulate substantially more in tumors than normal tissues. The autofluorescence of blood porphyrin of healthy and tumor induced male SCID mice was analyzed using fluorescence and excitation spectroscopy. A significant contrast between normal and tumor blood could be established. Blood porphyrin fluorophore showed enhanced fluorescence band (around 630 nm) in function of the tumor growth. This indicates that either the autofluorescence intensity of the blood fluorescence may provide a good parameter for the "first approximation" characterization of the tumor stage.

  19. Phyllodes Tumor in a Lactating Breast.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Sudha S; Raju, K V V N; Nair, Haripreetha G

    2016-01-01

    Phyllodes tumor is attributed to a small fraction of primary tumors of the breast. Such tumors occur rarely in pregnancy and lactation. We report a case of a 25-year-old lactating mother presenting with a lump in the left breast. Core needle biopsy was opined as phyllodes tumor with lactational changes, and subsequent wide local excision confirmed the diagnosis of benign phyllodes tumor with lactational changes. The characteristic gross and microscopic findings of a well-circumscribed lesion with leaf-like fibroepithelial growth pattern and typical nonuniform or diffuse stromal proliferation with periductal accentuation even in the absence of mitotic figures can help clinch the diagnosis. Benign phyllodes is known for its recurrence and requires wide excision and close follow-up. It is vital to identify these lesions even on limited biopsies as therapeutic options differ. This case is presented for its rarity and the diagnostic challenge it poses in limited biopsy. PMID:27081326

  20. Infrared spectroscopic imaging of renal tumor tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ablinskas, Valdas; Urbonien?, Vidita; Ceponkus, Justinas; Laurinavicius, Arvydas; Dasevicius, Darius; Jankevi?ius, Feliksas; Hendrixson, Vaiva; Koch, Edmund; Steiner, Gerald

    2011-09-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic imaging has been used to probe the biochemical composition of human renal tumor tissue and adjacent normal tissue. Freshly resected renal tumor tissue from surgery was prepared as a thin cryosection and examined by FTIR spectroscopic imaging. Tissue types could be discriminated by utilizing a combination of fuzzy k-means cluster analysis and a supervised classification algorithm based on a linear discriminant analysis. The spectral classification is compared and contrasted with the histological stained image. It is further shown that renal tumor cells have spread in adjacent normal tissue. This study demonstrates that FTIR spectroscopic imaging can potentially serve as a fast and objective approach for discrimination of renal tumor tissue from normal tissue and even in the detection of tumor infiltration in adjacent tissue.