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1

TUBERCULOSIS COMO ENFERMEDAD OCUPACIONAL  

PubMed Central

Existe evidencia suficiente para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en diversos profesionales especialmente entre los trabajadores de salud. En el Perú están normados y reglamentados los derechos laborales inherentes a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional, como la cobertura por discapacidad temporal o permanente. Sin embargo, estos derechos aún no han sido suficientemente socializados. En este trabajo se presenta información sobre el riesgo de adquirir tuberculosis en el lugar de trabajo, se revisan las evidencias para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en trabajadores de salud y se presenta la legislación peruana vigente al respecto.

Mendoza-Ticona, Alberto

2014-01-01

2

Endocrine Tumor  

MedlinePLUS

... tumor (includes information on adenomas and adrenocortical carcinoma) Carcinoid tumors (includes information on both lung and gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors) Islet cell tumor (includes information on gastrinoma, ...

3

La posesión como hecho punible  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabajo estudia el delito de posesión, el cual se extiende semánticamente hasta términos como custodia, mantener disponible, almacenar, etc., y como conminada con la pena se halla la posesión de explosivos, de armas de fuego, de drogas, de pornografía infantil, etc. En este mismo trabajo se analizan, bajo la óptica del Código Penal alemán, cómo las acciones graves o

Friedrich Christian Schroeder

4

QUEJA COMO MECANISMO DE GARANTÍA  

Microsoft Academic Search

En la actualidad debemos considerar imprescindible, como premisa fundamental, la defensa de la persona ante las posibles arbitrariedades de los órganos de poder, así como otras que a menudo vulneran derechos que atañen al ciudadano. Quizás algunos crean que se trata de una quimera inalcanzable, otros, por el contrario, confían que puede ser posible. Sin embargo, considero que mientras los

Liechert García Rojas

2011-01-01

5

Carcinoid Tumors  

MedlinePLUS

Carcinoid tumors are rare, slow-growing cancers. They usually start in the lining of the digestive tract ... age of people diagnosed with digestive or lung carcinoids is about 60. In later stages the tumors ...

6

Mammary tumors  

SciTech Connect

Mammary neoplasia is one of the more common malignancies affecting domestic species. Despite their importance, they are often over- diagnosed, undertreated and subject to several misconceptions propagated by veterinarians and pet owners alike. Mammary neoplasia is the most frequent tumor type encountered in the female accounting for almost half of all malignancies reported. The canine has the highest incidence of mammary tumors of all domestic species. In the dog, about 65 percent of mammary tumors are benign mixed tumors, and 25 percent are carcinomas. The rest are adenomas, myoepitheliomas, and malignant mixed tumors. The age distribution of mammary tumors closely follows the age distribution of most tumors in the dog. Mammary tumors are rare in dogs 2 years old, but incidence begins to increase sharply at approximately 6 years of age. Median age at diagnosis is about 10 years. No breed predilection has been consistently reported.

Weller, R.E.

1988-10-01

7

Urogenital tumors  

SciTech Connect

An overview is provided for veterinary care of urogenital tumors in companion animals, especially the dog. Neoplasms discussed include tumors of the kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, testis, ovary, vagina, vulva and the canine transmissible venereal tumor. Topics addressed include description, diagnosis and treatment.

Weller, R.E.

1994-03-01

8

"Stealth" tumors  

PubMed Central

Breast cancers (BCs) comprise heterogeneous subtypes of various prognoses. An active anti-tumor immune profile usually correlated with a better survival. Two current major challenges of BC research are to understand the inter-relations between BC and anti-tumor immunity, and to identify candidates whose targeting would contribute to enhance anti-tumor efficiency.

Mamessier, Emilie; Bertucci, Francois; Sabatier, Renaud; Birnbaum, Daniel; Olive, Daniel

2012-01-01

9

Spinal Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Nearly 1.5 million new cases of cancer are diagnosed annually. Among novel cases, more than 2,000 are bone and joint cancers\\u000a and about 10,000 are soft tissue cancers. Of the latter, about 5% are primary malignant spine tumors and 1% are primary benign\\u000a spine tumors. Spine tumors can be categorized based upon their location as extradural, intradural–extramedullary, and intramedullary\\u000a [1].

Camilo A. Molina; Ziya L. Gokaslan; Daniel M. Sciubba

10

Odontogenic tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven hundred fifty-nine cases of odontogenic tumors retrieved from the files of College of Stomatology, West China University of Medical Sciences were classified according to the World Health Organization's Histological Classification of Odontogenic Tumors and compared with similar reports from other countries. Among these cases, 93.9% of the tumors were benign and 6.1% were malignant. Ameloblastomas predominated (58.6%) with a

Yong Lu; Ming Xuan; Takashi Takata; Changmei Wang; Zhixiu He; Zhiyu Zhou; David Mock; Hiromasa Nikai

1998-01-01

11

Understanding Brain Tumors  

MedlinePLUS

... org > Brain Tumor Information > Understanding Brain Tumors Understanding Brain Tumors While it is normal to feel scared, ... to Know About Brain Tumors . What is a Brain Tumor? A brain tumor is an abnormal growth? ...

12

Tumor Grade  

MedlinePLUS

... have abnormal-looking cells and may lack normal tissue structures. Based on these and other differences in microscopic appearance, ... breast cancer ( 1 ). This system grades breast tumors based on the following ... the tumor tissue has normal breast (milk) duct structures Nuclear grade : ...

13

Hypothalamic tumor  

MedlinePLUS

... at any age, but they are often more aggressive in adults than in children. In adults, tumors ... The treatment depends on how aggressive the tumor is, and whether it is a glioma or another type of cancer. Treatment may involve combinations of surgery, radiation , ...

14

Glioneuronal Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Neuronal and mixed neuronal–glial tumors are thought to arise from neuroepithelial cells. According to the 2007 WHO classification,\\u000a this group of tumors comprises ganglioglioma and gangliocytoma, desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma (DIA) and ganglioglioma,\\u000a dys-plastic cerebellar gangliocytoma (Lhermitte–Duclos disease), dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT), central neurocytoma,\\u000a cerebellar liponeurocytoma (CLN), paraganglioma of the cauda equina (PCE), and the more recently recognized subtypes papillary\\u000a glion-euronal

Matthias Simon; Rudolf A. Kristof; Johannes Schramm

15

Ependymal Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ependymomas represent a heterogeneous group of glial tumors whose biological behavior depends on various histological, molecular,\\u000a and clinical variables. The scope of this chapter is to review the clinical and histo-logical features as well as the molecular\\u000a genetics of ependymomas with special emphasis on their influence on tumor recurrence and prognosis. Furthermore, potential\\u000a molecular targets for therapy are outlined.

Martin Hasselblatt

16

Genitourinary Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The management of pediatric genitourinary tumors has evolved in recent decades largely due to the efforts of multicenter trials.\\u000a The respective roles of surgery, chemotherapy and radiation have been refined to optimize patient outcome and minimize patient\\u000a morbidity. In the United States most Wilms tumors are managed by nephrectomy followed by chemotherapy, with radiotherapy added\\u000a for patients with high stage

Jonathan H. Ross

17

Tumor Immunology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most tumors of the liver arise from hepatocytes giving rise to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), or biliary epithelial cells\\u000a giving rise to cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), or the tumors are metastatic, often from colon cancer. HCC and CCA are associated\\u000a with other diseases of the liver, which often incite chronic inflammation. In the case of HCC, chronic viral hepatitis is\\u000a often present, although

Christopher L. Bowlus

18

Brain and Spinal Tumors  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Brain and Spinal Tumors Information Page Synonym(s): Spinal Cord Tumors Condensed from Brain and Spinal Tumors: Hope Through ... Trials Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What are Brain and Spinal Tumors? Brain and spinal cord tumors ...

19

Como Lo Hago Yo: Myelomeningocele  

PubMed Central

Fortificación con ádico fólico es efectiva, pero aún falta conciencia en los jóvenes. La legalidad del aborto aumenta la importancia de la consulta prenatal. Realizo la cirugía bajo microcoscopio por razones didácticas. Irrigación continua para reducir la temperatura del tejido. Trato a la plaqueta como tejido viable. No suturo la plaqueta. No cierro músculo. ATB por una semana después de cirugía. Hidrocefalia: Válvula en todos los casos de ventriculomegalia. Médula anclada: Desanclar una sola vez. Chiari II: Revisar la válvula. Incluir en el seguimiento rendimiento escolar, puede indicar obstrucción de la válvula o médula anclada.

Lazareff, Jorge

2014-01-01

20

Retrorectal Tumors  

PubMed Central

Tumors that arise in the retrorectal (presacral) space are uncommon lesions that present with nonspecific signs and symptoms, which lead to difficult diagnoses. For complete evaluation of the lesion, cross-sectional imaging is required to determine the extent of resection and the appropriate surgical approach. Surgical removal leads to favorable outcomes for patients with benign purely cystic retrorectal tumors. Preoperative tissue diagnosis with transperineal and transsacral biopsies of solid or heterogeneous cystic lesions, are essential to determine the necessity of neoadjuvant therapy, which may decrease local recurrence after surgery and avoid an unnecessary delay in systemic therapy.

Neale, Jeffrey A.

2011-01-01

21

[Klatskin's tumor].  

PubMed

During the period 1989-1998, 27 patients with primary proximal bile duct cancer were treated (17 females and 10 males with a mean age of 61 years). The main presenting symptoms were: jaundice (96.2%), itching (92.5%), weight loss (74%) and atypical pain (33.3%). All the patients underwent ultrasound (US) examination, 7 patients endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and 4 patients computed tomography (CT) examination. US examination revealed the tumor in 51% cases; most frequently a dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts was diagnosed with all methods. 8 patients underwent resection of the tumor and one a biliary-enteric anastomosis, in 15 cases a stent was inserted. In 3 cases the extension of the malignancy did not allowed any procedure. Three patients died during immediate postoperative period (mortality 11.2%). The mean survival was 13 months after stenting and 22 months after resection of the tumor. The authors recommended an aggressive surgical therapy for Klatskin tumors. PMID:10756903

Târcoveanu, E; Ple?a, C; Chifan, M; Daniil, C; Niculescu, D; Bârza, M; Crumpei, F; Florea, N; Balan, G; Volov??, C; Moisi, L; Epure, O

1999-01-01

22

[Temporomandibular joint primitive tumors and pseudo tumors].  

PubMed

The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) can be the site of bone, cartilaginous, or synovial tumors. There is no well-defined histological classification. We listed all benign tumors, malignant primitive tumors, and rare pseudo tumors of the TMJ. We provide a list to help for the diagnosis and the differential diagnosis of non-tumoral lesions by far the most frequent. PMID:23711211

Oukabli, M; Chibani, M; Ennouali, H; Hemmaoui, B; Albouzidi, A

2013-02-01

23

Bugging tumors.  

PubMed

The effects of bacteria on patients with cancer have been observed for at least two centuries. Recent studies in animal models of cancer have shown efficacy of both anaerobic bacteria such as Clostridia and Bifidobacteria and facultative anaerobes such as Salmonella. In this issue of Cancer Discovery, Flentie and colleagues have identified five Salmonella promoters that are specifically stimulated by cancer cells as well as by acidic pH, a property of most tumors. One of these promoters (STM1787) was linked to a Shiga toxin gene and inserted in a wild-type Salmonella typhimurium strain, which showed in vivo antitumor efficacy. Approaches to further improving the efficacy of S. typhimurium with the use of tumor-targeting mutations are discussed. Because the barriers to efficacy of standard therapy of cancer appear to be opportunities for bacterial cancer therapy, the future of bacterial therapy of cancer appears bright. PMID:22787089

Hoffman, Robert M

2012-07-01

24

Bugging Tumors  

PubMed Central

Summary The effects of bacteria on cancer patients have been observed for at least two centuries. Recent studies in animal models of cancer have demonstrated efficacy of both anaerobic bacteria such as Clostridia and Bifidobacteria and facultative anaerobes such as Salmonella. In this issue of Cancer Discovery, Flentie et al have identified five Salmonella promoters that are specifically stimulated by cancer cells as well as by acid pH, a property of most tumors. One of these promoters (STM1787) was linked to a Shiga toxin gene and inserted in a wild-type Salmonella typhimurium strain, which showed in vivo antitumor efficacy. Approaches to further improving the efficacy of S. typhimurium with the use of tumor-targeting mutations are discussed. Since the barriers to efficacy of standard therapy of cancer appear to be opportunities for bacterial cancer therapy, the future of bacterial therapy of cancer appears bright.

Hoffman, Robert M.

2013-01-01

25

"Cancer tumor".  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The title is a phrase borrowed from a speech by a Leningrad pressman, V. E. Lvov, who called upon those attending a theoretical conference on ideological issues in astronomy held by the Leningrad Branch of the All-Union Astronomic and Geodetic Society (13 - 4 December 1948), "to make a more radical emphasis on the negative role of relativistic cosmology which is a cancer tumor disintegrating the contemporary astronomy theory, and a major ideological enemy of a materialist astronomy".

Bronshtehn, V. A.

26

Brain Tumors  

PubMed Central

This review addresses the specific contributions of nuclear medicine techniques, and especially positron emission tomography (PET), for diagnosis and management of brain tumors. 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose PET has particular strengths in predicting prognosis and differentiating cerebral lymphoma from nonmalignant lesions. Amino acid tracers including 11C-methionine, 18F-fluoroethyltyrosine, and 18F-l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine provide high sensitivity, which is most useful for detecting recurrent or residual gliomas, including most low-grade gliomas. They also play an increasing role for planning and monitoring of therapy. 18F-fluorothymidine can only be used in tumors with absent or broken blood–brain barrier and has potential for tumor grading and monitoring of therapy. Ligands for somatostatin receptors are of particular interest in pituitary adenomas and meningiomas. Tracers to image neovascularization, hypoxia, and phospholipid synthesis are under investigation for potential clinical use. All methods provide the maximum of information when used with image registration and fusion display with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging scans. Integration of PET and magnetic resonance imaging with stereotactic neuronavigation systems allows the targeting of stereotactic biopsies to obtain a more accurate histologic diagnosis and better planning of conformal and stereotactic radiotherapy.

Herholz, Karl; Langen, Karl-Josef; Schiepers, Christiaan; Mountz, James M.

2014-01-01

27

What Is Wilms Tumor?  

MedlinePLUS

... they look under a microscope (their histology): Favorable histology: Although the cancer cells in these tumors don’ ... children with these tumors is very good. Unfavorable histology (anaplastic Wilms tumor): In these tumors, the look ...

28

Teratoid Wilms' tumor - A rare renal tumor  

PubMed Central

Teratoid Wilms’ tumor is an extremely rare renal tumor. We report a case of unilateral teratoid Wilms’ tumor in a 4-year-old girl. The patient was admitted with a right-sided abdominal mass. The mass was arising from the right kidney. Radical nephrectomy was done and the patient had an uneventful recovery. Histopathology report showed teratoid Wilms’ tumor.

Mukhopadhyay, Biswanath; Shukla, Ram Mohan; Mukhopadhyay, Madhumita; Mandi, Sabitri; Roy, Dipankar; Bhattacharya, Malay K.

2011-01-01

29

Cervical tumors.  

PubMed

Imaging the cervix for benign and malignant disease can be achieved using transvaginal ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging, and 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. The best established role of imaging is in cervical carcinoma where magnetic resonance imaging, CT and increasingly positron emission tomography-CT are the most frequently used imaging modalities. These have a role in staging, treatment selection, recurrent disease, and imaging complications of treatment. Histopathological diagnosis of cervical disorders cannot be made on the basis of imaging alone but certain imaging features may provide an indication as to the underlying diagnosis. We describe the imaging features of some malignant tumor subtypes in which a preoperative diagnosis may alter management. Benign lesions of the cervix are usually detected incidentally or during investigations for dysfunctional vaginal bleeding. We describe the imaging features of the commonly encountered benign cervical lesions. PMID:20974359

Sahdev, Anju

2010-10-01

30

[Pancreatic tumors].  

PubMed

The management of pancreatic cancer is complex and prognosis is poor. The etiopathogenesis of pancreatic cancer has been related to several factors, such as diabetes mellitus, smoking and alcohol use, the presence of pancreatic cystic lesions and distinct genetic syndromes. Among the diagnostic options, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) continues to be developed, with the use of elastography, contrast agents and EUS-guided aspiration and the application of technical improvements that increase diagnostic efficacy (such as the use of specific stains, new aspiration needles, etc.). New biomarkers are also being sought that would help in differential diagnosis, such as M2PK, adiponectin, and Reg4. Among prognostic factors, the importance of nodal involvement and study of surgical resection margins has been confirmed. The role of individual predisposition in determining response to specific treatments continues to be investigated. Research also continues into the development of EUS-guided injection of therapeutic substances and the role of oncological treatment, with new data on the utility of gemcitabine and of statins as mediators of angiogenic suppression or of high-dose vitamin C with cytotoxic effects. Notable in the field of palliative treatment is the development of new biliary stents that aim to reduce obstruction rates. The development of EUS and EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration has been crucial in cystic pancreatic tumors, especially in distinguishing benign from malignant lesions or those with potential for malignant transformation (presence of mural modules, dilatation of the main pancreatic duct, the presence of masses, CEA levels, etc.). The characteristics of these tumors must be determined to evaluate whether surgery or conservative management is the best therapeutic option. PMID:19434873

Iglesias-García, Julio

2008-10-01

31

Benign Tumors of the Liver.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Tumors of Hepatocellular Origin -- Hepatocellular Adenoma; Tumors of Cholangiocellular Origin -- Bile Duct Cystadenoma; Tumors of Fibrous Tissue; Tumors of Adipose Tissue; Tumors of Muscle Tissue; Tumors of Blood Vessels -- Cavernous Hemangioma,...

K. G. Ishak L. Rabin

1975-01-01

32

Atypical Teratoid Rhaboid Tumor (ATRT)  

MedlinePLUS

... of Tumors Astrocytoma Atypical Teratoid Rhaboid Tumor (ATRT) Chondrosarcoma Choroid Plexus Craniopharyngioma Cysts Ependymoma Germ Cell Tumor ... of Tumors Astrocytoma Atypical Teratoid Rhaboid Tumor (ATRT) Chondrosarcoma Choroid Plexus Craniopharyngioma Cysts Ependymoma Germ Cell Tumor ...

33

Odontogenic Cysts and Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents various odontogenic cysts and tumors, including periapical cysts, dentigerous cysts, odontogenic keratocysts, orthokeratinized odontogenic cysts, lateral periodontal cysts, glandular odontogenic cysts, ameloblastomas, clear cell odontogenic carcinomas, adenomatoid odontogenic tumors, calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumors, squamous odontogenic tumors, ameloblastic fibromas, ameloblastic fibro-odontomas, odontomas, calcifying cystic odontogenic tumors, and odontogenic myxomas. The authors provide an overview of these cysts and

Angela C. Chi; Brad W. Neville

2011-01-01

34

Childhood Brain Tumors  

MedlinePLUS

Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

35

National Brain Tumor Society  

MedlinePLUS

... Community June 24, 2014 The (Critical) Case for Pediatric Brain Tumor & Cancer Advocacy National Brain Tumor Society is one of ... grade glioma , NCI , NIH , pediatric , pediatric brain tumor , pediatric cancer , pharmaceutical companies More from the blog Search By ...

36

Pancreatic Exocrine Tumors  

MedlinePLUS

Pancreatic Exocrine Tumors More than 95% of pancreatic cancers are classified as exocrine tumors. These tumors start in the exocrine cells of the pancreas. The following table describes the most common pancreatic ...

37

Endocrine, Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors  

MedlinePLUS

Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors Some rare forms of pancreatic cancer form from the abnormal growth of hormone-producing cells in the pancreas called islet cells. These tumors are known as pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors ( ...

38

Pancreatic islet cell tumor  

MedlinePLUS

Islet cell tumors; Islet of Langerhans tumor; Neuroendocrine tumors ... In the normal pancreas, cells called islet cells produce hormones that regulate a variety of bodily functions, such as blood sugar level and the production ...

39

Germ Cell Tumors -- Childhood  

MedlinePLUS

... Cancer Germ Cell Tumor - Childhood Share This Page: Germ Cell Tumor - Childhood This section has been reviewed ... Editorial Board , 7/2013 Overview Cancer.Net Guide Germ Cell Tumor - Childhood Overview Statistics Risk Factors Symptoms ...

40

Tumors and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

Tumors during pregnancy are rare, but they can happen. Tumors can be either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. The most common cancers in pregnancy are breast cancer, cervical cancer, lymphoma, and melanoma. ...

41

Treatment Option Overview (Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors)  

MedlinePLUS

Search Español Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors Treatment (PDQ®) Last Modified: 05/22/2014 General Information About Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors Wilms tumor and other childhood ...

42

Stages of Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors  

MedlinePLUS

Search Español Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors Treatment (PDQ®) Last Modified: 05/22/2014 General Information About Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors Wilms tumor and other childhood ...

43

[Rare solid pancreatic tumors].  

PubMed

The most common tumor of the pancreas is cancer, which constitutes 85% of all pancreatic neoplasms. Cystic pancreatic tumors comprise 10% of malignancies. No more than 5% of pancreatic tumors are rare solid tumors as: neuroendocrine tumors, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, solid pseudopapillary tumors, pecomas, lymphomas, granulocytic sarcomas, schwannomas, lipomas, liposarcomas and metastases to pancreas. Nowadays, these tumors are diagnosed more commonly due to the developement and accessibility of the diagnostic imaging techniques. Moreover, the treatment and management of rare solid pancreatic tumors often differs from the management in pancreatic cancer what makes the differential diagnosis difficult and responsible challenge. The main purpose of this article is to present an actual data of epidemiology, clinical presentation, management and treatment of rare solid pancreatic tumors according to recent literature and self experience. PMID:24052992

Dabkowski, Krzysztof; Kojder, Klaudyna; Smereczy?ski, Andrzej; Lubikowski, Jerzy; Patalan, Marek; Starzy?ska, Teresa

2013-08-01

44

Tumor-to-Tumor Metastasis: Extracranial Tumor Metastatic to Intracranial Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Tumor-to-tumor metastasis (TTM) is a relatively rare but well-documented phenomenon. When malignant tumor metastasizes to\\u000a an intracranial tumor, meningiomas are most often the recipient; and breast or lung carcinoma the most common donor (primary\\u000a tumor). The diagnosis of TTM can be made only by histopathological examination. Awareness of TTM is essential in clinical\\u000a practice for timely diagnosis and early detection

Jian-Qiang Lu; Arthur W. Clark

45

Tumor Macroenvironment and Metabolism  

PubMed Central

In this review we introduce the concept of the tumor macroenvironment and explore it in the context of metabolism. Tumor cells interact with the tumor microenvironment including immune cells. Blood and lymph vessels are the critical components that deliver nutrients to the tumor and also connect the tumor to the macroenvironment. Several factors are then released from the tumor itself but potentially also from the tumor microenvironment, influencing the metabolism of distant tissues and organs. Amino acids, and distinct lipid and lipoprotein species can be essential for further tumor growth. The role of glucose in tumor metabolism has been studied extensively. Cancer-associated cachexia is the most important tumor-associated systemic syndrome and not only affects the quality of life of patients with various malignancies but is estimated to be the cause of death in 15%–20% of all cancer patients. On the other hand, systemic metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes are known to influence tumor development. Furthermore, the clinical implications of the tumor macroenvironment are explored in the context of the patient’s outcome with special consideration for pediatric tumors. Finally, ways to target the tumor macroenvironment that will provide new approaches for therapeutic concepts are described.

Al-Zhoughbi, Wael; Huang, Jianfeng; Paramasivan, Ganapathy S.; Till, Holger; Pichler, Martin; Guertl-Lackner, Barbara; Hoefler, Gerald

2014-01-01

46

Osteosarcoma Tumor Thrombus  

PubMed Central

Tumor thrombus arising from osteosarcoma is rare. We report the case of a 20-year-old man with proximal humerus osteosarcoma, accompanied by an extensive intravascular tumor thrombus extending into the heart. Our review of the literature found 14 previous reports on osteosarcoma with tumor thrombus. The combination of positron emission tomography and computed tomography is very useful in differentiating tumor thrombus from vascular thrombus, thereby avoiding unnecessary anticoagulation therapy. This same imaging combination can also be used to evaluate the response to treatment. Surgical resection of the tumor thrombus is highly recommended. The effect of tumor thrombus on survival is still unknown.

Navalkele, Pournima; Jones, Sarah M.; Jones, Jason K.; Salazar, Jorge D.; Toy, Patrick C.; Iyer, Rathi V.; Herrington, Betty

2013-01-01

47

Krukenberg tumor with yolk sac tumor differentiation.  

PubMed

An unusual case of bilateral Krukenberg tumor with foci of yolk sac tumor (YST) differentiation occurring in a 50-year-old patient is reported. The primary tumor was in the gastric antrum, and it showed morphology of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with diffuse and solid growth pattern. A component of typical YST was not found in the gastric primary and lymph node metastases, although some cells in these locations were positive for alpha-fetoprotein. In the ovarian metastases, YST element showed microcystic/reticular and solid patterns, whereas the adenocarcinoma component was of diffuse type with signet ring cells and with some undifferentiated areas. The case represents further example of the somatic cell-derived tumor with focal germ cell-type differentiation and the first report of YST differentiation in Krukenberg tumor. PMID:18317220

Zamecnik, Michal; Voltr, Lubomir; Stuk, Jan; Chlumska, Alena

2008-04-01

48

LA CREATIVIDAD COMO EXPRESIÓN DE LA PERSONALIDAD  

Microsoft Academic Search

El hombre es un ser potencialmente creativo, pues la creatividad se desarrolla a lo largo de toda nuestra vida, haciéndose necesario e importante que los docentes puedan potenciarla desde las primeras edades, correspondiendo a la escuela y a la educación, influir en la expresión creativa de nuestros educandos en la actividad cognoscitiva y para la vida. La creatividad como proceso

Yaina Martínez Viel; Dariela Pérez Obregón

2011-01-01

49

Children's Brain Tumor Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

Children’s Brain Tumor Foundation, A non-profit organization, was founded in 1988 by dedicated parents, physicians and friends. Our ... and the long term outlook for children with brain and spinal cord tumors through research, support, education, ...

50

Tumors of the Umbilicus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studied were 112 umbilical tumors. Of these, 48 were malignant and 64 were benign. Eight tumors were primary malignancies and 40 metastasized to the umbilicus from the stomach, pancreas, intestine, ovaries and other organs. The metastatic lesions in the u...

W. D. Steck E. B. Helwig

1964-01-01

51

Intramedullary tumors in children  

PubMed Central

Intramedullary tumors of the spinal cord account for 35-40% of intraspinal tumors in children. The biological behavior of these tumors is of slow progression, and hence aggressive surgery has been advocated. Surgical adjuncts include use of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring, preoperative ultrasound, microsurgical techniques and ultrasonic suction devices. Osteoplastic laminoplasty approaches avoid post-laminectomy deformities in younger children. Postoperative radiotherapy and more recently chemotherapy regimes have been proposed for incompletely resected tumors.

Chatterjee, Sandip; Chatterjee, Uttara

2011-01-01

52

Malignant tumors of childhood  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 34 papers about malignant tumors. some of the titles are: Invasive Cogenital Mesoblastic Nephroma, Leukemia Update, Unusual Perinatal Neoplasms, Lymphoma Update, Gonadal Germ Cell Tumors in Children, Nutritional Status and Cancer of Childhood, and Chemotherapy of Brain tumors in Children.

Brooks, B.J.

1986-01-01

53

Tracing the Tumor Lineage  

PubMed Central

Defining the pathways through which tumors progress is critical to our understanding and treatment of cancer. We do not routinely sample patients at multiple time points during the progression of their disease, and thus our research is limited to inferring progression a posteriori from the examination of a single tumor sample. Despite this limitation, inferring progression is possible because the tumor genome contains a natural history of the mutations that occur during the formation of the tumor mass. There are two approaches to reconstructing a lineage of progression: (1) inter-tumor comparisons, and (2) intra-tumor comparisons. The inter-tumor approach consists of taking single samples from large collections of tumors and comparing the complexity of the genomes to identify early and late mutations. The intra-tumor approach involves taking multiple samples from individual heterogeneous tumors to compare divergent clones and reconstruct a phylogenetic lineage. Here we discuss how these approaches can be used to interpret the current models for tumor progression. We also compare data from primary and metastatic copy number profiles to shed light on the final steps of breast cancer progression. Finally, we discuss how recent technical advances in single cell genomics will herald a new era in understanding the fundamental basis of tumor heterogeneity and progression.

Navin, Nicholas E.; Hicks, James

2010-01-01

54

Pediatric Genitourinary Tumors  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review We will review the 2007/2008 literature on pediatric genitourinary tumors. Recent findings Newly identified constitutional epigenetic defects in Wilms tumor (WT) genes extends the understanding of WT risks in children lacking syndromic features, and adds to the complexity of the pathogenesis of these tumor suppressor genes. Pediatric renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has distinct molecular characteristics and clinical associations from the adult counterpart. The pathway from PAX3-FKHR translocation to the development of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) tumors has been further elucidated. Summary Therapeutic strategies continue to be driven by developments in molecular diagnostics in pediatric GU tumors.

Castellino, Sharon M.; Martinez-Borges, Anibal R.; McLean, Thomas W.

2014-01-01

55

Tumor-penetrating peptides.  

PubMed

Tumor-homing peptides can be used to deliver drugs into tumors. Phage library screening in live mice has recently identified homing peptides that specifically recognize the endothelium of tumor vessels, extravasate, and penetrate deep into the extravascular tumor tissue. The prototypic peptide of this class, iRGD (CRGDKGPDC), contains the integrin-binding RGD motif. RGD mediates tumor-homing through binding to ?v integrins, which are selectively expressed on various cells in tumors, including tumor endothelial cells. The tumor-penetrating properties of iRGD are mediated by a second sequence motif, R/KXXR/K. This C-end Rule (or CendR) motif is active only when the second basic residue is exposed at the C-terminus of the peptide. Proteolytic processing of iRGD in tumors activates the cryptic CendR motif, which then binds to neuropilin-1 activating an endocytic bulk transport pathway through tumor tissue. Phage screening has also yielded tumor-penetrating peptides that function like iRGD in activating the CendR pathway, but bind to a different primary receptor. Moreover, novel tumor-homing peptides can be constructed from tumor-homing motifs, CendR elements and protease cleavage sites. Pathologies other than tumors can be targeted with tissue-penetrating peptides, and the primary receptor can also be a vascular "zip code" of a normal tissue. The CendR technology provides a solution to a major problem in tumor therapy, poor penetration of drugs into tumors. The tumor-penetrating peptides are capable of taking a payload deep into tumor tissue in mice, and they also penetrate into human tumors ex vivo. Targeting with these peptides specifically increases the accumulation in tumors of a variety of drugs and contrast agents, such as doxorubicin, antibodies, and nanoparticle-based compounds. Remarkably the drug to be targeted does not have to be coupled to the peptide; the bulk transport system activated by the peptide sweeps along any compound that is present in the blood. PMID:23986882

Teesalu, Tambet; Sugahara, Kazuki N; Ruoslahti, Erkki

2013-01-01

56

Tumor-Penetrating Peptides  

PubMed Central

Tumor-homing peptides can be used to deliver drugs into tumors. Phage library screening in live mice has recently identified homing peptides that specifically recognize the endothelium of tumor vessels, extravasate, and penetrate deep into the extravascular tumor tissue. The prototypic peptide of this class, iRGD (CRGDKGPDC), contains the integrin-binding RGD motif. RGD mediates tumor-homing through binding to ?v integrins, which are selectively expressed on various cells in tumors, including tumor endothelial cells. The tumor-penetrating properties of iRGD are mediated by a second sequence motif, R/KXXR/K. This C-end Rule (or CendR) motif is active only when the second basic residue is exposed at the C-terminus of the peptide. Proteolytic processing of iRGD in tumors activates the cryptic CendR motif, which then binds to neuropilin-1 activating an endocytic bulk transport pathway through tumor tissue. Phage screening has also yielded tumor-penetrating peptides that function like iRGD in activating the CendR pathway, but bind to a different primary receptor. Moreover, novel tumor-homing peptides can be constructed from tumor-homing motifs, CendR elements and protease cleavage sites. Pathologies other than tumors can be targeted with tissue-penetrating peptides, and the primary receptor can also be a vascular “zip code” of a normal tissue. The CendR technology provides a solution to a major problem in tumor therapy, poor penetration of drugs into tumors. The tumor-penetrating peptides are capable of taking a payload deep into tumor tissue in mice, and they also penetrate into human tumors ex vivo. Targeting with these peptides specifically increases the accumulation in tumors of a variety of drugs and contrast agents, such as doxorubicin, antibodies, and nanoparticle-based compounds. Remarkably the drug to be targeted does not have to be coupled to the peptide; the bulk transport system activated by the peptide sweeps along any compound that is present in the blood.

Teesalu, Tambet; Sugahara, Kazuki N.; Ruoslahti, Erkki

2013-01-01

57

Tumor Endothelial Cells  

PubMed Central

The vascular endothelium is a dynamic cellular “organ” that controls passage of nutrients into tissues, maintains the flow of blood, and regulates the trafficking of leukocytes. In tumors, factors such as hypoxia and chronic growth factor stimulation result in endothelial dysfunction. For example, tumor blood vessels have irregular diameters; they are fragile, leaky, and blood flow is abnormal. There is now good evidence that these abnormalities in the tumor endothelium contribute to tumor growth and metastasis. Thus, determining the biological basis underlying these abnormalities is critical for understanding the pathophysiology of tumor progression and facilitating the design and delivery of effective antiangiogenic therapies.

Dudley, Andrew C.

2012-01-01

58

Submandibular gland tumors.  

PubMed

Tumors involving the submandibular gland are rare. However, the incidence of malignancy is much higher than in the parotid (approaching 50 percent). In addition, the 5-year survival rate in patients with malignant tumors of the submandibular gland is much poorer in our series--28 percent versus 71.8 percent for the parotid gland. Because of the poor prognosis in patients with malignant tumors involving the submandibular gland we feel that composite resections should be carried out for all tumors except low-grade mucoepidermoid tumors. In addition, postoperative radiation should be given for specific indications (detailed in the article). PMID:202980

Hanna, D C; Clairmont, A A

1978-02-01

59

Nonmalignant Tumors of the Orbit  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Most orbital tumors are nonmalignant. Nonmalignant orbital tumors can arise from any of the structures within the orbit, including\\u000a blood vessels, fat, nerves, lacrimal gland, and connective tissue. Nonmalignant orbital tumors can be grouped into cystic\\u000a lesions, vascular tumors, lymphoproliferative lesions, inflammatory lesions, mesenchymal tumors, neurogenic tumors, and lacrimal\\u000a gland tumors. Although most orbital tumors are benign, their location may

Eric M. Hink; Vikram Durairaj

60

15 INTRACRANIAL GERM CELL TUMORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intracranial germ cell tumors are a heterogeneous group of lesions which occur in children and adults. Within the classification of intracranial germ cell tumors, there are a variety of different tumor types which carry different prognoses. The diagnosis of an intracranial germ cell tumor usually requires histological informa- tion, but a subgroup of tumors will secrete specific tumor markers, including

J Bjornsson; B Scheithauer; H Okazakl; R W Leech

1984-01-01

61

Tumor-derived exosomes  

PubMed Central

Intercellular communication is a key process in the development and progression of cancer. The dynamic and reciprocal interplays between the tumor and its microenvironment orchestrate events critical to the establishment of primary and metastatic niches and maintenance of a permissive environment at the tumor?stroma interface. Atay and colleagues found that gastrointestinal stromal tumor cells secrete vesicles known as exosomes. These exosomes contain oncogenic KIT and their transfer and uptake by surrounding smooth muscle cells lead to enhanced AKT and MAPK signaling and phenotypic modulation of several cellular processes, including morphological changes, expression of tumor-associated markers, secretion of matrix metalloproteinases, and enhanced tumor cell invasion. This provocative study emphasizes that exosome-mediated signaling within the tumor microenvironment acts as a positive feedback loop that contributes to invasiveness and that interfering with this message delivery system may represent promising therapeutic approaches, not only for GIST, but for other types of cancer.

Atay, Safinur; Godwin, Andrew K

2014-01-01

62

Multifaceted tumor stromal fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Tumors are highly complex tissues composed of neoplastic cells and different kinds of stromal cells. Tumor stromal cells, especially fibroblasts, play important roles during the multistep development of tumors. In this review, the two-faced characteristics of tumor stromal fibroblasts are discussed in the light of our current knowledge. For one thing, fibroblasts act as an "inflammation regulator" by secretion of cytokines and regulation of tumor immunity; for another, they act as a "damage healer" for cure of wounds by remodeling extracellular matrix or taking a part in the "foreign body reaction". Since the properties of fibroblasts are complicated, both aspects of fibroblasts for tumor development should be considered carefully in clinical studies to target cancer-associated fibroblasts. PMID:22627670

Li, Jie; Chen, Lin; Qin, Zhihai

2012-12-01

63

Spine Tumors: Surgery Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Tumors of the spine comprise a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that can be characterized by their pathology, anatomic location,\\u000a and degree of invasiveness. The majority of spine tumors encountered by clinicians are metastatic, accounting for approximately\\u000a 70% of all spine tumors [1]. Less frequently encountered neoplasms of the spine and spinal cord include primary lesions such as meningiomas, schwannomas,\\u000a osseous

Gabriel Zada; Michael Y. Wang

64

Inhibitors of Tumor Angiogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Tumor growth relies on formation of a vascular supply. In 1971, Judah Folkman was the first to propose that in order to grow\\u000a beyond 2–3 mm in size tumors required a new vascular network [16]. Subsequent research has confirmed that growth of a tumor,\\u000a both at the primary site and metastases, is dependent on neoangiogenesis [17, 24]. This development of a

Anaadriana Zakarija; William J. Gradishar

65

Tumor stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cells possess two basic characteristics: they are able to renew themselves and to develop into different cell types.\\u000a The link between normal stem cells and tumor cells could be examined in three aspects: what are the differences and similarities\\u000a in the control of self-renewal capacity between stem cells and tumor cells; whether tumor cells arise from stem cells; do

László Kopper; Melinda Hajdú

2004-01-01

66

Brain tumor - children  

MedlinePLUS

Glioblastoma multiforme - children; Ependymoma - children; Glioma - children; Astrocytoma - children; Medulloblastoma - children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children)

67

Brain Tumors (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... Continue Late Effects Late effects are problems that patients can develop after cancer treatments have ended. For survivors of pediatric brain tumors, late effects may include cognitive delay ( ...

68

The Gastrointestinal Tumor Microenvironment  

PubMed Central

Over the past decade, the microenvironment of gastrointestinal tumors has gained increasing attention because it is required for tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis. The tumor microenvironment has many components and has been recognized as one of the major “hallmarks” of epithelial cancers. Although therapeutic strategies for gastrointestinal cancer have previously focused on the epithelial cell compartment, there is increasing interest in reagents that alter the microenvironment, based on reported interactions among gastrointestinal epithelial, stromal, and immune cells during gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. We review the different cellular components of the gastrointestinal tumor microenvironment and their functions in carcinogenesis, and discuss how improving our understanding of the complex stromal network could lead to new therapeutic strategies.

Quante, Michael; Varga, Julia; Wang, Timothy C.; Greten, Florian R.

2013-01-01

69

Pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor.  

PubMed

Authors present an additional case report of pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor (PHAT), only recently recognized entity amongst the soft tissue tumors. 63-year-old man underwent surgery for subcutaneous tumor growing on the forearm. Grossly, ovoid well demarcated tumor 4.0 x 3.5 x 2.5 cm was removed. Histologically, hypovascular areas of spindle-cells arranged in sheets and fascicles resembling spindle-cell sarcoma and areas rich on ectatic vessels with fibrin deposits or thickened hyalinized walls were present. Some cells contained intranuclear cytoplasmatic inclusions, lobulated nuclei with or without prominent nucleoli or multiple nuclei. Mitoses were less than 1 per 30 HPF, Ki-67 nuclear positivity was observed in 2.6% of tumor cells. Immunohistochemically, cells were positive with vimentin, but negative for CD34, S100, desmin, smooth-muscle actin, EMA, VWF, CD99, bcl-2 and cytokeratins. The patient did well, without recurrent tumor after 13 months follow-up. Spectrum of tumors including solitary fibrous tumor, giant-cell angiofibroma, neurilemmoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma and acral myxoinflammatory tumor with atypical bizarre giant cells is discussed in differential diagnosis. PMID:11813637

Husek, K; Veselý, K

2001-11-01

70

Tumor Ablation and Nanotechnology  

PubMed Central

Next to surgical resection, tumor ablation is a commonly used intervention in the treatment of solid tumors. Tumor ablation methods include thermal therapies, photodynamic therapy, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) producing agents. Thermal therapies induce tumor cell death via thermal energy and include radiofrequency, microwave, high intensity focused ultrasound, and cryoablation. Photodynamic therapy and ROS producing agents cause increased oxidative stress in tumor cells leading to apoptosis. While these therapies are safe and viable alternatives when resection of malignancies is not feasible, they do have associated limitations that prevent their widespread use in clinical applications. To improve the efficacy of these treatments, nanoparticles are being studied in combination with nonsurgical ablation regimens. In addition to better thermal effect on tumor ablation, nanoparticles can deliver anticancer therapeutics that show synergistic anti-tumor effect in the presence of heat and can also be imaged to achieve precision in therapy. Understanding the molecular mechanism of nanoparticle-mediated tumor ablation could further help engineer nanoparticles of appropriate composition and properties to synergize the ablation effect. This review aims to explore the various types of nonsurgical tumor ablation methods currently used in cancer treatment and potential improvements by nanotechnology applications.

Manthe, Rachel L.; Foy, Susan P.; Krishnamurthy, Nishanth; Sharma, Blanka; Labhasetwar, Vinod

2010-01-01

71

EXAFS Study of Co/Mo Multilayers.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reduction of the measured moment in magnetic multilayers relative to the bulk value is a poorly understood phenomenon. This lack of understanding is clearly illustrated by two studies on Co/Mo where the reduced moment is attributed to two very different mechanisms. Sato reports a ``dead layer'', i.e., Co atoms near the Mo layers have no moment or a reduced moment(Noboru Sato, J. Appl. Phys. 63), 3476 (1988), while Wang, et al. report the presence of a non-magnetic compound--Co_7Mo_6.(Y. Wang, et al., J. Mag. Mag. Mater 102), 121 (1991). These studies report different saturation magnetizations for thicker Co layers; however, they agree that crystalline order vanishes as both layer thicknesses decrease and that magnetism decreases greatly for thinner Co layers. We have done structural and magnetic studies(C.L. Foiles, et al., MRS Symposium Proc. 384) (in press) on dc magnetron sputtered Co/Mo multilayers and find that the most striking feature is how the saturation magnetization scales with the apparent coordination number using EXAFS data with a Co standard. Data from the various studies will be compared.

Franklin, M. R.; Foiles, C. L.; Loloee, R.

1996-03-01

72

Rare Functioning Pancreatic Endocrine Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) represent a heterogeneous group of tumors depending on functional status and histological differentiation. Functioning tumors are defined when clinical symptoms are related to peptide\\/hormone overproduction. Tumors secreting pancreatic polypeptide, human chronic gonadotrophin subunits, calcitonin, neurotensin or other peptides do not usually produce specific symptoms and should be considered as non-functioning tumors. In addition, it is important

Dermot O’Toole; Ramon Salazar; Massimo Falconi; Gregory Kaltsas; Anne Couvelard; Wouter W. de Herder; Rudolf Hyrdel; George Nikou; Eric Krenning; Marie-Pierre Vullierme; Martin Caplin; Robert Jensen; Barbro Eriksson

2006-01-01

73

Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The keratocystic odontogenic tumor is a benign developmental tumor with many distinguishing clinical and histologic features.\\u000a These characteristics are reviewed in the setting of a typical presentation. The newly acknowledged neoplastic potential and\\u000a its implications for treatment strategies are also discussed.

Elizabeth A. Grasmuck; Brenda L. Nelson

2010-01-01

74

Tumor antigenicity revealed.  

PubMed

The extent to which mutated peptide antigens encoded by somatic mutations contribute to tumor antigenicity in human cancer patients has been unclear. Two recent studies using tumor exome sequencing to predict candidate mutated antigens provide insight into this question. PMID:24439426

Savage, Peter A

2014-02-01

75

Tumor Cold Ischemia  

Cancer.gov

In a recently published manuscript in the journal of Molecular and Cellular Proteomics, researchers from the National Cancer Institutes (NCI) Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) investigated the effect of cold ischemia on the proteome of fresh frozen tumors.

76

Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... fight one of the deadliest forms of childhood cancer The Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation is on a mission to ... UPDATES 07/03/14 New genes that promote cancer discovered 06/30/14 PBTF awards college scholarships to brain ... Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation 302 Ridgefield Court, Asheville, NC ...

77

Testicular tumors in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The aim of this study was to present an updated picture of surgical management of pediatric testicular tumors based on our 30 years' experience, which consisted of one of the largest noncollected series treated in a single medical center. Methods: Records of children who were treated for testicular tumor in our unit from 1970 to 1999, inclusive, were reviewed

Arbay O. Ciftci; F. Cahit Tanyel

2001-01-01

78

Imaging Cycling Tumor Hypoxia  

PubMed Central

Cycling hypoxia is now a well recognized phenomenon in animal and human solid tumors. Cycling hypoxia can exist more than 100 ?m distances from a micro-vessel and some of these regions have been shown to exist adjacent to normal tissue. Fluctuations in pO2 of approximately 20 mmHg can occur with periodicities of minutes to hours and even days. These fluctuations have been attributed to changes in erythrocyte flux, perfusion, and also development of newer vascular networks. Cycling hypoxia has been shown to induce the expression of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1? (HIF-1?) and also confer tumor cells and tumor vascular endothelial cells with enhanced pro-survival pathways making tumors less responsive to radiation and chemotherapy. Imaging of cycling hypoxia in tumors can provide capabilities to help planning appropriate treatment, by taking into account the magnitude and frequency of fluctuations and also their locations adjacent to normal tissue. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging (EPRI) provides the ability to distinguish chronic and cycling hypoxic regions and has the required spatial and temporal resolutions to provide quantitative maps of tumor pO2. EPRI can serve as a valuable tool in examining tumor pO2 longitudinally in response to treatment and in an experimentally chosen time window to spatially map fluctuations in pO2 non-invasively in animal models of implanted or orthotopic tumors with a potential for human applications.

Matsumoto, Shingo; Yasui, Hironobu; Mitchell, James B.; Krishna, Murali C.

2010-01-01

79

Skull Base Tumors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In skull base tumors associated with a low radiosensitivity for conventional radiotherapy (RT), irradiation with proton or carbon ion beams facilitates a safe and accurate application of high tumor doses due to the favorable beam localization properties of these particle beams. Cranial nerves, the brain stem and normal brain tissue can at the same time be optimally spared.

Schulz-Ertner, Daniela

80

Gastrointestinal Neuroendocrine Tumors: Pancreatic Endocrine Tumors  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) have long fascinated clinicians and investigators despite their relative rarity. Their clinical presentation varies depending upon whether the tumor is functional or not and also according to the specific hormonal syndrome produced. Tumors may be sporadic or inherited but little is known about their molecular pathology, especially the sporadic forms. Chromogranin A appears to be the most useful serum marker for diagnosis, staging and monitoring. Initially, therapy should be directed at the hormonal syndrome as this has the major initial impact on the patient's health. Most PETs are relatively indolent but ultimately malignant, except for insulinomas which are predominantly benign. Surgery is the only modality that offers the possibility of cure although it is generally noncurative in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome or nonfunctional PETs with MEN1. Preoperative staging of disease extent is necessary to determine the likelihood of complete resection though debulking surgery is often felt to be useful in unresectable patients. Once metastatic, biotherapy is usually the first modality employed because it is generally well tolerated. Systemic or regional therapies are generally reserved until symptoms occur or tumor growth is rapid. Recently a number of newer agents, as well as receptor-directed radiotherapy, are being evalulated for patients with advanced disease. This review addresses a number of recent advances regarding the molecular pathology, diagnosis, localization and management of PETs including discussion of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy and other novel antitumor approaches. We conclude with a discussion of future directions and unsettled problems in the field.

Metz, David C.

2008-01-01

81

Tumor initiating cells.  

PubMed

Cancer Stem cells (CSC) are defined as a population of cells found within a tumor that have characteristics similar to normal stem cells. Like normal stem cells they have the potential to self renew and differentiate. The cellular origin of these cancer stem cells--whether they originate from stem cells that have lost the ability to regulate proliferation, or they arise from more differentiated population of progenitor cells that have acquired abilities to self-renew is still unclear. Investigators have reported isolation of cancer stem cells or tumor initiating cells using techniques developed for isolating hematopoietic stem cells and assays that identify a small subset of tumor initiating cells. The TICs are thought to play an important role in tumor development, progression as well response to therapy and relapse. Strategies that combine conventional therapies with newer approaches that target the TICs may be more effective in tumor cell kill are discussed. PMID:19199951

Bansal, Nitu; Banerjee, Debabrata

2009-02-01

82

How Are Wilms Tumors Diagnosed?  

MedlinePLUS

... Survival rates for Wilms tumor by stage and histology Previous Topic Signs and symptoms of Wilms tumor ... also look at the sample to determine the histology of the Wilms tumor (favorable or unfavorable), as ...

83

Primary cardiac valve tumors.  

PubMed

To assess the prevalence, characteristics, and outcome of surgical treatment of primary cardiac valve tumors in a single center, we reviewed our experience in 6 women and 1 man, aged 49 to 76 years (mean, 64.7 years) who presented between 1999 and 2006. In one patient, the diagnosis of cardiac valve tumor was made incidentally on transesophageal echocardiography during aortocoronary bypass surgery. The others had clinical symptoms: angina or myocardial infarction in 3, congestive heart failure in 2, dyspnea and cerebrovascular ischemia in 1 patient each. Four of the 7 tumors were benign, and 3 were malignant. All patients survived the operation and recovered uneventfully. Midterm follow-up was available in all patients. Two patients with malignant tumors were considered unsuitable for adjuvant therapy by the oncologist; both died during follow-up from local tumor recurrence. All 5 survivors were categorized at the last follow-up as functional class I, with normal exercise tolerance. Excellent early and midterm surgical results can be obtained in patients with benign cardiac valve tumors, but the prognosis for those with a malignant tumor is poor. PMID:20519288

Georghiou, Georgios P; Vidne, Bernardo A; Sahar, Gideon; Sharoni, Erez; Fuks, Avi; Porat, Eyal

2010-06-01

84

[Vascular tumors of the orbit].  

PubMed

Vascular tumors of the orbit include capillary hemangioma, cavernous hemangioma, hemolymphangioma, hemangiopericytoma and a few rare tumors. Capillary hemangioma and hemolymphangioma, occurring mainly in children, are covered in the chapter devoted to childhood tumors. In this chapter, cavernous hemangioma and hemangiopericytoma are discussed as well as rare vascular tumors. Although orbital varix is not a tumor, it is also considered because of the diagnostic problems and the close correlation of orbital varix with a true tumor: hemolymphangioma. PMID:20303554

Cophignon, J; d'Hermies, F; Civit, T

2010-01-01

85

"Cortactin and tumor invasiveness"  

PubMed Central

Cortactin is a cytoskeletal protein and src kinase substrate that is frequently overexpressed in cancer. Animal studies suggest that cortactin overexpression increases tumor aggressiveness, possibly through promotion of tumor invasion and metastasis. Recently, many studies have documented a role for cortactin in promoting cell motility and invasion, including a critical role in invadopodia, actin rich-subcellular protrusions associated with degradation of the extracellular matrix by cancer cells. Here, I review the evidence and potential mechanisms for cortactin as a critical mediator of tumor cell invasion.

Weaver, Alissa M.

2008-01-01

86

Management of Lake Como: a multiobjective analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a heuristic approach for improving the performance of multipurpose reservoirs that have already been in operation for a certain number of years. The main characteristic of the method is that the analyst must first learn from the past experience of the manager and synthesize it into a simple operating rule. Then, the analyst must point out, with the help of the manager, what the acceptable modifications of such a rule are. After this has been accomplished, the optimal improvements of the operating rule can be obtained by using standard optimization techniques. Quite satisfactory results have been obtained by applying this approach to Lake Como (Northern Italy), which has been regulated since the end of World War II. In fact, the method shows that both flood protection on the lake shores and water supply to the downstream agricultural areas can be substantially improved, without lowering the mean yearly electricity production of the downstream run-of-river plants. For this reason the operating rule proposed by the method has been programmed on a microcomputer, which is now used every day by the manager as an essential support for his final decision. This and the fact that other actions suggested by this analysis have indeed been undertaken by the local authorities gave to this study the chance to have a positive and direct impact on the lake management.

Guariso, G.; Rinaldi, S.; Soncini-Sessa, R.

1986-02-01

87

Tumors of the rib.  

PubMed

The authors propose a pictorial review illustrating the imaging features of chest wall tumors and their specific features that discusses the main differential diagnoses. This review is based on published information and on our own experience. PMID:24007770

Zarqane, H; Viala, P; Dallaudière, B; Vernhet, H; Cyteval, C; Larbi, A

2013-11-01

88

Childhood Brain Tumor Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... STUDY A new protocol is open at the Pediatric Oncology Branch of the National Cancer Institute for children, ... Read more... Tweet Researchers 16th International Symposium on Pediatric Neuro-Oncology The Childhood Brain Tumor Foundation is proud to ...

89

Tumors of the diaphragm.  

PubMed

Primary tumors of the diaphragm are rare. The most common benign cystic lesions of the diaphragm are bronchogenic or mesothelial cysts, while the most common benign solid lesion is a lipoma. Benign tumors of the diaphragm are resected if they are symptomatic or if there is a doubt about the diagnosis. The most common primary malignant lesion is rhabdomyosarcoma. Malignant tumors are treated based on histology and often with chemotherapy and/or radiation along with surgical resection if feasible. Endometriosis, a benign process that metastasizes to the diaphragm, is typically treated medically; surgical ablation or resection is considered only after failed conservative treatment. Surgical resection of metastatic malignant tumors, such as ovarian cancer and thymoma, as well as malignancies affecting the diaphragm by direct extension, such as mesothelioma, lung, and esophageal cancer, may provide some survival advantage. PMID:20112635

Kim, Min Peter; Hofstetter, Wayne L

2009-11-01

90

Glomus jugulare tumor  

MedlinePLUS

Glomus jugulare tumors are rarely cancerous and do not tend to spread to other parts of the body. However, treatment may be needed to relieve symptoms. The main treatment is surgery. Surgery is complex and is ...

91

Tumor Microenvironment Consortium  

Cancer.gov

Tumor Microenvironment Network (TMEN) Dinah Singer, Ph.D. Director Suresh Mohla, Ph.D. TMEN Program Director Division of Cancer Biology TMEN 2006-2011: Goals – Generate a comprehensive understanding of the composition of the normal stroma

92

Salivary gland tumors  

MedlinePLUS

Salivary gland tumors are abnormal cells growing in the ducts that drain the salivary glands. ... The salivary glands are located around the mouth. They produce saliva, which moistens food to help with chewing and swallowing. ...

93

Nonislet Cell Tumor Hypoglycemia  

PubMed Central

Nonislet cell tumor hypoglycemia (NICTH) is a rare cause of hypoglycemia. It is characterized by increased glucose utilization by tissues mediated by a tumor resulting in hypoglycemia. NICTH is usually seen in large mesenchymal tumors including tumors involving the GI tract. Here we will discuss a case, its pathophysiology, and recent advances in the management of NICTH. Our patient was diagnosed with poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus. He continued to be hypoglycemic even after starting continuous tube feeds and D5W. General workup for hypoglycemia was negative and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF II) was in the normal range. Hypoglycemia secondary to “big” IGF II was considered, and patient was started on steroids. His hypoglycemia resolved within a day of treatment with steroids. Initially patient had hypoglycemia unawareness, which he regained after maintaining euglycemia for 48 hours.

Kumar, Salini C.

2013-01-01

94

Adrenal Gland Tumor  

MedlinePLUS

... functioning, it may produce more than one hormone. Neuroblastoma . This is a type of childhood cancer that ... in the adrenal medulla. Learn more about childhood neuroblastoma . Pheochromocytoma . This type of neuroendocrine tumor most often ...

95

The mesenchymal tumor microenvironment  

PubMed Central

Drug and radiation resistance represent a challenge for most anticancer therapies. Diverse experimental approaches have provided evidence that the tumor-associated microenvironment constitutes both a protective shell that impedes drug or radiation access and a permissive or promotive microenvironment that encourages a nurturing cancer (i.e., cancer stem cell) niche where tumor cells overcome treatment- and cancer-induced stresses. Better understanding of the effects of the tumor microenvironment on cancer cells before, during and immediately after chemo- or radiotherapy is imperative to design new therapies aimed at targeting this tumor-protective niche. This review summarizes some of the known mesenchymal stromal effects that account for drug resistance, the main signal transduction pathways associated with this resistance and the therapeutic efforts directed to increase the success of current therapies. Special emphasis is given to environment-mediated drug resistance in general and to cell adhesion-mediated drug resistance in particular.

Cukierman, Edna; Bassi, Daniel E.

2012-01-01

96

Brain Tumor Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... the President & CEO Our Financials Scientific Advisory Council Leadership News Press Releases Headlines Newsletter ABTA E-News ... Financials Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Council & Reviewers Leadership News Careers Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain ...

97

Lacrimal gland tumor  

MedlinePLUS

... specializes in problems with the bony eye socket (orbit). Tests usually include a CT or MRI scan . ... Goldberg RA. Secondary and metastatic tumors of the orbit. In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology . ...

98

Treatment of pituitary tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following a century of technical developments and refinements, a variety of standard operation techniques to date are available\\u000a for the surgical treatment of pituitary tumors. The vast majority of the lesions can be dealt with satisfactorily utilizing\\u000a transsphenoidal approaches. The goal of surgical treatment is rapid eradication of the tumor mass, decompression of visual\\u000a pathways, and elimination of hormonal oversecretion

Michael Buchfelder

2005-01-01

99

Genetics of hepatocellular tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous genetic alterations are accumulated during the process of hepatocarcinogenesis. These genetic alterations can be divided into two groups. The first set of genetic alterations is specific of hepatocellular tumor risk factors. It includes integration of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA, R249S TP53 (tumor protein p53) mutation in aflatoxin B1-exposed patients, KRAS mutations related to vinyl chloride exposure, hepatocyte nuclear

P Laurent-Puig; J Zucman-Rossi

2006-01-01

100

[Bilateral glomus caroticum tumors].  

PubMed

Paragangliomas of the head and neck are tumors which are believed to function as chemosensory reflex receptors that respond to changes in their chemical environment. They may occur in the carotid body, on the vagus nerve, along the jugular vein, in the middle ear, in the orbit, in the larynx and nasopharynx. The incidence of multiple paragangliomas is about 3% of all the patients with this tumor and 26% of the patients with positive family history. PMID:7853997

Lajtman, Z; Nosso, D; Krpan, D; Car, Z

1994-01-01

101

Pediatric glial tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Glial neoplasms in children comprise many heterogeneous tumors that include pilocytic and fibrillary astrocytomas, ependymomas,\\u000a and the diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas. In contrast to adults, most of whom present with high-grade fibrillary neoplasms,\\u000a alternate histologies represent most cases seen in the pediatric setting. In addition, although most adult gliomas are supratentorial\\u000a in location, in pediatrics infratentorial tumors (posterior fossa

Kenneth J. Cohen; Alberto Broniscer; John Glod

2001-01-01

102

Imaging of Neuroendocrine Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) arise from amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation (APUD) cells throughout the nervous and\\u000a endocrine systems, which produce and secrete regulatory hormones. NETs commonly originate in: (1) argentaffin cells of the\\u000a gut, resulting in carcinoid tumors, (2) endocrine cells in the pancreas, (3) calcitonin-producing thyroid cells, resulting\\u000a in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), and (4) parathyroid, adrenal, and pituitary

Piyaporn Boonsirikamchai; Mohamed Khalaf Aly Asran; Chusilp Charnsangavej

103

Solid tumors of childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective : Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in children. There is the need to have the histologic review of malignancies\\u000a in children from the Indian sub–continent.Methods : In the present study, malignant tumors received over 12 years were reviewed and re–classified according to classifications\\u000a based on prognosis.Results : A total of 472 tumors were received over

Sonal Sharma; Kiran Mishra; Sarla Agarwal; Geetika Khanna

2004-01-01

104

Skull Base Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ocular manifestations are not infrequent in the presence of skull base tumors because of the crucial visual and oculomotor\\u000a pathways traversing the skull base. Because familiarity with the intricate skull base anatomy is imperative for accurately\\u000a diagnosing and effectively managing skull base tumors, this chapter provides a description of the anatomy of the skull base\\u000a and a discussion of imaging

Anitha Raghunath; Jade S. Schiffman

105

Metabolic control of tumor progression and anti-tumor immunity  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Loss of cell growth control does not explain why tumors form as the immune system recognizes many malignant cells and keeps them in check. The local inflammatory microenvironment is a pivotal factor in tumor formation as tumor associated inflammation actively suppresses anti-tumor immunity. The purpose of this review is to evaluate emerging evidence that amino acid catabolism is a key feature of tumor-associated inflammation that supports tumor progression and immune resistance to therapy. Recent findings Enhanced amino acid catabolism in inflammatory tumor microenvironments correlates with carcinogen resistance and immune regulation mediated by tumor-associated immune cells that protect tumors from natural and vaccine-induced immunity. Interfering with metabolic pathways exploited by tumors is a promising anti-tumor strategy, especially when combined with other therapies. Moreover, molecular sensors that evolved to detect pathogens may enhance evasion of immune surveillance to permit tumor progression. Summary Innate immune sensing that induces amino acid catabolism in tumor microenvironments may be pivotal in initiating and sustaining local inflammation that promotes immune resistance and attenuates anti-tumor immunity. Targeting molecular sensors that mediate these metabolic changes may be an effective strategy to enhance anti-tumor immunity that prevents tumor progression, as well as improving the efficacy of cancer therapy.

Huang, Lei; Mellor, Andrew L.

2014-01-01

106

Accessory parotid gland tumors  

PubMed Central

Tumors of accessory parotid gland are considered in the differential diagnosis of a mid cheek mass. Parotidectomy is the procedure of choice. All pathological types of parotid main gland tumors occur in the accessory parotid gland also. Presenting as a mid cheek or infrazygomatic mass, the tumors of this accessory parotid gland are notorious for recurrences, if adequate margins are not achieved. We describe two such cases of such a tumor. 40-year-old male with a slowly progressive mid cheek mass was operated by a mid cheek incision. Histopathology of the tumor was pleomorphic adenoma. Facial nerve paresis recovered complelety in 6 months. A 52-year-old female with progressive mid cheek mass who underwent parotidectomy and neck dissection by a modified Blair's incision was diagnosed with extranodal marginal zone lymphoma with focal transformation to a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Chemotherapy with CHOP regime was initiated. There was no recurrence at 6 months of follow-up. Lymphoma of accessory parotid gland is a very rare tumor. Standard parotidectomy incision is advocated to prevent damage to facial nerve branches.

Ramachar, Sreevathsa M.; Huliyappa, Harsha A.

2012-01-01

107

Headache in intracranial tumors.  

PubMed

The clinical data of 279 consecutive patients with brain tumors were analyzed pre- and postoperatively in the period of 1994-95. No headache had been recorded in the history of 115 patients, neither pre- nor postoperatively. Only in 139 of the remaining 164 headache patients was there a probable connection between headache and intracranial neoplasm. In the headache group the most frequent findings were metastatic brain tumors and different astrocytomas. Hypophysis adenomas and glioblastoma multiforme were frequent in the no-headache group. Progressive headache was found in 110 patients (67% of the headache group). The progressive character of the headache showed a close relationship with the prevailing edema, but not with the size of the tumor. Infratentorial and intraventricular tumors were more frequently accompanied by headache than those located supratentorially, probably due to the disturbance of CSF circulation and midline dislocation with increased intracranial pressure. Only in one-third of the patients did the site of the tumor coincide with the lateralization of headache. In half of the headache patients, pain was the first complaint. Headaches caused by tumor were characterized by pain lasting for hours, developing for weeks or months. The headache was never permanent and there was no regular daily recurrence. PMID:10595287

Pfund, Z; Szapáry, L; Jászberényi, O; Nagy, F; Czopf, J

1999-11-01

108

Automatic brain tumor segmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A system that automatically segments and labels complete glioblastoma-multiform tumor volumes in magnetic resonance images of the human brain is presented. The magnetic resonance images consist of three feature images (T1- weighted, proton density, T2-weighted) and are processed by a system which integrates knowledge-based techniques with multispectral analysis and is independent of a particular magnetic resonance scanning protocol. Initial segmentation is performed by an unsupervised clustering algorithm. The segmented image, along with cluster centers for each class are provided to a rule-based expert system which extracts the intra-cranial region. Multispectral histogram analysis separates suspected tumor from the rest of the intra-cranial region, with region analysis used in performing the final tumor labeling. This system has been trained on eleven volume data sets and tested on twenty-two unseen volume data sets acquired from a single magnetic resonance imaging system. The knowledge-based tumor segmentation was compared with radiologist-verified `ground truth' tumor volumes and results generated by a supervised fuzzy clustering algorithm. The results of this system generally correspond well to ground truth, both on a per slice basis and more importantly in tracking total tumor volume during treatment over time.

Clark, Matthew C.; Hall, Lawrence O.; Goldgof, Dmitry B.; Velthuizen, Robert P.; Murtaugh, F. R.; Silbiger, Martin L.

1998-06-01

109

Tumoral and Choroidal Vascularization  

PubMed Central

An adequate balance between serine proteases and their plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is critical for pathological angiogenesis. PAI-1 deficiency in mice is associated with impaired choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and tumoral angiogenesis. In the present work, we demonstrate unexpected differences in the contribution of bone marrow (BM)-derived cells in these two processes regulated by PAI-1. PAI-1?/? mice grafted with BM-derived from wild-type mice were able to support laser-induced CNV formation but not skin carcinoma vascularization. Engraftment of irradiated wild-type mice with PAI-1?/? BM prevented CNV formation, demonstrating the crucial role of PAI-1 delivered by BM-derived cells. In contrast, the transient infiltration of tumor transplants by local PAI-1-producing host cells rather than by BM cells was sufficient to rescue tumor growth and angiogenesis in PAI-1-deficient mice. These data identify PAI-1 as a molecular determinant of a local permissive soil for tumor angiogenesis. Altogether, the present study demonstrates that different cellular mechanisms contribute to PAI-1-regulated tumoral and CNV. PAI-1 contributes to BM-dependent choroidal vascularization and to BM-independent tumor growth and angiogenesis.

Jost, Maud; Maillard, Catherine; Lecomte, Julie; Lambert, Vincent; Tjwa, Marc; Blaise, Pierre; Alvarez Gonzalez, Maria-Luz; Bajou, Khalid; Blacher, Silvia; Motte, Patrick; Humblet, Chantal; Defresne, Marie Paule; Thiry, Marc; Frankenne, Francis; Gothot, Andre; Carmeliet, Peter; Rakic, Jean-Marie; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Noel, Agnes

2007-01-01

110

Vulvar granular cell tumor.  

PubMed

Granular cell tumors are rare, usually benign, soft tissue neoplasms of neural origin. They occur more often in females than males, the peak age incidence is in the fourth through fifth decades. They can occur anywhere in the body with up to 15% situated in the vulva. The commonest presentation is as an asymptomatic mass. Microscopic findings are usually sufficient, but immunohistochemistry can also be helpful in confirming the diagnosis. The vulvar tumors are benign in 98% of cases with 2% reported as malignant. In this case report we describe a woman with a granular cell tumor confirmed by biopsy who underwent excision of the mass but with focal extension to the resection margin on microscopy. Our recommendation of re-excision was declined. Since it is not uncommon with these tumors to find groups of tumor cells extending beyond the macroscopic limits of growth, we conclude that it is advisable to have margins assessed intraoperatively by frozen section such that further excision can be performed for positive margins. Our patient has been followed for 18 mo without recurrence, should the tumor recur, re-excision, with frozen section control, is indicated. Recurrence rates are reported as 2%-8% with clear margins and 20% with positive margins. PMID:24303488

Rivlin, Michel E; Meeks, G Rodney; Ghafar, Mohamed A; Lewin, Jack R

2013-07-16

111

Vulvar granular cell tumor  

PubMed Central

Granular cell tumors are rare, usually benign, soft tissue neoplasms of neural origin. They occur more often in females than males, the peak age incidence is in the fourth through fifth decades. They can occur anywhere in the body with up to 15% situated in the vulva. The commonest presentation is as an asymptomatic mass. Microscopic findings are usually sufficient, but immunohistochemistry can also be helpful in confirming the diagnosis. The vulvar tumors are benign in 98% of cases with 2% reported as malignant. In this case report we describe a woman with a granular cell tumor confirmed by biopsy who underwent excision of the mass but with focal extension to the resection margin on microscopy. Our recommendation of re-excision was declined. Since it is not uncommon with these tumors to find groups of tumor cells extending beyond the macroscopic limits of growth, we conclude that it is advisable to have margins assessed intraoperatively by frozen section such that further excision can be performed for positive margins. Our patient has been followed for 18 mo without recurrence, should the tumor recur, re-excision, with frozen section control, is indicated. Recurrence rates are reported as 2%-8% with clear margins and 20% with positive margins.

Rivlin, Michel E; Meeks, G Rodney; Ghafar, Mohamed A; Lewin, Jack R

2013-01-01

112

Como Lo Hago Yo: Mielomeningocele En Bolivia  

PubMed Central

Introducción: Las malformaciones del tubo neural (MTN) representan la segunda causa más frecuente de anomalías congénitas, luego de las cardiopatías. En este grupo se destaca el mielomeningocele (MMC) por su mayor incidencia, y por ser la más incapacitante y la más compleja entre todas las demás malformaciones del sistema nervioso c`entral (SNC). En Bolivia, como en muchos países de Sudamérica, los bajos niveles socio-culturales y la debilidad en el sistema sanitario, hacen que su incidencia y su morbilidad, sean mayores que en las naciones más desarrolladas. Material y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo y descriptivo de 70 casos de MMC, atendidos por un equipo multidisciplinario en el Hospital Universitario Japonés (HUJ) de Santa Cruz de la Sierra, entre 2008-2011. De ellos, 60 fueron intervenidos quirúrgicamente. Resultados: Se realizaron controles prenatales sólo en 27 mujeres (38.6%), diagnosticándose una disrafia espinal en apenas dos casos (7.4%). La edad de ingreso del MMC en su mayoría fue después de las 24 horas (65.6%), predominando su localización en la región lumbosacra (64.3%). De ellos, 67.2% eran abiertos, presentando un 32.9% un daño neurológico motor parcial mientras que 47.1% tenían paraplejia por debajo de la lesión. De los 70 casos, tres (4.3%) no fueron intervenidos, por presentar defectos congénitos severos o estado general grave. Las principales complicaciones posoperatorias inmediatas fueron: dehiscencia de sutura y/o infección de la herida (16.6%), fístula de líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) (10%) e infección del SNC (11.7%). La mortalidad general y postoperatoria fue de 7.1% y 3.3%, respectivamente. Al mes de vida presentaban hidrocefalia un 80% de los pacientes operados, colocándose una derivación ventriculoperitoneal (DVP) de presión media. De 9 pacientes que tuvieron un acompanamiento de dos o más años, seis presentaron una médula anclada, que fueron intervenidas quirúrgicamente. Conclusión: En esta serie, el diagnóstico prenatal del MMC fue ocasional y la derivación al HUJ de los recién nacidos con esta malformación fue generalmente tardía. No hubo predominio de género y la mayoría de los casos presentaron sus lesiones en la región lumbar y lumbosacra. La mortalidad general y postoperatoria fue similar a la reportada en la literatura. Pocos enfermos realizaron controles posteriores al alta hospitalaria. Igual que otros países de Sudamérica, las falencias en el sistema público de salud y el nivel sociocultural, son factores determinantes para un mal pronóstico en estos niños. Por sus múltiples complicaciones, el MMC requiere de una especial atención gubernamental, sobre todo de carácter preventivo mediante el uso de ácido fólico en mujeres fértiles, como también de un equipo profesional multidisciplinario, a fin de realizar un tratamiento adecuado y oportuno. Al mismo tiempo, trabajos multicéntricos en hospitales de América Latina, ayudarán al mejor manejo de estos pacientes.

Dabdoub, Carlos F.; Dabdoub, Carlos B.; Villavicencio, Ramiro; Quevedo, German

2014-01-01

113

Optical imaging of tumor microenvironment  

PubMed Central

Tumor microenvironment plays important roles in tumor development and metastasis. Features of the tumor microenvironment that are significantly different from normal tissues include acidity, hypoxia, overexpressed proteases and so on. Therefore, these features can serve as not only biomarkers for tumor diagnosis but also theraputic targets for tumor treatment. Imaging modalities such as optical, positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been intensively applied to investigate tumor microenvironment. Various imaging probes targeting pH, hypoxia and proteases in tumor microenvironment were thus well developed. In this review, we will focus on recent examples on fluorescent probes for optical imaging of tumor microenvironment. Construction of these fluorescent probes were based on characteristic feature of pH, hypoxia and proteases in tumor microenvironment. Strategies for development of these fluorescent probes and applications of these probes in optical imaging of tumor cells or tissues will be discussed in this review paper.

Wu, Yihan; Zhang, Wenjie; Li, Jinbo; Zhang, Yan

2013-01-01

114

Matrix metalloproteinases and tumor metastasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functions of individual matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) differentially expressed by tumor cells and stromal cells, are finely\\u000a regulated by their spatial as well as temporal interactions with distinct cellular and extracellular components of the tumor\\u000a microenvironment and also distant pre-metastatic sites. Certain aspects of MMP involvement in tumor metastasis such as tumor-induced\\u000a angiogenesis, tumor invasion, and establishment of metastatic foci at

Elena I. Deryugina; James P. Quigley

2006-01-01

115

Chemoimmunotherapy: reengineering tumor immunity  

PubMed Central

Cancer chemotherapy drugs have long been considered immune suppressive. However, more recent data indicate that some cytotoxic drugs effectively treat cancer in part by facilitating an immune response to the tumor when given at the standard dose and schedule. These drugs induce a form of tumor cell death that is immunologically active, thereby inducing an adaptive immune response specific for the tumor. In addition, cancer chemotherapy drugs can promote tumor immunity through ancillary and largely unappreciated immunologic effects on both the malignant and normal host cells present within the tumor microenvironment. These more subtle immunomodulatory effects are dependent on the drug itself, its dose, and its schedule in relation to an immune-based intervention. The recent approvals of two new immune-based therapies for prostate cancer and melanoma herald a new era in cancer treatment and have led to heightened interest in immunotherapy as a valid approach to cancer treatment. A detailed understanding of the cellular and molecular basis of interactions between chemotherapy drugs and the immune system is essential for devising the optimal strategy for integrating new immune-based therapies into the standard of care for various cancers, resulting in the greatest long-term clinical benefit for cancer patients.

Chen, Gang

2013-01-01

116

[Cerebral tumors and neoangiogenesis ].  

PubMed

Angiogenesis, which is the development of new vessels arising from the preestablished arborization, plays a fundamental role in tumor growth. Angiogenesis is the combination of antagonistic factors: proangiogenesis and antiangiogenesis factors. On the basis of the concept of relationship between angiogenesis and tumor growth, a promising new way of research is developing with the aim to control angiogenesis with an antitumor goal. The results of the preclinical trials point out the potential of antiangiogenesis agents in the fight against cancer. So, it was showed that tumor growth in animal models of syngenic or human tumors is inhibited by inhibitors of proangiogenic factors (like VEGF or FGF antibody ...) or by antiangiogenic factors. Endostatin, which is a natural inhibitor of angiogenesis, seems to be the most powerful molecule, able to achieve total and final regression of preestablished tumors. However, there are only preliminary data. Clinical trials are on the way. They should bring some answers concerning the place of these antiangiogenesis agents in the traditional therapeutic strategy. In neurooncology, just like in general cancerology, clinical trials have began with different molecules like Marismastat or Thalidomid. A review of the principal actors, preclinical and clinical trials in progress is presented. PMID:10599057

Jouanneau, E; Bachelot, T

1999-11-01

117

Pediatric genitourinary tumors.  

PubMed

Each year advances are made in the clinical evaluation and treatment of genitourinary tumors in children. Understanding of cellular, molecular, and genetic processes in tumorigenesis is evolving rapidly. In addition, information is accumulating about the long-term outcome and complications associated with treatment modalities. This article reviews the 2001 literature on pediatric Wilms tumor, other renal tumors, rhabdomyosarcoma of the pelvis, paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma, and testicular tumors. The emphasis in molecular biology is to identify molecular or genetic markers that predict outcome. The National Wilms' Tumor Study Group reported on the complications of surgery and the decreased complication rate when these procedures are performed by pediatric surgical specialists. Long-term complications of treatment are also discussed, including short stature and leukemia. The Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group reported on the results of treatment for nonmetastatic disease and the goals of the upcoming Study V, reduction of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. They also presented data from Study IV and discussed the findings on improved prognosis. PMID:11981271

Merguerian, Paul A; Chang, Barry

2002-05-01

118

Renal tumor radiofrequency ablation.  

PubMed

Nephron sparing surgery has become the gold standard for the treatment of small (< 4 cm) renal tumors. More recently, renal tumor ablation, destroying renal tumors with energy based modalities and leaving the tissue in situ, has gained popularity. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) utilizes heat energy to cause cellular destruction. RFA can be applied laparoscopically, percutaneously, and as an adjunct with partial nephrectomy. A comprehensive MEDLINE search of the English literature from 1990 to present was performed to identify articles on renal RFA. RFA is an effective minimally invasive treatment alternative for small renal masses in patients with significant comorbidities that preclude extirpative surgery. Limited follow up from a number of series demonstrate a success rate of 92%. RFA has proven to be an effective ablative therapy in a number of organ systems. Over the past decade it has been applied to the treatment of small renal tumors. The short-term efficacy and minimum morbidity of RF thermal therapy for renal tumors has been encouraging. RFA provides a versatile tool to add to the urologist's armamentarium in the minimally invasive treatment of renal cancer. PMID:16247348

Slabaugh, T K; Ogan, K

2005-12-01

119

Imaging tumor angiogenesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The imaging of patients with cancer is of increasing importance. There is an increasing prevalence of tumors within a aging population and the success of cancer therapy has resulted in increased numbers of patients surviving cancer and a need to monitor the therapeutic response. Angiogenesis describes a fundamental process in the development of tumors whereby the growing malignancy appropriates its own blood supply from adjacent tissues. This process is essential for tumor growth and metastatic spread. Using a multi-disciplinary approach that builds from a basis of physiological and pathological principles to radiology and automated image analysis, the processes of angiogenesis can be visualized in vivo providing diagnostic and prognostic information for patients with cancer. This approach can also provide a more general template for the analysis of medical images.

Miles, K. A.

1999-07-01

120

Benign vulvar tumors.  

PubMed

Benign tumors and "dark lesions" accounted for 22% of vulvar disease seen in the Vulvar Clinic at the Milwaukee County Medical Complex over an 8-year period. Biopsy confirmation was obtained for 269 lesions. The order of frequency of lesions in this study was as follows: epidermal inclusion cyst, lentigo, Bartholin's duct obstruction, carcinoma in situ, melanocytic nevi, acrochordon, mucous cyst, hemangiomas, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, seborrheic keratoses, varicosities, hidradenomas, verruca, basal cell carcinoma, and, last, unusual tumors such as neurofibromas, ectopic tissue, syringomas, and abscesses. The variability in clinical appearance of vulvar tumors suggests that biopsy confirmation should be obtained on all lesions for which there is the least doubt regarding the diagnosis. PMID:1318812

Hood, A F; Lumadue, J

1992-04-01

121

Gastric glomus tumor  

PubMed Central

Glomus tumors (GTs) are benign tumors originating from the glomus body which are usually solitary and small lesions. The vast majority are found in the distal extremities, particularly in the hand, wrist, foot and under the fingernails rarely involving visceral organs. Here we report a rare case of gastric GT presented to us with exsanguinating hematemesis and severe anemia. All the initial diagnostic tests were inconclusive. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography abdomen revealed a soft tissue density lesion within the first part of duodenum. Diagnostic laparotomy was planned and a mass of 3 × 2.5 × 2 cm was found at pylorus along greater curvature, without any evidence of lymphadenopathy or metastasis. Distal gastrectomy with gastrojejunostomy was done. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of a GT. Immunohistochemistry of tumor cells demonstrated smooth muscle actin and CD34 (very focal).

Jain, Sumita A.; Agarwal, Lakshman; Goyal, Ashish; Kumar, Ranjan; Nadkarni, Shravan; Ameta, Atul; Rao YS, Arjun

2014-01-01

122

CUTANEOUS TUMORS OF CHILDREN  

PubMed Central

Nevi are the most common tumors of childhood. Pigmented nevi are classified into blue nevi, intraepidermal nevi, junction nevi, intradermal nevi (or common mole) and combination types. Cutaneous malignant disease in children is rare. Malignant melanoma is rare before puberty. Wholesale removal of benign pigmented nevi in children should be condemned. However, junction nevi located on the palms, soles, genitalia or waistline—that is, in areas subject to frequent trauma—should be excised. Hemangiomas in infants are the most common tumors for which advice is sought. Not all hemangiomas regress spontaneously, and on occasion the persistence or progression of such a lesion may bring about life-long unsightly deformities. Therapy for this type of tumor is simple when given early in life. Hemangiomas involving the ears, nose, lips or eyelids should be treated at once, preferably within a month of the time they appear. Imagesp2-ap3-a

Newman, Ben A.

1957-01-01

123

Abdominal Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor  

PubMed Central

A 28-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of abdominal pain, weight loss and a palpable intra-abdominal mass. A CT scan revealed a tumor with a diameter of 7 cm with sharp margins, intra-tumoral fatty components and enhancing soft tissue. After initial workup, which suggested an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT), she underwent laparotomy with complete resection. Pathological examination indeed revealed IMT. IMT is a rare benign neoplasm and has been described in nearly the entire body. It presents with nonspecific symptoms. The therapy of abdominal IMT consists of radical surgery because of high local recurrence rates. In this case report clinical, surgical, radiological and histological features with a review of the relevant literature are described.

Groenveld, Roosmarijn L.; Raber, Menno H.; Oosterhof-Berktas, Richard; Eijken, Erik; Klaase, Joost M.

2014-01-01

124

Gastrointestinal stromal tumor  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal stromal tumor has received a lot of attention over the last 10 years due to its unique biologic behavior, clinicopathological features, molecular mechanisms, and treatment implications. GIST is the most common mesenchymal neoplasm in the gastrointestinal tract and has emerged from a poorly understood and treatment resistant neoplasm to a well-defined tumor entity since the discovery of particular molecular abnormalities, KIT and PDGFRA gene mutations. The understanding of GIST biology at the molecular level promised the development of novel treatment modalities. Diagnosis of GIST depends on the integrity of histology, immunohistochemistry and molecular analysis. The risk assessment of the tumor behavior relies heavily on pathological evaluation and significantly impacts clinical management. In this review, historic review, epidemiology, pathogenesis and genetics, diagnosis, role of molecular analysis, prognostic factor and treatment strategies have been discussed.

Yue, Changjun

2012-01-01

125

Tumor-induced osteomalacia  

PubMed Central

Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is an acquired disorder of isolated renal phosphate wasting associated with tumors, typically of mesenchymal origin. Patients with TIO share similar biochemical and skeletal phenotypes with patients who have autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (ADHR) and X-linked hypophosphatemia. The study of TIO introduced the idea of the existence of circulating factors, referred to as ‘phosphatonins’, produced by the tumor, which act upon the kidney to reduce phosphate reabsorption. Although several factors have been identified, the phosphatonin FGF-23, also identified as the causative factor in ADHR, is currently the best characterized of these factors relative to phosphate handling. This review describes the importance of TIO in understanding phosphate homeostasis in the context of new endocrine interactions between the skeleton and the kidney.

Farrow, Emily G; White, Kenneth E

2009-01-01

126

Respiratory-driven lung tumor motion is independent of tumor size, tumor location, and pulmonary function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To determine whether superior-inferior lung tumor motion is predictable by tumor size or location, or pulmonary function test results.Methods and Materials: Superior-inferior tumor motion was measured on orthogonal radiographs taken during simulation of 22 patients with inoperable lung cancer diagnosed by orthogonal radiographs.Results: The tumor size averaged 5.5 ± 3.1 cm (range 1.5–12 cm). Seven of 11 central tumors

Craig W Stevens; Reginald F Munden; Kenneth M Forster; Jason F Kelly; Zhongxing Liao; George Starkschall; Susan Tucker; Ritsuko Komaki

2001-01-01

127

Radioembolization of hepatic tumors  

PubMed Central

Unresectable primary and metastatic liver tumors are a leading cause of cancer mortality and morbidity. This remains a challenging and key task for every oncologist despite significant advances that have been made with selective targeted systemic agents and in technology advances with radiotherapy delivery. Radioembolization (RE) is a technique of permanently implanting microspheres containing Yttrium-90 (90Y), a beta-emitting isotope with a treatment range of 2 mm, into hepatic tumors. This form of brachytherapy utilizes the unique dual vascular anatomy of the liver to preferentially deliver radioactive particles via the hepatic artery to tumor, sparing normal liver parenchyma. The main treatment inclusion criteria are patients with solid tumors, compensated liver functions, life expectancy of at least three months, and ECOG performance status 0-2. Benefit of RE has been proven in patients that have low-to-moderate extrahepatic disease burden, prior liver radiotherapy, heavy prior chemotherapy and biologic agent exposure, and history of hepatic surgery or ablation. Most of the clinical evidence is reported in metastatic colorectal, and neuroendocrine tumors (NET), and primary hepatocellular cancer. A growing body of data supports the use of RE in hepatic metastatic breast cancer, intrahepatic cholangiocarinoma, and many other metastatic tumor types. Side effects are typically mild constitutional and GI issues limited to the first 7-14 days post treatment, with only 6% grade 3 toxicity reported in large series. Potentially serious or fatal radiation induced liver disease is extremely rare, reported in only 1% or fewer in major series of both metastatic and primary tumors treated with RE. Currently, high priority prospective clinical trials are testing RE combined with chemotherapy in first line therapy for colorectal hepatic metastases, and combined with sorafenib for hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Fortunately, this beneficial and now widely available therapy is being increasingly incorporated into the standard therapy algorithms of multidisciplinary GI cancer teams worldwide. This form of radiotherapy differs significantly from daily external beam radiotherapy in many ways, particularly in dose rate, dosimetric coverage and duration of radiation delivery, side effects, and patient selection factors. A wealth of experience using RE in solid tumors exists and ongoing major prospective clinical trials will soon clarify the role of RE in the management of metastatic colorectal liver metastases.

2014-01-01

128

Radioembolization of hepatic tumors.  

PubMed

Unresectable primary and metastatic liver tumors are a leading cause of cancer mortality and morbidity. This remains a challenging and key task for every oncologist despite significant advances that have been made with selective targeted systemic agents and in technology advances with radiotherapy delivery. Radioembolization (RE) is a technique of permanently implanting microspheres containing Yttrium-90 ((90)Y), a beta-emitting isotope with a treatment range of 2 mm, into hepatic tumors. This form of brachytherapy utilizes the unique dual vascular anatomy of the liver to preferentially deliver radioactive particles via the hepatic artery to tumor, sparing normal liver parenchyma. The main treatment inclusion criteria are patients with solid tumors, compensated liver functions, life expectancy of at least three months, and ECOG performance status 0-2. Benefit of RE has been proven in patients that have low-to-moderate extrahepatic disease burden, prior liver radiotherapy, heavy prior chemotherapy and biologic agent exposure, and history of hepatic surgery or ablation. Most of the clinical evidence is reported in metastatic colorectal, and neuroendocrine tumors (NET), and primary hepatocellular cancer. A growing body of data supports the use of RE in hepatic metastatic breast cancer, intrahepatic cholangiocarinoma, and many other metastatic tumor types. Side effects are typically mild constitutional and GI issues limited to the first 7-14 days post treatment, with only 6% grade 3 toxicity reported in large series. Potentially serious or fatal radiation induced liver disease is extremely rare, reported in only 1% or fewer in major series of both metastatic and primary tumors treated with RE. Currently, high priority prospective clinical trials are testing RE combined with chemotherapy in first line therapy for colorectal hepatic metastases, and combined with sorafenib for hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Fortunately, this beneficial and now widely available therapy is being increasingly incorporated into the standard therapy algorithms of multidisciplinary GI cancer teams worldwide. This form of radiotherapy differs significantly from daily external beam radiotherapy in many ways, particularly in dose rate, dosimetric coverage and duration of radiation delivery, side effects, and patient selection factors. A wealth of experience using RE in solid tumors exists and ongoing major prospective clinical trials will soon clarify the role of RE in the management of metastatic colorectal liver metastases. PMID:24982766

Kennedy, Andrew

2014-06-01

129

Gastrointestinal stromal tumor and gastric adenocarcinoma collision tumors.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors sometimes occur together with gastric carcinoma, but true collision tumors featuring these 2 components are very rare. The authors describe here 2 collision tumors containing a gastrointestinal stromal tumor with intermingling elements of gastric adenocarcinoma. The gastrointestinal stromal tumors were 5.5 to 6 cm spindle cell tumors, and one patient had an additional prepyloric stromal tumor (2.5 cm). All gastrointestinal stromal tumors had low mitotic counts less than 5/50 high-power fields and were positive for KIT, DOG1, and CD34. Different KIT exon 11 mutations (single nucleotide substitution, complex insertion-duplication) in all tumors indicated that the 2 gastrointestinal stromal tumors in one patient were independent primary tumors. The adenocarcinoma components displayed gland-forming intestinal type to signet ring cell morphology with focally accompanying dysplastic epithelium, immunohistochemical positivity for CDX2, and varying keratin 7/20 expression. We hypothesize that development of gastric adenocarcinoma within a gastrointestinal stromal tumor may be based on displaced gastric epithelium in a long-standing stromal tumor with events of intermittent ulceration and epithelial regeneration. PMID:20381123

Kleist, Britta; Lasota, Jerzy; Miettinen, Markku

2010-07-01

130

[Solid pseudopapillary epithelial pancreatic tumor].  

PubMed

Solid pseudopapillary pancreatic neoplasm-is a tumor, which appears rarely, predominantly in young women, has low malignant potential and unknown histogenesis. Morphological peculiarities of the tumor may be the same as in endocrinal tumors and ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma, with which it must be differed. Immunohistochemical investigation of the tumor does not permit to obtain information for strict diferential diagnosis conduction; macroscopic and microscopic peculiarities of the tumor while staining with hematoxilin and eosin give more important information for its diagnosis. The treatment is surgical and consists of radical resection of the tumor. PMID:19957740

Kuryk, O H; Kucher, M D; Iakovenko, V O; Kriuchyna, Ie A

2009-05-01

131

[Therapeutic pathomorphosis of bone tumors].  

PubMed

A comparative study of therapeutic pathomorphosis of bone tumors has shown that radiosensitive and radioresistant tumors differ in the time-course and nature of radiation-induced pathomorphosis. In radiosensitive tumors, the resultant changes arise earlier, are more strongly marked, and, as a rule, necrosis of the tumor with its replacement with fibrous tissue is observed. In radioresistant tumors, signs of radiation pathomorphosis appear later, "therapeutic giants" are typically seen to appear, and the direction in which tumor cell differentiate may change. PMID:3328592

Polonskaia, N Iu

1987-01-01

132

Mouse Models for Tumor Metastasis  

PubMed Central

Tumor metastasis is the main cause of death of cancer patients. Here we describe two mouse models for investigating tumor metastasis. In the first spontaneous metastasis mouse model, 4T1 mouse breast tumor cells are injected into the mammary gland of host mice and the metastasis of 4T1 tumor cells into the lung are examined with a colonogenic assay. In the second experimental metastasis mouse model, luciferase-labeled MDA-MB-231 human breast tumor cells are injected into the tail vein of NOD-SCID immunodeficient mice and the colonization of MDA-MB-231 tumor cells in the lung are monitored using noninvasive bioluminescence imaging.

Yang, Shengyu; Zhang, J. Jillian; Huang, Xin-Yun

2013-01-01

133

Pancreatic endocrine tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endocrine cells of the pancreas and their related cells throughout the gastrointestinal tract give rise to a variety of tumors that pose a diagnostic challenge. There has been progress in understanding their histogenesis, morphology, immunohistochemistry, molecular biology and classifications. This review will focus on nomenclature\\/terminology, classification, the role of immunohistochemistry, molecular advances, including genetic predisposition, and potential therapeutic targets

Sylvia L Asa

2011-01-01

134

[Ultrasonic diagnosis of tumors].  

PubMed

In clinical oncology, outpatient ultrasonic investigation helps to assess the nature of the tumor and the spread of malignancy with a high degree of accuracy, so that an adequate treatment could be chosen and initiated as early as possible, and monitored echographically, which is expected to improve its long-term results. PMID:2660302

Pletnev, S D; Nazarova, I S; Mukhtarov, A A; Mazurin, V G

1989-01-01

135

Brain Tumor Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

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136

Brain Tumor Diagnosis  

MedlinePLUS

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137

Proximal biliary tumors.  

PubMed

Cholangiocarcinoma is an uncommon tumor with a poor prognosis. Presenting symptoms are often nonspecific, and jaundice appears late in the disease course. Surgical resection and liver transplant are the potentially curative treatments. Palliation can be performed by percutaneous, endoscopic, or surgical interventions. PMID:24679423

Brown, Kimberly M; Geller, David A

2014-04-01

138

Tumor metastasis to bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Establishment of skeletal metastasis involves bidirectional interactions between the tumor cell and the cellular elements in the bone microenvironment. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of bone metastasis will be critical in developing the means to prevent bone metastasis or inhibit its progression. The receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B (RANK)\\/RANK ligand pathway has emerged as the key pathway regulating osteolysis

Mandeep S Virk; Jay R Lieberman

2007-01-01

139

[Bilateral Wilms tumor].  

PubMed

The incidence of bilateral involvement it is generally estimated to be 5% to 10%. It shows association with certain congenital anomalies and it has an increased occurrence of familial cases. The records of 9 children (5 boys, 4 girls) diagnosed at Vall d'Hebron Hospital with bilateral Wilms tumor between 1976-1995 were analyzed. Six patients had synchronous tumors and 3 had metachronous lesions. Genitourinary malformations were present in 4 children and another had hemihypertrophy. Two children were brothers. Eight patients underwent pre-operative radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy. Five patients had nephrectomy on one side (3 of them had metachronous presentation) and partial nephrectomy on the other side. The other children had bilateral partial nephrectomy or tumorectomy. Seven out of the nine patients are alive (78%). The two children who died presented with stage IV tumors and high grade malignant. One boy suffers cardiomyopathy. All survivors have normal renal function. With the proven efficacy of chemotherapy, bilateral renal salvage procedures were demonstrated to be effective in controlling disease without compromising renal function or survival. The innovative approaches developed for the treatment of bilateral Wilms tumor may influence the treatment of unilateral Wilms. PMID:9376233

Presedo, A; Martínez Ibáñez, V; Marqués, A; Sánchez de Toledo, J; Boix Ochoa, J

1997-07-01

140

Tumor-induced osteomalacia  

PubMed Central

Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare and fascinating paraneoplastic syndrome in which patients present with bone pain, fractures, and muscle weakness. The cause is high blood levels of the recently identified phosphate and vitamin D-regulating hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). In TIO, FGF23 is secreted by mesenchymal tumors that are usually benign, but are typically very small and difficult to locate. FGF23 acts primarily at the renal tubule and impairs phosphate reabsorption and 1?-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, leading to hypophosphatemia and low levels of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D. A step-wise approach utilizing functional imaging (F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and octreotide scintigraphy) followed by anatomical imaging (computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging), and, if needed, selective venous sampling with measurement of FGF23 is usually successful in locating the tumors. For tumors that cannot be located, medical treatment with phosphate supplements and active vitamin D (calcitriol or alphacalcidiol) is usually successful; however, the medical regimen can be cumbersome and associated with complications. This review summarizes the current understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease and provides guidance in evaluating and treating these patients. Novel imaging modalities and medical treatments, which hold promise for the future, are also reviewed.

Chong, William H; Molinolo, Alfredo A; Chen, Clara C; Collins, Michael T

2012-01-01

141

[Pancreatic endocrine tumors].  

PubMed

Incidence of the endocrine tumors of the pancreas is about 4 to 10/1.000.000 peoples. We present 10 cases of endocrine pancreatic tumors which were operated in the First Surgical Clinic Ia?i in the last 20 years (1984-2003); these cases represent about 2.21% from all the pancreatic tumors (454 cases). It was 4 insulinoma, 2 gastrinoma, 2 gastrinoma associated with other endocrine neoplasia (Wermer syndrome) and 2 non-functioning endocrine pancreatic tumors. Female/men ratio was 9/1 and median age was about 41.9 yo (27-67 yo). In the four cases of insulinoma (all females) the diagnosis was delayed by two to five years due to misinterpretation of neurological symptoms generated by hypoglycemia. The diagnosis of insulinoma was based on Whipple triad, high plasma insulin levels associated with low plasma glucose levels, as well as the symptomatic relief after intravenous glucose injection. The surgical option was based on biological data, ultrasonography, computed tomography and arteriography. In two cases the localization of the insulinoma was established only by intraoperative ultrasonography. All tumors were localized in the tail of pancreas. In three cases we decided for a distal pancreatic resection with splenectomy and in one case for spleen preserving left pancreatectomy. Postoperative course was uneventful and all the symptoms disappeared. The diagnosis was confirmed on pathological examination in all cases. We also present two cases of gastrinoma with multiple ulcers and multiple surgical interventions for haemorrhage and perforation with peritonitis. Both patients died and diagnosis of pancreatic endocrine tumors was post-mortem. The two patients with Wermer syndrome also had ulcers complicated with haemorrhage and peritonitis and parathyroid adenoma. One case also had ante-hypophyseal and pituitary adenoma and the other had thyroid colloid hypertrophy. We performed left pancreatectomy with spleen preservation in one case and enucleation associated with total gastrectomy in the second case. The two cases of non-functioning pancreatic endocrine tumors had a non-specific symptoms. Diagnostic was established by abdominal ultrasound exam. We performed spleno-pancreatectomy in one case and pancreatectomy with spleen preservation in the other patient. Postoperative course was un-eventful. PMID:16752684

Târcoveanu, E; Moldovanu, R; Georgescu, St; Niculescu, D; Lupa?cu, C; Dimofte, G

2006-01-01

142

Tumor Rejection by Modulation of Tumor Stromal Fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interleukin (IL)-4-secreting tumors are rejected in mice, an effect that is thought to be immune mediated. However, solid tumors are embedded in a stroma that often contains tumor-promoting fibroblasts, a cell population whose function is also affected by IL-4. Here we show that IL-4- secreting tumors grew undiminished in IL-4 receptor (R)-deficient (IL-4R ? \\/ ? ) mice. In IL-4R

Thomas Schüler; Sandra Körnig; Thomas Blankenstein

2003-01-01

143

15. Como gatehouse (outlet tower) and access bridge, looking west ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Como gatehouse (outlet tower) and access bridge, looking west from dam crest (Trash rack visible in reservoir pool behind and right of tower) - Bitter Root Irrigation Project, Como Dam, West of U.S. Highway 93, Darby, Ravalli County, MT

144

Tumores de Cólon - Primeir o Achado do Adenocarcinoma de Pâncreas: Relato de Caso Colon Tumors - First find of the Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: Case Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: OBJETIVO: Relatar um caso raro de adenocarcinoma de pâncreas que se apresentou como tumores colorretais sincrônicos. Paciente masculino, 76 anos, apresentava dor abdominal difusa de forte intensidade, diarréia e vômitos há sete dias. Tratava de gastrite há dois anos e nos últimos quatro meses apresentava hiporexia e perda de peso. Estava emagrecido, desidra- tado e desnutrido, com distensão abdominal

Relato de Caso; Sandra Pedroso de Moraes; FRANCISCO CLARO JÚNIOR; JOAQUIM JOSÉ DE OLIVEIRA; RICARDO BOLZAM; AMILCAR DE CASTRO

2011-01-01

145

Adolescent and Pediatric Brain Tumors  

MedlinePLUS

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146

Tumor heterogeneity: causes and consequences  

PubMed Central

With rare exceptions, spontaneous tumors originate from a single cell. Yet, at the time of clinical diagnosis, the majority of human tumors display startling heterogeneity in many morphological and physiological features, such as expression of cell surface receptors, proliferative and angiogenic potential. To a substantial extent, this heterogeneity might be attributed to morphological and epigenetic plasticity, but there is also strong evidence for the co-existence of genetically divergent tumor cell clones within tumors. In this perspective, we summarize the sources of intra-tumor phenotypic heterogeneity with emphasis on genetic heterogeneity. We review experimental evidence for the existence of both intra-tumor clonal heterogeneity as well as frequent evolutionary divergence between primary tumors and metastatic outgrowths. Furthermore, we discuss potential biological and clinical implications of intra-tumor clonal heterogeneity.

Marusyk, Andriy; Polyak, Kornelia

2009-01-01

147

Inhibiting Tumor Angiogenesis in Children  

Cancer.gov

In this trial, researchers are testing an angiogenesis inhibitor called cediranib in pediatric patients who have solid tumors (except brain tumors) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a type of blood cancer.

148

Compendium of Tumor Immunotherapy Protocols.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the sixth edition of the Compendium of Tumor Immunotherapy Protocols, a publication sponsored by the International Cancer Research Data Bank, National Cancer Institute, and published on an annual basis by the International Registry of Tumor Immuno...

1978-01-01

149

Duodenal tumors: four case reports.  

PubMed

We report 4 cases of neuroendocrine tumors of the duodenum. Signs and symptoms were non-specific. The choice of surgery depended on the site and stage of the tumor and any concomitant diseases. PMID:23578410

Pasta, V; Biffoni, M; Martino, G; Malavenda, M S; Sottile, D; Marinaccio, L; Merola, R; Vergine, M; Bernieri, M G; Monti, M; Redler, A

2013-03-01

150

Childhood Brain Tumor Foundation Newsletters  

MedlinePLUS

... Thanks to Our Sponsors The Childhood Brain Tumor Foundation Together, Reaching For A Cure Links Home Donate ... Contact About Copyright © 2012 The Childhood Brain Tumor Foundation. All Rights Reserved.

151

Fibrinolysis in Tumor Associated Angiogenesis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Endothelial cells from different vascular beds, including tumor vasculature, have been shown to have different behavior and different gene expression. In tumors, abundant fibrin in the extracellular matrix dictates that fibrinolytic capability is required...

S. W. McLeskey

2004-01-01

152

Fibrinolysis in Tumor Associated Angiogenesis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tumor-associated blood vessels are abnormally leaky and allow the extravasation of fibrinogen and other components of the coagulation system. Exposure of these procoagulants to extravascular matrix components and procoagulant tumor products activates the ...

S. W. McLeskey

2002-01-01

153

Fibrinolysis in Tumor Associated Angiogenesis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Endothelial cells from different vascular beds, including tumor vasculature, have been shown to have different behavior and different gene expression. In tumors, abundant fibrin in the extracellular matrix dictates that fibrinolytic capability is required...

S. W. McLeskey

2005-01-01

154

Biology of Crown Gall Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific adaptive mechanisms for water and nutrient acquisition and the suppression of shoot and root differentiation characterize\\u000a crown gall tumor development. Strong vascularization like in animal and human tumors is the most prominent and important feature\\u000a of tumor proliferation. Vascular bundles consisting of phloem and xylem are from the onset of tumor initiation functionally\\u000a connected to the host bundle. At

Roni Aloni; Cornelia I. Ullrich

155

Strategy for management of retroperitoneal tumors with caval tumor thrombus.  

PubMed

The surgical management of retroperitoneal tumors extending into the inferior vena cava (IVC) can be challenging. Although Wilms' tumor is the most common retroperitoneal tumor extending into the IVC, one must approach these tumors systematically as other diagnoses are possible. We present 4 consecutive cases of retroperitoneal tumors with IVC extension as a basis for a management strategy in approaching these patients. Despite similar presentations, these cases illustrate the nuances in surgical management and need for multidisciplinary care with the pediatric oncologists, pediatric surgeons, and pediatric cardiac surgeons. PMID:22075334

Khozeimeh, Nini; Sinha, Pranava; Dome, Jeffrey S; Guzzetta, Philip C

2011-11-01

156

Cytogenetics of cranial base tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Many different tumor types can arise in or invade the skull base. The more common tumors include, but are not limited to, angiofibromas, chondrosarcomas, chordomas, hemangiopericytomas, meningiomas, carcinomas, olfactory neuroblastomas, paragangliomas, pituitary adenomas, and rhabdomyosarcomas. Several of these tumors, including meningiomas, hemangiopericytomas, and rhabdomyosarcomas are characterized by nonrandom cytogenetic abnormalities. In this paper, we review the recognized chromosomal aberrations

Susanne M. Gollin; Ivo P. Janecka

1994-01-01

157

Monoclonal Antibodies Targeting Tumor Growth  

Cancer.gov

The type 1 insulin-like growth factor (IGF) receptor (IGF1R) is over-expressed by many tumors and mediates proliferation, motility, and protection from apoptosis. Agents that inhibit IGF1R expression or function can potentially block tumor growth and metastasis. Its major ligands, IGF-I, and IGF-II are over-expressed by multiple tumor types.

158

The History of Tumor Virology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the century since its inception, the field of tumor virology has provided groundbreaking insights into the causes of human cancer. Peyton Rous founded this scientific field in 1911 by discovering an avian virus that induced tumors in chickens; however, it took 40years for the scientific community to comprehend the effect of this seminal finding. Later identification of mammalian tumor

Ronald T. Javier; Janet S. Butel

159

Tumor uptake of radioruthenium compounds  

SciTech Connect

The use of ruthenium-97 as a scintigraphic agent, particularly for tumor localization, is investigated. The tumor uptake of ruthenium chloride and ruthenium-labelled transferrin is evaluated and their application as tumor-imagine agents is compared to gallium-67 citrate. (ACR)

Srivastava, S C; Richards, P; Meinken, G E; Larson, S M; Grunbaum, Z

1980-01-01

160

Tumor growth in intestinal neobladder  

PubMed Central

The case of a 73 years old man with tumor in intestinal neobladder was presented. Tumor was resected using standard TUR technique. Tumor proved to be benign, follow–up revealed no recurrences. The schedule of lifelong follow–up was proposed.

Gluchowski, Jaroslaw; Weli-Wegbe, James; Blawat, Adam; Kordasz, Janusz

2013-01-01

161

Tumor endothelial marker 1-specific DNA vaccination targets tumor vasculature  

PubMed Central

Tumor endothelial marker 1 (TEM1; also known as endosialin or CD248) is a protein found on tumor vasculature and in tumor stroma. Here, we tested whether TEM1 has potential as a therapeutic target for cancer immunotherapy by immunizing immunocompetent mice with Tem1 cDNA fused to the minimal domain of the C fragment of tetanus toxoid (referred to herein as Tem1-TT vaccine). Tem1-TT vaccination elicited CD8+ and/or CD4+ T cell responses against immunodominant TEM1 protein sequences. Prophylactic immunization of animals with Tem1-TT prevented or delayed tumor formation in several murine tumor models. Therapeutic vaccination of tumor-bearing mice reduced tumor vascularity, increased infiltration of CD3+ T cells into the tumor, and controlled progression of established tumors. Tem1-TT vaccination also elicited CD8+ cytotoxic T cell responses against murine tumor-specific antigens. Effective Tem1-TT vaccination did not affect angiogenesis-dependent physiological processes, including wound healing and reproduction. Based on these data and the widespread expression of TEM1 on the vasculature of different tumor types, we conclude that targeting TEM1 has therapeutic potential in cancer immunotherapy.

Facciponte, John G.; Ugel, Stefano; De Sanctis, Francesco; Li, Chunsheng; Wang, Liping; Nair, Gautham; Sehgal, Sandy; Raj, Arjun; Matthaiou, Efthymia; Coukos, George; Facciabene, Andrea

2014-01-01

162

Breast Tumor Angiogenesis and Tumor-Associated Macrophages: Histopathologist's Perspective  

PubMed Central

Much progress has been made since the conceptualization of tumor angiogenesis—the induction of growth of new blood vessels by tumor—as a salient feature of clinically significant primary or metastatic cancers. From a practicing histopathologist's point of view, we appraise the application of this concept in breast cancer with particular reference to the evaluation of proangiogenic factors and the assessment of new microvessels in histopathological examination. Recently, much focus has also been centered on the active roles played by tumor-associated macrophages in relation to tumor angiogenesis. We review the literature; many data supporting this facet of tumor angiogenesis were derived from the breast cancer models. We scrutinize the large body of clinical evidence exploring the link between the tumor-associated macrophages and breast tumor angiogenesis and discuss particularly the methodology and limitations of incorporating such an assessment in histopathological examination.

Ch'ng, Ewe Seng; Jaafar, Hasnan; Tuan Sharif, Sharifah Emilia

2011-01-01

163

Myeloid Cells in the Tumor Microenvironment: Modulation of Tumor Angiogenesis and Tumor Inflammation  

PubMed Central

Myeloid cells are a heterogeneous population of bone marrow-derived cells that play a critical role during growth and metastasis of malignant tumors. Tumors exhibit significant myeloid cell infiltrates, which are actively recruited to the tumor microenvironment. Myeloid cells promote tumor growth by stimulating tumor angiogenesis, suppressing tumor immunity, and promoting metastasis to distinct sites. In this review, we discuss the role of myeloid cells in promoting tumor angiogenesis. Furthermore, we describe a subset of myeloid cells with immunosuppressive activity (known as myeloid-derived suppressor cells). Finally, we will comment on the mechanisms regulating myeloid cell recruitment to the tumor microenvironment and on the potential of myeloid cells as new targets for cancer therapy.

Schmid, Michael C.; Varner, Judith A.

2010-01-01

164

[Serous ovarian tumors].  

PubMed

Because of different patterns of molecular changes, a dualistic model of serous tumors is now assumed with serous borderline tumors (SBT) and low-grade serous carcinomas (LGSC) on one side and high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSC) on the other. The clinical course and the type of treatment of SBT and LGSC depend crucially on whether they are associated with extraovarian manifestations. So-called invasive implants of SBT correspond morphologically to LGSC. The MD Anderson grading system has become established for the distinction between LGSC and HGSC, HGSC shows a wide range of growth patterns, including a transitional epithelial-like type. Carcinosarcomas can be interpreted as HGSC variants. Considering the new theory that all serous neoplasms of the ovary, peritoneum and fallopian tubes are derived from the tubal fimbria, the term "ovarian carcinoma" seems no longer appropriate. PMID:24916775

Diebold, J

2014-07-01

165

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is an uncommon lesion of unknown cause. It encompasses a spectrum of myofibroblastic proliferation along with varying amount of inflammatory infiltrate. A number of terms have been applied to the lesion, namely, inflammatory pseudotumor, fibrous xanthoma, plasma cell granuloma, pseudosarcoma, lymphoid hamartoma, myxoid hamartoma, inflammatory myofibrohistiocytic proliferation, benign myofibroblatoma, and most recently, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. The diverse nomenclature is mostly descriptive and reflects the uncertainty regarding true biologic nature of these lesions. Recently, the concept of this lesion being reactive has been challenged based on the clinical demonstration of recurrences and metastasis and cytogenetic evidence of acquired clonal chromosomal abnormalities. We hereby report a case of inflammatory pseudotumor and review its inflammatory versus neoplastic behavior.

Palaskar, Sangeeta; Koshti, Supriya; Maralingannavar, Mahesh; Bartake, Anirudha

2011-01-01

166

[Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (Klatskin tumor)].  

PubMed

Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma or Klatskin tumors are a rare entity arising from the extrahepatic bile duct bifurcation. Considering the close anatomical relationship of the bile duct bifurcation with the portal vein bifurcation and hepatic arteries, surgical treatment is demanding. With an incidence of only 2-4 cases/100,000 population/year patients should be referred to a specialized center. The tumors are usually poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas growing diffusely along the duct and also the perineural sheath. Only radical surgery offers a curative option and currently surgical strategy usually consists of en bloc resection of the bile duct, extended liver resection and portal vein resection. Proximal and lateral safety margin R0 resections are technically very demanding procedures because of the local anatomy. PMID:24464335

Stavrou, G A; Donati, M; Faiss, S; Jenner, R M; Niehaus, K J; Oldhafer, K J

2014-02-01

167

Peripheral Nerve Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Peripheral nerve tumors (PNTs) are rare soft tissue lesions that can arise anywhere on the body and as a result have a wide\\u000a differential diagnosis, which is often confirmed to be a PNT only at surgery. PNTs occur both sporadically and within the\\u000a context of genetically predisposing syndromes; hence, a thorough history of the mass and associated symptoms, with a

Joseph Wiley; Asis Kumar Bhattacharyya; Gelareh Zadeh; Patrick Shannon; Abhijit Guha

168

Wilms tumor: an update.  

PubMed

Wilms tumor (WT) is the most common neoplasm of the kidney in children. It is an embryologic tumor that histologically mimics renal embryogenesis and is composed of a variable mixture of stromal, blastemal, and epithelial elements. Nephrogenic rests, generally considered to be precursor lesions of the WT, are foci of the embryonic metanephric tissue that persist after the completion of renal embryogenesis. These are classified as perilobar and intralobar based on their location and maybe present as single or multiple foci. Intralobar and perilobar rests and the tumors arising from these rests differ morphologically and are characterized by 2 different sets of genetic abnormalities involving 2 adjacent foci, WT1 and WT2, on the short arm of chromosome 11. WTs arising in the intralobar rests tend to be stromal predominant and have a mutation or deletion of WT1. Germline mutation in WT1 may be associated with syndromic conditions such as WAGR and Denys-Drash syndromes. Perilobar rests and their corresponding tumors usually have loss of imprinting/loss of heterozygosity involving WT2, which contains several parentally imprinted genes. Loss of function of these genes, if present constitutionally, may be associated with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome or may result in isolated hypertrophy. Abnormalities in several other genes may also be seen in WT. These include WTX, (on chromosome X), CTNNB1 (chromosome 3), and TP53 (chromosome 17) among others. WT with loss of heterozygosity at 1p and 16q may have poor prognosis, requiring aggressive therapy. Treatment modalities for WT have evolved over many decades, primarily through the efforts of Dr J Bruce Beckwith at National WT study. This work is now being carried out by Children Oncology Group in North America and International Society of Pediatric Oncology in Europe. Although their therapeutic approaches are somewhat different, both have reported excellent results with equally high cure rates. PMID:24713986

Al-Hussain, Turki; Ali, Afshan; Akhtar, Mohammed

2014-05-01

169

Placental site trophoblastic tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a rare neoplasm that rises from intermediate trophoblasts and commonly presents\\u000a with low and variable concentration of HCG immunoactivity in serum, which can be difficult to differentiate from early stage\\u000a choriocarcinoma\\/gestational trophoblastic neoplasm (GTN) or quiescent gestational trophoblastic disease. PSTT can occur after\\u000a a normal pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, termination of pregnancy, ectopic or molar

Nadereh Behtash; Mojgan Karimi Zarchi

2008-01-01

170

Thrombosis in brain tumors.  

PubMed

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is common in patients with brain tumors, occurring in up to 30% of patients with high-grade glioma and up to 20% of those with brain metastasis and primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma. The risk is correlated with higher grade malignancies and is directly associated with the production of the potent procoagulant, tissue factor (TF). Upregulation of TF influences both the coagulation pathway and oncogenic signaling mechanisms important for cancer progression. The risk of intracranial hemorrhage with the use of anticoagulants complicates the management of VTE in patients with brain tumor. We discuss the recommended anticoagulants used for initial and long-term treatment of established VTE, including unfractionated heparin, low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), and warfarin. Therapeutic anticoagulation, particularly LMWH followed by secondary prophylaxis, is generally safe and effective in the treatment of VTE, including patients on antiangiogenic agents. Anticoagulation also reduces the risk of VTE during the perioperative period. However, despite the high risk of VTE throughout the course of disease, present data do not support routine thromboprophylaxis in brain tumor patients. Further investigation regarding the mechanisms underlying the hypercoagulable state of patients with brain tumors and the potential role of the factors and products of thrombogenesis as biomarkers for risk stratification will be useful in identification and management of patients at risk of developing VTE. Novel oral anticoagulants that directly inhibit thrombin such as dabigatran or factor Xa, including rivaroxaban and apixaban have several potential advantages; however, due to limited data in the cancer population, the use of these newer oral anticoagulants is not currently recommended for patients with malignancy and VTE. Recent studies have explored the role of anticoagulants as anticancer agents, which may contribute to cancer treatment in the future. PMID:24599439

Jo, Jasmin T; Schiff, David; Perry, James R

2014-04-01

171

Poorly Differentiated Neuroendocrine Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Extra-pulmonary PDNET comprise a heterogeneous and complex group of diseases. They are associated with a poor outcome, with\\u000a median survival seldom achieving 1 year among patients with advanced disease. The treatment of PDNET follows the same principles\\u000a of those for small cell carcinoma of the lung, with platinum-based chemotherapy reserved for metastatic disease and chemoradiation\\u000a delivered to localized tumors. Because

Joao E. Bezerra; Rachel P. Riechelmann; Paulo M. Hoff

172

[Gigantic nasal tumor].  

PubMed

A space-occupying lesion, which had been growing on the external surface of the nose of a 57-year-old man for 5 years was considered to most likely be an angiofibroma after surgical removal and histological examination, but the final clinical diagnosis was clearly a rhinophyma. This discrepancy is relevant for surgical treatment, because the vessel-rich tumor tended to substantial intraoperative bleeding. PMID:19183915

Lehnerdt, G; Oztürk, E; Grabellus, F

2009-04-01

173

[Biomarkers in solid tumors].  

PubMed

In the past decade the revolutionary development of molecular technology contributed a lot to the increase of our knowledge on cancer. These informations led to the discovery and understanding of those key regulatory changes in the genesis and progression of malignancies that can serve as targets in tumor diagnostics and therapy. One of the main challenges in the research field is to identify the most important molecular networks, the molecular targets, the markers (biomarkers) which can predict therapeutic responsiveness in order to select the appropriate patients, as well as markers to judge the prognosis of the disease. The aims of our study approached some details of the biomarker area and reached certain conclusions: (1) The anti-EGFR therapy, used in the second line or even further, proved to be effective, providing clinical advantage (operability, regression) in 36% of patients carrying wild-type KRAS. G13D mutations were the most frequent among the KRAS-mutants, which, according to current data, could react to anti-EGFR therapy. (2) Extended immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis on colorectal cancer samples (using tissue microarray) found rather few correlations between the IHC estimation and the clinical characteristics related mainly to survival. According to the results with anti-EGFR antibodies in the diagnostic histological samples, the regulatory pathway which rules the proliferation of normal colonic mucosa is also present in colonic cancer cells. This finding is supported by the increased ativity of the downstream members (as RAS, RAF, ERK) of the EGFR signalling. (3) The level of D-dimer increased at least as much as the level of classical tumor markers in the early stages of tumor growth. D-dimer can be considered as a prognostic factor in tumor types studied (breast-, colorectal-, ovarian cancers) and its measurement is advised besides the classical markers. We hope that these results may contribute to the design of a more individual-based and more effective antitumor strategy. PMID:23573523

Nagy, Zsuzsanna

2013-03-01

174

Breast tumors during adolescence.  

PubMed

A variety of benign tumors may involve the breast of the adolescent female. Neoplasms and cysts originating from the breast tissue itself, as well as from anatomically related tissues such as lymph nodes may occur. Imaging of the adolescent with a breast mass varies from that of the mature women because of the extremely uncommon occurrence of breast malignancy is this younger population. During a 22-year period (1978-99), 684 young females (14-20 years) were referred to the Breast Unit of the 1st Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in the major University-appointed hospital of the University of Athens, because of breast masses. The clinical and imaging evaluation of the masses confirmed their presence in the majority of cases. Most cases (442-64.6%) were managed conservatively and carefully followed-up. In 242 cases (35.4%) ablation of the masses was performed. Biopsy showed 236 (97.5%) benign and 6 (2.5%) malignant tumors. The malignant tumors were 2 cases of hemangiosarcoma, 1 case of rhabdomyosarcoma, 1 case of ductual carcinoma, 1 case of cystosarcoma phylloides and 1 case of metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma from the eye. In three cases patients died as a consequence of the disease, two survived and one was lost due to the family's wishes to be transfered to another oncology department abroad. PMID:11055497

Elsheikh, A; Keramopoulos, A; Lazaris, D; Ambela, C; Louvrou, N; Michalas, S

2000-01-01

175

Targeting tumor acidity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the main features of solid tumors is extracellular acidity, which correlates with tumor aggressiveness and metastatic potential. We introduced novel approach in targeting of acidic tumors, and translocation of cell-impermeable cargo molecules across cellular membrane. Our approach is based on main principle of insertion and folding of a polypeptide in lipid bilayer of membrane. We have identified family of pH Low Insertion Peptides (pHLIPs), which are capable spontaneous insertion and folding in membrane at mild acidic conditions. The affinity of peptides of pHLIP family to membrane at low pH is several times higher than at neutral pH. The process of peptides folding occurs within milliseconds. The energy released in a result of folding (about 2 kcal/mol) could be used to move polar cargo across a membrane, which is a novel concept in drug delivery. pHLIP peptides could be considered as a pH-sensitive single peptide molecular transporters and conjugated with imaging probes for fluorescence, MR, PET and SPECT imaging, they represent a novel in vivo marker of acidity. The work is supported by NIH grants CA133890 and GM073857 to OAA, DME, YRK.

Reshetnyak, Yana K.; Engelman, Donald M.; Andreev, Oleg A.

2012-02-01

176

[Resection of Klatskin tumors].  

PubMed

Curative treatment of Klatskin tumors by radical surgical procedures with surgical preparation distant to the tumor region results in 5-year survival rates of 30-50%. This requires mandatory en bloc liver resection and resection of the extrahepatic bile duct often together with vascular resection. Nevertheless, the ideal safety margin of 0.5-1 cm remote from the macroscopic tumor extensions cannot be achieved in all cases. Based on hilar anatomy the probability of an adequate safety margin is higher using extended right hemihepatectomy together with portal vein resection compared to left hemihepatectomy. However, due to severe atrophy of the left liver lobe solely left-sided hepatectomy is feasible in some patients. In cases of eligibility for both procedures right hemihepatectomy is preferentially used due to the higher oncological radicality if sufficient liver function is present. Postoperative hepatic insufficiency and bile leakage after demanding biliary reconstruction, often with several small orifices, contribute to the postoperative complication rate of this complex surgical disease pattern. PMID:22406679

Seehofer, D; Kamphues, C; Neuhaus, P

2012-03-01

177

Connective tissue tumors.  

PubMed

Connective tissue consists of collagen, elastic fibers and ground substances produced by fibrocytes. These cells are usually spindle-shaped with slender nuclei and bipolar cytoplasmic extensions. Apart from labeling for vimentin and variable reactivity for factor XIIIa and CD34, fibrocytes are immunonegative. Electron microscopy reveals prominent endoplasmic reticulum, but is otherwise indistinct. Lesions with fibrocytic differentiation can be divided into five categories: scars, keloids, dermatofibromas, nodular fasciitis, and superficial fibromatoses are inflammatory lesions. Thereby, dermatofibromas and their subcutaneous/deep soft tissue counterpart nodular fasciitis can present with a wide variety of clinicopathologic variants which may be misinterpreted as malignancies. Prurigo nodularis, chondrodermatitis nodularis helicis, acanthoma fissuratum, and knuckle pads are hyperplasias; fibroma molle, fibrous papules, connective tissue nevi, and elastofibroma are hamartomas; and fibroma of tendon sheath, pleomorphic fibroma, and giant cell tumor of tendon sheath are benign neoplasms. Deep fibromatoses, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, giant cell fibroblastoma, giant cell angiofibroma, hyalinizing spindle cell tumor with giant rosettes, solitary fibrous tumor, myxofibrosarcoma, low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma, acral myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma, and classical fibrosarcoma, are malignant neoplasms, that is fibrosarcomas of variable malignant potential. Lesions dominated by myocytes/ myofibroblasts, e.g. cutaneous myofibroma/infantile myofibromatosis, or by macrophages, e.g. xanthogranulomas, are not part of this chapter. PMID:12079232

Zelger, Bernhard

2002-01-01

178

Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor.  

PubMed

The calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is a rare benign epithelial odontogenic neoplasm of slow growth that is locally aggressive and tends to invade bone and adjacent soft tissue. Here is reported the case of a 21-year-old female patient with a CEOT in the left mandibular posterior region. The computerized tomography in coronal plane revealed a hypodense lesion in the posterior region of the left mandibular body with hyperdense areas inside and was associated with element 37. An incisional biopsy of the lesion was performed and the histopathological analysis revealed the presence of layers of epithelial odontogenic cells that formed prominent intercellular bridges. A large quantity of extracellular, eosinophilic, and amyloid-like material and an occasional formation of concentric calcifications (Liesegang rings) were also found. The histopathological diagnosis was a Pindborg tumor. Resection of the tumor with a safety margin was performed and after 6 months of follow-up there has been no sign of recurrence of the lesion. PMID:24379981

Pereira, Olavo Hoston Gonçalves; de Carvalho, Laura Priscila Barboza; Lacerda Brasileiro Junior, Vilson; de Figueiredo, Cláudia Roberta Leite Vieira

2013-01-01

179

Calcifying Epithelial Odontogenic Tumor  

PubMed Central

The calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is a rare benign epithelial odontogenic neoplasm of slow growth that is locally aggressive and tends to invade bone and adjacent soft tissue. Here is reported the case of a 21-year-old female patient with a CEOT in the left mandibular posterior region. The computerized tomography in coronal plane revealed a hypodense lesion in the posterior region of the left mandibular body with hyperdense areas inside and was associated with element 37. An incisional biopsy of the lesion was performed and the histopathological analysis revealed the presence of layers of epithelial odontogenic cells that formed prominent intercellular bridges. A large quantity of extracellular, eosinophilic, and amyloid-like material and an occasional formation of concentric calcifications (Liesegang rings) were also found. The histopathological diagnosis was a Pindborg tumor. Resection of the tumor with a safety margin was performed and after 6 months of follow-up there has been no sign of recurrence of the lesion.

Pereira, Olavo Hoston Goncalves; de Carvalho, Laura Priscila Barboza; Lacerda Brasileiro Junior, Vilson; de Figueiredo, Claudia Roberta Leite Vieira

2013-01-01

180

Tumor Associated Antigenic Peptides in Prostate Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We had earlier demonstrated the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of tumor derived heat shock protein, gp96-peptide complexes. Since this tumor rejection property was specifically mediated by tumor denved and not non-tumor derived gp96-peptide complex...

R. Tiwari

2001-01-01

181

Tumor Associated Antigenic Peptides in Prostate Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We had earlier demonstrated the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of tumor derived heat shock protein, gp96-peptide complexes. Since this tumor rejection property was specifically mediated by tumor derived and not non-tumor derived gp96-peptide comple...

R. K. Tiwari

2002-01-01

182

[Successfully resected carotid glomus tumor].  

PubMed

A 76-years old man with carotid body tumor on the left carotid bifurcation was operated on, in August 1999. The rare tumor of the paraganglionic tissue was detected by ultrasonography and arteriography. Although these tumors have a very low incidence of malignancy, extirpation should be carried out. In this case, the tumor was removable by blunt and sharp dissection without resecting the fork of the carotid artery. The postoperative course was uneventful. They discussed the diagnostic and therapeutic steps of solution of this tumors. PMID:11300064

Behek, S; Halmos, F; Gergely, M; Szabolcsi, T

2000-08-01

183

Tumor Necrosis Factor Induces Tumor Necrosis via Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Type 1-Expressing Endothelial Cells of the Tumor Vasculature  

PubMed Central

Activation of endothelial cells, fibrin deposition, and coagulation within the tumor vasculature has been shown in vivo to correlate with the occurrence of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced tumor necrosis in mice. In the present study we investigated which target cells mediate the TNF-induced necrosis in fibrosarcomas grown in wild type (wt), TNF receptor type 1-deficient (TNFRp55?/?), and TNF receptor type 2-deficient (TNFRp75?/?) mice. TNF administration resulted in tumor necrosis exclusively in wt and TNFRp75?/?, but not in TNFRp55?/? mice, indicating a dependence of TNF-mediated tumor necrosis on the expression of TNF receptor type 1. However, using wt and TNFRp55?/? fibrosarcomas in wt mice, we found that TNF-mediated tumor necrosis was completely independent of TNF receptor type 1 expression in tumor cells. Thus we could exclude any direct tumoricidal effect of TNF in this model. Soluble TNF induced leukostasis in wt and TNFRp75?/? mice but not in TNFRp55?/? mice. TNF-induced leukostasis in TNFRp55?/? mice was restored by adoptive bone marrow transplantation of wt hematopoietic cells, but TNF failed to induce tumor necrosis in these chimeric mice. Because TNF administration resulted in both activation and focal damage of tumor endothelium, TNF receptor type 1-expressing cells of the tumor vasculature, likely to be endothelial cells, appear to be target cells for mediating TNF-induced tumor necrosis.

Stoelcker, Benjamin; Ruhland, Brigitte; Hehlgans, Thomas; Bluethmann, Horst; Luther, Thomas; Mannel, Daniela N.

2000-01-01

184

Laser therapy in intraocular tumors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intraocular tumors present special problems of diagnosis and treatment. Diagnostic methods include, in addition to systemic and ophthalmological examinations, ancillary examinations such as transillumination, fluorescein angiography, ultrasonography, radioactive phosphorus uptake test, radiology, computerized tomography, and fine-needle aspiration biopsy with cytological analyses. Previously, enucleation of the involved eye was generally accepted as management of malignant tumors. Improved therapeutic methods such as photocoagulation and better surgical techniques now provide a variety of therapeutical alternatives. This study consists of 21 cases of intraocular tumors that were managed by Argon laser photocoagulation. Four cases were intraocular metastasis and 17 cases were primitive intraocular tumors. Argon laser therapy proved to be totally ineffective for the intraocular metastasis and a very adequate therapy for the primitive tumors. Tumor extirpations (choroidal, cillary body, or iris tumors) using laser lancet proved to be more suitable than classic surgery.

Carstocea, Benone D.; Gafencu, Otilia L.; Apostol, Silvia

1995-01-01

185

Study of Kidney Tumors in Young Patients  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Clear Cell Sarcoma of the Kidney; Congenital Mesoblastic Nephroma; Diffuse Hyperplastic Perilobar Nephroblastomatosis; Rhabdoid Tumor of the Kidney; Stage I Renal Cell Cancer; Stage I Wilms Tumor; Stage II Renal Cell Cancer; Stage II Wilms Tumor; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage III Wilms Tumor; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IV Wilms Tumor; Stage V Wilms Tumor

2014-02-05

186

Sternal resection for primary or secondary tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods: From January 1980 to December 1993, 52 patients underwent surgical resection for tumors involving the sternum. The series included 20 primary malignant tumors, 4 desmoid tumors, 2 malignant tumors infiltrating the sternum from adjacent organs, 19 local recurrences or metastases of breast tumors, and 7 metastases of other tumors. Total sternectomy was performed in 5 patients, subtotal sternal resection

M. Incarbone; M. Nava; C. Lequaglie; G. Ravasi; U. Pastorino

1997-01-01

187

Tumor-colonizing bacteria: a potential tumor targeting therapy.  

PubMed

In 1813, Vautier published his observation of tumor regression in patients who had suffered from gas gangrene. Since then, many publications have described the use of bacteria as antitumor therapy. For example, Bifidobacterium and Clostridium have been shown to selectively colonize tumors and to reduce tumor size. In addition, recent studies have focused on the use of genetic engineering to induce the expression of pro-drug converting enzymes, cytokines, specific antibodies, or suicide genes in tumor-colonizing bacteria. Moreover, some animal experiments have reported the treatment of tumors with engineered bacteria, and few side effects were observed. Therefore, based on these advances in tumor targeting therapy, bacteria may represent the next generation of cancer therapy. PMID:23964706

Zu, Chao; Wang, Jiansheng

2014-08-01

188

[Vertical tumor thickness as an estimate of actual tumor volume].  

PubMed

According to Cavalieri, the volume of any body-irrespective of its shape-can easily be estimated on the basis of the area of slabs of known thickness. We made use of this old principle in order to determine the correlation between the volume of skin tumors and their maximal vertical thickness. Investigations of a total of 30 benign and malignant tumors of the skin of various shapes showed a correlation coefficient of r = 0.77. Therefore, the widely used determination of the vertical thickness of malignant melanomas can be regarded as a good estimator of the tumor volume and seems to be appropriate for histological tumor staging. Together with high frequency ultrasound, Cavalieri's method allows a simple and rapid pretherapeutical in-vivo determination of the tumor volume. However, only prospective studies can reveal whether the determination of the tumor volume is of superior prognostic significance to the established techniques. PMID:2291288

Bahmer, F A; Schild, R

1990-10-01

189

Malignant small round cell tumors  

PubMed Central

Malignant small round cell tumors are characterised by small, round, relatively undifferentiated cells. They generally include Ewing's sarcoma, peripheral neuroectodermal tumor, rhabdomyosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, retinoblastoma, neuroblastoma, hepatoblastoma, and nephroblastoma or Wilms’ tumor. Other differential diagnoses of small round cell tumors include small cell osteogenic sarcoma, undifferentiated hepatoblastoma, granulocytic sarcoma, and intraabdominal desmoplastic small round cell tumor. Differential diagnosis of small round cell tumors is particularly difficult due to their undifferentiated or primitive character. Tumors that show good differentiation are generally easy to diagnose, but when a tumor is poorly differentiated, identification of the diagnostic, morphological features is difficult and therefore, no definitive diagnosis may be possible. As seen in several study reports, fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has become an important modality of diagnosis for these tumors. The technique yields adequate numbers of dissociated, viable cells, making it ideally suitable for ancillary techniques. Typically, a multimodal approach is employed and the principal ancillary techniques that have been found to be useful in classification are immunohistochemistry and immunophenotyping by flow cytometry, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and electron microscopy. However, the recent characterization of chromosomal breakpoints and the corresponding genes involved in malignant small round cell tumors means that it is possible to use molecular genetic approaches for detection.

Rajwanshi, Arvind; Srinivas, Radhika; Upasana, Gautam

2009-01-01

190

ARF, autophagy and tumor suppression  

PubMed Central

Autophagy plays a critical role in the initiation and progression of tumors. The exact nature of this role, however, is complex. Autophagy is suppressive to tumor initiation, and reduces genomic instability. Genes with key roles in autophagy are mutated in human cancer, and knock-out mice for certain autophagy genes are predisposed to cancer. Conversely, established tumors appear to utilize autophagy in order to survive periods of metabolic or hypoxic stress. Consistent with this, small molecule inhibitors of autophagy like chloroquine are effective anti-cancer agents for certain tumor types. The consensus appears to be that autophagy suppresses tumor initiation, but promotes the survival of established tumors. But this premise may be over-simplified. Several groups have recently shown that the ARF tumor suppressor can induce autophagy. While some groups have found that ARF-mediated autophagy is cytotoxic to tumor cells, we have shown that ARF’s autophagy function may promote the survival and progression of certain tumors. We have previously shown that silencing ARF limits autophagy and the development of p53-null lymphomas. In this addendum, we show this is not true for primary p53-null sarcoma cells. Rather, ARF-silencing enhances sarcoma development. These data suggest that the survival-benefit of ARF, and possibly also of autophagy, may be restricted to certain tumor types.

Pimkina, Julia; Murphy, Maureen E.

2009-01-01

191

Heteroclitic Immunization Induces Tumor Immunity  

PubMed Central

In tumor transplantation models in mice, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are typically the primary effector cells. CTLs recognize major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I–associated peptides expressed by tumors, leading to tumor rejection. Peptides presented by cancer cells can originate from viral proteins, normal self-proteins regulated during differentiation, or altered proteins derived from genetic alterations. However, many tumor peptides recognized by CTLs are poor immunogens, unable to induce activation and differentiation of effector CTLs. We used MHC binding motifs and the knowledge of class I:peptide:TCR structure to design heteroclitic CTL vaccines that exploit the expression of poorly immunogenic tumor peptides. The in vivo potency of this approach was demonstrated using viral and self-(differentiation) antigens as models. First, a synthetic variant of a viral antigen was expressed as a tumor antigen, and heteroclitic immunization with peptides and DNA was used to protect against tumor challenge and elicit regression of 3-d tumors. Second, a peptide from a relevant self-antigen of the tyrosinase family expressed by melanoma cells was used to design a heteroclitic peptide vaccine that successfully induced tumor protection. These results establish the in vivo applicability of heteroclitic immunization against tumors, including immunity to poorly immunogenic self-proteins.

Dyall, Ruben; Bowne, Wilbur B.; Weber, Lawrence W.; LeMaoult, Joel; Szabo, Paul; Moroi, Yoichi; Piskun, Gregory; Lewis, Jonathan J.; Houghton, Alan N.; Nikolic-Zugic, Janko

1998-01-01

192

Cystic tumors of the pancreas  

PubMed Central

Cystic tumors of the pancreas are less frequent than solid lesions and are often detected incidentally, as many of these lesions are small and asymptomatic. However, they may be associated with pancreatitis or have malignant potential. With advancements in diagnostic imaging, cystic lesions of the pancreas are being detected with increasing frequency. Many lesions can cause a pancreatic cyst, most being non-neoplastic while approximately 10% are cystic tumors, ranging from benign to highly malignant tumors. With increasing experience it is becoming clear that the prevalence of pseudocyst among cystic lesions of the pancreas is lower than usually presumed. A presumptive diagnosis of pseudocyst based on imaging appearance alone can cause a diagnostic error, and neoplastic cysts of the pancreas are particularly susceptible to this misdiagnosis, which can result in inappropriate treatment. Cystic tumors of the pancreas are formed by serous or mucinous structures showing all stages of cellular differentiation. According to the WHO classification, they can be subdivided on the basis of their histological type and biological behavior into benign tumors, borderline tumors, and malignant tumors. Cystic pancreatic tumors can be subdivided into peripheral (serous cystadenomas, mucinous cystic tumors, solid and papillary epithelial neoplasms, cystic islet cell tumors), which do not communicate with the main pancreatic duct, and ductal tumors (mucinous tumor), according to their site of origin. On the basis of imaging criteria alone, it can be very difficult to differentiate non-tumoral cystic lesions from neoplastic ones. The management of these patients is complex, and it is important to correlate imaging findings with knowledge of the patient’s symptoms and of the natural history and predictors of malignancy in pancreatic cysts.

Morana, Giovanni; Guarise, Alessandro

2006-01-01

193

Modeling Tumor Invasion: Effects of Native Vascularity and Tumor Metabolism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hybrid cellular automaton model is described and used to simulate early tumor growth and examine the roles of host tissue vascular density and tumor metabolism in the ability of a small number of monoclonal transformed cells to develop into an invasive tumor. The model incorporates normal cells, tumor cells, necrotic or empty space, and a random network of native microvessels as components of a cellular automaton state vector. Diffusion of glucose and lactic acid (the latter resulting from the tumor's excessive reliance on anaerobic metabolism) to and from the microvessels, and their utilization or production by cells, is modeled through the solution of differential equations. In this way, the cells and microvessels affect the extracellular concentrations of glucose and acid which, in turn, affect the rules governing the evolution of the automaton's state vector. Simulations of the model demonstrate that: (i) high tumor acid production is favorable for tumor growth and invasion, however for every acid production rate, there exists a range of optimal microvessel densities (leading to a local pH favorable to tumor but not to normal cells) for which growth and invasion is most effective, (ii) at vascular densities below this range, both tumor and normal cells die due to excessively low pH, (iii) for vascular densities above the optimal range the microvessel network is highly efficient at removing acid and therefore the tumor cells lose their advantage over normal cells gained by high local acid concentration. While significant spatial gradients of glucose formed, no regions of detrimentally poor glucose perfusion (for either cell type) were observed, regardless of microvessel density. Depending on metabolic phenotype, a variety of tumor morphologies similar to those clinically observed were realized in the simulations. Lastly, a sharp transition (analogous to that of the adenoma-carcinoma sequence) between states of initial tumor confinement and efficient invasiveness was observed when acid production reached a critical value.

Gawlinski, Edward

2001-03-01

194

[Enteroplasty in bladder tumors].  

PubMed

A total of 429 patients with urinary tumors have been operated on in the past 10 years, 80 of them have been undergone cystectomy. Intestinal plasty of the urinary bladder was performed in 38 patients. These one-stage operations in 15 patients yielded a high postoperative mortality rate (33.3%). Two-stage surgeries in 23 patients largely reduced mortality (8.9%). The authors provide recommendations how to conduct the two-stage surgery and limited indications for one-stage interventions. PMID:1871919

Belykh, S I; Galeev, R Kh; Khalimov, Z M

1991-01-01

195

Dynamic CT of pancreatic tumors  

SciTech Connect

Dynamic computed tomography was performed on 19 patients with clinically diagnosed pancreatic and peripancreatic tumors. There were 10 patients with pancreatic cancer, three with inflammatory pancreatic masses, two with cystadenoma, one with insuloma, and three with peripancreatic tumors. Computed tomography was performed with a Varian-V-360-3 scanner; scanning was for 30 consecutive sec at 3 sec intervals after the bolus injection of 50 ml of contrast medium into the antecubital vein. Dynamic computed tomography (CT) may be more useful than conventional contrast CT because it facilitates: (1) correct evaluation of tumor vascularity allowing a differential diagnosis; (2) location of the boundary between tumor and a nontumor tissue; (3) detection of small tumors; and (4) visualization of pancreatic invasion by peripancreatic tumors. In addition, contrast enhancement and the degree of vascular proliferation can be quantitatively assessed by analyzing time-density curves.

Hosoki, T.

1983-05-01

196

Genetics of Primary Intraocular Tumors  

PubMed Central

Primary intraocular neoplasms are tumors that originate within the eye. The most common malignant primary intraocular tumor in adults is uveal melanoma and the second is primary intraocular lymphoma or vitreoretinal (intraocular) lymphoma. The most common malignant intraocular tumor in children is retinoblastoma. Genetics plays a vital role in the diagnosis and detection of ocular tumors. In uveal melanoma, monosomy 3 is the most common genetic alteration and somatic mutations of BAP1, a tumor suppressor gene, have been reported in nearly 50% of primary uveal melanomas. The retinoblastoma gene RB1 is the prototype tumor suppressor gene—mutations in RB1 alleles lead to inactivated RB protein and the development of retinoblastoma. Immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) or T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement is observed in B-cell or T-cell primary vitreoretinal lymphoma, respectively. Other factors related to the genetics of these three common malignancies in the eye are discussed and reviewed.

Nagarkatti-Gude, Nisha; Wang, Yujuan; Ali, Mohammad Javed; Honavar, Santosh G.; Jager, Martine J.; Chan, Chi-Chao

2012-01-01

197

Gastroenteropancreatic endocrine tumors.  

PubMed

Gastroenteropancreatic endocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) are relatively uncommon; comprising approximately 0.5% of all human cancers. Although they often exhibit relatively indolent clinical courses, GEP-NETs have the potential for lethal progression. Due to their scarcity and various technical challenges, GEP-NETs have been understudied. As a consequence, we have few diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers for these tumors. Early detection and surgical removal is currently the only reliable curative treatment for GEP-NET patients; many of whom, unfortunately, present with advanced disease. Here, we review the genetics and epigenetics of GEP-NETs. The last few years have witnessed unprecedented technological advances in these fields, and their application to GEP-NETS has already led to important new information on the molecular abnormalities underlying them. As outlined here, we expect that "omics" studies will provide us with new diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, inform the development of improved pre-clinical models, and identify novel therapeutic targets for GEP-NET patients. PMID:23906538

Meeker, Alan; Heaphy, Christopher

2014-04-01

198

Imaging of neuroendocrine tumors.  

PubMed

Introduction: The imaging needs in the individual neuroendocrine tumor (NET) patient are very diverse and the choice of method, or combination of techniques, depends on the characteristics of the particular type of NET and its presentation. Areas covered: The various morphological and functional imaging methods and important methodological aspects are described. The imaging requirements for the various NET subtypes are explained and typical NET image findings are described and illustrated. Expert opinion: The choice of the optimum imaging techniques is not only a matter of sensitivity and specificity but must also be considered in the light of the local availability and expertise in the department. Familiarity with contrast-enhancement technique for computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is important in the interpretation and understanding of the imaging results. MRI including diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) for oncological imaging has been reported to improve tumor visualization and reader confidence and is expected to similarly be beneficial for NET imaging. Positron emission tomography (PET) using 68Ga-labeled somatostatin analogs is in several aspects superior to somatostatin receptor scintigraphy using Octreoscan®. Molecular imaging problem-solving tools, when PET/CT using 68Ga-labeled somatostatin analogs fails, are PET/CT with 11C-5-HTP and 18F-DOPA. PMID:23480811

Sundin, Anders

2012-09-01

199

Infected tumor prostheses.  

PubMed

Infection of tumor prostheses has been a major concern because of the extensive soft tissue dissection, long operating times, and patients' immunosuppression by cancer and adjuvant treatments. Infections most often present within 2 years postoperatively, with approximately 70% of postoperative deep infections presenting within 12 months after surgery. They are typically low organism burden infections, the pathogenesis of which is related to bacteria growing in biofilms. Staphylococci are the most common pathogens involved in prosthetic joint infections, accounting for approximately 50% of infections overall, followed by streptococci, enterococci, Enterobacteriaceae species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and anaerobe species. Multiple pathogens may be isolated in approximately 25% of cases, with the most common combination being coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and group-D Streptococcus. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are necessary. However, diagnosis may be challenging because clinical symptoms are highly variable and numerous preoperative and intraoperative diagnostic laboratory tests are nonspecific. In most cases, a 1- or 2-stage revision surgery is necessary for eradicating the megaprosthetic infection. Prevention of infection is important. The future will see technical advances for infections of tumor prostheses in areas such as microbiological diagnostics and biofilm-resistant prostheses. PMID:22147218

Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J; Coll-Mesa, Luis; Pala, Elisa; Guerra, Giovanni; Ruggieri, Pietro

2011-12-01

200

[Malignant nail tumors].  

PubMed

Because of the large number of different tissues making up the distal phalanx of fingers and toes, a large variety of malignant tumors can be found in and around the nail apparatus. Bowen disease is probably the most frequent nail malignancy. It is usually seen as a verrucous plaque of the nail fold and nail bed in persons above the age of 40 years. It slowly grows over a period of years or even decades before degenerating to an invasive squamous cell carcinoma. The latter may also occur primarily often as a weeping onycholysis. The next most frequent nail malignancy is ungual melanoma. Those arising from the matrix are usually pigmented and often start with a longitudinal melanonychia whereas those originating from the nail bed remain amelanotic, are often nodular and mistaken for an ingrown nail in an elderly person. The treatment of choice for in situ and early invasive subungual melanomas is generous extirpation of the nail apparatus whereas distal amputation is only indicated for advanced melanomas. In addition to these frequent nail malignancies, nail-specific carcinomas, malignant vascular and osseous tumors, other sarcomas, nail involvement in malignant systemic disorders and metastases may occur. In most cases, they cannot be diagnosed accurately on clinical grounds. Therefore, a high degree of suspicion is necessary in all isolated or single-digit proliferations that do not respond to conservative treatment. PMID:24718507

Haneke, E

2014-04-01

201

[Our experience with duodenal tumors].  

PubMed

The authors report 3 cases of benign duodenal tumors and one case of duodenal cancer. In two cases the benign tumors were adenomatous polyps, in one case with signs of dysplasia. One case of benign tumor was a lipoma. All the three benign tumors were removed through a duodenotomy, in one case associated with a sphincteroplasty. The case of duodenal cancer, arisen in a patient operated since 24 years with a gastric resection, was treated with a Whipple technique but for the very old age and the bad health conditions, the patient died in 11th post-operative day for myocardium infarct. PMID:11014015

Napolitano, L; D'Aulerio, A; Gargano, E; Angelucci, D

2000-01-01

202

[Sclerotherapy for recurrent glomus tumors].  

PubMed

We report the cases of two women aged 28 and 34 years who presented recurrent glomus tumors of the hand after surgery for marginal resection of the tumor mass. The pathological study of the surgical specimen confirmed the diagnosis of recurrent glomus tumor. Due to the vascular origin of this tumor, sclerotherapy was delivered. The functional outcomes were good with dramatic pain relief within a few days. At 3-year mean follow-up, the cosmetic and functional results were very satisfactory. PMID:23660495

Benchakroun, M; Zaddoug, O; Boussouga, M; Boukhris, J; Jaafar, A

2013-05-01

203

Growing heterogeneous tumors in silico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An in silico tool that can be utilized in the clinic to predict neoplastic progression and propose individualized treatment strategies is the holy grail of computational tumor modeling. Building such a tool requires the development and successful integration of a number of biophysical and mathematical models. In this paper, we work toward this long-term goal by formulating a cellular automaton model of tumor growth that accounts for several different inter-tumor processes and host-tumor interactions. In particular, the algorithm couples the remodeling of the microvasculature with the evolution of the tumor mass and considers the impact that organ-imposed physical confinement and environmental heterogeneity have on tumor size and shape. Furthermore, the algorithm is able to account for cell-level heterogeneity, allowing us to explore the likelihood that different advantageous and deleterious mutations survive in the tumor cell population. This computational tool we have built has a number of applications in its current form in both predicting tumor growth and predicting response to treatment. Moreover, the latent power of our algorithm is that it also suggests other tumor-related processes that need to be accounted for and calls for the conduction of new experiments to validate the model’s predictions.

Gevertz, Jana; Torquato, S.

2009-11-01

204

Therapeutic Trial for Patients With Ewing Sarcoma Family of Tumor and Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumors  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor; Ewing Sarcoma of Bone or Soft Tissue; Localized Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

2014-06-09

205

Vaccination against tumor cells expressing breast cancer epithelial tumor antigen.  

PubMed Central

Ninety-one percent of breast tumors aberrantly express an epithelial tumor antigen (ETA) identified by monoclonal antibody H23. Vaccinia virus recombinants expressing tumor antigens have considerable promise in the active immunotherapy of cancer, and we have evaluated the potential of vaccinia recombinants expressing the secreted (S) and cell-associated (transmembrane, T) forms of H23 ETA to elicit immunity to tumor cells expressing ETA. Tumorigenic ras-transformed Fischer rat fibroblast lines FR-S and FR-T, expressing the S or T form of H23 ETA, respectively, were constructed for use in challenge experiments. Expression of H23 ETA in these lines was confirmed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. When challenged by subcutaneous seeding of tumor cells, 97% (FR-S) and 91% (FR-T) of syngeneic Fischer rats rapidly developed tumors that failed to regress. Vaccination with recombinant vaccinia virus expressing ETA-T prior to challenge prevented tumor development in 82% of animals seeded with FR-T cells but in only 61% of animals seeded with FR-S. The vaccinia recombinant expressing the S form was a less effective immunogen, and vaccination protected only 29-30% of animals from developing tumors upon challenge with either FR-S or -T cells. The increased immunogenicity of the recombinant expressing ETA-T was reflected in elevated levels of ETA-reactive antibody in vaccinated animals, confirming that secreted antigens expressed from vaccinia virus are less effective immunogens than their membrane-associated counterparts. Images

Hareuveni, M; Gautier, C; Kieny, M P; Wreschner, D; Chambon, P; Lathe, R

1990-01-01

206

Tumor stem cells: A new approach for tumor therapy (Review)  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have demonstrated the existence of a minority of tumor cells possessing the stem cell properties of self-renewal and differentiation in leukemia and several solid tumors. However, these cells do not possess the normal regulatory mechanisms of stem cells. Following transplantation, they are capable of initiating tumorigenesis and are therefore known as ‘tumor stem cells’. Cellular origin analysis of tumor stem cells has resulted in three hypotheses: Embryonal rest hypothesis, anaplasia and maturation arrest. Several signaling pathways which are involved in carcinogenesis, including Wnt/?-catenin, Notch and Oct-4 signaling pathways are crucial in normal stem cell self-renewal decisions, suggesting that breakdown in the regulation of self-renewal may be a key event in the development of tumors. Thus, tumors can be regarded as an abnormal organ in which stem cells have escaped from the normal constraints on self-renewal, thus, leading to abnormally differentiated tumor cells that lose the ability to form tumors. This new model for maligancies has significance for clinical research and treatment.

MENG, MIN; ZHAO, XIN-HAN; NING, QIAN; HOU, LEI; XIN, GUO-HONG; LIU, LI-FENG

2012-01-01

207

Co/Mo multilayers deposited by ion-beam sputtering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Co/Mo multilayers have been prepared by using ion-beam sputtering. The samples had a periodic layered structure and an in-plane easy axis of magnetization. The structures of Co layers were disordered, fcc or fcc + hcp, depending upon the thickness of the Co layer ( tCo), as well as the thickness of the Mo layer ( tMo). A nonmagnetic compound, Co 7Mo 6, was observed to form at the Co/Mo interfaces, unlike compounds found in Co/Mo multilayers prepared by magnetron sputtering. The existence of this compound was considered to be an important reason for the decrease of the saturation magnetization of crystalline samples with tCo < 40 Å, among others. The dependence of the coercivity on tCo and/or tMo was also studied.

Wang, Y.; Cui, F. Z.; Li, W. Z.; Fan, Y. D.

1991-12-01

208

Tumor stroma: a complexity dictated by the hypoxic tumor microenvironment.  

PubMed

A lot of effort has been done to study how cancer cells react to low-oxygen tension, a condition known as hypoxia. Indeed, abnormal and dysfunctional blood vessels in the tumor are incapable to restore oxygenation, therefore perpetuating hypoxia, which, in turn, will fuel tumor progression, metastasis and resistance to antitumor therapies. Nevertheless, how stromal components including blood and lymphatic endothelial cells, pericytes and fibroblasts, as well as hematopoietic cells, respond to low-oxygen tension in comparison with their normoxic counterparts has been a matter of investigation in the last few years only and, to date, this field of research remains poorly understood. In general, opposing phenotypes can arise from the same stromal component when embedded in different tumor microenvironments, and, vice versa, different stromal components can have opposite reaction to the same tumor microenvironment. In this article, we will discuss the emerging link between tumor stroma and hypoxia, and how this complexity is translated at the molecular level. PMID:23604130

Casazza, A; Di Conza, G; Wenes, M; Finisguerra, V; Deschoemaeker, S; Mazzone, M

2014-04-01

209

From tanks to tumors.  

PubMed

"Tanks to Tumors" succeeded in bringing several different communities together--medical, military, academic, industrial, and engineering. They worked together in panels to determine how the United States might adopt thermal imaging diagnostic technology in an orderly and demonstrable way for the early detection of breast cancer and other conditions. The panel recommendations will serve to guide the transition of military technology developments in ATR, the VDL, and IR sensors to the civilian medical community. The result will be a new tool in the war against breast cancer--a major benefit to the military and civilian population. A CD of the workshop proceedings is available at no cost through Advanced Concepts Analysis, Falls Church, Virginia; +1 703 914 9237; e-mail: diakides@erols.com. PMID:12613208

Paul, Jeffrey L; Lupo, Jasper C

2002-01-01

210

Cathepsins mediate tumor metastasis  

PubMed Central

Cathepsins are highly expressed in various human cancers, associated with tumor metastasis. It is superfamily, concluding A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, L, K, O, S, V, and W family members. As a group of lysosomal proteinases or endopeptidases, each member has a different function, playing different roles in distinct tumorigenic processes such as proliferation, angiogenesis, metastasis, and invasion. Cathepsins belong to a diverse number of enzyme subtypes, including cysteine proteases, serine proteases and aspartic proteases. The contribution of cathepsins to invasion in human cancers is well documented, although the precise mechanisms by which cathepsins exert their effects are still not clear. In the present review, the role of cathepsin family members in cancer is discussed.

Tan, Gong-Jun; Peng, Zheng-Ke; Lu, Jin-Ping; Tang, Fa-Qing

2013-01-01

211

Tumor-associated macrophages: a molecular perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “macrophage balance hypothesis” was proposed in the early 1990s to depict the complex relationship that tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) have with the neoplastic cells of the tumor. TAM represent a prominent component of the mononuclear leukocyte population of solid tumors, which displays an ambivalent relationship with tumors. They originate in the circulation and are recruited to the tumor site by

Antonio Sica; Alessandra Saccani; Alberto Mantovani

2002-01-01

212

Askin's Tumor: A Dual Case Study  

PubMed Central

Askin's tumor is a rare tumor arising from the chest wall. It is a subset of Ewing sarcoma characterized histologically by the presence of small round blue cells. It is a highly malignant tumor with guarded prognosis, which is dependent upon the extension of tumor at the time of diagnosis. A dual paper of Askin's tumors in young boys is being presented here.

Shrestha, Bikash; Kapur, Bhupendra Nath; Karmacharya, Kavita; Kakkar, Sunita; Ghuliani, Ranjit

2011-01-01

213

Gene Therapy for Pituitary Tumors  

PubMed Central

Pituitary tumors are the most common primary intracranial neoplasms. Although most pituitary tumors are considered typically benign, others can cause severe and progressive disease. The principal aims of pituitary tumor treatment are the elimination or reduction of the tumor mass, normalization of hormone secretion and preservation of remaining pituitary function. In spite of major advances in the therapy of pituitary tumors, for some of the most difficult tumors, current therapies that include medical, surgical and radiotherapeutic methods are often unsatisfactory and there is a need to develop new treatment strategies. Gene therapy, which uses nucleic acids as drugs, has emerged as an attractive therapeutic option for the treatment of pituitary tumors that do not respond to classical treatment strategies if the patients become intolerant to the therapy. The development of animal models for pituitary tumors and hormone hypersecretion has proven to be critical for the implementation of novel treatment strategies and gene therapy approaches. Preclinical trials using several gene therapy approaches for the treatment of anterior pituitary diseases have been successfully implemented. Several issues need to be addressed before clinical implementation becomes a reality, including the development of more effective and safer viral vectors, uncovering novel therapeutic targets and development of targeted expression of therapeutic transgenes. With the development of efficient gene delivery vectors allowing long-term transgene expression with minimal toxicity, gene therapy will become one of the most promising approaches for treating pituitary adenomas.

Seilicovich, Adriana; Pisera, Daniel; Sciascia, Sandra A.; Candolfi, Marianela; Puntel, Mariana; Xiong, Weidong; Jaita, Gabriela; Castro, Maria G.

2009-01-01

214

Imaging probe for tumor malignancy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid tumors possess unique microenvironments that are exposed to chronic hypoxic conditions ("tumor hypoxia"). Although more than half a century has passed since it was suggested that tumor hypoxia correlated with poor treatment outcomes and contributed to cancer recurrence, a fundamental solution to this problem has yet to be found. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) is the main transcription factor that regulates the cellular response to hypoxia. It induces various genes whose functions are strongly associated with malignant alteration of the entire tumor. The cellular changes induced by HIF-1 are extremely important targets of cancer therapy, particularly in therapy against refractory cancers. Imaging of the HIF-1-active microenvironment is therefore important for cancer therapy. To image HIF-1activity in vivo, we developed a PTD-ODD fusion protein, POHA, which was uniquely labeled with near-infrared fluorescent dye at the C-terminal. POHA has two functional domains: protein transduction domain (PTD) and VHL-mediated protein destruction motif in oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domain of the alpha subunit of HIF-1 (HIF-1?). It can therefore be delivered to the entire body and remain stabilized in the HIF-1-active cells. When it was intravenously injected into tumor-bearing mice, a tumor-specific fluorescence signal was detected in the tumor 6 h after the injection. These results suggest that POHA can be used an imaging probe for tumor malignancy.

Tanaka, Shotaro; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae; Hiraoka, Hasahiro

2009-02-01

215

Compendium of Tumor Immunotherapy Protocols.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The contents of the Compendium have been organized to permit rapid scanning. The protocol summaries are arranged in sections according to tumor groups, with the largest sections first. Within each section the protocols are sequenced by site of tumor and s...

1976-01-01

216

Malignant rhabdoid tumor of liver  

PubMed Central

Malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT) is a rare, but aggressive tumor commonly arising from the kidney in young children. Extrarenal MRT has been reported in the literature in various other sites including the liver, pelvis, CNS, abdomen, heart and other soft-tissues. Reported herein are the presentation, radiology, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, treatment and outcome of a 6 month infant with primary MRT of liver.

Agarwala, Sandeep; Jindal, Bibekanand; Jana, Manisha; Bhatnagar, Veereshwar; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Iyer, Venkateshwar K.

2014-01-01

217

TUMOR PROMOTION IN RAT LIVER  

EPA Science Inventory

An initiation promotion bioassay for chemical carcinogens and tumor promoters has been developed in rat liver using presumed preneoplastic lesions, foci of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGTase)-positive hepatocytes, as the endpoint. To evaluate the tumor-promoting activity of phe...

218

Endocrine tumors of the pancreas.  

PubMed

We have described the clinical presentation of the commonest syndromes associated with hormone production by functioning pancreatic tumors. The role of the radiologist in tumor localization, staging, and treatment is discussed and the various imaging methods employed are examined individually. The problems of reviewing the world literature on such rare lesions are discussed and a tentative diagnostic algorithm is suggested. PMID:2535685

Rossi, P; Allison, D J; Bezzi, M; Kennedy, A; Maccioni, F; Wynick, D; Maradei, A; Bloom, S R

1989-01-01

219

[Hereditary head and neck tumors].  

PubMed

Hereditary paraganglioma, Gorlin-Goltz syndrome and Fanconi anemia are among the rare hereditary tumor syndromes of the head and neck. Patients with hereditary paraganglioma often develop multiple tumors of the glomus caroticum and glomus jugulotympanicum. The corresponding genetic defects of the mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase complex induce autonomous tumor cell growth. In patients with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome basal cell carcinomas and keratocystic odontogenic tumors usually occur much earlier than in patients with sporadic tumors. The associated germline mutations are located in the patched gene which is a modulator of the cell cycle. Fanconi anemia represents a chromosomal instability syndrome which is characterized by early onset of pancytopenia, i.e. bone marrow failure and subsequent development of acute myeloid leukemia and/or squamous cell carcinomas, especially of the head and neck. A total of 13 different gene clusters have been identified in 2 DNA associated complexes which play an important role in DNA repair mechanisms. PMID:20844882

Schwarz-Furlan, S; Brase, C; Stockmann, P; Furlan, I; Hartmann, A

2010-10-01

220

[Intraductal papillary mucinous pancreas tumor].  

PubMed

Data of the literature on the epidemiology, patogenesis, diagnosis, peculiarities of the symptoms and the treatment of the intraduct papillar pancreatic tumor, are analyzed in this review. These tumors are rare, there are up to 1% of the exocrine pancreatic tumors. Intraduct proliferation of the mucin producing cells, that are disposed as papillars is typical of these tumors. There are the symptoms of the acute or chronic pancreatitis, sometimes the diagnosis of this tumor is accidental. The main diagnostic methods are ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT). Endoluminal ultrasound (EUS) and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) are the main methods to reveal the intraduct growth. The surgical treatment is necessary for these patients. PMID:19334451

Maev, I V; Kaziulin, A N; Kucheriavy?, Iu A

2008-01-01

221

The History of Tumor Virology  

PubMed Central

In the century since its inception, the field of tumor virology has provided groundbreaking insights into the causes of human cancer. Peyton Rous founded this scientific field in 1911 by discovering an avian virus that induced tumors in chickens; however, it took 40 years for the scientific community to comprehend the effect of this seminal finding. Later identification of mammalian tumor viruses in the 1930s by Richard Shope and John Bittner, and in the 1950s by Ludwik Gross, sparked the first intense interest in tumor virology by suggesting the possibility of a similar causal role for viruses in human cancers. This change in attitude opened the door in the 1960s and 1970s for the discovery of the first human tumor viruses—EBV, hepatitis B virus, and the papillomaviruses. Such knowledge proved instrumental to the development of the first cancer vaccines against cancers having an infectious etiology. Tumor virologists additionally recognized that viruses could serve as powerful discovery tools, leading to revolutionary breakthroughs in the 1970s and 1980s that included the concept of the oncogene, the identification of the p53 tumor suppressor, and the function of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor. The subsequent availability of more advanced molecular technologies paved the way in the 1980s and 1990s for the identification of additional human tumor viruses—human T-cell leukemia virus type 1, hepatitis C virus, and Kaposi’s sarcoma virus. In fact, current estimates suggest that viruses are involved in 15% to 20% of human cancers worldwide. Thus, viruses not only have been shown to represent etiologic agents for many human cancers but have also served as tools to reveal mechanisms that are involved in all human malignancies. This rich history promises that tumor virology will continue to contribute to our understanding of cancer and to the development of new therapeutic and preventive measures for this disease in the 21st century.

Javier, Ronald T.; Butel, Janet S.

2012-01-01

222

The history of tumor virology.  

PubMed

In the century since its inception, the field of tumor virology has provided groundbreaking insights into the causes of human cancer. Peyton Rous founded this scientific field in 1911 by discovering an avian virus that induced tumors in chickens; however, it took 40 years for the scientific community to comprehend the effect of this seminal finding. Later identification of mammalian tumor viruses in the 1930s by Richard Shope and John Bittner, and in the 1950s by Ludwik Gross, sparked the first intense interest in tumor virology by suggesting the possibility of a similar causal role for viruses in human cancers. This change in attitude opened the door in the 1960s and 1970s for the discovery of the first human tumor viruses--EBV, hepatitis B virus, and the papillomaviruses. Such knowledge proved instrumental to the development of the first cancer vaccines against cancers having an infectious etiology. Tumor virologists additionally recognized that viruses could serve as powerful discovery tools, leading to revolutionary breakthroughs in the 1970s and 1980s that included the concept of the oncogene, the identification of the p53 tumor suppressor, and the function of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor. The subsequent availability of more advanced molecular technologies paved the way in the 1980s and 1990s for the identification of additional human tumor viruses--human T-cell leukemia virus type 1, hepatitis C virus, and Kaposi's sarcoma virus. In fact, current estimates suggest that viruses are involved in 15% to 20% of human cancers worldwide. Thus, viruses not only have been shown to represent etiologic agents for many human cancers but have also served as tools to reveal mechanisms that are involved in all human malignancies. This rich history promises that tumor virology will continue to contribute to our understanding of cancer and to the development of new therapeutic and preventive measures for this disease in the 21st century. PMID:18829521

Javier, Ronald T; Butel, Janet S

2008-10-01

223

Advances in understanding pituitary tumors.  

PubMed

Pituitary tumors are common in the general population. Since neuroimaging techniques have improved, pituitary tumors are more often diagnosed incidentally. About 16.7% of the general population show changes in the pituitary gland. Predominantly, pituitary tumors are benign pituitary adenomas. Pituitary carcinomas or aggressive pituitary tumors are extremely rare. They might develop from benign adenomas. New genetic and epigenetic abnormalities help us to understand pituitary tumorigenesis and might lead to therapeutical targeting drugs in the future. Macroadenomas (>1 cm) can lead to visual field disturbances, compression of cranial nerves, hypopituitarism, and infiltration of the cavernous sinuses. The functional status of the pituitary tumor is important. About half to one third of all pituitary tumors are non-functioning pituitary adenomas. The other pituitary tumors show a specific pattern of hormone secretion. About 25% to 41% of all pituitary tumors are prolactinomas, acromegaly with production of growth hormone represents 10% to 15% of adenomas, Cushing's disease with production of adrenocorticotropic hormone accounts for 10%, and other hormonal characteristics are less common. Transsphenoidal resection and total adenomectomy are desirable. Radiosurgery has enriched the surgical treatment options. Surgical treatment is the intervention of choice except for prolactinomas, where pharmaceutical treatment is recommended. Pharmaceutical treatment consists of dopamine agonists such as cabergoline and somatostatin analogues that include octreotide and pasireotide; retinoic acid is of theoretical interest while peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma-ligands are not clinically useful. In acromegaly, pegvisomant is a further treatment option. Temozolomide should be considered in aggressive pituitary tumors. In general, pharmaceutical options developed recently have extended the repertoire of treatment possibilities of pituitary tumors. PMID:24592317

Kopczak, Anna; Renner, Ulrich; Karl Stalla, Günter

2014-01-01

224

Two-compartment tumor metabolism  

PubMed Central

Previously, we proposed a new paradigm to explain the compartment-specific role of autophagy in tumor metabolism. In this model, autophagy and mitochondrial dysfunction in the tumor stroma promotes cellular catabolism, which results in the production of recycled nutrients. These chemical building blocks and high-energy “fuels” would then drive the anabolic growth of tumors, via autophagy resistance and oxidative mitochondrial metabolism in cancer cells. We have termed this new form of stromal-epithelial metabolic coupling: “two-compartment tumor metabolism.” Here, we stringently tested this energy-transfer hypothesis, by genetically creating (1) constitutively autophagic fibroblasts, with mitochondrial dysfunction or (2) autophagy-resistant cancer cells, with increased mitochondrial function. Autophagic fibroblasts were generated by stably overexpressing key target genes that lead to AMP-kinase activation, such as DRAM and LKB1. Autophagy-resistant cancer cells were derived by overexpressing GOLPH3, which functionally promotes mitochondrial biogenesis. As predicted, DRAM and LKB1 overexpressing fibroblasts were constitutively autophagic and effectively promoted tumor growth. We validated that autophagic fibroblasts showed mitochondrial dysfunction, with increased production of mitochondrial fuels (L-lactate and ketone body accumulation). Conversely, GOLPH3 overexpressing breast cancer cells were autophagy-resistant, and showed signs of increased mitochondrial biogenesis and function, which resulted in increased tumor growth. Thus, autophagy in the tumor stroma and oxidative mitochondrial metabolism (OXPHOS) in cancer cells can both dramatically promote tumor growth, independently of tumor angiogenesis. For the first time, our current studies also link the DNA damage response in the tumor microenvironment with “Warburg-like” cancer metabolism, as DRAM is a DNA damage/repair target gene.

Salem, Ahmed F.; Whitaker-Menezes, Diana; Lin, Zhao; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E.; Tanowitz, Herbert B.; Al-Zoubi, Mazhar Salim; Howell, Anthony; Pestell, Richard G.; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P.

2012-01-01

225

Sorafenib Tosylate in Treating Patients With Progressive Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumors  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Gastrinoma; Glucagonoma; Insulinoma; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Neuroendocrine Tumor; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma; Somatostatinoma; WDHA Syndrome

2013-06-11

226

ABT-751 in Treating Young Patients With Refractory Solid Tumors  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors; Childhood Germ Cell Tumor; Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Kidney Cancer; Liver Cancer; Neuroblastoma; Ovarian Cancer; Sarcoma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

2012-03-14

227

Mixed tumor of paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma and an adenomatoid tumor in an elderly patient.  

PubMed

We report a case of a mixed tumor of paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma and an adenomatoid tumor in an elderly patient. Rhabdomyosarcoma is one of the most common childhood tumors; however, it rarely occurs in the elderly. In addition, to our knowledge, paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma and adenomatoid tumor rarely form mixed tumors. Finally, we consider the pathogenesis of diploblastic tumors. PMID:11992923

Ushida, Hiroshi; Shintaku, Masayuki; Maegawa, Masanobu; Maekawa, Shinya; Inoue, Kouji; Kaneko, Yoshiyuki; Ohmori, Kouhei; Babaya, Katuhiro; Nishimura, Kazuo

2002-05-01

228

Mixed tumor of paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma and an adenomatoid tumor in an elderly patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of a mixed tumor of paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma and an adenomatoid tumor in an elderly patient. Rhabdomyosarcoma is one of the most common childhood tumors; however, it rarely occurs in the elderly. In addition, to our knowledge, paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma and adenomatoid tumor rarely form mixed tumors. Finally, we consider the pathogenesis of diploblastic tumors.

Hiroshi Ushida; Masayuki Shintaku; Masanobu Maegawa; Shinya Maekawa; Kouji Inoue; Yoshiyuki Kaneko; Kouhei Ohmori; Katuhiro Babaya; Kazuo Nishimura

2002-01-01

229

What Is a Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor?  

MedlinePLUS

... about gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors? What is a gastrointestinal carcinoid tumor? The gastrointestinal system The gastrointestinal (GI) system ... find more information in our document Pancreatic Cancer . Carcinoid tumors Carcinoid is the term used to describe ...

230

What Happens After Treatment for Pituitary Tumors?  

MedlinePLUS

... tumors? Keeping medical insurance and copies of your medical records Lifestyle changes after having a pituitary tumor How ... Topic Keeping medical insurance and copies of your medical records What happens after treatment for pituitary tumors? For ...

231

Mixed glioneuronal tumor: a dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor with rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor component.  

PubMed

Neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors of the CNS show a wide spectrum of components. Here, we report an unusual case of brain tumor with combined histological features of dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT) and rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor (RGNT) in a 23-year-old man. It arose in the left anterior cingulate cortex with a pseudo-polycystic appearance on neuroimaging. Histological features contained the "specific glioneuronal element" mimicking DNT and the components of distinct neurocytic rosettes with a center of neuropil islands and pilocytic astrocytoma resembling RGNT. Although the mechanisms of mixed glioneuronal tumor are far from being well-known, their co-existence might suggest a possible etiologic relationship between DNT and RGNT. PMID:23163721

Xiong, Ji; Ding, LiLi; Chen, Hong; Chen, Haixia; Wang, Yin

2013-08-01

232

Biomarkers of pediatric brain tumors.  

PubMed

Background and Need for Novel Biomarkers: Brain tumors are the leading cause of death by solid tumors in children. Although improvements have been made in their radiological detection and treatment, our capacity to promptly diagnose pediatric brain tumors in their early stages remains limited. This contrasts several other cancers where serum biomarkers such as cancer antigen (CA) 19-9 and CA 125 facilitate early diagnosis and treatment. Aim: The aim of this article is to review the latest literature and highlight biomarkers which may be of clinical use in the common types of primary pediatric brain tumor. Methods: A PubMed search was performed to identify studies reporting biomarkers in the bodily fluids of pediatric patients with brain tumors. Details regarding the sample type [serum, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), or urine], biomarkers analyzed, methodology, tumor type, and statistical significance were recorded. Results: A total of 12 manuscripts reporting 19 biomarkers in 367 patients vs. 397 controls were identified in the literature. Of the 19 biomarkers identified, 12 were isolated from CSF, 2 from serum, 3 from urine, and 2 from multiple bodily fluids. All but one study reported statistically significant differences in biomarker expression between patient and control groups. Conclusion: This review identifies a panel of novel biomarkers for pediatric brain tumors. It provides a platform for the further studies necessary to validate these biomarkers and, in addition, highlights several techniques through which new biomarkers can be discovered. PMID:24400253

Russell, Mark D; Young, Adam M H; Karri, Surya K

2013-01-01

233

Tumor Targeting via Integrin Ligands.  

PubMed

Selective and targeted delivery of drugs to tumors is a major challenge for an effective cancer therapy and also to overcome the side-effects associated with current treatments. Overexpression of various receptors on tumor cells is a characteristic structural and biochemical aspect of tumors and distinguishes them from physiologically normal cells. This abnormal feature is therefore suitable for selectively directing anticancer molecules to tumors by using ligands that can preferentially recognize such receptors. Several subtypes of integrin receptors that are crucial for cell adhesion, cell signaling, cell viability, and motility have been shown to have an upregulated expression on cancer cells. Thus, ligands that recognize specific integrin subtypes represent excellent candidates to be conjugated to drugs or drug carrier systems and be targeted to tumors. In this regard, integrins recognizing the RGD cell adhesive sequence have been extensively targeted for tumor-specific drug delivery. Here we review key recent examples on the presentation of RGD-based integrin ligands by means of distinct drug-delivery systems, and discuss the prospects of such therapies to specifically target tumor cells. PMID:24010121

Marelli, Udaya Kiran; Rechenmacher, Florian; Sobahi, Tariq Rashad Ali; Mas-Moruno, Carlos; Kessler, Horst

2013-01-01

234

[Atrial tumors in cardiac MRI].  

PubMed

Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an important tool for the diagnosis of cardiac masses. Various cardiac tumors are predisposed to occurring in atrial structures. The aim of this review article is the description of atrial tumors and their morphological features in MRI. In general, cardiac tumors are rare: approximately 0.001 - 0.03 % in autopsy studies. About 75 % of them are benign. The most common cardiac tumor is the myxoma. They are predisposed to occur in the atria and show a characteristically strong hyperintense signal on T 2-wieghted images in MRI. In other sequences a heterogeneous pattern reflects its variable histological appearance. Lipomas exhibit a signal behavior identical to fatty tissue with a typical passive movement in cine imaging. Fibroelastomas are the most common tumors of the cardiac valves. Consisting of avascular fibrous tissue, they often present with hypointense signal intensities. Thrombi attached to their surface can cause severe emboli even in small tumors. Amongst primary cardiac malignancies, sarcomas are most common and favor the atria. Secondary malignancies of the heart are far more common than primary ones (20 - 40 times). In case of known malignancies, approximately 10 % of patients develop cardiac metastasis at the end of their disease. Lymphogenic metastases favor the pericardium, while hematogenic spread prefers the myocardium. Since they are not real atrial tumors, thrombi and anatomical structures of the atria have to be differentiated from other pathologies. PMID:19830642

Kraemer, N; Balzer, J C; Schoth, F; Neizel, M; Kuehl, H; Günther, R W; Krombach, G

2009-11-01

235

Ovarian tumors of the hen.  

PubMed Central

Present available information regarding ovarian tumors in hens is incomplete in most aspects, and this lack of knowledge hampers use of hens as models for study of ovarian cancer. A study of 466 hens ranging from 2 to 7 years of age and covering a period of more than 3 years has provided much needed information relative to reproductive tract neoplasia. On the basis of this study, it is apparent that hens have a high rate of ovarian tumors, but that such tumors are uncommon in hens less than 2 years of age. Adenocarcinomas with a high degree of morphologic variability are the most common ovarian tumors in hens. Hormonal imbalance does not appear to be a factor in the development of these adenocarcinomas. Steroidogenic and morphologically distinctive granulosa cell tumors originating from follicles in atrophic ovaries represent another common ovarian tumor type. Unique to the hen are oviductal adenocarcinomas. These tumors arise from the albumin-secreting glands of the oviduct, occur with relatively high frequency, and must be differentiated from ovarian adenocarcinomas. Images PLATE 1. PLATE 2. PLATE 3. PLATE 4. PLATE 5. PLATE 6. PLATE 7. PLATE 8. PLATE 9. PLATE 10. PLATE 11. PLATE 12. PLATE 13. PLATE 14. PLATE 15. PLATE 16. PLATE 17. PLATE 18. PLATE 19. PLATE 20. PLATE 21. PLATE 22. PLATE 23. PLATE 24. PLATE 25.

Fredrickson, T N

1987-01-01

236

Tumor Targeting via Integrin Ligands  

PubMed Central

Selective and targeted delivery of drugs to tumors is a major challenge for an effective cancer therapy and also to overcome the side-effects associated with current treatments. Overexpression of various receptors on tumor cells is a characteristic structural and biochemical aspect of tumors and distinguishes them from physiologically normal cells. This abnormal feature is therefore suitable for selectively directing anticancer molecules to tumors by using ligands that can preferentially recognize such receptors. Several subtypes of integrin receptors that are crucial for cell adhesion, cell signaling, cell viability, and motility have been shown to have an upregulated expression on cancer cells. Thus, ligands that recognize specific integrin subtypes represent excellent candidates to be conjugated to drugs or drug carrier systems and be targeted to tumors. In this regard, integrins recognizing the RGD cell adhesive sequence have been extensively targeted for tumor-specific drug delivery. Here we review key recent examples on the presentation of RGD-based integrin ligands by means of distinct drug-delivery systems, and discuss the prospects of such therapies to specifically target tumor cells.

Marelli, Udaya Kiran; Rechenmacher, Florian; Sobahi, Tariq Rashad Ali; Mas-Moruno, Carlos; Kessler, Horst

2013-01-01

237

Laser therapy in ocular tumors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The medical laser equipments made at NILPRP have been exploited intensively for more than 10 years at CMH. The availability and reliability of the first like-on equipment have increased, following improvements in optical delivery system and cooling circuit. This paper shows the impact of technical advances on the development of ophthalmologic laser therapy. Intraocular tumors pose special problems of diagnosis and treatment. Diagnostic methods include addition to systemic and ophthalmologic examinations, ancillary examinations, such as transillumination, fluorescence angiography, ultrasonography, radioactive phosphorus uptake tests, radiology, computerized tomography and fine-needle aspiration biopsy with cytological analyses. The enucleation of the involved eye used to be a generally accepted management of malignant tumors. Improved therapeutic methods such as photocoagulation and better surgical techniques now provide a variety of therapeutic alternatives. This study covers 31 cases of intraocular tumors that were managed either by Argon Laser photocoagulation and/or by Nd:YAG laser surgical treatment. Four cases were intraocular metastasse and 17 cases were primitive intraocular tumors. Argon laser therapy proved to be totally ineffective for intraocular metastasse but very adequate therapy for primitive tumors. Tumor extirpations (choroidal, cillary body or iris tumors) using Nd:YAG laser lancet proved to be more suitable than classic surgery.

Carstocea, Benone D.; Gafencu, Otilia L.; Apostol, Silvia; Ionita, Marcel A.; Moroseanu, A.; Dascalu, Traian; Lupei, Voicu; Ionita-Manzatu, V.

1998-07-01

238

Vestibular Schwannoma: spontaneous tumor involution.  

PubMed

The natural history of Vestibular Schwannomas (VS) is yet not totally known, but most of them have the tendency to slow growth, sometimes without any kind of symptoms during the individuals entire time. About 69% of diagnosed VS do not grow at all and 16% of these can even regress. Considering tumors that grow, about 70% have grown less than 2mm an year. Advanced radiological diagnosis, especially magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium helps us diagnose small and less symptomatic tumors. Treatment of choice still is complete tumor resection. Surgical approaches have improved considerably and have helped preserve facial nerve function and hearing. Considering VSs natural history, there is a possibility for conservative treatment for these tumors, because their growth in the first year after diagnosis predicts tumor growth behavior in the next years. Surgery should be done in cases of tumor growth, patients desire or symptoms worsening. Moreover, in terms of postoperative sequelae, there is no difference between patients who underwent surgery immediately after diagnosis and those who underwent initial conservative treatment for these tumors. PMID:18278239

Penido, Norma de Oliveira; Tangerina, Rodrigo P; Kosugi, Eduardo Macoto; Abreu, Carlos Eduardo Cesário de; Vasco, Matheus Brandão

2007-01-01

239

Biomarkers of Pediatric Brain Tumors  

PubMed Central

Background and Need for Novel Biomarkers: Brain tumors are the leading cause of death by solid tumors in children. Although improvements have been made in their radiological detection and treatment, our capacity to promptly diagnose pediatric brain tumors in their early stages remains limited. This contrasts several other cancers where serum biomarkers such as cancer antigen (CA) 19-9 and CA 125 facilitate early diagnosis and treatment. Aim: The aim of this article is to review the latest literature and highlight biomarkers which may be of clinical use in the common types of primary pediatric brain tumor. Methods: A PubMed search was performed to identify studies reporting biomarkers in the bodily fluids of pediatric patients with brain tumors. Details regarding the sample type [serum, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), or urine], biomarkers analyzed, methodology, tumor type, and statistical significance were recorded. Results: A total of 12 manuscripts reporting 19 biomarkers in 367 patients vs. 397 controls were identified in the literature. Of the 19 biomarkers identified, 12 were isolated from CSF, 2 from serum, 3 from urine, and 2 from multiple bodily fluids. All but one study reported statistically significant differences in biomarker expression between patient and control groups. Conclusion: This review identifies a panel of novel biomarkers for pediatric brain tumors. It provides a platform for the further studies necessary to validate these biomarkers and, in addition, highlights several techniques through which new biomarkers can be discovered.

Russell, Mark D.; Young, Adam M. H.; Karri, Surya K.

2013-01-01

240

Protons make tumor cells move like clockwork  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer accounts for 13% of the yearly total mortality worldwide. Most cancer deaths are the sequel of metastatic diseases\\u000a rather than of primary tumor growth. Thus, the major challenge in tumor therapy is the tumor cells’ ability to metastasize.\\u000a The extent to which a tumor metastasizes correlates with the tumor cells’ migratory activity. Tumor cell migration requires\\u000a a coordinated formation

Christian Stock; Albrecht Schwab

2009-01-01

241

Primary tumors and tumor-like lesions of the clavicle.  

PubMed

Fifty eight patients seen at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center over a 50-year period were reviewed for lesions of the clavicle. A variety of malignant neoplasms, benign neoplasms, and tumor-like lesions were seen. There were 30 malignant neoplasms, the commonest of which were plasmacytomas, osteosarcomas, and Ewing sarcomas. There were five postradiation sarcomas. An unusual granulocytic sarcoma with dense sclerosis was described. Among the benign lesions were two osteochondromas, two hemangiomas, and a giant cell tumor secondary to Paget disease. The tumor-like lesions included six aneurysmal bone cysts and five eosinophilic granulomas. There were two patients with chronic sclerosing osteomyelitis and one each with sternocostoclavicular hyperostosis (Sonozaki syndrome) and condensing osteitis. An unusually large lesion of pseudogout and a large brown tumor were also included in the series. PMID:3062792

Smith, J; Yuppa, F; Watson, R C

1988-01-01

242

Treatment for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GISTs) Based on Tumor Spread  

MedlinePLUS

... these factors, adjuvant treatment with the targeted drug imatinib (Gleevec) is typically recommended for at least a ... recommend giving patients at least 3 years of imatinib. For some very small tumors (less than 2 ...

243

Primary bone tumors of adulthood  

PubMed Central

Imaging plays a crucial role in the evaluation of primary bone tumors in adults. Initial radiographic evaluation is indicated in all cases with suspected primary bone tumors. Radiographs are useful for providing the diagnosis, a short list of differential diagnosis or at least indicating the degree of aggressiveness of the lesion. More detailed information about the lesion, such as cortical destruction or local spread, can be obtained using cross-sectional imaging techniques such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. This article discusses the characteristic features of the more common primary bone tumors of adulthood, and also the pre-treatment evaluation and staging of these lesions using imaging techniques.

Teo, Harvey E L; Peh, Wilfred C G

2004-01-01

244

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors in childhood.  

PubMed

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare tumor of intermediate malignant potential that can occur anywhere in the body. Surgical resection is the principal treatment. We report on nine children diagnosed with IMT at our institution over a 10-year period. Presenting symptoms were reflective of tumor location. Complete surgical resection was curative. Local recurrence occurred in the presence of involved surgical margins. One patient with metastatic disease achieved long-term remission with chemotherapy alone. Severe inflammatory response and death occurred in one patient. The 3-year event free and overall survivals (OS) were 58 ± 20% and 89 ± 10% respectively. PMID:23988029

Mehta, Bhakti; Mascarenhas, Leo; Zhou, Shengmei; Wang, Larry; Venkatramani, Rajkumar

2013-10-01

245

Modification of tumor response by manipulation of tumor oxygenation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) requires tissue oxygenation during light irradiation. Tumor hypoxia, either pre-existing or induced by PDT during light irradiation, can severely hamper the effectiveness of a PDT treatment. Lowering the light irradiation does rate or fractionating a light dose may improve cell kill of PDT induced hypoxic cells, but will have no effects on pre-existing hypoxic cells. In the current study, we used hyper-oxygenation during PDT to overcome cell hypoxia in PDT. C3H mice with transplanted mammary carcinoma tumor were injected with 12.5 mg/kg Photofrin and irradiated with 630 nm laser light 24 hours later. Tumor oxygenation was manipulated by subjecting the animals to 3 a.t.p. hyperbaric oxygen or normobaric oxygen during PDT light irradiation. The results show a significant improvement in tumor response when PDT was delivered during hyper-oxygenation. With hyper-oxygenation, up to 80% of treated tumors showed no re-growth after 60 days. In comparison, only 20% of tumors treated while animals breathed normal room air, did not re-grow. To quantitatively evaluate the effects of manipulating tumor oxygenation, tumor p02 was measured with microelectrodes positioned in pre-existing hypoxic regions before and during the PDT light irradiation. The results show that hyper-oxygenation may oxygenate pre-existing hypoxic cells and compensate oxygen depletion induced by PDT light irradiation. In conclusion, hyper-oxygenation may provide effective ways to improve PDT treatment efficiency by oxygenating both pre-existing and treatment induced cell hypoxia.

Chen, Qun; Beckers, Jill; Hetzel, Fred W.

1999-07-01

246

Brain tumor epidemiology: consensus from the Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium.  

PubMed

Epidemiologists in the Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC) have prioritized areas for further research. Although many risk factors have been examined over the past several decades, there are few consistent findings, possibly because of small sample sizes in individual studies and differences between studies in patients, tumor types, and methods of classification. Individual studies generally have lacked samples of sufficient size to examine interactions. A major priority based on available evidence and technologies includes expanding research in genetics and molecular epidemiology of brain tumors. BTEC has taken an active role in promoting understudied groups, such as pediatric brain tumors; the etiology of rare glioma subtypes, such as oligodendroglioma; and meningioma, which, although it is not uncommon, has only recently been registered systematically in the United States. There also is a pressing need for more researchers, especially junior investigators, to study brain tumor epidemiology. However, relatively poor funding for brain tumor research has made it difficult to encourage careers in this area. In this report, BTEC epidemiologists reviewed the group's consensus on the current state of scientific findings, and they present a consensus on research priorities to identify which important areas the science should move to address. PMID:18798534

Bondy, Melissa L; Scheurer, Michael E; Malmer, Beatrice; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Davis, Faith G; Il'yasova, Dora; Kruchko, Carol; McCarthy, Bridget J; Rajaraman, Preetha; Schwartzbaum, Judith A; Sadetzki, Siegal; Schlehofer, Brigitte; Tihan, Tarik; Wiemels, Joseph L; Wrensch, Margaret; Buffler, Patricia A

2008-10-01

247

Comprehensive management of head and neck tumors, volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This book consists of 14 parts, each containing several papers. The parts are: General Considerations in the Management of Patients with Head and Neck Tumors, Tumors of the Ear, Tumors of the Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinuses, Tumors of the Oral Cavity, Tumors of the Pharynx, Tumors of the Larynx, Tumors of the Skin, Dental and Jaw Tumors, Tumors of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands, Tumors of the Trachea, Tumors of the Eye, Orbit, and Lacrimal Apparatus, and Special Topics.

Thawley, S.E.; Panje, W.R.

1987-01-01

248

Circulating tumor cells.  

PubMed

Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) can be separated and characterized from normal hematopoietic cellular constituents by a variety of methods. Different strategies have included separation by physical characteristics, such as size or weight, or by biological characteristics, such as expression of epithelial or cancer-specific markers. Of the latter, rtPCR for epithelial-related gene message, such as cytokeratin, and immunoseparation techniques using monoclonal antibodies against epithelial cellular adhesion molecule, have gained the most widespread use in investigational and standard clinical application to date. Detection and monitoring of CTCs might be useful for screening, prognosis, prediction of response to therapy, or monitoring clinical course in patients with primary or metastatic cancer. Currently, monitoring patients with metastatic disease is the most practical application of CTCs. In this regard, several studies have demonstrated that approximately 50-70% of patients with metastatic breast, colon, and prostate cancers have elevated CTC levels, when evaluated using a highly automated immunomagnetic CTC assay system, designated CellSearch®. These studies demonstrate that elevated CTC levels prior to initiation of a new systemic therapy are associated with a worse prognosis than those that do not, and that persistently elevated or subsequent rising CTC levels strongly suggest that the therapeutic regimen with which the patient is being treated is not working. Similar results have been shown with rtPCR assays, although they are not as widely available for routine clinical use. New areas of research are directed toward developing more sensitive means of CTC detection and generating a variety of methods to characterize the molecular and biologic nature of CTCs, such as the status of hormone receptors, epidermal, and other growth factor receptor family members, and indications of stem-cell characteristics. PMID:21075330

Hayes, Daniel F; Smerage, Jeffrey B

2010-01-01

249

Selectins promote tumor metastasis.  

PubMed

Cancer metastasis is facilitated by cell-cell interactions between cancer cells and endothelial cells in distant tissues. In addition, cancer cell interactions with platelets and leukocytes contribute to cancer cell adhesion, extravasation, and the establishment of metastatic lesions. Selectins are carbohydrate-binding molecules that bind to sialylated, fucosylated glycan structures, and are found on endothelial cells, platelets and leukocytes. There are three members of the selectin family: P-selectin expressed on activated platelets and endothelial cells, L-selectin present on leukocytes and E-selectin expressed on activated endothelial cells. Besides the accepted roles of selectins in physiological processes, such as inflammation, immune response and hemostasis, there is accumulating evidence for the potential of selectins to contribute to a number of pathophysiological processes, including cancer metastasis. Cancer cell interactions with selectins are possible due to a frequent presence of carbohydrate determinants--selectin ligands on the cell surface of tumor cells from various type of cancer. The degree of selectin ligand expression by cancer cells is well correlated with metastasis and poor prognosis for cancer patients. Initial adhesion events of cancer cells facilitated by selectins result in activation of integrins, release of chemokines and are possibly associated with the formation of permissive metastatic microenvironment. While E-selectin has been evaluated as one of the initiating adhesion events during metastasis, it is becoming apparent that P-selectin and L-selectin-mediated interactions significantly contribute to this process as well. In this review we discuss the current evidence for selectins as potential facilitators of metastasis. PMID:20452433

Läubli, Heinz; Borsig, Lubor

2010-06-01

250

Genetics Home Reference: Desmoid tumor  

MedlinePLUS

... the condition is sometimes called hereditary desmoid disease. Where can I find information about diagnosis or management ... genetics professional in my area? in the Handbook. Where can I find additional information about desmoid tumor? ...

251

[Tumors of the glomus caroticum].  

PubMed

From 1952 to 1982 15 patients (6 male, 9 female) with 20 carotid body tumors have been treated in the surgical departments of the universities of Berlin and Heidelberg. A recurrent tumor occurred in 3 patients, in one case appeared a further recurrence. Two patients presented with a tumor of the glomus jugulare as well as the tumors of the carotid body and with a familial accumulation. While still in the 60's the surgical procedure was in doubt due to high complications and lethality rates today, because of the progress in carotid surgery with the insertion of an intraluminal shunt, the operation is recommended without risk. An important part plays a certain preoperative diagnosis through the B-mode sonography for the operative strategy. PMID:6713995

Linder, F; Wagner, M; Allenberg, J; Koffler, M

1984-01-01

252

Percutaneous Ablation of Adrenal Tumors  

PubMed Central

Adrenal tumors comprise a broad spectrum of benign and malignant neoplasms, and include functional adrenal adenomas, pheochromocytomas, primary adrenocortical carcinoma and adrenal metastases. Percutaneous ablative approaches that have been described and used in the treatment of adrenal tumors include percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA), cryoablation, microwave ablation and chemical ablation. Local tumor ablation in the adrenal gland presents unique challenges, secondary to the adrenal gland’s unique anatomic and physiologic features. The results of clinical series employing percutaneous ablative techniques in the treatment of adrenal tumors are reviewed in this article. Clinical and technical considerations unique to ablation in the adrenal gland are presented, including approaches commonly used in our practices, and risks and potential complications are discussed.

Venkatesan, Aradhana M.; Locklin, Julia; Dupuy, Damian E.; Wood, Bradford J.

2010-01-01

253

Primary tumors of the spine.  

PubMed

Spinal tumors consist of a large spectrum of various histologic entities. Multiple spinal lesions frequently represent known metastatic disease or lymphoproliferative disease. In solitary lesions primary neoplasms of the spine should be considered. Primary spinal tumors may arise from the spinal cord, the surrounding leptomeninges, or the extradural soft tissues and bony structures. A wide variety of benign neoplasms can involve the spine including enostosis, osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, aneurysmal bone cyst, giant cell tumor, and osteochondroma. Common malignant primary neoplasms are chordoma, chondrosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma or primitive neuroectodermal tumor, and osteosarcoma. Although plain radiographs may be useful to characterize some spinal lesions, magnetic resonance imaging is indispensable to determine the extension and the relationship with the spinal canal and nerve roots, and thus determine the plan of management. In this article we review the characteristic imaging features of extradural spinal lesions. PMID:24896744

Orguc, Sebnem; Arkun, Remide

2014-07-01

254

[Adnexal skin tumors, gigantic dimensions].  

PubMed

Adnexal skin tumors are rare and mostly not common. Their appearance are atypical and only histologically to save. 2 cases were demonstrated with impressing extension demanding a complex surgical approach. PMID:23129411

Halbach, E; La Forza, F; Schepler, H

2012-12-01

255

Adult Brain Tumors (PDQ): Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... used to diagnose tumors in the spinal cord. SPECT scan (single photon emission computed tomography scan) : A ... done just before or after a CT scan. SPECT is used to tell the difference between a ...

256

Fibrinolysis in Tumor Associated Angiogenesis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Angiogenesis has been shown 0 be necessary for tumor growth and metastasis but specific targets for antiangiogenic therapy in breast cancer have not been identified. Patient samples, a tissue assay of angiogenesis with a mammary vessel explant, and xenogr...

S. W. McLeskey

2003-01-01

257

Markers of bile duct tumors  

PubMed Central

Biliary tract carcinomas are relatively rare, representing less than 1% of cancers. However, their incidence has increased in Japan and in industrialized countries like the USA. Biliary tract tumors have a poor prognosis and a high mortality rate because they are usually detected late in the course of the disease; therapeutic treatment options are often limited and of minimal utility. Recent studies have shown the importance of serum and molecular markers in the diagnosis and follow up of biliary tract tumors. This review aims to introduce the main features of the most important serum and molecular markers of biliary tree tumors. Some considerable tumor markers are cancer antigen 125, carbohydrate antigen 19-9, carcinoembryonic antigen, chromogranin A, mucin 1, mucin 5, alpha-fetoprotein, claudins and cytokeratins.

Malaguarnera, Giulia; Giordano, Maria; Paladina, Isabella; Rando, Alessandra; Uccello, Mario; Basile, Francesco; Biondi, Antonio; Carnazzo, Santo; Alessandria, Innocenza; Mazzarino, Clorinda

2011-01-01

258

Delivering nanomedicine to solid tumors  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in nanotechnology have offered new hope for cancer detection, prevention, and treatment. While the enhanced permeability and retention effect has served as a key rationale for using nanoparticles to treat solid tumors, it does not enable uniform delivery of these particles to all regions of tumors in sufficient quantities. This heterogeneous distribution of therapeutics is a result of physiological barriers presented by the abnormal tumor vasculature and interstitial matrix. These barriers are likely to be responsible for the modest survival benefit offered by many FDA-approved nanotherapeutics and must be overcome for the promise of nanomedicine in patients to be realized. Here, we review these barriers to the delivery of cancer therapeutics and summarize strategies that have been developed to overcome these barriers. Finally, we discuss design considerations for optimizing the delivery of nanoparticles to tumors.

Jain, Rakesh K.; Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos

2011-01-01

259

Brain tumor survivors speak out.  

PubMed

Although progress has been made in the treatment of childhood brain tumors,work remains to understand the complexities of disease, treatment, and contextual factors that underlie individual differences in outcome. A combination of both an idiographic approach (incorporating observations made by adult survivors of childhood brain tumors) and a nomothetic approach (reviewing the literature for brain tumor survivors as well as childhood cancer survivors) is presented. Six areas of concern are reviewed from both an idiographic and nomothetic perspective, including social/emotional adjustment, insurance, neurocognitive late effects, sexuality and relationships, employment, and where survivors accessed information about their disease and treatment and possible late effects. Guidelines to assist health care professionals working with childhood brain tumor survivors are offered with the goal of improving psychosocial and neurocognitive outcomes in this population. PMID:19837957

Carlson-Green, Bonnie

2009-01-01

260

Brown tumors mimicking bone metastases.  

PubMed Central

Brown tumors are rare skeletal manifestations of hyperparathyroidism (HPT) that may mimic cancer metastasis. Here, we present a 52-year-old woman with HPT and multiple foci of technetium uptake due to brown tumors on bone scintigraphy. Screening tests were negative for cancer and serum parathormon (PTH) measurement; parathyroid ultrasonography and scintigraphy suggested HPT. A chief cell adenoma in right and hyperplasia in the left parathyroid glands were surgically removed after which hungry bone syndrome emerged. Biopsy of the femur lesion during an open reduction with fixation operation due to a fracture established the diagnosis of a brown tumor. Brown tumors are important to consider in the evaluation of patients presenting with multiple foci of uptake on bone scanning and without an established primary neoplasm. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4

Meydan, Nezih; Barutca, Sabri; Guney, Engin; Boylu, Sukru; Savk, Oner; Culhaci, Nil; Ayhan, Mediha

2006-01-01

261

Current Management of Wilms’ Tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wilms’ tumor is the most common malignant renal tumor in children. Survival has improved dramatically over time as a result\\u000a of prospective randomized clinical trials conducted by the pediatric cooperative cancer groups. Current research is directed\\u000a toward identifying low-risk patients for whom a reduction in treatment intensity would decrease long-term morbidity. This\\u000a article reviews the most recent advances in the

Leah Nakamura; Michael Ritchey

2010-01-01

262

Tumors of the Skull Base  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The skull base is affected by a wide range of tumor pathologies. They are often slow-growing, benign, extra-axial tumors that\\u000a cause symptoms by involvement of the cranial nerves or a mass effect on the brain stem and cerebellum. They are often located\\u000a in critical areas within the cranium that are especially hard to reach with routine surgical techniques. Involvement of

Kadir Erkmen; Ossama Al-Mefty; Badih Adada

263

Skull Base Tumors: Surgery Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Tumors of the skull base are frequently intimately involved with surrounding critical neurovascular structures, which makes\\u000a complete resection difficult. Because tumors of the skull base can extend into adjacent compartments, both intracranial and\\u000a extracranial structures can be involved. Thus, a multidisciplinary approach is required for optimal surgical management. Because\\u000a of advancements in microsurgical techniques, modern skull base approaches, electrophysiologic monitoring,

James K. Liu; Oren N. Gottfried; William T. Couldwell

264

Vascular tumors of the orbit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty-five vascular lesions of the orbit examined and treated between 1963–1993 were reviewed retrospectively to reveal the types of vascular tumors, age and sex distribution, clinical characteristics, treatment options and prognosis. Capillary hemangioma was the most frequent orbital vascular tumor accounting for 37 of 85 cases making up 43.5% of the entire orbital masses. Cavernous hemangioma accounted for 35 cases

Ilhan Günalp; Kaan Gündüz

1995-01-01

265

Regional Therapy of Bladder Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The urinary bladder is an ideal organ for local topical treament. Numerous agents have been instilled intravesically during\\u000a the last century to decrease bladder tumor recurrence and prevent progression and subsequent patient mortality. Today, intravesical\\u000a immunotherapy with BCG and chemotherapy are routinely used as an adjunct to surgical resection of superficial bladder tumors.\\u000a Photodynamic therapy with different photosensitizers and thermotherapy

Ingo Kausch; Dieter Jocham

266

Is PML a Tumor Suppressor?  

PubMed Central

The role of the promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein has been widely tested in many different contexts, as attested by the hundreds of papers present in the literature. In most of these studies, PML is regarded as a tumor suppressor, a notion on the whole accepted by the scientific community. In this review, we examine how the concept of tumor-suppressor gene has evolved until now and then systematically assess whether this assumption for PML is supported by unambiguous experimental evidence.

Mazza, Massimiliano; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe

2013-01-01

267

Tumor formations in scleractinian corals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A highly localized incidence of skeletal malformations (tumors) in the scleractinian corals Platygyra pini and P. sinensis on an inshore fringing reef at Cockle Bay, Magnetic Island within the Great Barrier Reef province is reported. These tumors are typified by a localized area of increased growth rate resulting in roughly circular protuberances extending up to 4.5 cm above the colony's surface. In both species, similar proportions of their populations carried tumors (24.1 % in P. pini and 18.7 % in P. sinensis). Larger colonies (>80 cm in diameter) are at least 7 times more likely to possess tumors than smaller colonies (<40 cm in diameter). X-radiographs of the skeletal malformations indicate a point of origin, presumably from a single budded polyp with subsequent, localized, accelerated growth. The mean radial growth rate of the tumorous area was 29 % greater than that of the surrounding normal regions. In contrast to the normal tissue, the tumorous tissue exhibited proliferation of cells, atrophied gastrodermal cells and mesenterial filaments which were larger and disordered in structure. The environmental conditions at Cockle Bay are relatively extreme with high turbidity, periodic exposure of the reef flat, abrupt changes in salinity during the wet season and mechanical damage to corals caused by unpredictable cyclonic storms. It is suggested that a combination of environmental stresses coupled with an injury inflicted on the corals are possible stimuli that initiate the development of these abnormal growth through either bacterial attack or the development of an aberrant polyp during tissue repair.

Loya, Y.; Bull, G.; Pichon, M.

1984-03-01

268

Primary intracranial germ cell tumors  

PubMed Central

Background: Primary intracranial germ cell tumors are rare (ICGCTs) and usually localized in the pineal and suprasellar regions of the brain. They are divided into histologic types: Germinoma, teratoma choriocarcinoma, embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac tumor, and malignant mixed germ cell tumors (MMGCTs). Neuroimaging evaluation is useful to distinguish between the types of ICGCTs. Germinoma is highly sensitive to radiotherapy or/and chemotherapy, and is potentially curable without surgery. MMGCTs are treated with the combination of chemotherapy and radiation, with a poorer prognosis. ICGCTs warrant correct pre-operative diagnosis in order to decide on appropriate management. Aim: To report the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical findings in three cases of primary intracranial germ-cell tumor. Materials and Methods: Three cases of intracranial germ cell tumors inclusive of both genders and all brain regions were retrieved from the archives of the Anatomical Pathology Department at King Abdul Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah between the years, 1995-2011, through a computerized search. Results: Based on histological examination, they were respectively diagnosed as MMGCTs (two cases) and germinoma. Clinical, radiological, pathological characteristics and immunohistochemical profile of the three ICGCTs are presented along with the review of recent literature. Conclusion: ICGCTs are rare tumors affecting males more than females, and at the end of three years follow-up in the present study, treatment morbidity appears to be low with no recurrence observed among surviving patients, indicating that suprasellar and basal ganglia ICGCTs may have a favorable prognosis regardless of histological type. Pineal MMGCTs may have an aggressive course.

Mufti, Shagufta Tahir; Jamal, Awatif

2012-01-01

269

Unraveling tumor grading and genomic landscape in lung neuroendocrine tumors.  

PubMed

Currently, grading in lung neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) is inherently defined by the histological classification based on cell features, mitosis count, and necrosis, for which typical carcinoids (TC) are low-grade malignant tumors with long life expectation, atypical carcinoids (AC) intermediate-grade malignant tumors with more aggressive clinical behavior, and large cell NE carcinomas (LCNEC) and small cell lung carcinomas (SCLC) high-grade malignant tumors with dismal prognosis. While Ki-67 antigen labeling index, highlighting the proportion of proliferating tumor cells, has largely been used in digestive NETs for assessing prognosis and assisting therapy decisions, the same marker does not play an established role in the diagnosis, grading, and prognosis of lung NETs. Next generation sequencing techniques (NGS), thanks to their astonishing ability to process in a shorter timeframe up to billions of DNA strands, are radically revolutionizing our approach to diagnosis and therapy of tumors, including lung cancer. When applied to single genes, panels of genes, exome, or the whole genome by using either frozen or paraffin tissues, NGS techniques increase our understanding of cancer, thus realizing the bases of precision medicine. Data are emerging that TC and AC are mainly altered in chromatin remodeling genes, whereas LCNEC and SCLC are also mutated in cell cycle checkpoint and cell differentiation regulators. A common denominator to all lung NETs is a deregulation of cell proliferation, which represents a biological rationale for morphologic (mitoses and necrosis) and molecular (Ki-67 antigen) parameters to successfully serve as predictors of tumor behavior (i.e., identification of pathological entities with clinical correlation). It is envisaged that a novel grading system in lung NETs based on the combined assessment of mitoses, necrosis, and Ki-67 LI may offer a better stratification of prognostic classes, realizing a bridge between molecular alterations, morphological features, and clinical behavior. PMID:24771462

Pelosi, Giuseppe; Papotti, Mauro; Rindi, Guido; Scarpa, Aldo

2014-06-01

270

Recent Patents Relating to Tumor Suppressor Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers in the field of tumor suppressor genes are actively attempting to discover new tumor suppressor genes and\\/or characterize known tumor suppressor genes with the intention of treating and diagnosing cancers. A number of recent patents and patent applications have been published that discuss some of these discoveries. Some of the patents and patent applications discuss newly discovered tumor suppressor

Jason J. Derry; Yijan E. Chang

2007-01-01

271

Current management of Wilms’ tumor in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeWilms’ tumor is the most common renal tumor in children. Outcomes have improved dramatically over the past few decades, but important treatment questions remain. These include the role of molecular biologic markers in stratifying patients for therapy or targeting tumors for treatment. We present a summary of these advances and outline the current treatment of Wilm's tumor.

Edmund Y. Ko; Michael L. Ritchey

2009-01-01

272

Matrix metalloproteinases in tumor invasion and metastasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive work on the mechanisms of tumor invasion and metastasis has identified matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) as key players in the events that underlie tumor dissemination. Studies using natural and synthetic MMP inhibitors, as well as tumor cells transfected with cDNAs encoding the MMPs characterized thus far have provided compelling evidence that MMP activity can induce or enhance tumor survival, invasion

Ivan Stamenkovic

2000-01-01

273

Tumor Vaccination With Cytokine-Loaded Microspheres.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A single intra-tumoral injection of IL-12 + GM-CSF-encapsulated microspheres promoted the suppression of primary tumor growth prevented the development of additional tumors and extended survival in the her2-neu transgenic FVB/neuN murine mammary tumor mod...

N. K. Egilmez

2005-01-01

274

Brainstem Tumors: Where Are We Today?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brainstem tumors comprise 10–20% of all pediatric central nervous system tumors. The management of these tumors has evolved dramatically in the past century. Once considered uniformly fatal, it is now known that brainstem tumors have distinguishing characteristics and do not behave identically. The focality and location of the lesion is determined from the clinical history, presentation, and associated imaging. Based

Pablo F. Recinos; Daniel M. Sciubba; George I. Jallo

2007-01-01

275

Tumor-Infiltrating Immune Cells: Triggers for Tumor Capsule Disruption and Tumor Progression?  

PubMed Central

Background: Our previous studies of human breast and prostate cancer have shown that aberrant immune cell infiltration is associated with focal tumor capsule disruption and tumor cell budding that facilitate invasion and metastasis. Our current study attempted to determine whether aberrant immune cell infiltration would have similar impact on colorectal cancer (CRC). Materials and Methods: Tissue sections from 100 patients with primary CRC were assessed for the frequencies of focal basement membrane (BM) disruption, muscularis mucosa (MM) fragmentation, and tumor cell dissemination in epithelial structures adjacent and distal to infiltrating lymphoid aggregates using a panel of biomarkers and quantitative digital imaging. Results: Our study revealed: (1) epithelial structures adjacent to lymphoid follicles or aggregates had a significantly higher (p<0.001) frequency of focally disrupted BM, dissociated epithelial cells in the stroma, disseminated epithelial cells within lymphatic ducts or blood vessels, and fragmented MM than their distal counterparts, (2) a majority of dissociated epithelial cells within the stroma or vascular structures were immediately subjacent to or physically associated with infiltrating immune cells, (3) the junctions of pre-invasive and invasive lesions were almost exclusively located at sites adjacent to lymphoid follicles or aggregates, (4) infiltrating immune cells were preferentially associated with epithelial capsules that show distinct degenerative alterations, and (5) infiltrating immune cells appeared to facilitate tumor stem cell proliferation, budding, and dissemination. Conclusions: Aberrant immune cell infiltration may have the same destructive impact on the capsule of all epithelium-derived tumors. This, in turn, may selectively favor the proliferation of tumor stem or progenitor cells overlying these focal disruptions. These proliferating epithelial tumor cells subsequently disseminate from the focal disruption leading to tumor invasion and metastasis.

Jiang, Bin; Mason, Jeffrey; Jewett, Anahid; Liu, Min-ling; Chen, Wen; Qian, Jun; Ding, Yijiang; Ding, Shuqing; Ni, Min; Zhang, Xichen; Man, Yan-gao

2013-01-01

276

Heparanase promotes lymphangiogenesis and tumor invasion in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.  

PubMed

Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are an important and abundant component of the extracellular matrix, which undergo substantial remodeling throughout tumorigenesis via the enzymatic activity of heparanase. Heparanase has been shown to be upregulated in many human cancers; however, its specific functions in human pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) and spontaneous mouse models of cancer have not been evaluated. Here, we investigated the role of heparanase in PanNETs using patient samples and the RIP1-Tag2 (RT2) PanNET-transgenic mouse model. High heparanase expression significantly correlated with more advanced tumor stage, higher tumor grade and the presence of distant metastasis in PanNET patients. We genetically manipulated heparanase levels in the RT2 model using heparanase-transgenic mice, which constitutively overexpress heparanase, and heparanase-knockout mice. Heparanase was found to have a critical role in promoting tumor invasion, through both macrophage and cancer cell sources in the tumor microenvironment. In addition, elevated heparanase levels significantly increased peritumoral lymphangiogenesis in vivo and promoted the trans-differentiation of macrophages into lymphatic endothelial cell-like structures in culture. Conversely, we found that heparanase deletion led to increased angiogenesis and pericyte coverage. Together, these data identify important roles for heparanase in regulating several critical aspects of tumorigenesis, demonstrating that heparanase represents a potential therapeutic target for PanNET patients. PMID:23644656

Hunter, K E; Palermo, C; Kester, J C; Simpson, K; Li, J-P; Tang, L H; Klimstra, D S; Vlodavsky, I; Joyce, J A

2014-04-01

277

Mammary gland tumors in captive African hedgehogs.  

PubMed

From December 1995 to July 1999, eight mammary gland tumors were diagnosed in eight adult captive female African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris). The tumors presented as single or multiple subcutaneous masses along the cranial or caudal abdomen that varied in size for each hedgehog. Histologically, seven of eight (88%) mammary gland tumors were malignant. Tumors were classified as solid (4 cases), tubular (2 cases), and papillary (2 cases). Seven tumors had infiltrated into the surrounding stroma and three tumors had histologic evidence of neoplastic vascular invasion. Three hedgehogs had concurrent neoplasms. These are believed to be the first reported cases of mammary gland tumors in African hedgehogs. PMID:10813628

Raymond, J T; Gerner, M

2000-04-01

278

Myeloid cell trafficking and tumor angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Tumor growth and metastasis depend on neovascularization, the growth of new blood vessels. Recent findings have revealed that tumor neovascularization is regulated in part by monocytes, which are myeloid lineage cells from the bone marrow. Tumors exhibit significant monocyte infiltrates, which are actively recruited to the tumor microenvironment. Upon tumor infiltration, monocytes can participate in tumor neovascularization. Monocytes can either differentiate into macrophages, which express proangiogenic growth factors, or into endothelial-like cells, which may directly participate in neovascularization. Preliminary studies in animals suggest that modulation of bone marrow derived cell trafficking into tumors will provide a useful new approach in cancer therapy.

Schmid, Michael; Varner, Judith A.

2011-01-01

279

Diagnostic immunohistochemistry of neuroblastic tumors.  

PubMed

Eighteen commercially available antibodies were applied to formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded neuroblastomas (NBLs, n = 20), ganglioneuroblastomas (GNBLs, n = 7), and ganglioneuromas (GNs, n = 7) to assess their reliability as markers for neuroendocrine differentiation and degree of tumor cell maturation. Incubations with a monoclonal antibody to neuron-specific enolase resulted in positive reactions in all tumors, with consistently strong staining intensities in moderate and well-differentiated NBLs, GNBLs, and GNs. Antibodies to dopamine beta-hydroxylase and protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 reacted with all tumors except two NBLs. Among the antibodies directed to chromogranins and related proteins, HISL19 was most reliable (33/34) followed by endocrine granule constituent (EGC) (30/34), chromogranin A (LK2H10) (21/34), and chromogranin A + B (CGA + B) (19/34), in proving the existence of endocrine granules in tumor cells and Neurofilament (70 + 200 kD) immunoreactivity was demonstrated in all tumors except two undifferentiated NBLs. S-100 protein-immunoreactive cells were visualized with increasing frequency in highly differentiated GNBLs and GNs, whereas Leu 7 immunoreactivity was restricted to ganglioneuromas. We conclude that antibodies directed to neuron-specific enolase, HISL19, dopamine beta-hydroxylase, neurofilaments, EGC, LK2H10, and leucocyte common antigen represent markers that might be useful in the discrimination of GNBLs from non-neuroendocrine round and small cell tumors in routinely processed tissue. Antibodies to neuron-specific enolase, PGP 9.5, different chromogranins, neurofilaments, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and S-100 protein may help to determine the grade of tumor cell maturation. PMID:1530805

Wirnsberger, G H; Becker, H; Ziervogel, K; Höfler, H

1992-01-01

280

Phyllodes Tumor of the Breast  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To better identify prognostic factors for local control and survival, as well as the role of different therapeutic options, for phyllodes tumors, a rare fibroepithelial neoplasm of the breast. Methods and Materials: Data from 443 women treated between 1971 and 2003 were collected from the Rare Cancer Network. The median age was 40 years (range, 12-87 years). Tumors were benign in 284 cases (64%), borderline in 80 cases (18%), and malignant in 79 cases (18%). Surgery consisted of breast-conserving surgery (BCS) in 377 cases (85%) and total mastectomy (TM) in 66 cases (15%). Thirty-nine patients (9%) received adjuvant radiotherapy (RT). Results: After a median follow-up of 106 months, local recurrence (LR) and distant metastases rates were 19% and 3.4%, respectively. In the malignant and borderline group (n = 159), RT significantly decreased LR (p = 0.02), and TM had better results than BCS (p = 0.0019). Multivariate analysis revealed benign histology, negative margins, and no residual disease (no RD) after initial treatment and RT delivery as independent favorable prognostic factors for local control; benign histology and low number of mitosis for disease-free survival; and pathologic tumor size tumor necrosis for overall survival. In the malignant and borderline subgroup multivariate analysis TM was the only favorable independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival. Conclusions: This study showed that phyllodes tumor patients with no RD after treatment have better local control. Benign tumors have a good prognosis after surgery alone. In borderline and malignant tumors, TM had better results than BCS. Thus, in these forms adjuvant RT should be considered according to histologic criteria.

Belkacemi, Yazid [Centre Oscar Lambret, Lille (France); University of Lille II, Lille (France)], E-mail: y-belkacemi@o-lambret.fr; Bousquet, Guilhem [University of Lille II, Lille (France); Marsiglia, Hugo [Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Florence University, Florence (Italy); Ray-Coquard, Isabelle [CRLC Leon Berard, Lyon (France); Magne, Nicolas [Institut Jules Bordet, Brussels (Belgium); Malard, Yann [CRLC F. Bergonie, Bordeaux (France); Lacroix, Magalie [CRLC Claudius Regaud, Toulouse (France); Gutierrez, Cristina [Institut Catala d'Oncologia, L'Hospitalet (Spain); Senkus, Elzbieta [Medical University, Gdansk (Poland); Christie, David [East Coast Cancer Center, Tugun, Queensland (Australia); Drumea, Karen [Rambam Medical Center, Haifa (Israel); Lagneau, Edouard [CHU, Besancon (France); Kadish, Sidney P. [University of Massachusetts, North Worcester, MA (United States); Scandolaro, Luciano [Divisione di Radioterapia Oncologica, Ospedale S. Anna, Como (Italy); Azria, David [CRLC Val d'Aurelle, Montpellier (France); Ozsahin, Mahmut [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland)

2008-02-01

281

A rare astrocytic tumor with rhabdoid features.  

PubMed

We report an extremely rare tumor presenting with rhabdoid features in the left temporoparietal lobe near the trigone in an 18-year-old Japanese man. This tumor mainly consisted of medium to large round cells that proliferated diffusely and incoherently with a scant extracellular matrix. These tumor cells had an eccentric nucleus and an eosinophilic cytoplasm containing inclusion bodies and bundles of intermediate filaments. The nuclei of these cells were vesicular with prominent nucleoli. This tumor had an area appearing to be diffuse astrocytoma peripherally and lacked a primitive neuroectodermal tumor component, a mesenchymal component, and epithelial differentiation. INI expression, which is not observed in atypical teratoid/ rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT), was found in this tumor. From these findings, we concluded that this tumor was not AT/RT but an astrocytic tumor with rhabdoid features. We also concluded that the tumor cells exhibiting rhabdoid features had secondarily arisen from the peripheral area presenting an appearance of diffuse astrocytoma. PMID:19408093

Nagai, Shoichi; Kurimoto, Masanori; Ishizawa, Shin; Hayashi, Nakamasa; Hamada, Hideo; Kamiyama, Hironaga; Endo, Shunro

2009-01-01

282

Macroscopic Stiffness of Breast Tumors Predicts Metastasis  

PubMed Central

Mechanical properties of tumors differ substantially from normal cells and tissues. Changes in stiffness or elasticity regulate pro-metastatic behaviors of cancer cells, but effects have been documented predominantly in isolated cells or in vitro cell culture systems. To directly link relative stiffness of tumors to cancer progression, we combined a mouse model of metastatic breast cancer with ex vivo measurements of bulk moduli of freshly excised, intact tumors. We found a high, inverse correlation between bulk modulus of resected tumors and subsequent local recurrence and metastasis. More compliant tumors were associated with more frequent, larger local recurrences and more extensive metastases than mice with relatively stiff tumors. We found that collagen content of resected tumors correlated with bulk modulus values. These data establish that relative differences in tumor stiffness correspond with tumor progression and metastasis, supporting further testing and development of tumor compliance as a prognostic biomarker in breast cancer.

Fenner, Joseph; Stacer, Amanda C.; Winterroth, Frank; Johnson, Timothy D.; Luker, Kathryn E.; Luker, Gary D.

2014-01-01

283

Computational approach for designing tumor homing peptides  

PubMed Central

Tumor homing peptides are small peptides that home specifically to tumor and tumor associated microenvironment i.e. tumor vasculature, after systemic delivery. Keeping in mind the huge therapeutic importance of these peptides, we have made an attempt to analyze and predict tumor homing peptides. It was observed that certain types of residues are preferred in tumor homing peptides. Therefore, we developed support vector machine based models for predicting tumor homing peptides using amino acid composition and binary profiles of peptides. Amino acid composition, dipeptide composition and binary profile-based models achieved a maximum accuracy of 86.56%, 82.03%, and 84.19% respectively. These methods have been implemented in a user-friendly web server, TumorHPD. We anticipate that this method will be helpful to design novel tumor homing peptides. TumorHPD web server is freely accessible at http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/tumorhpd/.

Sharma, Arun; Kapoor, Pallavi; Gautam, Ankur; Chaudhary, Kumardeep; Kumar, Rahul; Chauhan, Jagat Singh; Tyagi, Atul; Raghava, Gajendra P. S.

2013-01-01

284

Canine Spontaneous Brain Tumors: A Large Animal Model for BNCT.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Brain tumors occur spontaneously on dogs with an incidence similar to that in humans. Brain tumors of dogs have histologic, radiologic, and other diagnostic similarities to human brain tumors. Tumor kinetics and biologic behavior of these tumors in dogs a...

P. R. Gavin S. L. Kraft L. R. Wendling D. L. Miller

1988-01-01

285

Targeting tumor-necrosis factor receptor pathways for tumor immunotherapy  

PubMed Central

With the success of ipilimumab and promise of programmed death-1 pathway-targeted agents, the field of tumor immunotherapy is expanding rapidly. Newer targets for clinical development include select members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family. Agonist antibodies to these co-stimulatory molecules target both T and B cells, modulating T-cell activation and enhancing immune responses. In vitro and in vivo preclinical data have provided the basis for continued development of 4-1BB, OX40, glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related gene, herpes virus entry mediator, and CD27 as potential therapies for patients with cancer. In this review, we summarize the immune response to tumors, consider preclinical and early clinical data on select TNFR family members, discuss potential translational challenges and suggest possible combination therapies with the aim of inducing durable antitumor responses.

2014-01-01

286

Mouse models of CNS embryonal tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central nervous system (CNS) embryonal tumors are devastating cancers in children, consisting of medulloblastomas, CNS primitive\\u000a neuroectodermal tumors, and atypical teratoid\\/rhabdoid tumors. One of the reasons that CNS embryonal tumors remain difficult\\u000a to treat is their rarity, which makes conducting clinical trials for these tumors difficult. Recent advances of molecular\\u000a biology have led us to identify molecular and genetic causality

Hiroyuki Momota; Eric C. Holland

2009-01-01

287

Littoral cell angioma mimicking hepatic tumor  

PubMed Central

Littoral cell angioma is a rare vascular tumor of the spleen that was described by Falk et al. in 1991. Because of the limited number, untypical imaging manifestations, and lack of knowledge on this tumor type, these tumors are often misdiagnosed. In most cases, the tumor presents with multiple small hypoattenuating nodules in the spleen with delayed enhancement. However, solitary littoral cell angiomas have not been well described. We present the CT features of an unusual littoral cell angioma mimicking hepatic tumor.

Liang, Wenhua; Lu, Jingjing; Qin, Mingwei; Sang, Xinting

2012-01-01

288

Dendritic cells as initiators of tumor immune responses: a possible strategy for tumor immunotherapy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since all T-cell-mediated immune responses require antigen presentation, antigen-presenting cells (APCs) may be of central importance for the generation and regulation of tumor immunity. This article describes approaches used to induce tumor immunity via modulation of the presentation of tumor antigen, either by tumor-antigen-exposed dendritic cells or by tumor cells engineered to act as APCs.

Stephan Grabbe; Stefan Beissert; Thomas Schwarz; Richard D. Granstein

1995-01-01

289

The expression of Rho proteins decreases with human brain tumor progression: Potential tumor markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astrocytic tumors are the most common human brain tumors. Establishment of tumor grade is a key determinant both in the choice of a therapeutic approach and in the prognosis. The diagnosis of astrocytic tumors is currently determined following histopathological analysis. The identification of molecular markers would offer a complementary tool for characterizing tumors with respect to their clinical behavior. In

Marie-Annick Forget; Richard R. Desrosiers; Rolanda F. Del Maestro; Robert Moumdjian; Daniel Shedid; France Berthelet; Richard Béliveau

2002-01-01

290

Valorisation of Como Historical Cadastral Maps Through Modern Web Geoservices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cartographic cultural heritage preserved in worldwide archives is often stored in the original paper version only, thus restricting both the chances of utilization and the range of possible users. The Web C.A.R.T.E. system addressed this issue with regard to the precious cadastral maps preserved at the State Archive of Como. Aim of the project was to improve the visibility and accessibility of this heritage using the latest free and open source tools for processing, cataloguing and web publishing the maps. The resulting architecture should therefore assist the State Archive of Como in managing its cartographic contents. After a pre-processing consisting of digitization and georeferencing steps, maps were provided with metadata, compiled according to the current Italian standards and managed through an ad hoc version of the GeoNetwork Opensource geocatalog software. A dedicated MapFish-based webGIS client, with an optimized version also for mobile platforms, was built for maps publication and 2D navigation. A module for 3D visualization of cadastral maps was finally developed using the NASA World Wind Virtual Globe. Thanks to a temporal slidebar, time was also included in the system producing a 4D Graphical User Interface. The overall architecture was totally built with free and open source software and allows a direct and intuitive consultation of historical maps. Besides the notable advantage of keeping original paper maps intact, the system greatly simplifies the work of the State Archive of Como common users and together widens the same range of users thanks to the modernization of map consultation tools.

Brovelli, M. A.; Minghini, M.; Zamboni, G.

2012-07-01

291

Imaging manifestations of pleural tumors.  

PubMed

Although radiologic assessment of pleural tumors may be accomplished with several imaging modalities, the standard noninvasive techniques include chest radiography and computed tomography (CT). These examinations may be supplemented with magnetic resonance imaging and occasionally with ultrasound. Depending on the location, size, and underlying histologic features, pleural tumors may produce a spectrum of findings. CT is particularly useful in defining the location and extent of these masses. The authors present a review of basic pleural anatomy and imaging features of both benign and malignant pleural neoplasms. The pleural may be involved by one of several primary or metastatic tumors. Specific cell types are diffuse malignant mesothelioma (the most common plain radiographic findings are unilateral pleural effusion and pleural thickening), localized fibrous tumor (circumscribed, spherical or ovoid, noncalcified lesions arising in the pleural surface), metastatic disease (radiographic findings may mimic those of malignant mesothelioma), and uncommon neoplasms including thymoma and lymphoma. Among these various pleural tumors, metastatic disease represents the most common neoplasm. PMID:1439021

Dynes, M C; White, E M; Fry, W A; Ghahremani, G G

1992-11-01

292

FGF23 Producing Mesenchymal Tumor.  

PubMed

A 40-year-old patient was referred to Clinic of Endocrinology due to hypophosphatemia causing pain, cramps, and weakness of muscles. Moreover, his bone mineral density was very low. The previous treatment with phosphorus and active vitamin D metabolites was ineffective. In lab tests the hypophosphatemia, hyperphosphaturia, and elevated FGF23 levels were found. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) showed increased radiotracer uptake in the right maxillary sinus and CT scans confirmed presence of tumor in this localization. Biopsy and cytological examination created suspicion of mesenchymal tumor-glomangiopericytoma. Waiting for surgery the patient was treated with long acting Somatostatine analogue, and directly before operation short acting Octreotide and intravenous phosphorus were used. Histology confirmed the cytological diagnosis and the phosphatemia return to normal values in 10 days after the tumor removal. PMID:24639905

Papierska, Lucyna; Cwik?a, Jaros?aw B; Misiorowski, Waldemar; Rabijewski, Micha?; Sikora, Krzysztof; Wanyura, Hubert

2014-01-01

293

FGF23 Producing Mesenchymal Tumor  

PubMed Central

A 40-year-old patient was referred to Clinic of Endocrinology due to hypophosphatemia causing pain, cramps, and weakness of muscles. Moreover, his bone mineral density was very low. The previous treatment with phosphorus and active vitamin D metabolites was ineffective. In lab tests the hypophosphatemia, hyperphosphaturia, and elevated FGF23 levels were found. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) showed increased radiotracer uptake in the right maxillary sinus and CT scans confirmed presence of tumor in this localization. Biopsy and cytological examination created suspicion of mesenchymal tumor—glomangiopericytoma. Waiting for surgery the patient was treated with long acting Somatostatine analogue, and directly before operation short acting Octreotide and intravenous phosphorus were used. Histology confirmed the cytological diagnosis and the phosphatemia return to normal values in 10 days after the tumor removal.

Cwikla, Jaroslaw B.; Misiorowski, Waldemar; Rabijewski, Michal; Sikora, Krzysztof; Wanyura, Hubert

2014-01-01

294

Villous tumors of the duodenum.  

PubMed

Five cases of villous tumors of the duodenum are reported, all of which involve the ampulla of Vater. Three of the five lesions contained either infiltrating carcinoma or carcinoma in situ. Although preoperative endoscopic biopsy was performed on all tumors no malignancy was identified. Frozen sections done at the time of operation on the three patients with carcinoma also failed to identify malignancy. One patient underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy and four patients had local excision of the tumor. Three of the patients treated with local excision developed recurrence and two subsequently had pancreaticoduodenectomy. Because of the difficulty in making an accurate diagnosis and the chance of recurrence when local excision is employed, strong consideration should be given to pancreaticoduodenectomy as the initial form of treatment of these lesions. PMID:2650645

Chappuis, C W; Divincenti, F C; Cohn, I

1989-05-01

295

Biomarkers in Tissue Samples From Patients With High-Risk Wilms Tumor  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Clear Cell Sarcoma of the Kidney; Recurrent Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors; Rhabdoid Tumor of the Kidney; Stage I Wilms Tumor; Stage II Wilms Tumor; Stage III Wilms Tumor; Stage IV Wilms Tumor; Stage V Wilms Tumor

2013-07-08

296

SUMO, PTEN and Tumor Suppression.  

PubMed

Phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) was identified in 1997 as a tumor suppressor gene through mapping of homozygous mutations occurring in multiple sporadic tumor types and in patients with cancer predisposition syndromes including Cowden disease (Song et al., 2012). Since that time, PTEN has emerged as one of the most frequently mutated or deleted genes in human cancers, including human skin cancers. In particular, loss of PTEN function through mutation or deletion has been observed in up to 70% of melanoma cell lines, and epigenetic silencing of PTEN has been observed in 30-40% of malignant melanomas (Mehnert and Kluger, 2012). PMID:22846175

Matunis, Michael J; Guzzo, Catherine M

2012-07-31

297

The Mouse Tumor Biology database  

PubMed Central

The laboratory mouse has long been an important tool in the study of the biology and genetics of human cancer. With the advent of genetic engineering techniques, DNA microarray analyses, tissue arrays, and other large-scale, high-throughput data generating methods, the amount of data available for mouse models of cancer is growing exponentially. Tools to integrate, locate and visualize these data are crucial to aid researchers in their investigations. The Mouse Tumor Biology database (http://tumor.informatics.jax.org) seeks to address that need.

Krupke, Debra M.; Begley, Dale A.; Sundberg, John P.; Bult, Carol J.; Eppig, Janan T.

2008-01-01

298

Pregnancy outcome in pituitary tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To observe the maternal and perinatal outcome in pituitary tumor (macro- and micro-adenoma) during pregnancy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A retrospective analysis of a total of 19 cases of pituitary tumor group 1 (10 macroadenoma), and group 2 (9 microadenoma),\\u000a during pregnancy over last 3 years in our unit were evaluated for pregnancy outcome, comparing maternal and perinatal outcome\\u000a in the two groups using statistical

Jai Bhagwan Sharma; Kallol K. Roy; Pushparaj Mohanraj; Sunesh Kumar; Debjyoti Karmakar; Jinee Barua

2009-01-01

299

[Tumors of the petrous apex].  

PubMed

Diagnosis and treatment of petrous apex tumors are difficult. The paucity of their presenting symptoms stands out in sharp contrast with an often massive tumoral spread. Their diagnosis is sometimes of an uncertain nature in spite of M.R.I., requiring a biopsy by the middle fossa approach. Electron microscopy should always be requested. Surgical excresis is always delicate by one of the following approaches: middle fossa, translabyrinthine, infra-temporal, transcochlear. The clinical series presented here consists of 7 cases of cholesteatomas, 4 cases of chondrosarcomas and 1 case of giant-cell fibrous histiocytosis. PMID:2130395

Charachon, R; Gratacap, B; Lavieille, J P

1990-01-01

300

Strategies for Targeting Tumors and Tumor Vasculature for Cancer Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective cancer therapy remains a challenge despite recent advances in the identification of novel targets. A major limitation of most chemotherapeutic drugs is their systemic toxicity and the efficacy of cancer treatments is, by and large, determined by the ability to balance their benefits against their toxicity. Targeted treatments for cancer, especially those that target the tumor vasculature, have provided

Prashanth Sreeramoju; Steven K. Libutti

2010-01-01

301

Focal Epilepsy Associated with Glioneuronal Tumors  

PubMed Central

Glioneuronal tumors are an increasingly recognized cause of partial seizures that occur primarily in children and young adults. Focal epilepsy associated with glioneuronal tumors is often resistant to pharmacological treatment. The cellular mechanisms underlying the epileptogenicity of glioneuronal tumors remain largely unknown. The involved mechanisms are certain to be multifactorial and depend on specific tumor histology, integrity of the blood-brain barrier, characteristics of the peritumoral environment, circuit abnormalities, or cellular and molecular defects. Glioneuronal tumors presenting with epilepsy were observed to have relatively benign biological behavior. The completeness of the tumor resection is of paramount importance in avoiding tumor progression and malignant transformation, which are rare in cases of epileptogenic glioneuronal tumors. An evolving understanding of the various mechanisms of tumor-related epileptogenicity may also lead to a more defined surgical objective and effective therapeutic strategies, including antiepileptogenic treatments, to prevent epilepsy in at-risk patients.

Loiacono, Giulia; Cirillo, Chiara; Chiarelli, Francesco; Verrotti, Alberto

2011-01-01

302

Endodermal Sinus Tumor of Vagina in Infants  

PubMed Central

Abstract Endodermal sinus tumor (or Yolk Sac tumor) of the vagina is a rare malignant germcell tumor which is seen exclusively in children younger than 3 years of age. We report two cases of endodermal sinus tumor of the vagina. In both cases no radiological investigation was done and serum alpha-fetoprotein was elevated. The histopathological examination of both the tumor masses revealed vaginal endodermal sinus tumor. Periodic-acid-Schiff stain with diastase showed diastase resistant hyaline globules. These findings confirmed the diagnosis of endodermal sinus tumor in both cases. Vaginal endodermal sinus tumor is both locally aggressive and capable of metastasis. The serum alpha-fetoprotein level is a useful marker for diagnosis and monitoring the recurrence of vaginal endodermal sinus tumor in infants. Early detection and therapy is important because of its aggressive nature and good response to chemotherapy.

Chauhan, Smita; Nigam, Jitendra Singh; Singh, Pallavi; Misra, Vatsala; Thakur, Brijesh

2013-01-01

303

Low-grade serous tumors of ovary.  

PubMed

The creation of the category of borderline/atypical proliferative tumors in the World Health Organization Classification of Ovarian Tumors in 1973 prompted extensive investigation of the clinicopathologic and genetic features of low-grade serous ovarian tumors (borderline tumors/atypical proliferative tumors, noninvasive micropapillary tumors, and invasive low-grade serous carcinomas). The clinicopathologic studies of these tumors resulted in clarification of the prognostic significance of several histologic features of the ovarian tumors and their associated peritoneal lesions. The genetic studies resulted in a reassessment of the relationship between low-grade and high-grade serous carcinoma and their differing pathways of origin. This review focuses on several of the morphologic findings, their diagnostic criteria, differential diagnosis and biologic significance, and discusses the dualistic classification of serous carcinomas into high-grade and low-grade tumors. PMID:24901394

Bell, Debra A

2014-07-01

304

Histological patterns of head and neck tumors: An insight to tumor histology  

PubMed Central

This article emphasizes the basis for origin and importance of tumor patterns in diagnosis of oral and maxillofacial tumors. In this article, histological patterns and subpatterns of head and neck tumors are enlisted. Although, undifferentiated tumors remain a challenge to the histopathologist, by describing the histological patterns and the subpatterns of the tumors, an attempt has been made for the diagnosis of the tumors and subsequently for implementation of precise treatment plan for the same.

Dive, Alka M; Bodhade, Ashish S; Mishra, Minal S; Upadhyaya, Neha

2014-01-01

305

Multimechanistic Tumor Targeted Oncolytic Virus Overcomes Resistance in Brain Tumors  

PubMed Central

Only a subset of cancer patients inoculated with oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) type-1 has shown objective response in phase 1 and 2 clinical trials. This has raised speculations whether resistance of tumor cells to oHSV therapy may be a limiting factor. In this study, we have identified established and patient derived primary glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) stem cell lines (GSC) resistant to oHSV and also to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) that has recently shown promise in preclinical and initial clinical studies. We created a recombinant oHSV bearing a secretable TRAIL (oHSV-TRAIL) and hypothesized that oHSV-TRAIL could be used as a cancer therapeutic to target a broad spectrum of resistant tumors in a mechanism-based manner. Using the identified resistant GBM lines, we show that oHSV-TRAIL downregulates extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK)-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and upregulates c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38-MAPK signaling, which primes resistant GBM cells to apoptosis via activation of caspase-8, -9, and -3. We further show that oHSV-TRAIL inhibits tumor growth and invasiveness and increases survival of mice bearing resistant intracerebral tumors without affecting the normal tissues. This study sheds new light on the mechanism by which oHSV and TRAIL function in concert to overcome therapeutic-resistance, and provides an oncolytic virus based platform to target a broad spectrum of different cancer types.

Tamura, Kaoru; Wakimoto, Hiroaki; Agarwal, Aayush S; Rabkin, Samuel D; Bhere, Deepak; Martuza, Robert L; Kuroda, Toshihiko; Kasmieh, Randa; Shah, Khalid

2013-01-01

306

Targeting tumor microenvironment: crossing tumor interstitial fluid by multifunctional nanomedicines  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The genesis of cancer appears to be a complex matter, which is not simply based upon few genetic abnormalities/alteration. In fact, irregular microvasculature and aberrant interstitium of solid tumors impose significant pathophysiologic barrier functions against cancer treatment modalities, hence novel strategies should holistically target bioelements of tumor microenvironment (TME). In this study, we provide some overview and insights on TME and important strategies used to control the impacts of such pathophysiologic barriers. Methods: We reviewed all relevant literature for the impacts of tumor interstitium and microvasculature within the TME as well as the significance of the implemented strategies. Results: While tumorigenesis initiation seems to be in close relation with an emergence of hypoxia and alterations in epigenetic/genetic materials, large panoplies of molecular events emerge as intricate networks during oncogenesis to form unique lenient TME in favor of tumor progression. Within such irregular interstitium, immune system displays defective surveillance functionalities against malignant cells. Solid tumors show multifacial traits with coadaptation and self-regulation potentials, which bestow profound resistance against the currently used conventional chemotherapy and immunotherapy agents that target solely one face of the disease. Conclusion: The cancerous cells attain unique abilities to form its permissive microenvironment, wherein (a) extracellular pH is dysregulated towards acidification, (b) extracellular matrix (ECM) is deformed, (c) stromal cells are cooperative with cancer cells, (d) immune system mechanisms are defective, (e) non-integrated irregular microvasculature with pores (120-1200 nm) are formed, and (h) interstitial fluid pressure is high. All these phenomena are against cancer treatment modalities. As a result, to control such abnormal pathophysiologic traits, novel cancer therapy strategies need to be devised using multifunctional nanomedicines and theranostics.

Omidi, Yadollah; Barar, Jaleh

2014-01-01

307

The expanding family of glioneuronal tumors.  

PubMed

Three new entities have been recently added to the group of glioneuronal tumors in the most recent update of the World Health Organization classification of tumors of the central nervous system: papillary glioneuronal tumor, rosetted glioneuronal tumor with neuropil-like islands, and rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor of the fourth ventricle. These tumors are relatively infrequent lesions, and because of that, they can be challenging to diagnose for the practicing pathologist. In this article, we summarize the clinical and pathologic findings of these new lesions. PMID:19098465

Allende, Daniela S; Prayson, Richard A

2009-01-01

308

Palifosfamide in Treating Patients With Recurrent Germ Cell Tumors  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Adult Teratoma; Malignant Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Malignant Extragonadal Non-Seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor; Extragonadal Seminoma; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Extragonadal Non-Seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Extragonadal Seminoma; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor

2014-05-30

309

Laser application in tracheobronchial tumors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ninety three patients with obstructing tracheobronchial tumors were treated with Neodymium: Yttrium - Aluminum - Garnet (Nd:YAG) laser photocoagulation over a period of six years. There were sixty seven Males and 26 Females with a mean age of 44.3 years (range 6- 79 years). 21 benign and 72 malignant lesions were treated with a total 212 sessions of laser photocoagulation (mean 2.4 sessions). The anatomical distribution of lesions were as follows; larynx 9 (three benign and 6 malignant) trachea 39 (27 benign and 12 malignant) left main bronchus 27 (14 malignant) right main bronchus 24 (14 malignant) and vocal cords - 9 (three malignant). There were 21 patients with squamous cell carcinoma, two adenocarcinomas, one adenoid cystic carcinoma, 7 cases of locally infiltrating tumors from thyroid and esophagus, 6 cases of carcinoid tumor and 16 benign lesions. Twenty one patients had a tracheostomy tube in place when treatment was started. Eighteen of the 21 patients with tracheostomy were weaned off the tube in a mean of 5.5 days from the start of treatment. Lumen was restored in 31 (79.4%) patients. In the other eight (20.6%), lumen was achieved, but not sustained. Complications included bleeding in three cases which were managed conservatively, two cases of pneumothorax, and four cases of bronchospasm. There were six deaths during the follow up but none attributable to the procedure. Laser photocoagulation offered effective treatment in the majority of patients with obstructing tracheobronchial tumors, with acceptable morbidity.

Rau, B. Krishna; Krishna, Sharon

2004-09-01

310

Dock 3 Tumor Suppressor Gene.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates to a newly identified tumor suppressor gene, designated DOS (for Deleted in Osteosarcoma and alternatively referred to herein as DOCK 3) which has been cloned from human and mouse cells. The DOS nucleic acid and protein molecules and...

A. McClatchey C. Paulding D. Haber V. Yajnik

2002-01-01

311

Ceramide in chemotherapy of tumors.  

PubMed

It is well known that tumor formation arises from the imbalance between cell death and proliferation. For many years, cancer research has engaged an important part of its efforts to find new therapeutic strategies based on cell death induction. One of the predominant ways to kill tumor cells is to trigger apoptosis by chemotherapy. However tumor responsiveness to chemotherapy is dependent on different biological factors including cancer types, genetics and pharmacogenetics. Although molecular mechanisms involved in chemotherapy-induced apoptosis are diverse and depend on cell-type and drugs used, a common pathway leading to tumor cell death has been shown to implicate the generation of a simple cellular sphingolipid, ceramide. Ceramide is released by the activity of neutral or acidic sphingomyelinases or de novo synthesis during treatment with chemotherapy. This review in particular focuses on enzymes involved in chemotherapy-induced cell death such as neutral or acidic sphingomyelinases and ceramide synthases, the role of ceramide in cellular effects of chemotherapy at the plasma membrane or the mitochondria and the induction of cell death by ceramide. It also includes recent advances on novel patented sphingolipid compounds and cancer therapeutic strategies based on ceramide release. PMID:21762073

Dimanche-Boitrel, Marie-Thérèse; Rebillard, Amélie; Gulbins, Erich

2011-09-01

312

Molecular Signatures in Urologic Tumors  

PubMed Central

Urologic tumors continue to represent a huge fraction of cancer cases in the United States, with over 376,310 estimated new diagnoses in 2013. As with many types of tumors, urologic tumors vary greatly in their phenotype, ranging from minimally invasive to malignancies possessing great metastatic potential. The increasing need for more efficient and less invasive methods of cancer detection, as well as the ability to predict severity of the disease phenotype is readily evident—yet reliable methods remain elusive in a clinical setting today. Comprehensive panels of gene clusters are being developed toward the generation of molecular signatures in order to better diagnose urologic malignancies, and identify effective treatment strategies in the emerging era of personalized medicine. In this review, we discuss the current literature on the credibility and biomarker value of such molecular signatures in the context of clinical significance relating to the pathological aggressiveness of urologic tumors (prostate, bladder and renal cancer)—also exploiting their predictive potential in the response to treatment.

Larkin, Spencer; Kyprianou, Natasha

2013-01-01

313

Heme Oxygenase-1 in Tumors  

PubMed Central

Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) catalyzes the oxidation of heme to biologically active products: carbon monoxide (CO), biliverdin, and ferrous iron. It participates in maintaining cellular homeostasis and plays an important protective role in the tissues by reducing oxidative injury, attenuating the inflammatory response, inhibiting cell apoptosis, and regulating cell proliferation. HO-1 is also an important proangiogenic mediator. Most studies have focused on the role of HO-1 in cardiovascular diseases, in which its significant, beneficial activity is well recognized. A growing body of evidence indicates, however, that HO-1 activation may play a role in carcinogenesis and can potently influence the growth and metastasis of tumors. HO-1 is very often upregulated in tumor tissues, and its expression is further increased in response to therapies. Although the exact effect can be tissue specific, HO-1 can be regarded as an enzyme facilitating tumor progression. Accordingly, inhibition of HO-1 can be suggested as a potential therapeutic approach sensitizing tumors to radiation, chemotherapy, or photodynamic therapy.

JOZKOWICZ, ALICJA; WAS, HALINA; DULAK, JOZEF

2007-01-01

314

Tumors of the Infratemporal Fossa  

PubMed Central

Neoplastic processes involving the infratemporal fossa may originate from the tissues in the region, but more often are the result of extension from neighboring structures. Metastatic lesions located in the region are rarely encountered. Because of its concealed localization, tumors may remain unnoticed for some time. Clinical signs and symptoms often arise late, are insidious, and may be mistakenly attributed to other structures. The close proximity of the area to the intracranial structures, the orbit, the paranasal sinuses, the nasopharynx, and the facial area demands careful planning of surgical excision and combined procedures may be called for. Modern imaging techniques have made three-dimensional visualization of the extent of the pathology possible. Treatment depends on the histopathology and staging of the tumor. Several surgical approaches have been developed over the years. Radical tumor excision with preservation of the quality of life remain the ultimate goal for those tumors where surgery is indicated. Experience over a decade with various pathologies is presented. ImagesFigure 1p6-bFigure 2Figure 3

Tiwari, Rammohan; Quak, Jasper; Egeler, Saskia; Smeele, Ludi; Waal, Isaac v.d.; Valk, Paul v.d.; Leemans, Rene

2000-01-01

315

Living with a Brain Tumor  

MedlinePLUS

... Sources Get Involved Breakthrough for Brain Tumors 5K Run & Walk Team Breakthrough Find an Event Near You Create Your Own Fundraiser CareCampaign Share Your Story National Volunteer Network Patient Education Meetings Shop ABTA Merchandise Ways to Donate One- ...

316

Molecular Imaging of Neuroendocrine Tumors  

PubMed Central

Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are a heterogeneous group of tumors that arise from neuroendocrine cells. These tumors may arise from various organs, including lung, thymus, thyroid, stomach, duodenum, small bowel, large bowel, appendix, pancreas, adrenal, and skin. Most are well differentiated and have the ability to produce biogenic amines and various hormones. NET usually occur sporadically but they also be associated with various familial syndromes. For the vast majority of NET, surgical resection is the treatment of choice whenever feasible. Localization of NET prior to surgery and for staging and follow-up relies on both anatomic and functional imaging modalities. In fact, the unique secretory characteristics of these tumors lend themselves to imaging by molecular imaging modalities, which can target specific metabolic pathways or receptors. Neuroendocrine cells have a variety of such target receptors and pathways for which radiopharmaceuticals have been developed, including [123I/131I]-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), [ 111In]pentetreotide, [68Ga] somatostatin analogs, [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), [11C/18F] dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), [11C] 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) 99mTc pentavalent dimercaptosuccinic acid ([99mTc] (V) DMSA, and [18F] fluorodopamine (FDA). Here, we review the molecular imaging approaches for NET using various radiopharmaceuticals.

Carrasquillo, Jorge A.; Chen, Clara C.

2014-01-01

317

Chromosome aberrations in solid tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromosome aberrations in human solid tumors are hallmarks of gene deregulation and genome instability. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding aberrations, discusses their functional importance, suggests mechanisms by which aberrations may form during cancer progression and provides examples of clinical advances that have come from studies of chromosome aberrations.

Colin Collins; Frank McCormick; Donna G Albertson; Joe W. Gray

2003-01-01

318

Etiologic Studies of Radiosensitive Tumors  

Cancer.gov

Ionizing radiation is perhaps the most clearly understood of all carcinogens. However, tumors known to be radiosensitive also have other possible causal or modifying factors. This page describes DCEG research into the general etiology of a number of specific radiation-related cancers.

319

Surgical Treatment of Gastric Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal stromal tumor is the most common mesenchymal tumor in the gastrointestinal tract and is most frequently developed in the stomach in the form of submucosal tumor. The incidence of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor is estimated to be as high as 25% of the population when all small and asymptomatic tumors are included. Because gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor is not completely distinguished from other submucosal tumors, a surgical excisional biopsy is recommended for tumors >2 cm. The surgical principles of gastrointestinal stromal tumor are composed of an R0 resection with a normal mucosa margin, no systemic lymph node dissection, and avoidance of perforation, which results in peritoneal seeding even in cases with otherwise low risk profiles. Laparoscopic surgery has been indicated for gastrointestinal stromal tumors <5 cm, and the indication for laparoscopic surgery is expanded to larger tumors if the above mentioned surgical principles can be maintained. A simple exogastric resection and various transgastric resection techniques are used for gastrointestinal stromal tumors in favorable locations (the fundus, body, greater curvature side). For a lesion at the gastroesophageal junction in the posterior wall of the stomach, enucleation techniques have been tried preserve the organ's function. Those methods have a theoretical risk of seeding a ruptured tumor, but this risk has not been evaluated by well-designed clinical trials. While some clinical trials are still on-going, neoadjuvant imatinib is suggested when marginally unresectable or multiorgan resection is anticipated to reduce the extent of surgery and the chance of incomplete resection, rupture or bleeding.

Kong, Seong-Ho

2013-01-01

320

Morphological investigation of nanostructured CoMo catalysts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work reports the morphological investigation of nanostructured sulfided CoMo catalysts by means of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The catalysts were supported on Ti-modified hexagonal mesoporous silica (HMS-Ti) and P-modified HMS-Ti (P/HMS-Ti) materials. The oxide precursors were characterized by specific surface area (S BET), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy in the OH region (DRIFTS-OH) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in order to elucidate the influence of the impregnation sequence (successive vs. simultaneous) and the effect of P-incorporation into HMS-Ti material on the morphology of calcined CoMo catalysts. Both TPR and XPS measurements indicate that the catalysts prepared by successive impregnation possess well-dispersed MoO 3 and CoO phases, whereas their counterparts prepared by simultaneous impregnation additionally possess the CoMoO 4 phase. For all sulfided catalysts, the presence of MoS 2 phase with particle size in the range 3.3-4.4 nm was confirmed by HRTEM. Catalytic activity was evaluated in the reaction of hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT) carried out in a flow reactor at 593 K and hydrogen pressure of 5.5 MPa. P-incorporation into the HMS-Ti material led to an overall increase in HDS activity and the hydrogenation ability of the sulfided catalysts. All catalysts proved to be stable during 10 h time-on-stream (TOS) operation. The activity of sulfide catalysts in the target reaction depends linearly on the surface exposure of Co species in the oxide precursors, as determined by XPS, and on the morphology of the sulfide form of catalysts (surface density of MoS 2 particles and their sizes) as determined by HRTEM.

Pawelec, B.; Castaño, P.; Zepeda, T. A.

2008-04-01

321

Eradication of large solid tumors in mice with an immunotoxin directed against tumor vasculature.  

PubMed Central

Antibody-based therapy of solid tumors has met with limited success, chiefly because solid tumors are relatively impermeable to macromolecules. This problem could be circumvented by attacking the readily accessible endothelial cells of the tumor vascular bed. We have developed a model to test this "vascular targeting" approach in which cytokine gene transfection of the tumor cells causes them to induce an experimental marker selectively on tumor vascular endothelium. An anti-tumor endothelial cell immunotoxin caused complete occlusion of the tumor vasculature and dramatic regressions of large solid tumors. By contrast, a conventional anti-tumor cell immunotoxin of equivalent in vitro potency produced only minor, transient antitumor effects but, when combined, the two immunotoxins induced permanent complete remissions in over half of the animals. These experiments indicate that immunotoxins directed against recently described markers on vascular endothelial cells in human tumors could provide a general treatment for solid tumors in humans. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5

Burrows, F J; Thorpe, P E

1993-01-01

322

Tumor expression of 4-1BB ligand sustains tumor lytic T cells.  

PubMed

Inadequate costimulation by solid tumors is generally believed to induce immune tolerance during primary tumor growth. We looked for tumor-specific immunity vs. tolerance in patients with Ewing's sarcoma. Circulating T cells from patients with progressively growing Ewing's tumors displayed MHC restricted tumor-induced proliferation and robust tumor lysis. Tumor-reactive T cells reside within the memory CD3+CD8+ subset and are CD28-/4-1BB+. Autologous Ewing's tumors expressed 4-1BBL, and tumor-induced T cell proliferation and activation required costimulation by 4-1BBL. Stimulation of PBL with anti-CD3/4-1BBL, but not anti-CD3/anti-CD28 induced tumor lytic effectors. Similarly, in a xenograft model, anti-CD3/4-1BBL expanded T cells controlled primary growth and prevented metastasis of autologous tumors while nonactivated and anti-CD3/anti-CD28 activated CD8+ cells did not. These results question prevailing models of tumor induced tolerance accompanying progressive tumor growth; rather, we show coexistence of progressive tumor growth and anti-tumor immunity, with costimulation provided by the tumor itself. They further demonstrate a potential new therapeutic role for 4-1BBL mediated costimulation in expanding tumor reactive CTLs for use in the adoptive immunotherapy of cancer. PMID:14614331

Zhang, Hua; Merchant, Melinda S; Chua, Kevin S; Khanna, Chand; Helman, Lee J; Telford, Bill; Ward, Yvona; Summers, Jeffrey; Toretsky, Jeff; Thomas, Elaine K; June, Carl H; Mackall, Crystal L

2003-01-01

323

Gefitinib in Treating Patients With Progressive Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumors  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Gastrinoma; Glucagonoma; Insulinoma; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma; Somatostatinoma; WDHA Syndrome

2013-06-03

324

Deciphering and reversing tumor immune suppression.  

PubMed

Generating an anti-tumor immune response is a multi-step process that is executed by effector T cells that can recognize and kill tumor targets. However, tumors employ multiple strategies to attenuate the effectiveness of T-cell-mediated attack. They achieve this by interfering with nearly every step required for effective immunity, from deregulation of antigen-presenting cells to establishment of a physical barrier at the vasculature that prevents homing of effector tumor-rejecting cells and the suppression of effector lymphocytes through the recruitment and activation of immunosuppressive cells such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells, tolerogenic monocytes, and T regulatory cells. Here, we review the ways in which tumors exert immune suppression and highlight the new therapies that seek to reverse this phenomenon and promote anti-tumor immunity. Understanding anti-tumor immunity, and how it becomes disabled by tumors, will ultimately lead to improved immune therapies and prolonged survival of patients. PMID:23890064

Motz, Greg T; Coukos, George

2013-07-25

325

Papillary endolymphatic sac tumor: a case report.  

PubMed

Glandular tumors involving the middle ear are rare and distinguishing between adenoma and adenocarcinoma remains difficult. A distinct subclass of these tumors demonstrates microscopic papillary architecture and has a propensity to erode the petrous bone and extend intracranially. The term "aggressive papillary middle ear tumor" has recently been proposed to describe this more invasive type of middle ear tumor. These tumors cause symptoms even when microscopic in size. Although histologically benign, they have been locally destructive with frequent intracranial extension and patients may die of uncontrolled local disease. These tumors do not metastasize but there is single case report of drop metastasis to the spine in the literature. Hence this tumor must be distinguished from other benign tumors of the middle ear. These rare neoplasms constitute a distinct pathological entity and deserve wider recognition. PMID:22953101

Arava, S; Soumya, R M; Chitragar, S; Safaya, R; Chandrashekhar, S H; Thakar, Alok

2012-01-01

326

Papillary Endolymphatic Sac Tumor: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Glandular tumors involving the middle ear are rare and distinguishing between adenoma and adenocarcinoma remains difficult. A distinct subclass of these tumors demonstrates microscopic papillary architecture and has a propensity to erode the petrous bone and extend intracranially. The term “aggressive papillary middle ear tumor” has recently been proposed to describe this more invasive type of middle ear tumor. These tumors cause symptoms even when microscopic in size. Although histologically benign, they have been locally destructive with frequent intracranial extension and patients may die of uncontrolled local disease. These tumors do not metastasize but there is single case report of drop metastasis to the spine in the literature. Hence this tumor must be distinguished from other benign tumors of the middle ear. These rare neoplasms constitute a distinct pathological entity and deserve wider recognition.

Arava, S.; Soumya, R. M.; Chitragar, S.; Safaya, R.; Chandrashekhar, S. H.; Thakar, Alok

2012-01-01

327

Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium Working Groups  

Cancer.gov

Childhood Brain Tumor Working Group - This Working Group focuses on epidemiologic studies of childhood brain tumors. We will focus on establishing research questions of interest in order to plan appropriate studies to address these questions.

328

Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults Download Printable ... the topics below to get started. What Is Brain/CNS Tumors In Adults? What is cancer? What ...

329

Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Children  

MedlinePLUS

... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Children Download Printable ... the topics below to get started. What Is Brain/CNS Tumors In Children? What is cancer? What ...

330

General Information about Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors  

MedlinePLUS

... extragonadal germ cell tumors include chest pain and breathing problems. Malignant extragonadal germ cell tumors may cause ... have any of the following problems: Chest pain. Breathing problems. Cough. Fever . Headache. Change in bowel habits. ...

331

Tumor Quantification in Clinical Positron Emission Tomography  

PubMed Central

Positron emission tomography (PET) is used extensively in clinical oncology for tumor detection, staging and therapy response assessment. Quantitative measurements of tumor uptake, usually in the form of standardized uptake values (SUVs), have enhanced or replaced qualitative interpretation. In this paper we review the current status of tumor quantification methods and their applications to clinical oncology. Factors that impede quantitative assessment and limit its accuracy and reproducibility are summarized, with special emphasis on SUV analysis. We describe current efforts to improve the accuracy of tumor uptake measurements, characterize overall metabolic tumor burden and heterogeneity of tumor uptake, and account for the effects of image noise. We also summarize recent developments in PET instrumentation and image reconstruction and their impact on tumor quantification. Finally, we offer our assessment of the current development needs in PET tumor quantification, including practical techniques for fully quantitative, pharmacokinetic measurements.

Bai, Bing; Bading, James; Conti, Peter S

2013-01-01

332

Compendium of Tumor Immunotherapy Protocols, Number 7.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the seventh edition of the Compendium of Tumor Immunotherapy Protocols, a publication sponsored by the International Cancer Research Data Bank, National Cancer Institute, and published on an annual basis by the International Registry of Tumor Immu...

1979-01-01

333

Promotion of Lung Tumors in Mice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several elements of two-stage carcinogenesis apply to the development of lung tumors in mice. At least three agents, identified as promoters, will also enhance tumor formation in lung: phorbol, saccharin, and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The antioxidan...

H. P. Witschi

1981-01-01

334

CT and MR of pineal region tumors.  

PubMed

Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging features of pineal region tumors were analyzed in 14 oncologic cases. The tumors were classified as germ-cell tumors, glial tumors, pineal parenchymal tumors, meningiomas, and cysts. They demonstrated different MR signal characteristics on precontrast scans and nodular or ring type enhancement with occasional central lucencies, except for benign cysts, which have not shown enhancement. MR images were useful in defining the relationship of the tumor to the posterior third ventricle, sylvian aqueduct, vein of Galen, and tentorium. Although CT can demonstrate in more evident fashion displacement of the original pineal calcification as well as tumor calcifications, MR imaging demonstrates different signal characteristics in germinomas and pineoblastomas which can be a useful adjunct in the evaluation and differential diagnosis of these tumors. PMID:8295504

Gouliamos, A D; Kalovidouris, A E; Kotoulas, G K; Athanasopoulou, A K; Kouvaris, J R; Trakadas, S J; Vlahos, L J; Papavasiliou, C G

1994-01-01

335

Granular Cell Tumors of the Heart.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In a study of granular cell tumors arising in the hearts of three patients, no evidence was found, either histologically or ultrastructurally, to support the hypothesis that these tumors are derived from striated muscle or cardiac muscle. The anatomic loc...

J. J. Fenoglio H. A. McAllister

1975-01-01

336

Cancer Stem Cells Found in Pancreatic Tumors  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have detected cancer stem cells in tumors from patients with pancreatic cancer. Experiments in mice suggest that these cancer stem cells may help explain the aggressive growth and spread of pancreatic tumors seen in patients.

337

Antibody Targeting of Caveolae in Breast Tumors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this project, the authors propose to compare, at the molecular level, protein expression in caveolae in tumor vs. normal endothelium to identify caveolar proteins unique to the tumor endothelium that can be used as molecular targets for therapeutic pro...

J. E. Schnitzer

2004-01-01

338

Focus on treatment of lung carcinoid tumor  

PubMed Central

Bronchial typical carcinoid tumors are neuroendocrine bronchopulmonary tumors with a low-grade malignancy, and an atypical carcinoid is an intermediate form of these tumors. There is a lack of knowledge on the optimal treatment for these tumors. The surgical treatment of choice consists of a lobectomy supplemented by dissection. The benefit of chemotherapy and radiotherapy is unclear. Targeted therapy could be used in this condition, but there is a lack of research recommending it.

Noel-Savina, Elise; Descourt, Renaud

2013-01-01

339

[Rectal Abrikossof tumor: a rare location].  

PubMed

Granular cell tumors or Abrikossof tumors are neurogenous ubiquitary submucosal-like tumors that are usually benign. The most frequent locations are the skin and buccal cavity. The usual location in the digestive tract is the esophageal wall. We report a rare case of Abrikossof tumor of the rectum that was not operated on because of a certain diagnosis and a low risk of malignancy. PMID:15864180

Tison, Christine; Doubremelle, Marie; Le Rhun, Marc; Cuillière, Paulette; Le Borgne, Joël

2005-03-01

340

Genetic and epigenetic changes in sporadic endocrine tumors: parathyroid tumors.  

PubMed

Parathyroid neoplasia is most commonly due to benign parathyroid adenoma but rarely can be caused by malignant parathyroid carcinoma. Evidence suggests that parathyroid carcinomas rarely, if ever, evolve through an identifiable benign intermediate, with the notable exception of carcinomas associated with the familial hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome. Several genes have been directly implicated in the pathogenesis of typical sporadic parathyroid adenoma; somatic mutations in the MEN1 tumor suppressor gene are the most frequent finding, and alterations in the cyclin D1/PRAD1 oncogene are also firmly established molecular drivers of sporadic adenomas. In addition, good evidence supports mutation in the CDKN1B/p27 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI) gene, and in other CDKI genes as contributing to disease pathogenesis in this context. Somatic defects in additional genes, including ?-catenin, POT1 and EZH2 may contribute to parathyroid adenoma formation but, for most, their ability to drive parathyroid tumorigenesis remains to be demonstrated experimentally. Further, genetic predisposition to sporadic presentations of parathyroid adenoma appears be conferred by rare, and probably low-penetrance, germline variants in CDKI genes and, perhaps, in other genes such as CASR and AIP. The HRPT2 tumor suppressor gene is commonly mutated in parathyroid carcinoma. PMID:24035866

Costa-Guda, Jessica; Arnold, Andrew

2014-04-01

341

Tumor Targeting Drug-Loaded Particles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A composition for delivering a tumor therapeutic agent to a patient includes a fast-release formulation of a tumor apoptosis inducing agent, a slow-release formulation of a tumor therapeutic agent, and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. An apoptosis-i...

J. L. S. Au M. G. Wientjes

2005-01-01

342

Epidemiologic study of tumors in dinosaurs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occasional reports in isolated fragments of dinosaur bones have suggested that tumors might represent a population phenomenon. Previous study of humans has demonstrated that vertebral radiology is a powerful diagnostic tool for population screening. The epidemiology of tumors in dinosaurs was here investigated by fluoroscopically screening dinosaur vertebrae for evidence of tumors. Computerized tomography (CT) and cross-sections were obtained where

B. M. Rothschild; D. H. Tanke; M. Helbling; L. D. Martin

2003-01-01

343

IRRADIATION OF TUMORS, A SAFE PROCEDURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

T HE availability of selective per- cutaneous angiography has given the radiologist the unique opportunity of treat- ing tumors directly by injecting radio- active material into the tumor vessels or into the organ containing tumor. There is enough experience and interest in intra- arterial radiation in this country and abroad to warrant an appraisal of the benefits and risks of

NORMAN SIMON; SIDNEY M. SILVERSTONE; LAWRENCE C. ROACH; RICHARD R. P. WARNER; MURRAY G. BARON; AMIEL Z. RUDAVSKY

344

A Multiscale Model for Avascular Tumor Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The desire to understand tumor complexity has given rise to mathematical models to describe the tumor microenvironment. We present a new mathematical model for avascular tumor growth and development that spans three distinct scales. At the cellular level, a lattice Monte Carlo model describes cellular dynamics (proliferation, adhesion, and viability). At the subcellular level, a Boolean network regulates the expression

Y. Jiang; Jelena Pjesivac-Grbovic; Charles Cantrell; James P. Freyer

2005-01-01

345

Tumor-Associated Macrophages in Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neoplastic cells form only one part of a complex network of cell types that make up a breast tumor. The normal cell types that make up the nonneoplastic components of tumors include fibroblasts, endothelium, and inflammatory cells, such as tumor associated macrophages (TAMs). TAMs have the potential to carry out both anti- and protumor activities. In their antitumor role TAMs

Russell D. Leek; Adrian L. Harris

2002-01-01

346

[Klatskin tumors: rational diagnostics and staging].  

PubMed

Klatskin tumors continue to be a challenge for diagnostic assessment and staging due to their longitudinal tumor growth along the perihilar bile ducts. Therefore the rate of non-resectable tumors remains relatively stable despite modern imaging and endoscopic techniques. This article reviews the current diagnostic methods for preoperative staging and the significance for predicting resectability. PMID:22349786

Denzer, U W; Rösch, T

2012-03-01

347

Giant cell tumors of the jugular foramen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To review the diagnosis and treatment of giant cell tumors of the jugular foramen.Materials and methods: A typical case is reported. Symptoms, signs, and diagnostic studies are reviewed. Photomicrographs and angiographic studies showing the differences between these and glomus jugulare tumors are provided. A coherent approach to their management is presented.Results: These hypervascular, traditionally radioresistant tumors may cause pulsatile

Jeffrey S. Rosenbloom; Ian S. Storper; Jonathan E. Aviv; Lotfi Hacein-Bey; Jeffrey N. Bruce

1999-01-01

348

Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GISTs) of the Stomach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are relatively rare tumors with an incidence of 5,000 to 10,000 cases per year in the United States. They are mesenchymal tumors arising from the interstitial cells of Cajal and are located within the submucosa of the GI tract. To differentiate from other submucosal lesions of the GI tract, the defining characteristic of GISTs is the

Joseph J. Bennett; Matthew S. Rubino

349

Employing Pancreatic Tumor ?-Glutamyltransferase for Therapeutic Delivery.  

PubMed

?-Glutamyltransferase (?GT) is a cell surface enzyme that catalyzes hydrolysis of the bond linking the glutamate and cysteine residues of glutathione and glutathione-S-conjugates. We have observed that human pancreatic tumor cells and tumor-associated stellate cells express high levels of this enzyme when compared to normal pancreatic epithelial and stellate cells. Detection of the protein in tumor sections correlated with ?GT activity on the surface of the cultured tumor and stellate cells. We tested whether the tumor ?GT could be employed to deliver a therapeutic to the tumor endothelial cells. GSAO is a glutathione-S-conjugate of a trivalent arsenical that is activated to enter endothelial cells by ?GT cleavage of the ?-glutamyl residue. The arsenical moiety triggers proliferation arrest and death of the endothelial cells by targeting the mitochondria. Human pancreatic tumor and stellate cell ?GT activated GSAO in culture and ?GT activity positively correlated with GSAO-mediated proliferation arrest and death of endothelial cells in Transwell and coculture systems. A soluble form of ?GT is found in blood, and we measured the rate of activation of GSAO by this enzyme. We calculated that systemically administered GSAO would circulate through the pancreatic blood supply several times before appreciable activation by normal blood levels of ?GT. In support of this finding, tumor ?GT activity positively correlated with GSAO-mediated inhibition of pancreatic tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth in mice. Our findings indicate that pancreatic tumor ?GT can be used to deliver a therapeutic to the tumor. PMID:24654974

Ramsay, Emma E; Decollogne, Stéphanie; Joshi, Swapna; Corti, Alessandro; Apte, Minoti; Pompella, Alfonso; Hogg, Philip J; Dilda, Pierre J

2014-05-01

350

Perfluorochemical emulsions can increase tumor radiosensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

An oxygen-carrying perfluorochemical emulsion enhanced the effectiveness of radiation therapy in two transplantable solid tumors in mice. The perfluorochemical emulsion had no effect on tumor growth after x-irradiation, but delayed tumor growth significantly when administered to oxygen-breathing mice before or during irradiation.

B. A. Teicher; C. M. Rose

1984-01-01

351

Malignant Triton Tumor (MTT) of the neck  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malignant Triton Tumor (MTT) is a rare, malignant periphere nerve sheath tumor with rhabdomyoblastic differentiation. One third of described MTT's were located at the head and neck region. One third of these are associated with neurofibromatosis type 1. MTT most often appears in the third decade.MTT's are very aggressive tumors with early metastases and the overall survival is poor (26%).

Kristine Bjørndal Sørensen; Christian Godballe; Annelise Krogdahl

2006-01-01

352

Rectal carcinoids: The most frequent carcinoid tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred seventy patients with gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors were treated at Ochsner Clinic from 1958 to 1990. Ninety-four rectal carcinoid tumors were diagnosed and treated during this time. Carcinoid tumors of the rectum represented the most frequent primary site (55 percent), followed by carcinoids of the ileum (12 percent), appendix (12 percent), colon (6 percent), stomach (6 percent), jejunum (2

Allen B. Jetmore; John E. Ray; J. Byron Gathright Jr; Kevin M. McMullen; Terry C. Hicks; Alan E. Timmcke

1992-01-01

353

Radiotherapy supports protective tumor-specific immunity  

PubMed Central

Radiotherapy is an important therapeutic option for the treatment of cancer. Growing evidence indicates that, besides inducing an irreversible DNA damage, radiotherapy promotes tumor-specific immune response, which significantly contribute to therapeutic efficacy. We postulate that radiotherapy activates tumor-associated dendritic cells, thus changing the tolerogenic tumor environment into an immunogenic one.

Gupta, Anurag; Sharma, Anu; von Boehmer, Lotta; Surace, Laura; Knuth, Alexander; van den Broek, Maries

2012-01-01

354

9 CFR 381.87 - Tumors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Tumors. 381.87 Section 381.87 Animals...of Carcasses and Parts § 381.87 Tumors. Any organ or other part of a carcass which is affected by a tumor shall be condemned and when there...

2009-01-01

355

9 CFR 381.87 - Tumors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tumors. 381.87 Section 381.87 Animals...of Carcasses and Parts § 381.87 Tumors. Any organ or other part of a carcass which is affected by a tumor shall be condemned and when there...

2010-01-01

356

Radiotherapy of Tumors of the Salivary Glands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

85% of 91 irradiated tumors were malign, 12% were pleomorphic adenomas and 3% were benign. 70% were primary tumors, 30% were relapses. Two thirds of all tumors were carcinomas. More than the half of the local irradiations were performed with cobalt 60, on...

W. Tressel

1979-01-01

357

Brain tumor epidemiology, growth, and invasion.  

PubMed

This article focuses on the most common primary intracranial neoplasms and the biologic descriptions of their growth and invasion. The proliferative aspects of the different primary brain tumors are discussed, along with recently discovered genetic changes. Because local invasion of primary brain tumors is a key pathologic feature of these tumors, the mechanisms known to influence cell movement are discussed. PMID:2135961

Berens, M E; Rutka, J T; Rosenblum, M L

1990-01-01

358

Tumor cell-mediated neovascularization and lymphangiogenesis contrive tumor progression and cancer metastasis.  

PubMed

Robust neovascularization and lymphangiogenesis have been found in a variety of aggressive and metastatic tumors. Endothelial sprouting angiogenesis is generally considered to be the major mechanism by which new vasculature forms in tumors. However, increasing evidence shows that tumor vasculature is not solely composed of endothelial cells (ECs). Some tumor cells acquire processes similar to embryonic vasculogenesis and produce new vasculature through vasculogenic mimicry, trans-differentiation of tumor cells into tumor ECs, and tumor cell-EC vascular co-option. In addition, tumor cells secrete various vasculogenic factors that induce sprouting angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. Vasculogenic tumor cells actively participate in the formation of vascular cancer stem cell niche and a premetastatic niche. Therefore, tumor cell-mediated neovascularization and lymphangiogenesis are closely associated with tumor progression, cancer metastasis, and poor prognosis. Vasculogenic tumor cells have emerged as key players in tumor neovascularization and lymphangiogenesis and play pivotal roles in tumor progression and cancer metastasis. However, the mechanisms underlying tumor cell-mediated vascularity as they relate to tumor progression and cancer metastasis remain unclear. Increasing data have shown that various intrinsic and extrinsic factors activate oncogenes and vasculogenic genes, enhance vasculogenic signaling pathways, and trigger tumor neovascularization and lymphangiogenesis. Collectively, tumor cells are the instigators of neovascularization. Therefore, targeting vasculogenic tumor cells, genes, and signaling pathways will open new avenues for anti-tumor vasculogenic and metastatic drug discovery. Dual targeting of endothelial sprouting angiogenesis and tumor cell-mediated neovascularization and lymphangiogenesis may overcome current clinical problems with anti-angiogenic therapy, resulting in significantly improved anti-angiogenesis and anti-cancer therapies. PMID:23933263

Cao, Zhifei; Shang, Bingxue; Zhang, Gaochuan; Miele, Lucio; Sarkar, Fazlul H; Wang, Zhiwei; Zhou, Quansheng

2013-12-01

359

N -Methyl- N -nitrosourea-induced Renal Tumors in Rats: Immunohistochemical Comparison to Human Wilms Tumors  

PubMed Central

N-Methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced renal tumors in rats and Wilms tumors in humans were compared. Renal mesenchymal tumors (RMTs) and nephroblastomas (blastemal and epithelial components) in female Lewis rats treated with a single intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg MNU at birth and Wilms tumors (blastemal, epithelial and mesenchymal components) in humans were analyzed for the expression of pancytokeratin (CK), vimentin, p63, ?-smooth muscle actin (SMA), desmin, S-100, CD57, CD117/c-kit, Wilms tumor 1 protein (WT1) and ?-catenin. The mesenchymal components of rat RMTs and human Wilms tumors expressed vimentin, SMA and ?-catenin. The blastemal components of rat nephroblastomas and human Wilms tumors expressed vimentin, CD117/c-kit and ?-catenin. The epithelial components of rat nephroblastomas and human Wilms tumors expressed vimentin and ?-catenin. WT1 was expressed in different cellular components of rat tumors as compared with human Wilms tumors; the expression was seen in mesenchymal tumors and blastemal components of nephroblastomas in rats and epithelial components in human Wilms tumors. CK, p63 and CD57 were not expressed in rat RMTs or nephroblastomas, while CK and WT1 were expressed in epithelial components and CD57 was expressed in blastemal and epithelial components of human Wilms tumors. Rat and human tumors were universally negative for the expression of desmin and S-100. The immunohistochemical characteristics of rat renal tumors and human Wilms tumors may provide valuable information on the differences in renal oncogenesis and biology between the two species.

Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Kinoshita, Yuichi; Emoto, Yuko; Kimura, Ayako; Uehara, Norihisa; Yuri, Takashi; Shikata, Nobuaki; Tsubura, Airo

2013-01-01

360

Comparison of genetic alterations in neuroendocrine tumors: frequent loss of chromosome 18 in ileal carcinoid tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carcinoid tumors and pancreatic endocrine tumors are uncommon neuroendocrine neoplasms, and their genetic alterations are not well characterized. These tumors have site-specific differences in neuroendocrine characteristics, clinical course and genetic alterations. We compared clinicopathological features and loss of heterozygosity of chromosomes 11q, 16q and 18, and BRAF gene mutations in 47 patients with neuroendocrine tumors including 16 with pancreatic endocrine

Gordon G Wang; James C Yao; Samidha Worah; Jill A White; Rene Luna; Tsung-Teh Wu; Asif Rashid

2005-01-01

361

Tumor-stroma interactions directing phenotype and progression of epithelial skin tumor cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor-stroma interactions play a significant role in tumor development and progression. Alterations in the stromal microenvironment, including enhanced vasculature (angiogenesis), modified extracellular matrix composition, inflammatory cells, and dys-balanced protease activity, are essential regulatory factors of tumor growth and invasion. Differential modulation of stromal characteristics is induced by epithelial skin tumor cells depending on their transformation stage when grown as surface

Margareta M. Mueller; Norbert E. Fusenig

2002-01-01

362

Sox17 promotes tumor angiogenesis and destabilizes tumor vessels in mice  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the transcriptional regulation of tumor angiogenesis, and tumor ECs (tECs) remain poorly characterized. Here, we studied the expression pattern of the transcription factor Sox17 in the vasculature of murine and human tumors and investigated the function of Sox17 during tumor angiogenesis using Sox17 genetic mouse models. Sox17 was specifically expressed in tECs in a heterogeneous pattern; in particular, strong Sox17 expression distinguished tECs with high VEGFR2 expression. Whereas overexpression of Sox17 in tECs promoted tumor angiogenesis and vascular abnormalities, Sox17 deletion in tECs reduced tumor angiogenesis and normalized tumor vessels, inhibiting tumor growth. Tumor vessel normalization by Sox17 deletion was long lasting, improved anticancer drug delivery into tumors, and inhibited tumor metastasis. Sox17 promoted endothelial sprouting behavior and upregulated VEGFR2 expression in a cell-intrinsic manner. Moreover, Sox17 increased the percentage of tumor-associated CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells within tumors. The vascular effects of Sox17 persisted throughout tumor growth. Interestingly, Sox17 expression specific to tECs was also observed in highly vascularized human glioblastoma samples. Our findings establish Sox17 as a key regulator of tumor angiogenesis and tumor progression.

Yang, Hanseul; Lee, Sungsu; Lee, Seungjoo; Kim, Kangsan; Yang, Yeseul; Kim, Jeong Hoon; Adams, Ralf H.; Wells, James M.; Morrison, Sean J.; Koh, Gou Young; Kim, Injune

2012-01-01

363

Romidepsin in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumors  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Gastrinoma; Glucagonoma; Insulinoma; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Pulmonary Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma; Regional Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Somatostatinoma

2013-06-03

364

Pathology of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is a well recognized and relatively well understood soft tissue tumor. Early events in GIST development are activating mutations in KIT or PDGFRA, which occur in most GISTs and encode for mutated tyrosine receptor kinases that are therapeutic targets for tyrosine kinase inhibitors, including imatinib and sunitinib. A small minority of GISTs possessing neither KIT nor PDGFRA mutations may have germline mutations in SDH, suggesting a potential role of SDH in the pathogenesis. Immunohistochemical detection of KIT, and more recently DOG1, has proven to be reliable and useful in the diagnosis of GISTs. Because current and future therapies depend on pathologists, it is important that they recognize KIT-negative GISTs, GISTs in specific clinical contexts, GISTs with unusual morphology, and GISTs after treatment. This review focuses on recent developments in the understanding of the biology, immunohistochemical diagnosis, the role of molecular analysis, and risk assessment of GISTs.

Foo, Wai Chin; Liegl-Atzwanger, Bernadette; Lazar, Alexander J.

2012-01-01

365

Autophagy Genes as Tumor Suppressors  

PubMed Central

Autophagy, originally described as a universal lysosome-dependent bulk degradation of cytoplasmic components upon nutrient deprivation, has since been shown to influence diverse aspects of homeostasis and is implicated in a wide variety of pathological conditions, including cancer. The list of autophagy-related (Atg) genes associated with the initiation and progression of human cancer as well as with responses to cancer therapy continues to grow as these genes are being discovered. However, whether Atg genes work through their expected mechanisms of autophagy regulation and/or through as-yet-undefined functions in the development of cancer remains to be further clarified. Here we review recent advances in the knowledge of the molecular basis of autophagy genes and their biological outputs during tumor development. A better understanding of the mechanistic link between cellular autophagy and tumor growth control may ultimately better human cancer treatments.

Liang, Chengyu; Jung, Jae U.

2009-01-01

366

Neuromyelitis Optica Mimicking Intramedullary Tumor  

PubMed Central

Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is considered to be a rarer autoimmune disease than multiple sclerosis. It is very difficult to make a diagnosis of MNO for doctors who are not familiar with its clinical features and diagnostic criteria. We report a case of a young female patient who had been suffering motor weakness and radiating pain in both upper extremities. Cervical MRI showed tumorous lesion in spinal cord and performed surgery to remove lesion. We could not find a tumor mass in operation field and final diagnosis was NMO. NMO must be included in the differential diagnosis of lesions to rescue the patient from invasive surgical interventions. More specific diagnostic tools may be necessary for early diagnosis and proper treatment.

Oh, Si-Hyuck; Yoon, Kyeong-wook; Lee, Sang-koo

2013-01-01

367

Senescent cells in growing tumors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tumors are defined by their intense proliferation, but sometimes cancer cells turn senescent and stop replicating. In the stochastic cancer model in which all cells are tumorigenic, senescence is seen as the result of random mutatations, suggesting that it could represent a barrier to tumor growth. In the hierarchical cancer model a subset of the cells, the cancer stem cells, divide indefinitely while other cells eventually turn senescent. Here we formulate cancer growth in mathematical terms and obtain distinct predictions for the evolution of senescence in the two models. We perform experiments in human melanoma cells which confirm the predictions of the hierarchical model and show that senescence is a reversible process controlled by survivin. We conclude that enhancing senescence is unlikely to provide a useful therapeutic strategy to fight cancer, unless the cancer stem cells are specifically targeted.

Zapperi, Stefano; La Porta, Caterina A. M.; Sethna, James P.

2012-02-01

368

Sonographic appearances of desmoid tumors.  

PubMed

The medical records of 16 patients (9 female and 7 male; age range, 5-66 years) with 24 lesions that had a histologic diagnosis of desmoid tumors were reviewed at our institution. Six cases were extra-abdominal, 4 intra-abdominal, and 6 in the abdominal wall. Lesions ranged from 1.5 to 18.0 cm in diameter (mean, 6.8 cm). All lesions were solid masses, which appeared hypoechoic, isoechoic, or hyperechoic with homogeneous or heterogeneous echogenicity. Posterior acoustic enhancement was seen in 18 lesions. No lesions showed central necrosis. Most lesions had substantial flow and high resistive index values (>0.70). Sonography can show a desmoid tumor's site, size, contour, margin, echogenicity, homogeneity, vascularity, and resistive index value in detail. PMID:25063419

Lou, Li; Teng, Jianbo; Qi, Hengtao; Ban, Yongguang

2014-08-01

369

Marginating Dendritic Cells of the Tumor Microenvironment Cross-present Tumor Antigens and Stably Engage Tumor-Specific T cells  

PubMed Central

Summary The nature and site of tumor-antigen presentation to immune T cells by bone-marrow-derived cells within the tumor microenvironment remains unresolved. We generated a fluorescent mouse model of spontaneous immuno-evasive breast cancer and identified a subset of myeloid cells with significant similarity to dendritic cells and macrophages that constitutively ingest tumor-derived proteins and present processed tumor antigens to reactive T cells. Using intravital live-imaging, we determined that infiltrating tumor-specific T cells engage in long-lived interactions with these cells, proximal to the tumor. In vitro, these cells capture cytotoxic T cells in signaling-competent conjugates, but do not support full-activation or sustain cytolysis. The spatiotemporal dynamics revealed here implicate non-productive interactions between T cells and antigen presenting cells on the tumor margin.

Engelhardt, John J.; Boldajipour, Bijan; Beemiller, Peter; Pandurangi, Priya; Sorensen, Caitlin; Werb, Zena; Egeblad, Mikala; Krummel, Matthew F.

2012-01-01

370

Malignant odontogenic tumors: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Abstract\\u000a \\u000a Malignant odontogenic tumors are rare lesions. Only through the gradual accumulation of single cases can one obtain some information\\u000a about their histomorphology, clinical presentation, and behavior. Just as their benign counterparts, they are of epithelial,\\u000a mesenchymal, or mixed nature. Features of the several entities currently recognized are described in this overview.

P. J. Slootweg

2002-01-01

371

Mesenchymal tumors of the liver.  

PubMed

Primary angiosarcoma of the liver accounts for up to 2% of all primary liver tumors and is the second most common primary malignant neoplasm of the liver. Approximately 10 to 20 new cases are diagnosed every year in the United States and the prevalence varies from 0.14 to 0.25 per million. In an autopsy series from Chicago, one hepatic angiosarcoma was noted for every 30 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:11218917

Mani, H; Van Thiel, D H

2001-02-01

372

Cloacal anomaly with bladder tumor  

PubMed Central

A rare case of squamous cell carcinoma of bladder occurring in a 36-year-old female with persistent cloacal anomaly who presented with frequency, urgency, dysuria, and recurrent urinary tract infection is reported. Contrast Enhanced Computed Tomography with three dimensional reconstruction showed presence of bladder tumor and persistent cloaca. She underwent pelvic exenteration and wet colostomy. Histopathologic findings revealed locally advanced moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma.

Seth, Amlesh; Ram, Ishwar

2013-01-01

373

Pigmented tumor in the nostril  

PubMed Central

A 64-year-old man was noted to have a single pigmented lesion in the nostril of his nose. Clinical examination revealed a 5 mm nodular growth and brown lesion. With a presumed clinical diagnosis of malignant skin tumor, a biopsy was performed. The histological examination revealed the unexpected diagnosis of pigmented inverted follicular keratosis. The inverted follicular keratosis is an uncommon benign lesion that is usually diagnosed histologically rather than clinically. It commonly simulates other proliferative skin lesions.

Jaada, Nawel; Zaraa, Ines; Chelly, Ines; Cheikhrouhou, Rym; Trojjet, Sondes; Euch, Dalenda El; Mokni, Mourad; Haouet, Slim; Ben Osman, Amel

2011-01-01

374

Breast cancer circulating tumor cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metastasization of breast cancer involves various mechanisms responsible for progression from invasive lesion to dissemination\\u000a in distant organs. Regional lymph node metastasization was considered an initial step in this process, but it is now recognized\\u000a that hematogenous dissemination is a deviation from lymphatic circulation. The detection of circulating tumor cells (CTC)\\u000a is an aim in several oncology areas. For this

Maria João Carvalho; Mafalda Laranjo; Margarida Abrantes; António S. Cabrita; Filomena Botelho; Carlos F. de Oliveira

2009-01-01

375

Tumoral angiogenesis and breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer (BC) is the most common neoplasm in women in Western countries. Tumoral angiogenesis (TA) is essential for the\\u000a growth and spread of BC cells. There are at least 6 different angiogenic growth factors associated with TA in BC. The major\\u000a mediator of TA is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a homodimeric heparin-binding glycoprotein. VEGF signals through\\u000a VEGF receptor-2

Parham Khosravi Shahi; Alicia Soria Lovelle; Gumersindo Pérez Manga

2009-01-01

376

Pigmented tumor in the nostril.  

PubMed

A 64-year-old man was noted to have a single pigmented lesion in the nostril of his nose. Clinical examination revealed a 5 mm nodular growth and brown lesion. With a presumed clinical diagnosis of malignant skin tumor, a biopsy was performed. The histological examination revealed the unexpected diagnosis of pigmented inverted follicular keratosis. The inverted follicular keratosis is an uncommon benign lesion that is usually diagnosed histologically rather than clinically. It commonly simulates other proliferative skin lesions. PMID:24396720

Jaada, Nawel; Zaraa, Ines; Chelly, Ines; Cheikhrouhou, Rym; Trojjet, Sondes; Euch, Dalenda El; Mokni, Mourad; Haouet, Slim; Ben Osman, Amel

2011-01-01

377

Tumor-Infiltrating Immune Cells Promoting Tumor Invasion and Metastasis: Existing Theories  

PubMed Central

It is a commonly held belief that infiltration of immune cells into tumor tissues and direct physical contact between tumor cells and infiltrated immune cells is associated with physical destructions of the tumor cells, reduction of the tumor burden, and improved clinical prognosis. An increasing number of studies, however, have suggested that aberrant infiltration of immune cells into tumor or normal tissues may promote tumor progression, invasion, and metastasis. Neither the primary reason for these contradictory observations, nor the mechanism for the reported diverse impact of tumor-infiltrating immune cells has been elucidated, making it difficult to judge the clinical implications of infiltration of immune cells within tumor tissues. This mini-review presents several existing hypotheses and models that favor the promoting impact of tumor-infiltrating immune cells on tumor invasion and metastasis, and also analyzes their strength and weakness.

Man, Yan-gao; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Mason, Jeffrey; Avital, Itzhak; Bilchik, Anton; Bruecher, Bjoern; Protic, Mladjan; Nissan, Aviram; Izadjoo, Mina; Zhang, Xichen; Jewett, Anahid

2013-01-01

378

[Clinical features of accessory parotid gland tumors].  

PubMed

Accessory parotid gland tumors are relatively rare; hence, adequately detailed clinical analyses of these tumors are difficult to perform at a single institution. In this report, we describe the findings for 65 patients [29 men, 36 women; median age, 51 (9-81) years] with accessory parotid gland tumors, consisting of 4 cases documented by us and 61 cases previously reported by other Japanese authors. Approximately 50% of the patients were treated in an otolaryngology department, while the remaining patients were treated in plastic surgery, oral surgery, or dermatology departments. In 4 patients, the results of preoperative fine-needle aspiration cytology indicated that the tumor was benign; however, the postoperative histopathology results revealed malignant tumors. The frequencies of malignant and benign tumors were 44.6% (n = 29) and 55.4% (n = 36), respectively. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma and pleomorphic adenoma were the most frequent types of malignant and benign accessory parotid gland tumors, respectively. Among the various surgical methods that were used, such as direct cheek and intraoral incisions, a standard parotidectomy incision was the most preferred treatment approach for these tumors. Recently, an endoscopic approach has also been found to yield satisfactory results. An optimal approach should be selected after evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of these methods. No definite guidelines are available regarding the choice of elective neck dissection and postoperative radiation therapy for malignant accessory parotid gland tumors. Although tumor resection (plus elective neck dissection) and postoperative radiation therapy have been frequently performed for various kinds of malignant accessory parotid gland tumors to date, additional studies are needed regarding the criteria for selecting elective neck dissection and postoperative radiation therapy. Since the malignancy rate for accessory parotid gland tumors is higher than that for parotid gland tumors, the possibility of malignancy (especially mucoepidermoid carcinoma and carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma) should be considered when resecting accessory parotid gland tumors, even if the results of preoperative fine-needle aspiration cytology indicate that the tumor is benign. PMID:24558945

Iguchi, Hiroyoshi; Wada, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Hidefumi; Yamada, Kei; Matsushita, Naoki; Okamoto, Sachimi; Teranishi, Yuichi; Koda, Yuki; Kosugi, Yuki; Yamane, Hideo

2013-12-01

379

Stromal MCP-1 in mammary tumors induces tumor-associated macrophage infiltration and contributes to tumor progression.  

PubMed

There is growing evidence that tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) promote tumor growth and dissemination. Many individual reports have focused on the protumor function of molecules linked to the recruitment of macrophages, but little is known about which factor has the strongest impact on recruitment of macrophages in breast cancer. To elucidate this question, we performed RT-PCR using species-specific primers and evaluated tumoral and stromal mRNA expression of macrophage chemoattractants separately in human breast tumor xenografts. The correlation between the tumoral or stromal chemoattractant mRNA expression including monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) (CCL2), MIP-1alpha (CCL3), RANTES (CCL5), colony-stimulating factor 1, tumor necrosis factor alpha, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB and macrophage infiltration were compared. There was significant positive correlation between stromal MCP-1 expression and macrophage number (r = 0.63), and negative correlation between tumoral RANTES expression and macrophage number (r = -0.75). However, no significant correlation was found for the other tumoral and stromal factors. The interaction between the tumor cells and macrophages was also investigated. Tumor cell-macrophage interactions augmented macrophage-derived MCP-1 mRNA expression and macrophage chemotactic activity in vitro. Treatment of immunodeficient mice bearing human breast cancer cells with a neutralizing antibody to MCP-1 resulted in significant decrease of macrophage infiltration, angiogenetic activity and tumor growth. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis of human breast cancer tissue showed stromal MCP-1 had a significant correlation with relapse free survival (p = 0.029), but tumoral MCP-1 did not (p = 0.105). These findings indicate that stromal MCP-1 produced as a result of tumor-stromal interactions may be important for the progression of human breast cancer and macrophages may play an important role in this tumor-stroma interaction. PMID:19479998

Fujimoto, Hiroshi; Sangai, Takafumi; Ishii, Genichiro; Ikehara, Akashi; Nagashima, Takeshi; Miyazaki, Masaru; Ochiai, Atsushi

2009-09-15

380

Microwave Therapy for Bone Tumors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In vivo microwave treatments for bone tumor are designed, which enable us to conserve the activity and functionality of the matrix of living tissues. This treatment is composed of two steps. In the first step, the tumor was coagulated by the application of microwaves emitted from the antenna inserted into the tumor tissue, and then removed. In the second step, the surrounding tissue suspected to be invaded with transformed cells was covered with hydro gels and heated similarly. The tissue itself was heated by the conduction from the gels. The tissue temperature should be kept at 60°C for 30 minutes. This treatment should kill the whole cells within the tissues, but the mechanical strength and the biochemical activity of the matrix should be left intact. The matrix preserves the mechanical functions and ensures the maximum regeneration ability of the tissue. In this study, various hydro gels were examined and the most promising one was selected. Animal experiments were carried out and successful heating verified the applicability of the treatment.

Takakuda, Kazuo; Inaoka, Shuken; Saito, Hirokazu; Hassan, Moinuddin; Koyama, Yoshikazu; Kuroda, Hiroshi; Kanaya, Tomohiro; Kosaka, Toshifumi; Tanaka, Shigeo; Miyairi, Hiroo; Shinomiya, Kenichi

381

Treatment of pituitary tumors: surgery.  

PubMed

Following a century of technical developments and refinements, a variety of standard operation techniques to date are available for the surgical treatment of pituitary tumors. The vast majority of the lesions can be dealt with satisfactorily utilizing transsphenoidal approaches. The goal of surgical treatment is rapid eradication of the tumor mass, decompression of visual pathways, and elimination of hormonal oversecretion while preserving the normal gland and avoiding potential surgical complications. The tumor's size, extension, and configuration and the magnitude of hormonal oversecretion, are the essential factors that decide whether all the goals can be reached. Another important factor is the individual skill and experience of the surgeon. Still, several lesions that are mainly developed outside of the sella require transcranial approaches, of which the pterional and subfrontal routes are the most widely used. With microsurgical techniques and standard approaches, mortality is far below 1% and morbidity is remarkably low. The most favorable surgical results are obtained with microadenomas, which in the MR image are depicted as distinct low intensity lesions. Only recently has the recovery of pituitary function following surgery been convincingly demonstrated. With the extended transsphenoidal approaches, lesions become accessible that previously have been considered contraindications for transsphenoidal surgery. The introduction of new technical gadgets such as neuronavigation, endoscopy, and intraoperative imaging open new avenues and, even more, widen the spectrum of accessible lesions. Indications for surgery, the preoperative workup, surgical techniques, results, limitations, and new technical developments are briefly reviewed in this article. PMID:16311412

Buchfelder, Michael

2005-10-01

382

Proximal Humerus Reconstructions for Tumors  

PubMed Central

The optimal method for reconstructing the proximal humerus in patients with tumors is controversial. To determine functional outcomes and complication rates after different types of reconstructions, we reviewed a consecutive series of 49 patients who underwent proximal humerus resection and osteoarticular allograft (17 patients), allograft-prosthetic composite (16), or endoprosthetic (16) reconstruction. Operative indications included primary malignancies (24 patients), metastatic disease (19), and benign aggressive disease (six). Implant revision was more common after osteoarticular reconstruction (five of 17) than after allograft-prosthetic composite (one of 16) or endoprosthetic (zero of 16) reconstructions. At a minimum followup of 24 months (median, 98 months; range, 24–214 months) in surviving patients, Musculoskeletal Tumor Society functional scores averaged 79% for the allograft-prosthetic composite, 71% for the osteoarticular allograft, and 69% for the endoprosthetic reconstruction cohorts. Shoulder instability was associated with abductor mechanism compromise and was more common after endoprosthetic reconstruction. Allograft fractures occurred in 53% of patients receiving osteoarticular allografts. We recommend allograft-prosthetic composite reconstruction for younger patients with primary tumors of bone and endoprosthetic reconstruction for older patients with metastatic disease. Because of the unacceptable complication rate, we do not recommend osteoarticular allograft reconstruction for routine use in the proximal humerus. Level of Evidence: Level III, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

Adams, Sheila C.; Pitcher, J. David; Malinin, Theodore I.; Temple, H. Thomas

2008-01-01

383

Advancements in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.  

PubMed

Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) have increased in incidence in the USA over the last 20 years. Although PanNETs are often misconceived as being indolent tumors as they have a far more favorable prognosis over pancreatic adenocarcinoma, roughly 60-70% of patients have metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis due to presentation late in the disease process. While improvements in imaging modalities allow for early detection and better tumor localization, recent advancements in basic science, as well as surgical and medical management of PanNETs have further improved the prognosis. The mainstay of therapy for localized PanNETs is surgical intervention, which has become safer and is slowly shifting towards a more minimally invasive approach. However, the prognosis still remains relatively bleak for patients with unresectable disease. Fortunately, novel molecular targeted therapies, such as everolimus and sunitinib, have recently come into the limelight and have shown significant promise for the treatment of locally advanced and metastatic disease. PMID:23899286

Sadaria, Miral R; Hruban, Ralph H; Edil, Barish H

2013-07-01

384

Percutaneous Tumor Ablation with Radiofrequency  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFA) is a new minimally invasive treatment for localized cancer. Minimally invasive surgical options require less resources, time, recovery, and cost, and often offer reduced morbidity and mortality, compared with more invasive methods. To be useful, image-guided, minimally invasive, local treatments will have to meet those expectations without sacrificing efficacy. METHODS Image-guided, local cancer treatment relies on the assumption that local disease control may improve survival. Recent developments in ablative techniques are being applied to patients with inoperable, small, or solitary liver tumors, recurrent metachronous hereditary renal cell carcinoma, and neoplasms in the bone, lung, breast, and adrenal gland. RESULTS Recent refinements in ablation technology enable large tumor volumes to be treated with image-guided needle placement, either percutaneously, laparoscopically, or with open surgery. Local disease control potentially could result in improved survival, or enhanced operability. CONCLUSIONS Consensus indications in oncology are ill-defined, despite widespread proliferation of the technology. A brief review is presented of the current status of image-guided tumor ablation therapy. More rigorous scientific review, long-term follow-up, and randomized prospective trials are needed to help define the role of RFA in oncology.

Wood, Bradford J.; Ramkaransingh, Jeffrey R.; Fojo, Tito; Walther, McClellan M.; Libutti, Stephen K.

2008-01-01

385

Pazopanib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Progressive Carcinoid Tumors  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Pulmonary Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Regional Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Stage III Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage IV Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma

2014-07-11

386

Survival Rates for Wilms Tumor by Stage and Histology  

MedlinePLUS

... Survival rates for Wilms tumor by stage and histology Survival rates are often used by doctors as ... Tumor 4-year Survival Rates Tumor Stage Favorable Histology Unfavorable Histology (Anaplastic Wilms Tumor) I 99% 83% ...

387

The immune system in neuroendocrine tumors.  

PubMed

During the last 30 years the incidence of neuroendocrine tumors has increased considerably and the overall 5-year survival rate has not changed substantially. Conventional therapeutic approaches appear to show an unsatisfactory effect in the more insidious forms of malignancies. Hence, attempts were made to direct the patient's own immune system against cancer by vaccinating against different tumor antigens. Up to date, only sporadic achievements were demonstrated in the majority cases of vaccination trials. One of the main hindrances to a successful vaccination comprises tumor-immune-escape mechanisms. This review focuses on the current knowledge concerning tumor immunoevasion strategies and the immune system in neuroendocrine tumors. PMID:21971962

Thiel, A; Ehlers, M; Anlauf, M; Raffel, A; Stoecklein, N H; Schott, M

2011-11-01

388

Tongue Tumor Detection in Medical Hyperspectral Images  

PubMed Central

A hyperspectral imaging system to measure and analyze the reflectance spectra of the human tongue with high spatial resolution is proposed for tongue tumor detection. To achieve fast and accurate performance for detecting tongue tumors, reflectance data were collected using spectral acousto-optic tunable filters and a spectral adapter, and sparse representation was used for the data analysis algorithm. Based on the tumor image database, a recognition rate of 96.5% was achieved. The experimental results show that hyperspectral imaging for tongue tumor diagnosis, together with the spectroscopic classification method provide a new approach for the noninvasive computer-aided diagnosis of tongue tumors.

Liu, Zhi; Wang, Hongjun; Li, Qingli

2012-01-01

389

Desmoid Tumors in the Pediatric Population  

PubMed Central

Desmoid tumors are benign soft tissue tumors associated with locally aggressive growth and high rates of morbidity, but they do not metastasize via lymphatic or hematogenous routes. While most of the data on desmoid tumors originates in the adult literature, many of the findings have been applied to the management of pediatric patients. This article discusses the epidemiology, etiology, clinical presentation, pathology, and treatment of this rare tumor in the pediatric population and includes a literature review of the most recent large series of pediatric patients with desmoid tumors.

Honeyman, Joshua N.; La Quaglia, Michael P.

2012-01-01

390

Duodenal carcinoid tumor - a case report.  

PubMed

Carcinoid tumors are well differentiated neuroendochrine tumors which most frequently involve the gastrointestinal tract; however duodenal carcinoid tumors are rare. They can present with various clinical symptoms and are difficult to diagnose. A 52 years old lady presented with the symptoms of recurrent upper abdominal pain, burning sensation of whole body and passage of loose stool. On endoscopy of upper GIT, there was a duodenal polyp. Polyp was removed by endoscopic resection and tissue was taken for biopsy. Histological findings of biopsy specimen shows carcinoid tumor. As duodenal carcinoid tumor is a rare presentation so we are going to present this case in this article. PMID:24584389

Debnath, C R; Debnath, M R; Haque, M A; Das, S N; Moshwan, M M; Karim, R; Uddoula, M S

2014-01-01

391

Littoral cell angioma mimicking hepatic tumor.  

PubMed

Littoral cell angioma is a rare vascular tumor of the spleen that was described by Falk et al. in 1991. Because of the limited number, untypical imaging manifestations, and lack of knowledge on this tumor type, these tumors are often misdiagnosed. In most cases, the tumor presents with multiple small hypoattenuating nodules in the spleen with delayed enhancement. However, solitary littoral cell angiomas have not been well described. We present the CT features of an unusual littoral cell angioma mimicking hepatic tumor. PMID:23986846

Liang, Wenhua; Lu, Jingjing; Qin, Mingwei; Sang, Xinting

2012-01-01

392

[Baso- and spinocellular Pinkus fibroepithelial tumor].  

PubMed

A seventy-eight-year-old man presented with a moist proliferating tumor of the back which arose six months earlier amidst numerous verrucae seborrheic. The tumor's size was 20 X 28 mm. Two different aspects were found upon histologic examination. One was a Pinkus fibroepithelial tumor with foci of basal cell proliferation, stromal changes with fibrosis, and lymphocytic infiltration. Adjacent to this tumor was a squamous-cell carcinoma. Foci of squamous-cell carcinoma were also found within the Pinkus epithelial tumor. PMID:6293071

Verdaguer, S; Discamps, G; Hoffmann-Martinot, R

1982-09-16

393

Tumor antigen precursor protein profiles of adult and pediatric brain tumors identify potential targets for immunotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives We evaluated and compared tumor antigen precursor protein (TAPP) profiles in adult and pediatric brain tumors of 31 genes\\u000a related to tumor associated antigens (TAA) for possible use in immunotherapy. Antigens were selected based on their potential\\u000a to stimulate T cell responses against tumors of neuroectodermal origin. Methods Thirty-seven brain tumor specimens from 11 adult and 26 pediatric patients

Jian Gang Zhang; Carol A. Kruse; Lara Driggers; Neil Hoa; Jeffrey Wisoff; Jeffrey C. Allen; David Zagzag; Elizabeth W. Newcomb; Martin R. Jadus

2008-01-01

394

Intravital imaging of anti-tumor immune response and the tumor microenvironment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor growth, invasiveness, and metastasis are dynamic processes involving cancer interactions with the extracellular matrix,\\u000a the vasculature, and various types of non-cancerous host cells that form the tumor stroma. An often-present stromal component\\u000a is the immune cells, such as tumor-associated myeloid and lymphocytic infiltrates, yet endogenous anti-tumor immune responses\\u000a are typically ineffective in tumor rejection and may even contribute to

Tomasz Zal; Grzegorz Chodaczek

2010-01-01

395

TGF-?-induced IRAK-M expression in tumor-associated macrophages regulates lung tumor growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) constitute a major component of the immune cell infiltrate observed in the tumor microenvironment (TME). Factors present in the TME, including tumor growth factor-? (TGF-?), allow tumors to circumvent host-mediated immune responses to promote tumor progression. However, the molecular mechanism(s) involved are not clear. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important mediators of innate immune responses by immune cells,

T J Standiford; R Kuick; U Bhan; J Chen; M Newstead; V G Keshamouni

2011-01-01

396

Blocking tumor cell eicosanoid synthesis by GPx4 impedes tumor growth and malignancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using tumor cell-restricted overexpression of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4), we investigated the contribution of tumor cell eicosanoids to solid tumor growth and malignant progression in two tumor models differing in tumorigenic potential. By lowering cellular lipid hydroperoxide levels, GPx4 inhibits cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) activities. GPx4 overexpression drastically impeded solid tumor growth of weakly tumorigenic L929 fibrosarcoma cells, whereas

Ingeborg Heirman; Daisy Ginneberge; Regina Brigelius-Flohé; Nico Hendrickx; Patrizia Agostinis; Peter Brouckaert; Pieter Rottiers; Johan Grooten

2006-01-01

397

Bayesian Inference of Tumor Hypoxia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tumor hypoxia is a state of oxygen deprivation in tumors. It has been associated with aggressive tumor phenotypes and with increased resistance to conventional cancer therapies. In this study, we report on the application of Bayesian sequential analysis in estimating the most probable value of tumor hypoxia quantification based on immunohistochemical assays of a biomarker. The `gold standard' of tumor hypoxia assessment is a direct measurement of pO2 in vivo by the Eppendorf polarographic electrode, which is an invasive technique restricted to accessible sites and living tissues. An attractive alternative is immunohistochemical staining to detect proteins expressed by cells during hypoxia. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is an enzyme expressed on the cell membrane during hypoxia to balance the immediate extracellular microenvironment. CAIX is widely regarded as a surrogate marker of chronic hypoxia in various cancers. The study was conducted with two different experimental procedures. The first data set was a group of three patients with invasive cervical carcinomas, from which five biopsies were obtained. Each of the biopsies was fully sectioned and from each section, the proportion of CAIX-positive cells was estimated. Measurements were made by image analysis of multiple deep sections cut through these biopsies, labeled for CAIX using both immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical techniques [1]. The second data set was a group of 24 patients, also with invasive cervical carcinomas, from which two biopsies were obtained. Bayesian parameter estimation was applied to obtain a reliable inference about the proportion of CAIX-positive cells within the carcinomas, based on the available biopsies. From the first data set, two to three biopsies were found to be sufficient to infer the overall CAIX percentage in the simple form: best estimate+/-uncertainty. The second data-set led to a similar result in 70% of the cases. In the remaining cases Bayes' theorem warned us automatically that the inference from the data could not be summarized by just two numbers, but the full posterior probability density function (pdf) had to be used.

Gunawan, R.; Tenti, G.; Sivaloganathan, S.

2009-12-01

398

Adenoviral Targeting of Gene Expression to Tumors  

PubMed Central

Using biochemical, imaging and histological methods, we employed transcriptional targeting to increase the specificity of tumor gene expression in vivo for intravenously administered recombinant adenovirus vectors. Surprisingly, the relative specificity of tumor expression in comparison to other tissues was increased for a constitutively expressing recombinant adenovirus, AdCMVLuc, by simply reducing the viral dose. Even at lower doses, however, the high frequency of viral infection and transgene expression in the liver using constitutive promoters still represents a substantial problem. To further augment tumor specificity, we constructed a series of adenoviruses expressing luciferase from several other promoters and tested their ability to selectively transcribe genes in tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo. Constitutively active viral promoters (RSV, SR?) varied widely in their tumor selectivity, but hypoxia-responsive promoters (carbonic anhydrase 9, PAI-1, SOD2, and several chimeric constructs) demonstrated the most tumor-selective expression. Our results show that tumor targeting to HT1080 fibrosarcomas was readily achieved using transcriptional targeting mechanisms. We attribute the relatively high level of gene transfer and expression in HT1080 tumors in vivo to increased viral access to the tumor, presumably due to discontinuities in tumor vasculature and augmented expression from stress-responsive promoters in the hypoxic and inflammatory tumor microenvironment.

Hogg, Richard T.; Garcia, Joseph A.; Gerard, Robert D.

2010-01-01

399

Clinicopathological features of gastric glomus tumor  

PubMed Central

AIM: To study the clinicopathological features of gastric glomus tumor and review the related Chinese literature published in 1990-2010. METHODS: A case of gastric glomus tumor was reported. Clinicopathological findings in 56 cases of gastric glomus tumor were analyzed. RESULTS: Gastric glomus tumor was far more common in women than in men with a female to male ratio of 1.6:1. The median age of the patients was 45 years (range 28-79 years). The patients often complained of epigastric pain and bloody stool. The tumor was located in antrum of the stomach. The greatest diameter of the tumor was 0.8-11cm. Histologically, the tumor was comprised of nests of glomus cells surrounding the capillaries. Glomus cells were small, uniform and round. Vimentin, smooth muscle actin and actin were expressed in the tumor. Other markers, including S-100 protein, CD34, CD117, desmin, CD56, synaptophysin, chromogranin A, neuron specific enolase and cytokeratin were all negative. CONCLUSION: Gastric glomus tumor is a rare benign mesenchymal neoplasm. Its diagnosis depends on pathologic examination. Differential diagnosis includes gastrointestinal stromal tumor, paraganglioma and carcinoid tumor.

Fang, Hui-Qiong; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Fen-Fen; Cui, Yi; Han, An-Jia

2010-01-01

400

Cancer stem cells and tumor metastasis  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown that tumors can induce angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, which plays an important role in promoting hematogenous and lymphogenous spread. In recent years, the cancer stem cell (CSC) theory has emerged as an attractive hypothesis for tumor development and progression. The theory proposes that one small subset of cancer cells has the characteristics of stem cells. These CSCs have the capability of both self-renewal and differentiation into diverse cancer cells, which play a decisive role in maintaining capacity for malignant proliferation, invasion, metastasis, and tumor recurrence. CSCs are involved in tumor metastasis, however, the details, and the possible relationship of CSCs, angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and tumor metastasis is still ambiguous. The aim of this report is to summarize current studies of CSCs and tumor metastasis at the cellular level, with the goal of bringing new insights into understanding the role of CSCs in tumor metastasis.

LI, SHUANG; LI, QIN

2014-01-01

401

Bioengineered human tumor within a bone niche.  

PubMed

Monolayer cultures of tumor cells and animal studies have tremendously advanced our understanding of cancer biology. However, we often lack animal models for human tumors, and cultured lines of human cells quickly lose their cancer signatures. In recent years, simple 3D models for cancer research have emerged, including cell culture in spheroids and on biomaterial scaffolds. Here we describe a bioengineered model of human Ewing's sarcoma that mimics the native bone tumor niche with high biological fidelity. In this model, cancer cells that have lost their transcriptional profiles after monolayer culture re-express genes related to focal adhesion and cancer pathways. The bioengineered model recovers the original hypoxic and glycolytic tumor phenotype, and enables re-expression of angiogenic and vasculogenic mimicry features that favor tumor adaptation. We propose that differentially expressed genes between the monolayer cell culture and native tumor environment are potential therapeutic targets that can be explored using the bioengineered tumor model. PMID:24746967

Villasante, Aranzazu; Marturano-Kruik, Alessandro; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

2014-07-01

402

Tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 functions as a tumor suppressor  

PubMed Central

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a key player in inflammatory bowel disease and has been variably associated with carcinogenesis, but details of the cross talk between inflammatory and tumorigenic pathways remain incompletely understood. It has been shown that, in C57BL/6 mice, signaling via TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) is protective from injury and inflammation in experimental colitis. Therefore, we hypothesized that loss of TNFR1 signaling would confer increased risk of developing colitis-associated carcinoma. Using three models of murine tumorigenesis based on repeated bouts of inflammation or systemic tumor initiator, we sought to determine the roles of TNF and TNFR1 with regard to neoplastic transformation in the colon in wild-type (WT), TNFR1 knockout (R1KO), and TNF knockout (TNFKO) mice. We found R1KO animals to have more severe disease, as defined by weight loss, hematochezia, and histology. TNFKO mice demonstrated less weight loss but were consistently smaller, and rates and duration of hematochezia were comparable to WT mice. Histological inflammation scores were higher and neoplastic lesions occurred more frequently and earlier in R1KO mice. Apoptosis is not affected in R1KO mice although epithelial proliferation following injury is more ardent even before tumorigenesis is apparent. Lastly, there is earlier and more intense expression of activated ?-catenin in these mice, implying a connection between TNFR1 and Wnt signaling. Taken together, these findings show that in the context of colitis-associated carcinogenesis TNFR1 functions as a tumor suppressor, exerting this effect not via apoptosis but by modulating activation of ?-catenin and controlling epithelial proliferation.

Chang, Fengqi; Lacey, Michelle R.; Bouljihad, Mostafa; zu Bentrup, Kerstin Honer

2012-01-01

403

Imaging Review of Skeletal Tumors of the Pelvis Malignant Tumors and Tumor Mimics  

PubMed Central

Malignant lesions of the pelvis are not uncommon and need to be differentiated from benign lesions and tumor mimics. Appearances are sometimes nonspecific leading to consideration of a broad differential diagnosis. Clinical history, anatomic location, and imaging characterization can help narrow the differential diagnosis. The focus of this paper is to demonstrate the imaging features and the role of plain films, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging for detecting and characterizing malignant osseous pelvic lesions and their common mimics.

Girish, Gandikota; Finlay, Karen; Fessell, David; Pai, Deepa; Dong, Qian; Jamadar, David

2012-01-01

404

Sunitinib in Treating Young Patients With Refractory Solid Tumors  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Central Nervous System Metastases; Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

2014-01-27

405

Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Young Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

2013-05-01

406

Pediatric Spinal Cord Tumors and Masses  

PubMed Central

Background/Objective: Spinal cord tumors are a relatively rare diagnosis, accounting for 1% to 10% of all pediatric central nervous system tumors. Understanding the etiology and clinical outcomes of these tumors is therefore very important. This study presents detailed information regarding clinical presentation, histological findings, outcomes, functional assessment, and management of a series of patients with this diagnosis. Method: Retrospective, descriptive study. Subjects: Thirty-five children with a final diagnosis of spinal cord tumor or mass, excluding dysraphism. Results: Neurodevelopmental tumors (dermoid tumors, epidermoid tumors, and teratomas) were the most common tumor type (31%), followed by astrocytomas (29%) and neuroblastomas (14%). Other types included schwannomas, meningiomas, giant cell tumors, extradural cystic masses, leukemic-related masses, and masses related to neurofibromatosis. Mean age at diagnosis was 6.6 years (SD = 5.5 y) and did not vary significantly by tumor type except for children with neuroblastoma (mean = 0.4 y, SD = 0.5 y). More boys (57%) were identified in the series than girls (43%); however, there was no association between tumor type and sex. Presenting complaints of pain were noted in 57% and were localized to the back, neck, or extremities. Extremity weakness was reported as an initial presenting symptom in 46%. Three children had scoliosis as a presenting issue and 14 had gait abnormalities. Regardless of treatment modality, mobility was retained in 83% of children with or without gait aids. Neurogenic bowel and/or bladder were present in 23% of the population. Conclusions: This study corroborates other studies indicating that intramedullary tumors are the predominant form of pediatric spinal cord tumor. This population, however, presented with an unusually large number of developmental tumors, contrary to several published studies. The disparity may be the result of this institution acting as a regional referral center, thus increasing the number of this type of patient. The population is too small to make any other conjecture. The predominance of astrocytomas and neuroblastomas among those patients with poor outcomes and the prevalence of developmental tumors suggest the need for broader investigation. Although, in general, spinal cord tumors are relatively rare, this preliminary study supports the need to further evaluate associations between tumor type, presenting symptoms, treatment, and functional outcome in children with spinal cord tumors.

Wilson, Pamela E; Oleszek, Joyce L; Clayton, Gerald H

2007-01-01

407

Brain tumors and syndromes in children.  

PubMed

(Brain) tumors are usually a disorder of aged individuals. If a brain tumor occurs in a child, there is a possible genetic susceptibility for this. Such genetic susceptibilities often show other signs and symptoms. Therefore, every child with a brain tumor should be carefully evaluated for the presence of a "tumor predisposition syndrome." Here, we provide an overview of the various central nervous system tumors that occur in children with syndromes and of the various syndromes that occur in children with brain tumor. Our aim is to facilitate recognition of syndromes in children with a brain tumor and early diagnosis of brain tumors in children with syndromes. Diagnosing tumor predisposition syndromes in children may have important consequences for prognosis, treatment, and screening for subsequent malignancies and nontumor manifestations. We discuss pitfalls in clinical and molecular diagnoses, and the consequences of diagnosing a hereditary disorder for family members. Our improved knowledge of cancer etiology is increasingly translated into management strategies in syndromes in general and will likely lead in the near future to personalized therapeutic approaches for tumor predisposition syndromes. PMID:24535705

Bleeker, Fonnet E; Hopman, Saskia M J; Merks, Johannes H M; Aalfs, Cora M; Hennekam, Raoul C M

2014-06-01

408

Secondary Trigeminal Neuralgia in Cerebellopontine Angle Tumors  

PubMed Central

The analysis of the treatment results in patients with cerebellopontine angle (CPA) tumors, manifested as trigeminal neuralgia (TN). During the 10-year period from 1998 to 2008, 14 patients with verified CPA tumors that had the typical manifestations of TN were operated on at our hospital (5.8% from all patients with TN who underwent surgery). In nine cases the epidermoid was identified; three patients had meningioma, one patient had acoustic neurinoma, and one patient had lipoma. The follow-up of all patients lasted at least 12 months. The intraoperative assessment identified the three variants of relationship between the tumors and neurovascular structures: (1) tumor grows around the trigeminal nerve; (2) the tumor causes compression and displacement of the trigeminal nerve; and (3) tumor presses the arterial vessel to the trigeminal nerve by moving the vessel or nerve. For six patients, with removal of tumor a microvascular decompression of the trigeminal nerve was performed. Complete pain relief was achieved in 12 patients (86%). TN is an expectative symptom of CPA tumors. The most frequent cause of secondary TN of CPA tumors is epidermoid. All patients with manifestations of TN should undergo the magnetic resonance imaging for early diagnosis of CPA tumor.

Shulev, Yury; Trashin, Alexander; Gordienko, Konstantin

2011-01-01

409

Imaging tumor hypoxia to advance radiation oncology.  

PubMed

Abstract Significance: Most solid tumors contain regions of low oxygenation or hypoxia. Tumor hypoxia has been associated with a poor clinical outcome and plays a critical role in tumor radioresistance. Recent Advances: Two main types of hypoxia exist in the tumor microenvironment: chronic and cycling hypoxia. Chronic hypoxia results from the limited diffusion distance of oxygen, and cycling hypoxia primarily results from the variation in microvessel red blood cell flux and temporary disturbances in perfusion. Chronic hypoxia may cause either tumor progression or regressive effects depending on the tumor model. However, there is a general trend toward the development of a more aggressive phenotype after cycling hypoxia. With advanced hypoxia imaging techniques, spatiotemporal characteristics of tumor hypoxia and the changes to the tumor microenvironment can be analyzed. Critical Issues: In this review, we focus on the biological and clinical consequences of chronic and cycling hypoxia on radiation treatment. We also discuss the advanced non-invasive imaging techniques that have been developed to detect and monitor tumor hypoxia in preclinical and clinical studies. Future Directions: A better understanding of the mechanisms of tumor hypoxia with non-invasive imaging will provide a basis for improved radiation therapeutic practices. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 313-337. PMID:24329000

Lee, Chen-Ting; Boss, Mary-Keara; Dewhirst, Mark W

2014-07-10

410

ROLE OF CHEMOKINES IN TUMOR GROWTH  

PubMed Central

Chemokines play a paramount role in the tumor progression. Chronic inflammation promotes tumor formation. Both tumor cells and stromal cells elaborate chemokines and cytokines. These act either by autocrine or paracrine mechanisms to sustain tumor cell growth, induce angiogenesis and facilitate evasion of immune surveillance through immunoediting. The chemokine receptor CXCR2 and its ligands promote tumor angiogenesis and leukocyte infiltration into the tumor microenvironment. In harsh acidic and hypoxic microenvironmental conditions tumor cells up-regulate their expression of CXCR4, which equips them to migrate up a gradient of CXCL12 elaborated by carcinoma associated fibroblasts (CAFs) to a normoxic microenvironment. The CXCL12-CXCR4 axis facilitates metastasis to distant organs and the CCL21-CCR7 chemokine ligand-receptor pair favors metastasis to lymph nodes. These two chemokine ligand-receptor systems are common key mediators of tumor cell metastasis for several malignancies and as such provide key targets for chemotherapy. In this paper, the role of specific chemokines/chemokine receptor interactions in tumor progression, growth and metastasis and the role of chemokine/chemokine receptor interactions in the stromal compartment as related to angiogenesis, metastasis, and immune response to the tumor are reviewed.

Raman, Dayanidhi; Baugher, Paige J.; Thu, Yee Mon; Richmond, Ann

2007-01-01

411

Thoracoscopic treatment of benign esophageal tumors  

PubMed Central

Introduction Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are among the most frequent mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract; the incidence of these tumors in the esophagus is less than 5%. Prognosis depends on localization, size, mitotic activity and possible invasion of surrounding structures. Minimally invasive surgery may be maximally utilized for removal of these tumors from the esophageal wall. This operation is usually performed thoracoscopically or laparoscopically and using the “rendez-vous” method – with endoscopic navigation. Aim To evaluate a set of patients with benign tumor of the esophagus who were operated on at the First Department of Surgery from 2006 to 2011. Material and methods In the years 2006-2011 a total of 11 patients with benign tumors of the esophagus underwent operation. Results Of the 11 patients with esophageal tumor, 5 were diagnosed with gastrointestinal stromal tumor, 5 with leiomyoma and in one patient the lesion was described as heterotopy of the pancreas. We used the minimally invasive rendez-vous method with endoscopic navigation in 9 cases. All patients healed primarily and were released from hospital on the 4th-7th day. These patients are being followed up as outpatients and recurrence of the tumor has not been observed in any of them. Conclusions Minimally invasive treatment of benign tumors of the esophageal wall is considered to the method of choice. Due to possible complications and the need for subsequent therapy in some patients, these procedures should be centralized to departments with experience in esophageal, thoracic and minimally invasive surgery.

Neoral, Cestmir; Aujesky, Rene; Skarda, Jozef; Vrba, Radek; Chudacek, Josef; Vomackova, Katherine

2012-01-01

412

Oral tumors in children: a review.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to present an analysis of the incidence and diagnosis of 172 oral tumors in Jordanian children and adolescents. During the period of evaluation, 1605 patients with oral cavity tumors were seen. Of which 172 (11%) were in children under 18 years, who were treated after histopathological confirmation of the diagnosis during the 18 years 1980-1998. Diagnosis, incidence and age at presentation were the main outcome measures, and the results showed that 156 patients (91%) had benign tumors and 16 patients (9%) were malignant. The most common benign tumor was haemangioma 24 (14%), and the most common malignant tumor was sarcoma 15 (8.5%). The most common odontogenic tumor was odontoma 35 (20%), and non-odontogenic tumor, ossifying fibroma 4 (2%). The most common site of soft tissue tumors was the lip 25 (14.5%), and of bony tumors the mandible 43 (25%). About 40% of the tumors developed in patients between the ages of 6 and 12 years. Most of the hemangiomas and lymphangiomas developed in patients less than 6 years old, and most of the ameloblastomas in those over 12 years of age. These data are important to assess geographical differences in the incidence of lesions and to all clinicians to make realistic judgments in counseling patients before biopsy about the probability of diagnosis. Most of these lesions were probably developmental malformations rather than neoplasms. PMID:11314322

Maaita, J K

2000-01-01

413

Metabolism of orthotopic mouse brain tumor models.  

PubMed

We used magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine whether orthotopic mouse brain tumors grown as xenografts in immunocompromised mice either from human brain tumor cells implanted immediately after surgery or from cultured human tumor lines show metabolic profiles comparable to those of the original tumors. Using a 7 T scanner, spectra were acquired from mice with a human atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) either implanted directly from the surgical specimen or first grown in culture, directly implanted choroid plexus carcinoma (CPC), and two medulloblastoma cell lines. The results were compared with spectra from these same tumors or tumor types in patients and with controls. Metabolic variability of tumors from a single cell line was also evaluated using the medulloblastoma lines. The main metabolic features of human tumors were qualitatively replicated in xenografts. AT/RTs in mice exhibited choline, creatine, and myo-inositol levels comparable to those observed in the patient. As in patients, choline was prominent in experimental CPC. Tumors from a single cell line were comparable. Significant correlations were found with key metabolites in humans and mice; however, differences including lower lipids in the implanted AT/RTs than in patient spectra and taurine observed in all animal spectra were also noted. The causes of these dissimilarities warrant further investigation. PMID:19728974

Rosol, Michael; Harutyunyan, Ira; Xu, Jingying; Melendez, Elizabeth; Smbatyan, Goar; Finlay, Jonathan L; Krieger, Mark D; Gonzalez-Gomez, Ignacio; Reynolds, C Patrick; Nelson, Marvin D; Erdreich-Epstein, Anat; Blüml, Stefan

2009-01-01

414

Efficient management of adrenal tumors.  

PubMed

A retrospective analysis was carried out on 121 patients with primary adrenal tumors operated on at 2 Vancouver hospitals between the years 1970 and 1990. The purpose of the study was to identify discriminating factors between the various diagnoses in order to minimize both the time and the cost of the investigative process. There were 57 cortical adenomas, 35 pheochromocytomas, 15 carcinomas, 8 cases of cortical hyperplasia, and 6 miscellaneous tumors. The mean time from the onset of symptoms to diagnosis of those patients presenting with an identifiable syndrome was 48.3 months. Those with a hypertensive syndrome presented significantly later than those with Cushing's syndrome (57.7 months versus 22.8 months, p less than 0.01). There was a significant delay in diagnosis in those patients with hypertension on the basis of an aldosteronoma as compared with those with hypertension secondary to a pheochromocytoma (75.4 months versus 36.1 months, p = 0.02). Cortical carcinomas were significantly larger than benign cortical tumors (12.7 cm versus 5.5 cm). No malignant neoplasm measured less than 5 cm in diameter. Diagnostic sensitivity for intravenous pyelogram (IVP) was 59%, for ultrasound 71%, for venography 50%, for meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIGB) (pheochromocytoma only) 80%, and for angiography 70%. However, for those patients with adrenal carcinomas, angiography was positive in 100% of cases. Computed tomography (CT) was the most sensitive localizing investigation with a sensitivity of 98%. While other localizing techniques were less sensitive than CT, they may still play a useful role in selected situations. Factors causing delay in diagnosis and the role of the various imaging modalities are discussed. PMID:2031541

Schwarz, R J; Schmidt, N

1991-05-01

415

Multimodality Imaging of Tumor Response to Doxil  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Early assessment of tumor responses to chemotherapy could enhance treatment outcomes by ensuring that, from the beginning, treatments meet the individualized needs of patients. In this study, we applied multiple modality molecular imaging techniques to pre-clinical monitoring of early tumor responses to Doxil, focusing on imaging of apoptosis. Methods: Mice bearing UM-SCC-22B human head and neck squamous cancer tumors received either PBS or 1 to 2 doses of Doxil® (doxorubicin HCl liposome injection) (10 mg/kg/dose). Bioluminescence signals from an apoptosis-responsive reporter gene were captured for apoptosis evaluation. Tumor metabolism and proliferation were assessed by 18F-FDG and 3'-18F-fluoro-3'-deoxythymidine (18F-FLT) positron emission tomography. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) was performed to calculate averaged apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) for the whole tumor volume. After imaging, tumor samples were collected for histological evaluation, including terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), anti-CD31, and Ki-67 immunostaining. Results: Two doses of Doxil significantly inhibited tumor growth. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) indicated apoptosis of tumor cells after just 1 dose of Doxil treatment, before apparent tumor shrinkage. 18F-FDG and 18F-FLT PET imaging identified decreased tumor metabolism and proliferation at later time points than those at which BLI indicated apoptosis. MRI measurements of ADC altered in response to Doxil, but only after tumors were treated with 2 doses. Decreased tumor proliferation and increased apoptotic cells were confirmed by changes of Ki-67 index and apoptotic ratio. Conclusion: Our study of tumor responses to different doses of Doxil demonstrated that it is essential to combine apoptosis imaging strategies with imaging of other critical biological or pathological pathways, such as metabolism and proliferation, to improve clinical decision making in apoptosis-related diseases and interventions.

Zhang, Fan; Zhu, Lei; Liu, Gang; Hida, Naoki; Lu, Guangming; Eden, Henry S.; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

2011-01-01

416

In human invasive breast ductal carcinoma, tumor stromal macrophages and tumor nest macrophages have distinct relationships with clinicopathological parameters and tumor angiogenesis.  

PubMed

Tumor-associated macrophages play a crucial role in breast cancer progression and tumor angiogenesis. However, evaluation of tumor-associated macrophages incorporating their histological locations is lacking. The aim of this study was to clarify whether macrophages in tumor stroma and macrophages in tumor cell nests have distinctive properties in relation to pertinent breast cancer clinicopathological parameters and tumor angiogenesis. In 94 human invasive breast ductal carcinomas, tumor-associated macrophages were immunostained with anti-CD68 antibody and counted or graded according to these histological locations. Microvessels were immunostained with anti-CD34 antibody and counted for microvessel density. We found that the presence of tumor stromal and tumor nest macrophages was closely correlated (p?=?0.001). Both tumor stromal and tumor nest macrophages were associated with mitotic count (p?=?0.001 and p?=?0.037, respectively). However, only higher tumor stromal macrophage grades were associated with higher tumor grades (p?=?0.004) and negative estrogen receptor status (p?=?0.007). Multivariate analysis showed that tumors with a high mitotic count score (score 3 vs. scores 1 and 2) had a higher tumor stromal macrophage density (Grades III and IV) when adjusted for tumor size, tubule formation, and estrogen receptor status (odds ratio 3.41, p?=?0.010). The tumor nest macrophage count significantly correlated with the microvessel density (p?tumor stromal macrophages and tumor nest macrophages residing in different tumor microenvironments have distinctive roles. PMID:23283409

Ch'ng, Ewe Seng; Tuan Sharif, Sharifah Emilia; Jaafar, Hasnan

2013-03-01

417

[Radiotherapy in malignant lung tumors].  

PubMed

Radiation therapy is performed in many different lung cancer situations, often in combination with chemotherapy and surgery. The indications for radiotherapy are limited disease in small cell lung cancer, postoperatively in not completely operated non-small cell lung cancer, medically inoperable lung cancer and not resectable locally advanced disease. Combined-modality approaches using various permutations of three treatment modalities, namely surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, are currently under investigation. Palliative radiation therapy is able to reduce life-threatening symptoms from intrathoracic tumor as well as from distant metastases. PMID:7514813

Thöni, A F

1994-04-01

418

[Tumors of the facial sinuses].  

PubMed

Nasal cavity and paranasal sinus carcinomas represent a small number of head and neck tumors (3 to 4%). Their management has been improved by modern imaging techniques to define operative procedures and deliver high-precision radiotherapy. Surgery is one of the most important components of treatment. Postoperative radiotherapy is indicated in all circumstances. A large proportion of patients with unresectable disease must be treated exclusively with radiotherapy. Definition of target volumes should be performed according to the knowledge of the natural outcome of the disease and modern 3D imaging. This is mandatory for treatment planning. Conformal radiotherapy significantly reduces the rate of complications, mainly eye toxicity. PMID:11715311

Maingon, P

2001-10-01

419

Materials Based Tumor Immunotherapy Vaccines  

PubMed Central

Immunotherapy is a promising approach for treating cancer. However, there are limitations inherent to current approaches which may be addressed by integrating them with biomaterial-based strategies. Material platforms have been fabricated to interact with immune cells through spatially- and temporally-controlled delivery of immune modulators and to promote immune cell crosstalk. Particle vaccines have been developed to specifically target and deliver agents to organs, cells and subcellular compartments. These strategies have been shown to generate antigen-specific CTL responses and, in some cases, tumor regression. Therefore, collaboration between immunology and materials engineering is likely to result in the creation of strong vaccines to combat cancer in the future.

Li, Weiwei Aileen; Mooney, David J.

2013-01-01

420

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha promotes tumor growth by inducing vascular endothelial growth factor.  

PubMed

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? has been proved as an adjuvant therapy for tumor by FDA. However, the effect of chronic TNF-? expression for tumor is still controversial. In this study, we investigated the effect of low-dose TNF-? on tumor growth. We confirmed that low-dose TNF-? promoted angiogenesis of tumor in vivo, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1?, the transcription factor of VEGF, were both upregulated. Our results suggested that low-dose TNF-? was a powerful activator of angiogenesis in tumor and HIF-1?-VEGF pathway seemed to be the most important molecular mechanism. PMID:21740086

Jing, Yingying; Ma, Nannan; Fan, Tingting; Wang, Chenyang; Bu, Xinxin; Jiang, Guocheng; Li, Rong; Gao, Lu; Li, Ding; Wu, Mengchao; Wei, Lixin

2011-08-01

421

Improving delivery and efficacy of nanomedicines in solid tumors: Role of tumor priming  

PubMed Central

Effectiveness of nanomedicines in cancer therapy is limited in part by inadequate delivery and transport in tumor interstitium. This report reviews the experimental approaches to improve nanomedicines delivery and transport in solid tumors. These approaches include tumor vasculature normalization, interstitial fluid pressure modulation, enzymatic extracellular matrix degradation, and apoptosis-inducing tumor priming technology. We advocate the latter approach due to its ease and practicality (accomplished with standard-of-care chemotherapy such as paclitaxel) and tumor selectivity. Examples of applying tumor priming to deliver nanomedicines and to design drug/RNAi-loaded carriers are discussed.

Wang, Jie; Lu, Ze; Gao, Yue; Wientjes, M. Guillaume; Au, Jessie L.-S.

2013-01-01

422

Dual Role of ?6?4 Integrin in Epidermal Tumor Growth: Tumor-suppressive Versus Tumor-promoting Function  

PubMed Central

An increased expression of the integrin ?6?4 is correlated with a poor prognosis in patients with squamous cell carcinomas. However, little is known about the role of ?6?4 in the early stages of tumor development. We have isolated cells from mouse skin (mouse tumor-initiating cells [mTICs]) that are deficient in both p53 and Smad4 and carry conditional alleles of the ?4 gene (Itgb4). The mTICs display many features of multipotent epidermal stem cells and produce well-differentiated tumors after subcutaneous injection into nude mice. Deletion of Itgb4 led to enhanced tumor growth, indicating that ?6?4 mediates a tumor-suppressive effect. Reconstitution experiments with ?4-chimeras showed that this effect is not dependent on ligation of ?6?4 to laminin-5, but on the recruitment by this integrin of the cytoskeletal linker protein plectin to the plasma membrane. Depletion of plectin, like that of ?4, led to increased tumor growth. In contrast, when mTICs had been further transformed with oncogenic Ras, ?6?4 stimulated tumor growth, as previously observed in human squamous neoplasms. Expression of different effector-loop mutants of RasV12 suggests that this effect depends on a strong activation of the Erk pathway. Together, these data show that depending on the mutations involved, ?6?4 can either mediate an adhesion-independent tumor-suppressive effect or act as a tumor promotor.

Raymond, Karine; Kreft, Maaike; Song, Ji-Ying; Janssen, Hans

2007-01-01

423

What underlies the diversity of brain tumors?  

PubMed Central

Glioma and medulloblastoma represent the most commonly occurring malignant brain tumors in adults and in children respectively. Recent genomic and transcriptional approaches present a complex group of diseases, and delineate a number of molecular subgroups within tumors that share a common histopathology. Differences in cells of origin, regional niches, developmental timing and genetic events all contribute to this heterogeneity. In an attempt to recapitulate the diversity of brain tumors, an increasing array of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) has been developed. These models often utilize promoters and genetic drivers from normal brain development, and can provide insight into specific cells from which these tumors originate. GEMMs show promise in both developmental biology and developmental therapeutics. This review describes numerous murine brain tumor models in the context of normal brain development, and the potential for these animals to impact brain tumor research.

Swartling, Fredrik J.; Hede, Sanna-Maria; Weiss, William A.

2012-01-01

424

Targeting the Tumor Microenvironment: Focus on Angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Tumorigenesis is a complex multistep process involving not only genetic and epigenetic changes in the tumor cell but also selective supportive conditions of the deregulated tumor microenvironment. One key compartment of the microenvironment is the vascular niche. The role of angiogenesis in solid tumors but also in hematologic malignancies is now well established. Research on angiogenesis in general, and vascular endothelial growth factor in particular, is a major focus in biomedicine and has led to the clinical approval of several antiangiogenic agents including thalidomide, bevacizumab, sorafenib, sunitinib, pazopanib, temesirolimus, and everolimus. Indeed, antiangiogenic agents have significantly changed treatment strategies in solid tumors (colorectal cancer, renal cell carcinoma, and breast cancer) and multiple myeloma. Here we illustrate important aspects in the interrelationship between tumor cells and the microenvironment leading to tumor progression, with focus on angiogenesis, and summarize derived targeted therapies.

Fan, Fengjuan; Schimming, Alexander; Jaeger, Dirk; Podar, Klaus

2012-01-01

425

PML Surfs into HIPPO Tumor Suppressor Pathway  

PubMed Central

Growth arrest, inhibition of cell proliferation, apoptosis, senescence, and differentiation are the most characterized effects of a given tumor suppressor response. It is becoming increasingly clear that tumor suppression results from the integrated and synergistic activities of different pathways. This implies that tumor suppression includes linear, as well as lateral, crosstalk signaling. The latter may happen through the concomitant involvement of common nodal proteins. Here, we discuss the role of Promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) in functional cross-talks with the HIPPO and the p53 family tumor suppressor pathways. PML, in addition to its own anti-tumor activity, contributes to the assembly of an integrated and superior network that may be necessary for the maximization of the tumor suppressor response to diverse oncogenic insults.

Strano, Sabrina; Fausti, Francesca; Di Agostino, Silvia; Sudol, Marius; Blandino, Giovanni

2013-01-01

426

Autocrine Effects of Tumor-Derived Complement  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY We describe a role for the complement system in enhancing cancer growth. Cancer cells secrete complement proteins that stimulate tumor growth upon activation. Complement promotes tumor growth via a direct autocrine effect that is partially independent of tumor-infiltrating cytotoxic T cells. Activated C5aR and C3aR signal through the PI3K/AKT pathway in cancer cells, and silencing the PI3K or AKT gene in cancer cells eliminates the progrowth effects of C5aR and C3aR stimulation. In patients with ovarian or lung cancer, higher tumoral C3 or C5aR mRNA levels were associated with decreased overall survival. These data identify a role for tumor-derived complement proteins in promoting tumor growth, and they therefore have substantial clinical and therapeutic implications.

Cho, Min Soon; Vasquez, Hernan G.; Rupaimoole, Rajesha; Pradeep, Sunila; Wu, Sherry; Zand, Behrouz; Han, Hee-Dong; Rodriguez-Aguayo, Cristian; Bottsford-Miller, Justin; Huang, Jie; Miyake, Takahito; Choi, Hyun-Jin; Dalton, Heather J.; Ivan, Cristina; Baggerly, Keith; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Sood, Anil K.; Afshar-Kharghan, Vahid

2014-01-01

427

Autocrine effects of tumor-derived complement.  

PubMed

We describe a role for the complement system in enhancing cancer growth. Cancer cells secrete complement proteins that stimulate tumor growth upon activation. Complement promotes tumor growth via a direct autocrine effect that is partially independent of tumor-infiltrating cytotoxic T cells. Activated C5aR and C3aR signal through the PI3K/AKT pathway in cancer cells, and silencing the PI3K or AKT gene in cancer cells eliminates the progrowth effects of C5aR and C3aR stimulation. In patients with ovarian or lung cancer, higher tumoral C3 or C5aR mRNA levels were associated with decreased overall survival. These data identify a role for tumor-derived complement proteins in promoting tumor growth, and they therefore have substantial clinical and therapeutic implications. PMID:24613353

Cho, Min Soon; Vasquez, Hernan G; Rupaimoole, Rajesha; Pradeep, Sunila; Wu, Sherry; Zand, Behrouz; Han, Hee-Dong; Rodriguez-Aguayo, Cristian; Bottsford-Miller, Justin; Huang, Jie; Miyake, Takahito; Choi, Hyun-Jin; Dalton, Heather J; Ivan, Cristina; Baggerly, Keith; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Sood, Anil K; Afshar-Kharghan, Vahid

2014-03-27

428

[Adhesion molecules in Wilm's tumor (part I)].  

PubMed

Adhesion molecules are glicoprotees which have extracellular, transmembranous and intracytoplasmatic part. They show their basic role is in cell interaction in the tissue on one side and between cells and matrix on the other side. They have an important role in stabile integrity of tumor tissue, as well as in differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis and metastatic spread of tumorous cells. Since there is very little known facts about adhesion molecule detection and about its significance in Wilms tumor, our intention was to collect all known achievements which could be of importance for better understanding of tumors nature and successful treatment. Especially because of well known fact that in 15% Wilms tumors there are b-catenin mutations, which indicates that there is a disorder in Wnt signal path that plays an important role in Wilms tumor genesis. PMID:14608867

Basta-Jovanovi?, Gordana; Radojevi?, Sanja; Djurici?, Slavisa

2003-01-01

429

Podocalyxin expression in malignant astrocytic tumors  

SciTech Connect

Podocalyxin is an anti-adhesive mucin-like transmembrane sialoglycoprotein that has been implicated in the development of aggressive forms of cancer. Podocalyxin is also known as keratan sulfate (KS) proteoglycan. Recently, we revealed that highly sulfated KS or another mucin-like transmembrane sialoglycoprotein podoplanin/aggrus is upregulated in malignant astrocytic tumors. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between podocalyxin expression and malignant progression of astrocytic tumors. In this study, 51 astrocytic tumors were investigated for podocalyxin expression using immunohistochemistry, Western blot analysis, and quantitative real-time PCR. Immunohistochemistry detected podocalyxin on the surface of tumor cells in six of 14 anaplastic astrocytomas (42.9%) and in 17 of 31 glioblastomas (54.8%), especially around proliferating endothelial cells. In diffuse astrocytoma, podocalyxin expression was observed only in vascular endothelial cells. Podocalyxin might be associated with the malignant progression of astrocytic tumors, and be a useful prognostic marker for astrocytic tumors.

Hayatsu, Norihito [Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Yoshida-konoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Kaneko, Mika Kato [Department of Cancer Biology, Unit 173, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Mishima, Kazuhiko; Nishikawa, Ryo; Matsutani, Masao [Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, 1397-1 Yamane Hidaka-shi, Saitama 350-1298 (Japan); Price, Janet E. [Department of Cancer Biology, Unit 173, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Kato, Yukinari [Department of Cancer Biology, Unit 173, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)], E-mail: yukinari-k@bea.hi-ho.ne.jp

2008-09-19

430

Pediatric pulmonary tumors: primary and metastatic.  

PubMed

Pediatric pulmonary tumors are rare. There is often a significant delay in diagnosis of pulmonary tumors secondary to their rarity and nonspecific presenting physiologic and radiographic findings. A high index of suspicion in pediatric patients with recurrent or persistent pulmonary symptoms is of paramount importance in diagnosing pulmonary tumors at an early stage. Malignant pulmonary tumors are more frequently diagnosed than benign lesions, with metastatic cancers being the most common. Complete surgical resection remains the basis of therapy for primary lesions, and its role in secondary cancers is becoming more established. Adjuvant therapies are frequently employed depending on the precise tumor involved. Mortality rates vary greatly depending on tumor location, stage, and type. PMID:18158138

Weldon, Christopher B; Shamberger, Robert C

2008-02-01

431

Podocalyxin expression in malignant astrocytic tumors.  

PubMed

Podocalyxin is an anti-adhesive mucin-like transmembrane sialoglycoprotein that has been implicated in the development of aggressive forms of cancer. Podocalyxin is also known as keratan sulfate (KS) proteoglycan. Recently, we revealed that highly sulfated KS or another mucin-like transmembrane sialoglycoprotein podoplanin/aggrus is upregulated in malignant astrocytic tumors. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between podocalyxin expression and malignant progression of astrocytic tumors. In this study, 51 astrocytic tumors were investigated for podocalyxin expression using immunohistochemistry, Western blot analysis, and quantitative real-time PCR. Immunohistochemistry detected podocalyxin on the surface of tumor cells in six of 14 anaplastic astrocytomas (42.9%) and in 17 of 31 glioblastomas (54.8%), especially around proliferating endothelial cells. In diffuse astrocytoma, podocalyxin expression was observed only in vascular endothelial cells. Podocalyxin might be associated with the malignant progression of astrocytic tumors, and be a useful prognostic marker for astrocytic tumors. PMID:18639524

Hayatsu, Norihito; Kaneko, Mika Kato; Mishima, Kazuhiko; Nishikawa, Ryo; Matsutani, Masao; Price, Janet E; Kato, Yukinari

2008-09-19

432

Targeting the tumor microenvironment: focus on angiogenesis.  

PubMed

Tumorigenesis is a complex multistep process involving not only genetic and epigenetic changes in the tumor cell but also selective supportive conditions of the deregulated tumor microenvironment. One key compartment of the microenvironment is the vascular niche. The role of angiogenesis in solid tumors but also in hematologic malignancies is now well established. Research on angiogenesis in general, and vascular endothelial growth factor in particular, is a major focus in biomedicine and has led to the clinical approval of several antiangiogenic agents including thalidomide, bevacizumab, sorafenib, sunitinib, pazopanib, temesirolimus, and everolimus. Indeed, antiangiogenic agents have significantly changed treatment strategies in solid tumors (colorectal cancer, renal cell carcinoma, and breast cancer) and multiple myeloma. Here we illustrate important aspects in the interrelationship between tumor cells and the microenvironment leading to tumor progression, with focus on angiogenesis, and summarize derived targeted therapies. PMID:21876693

Fan, Fengjuan; Schimming, Alexander; Jaeger, Dirk; Podar, Klaus

2012-01-01

433

Cancer Stem Cells and Pediatric Solid Tumors  

PubMed Central

Recently, a subpopulation of cells, termed tumor-initiating cells or tumor stem cells (TSC), has been identified in many different types of solid tumors. These TSC, which are typically more resistant to chemotherapy and radiation compared to other tumor cells, have properties similar to normal stem cells including multipotency and the ability to self-renew, proliferate, and maintain the neoplastic clone. Much of the research on TSC has focused on adult cancers. With considerable differences in tumor biology between adult and pediatric cancers, there may be significant differences in the presence, function and behavior of TSC in pediatric malignancies. We discuss what is currently known about pediatric solid TSC with specific focus on TSC markers, tumor microenvironment, signaling pathways, therapeutic resistance and potential future therapies to target pediatric TSC.

Friedman, Gregory K.; Gillespie, G. Yancey

2011-01-01

434

Uterine cervical malignant granular cell tumor.  

PubMed

Malignant granular cell tumor is relatively uncommon, constituting only 1-2% of all granular cell tumors. It is a rare and unusual tumor, especially in non-typical sites, such as the uterine cervix, and grows more rapidly than benign granular cell tumor. It can be treated with surgical excision, but recurrence is possible and prognosis can be poor. A malignant granular cell tumor in the uterine cervix of a 37-year-old woman was incidentally diagnosed. The patient has a history of irregular vaginal bleeding. Uterine cervical biopsy under colposcope revealed a malignant granular cell tumor. After isophosphamide, etoposide, and cisplatin neoadjuvant chemotherapy, surgery was performed on the lesion, which approximately involved half the depth of cervical stroma. Computed tomography examination showed no local recurrence or distant metastasis during the 26-month follow-up period. PMID:22414028

Guo, Na; Peng, Zhilan; Yang, Kaixuan; Lou, Jiangyan

2012-06-01

435

[Typical tumors of the petrous bone].  

PubMed

In the region of the petrous bone, inner acoustic canal and cerebellopontine angle, a variety of different tissues can be found, such as bony, epithelial, neural and vascular structures. Tumorous or tumor-like lesions, vascular or bony malformations or other pathologies can therefore be found in all of these areas. We discuss various frequently occurring tumorous or tumor-like pathologies including congential lesions, such as mucoceles, inflammatory disorders including osteomyelitis, pseudotumors and Wegener's granulomatosis. Benign non-neoplastic lesions, such as cholesteatoma, cholesterol granuloma, epidermoid and benign neoplastic tumors, such as the most commonly found vestibular schwannoma, meningeoma, paraganglioma, vascular pathologies and finally malignant lesions, such as metastasis, chordoma or chondrosarcoma and endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) are also discussed. The emphasis of this article is on the appearance of these entities in computed tomography (CT) and more so magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), it provides key facts and typical images and discusses possibilities how to distinguish these pathologies. PMID:24692010

Ahlhelm, F; Müller, U; Ulmer, S

2014-04-01

436

What underlies the diversity of brain tumors?  

PubMed

Glioma and medulloblastoma represent the most commonly occurring malignant brain tumors in adults and in children, respectively. Recent genomic and transcriptional approaches present a complex group of diseases and delineate a number of molecular subgroups within tumors that share a common histopathology. Differences in cells of origin, regional niches, developmental timing, and genetic events all contribute to this heterogeneity. In an attempt to recapitulate the diversity of brain tumors, an increasing array of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) has been developed. These models often utilize promoters and genetic drivers from normal brain development and can provide insight into specific cells from which these tumors originate. GEMMs show promise in both developmental biology and developmental therapeutics. This review describes numerous murine brain tumor models in the context of normal brain development and the potential for these animals to impact brain tumor research. PMID:23085857

Swartling, Fredrik J; Hede, Sanna-Maria; Weiss, William A

2013-06-01

437

p37 Induces tumor invasiveness.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown a statistically significant correlation between human carcinomas and monoclonal antibody detection of a Mycoplasma hyorhinis-encoded protein known as p37. A potential mechanism of p37 is that it might promote invasion and metastasis. Recombinant p37 enhanced the invasiveness of two prostate carcinoma and two melanoma cell lines in a dose-dependent manner in vitro, but did not have a significant effect on tumor cell growth. Furthermore, the increased binding to cell surfaces and the enhanced invasive potential of cancer cells from exposure to p37 could be completely reversed by preincubation of the cancer cells with an anti-p37 monoclonal antibody. Sequence comparisons, followed by three-dimensional molecular modeling, revealed a region of similarity between p37 and influenza hemagglutinin A, a sialic acid-binding protein that plays a critical role in viral entry. Binding of p37 to prostate carcinoma cells was found to be at least partially sialic acid dependent because neuraminidase treatment decreased this binding. Taken together, these observations suggest that M. hyorhinis can infect humans and may facilitate tumor invasiveness via p37. These results further suggest that p37 may be a molecular target for cancer therapy. PMID:16020660

Ketcham, Catherine M; Anai, Satoshi; Reutzel, Robbie; Sheng, Shijie; Schuster, Sheldon M; Brenes, Ryan B; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; McKenna, Robert; Rosser, Charles J; Boehlein, Susan K

2005-07-01

438

Brain tumor-related epilepsy.  

PubMed

In patients with brain tumor (BT), seizures are the onset symptom in 20-40% of patients, while a further 20-45% of patients will present them during the course of the disease. These patients present a complex therapeutic profile and require a unique and multidisciplinary approach. The choice of antiepileptic drugs is challenging for this particular patient population because brain tumor-related epilepsy (BTRE) is often drug-resistant, has a strong impact on the quality of life and weighs heavily on public health expenditures.In BT patients, the presence of epilepsy is considered the most important risk factor for long-term disability. For this reason, the problem of the proper administration of medications and their potential side effects is of great importance, because good seizure control can significantly improve the patient's psychological and relational sphere. In these patients, new generation drugs such as gabapentin, lacosamide, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, pregabalin, topiramate, zonisamide are preferred because they have fewer drug interactions and cause fewer side effects. Among the recently marketed drugs, lacosamide has demonstrated promising results and should be considered a possible treatment option. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a customized treatment plan for each individual patient with BTRE. This requires a vision of patient management concerned not only with medical therapies (pharmacological, surgical, radiological, etc.) but also with emotional and psychological support for the individual as well as his or her family throughout all stages of the illness. PMID:23204982

Maschio, Marta

2012-06-01

439

Imaging bile duct tumors: staging.  

PubMed

Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is the most frequent neoplasm of the biliary system. According to its anatomic origin in the biliary tree it is usually classified as intrahepatic, perihilar, or extrahepatic distal CC. Tumors originated in these areas differ in biological behavior and management. The stratification of the patients aligned to therapeutic options and prognosis is a key point in the management of CC. Thus, specific staging systems have been designed for each anatomical location. They are precise for surgical planning, to establish prognosis after surgery, or to compare the benefits of different therapeutic approaches, but they are less accurate to stratify patients into a therapeutic decision algorithm. Imaging tools, mainly multidetector computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), allow full assessment of the diagnosis and extension of the tumor. They are especially useful in establishing the correct diagnosis and determining resectability, which reaches a high negative predictive value, identifying those patients in whom surgery will not be effective. We will discuss the different staging systems for CC, the radiologic characteristics with classical and recently described signs that allow a confident diagnosis of the disease and the criteria for resectability of biliary tract malignancies. PMID:23793410

Ayuso, Juan-Ramón; Pagés, Mario; Darnell, Anna

2013-10-01

440

Radiation-induced nitric oxide mitigates tumor hypoxia and radioresistance in a murine SCCVII tumor model  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •IR-induced NO increased tissue perfusion and pO{sub 2}. •IR increased NO production in tumors without changes in the mRNA and protein levels of NOS isoforms. •NOS activity assay showed that IR upregulated eNOS activity in tumors. •IR-induced NO decreased tumor hypoxia and altered tumor radiosensitivity. -- Abstract: Tumor hypoxia, which occurs mainly as a result of inadequate tissue perfusion in solid tumors, is a well-known challenge for successful radiotherapy. Recent evidence suggests that ionizing radiation (IR) upregulates nitric oxide (NO) production and that IR-induced NO has the potential to increase intratumoral circulation. However, the kinetics of NO production and the responsible isoforms for NO synthase in tumors exposed to IR remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the mechanism by which IR stimulates NO production in tumors and the effect of IR-induced NO on tumor radiosensitivity. Hoechst33342 perfusion assay and electron spin resonance oxymetry showed that IR increased tissue perfusion and pO{sub 2} in tumor tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis using two different hypoxic probes showed that IR decreased hypoxic regions in tumors; treatment with a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, L-NAME, abrogated the effects of IR. Moreover, IR increased endothelial NOS (eNOS) activity without affecting its mRNA or protein expression levels in SCCVII-transplanted tumors. Tumor growth delay assay showed that L-NAME decreased the anti-tumor effect of fractionated radiation (10 Gy × 2). These results suggested that IR increased eNOS activity and subsequent tissue perfusion in tumors. Increases in intratumoral circulation simultaneously decreased tumor hypoxia. As a result, IR-induced NO increased tumor radiosensitivity. Our study provides a new insight into the NO-dependent mechanism for efficient fractionated radiotherapy.

Nagane, Masaki, E-mail: nagane@vetmed.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)] [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Yasui, Hironobu, E-mail: yassan@vetmed.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)] [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Yamamori, Tohru, E-mail: yamamorit@vetmed.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)] [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Zhao, Songji, E-mail: zsi@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Tracer Kinetics and Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)] [Department of Tracer Kinetics and Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Kuge, Yuji, E-mail: kuge@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Central Institute of Isotope Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)] [Central Institute of Isotope Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Tamaki, Nagara, E-mail: natamaki@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)] [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Kameya, Hiromi, E-mail: kameya@affrc.go.jp [Food Safety Division, National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan)] [Food Safety Division, National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan); Nakamura, Hideo, E-mail: naka@science-edu.org [Department of Chemistry, Hokkaido University of Education, Hakodate (Japan)] [Department of Chemistry, Hokkaido University of Education, Hakodate (Japan); Fujii, Hirotada, E-mail: hgfujii@sapmed.ac.jp [Center for Medical Education, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo (Japan)] [Center for Medical Education, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo (Japan); Inanami, Osamu, E-mail: inanami@vetmed.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)] [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

2013-08-02

441

Loss of Bax alters tumor spectrum and tumor numbers in ARF-deficient mice.  

PubMed

p19(ARF) is a key regulator of the p53-mediated apoptotic and tumor suppressor pathway. The proapoptotic Bax gene is a transcription target of p53, yet genetic studies in some animal models have suggested that Bax and p53 loss may cooperate in tumorigenesis. ARF-deficient mice are tumor prone, and to determine whether Bax loss could cooperate in the development of these tumors, we generated mice null for both ARF and Bax. The tumor latency of Bax+/+ARF-/-, Bax+/-ARF-/- and Bax-/-ARF-/- mice was similar with a mean survival of 48.9, 48.1, and 47.6 weeks, respectively. In Bax+/+ARF-/- mice, the predominant tumor type was B- and T-cell lymphoma followed by sarcomas and a lack of carcinomas. However, the frequency of lymphoma development dramatically decreased, whereas that of sarcomas and carcinomas increased, in a gene dosage-dependent manner in Bax+/-ARF-/- and Bax-/-ARF-/- mice. Furthermore, uncommon tumors of ARF-/- mice (osteosarcoma and hemangiosarcoma) were observed in Bax/ARF-double null mice, and tumor types not described previously in ARF-null mice (mixed germ cell tumor, Triton tumor, and histiocytic sarcoma) also developed in Bax-/-ARF-/- animals. Importantly, multiple primary malignant tumors of different lineage arose in 25% of the Bax-/-ARF-/- mice, whereas only one tumor type per animal was observed in Bax+/+ARF-null littermates. Finally, the wild-type Bax allele was retained in tumors arising in Bax+/-ARF-/- mice. Thus, Bax appears to function as a tumor modifier rather than as a classic tumor suppressor, and the combined loss of Bax and the ARF allows for the emergence of multiple malignant tumor types, an alteration of the tumor spectrum, and tumors not observed previously in ARF-null mice. PMID:11929842

Eischen, Christine M; Rehg, Jerold E; Korsmeyer, Stanley J; Cleveland, John L

2002-04-01

442

Tumor-altered dendritic cell function: implications for anti-tumor immunity.  

PubMed

Dendritic cells (DC) are key regulators of both innate and adaptive immunity, and the array of immunoregulatory functions exhibited by these cells is dictated by their differentiation, maturation, and activation status. Although a major role for these cells in the induction of immunity to pathogens has long been appreciated, data accumulated over the last several years has demonstrated that DC are also critical regulators of anti-tumor immune responses. However, despite the potential for stimulation of robust anti-tumor immunity by DC, tumor-altered DC function has been observed in many cancer patients and tumor-bearing animals and is often associated with tumor immune escape. Such dysfunction has significant implications for both the induction of natural anti-tumor immune responses as well as the efficacy of immunotherapeutic strategies that target endogenous DC in situ or that employ exogenous DC as part of anti-cancer immunization maneuvers. In this review, the major types of tumor-altered DC function will be described, with emphasis on recent insights into the mechanistic bases for the inhibition of DC differentiation from hematopoietic precursors, the altered programing of DC precursors to differentiate into myeloid-derived suppressor cells or tumor-associated macrophages, the suppression of DC maturation and activation, and the induction of immunoregulatory DC by tumors, tumor-derived factors, and tumor-associated cells within the milieu of the tumor microenvironment. The impact of these tumor-altered cells on the quality of the overall anti-tumor immune response will also be discussed. Finally, this review will also highlight questions concerning tumor-altered DC function that remain unanswered, and it will address factors that have limited advances in the study of this phenomenon in order to focus future research efforts in the field on identifying strategies for interfering with tumor-associated DC dysfunction and improving DC-mediated anti-tumor immunity. PMID:23874338

Hargadon, Kristian M

2013-01-01

443

Effect of tumor cells and tumor microenvironment on NK-cell function.  

PubMed

The ability of tumors to manage an immune-mediated attack has been recently included in the "next generation" of cancer hallmarks. In solid tumors, the microenvironment that is generated during the first steps of tumor development has a pivotal role in immune regulation. An intricate net of cross-interactions occurring between tumor components, stromal cells, and resident or recruited immune cells skews the possible acute inflammatory response toward an aberrant ineffective chronic inflammatory status that favors the evasion from the host's defenses. Natural killer (NK) cells have powerful cytotoxic activity, but their activity may be eluded by the tumor microenvironment. Immunosubversion, immunoediting or immunoselection of poorly immunogenic tumor cells and interference with tumor infiltration play a major role in evading NK-cell responses to tumors. Tumor cells, tumor-associated fibroblasts and tumor-induced aberrant immune cells (i.e. tolerogenic or suppressive macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells) can interfere with NK-cell activation pathways or the complex receptor array that regulate NK-cell activation and antitumor activity. Thus, the definition of tumor microenvironment-related immunosuppressive factors, along with the identification of new classes of tissue-residing NK-like innate lymphoid cells, represent key issues to design effective NK-cell-based therapies of solid tumors. PMID:24777896

Vitale, Massimo; Cantoni, Claudia; Pietra, Gabriella; Mingari, Maria Cristina; Moretta, Lorenzo

2014-06-01

444

Metastasis Suppressors and the Tumor Microenvironment  

PubMed Central

The most dangerous attribute of cancer cells is their ability to metastasize. Throughout the process of metastasis, tumor cells interact with other tumor cells, host cells and extracellular molecules. This brief review explores how a new class of molecules – metastasis suppressors – regulate tumor cell–microenvironmental interactions. Data are presented which demonstrate that metastasis suppressors act at multiple steps of the metastatic cascade. A brief discussion for how metastasis suppressor regulation of cellular interactions might be exploited is presented.

Bodenstine, Thomas M.

2008-01-01

445

Oncogene Amplification in Pediatrie Brain Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a considerable amount of information concerning chromosomal and molecular abnormalities found in gliomas in adults, relatively little is known regarding these abnormalities in pediatrie brain tumors. We have analyzed DNA from 37 primary brain tumors and 4 tumor-derived cell lines for oncogene amplification. Probes utilized represent 11 known oncogenes (erbBl, gli, neu, myc, L-myc, N-myc, H-ras, K-ras, N-ras, sis,

Jonathon C. Wasson; Robert L. Saylors; Paul Zeltzer; Henry S. Friedman; Sandra H. Bigner; Peter C. Burger; Darell D. Bigner; A. Thomas Look; Edwin C. Douglass; Garrett M. Brodeur

446

Krukenberg tumor in pregnancy. The lethal outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Krukenberg tumor refers to gastrointestinal cancer metastatic to the ovaries and its prognosis is uniformly poor. This case\\u000a report concerns a 38-year-old pregnant woman suffering from abdominal pain and iterative vomiting episodes. She presented\\u000a with a large abdominopelvic tumor. Because of suspected ovarian torsion, we performed urgent surgery. At laparotomy, bilateral\\u000a ovarian tumors, ascites and gastric cancer located at the

Andreja Gliši?; Jasmina Atanackovi?

2006-01-01

447

Telomerase activity in oral and maxillofacial tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Telomerase activity was measured in biopsy specimens as well as surgically resected tissues of 39 oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), 22 oral leukoplakias, 13 normal oral mucosas, 12 malignant salivary gland tumors, 10 benign salivary tumors and five normal salivary gland tissues adjacent to tumors using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based telomerase assay. Telomerase activity was detectable in 38.5% (5\\/13)

J. Liao; T. Mitsuyasu; K. Yamane; M. Ohishi

2000-01-01

448

[Rare differential diagnosis on suspected liver tumor].  

PubMed

This case report describes a 77-year old woman with a leiomyosarcoma of subhepatic inferior caval vein. The presented symptom was unspecific abdominal pain. Ultrasound and CT suggested a primary liver tumor. MRI revealed retroperitoneal location of the neoplasm. The tumor was resected completely and ICV was replaced by a PTF-graft. Vascular leiomyosarcoma is a rare tumor entity, which often is diagnosed in advanced stage. Depending on location it can be mistaken for neoplasms of other organs. PMID:19214465

Kinkel, B; Walgenbach-Brünagel, G; Risse, J H; Pauleit, D O

2009-05-01

449

Primary neuroendocrine tumor of the testis.  

PubMed

Testicular neuroendocrine tumor is rare. It accounts for less than 1% of all testicular neoplasms. More than 60 cases have been published in the literature. A 27-year-old man presented with left testicular mass and underwent radical orchidectomy. Histological examination showed neuroendocrine tumor, confirmed by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. The patient showed no evidence of metastasis over 1-year follow-up post-orchidectomy in spite of extensive tumor necrosis. PMID:24833836

Alsharif, Shakir; Al-Shraim, Mubarak; Alhadi, Ahmed; Al-Aown, Abdulrahman; Fooshang, Fawzy; Eid, Refat

2014-04-01

450

Glomus tumor of the great toe.  

PubMed

Glomus tumor is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm composed of cells that resemble the modified perivascular smooth muscle cells (glomus cells) of the normal glomus body. A glomus tumor can appear in any part of the body, although it mostly appears in the extremities, especially in the subungual area of the hand. It has been less commonly reported in the foot. A case of glomus tumor of the pulp of the hallux is described in the present report. PMID:23860131

Lui, Tun Hing; Mak, Siu Ming

2014-01-01

451

Granular cell tumor (myoblastoma) of the orbit.  

PubMed

An 8-year-old white boy had a tumor in the left orbit with clinical manifestations of muscular impairment, exophthalmos, and reduced visual acuity. Five months after exenteration of the orbit the boy was healthy without tumor recurrence. Based on our observations with electron, light, and phase microscopy, and histochemical studies, we conclude that this tumor is benign, of histiocytic origin, and we propose the term granular cell histiocytoma be used to describe this entity. PMID:164119

González-Almaraz, G; de Buen, S; Tsutsumi, V

1975-04-01

452

High-Grade Pediatric Spinal Cord Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our institutional experience with high-grade pediatric spinal cord tumors includes 11 children treated during the period of 1981–1997. All patients underwent a biopsy or an attempt at resection and received postoperative radiation therapy. Three patients had a gross-total resection of their primary tumor, 6 patients had a subtotal resection and the remaining 2 were biopsied. Histologically, these tumors were characterized

Thomas E. Merchant; Duyen Nguyen; Stephen J. Thompson; David A. Reardon; Larry E. Kun; Robert A. Sanford

1999-01-01

453

Interplay between inflammation and tumor angiogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The association of inflammation and neoplasia was first observed when Westphal reported dense areas of mast cells at the periphery\\u000a of tumors in 1891 [1]. These inflammatory cells infiltrating tumor tissues were believed to mediate phagocytic functions to aid in host defense\\u000a against the tumor. Now a new paradigm is being widely accepted that inflammation at the site of a

Yan Li; Xiao-yu R. Song; Marian T. Nakada

454

Neuroradiologic Review in Pediatric Brain Tumor Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract\\u000a   The GPOH (German Society of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology) is running various multicenter treatment studies for\\u000a brain tumors in children and adolescents. To achieve a common base for the evaluation of tumors, a possible dissemination\\u000a and responses to treatment or the natural course of a CNS (central nervous system) tumor, all imaging studies of patients\\u000a included in these studies

Monika Warmuth-Metz; Brigitte Bison; Susanne Leykamm

2009-01-01

455

Molecular and surgical advances in pediatric tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Before the 1950s, less than a third of children with Wilms’ tumor, rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), or neuroblastoma survived. Because\\u000a of the rarity of these tumors, no single institution could collect enough patients for randomized trials. In the United States,\\u000a the pediatric cancer study groups joined forces to create the National Wilms’ Tumor Study Group (NWTS) in 1969 and the Intergroup\\u000a Rhabdomyosarcoma

Cynthia A. Corpron; Richard J. Andrassy

456

Mutant Sodium Channel for Tumor Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viral vectors have been used to deliver a wide range of therapeutic genes to tumors. In this study, a novel tumor therapy was achieved by the delivery of a mammalian brain sodium channel, ASIC2a, carrying a mutation that renders it constitutively open. This channel was delivered to tumor cells using a herpes simplex virus-1\\/Epstein–Barr virus (HSV\\/EBV) hybrid amplicon vector in

Bakhos A Tannous; Adam P Christensen; Lisa Pike; Thomas Wurdinger; Katherine F Perry; Okay Saydam; Andreas H Jacobs; Jaime García-Añoveros; Ralph Weissleder; Miguel Sena-Esteves; David P Corey; Xandra O Breakefield

2009-01-01

457

Reproducibility of neuroendocrine lung tumor classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a tumor classification scheme to be useful, it must be reproducible and it must show clinical significance. Classification of neuroendocrine lung tumors is a difficult problem with little information about interobserver reproducibility. We sought to evaluate the classification of typical carcinoid (TC), atypical carcinoid (AC), large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC), and small-cell carcinoma (SCC) tumors as proposed by W.D. Travis

William D Travis; Anthony A Gal; Thomas V Colby; David S Klimstra; Roni Falk; Michael N Koss

1998-01-01

458

Tumor immune evasion mediated by IDO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumors actively create a state of immunologic tolerance toward themselves. One mechanism that may contribute to this condition of pathologic tolerance is the immunoregulatory enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). Host dendritic cells expressing immunosuppressive IDO are found in tumor-draining lymph nodes, and IDO can also be expressed by tumor cells themselves. Either or both of these sites of IDO expression might

David H. Munn

2006-01-01

459

Multiscale tumor spatiokinetic model for intraperitoneal therapy.  

PubMed

This study established a multiscale computational model for intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy, to depict the time-dependent and spatial-dependent drug concentrations in peritoneal tumors as functions of drug properties (size, binding, diffusivity, permeability), transport mechanisms (diffusion, convection), spatial-dependent tumor heterogeneities (vessel density, cell density, pressure gradient), and physiological properties (peritoneal pressure, peritoneal fluid volume). Equations linked drug transport and clearance on three scales (tumor, IP cavity, whole organism). Paclitaxel was the test compound. The required model parameters (tumor diffusivity, tumor hydraulic conductivity, vessel permeability and surface area, microvascular hydrostatic pressure, drug association with cells) were obtained from literature reports, calculation, and/or experimental measurements. Drug concentration-time profiles in peritoneal fluid and plasma were the boundary conditions for tumor domain and blood vessels, respectively. The finite element method was used to numerically so