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PET de doble fase con 18F-FDOPA como instrumento para la caracterización de tumores cerebrales  

Microsoft Academic Search

18F-FDOPA is an amino acid analogue used to evaluate presynaptic dopaminergic activity, which has aroused great interest in neuro-oncology. We have evaluated five 18F-FDOPA PET studies of patients referred for study of parkinsonian syndrome. Two subjects had previously treated high-grade brain tumors, one nonspecific brain injury, and 2 subjects presented unexpected tumoral lesions. For all lesions SUVmax, time to SUVmax

M. González-Forero; E. Prieto; I. Domínguez; C. Vigil; I. Peñuelas; J. Arbizu





Mass; Neoplasm ... removed for cosmetic reasons. Benign tumors of the brain may be removed because of their location or harmful effect on the surrounding normal brain tissue. If a tumor is cancer, possible treatments ...


Bone tumor  


Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondard bone tumor ... malignant) bone tumors include: Chondrosarcoma Ewing's sarcoma Fibrosarcoma Osteosarcomas The cancers that most often spread to the ...


Spinal Tumor  


... the diagnosis and pinpoint the tumor's location: Spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI uses a powerful magnet ... and staging of spine tumors. Orthopedic Clinics of North America. 2009;40:1. Brain and spinal tumors: ...


Spinal tumor  


Tumor - spinal cord ... spinal tumors occur in the nerves of the spinal cord itself. Most often these are ependymomas and other ... genetic defects. Spinal tumors can occur: Inside the spinal cord (intramedullary) In the membranes (meninges) covering the spinal ...


Bone Tumor  


... include: Non-ossifying fibromaunicameral (simple) bone cyst Osteochondroma Giant cell tumor Enchondroma Fibrous dysplasia Top of page ... Giant Cell Tumor of Bone Giant Cell Tumor of ...


Brain tumors.  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in experimental tumor biology are being applied to critical clinical problems of primary brain tumors. The expression of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors, which are sparse in normal brain, is increased as much as 20-fold in brain tumors. Experimental studies show promise in using labeled ligands to these receptors to identify the outer margins of malignant brain tumors. Whereas positron emission tomography has improved the dynamic understanding of tumors, the labeled selective tumor receptors with positron emitters will enhance the ability to specifically diagnose and greatly aid in the pretreatment planning for tumors. Modulation of these receptors will also affect tumor growth and metabolism. Novel methods to deliver antitumor agents to the brain and new approaches using biologic response modifiers also hold promise to further improve the management of brain tumors. Images

Black, K. L.; Mazziotta, J. C.; Becker, D. P.



La posesión como hecho punible  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabajo estudia el delito de posesión, el cual se extiende semánticamente hasta términos como custodia, mantener disponible, almacenar, etc., y como conminada con la pena se halla la posesión de explosivos, de armas de fuego, de drogas, de pornografía infantil, etc. En este mismo trabajo se analizan, bajo la óptica del Código Penal alemán, cómo las acciones graves o

Friedrich Christian Schroeder


Lake Como 1991 Reservoir Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of the first extensive survey of Lake Como by Reclamation since construction of Como Dam. The primary objective of the 1991 survey was to gather necessary data for computing the current total and active capacities of Lake ...

R. L. Ferrari



Hypothalamic tumor  


... as surgery, with less risk to surrounding tissue. Brain swelling caused by a tumor may need to be treated with steroids. Hypothalamic tumors may produce hormones or affect hormone production, leading to imbalances that ...


Oligodendroglial tumors.  


Oligodendroglial tumors represent approximately 4-7% of all gliomas; however, in some series the incidence has been reported to be as high as 10-20% because of improved histological appreciation and recently recognized molecular signatures. Oligodendroglial tumors are classified as being low-grade oligodendroglial tumors, high-grade anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors or mixed oligo-astrocytic tumors. The mixed tumors can again be low-grade or high-grade. The recent European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group randomized trials have provided level 1 evidence regarding the best management of these tumors. This review provides an overview of oligodendroglial tumors and discusses contemporary and evolving treatment strategies. PMID:16623651

Chowdhary, Sajeel; Chamberlain, Marc C



Carcinoid Tumor  


... based on how a tumor processes and makes serotonin (5-HT, a neurotransmitter involved in behavior and ... typical lung carcinoid tumor causes high levels of serotonin and chromogranin-A in the blood and high ...


Urogenital tumors  

SciTech Connect

An overview is provided for veterinary care of urogenital tumors in companion animals, especially the dog. Neoplasms discussed include tumors of the kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, testis, ovary, vagina, vulva and the canine transmissible venereal tumor. Topics addressed include description, diagnosis and treatment.

Weller, R.E.



Análisis de dos poblaciones de gallinas criollas (Gallus domesticus) utilizando RAPDs como marcadores moleculares An analysis of two native poultry populations (Gallus domesticus) using RAPD's as molecular markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

México has a great variety of native poultry but knowledge about its diversity is minimal. In this study, twenty individuals belonging to two populations of native hens (Gallus domesticus) were analyzed. They were chosen by egg production, through polymorphism identification generated by DNA random amplification (RAPD's). Amplification generated products show different sizes between 0.2 to 1.1 kb. Polymorphism was detected

Irma Morelia Soto Huipe; Guadalupe Zavala Páramoa; Horacio Cano Camacho; Joel E. López Meza


[Tumoral exophthalmitis].  


Proptosis due to intraorbital tumors is frequent and secondary to several etiologies. Generally, young people (0-20 years of age) will be affected mainly by benign diseases, such as angiomas or cysts (often dermoid cysts). Yet the ophthalmologist must never forget the possibility of rhabdomyosarcoma occurrence in a child. Adults (20-60 years of age) will for the most part develop benign tumors (cavernous hemangiomas, meningiomas) and inflammatory diseases. Last, malignant tumors, such as lymphomas and metastasized tumors, will mainly be observed in elderly people over 60 years of age. PMID:19853966

Ruban, J M; Baggio, E



Carcinoid Tumors  

PubMed Central

Carcinoid tumors are rare, slow-growing neuroendocrine tumors arising from the enterochromaffin cells disseminated throughout the gastrointestinal and bronchopulmonary systems. Though they have been traditionally classified based upon the embryologic site of origin, morphologic pattern, and silver affinity, newer classification systems have been developed to emphasize the considerable clinical and histopathologic variability of carcinoid tumors found within each embryologic site of origin. These neoplasms pose a diagnostic challenge because they are often innocuous at the time of presentation, emphasizing the need for a multidisciplinary diagnostic approach utilizing biochemical analysis, standard cross-sectional imaging, and newer advances in nuclear medicine. Similarly, treatment of both primary and disseminated carcinoid disease reflects the need for a multidisciplinary approach, with surgery remaining the only curative modality. The prognosis for patients with these tumors is generally favorable, however can be quite variable and is related to the location of the primary tumor, extent of metastatic disease at initial presentation, and the time of diagnosis.

Pinchot, Scott N.; Holen, Kyle; Sippel, Rebecca S.; Chen, Herbert



Carcinoid Tumors  


... cells that have spread to the liver. Healthy liver cells survive by relying on blood from other blood ... ablation delivers heat treatments that cause carcinoid tumor cells in the liver to die. Cryoablation uses cycles of freezing and ...


Ear Tumors  


... and causing hearing loss and a buildup of earwax. Such tumors include small sacs filled with skin ... ear. Ceruminoma (cancer of the cells that produce earwax) develops in the outer third of the ear ...


Pituitary tumor  


... is pressing on the optic nerves, which could cause blindness. Most of the time, pituitary tumors can be ... The most serious complication is blindness. This can occur if the ... imbalances. The affected hormones may need to be replaced.


Neuronal Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Gangliogliomas and gangliocytomas belong to a family of rare, slow-growing, neuronal tumors. Courville fi rst introduced the\\u000a term “ganglioglioma” in 1930 to describe the mixed neuronal and glial elements typically seen in this tumor (Courville 1930).\\u000a Although there is a pathologic difference between ganglioglioma and gangliocytoma, the natural history and biology of these\\u000a two subtypes appear to be the same.

Edward F. Chang; Nalin Gupta


Genitourinary Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The management of pediatric genitourinary tumors has evolved in recent decades largely due to the efforts of multicenter trials.\\u000a The respective roles of surgery, chemotherapy and radiation have been refined to optimize patient outcome and minimize patient\\u000a morbidity. In the United States most Wilms tumors are managed by nephrectomy followed by chemotherapy, with radiotherapy added\\u000a for patients with high stage

Jonathan H. Ross


Tumor Lymphangiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Malignant melanomas of the skin are distinguished by their propensity for early metastatic spread via lymphatic vessels to regional lymph nodes, and lymph node metastasis is a major determinant for the staging and clinical management of melanoma. However, the importance of tumor-induced lymphangiogenesis for lymphatic melanoma spread has remained unclear. We investigated whether tumor lymphangiogenesis occurs in human malignant melanomas of the skin and whether the extent of tumor lymphangiogenesis may be related to the risk for lymph node metastasis and to patient survival, using double immunostains for the novel lymphatic endothelial marker LYVE-1 and for the panvascular marker CD31. Tumor samples were obtained from clinically and histologically closely matched cases of primary melanomas with early lymph node metastasis (n = 18) and from nonmetastatic melanomas (n = 19). Hot spots of proliferating intratumoral and peritumoral lymphatic vessels were detected in a large number of melanomas. The incidence of intratumoral lymphatics was significantly higher in metastatic melanomas and correlated with poor disease-free survival. Metastatic melanomas had significantly more and larger tumor-associated lymphatic vessels, and a relative lymphatic vessel area of >1.5% was significantly associated with poor disease-free and overall survival. In contrast, no differences in the density of tumor-associated blood vessels were found. Vascular endothelial growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor-C expression was equally detected in a minority of cases in both groups. Our results reveal tumor lymphangiogenesis as a novel prognostic indicator for the risk of lymph node metastasis in cutaneous melanoma.

Dadras, Soheil S.; Paul, Thomas; Bertoncini, Jennifer; Brown, Lawrence F.; Muzikansky, Alona; Jackson, David G.; Ellwanger, Ulf; Garbe, Claus; Mihm, Martin C.; Detmar, Michael



Tumor resistance  

PubMed Central

It is suggested that evolution has equipped humans and other species with powerful and, largely non-immunological resistance mechanisms that can nip pre-neoplastic cells, as well as cells disseminating from established tumors in the bud. These mechanisms must operate while maintaining tissue structure, polarity and a large variety of cell-to-cell interactions. Altogether, they are essential for microenvironmental tissue integrity. It has further been postulated that the genes underpinning microenvironmental control are not merely alleles of known cancer susceptibility genes, but constitute sui generis systems.



Lacrimal gland tumor  


A lacrimal gland tumor is a tumor in the glands that produce tears. These glands are located under the outer part of each eyebrow. Lacrimal gland tumors can be harmless ( benign ) or cancerous ( malignant ). ...


Surgery for Ewing Tumors  


... tumors Next Topic Radiation therapy for Ewing tumors Surgery for Ewing tumors Several types of surgery can ... be reconstructed after surgery. Possible side effects of surgery The short-term side effects of surgery can ...


Pancreatic islet cell tumor  


Islet cell tumors; Islet of Langerhans tumor; Neuroendocrine tumors ... In the normal pancreas, cells called islet cells produce hormones that regulate a variety of bodily functions, such as blood sugar level and the production ...


Childhood Brain Tumors  


Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...


Hand and Wrist Tumors  


... The 2nd most common hand tumor is a giant cell tumor of tendon sheath . Unlike the fluid- ... tendon sheath that stimulates abnormal growth. Figure 1: Giant Cell Tendon Sheath Tumor of the Thumb Another ...


Aggressive Infantile Embryonal Tumors  

PubMed Central

Embryonal tumors are the most common brain tumors in infants less than 36 months of age. Histologically characterized as undifferentiated small round cell tumors with divergent patterns of differentiation, these include medulloblastoma, the most common form of embryonal tumor, as well as supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor, medulloepithelioma, ependymoblastoma, medullomyoblastoma, melanotic medulloblastoma, and atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. All are similarly aggressive and have a tendency to disseminate throughout the central nervous system. Because of efforts to avoid craniospinal irradiation in an attempt to lessen treatment-related neurotoxicity, management of these tumors in infants is unique. Outcomes remain similarly poor among all the tumor types and, therefore, identification of specific molecular targets that have prognostic and therapeutic implications is crucial. The molecular and clinical aspects of the three most common aggressive infantile embryonal tumors, medulloblastoma, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor, and atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, are the focus of this review.

MacDonald, Tobey J.



Tumor heterogeneity, tumor size, and radioresistance  

SciTech Connect

Mutant clonogenic cells, resistant to individual chemotherapeutic agents, are known to play a central role in clinical chemotherapy failure. The possibility that mutant cells, resistant to conventionally fractionated megavoltage photon radiotherapy, exist in human tumors is considered. Applying the mutation theory of Luria and Delbruck to describe the appearance of resistant cells, several conclusions follow: (a) the mean number of resistant cells in a tumor will be determined by the tumor size and the mutation rate; (b) a wide variation in radiosensitivity in tumors of the same histology is expected, because of a large variation in the number of resistant cells that they contain; (c) the presence of a resistant clone will not reduce the tumor-control probability until the tumor becomes sufficiently large; (d) initial response will not be a reliable predictor of long-term control; (e) clonogenic assays may not accurately predict treatment outcomes; (f) the mutation rate may be the most accurate predictor of tumor aggressiveness and resistance to various treatment modalities; (g) tumors with a low mutation rate, which may include seminoma, Hodgkin's disease and many pediatric tumors would be curable by either chemotherapy or radiation; (h) pleomorphic tumors with a high mutation rate, which may include glioblastoma multiforme, would be difficult to cure by any means. Clinical and experimental evidence is reviewed for the existence of radioresistant cell lines in human and animal tumors, and further experiments are proposed to test this hypothesis. Treatment strategies for targeting radioresistant clones are discussed.

Yaes, R.J. (Univ. of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington (USA))



Treatment for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GISTs) Based on Tumor Spread  


... choices for gastrointestinal stromal tumor based on tumor spread Treatment for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) depends on ... patients. Tumors that are not removable or have spread to distant sites (unresectable tumors) Treatment options for ...


Ocular tumor patterns.  


The use of choroidal excavation and vascular pulsations in the ultrasonic diagnosis of tumors has been a helpful diagnostic feature. Evaluation of choroidal tumors is presently performed with A-, B- and M-scan techniques. Solid tumors of high homogeneity produce characteristic hollows or acoustic quiet zones that replace the normal choroidal pattern. M-scan patterns of vascular pulsations are also useful in demonstrating vascularity or choroidal tumors. Color displays accentuate amplitude variations in ocular tumors. PMID:1131209

Coleman, D J



Gastrointestinal stromal tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) have emerged from being poorly defined, treatment-resistant tumors to a well-recognized,\\u000a well-understood, and treatable tumor entity within only one decade. The understanding of GIST biology has made this tumor\\u000a a paradigm for molecularly targeted therapy in solid tumors and provides informative insights into the advantages and limitations\\u000a of so-called targeted therapeutics. Approximately 85% of GISTs harbor

Bernadette Liegl-Atzwanger; Jonathan A. Fletcher; Christopher D. M. Fletcher



Management of Spinal Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter describes the treatment approach to patients with intradural spinal tumors, with the most common being nerve\\u000a sheath tumors and meningiomas, representing a combined 55%. The remaining 45% of intradural tumors are intramedullary. Surgical\\u000a management of these tumors may include the application of the Cavitron ultrasonic aspirator and the laser. Many intramedullary\\u000a tumors are amenable to gross total resection

Karl F. Kothbauer; George I. Jallo; Fred J. Epstein


Rechenverfahren des optischen Korrektionsprogrammms "COMO". Teil 1.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

COMO is a program of an orthogonalization type that was developed in order to achieve that each elementary correction step makes immediate use of the shortest possible step in the system data space even if many rigid boundary conditions are to be taken into account (optimization under constraints). COMO usually does not correct aberrations simultaneously (by minimization), but one after the other. The order is given by the optical designer. For each aberration (paraxial data included) one can either specify a target value or a bandwidth between a lower and an upper limit.

Marx, H.



Pediatric spinal tumors.  


Although tumors of the central nervous system in children constitute the second most prevalent tumor type of childhood, spinal cord tumors account for less than 10% of pediatric central nervous system tumors. The most common are intramedullary, although they can be found in the extradural compartment or as intradural extramedullary masses. Extradural tumors can arise from bony elements, the meninges, or soft tissues. Neuroblastomas and sarcomas are frequently encountered along with bone tumors. Intradural extramedullary tumors can be meningeal or from distant sites and include meningiomas and schwannomas; most tend to be benign. Intradural intramedullary tumors, neuronal or glial, can be derived from neuroepithelial tissues. For the intramedullary tumors, astrocytomas represent around 60% of tumors, ependymomas 30%, and developmental tumors 4%. Such tumors require a multidisciplinary approach to ensure optimal patient outcomes. Spinal cord tumors most often present with pain followed by motor regression, gait disturbance, sphincter dysfunction or sensory loss, torticollis, and kyphoscoliosis. Treatment is based on tumor type, but surgical resection is the mainstay. Predictors of outcome include the histological grading, extent of resection, and neurological status at the time of surgery. PMID:23622304

Hsu, Wesley; Jallo, George I



Osteosarcoma Tumor Thrombus  

PubMed Central

Tumor thrombus arising from osteosarcoma is rare. We report the case of a 20-year-old man with proximal humerus osteosarcoma, accompanied by an extensive intravascular tumor thrombus extending into the heart. Our review of the literature found 14 previous reports on osteosarcoma with tumor thrombus. The combination of positron emission tomography and computed tomography is very useful in differentiating tumor thrombus from vascular thrombus, thereby avoiding unnecessary anticoagulation therapy. This same imaging combination can also be used to evaluate the response to treatment. Surgical resection of the tumor thrombus is highly recommended. The effect of tumor thrombus on survival is still unknown.

Navalkele, Pournima; Jones, Sarah M.; Jones, Jason K.; Salazar, Jorge D.; Toy, Patrick C.; Iyer, Rathi V.; Herrington, Betty



National Brain Tumor Society  


... information Tumor types, treatment, treatment centers Resources & Support NBTS online community, survivor stories, support groups Take Action ... in the brain tumor community Events Check out NBTS events or start a fundraiser of your own ...


Tumors of the Nails  


... a deformity. These tumors include noncancerous myxoid cysts, pyogenic granulomas, glomus tumors, Bowen's disease (an early form of ... Versions VIEW STUDENT STORIES Pronunciations granuloma melanoma pyogenic pyogenic granulomas squamous Back to Top Previous: Fingernail and Toenail ...


Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are mesenchymal tumors characterized by a spindle morphology and expression of the\\u000a c-kit proto-oncogene. They occur primarily in the stomach and small intestine presenting with abdominal pain or bleeding,\\u000a but may be found incidentally. These tumors may behave malignantly by metastasizing, invading adjacent organs, or recurring\\u000a after resection. Tumor size more than 5 cm or more

Raquel E. Davila


Tumor cell heterogeneity.  


The paper deals with the analysis of literary data on the tumor cell heterogeneity. Phenotypic, genetic and epigenetic mechanisms of heterogeneity are considered. The heterogeneity of metastasis is considered too. The importance for the biology of populations of tumor cells and the sensitivity of tumors to therapeutic treatment are discussed. PMID:24084451

Chekhun, V F; Sherban, S D; Savtsova, Z D



Malignant tumors of childhood  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 34 papers about malignant tumors. some of the titles are: Invasive Cogenital Mesoblastic Nephroma, Leukemia Update, Unusual Perinatal Neoplasms, Lymphoma Update, Gonadal Germ Cell Tumors in Children, Nutritional Status and Cancer of Childhood, and Chemotherapy of Brain tumors in Children.

Brooks, B.J.



Tracing the tumor lineage.  


Defining the pathways through which tumors progress is critical to our understanding and treatment of cancer. We do not routinely sample patients at multiple time points during the progression of their disease, and thus our research is limited to inferring progression a posteriori from the examination of a single tumor sample. Despite this limitation, inferring progression is possible because the tumor genome contains a natural history of the mutations that occur during the formation of the tumor mass. There are two approaches to reconstructing a lineage of progression: (1) inter-tumor comparisons, and (2) intra-tumor comparisons. The inter-tumor approach consists of taking single samples from large collections of tumors and comparing the complexity of the genomes to identify early and late mutations. The intra-tumor approach involves taking multiple samples from individual heterogeneous tumors to compare divergent clones and reconstruct a phylogenetic lineage. Here we discuss how these approaches can be used to interpret the current models for tumor progression. We also compare data from primary and metastatic copy number profiles to shed light on the final steps of breast cancer progression. Finally, we discuss how recent technical advances in single cell genomics will herald a new era in understanding the fundamental basis of tumor heterogeneity and progression. PMID:20537601

Navin, Nicholas E; Hicks, James



How Is Wilms Tumor Staged?  


... Survival rates for Wilms tumor by stage and histology Previous Topic How are Wilms tumors diagnosed? Next ... Survival rates for Wilms tumor by stage and histology How is Wilms tumor staged? The stage of ...


Brain Tumors Facts and Statistics  


... making them the most common primary brain tumor. Gliomas, a broad term which includes all tumors arising ... all primary brain tumors, and 54% of all gliomas. Astrocytomas represent 7% of all primary brain tumors. ...


Tumor Endothelial Cells  

PubMed Central

The vascular endothelium is a dynamic cellular “organ” that controls passage of nutrients into tissues, maintains the flow of blood, and regulates the trafficking of leukocytes. In tumors, factors such as hypoxia and chronic growth factor stimulation result in endothelial dysfunction. For example, tumor blood vessels have irregular diameters; they are fragile, leaky, and blood flow is abnormal. There is now good evidence that these abnormalities in the tumor endothelium contribute to tumor growth and metastasis. Thus, determining the biological basis underlying these abnormalities is critical for understanding the pathophysiology of tumor progression and facilitating the design and delivery of effective antiangiogenic therapies.

Dudley, Andrew C.



Targeting the tumor microenvironment  

PubMed Central

Persistent JAK-STAT3 signaling is implicated in many aspects of tumorigenesis. Apart from its tumor-intrinsic effects, STAT3 also exerts tumor-extrinsic effects, supporting tumor survival and metastasis. These involve the regulation of paracrine cytokine signaling, alterations in metastatic sites rendering these permissive for the growth of cancer cells and subversion of host immune responses to create an immunosuppressive environment. Targeting this signaling pathway is considered a novel promising therapeutic approach, especially in the context of tumor immunity. In this article, we will review to what extent JAK-STAT3-targeted therapies affect the tumor microenvironment and whether the observed effects underlie responsiveness to therapy.

Bournazou, Eirini; Bromberg, Jacqueline



[Primary malignant bone tumors].  


Among human neoplasms, primary malignant bone tumors are fairly rare. They present an incidence rate of roughly 10 cases per 1 million inhabitants per year. During childhood (<15 years), the percentage of malignant bone tumors amounts to 6% of all infantile malignancies. Only leukemia and lymphoma show a higher incidence in adolescence. Of all primary malignant bone tumors, 60% affect patients younger than 45 years and the peak incidence of all bone tumors occurs between 15 and 19 years. The most common primary malignant bone tumors are osteosarcoma (35%), chondrosarcoma (25%), and Ewing's sarcoma (16%). Less frequently (??5%) occurring tumors are chordoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma of bone, and fibrosarcoma of bone. Vascular primary malignant tumors of bone and adamantinoma are very rare. Staging of the lesion is essential for systemic therapeutic decision-making and includes complete imaging and histo-pathological confirmation of the suspected entity. In most cases, this is established by open- or image-guided biopsy. Based on this information, an interdisciplinary tumor board will determine the individual therapeutic approach. Endoprosthetic or biological reconstruction following wide tumor resection is the most common surgical therapy for primary malignant bone tumors. There is vital importance in a thorough postoperative follow-up and continous after-care by a competent tumor center which is permanentely in charge of therapy. PMID:22130624

von Eisenhart-Rothe, R; Toepfer, A; Salzmann, M; Schauwecker, J; Gollwitzer, H; Rechl, H



Nonfunctioning Juxtaglomerular Cell Tumor  

PubMed Central

The juxtaglomerular cell tumor (JGCT) is a rare renal tumor characterized by excessive renin secretion causing intractable hypertension and hypokalemia. However, asymptomatic nonfunctioning JGCT is extremely rare. Here, we report a case of nonfunctioning JGCT in a 31-year-old woman. The patient presented with a left renal tumor without hypertension or hypokalemia. Under a clinical diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma, radical nephrectomy was performed. The tumor was located in the middle portion adjacent to the renal pelvis, measuring 2?cm in size. Pathologically, the tumor was composed of cuboidal cells forming a solid arrangement, immunohistochemically positive for renin. Based on these findings, the tumor was diagnosed as JGCT. In cases with hyperreninism, preoperative diagnosis of JGCT is straightforward but difficult in nonfunctioning case. Generally, JGCT presents a benign biological behavior. Therefore, we should take nonfunctioning JGCT into the differential diagnoses for renal tumors, especially in younger patients to avoid excessive surgery.

Sakata, Ryoko; Shimoyamada, Hiroaki; Yanagisawa, Masahiro; Murakami, Takayuki; Makiyama, Kazuhide; Nakaigawa, Noboru; Inayama, Yoshiaki; Ohashi, Kenichi; Nagashima, Yoji; Yao, Masahiro; Kubota, Yoshinobu




Microsoft Academic Search

Intracranial germ cell tumors are a heterogeneous group of lesions which occur in children and adults. Within the classification of intracranial germ cell tumors, there are a variety of different tumor types which carry different prognoses. The diagnosis of an intracranial germ cell tumor usually requires histological informa- tion, but a subgroup of tumors will secrete specific tumor markers, including

J Bjornsson; B Scheithauer; H Okazakl; R W Leech



Tumor detection with radiopharmaceuticals  

SciTech Connect

The most common primary ocular tumor in adults is malignant melanoma of the choroid. Metastatic tumors to the choroid occur with the same frequency. The radioactive phosphorous uptake test is used most often as a nuclear diagnostic test. The test does not differentiate melanomas from metastases, and it is necessary to perform surgery for proper placement of a detection device within a distance of 1-2 mm of the tumor. These deficiencies leave ophthalmologists with a pressing need for a gamma-emitting radiopharmaceutical that would facilitate noninvasive identification of choroidal melanoma. This need is made more urgent by the fact that recently, radiation therapy has been used to treat these tumors rather than enucleation. Eyes then harbor irradiated melanoma whose status is unknown. The tumor rarely decreases in size more than 25% to 50%. There is thus a need for a specific diagnostic test to assess the nature of the tumor and the effectiveness of therapy.

Packer, S.



Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor: A Rare Abdominal Tumor  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are rare abdominal tumors which arise from the interstitial cells of Cajal in the gastrointestinal tract. Gastric GISTs are the most commonly seen GIST tumors and may grow to a very large size. They are often associated with abdominal pain, anorexia and weight loss. Most of them can be detected by CT. These tumors have been found to harbor mutations in CD117 which causes constitutional activation of the tyrosine kinase signaling pathway and is considered to be pathognomic. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as imatinib have revolutionized the treatment of these tumors, which are otherwise resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Although surgical resection is the mainstay of treatment, tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been useful in prolonging the recurrence-free survival of these patients. Resistance to imatinib has been reported in GISTs with specific mutations. We present a case of gastric GIST which grew to a very large size and was associated with abdominal pain and weight loss. It was successfully resected and the patient was commenced on imatinib therapy.

Shaheen, Shagufta; Guddati, Achuta K.



Intracranial Germ Cell Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Germ cell tumors originating from the gonads may also occur in the central nervous system (CNS). They arise from primordial\\u000a germ cells that were trapped within neural tissue during the process of migration at the time of early embryogenesis [20].\\u000a Intracranial germ cell tumors include six subtypes classified by the World Health Organization: germinoma, embryonal carcinoma,\\u000a yolk sac tumor (endodermal

Kyu-Chang Wang; Seung-Ki Kim; Sung-Hye Park; Ji Hoon Phi; Byung-Kyu Cho


Testicular Tumor Pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Most neoplasms of the testis are of germ cell origin. More than half of germ cell tumors contain more than one histologic\\u000a type and are referred to as malignant mixed germ cell tumors. The American Cancer Society estimates that 8,400 new cases of\\u000a testicular germ cell tumors will be diagnosed in 2009 in the United States (American Cancer Society. http:\\/\\/

Kirk J. Wojno; Louis R. Bégin


Tumors of Peritoneum  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Primary peritoneal tumors and tumor-like conditions of secondary mullerian system include various endometrioid, serous, and\\u000a mucinous lesions. Endometriosis is the most common tumor-like condition resulting in a significant morbidity in women of reproductive\\u000a years of age. In addition, preneoplastic hyperplasia and carcinomas (clear cell and endometrioid carcinomas) may arise from\\u000a endometriosis. Primary peritoneal serous carcinoma is a frequent differential diagnosis

David Chhieng; Pei Hui


Intrapulmonary solitary fibrous tumor.  


Solitary pulmonary nodules are sometimes detected by routine chest radiography. Although many of them are suspected to be benign tumors following noninvasive examinations including computed tomography and positron emission tomography, it is difficult to diagnose them accurately. This report presents a rare case of a solitary fibrous tumor located in the lung that could not be diagnosed preoperatively. More information must be accumulated concerning such rare cases of intrapulmonary solitary fibrous tumors. PMID:21225405

Kawaguchi, Koji; Taniguchi, Tetsuo; Usami, Noriyasu; Yokoi, Kohei



Percutaneous Bone Tumors Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Image-guided tumor management is a minimally invasive treatment for localized bone tumors. Compared to other modalities, minimally\\u000a invasive procedures require fewer resources, less time, recovery, and cost, and often reduced morbidity and mortality. Many\\u000a percutaneous techniques are available. Some aim to treat pain and consolidate bone, i.e. cementoplasty. Others ablate or reduce\\u000a the tumor, i.e. chemical and thermal ablation techniques.

Afshin Gangi; Xavier Buy


[Neuroimaging in brain tumors].  


Advances in neuroimaging have modified diagnosis, treatment and clinical management of brain tumors. However, neuropathological study remains necessary in order to get the best clinical management. Surgery and radiotherapy planning are imaging-dependent procedures, and MRI is the standard imaging modality for determining precisely tumor location and its anatomical relationship with surrounding brain structures. In high-grade tumors it has been accepted that tumoral areas with contrast uptake in CT, or T1-weighted MRI contrast enhancement corresponds to solid tumor. However, relationship between MRI and invasive tumor areas remains less defined. Therefore, it is generally accepted that conventional MRI is not sufficient to delineate the real extension of brain tumors. In recent years, PET using 18FDG and amino acid radiotracers ((11)C-Methionine, (18)FDOPA, (18)FET) and SPECT with (201-)Thallium, as well as advanced MRI sequences (Perfusion, Diffusion-weighted, Diffusion tensor imaging and tractography), and functional MRI, have added important complementary information in the characterization, therapy planning and recurrence differential diagnosis of brain tumors. In this continuing education review of neuroimaging in brain tumors, technical aspects and clinical applications of different imaging modalities are approached in a multidisciplinary way. PMID:21211868

Arbizu, J; Domínguez, P D; Diez-Valle, R; Vigil, C; García-Eulate, R; Zubieta, J L; Richter, J A



Tumor cell metabolism  

PubMed Central

Cancer is a genetic disease that is caused by mutations in oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and stability genes. The fact that the metabolism of tumor cells is altered has been known for many years. However, the mechanisms and consequences of metabolic reprogramming have just begun to be understood. In this review, an integral view of tumor cell metabolism is presented, showing how metabolic pathways are reprogrammed to satisfy tumor cell proliferation and survival requirements. In tumor cells, glycolysis is strongly enhanced to fulfill the high ATP demands of these cells; glucose carbons are the main building blocks in fatty acid and nucleotide biosynthesis. Glutaminolysis is also increased to satisfy NADPH regeneration, whereas glutamine carbons replenish the Krebs cycle, which produces metabolites that are constantly used for macromolecular biosynthesis. A characteristic feature of the tumor microenvironment is acidosis, which results from the local increase in lactic acid production by tumor cells. This phenomenon is attributed to the carbons from glutamine and glucose, which are also used for lactic acid production. Lactic acidosis also directs the metabolic reprogramming of tumor cells and serves as an additional selective pressure. Finally, we also discuss the role of mitochondria in supporting tumor cell metabolism.

Romero-Garcia, Susana; Lopez-Gonzalez, Jose Sullivan; B?ez-Viveros, Jose Luis; Aguilar-Cazares, Dolores



Endodermal sinus tumor in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malignant germ cell tumors account for about 3% of neoplasms in children, and endodermal sinus tumor (EST) is the most common histological subtype. The authors reviewed 22 years' experience (at their institution) in the management of 37 patients with this tumor. Fifteen of them (41%) had a sacrococcygeal primary, 10 had a testicular tumor (27%), 6 had an ovarian tumor

Andrew M. Davidoff; Andre Hebra; Nancy Bunin; Stephen J. Shochat; Louise Schnaufer



Skull Base Tumors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In skull base tumors associated with a low radiosensitivity for conventional radiotherapy (RT), irradiation with proton or carbon ion beams facilitates a safe and accurate application of high tumor doses due to the favorable beam localization properties of these particle beams. Cranial nerves, the brain stem and normal brain tissue can at the same time be optimally spared.

Schulz-Ertner, Daniela


Intracranial Tumors in Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prognosis in infants with brain tumors has historically been very poor. This study reviews 16 infants under the age of 12 months with brain tumors who presented to our institution between 1988 and 1999. The aim was to describe the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of these patients and to establish if newer diagnostic and treatment modalities have improved

Helen K. Young; Heather Johnston



Primary pericardial tumors.  


Primary pericardial tumors are rare and may be classified as benign or malignant. The most common benign lesions are pericardial cysts and lipomas. Mesothelioma is the most common primary malignant pericardial neoplasm. Other malignant tumors include a wide variety of sarcomas, lymphoma, and primitive neuroectodermal tumor. When present, signs and symptoms are generally nonspecific. Patients often present with dyspnea, chest pain, palpitations, fever, or weight loss. Although the imaging approach usually begins with plain radiography of the chest or transthoracic echocardiography, the value of these imaging modalities is limited. Cross-sectional imaging, on the other hand, plays a key role in the evaluation of these lesions. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging allow further characterization and may, in some cases, provide diagnostic findings. Furthermore, the importance of cross-sectional imaging lies in assessing the exact location of the tumor in relation to neighboring structures. Both benign and malignant tumors may result in compression of vital mediastinal structures. Malignant lesions may also directly invade structures, such as the myocardium and great vessels, and result in metastatic disease. Imaging plays an important role in the detection, characterization, and staging of pericardial tumors; in their treatment planning; and in the posttreatment follow-up of affected patients. The prognosis of patients with benign tumors is good, even in the few cases in which surgical intervention is required. On the other hand, the length of survival for patients with malignant pericardial tumors is, in the majority of cases, dismal. © RSNA, 2013. PMID:24108554

Restrepo, Carlos S; Vargas, Daniel; Ocazionez, Daniel; Martínez-Jiménez, Santiago; Betancourt Cuellar, Sonia L; Gutierrez, Fernando R



Familial Pediatric Endocrine Tumors  

PubMed Central

Pediatric endocrine tumors are rare but have fairly characteristic presentations. We describe an approach to diagnosis and management of five of the most common presentations including gonadoblastoma, paraganglioma, medullary thyroid cancer, adrenal cancer, and pituitary adenoma. Genetic testing can aid in the early detection and prevention and management of tumors in patients and in other family members.

Millar, Sarinda; Bradley, Lisa; Donnelly, Deirdre E.; Carson, Dennis



Yaba Virus Tumors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The salient features of the Yaba tumor are that a DNA virus, probably a member of the pox group, produces characteristic subcutaneous growths on the face and distal portions of the limbs in some, but not all, species of nonhuman primates and in man. Tumor...

E. E. McConnell



Vanishing tumor in pregnancy  

PubMed Central

A patient with microprolactinoma, who had two successful pregnancies, is described for management issues. First pregnancy was uneventful. During the second pregnancy, the tumor enlarged to macroprolactinoma with headache and blurring of vision which was managed successfully with bromocriptine. Post delivery, complete disappearance of the tumor was documented.

Vimal, M. V.; Budyal, Sweta; Kasliwal, Rajeev; Jagtap, Varsha S.; Lila, Anurag R.; Bandgar, Tushar; Menon, Padmavathy; Shah, Nalini S.



Brain Tumor Symptoms  


... Anytime Learning Donate to the ABTA Help advance the understanding and treatment of brain tumors. Donate Now Connect with Us Sign-up ... preview A short URL will be added to the end of your Tweet. Share Cancel Share on LinkedIn Preview your message Share ... Home > Understanding Brain Tumors > Symptoms Listen Unfortunately, it is very common ...


Borderline ovarian tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borderline ovarian tumors (BOTs) represent a small subset of epithelial ovarian cancers that were first described more than 70 years ago. Recognized in a systematic way in only the last three decades, BOTs occur most often in women in their reproductive years but are associated with an excellent long-term prognosis. The management of these tumors is primarily surgical, with the

Andrew W Menzin



Targeting Pituitary Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Pituitary tumors are common and usually grow insidiously over many years. Rarely fatal, treatment still requires multiple cytoreductive surgeries and\\/or radiation therapy with its attendant side effects. As a disease process of regulatory pathways, pituitary tumors offer numerous potential therapeutic targets, and many, such as the membranal dopamine2 and somatostatin receptors, have been successfully exploited for many years. Nuclear

Anthony P. Heaney



Gastrointestinal Neuroendocrine Tumors: Pancreatic Endocrine Tumors  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) have long fascinated clinicians and investigators despite their relative rarity. Their clinical presentation varies depending upon whether the tumor is functional or not and also according to the specific hormonal syndrome produced. Tumors may be sporadic or inherited but little is known about their molecular pathology, especially the sporadic forms. Chromogranin A appears to be the most useful serum marker for diagnosis, staging and monitoring. Initially, therapy should be directed at the hormonal syndrome as this has the major initial impact on the patient's health. Most PETs are relatively indolent but ultimately malignant, except for insulinomas which are predominantly benign. Surgery is the only modality that offers the possibility of cure although it is generally noncurative in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome or nonfunctional PETs with MEN1. Preoperative staging of disease extent is necessary to determine the likelihood of complete resection though debulking surgery is often felt to be useful in unresectable patients. Once metastatic, biotherapy is usually the first modality employed because it is generally well tolerated. Systemic or regional therapies are generally reserved until symptoms occur or tumor growth is rapid. Recently a number of newer agents, as well as receptor-directed radiotherapy, are being evalulated for patients with advanced disease. This review addresses a number of recent advances regarding the molecular pathology, diagnosis, localization and management of PETs including discussion of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy and other novel antitumor approaches. We conclude with a discussion of future directions and unsettled problems in the field.

Metz, David C.



Metastatic Spinal Tumor  

PubMed Central

In accordance with extending survival periods of cancer patients, number of consecutively developing metastatic spinal tumor is also increasing. There have been improvements in the treatment results of metastatic spine tumor by virtue of the developments in diagnostic radiology, chemotherapy, adjuvant treatment, operative device and technique, discrete preoperative plan, and standardized operation. Accordingly, surgical indication has also increased. Clinically, in case of metastatic spine tumor, treatment of tumor itself should be focused on pain relief, preservation of neurologic function, prevention of pathologic fracture, prevention of pathologic fracture, and correction of spinal instability for improving quality of life, rather than for extension of survival. Additionally, etiology of spinal tumor, correct diagnosis and subsequent treatment principles should be thoroughly understood before establishing treatment plans for effective treatments.

Jung, Chul-Hee



Primary cardiac tumors.  

PubMed Central

Cardiac tumors are a rare, but potentially curably form of heart disease. A high index of clinical suspicion is necessary for diagnosis as these tumors have protean manifestations that mimic a variety of other cardiac and noncardiac diseases. Presently, M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiography are utilized as safe, reliable, and noninvasive imaging modalities. Seventy-five per cent of these tumors are benign, with myxoma accounting for 50% and rhabodomyoma comprising 20% of lesions. Various histologic types of sarcoma are the predominant malignant cardiac neoplasms. With strict attention to avoiding perioperative tumor embolization, surgical resection of these lesions can be accomplished with minimal morbidity and mortality. Sixteen consecutive primary tumors of the heart have been surgically treated at Duke University Medical Center since 1966 with no perioperative deaths and no late recurrences. Images Figs. 2A and B. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Figs. 5A and B Fig. 6.

Silverman, N A



Management of Lake Como: a multiobjective analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a heuristic approach for improving the performance of multipurpose reservoirs that have already been in operation for a certain number of years. The main characteristic of the method is that the analyst must first learn from the past experience of the manager and synthesize it into a simple operating rule. Then, the analyst must point out, with the help of the manager, what the acceptable modifications of such a rule are. After this has been accomplished, the optimal improvements of the operating rule can be obtained by using standard optimization techniques. Quite satisfactory results have been obtained by applying this approach to Lake Como (Northern Italy), which has been regulated since the end of World War II. In fact, the method shows that both flood protection on the lake shores and water supply to the downstream agricultural areas can be substantially improved, without lowering the mean yearly electricity production of the downstream run-of-river plants. For this reason the operating rule proposed by the method has been programmed on a microcomputer, which is now used every day by the manager as an essential support for his final decision. This and the fact that other actions suggested by this analysis have indeed been undertaken by the local authorities gave to this study the chance to have a positive and direct impact on the lake management.

Guariso, G.; Rinaldi, S.; Soncini-Sessa, R.



How Are Wilms Tumors Diagnosed?  


... Survival rates for Wilms tumor by stage and histology Previous Topic Signs and symptoms of Wilms tumor ... also look at the sample to determine the histology of the Wilms tumor (favorable or unfavorable), as ...


Giant Cell Tumor of Bone  


Copyright 2010 American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Giant Cell Tumor of Bone Giant cell tumor of bone (GCT) is a rare, aggressive non-cancerous (benign) tumor. It generally occurs in adults between the ages of ...


Angiogenesis and tumor metastasis.  


Angiogenesis, the recruitment of new blood vessels, is an essential component of the metastatic pathway. These vessels provide the principal route by which tumor cells exit the primary tumor site and enter the circulation. For many tumors, the vascular density can provide a prognostic indicator of metastatic potential, with the highly vascular primary tumors having a higher incidence of metastasis than poorly vascular tumors. Tumor angiogenesis is regulated by the production of angiogenic stimulators including members of the fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor families. In addition, tumors may activate angiogenic inhibitors such as angiostatin and endostatin that can modulate angiogenesis both at the primary site and at downstream sites of metastasis. The potential use of these and other natural and synthetic angiogenic inhibitors as anticancer drugs is currently under intense investigation. Such agents may have reduced toxicity and be less likely to generate drug resistance than conventional cytotoxic drugs. Clinical trials are now underway to develop optimum treatment strategies for antiangiogenic agents. PMID:9509272

Zetter, B R



Lymphangiogenesis and tumor metastasis.  


In several human cancers, increased expression in primary tumors of vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) is correlated with regional lymph node metastasis. Studies using transgenic mice overexpressing VEGF-C, or xenotransplantation of VEGF-C-expressing tumor cells into immunodeficient mice, have demonstrated a role for VEGF-C in tumor lymphangiogenesis and the subsequent formation of lymph node metastasis. However, at variance with data obtained in animal models, there is at present very little evidence for lymphangiogenesis in human tumors. Nonetheless, the striking correlation between levels of VEGF-C in primary human tumors and lymph node metastases exists, which suggests that VEGF-C may serve functions other than lymphangiogenesis. Thus, VEGF-C may activate pre-existing lymphatics which in turn become directly involved in tumor cell chemotaxis, intralymphatic intravasation and distal dissemination. A reciprocal dialogue is therefore likely to exist between tumor and lymphatic endothelial cells which results in the formation of lymph node metastases. PMID:14515178

Nisato, Riccardo E; Tille, Jean-Christophe; Pepper, Michael S



Lymphangiogenesis and tumor metastasis.  


The lymphatic system transports interstitial fluid and macromolecules from tissues back to the blood circulation, and plays an important role in the immune response by directing the traffic of lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells. The lymphatic system also constitutes one of the most important pathways of tumor dissemination. In many human cancers, increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) is correlated with regional lymph node metastases. Experimental studies using transgenic mice overexpressing VEGF-C or xenotransplantation of VEGF-C-expressing tumor cells into immunodeficient mice have demonstrated a role for VEGF-C in tumor lymphangiogenesis and the subsequent formation of lymph node metastases. However, there is at present little evidence for lymphangiogenesis in human tumors and the relative importance of preexisting vs. newly formed lymphatics for metastasis in humans remains to be determined. Nonetheless, the striking correlation between the levels of VEGF-C in primary human tumors and lymph node metastases predicts its importance in cancer spread. Aside from promoting lymphangiogenesis, VEGF-C may also activate lymphatics to promote tumor cell chemotaxis, lymphatic intravasation and hence tumor cell dissemination. PMID:12883995

Pepper, Michael S; Tille, Jean-Christophe; Nisato, Riccardo; Skobe, Mihaela



[Paleopathology of human tumors].  


The occurrence and frequency of neoplastic lesions in ancient populations has been a subject of debate for both paleopathologists and medical historians. The available sources of information are both direct, i.e., deriving from the study of ancient skeletal or mummified samples, and indirect, i.e., deriving from the analysis of ancient works of art, and of written records. Often, however, indirect sources do not allow a precise nosographic identification of the disease. Therefore, paleopathology is critical for the study of tumors in antiquity. The paleopathological record is itself difficult to interpret, because of the relative scarcity and poor state of preservation of the samples generally available for analysis. The study of the antiquity of tumors can be conveniently approached following a geographic criterion. Tumors are already documented in fossil specimens referred to an early ancestor of modern humans, Homo erectus. However, neoplastic lesions become relatively abundant only from the Neolithic period. Altogether, in ancient populations from Africa, Eurasia and the Americas, some benign tumors and most malignant soft tissue tumors may have had a frequency comparable to that documented for modern populations. In contrast, carcinomas and hemopoietic tumors which occur frequently in modern populations appear to have been generally rare in antiquity. To a large extent, this was probably related to the demographic structure of ancient populations. However, some malignant tumors, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma in ancient Egypt, and multiple myeloma in Africa, Eurasia, and the Americas, may have occurred more frequently in the past. PMID:11640162

Capasso, L; Mariani Costantini, R



Brain Tumor Stem Cell Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain tumors display striking heterogeneity of cellular morphology and differentiation status. Recent studies have identified\\u000a tumor subpopulations in several brain tumor types that self-renew and can propagate tumor formation in mice models. These\\u000a cells, called tumor stem cells, are defined functionally but several markers are under investigation to identify brain tumor\\u000a stem cells. Although no marker has proven absolutely informative

Jeremy N. Rich


Targeting the tumor microenvironment  

SciTech Connect

Despite some notable successes cancer remains, for the most part, a seemingly intractable problem. There is, however, a growing appreciation that targeting the tumor epithelium in isolation is not sufficient as there is an intricate mutually sustaining synergy between the tumor epithelial cells and their surrounding stroma. As the details of this dialogue emerge, new therapeutic targets have been proposed. The FDA has already approved drugs targeting microenvironmental components such as VEGF and aromatase and many more agents are in the pipeline. In this article, we describe some of the 'druggable' targets and processes within the tumor microenvironment and review the approaches being taken to disrupt these interactions.

Kenny, P.A.; Lee, G.Y.; Bissell, M.J.



Studies on the Tumor Initiating, Tumor Promoting, and Tumor CO-Initiating Properties of Respiratory Carcinogens.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With mouse skin as the bioassay model, the multifaceted behavior of chemicals and mixtures can be elucidated using the protocols of tumor initiation, tumor promotion, tumor co-initiation, and complete carcinogenesis. In addition to studies with individual...

S. Nesnow L. L. Triplett T. J. Slaga



Tumor-to-tumor metastasis: breast cancer metastatic to thymic epithelial tumor.  


Tumor-to-tumor metastasis is a rare phenomenon, with around 150 cases being reported in the literature. Breast cancer is the second most commonly reported donor tumor after lung cancer, but thymic epithelial tumors have never been reported as recipient tumors. Furthermore, the thymus is rarely affected by metastases. To our knowledge, the present report is the first case of breast cancer metastatic to thymic epithelial tumor. PMID:23695010

Moretto, Roberto; Cella, Chiara A; Raimondo, Lucia; Formisano, Luigi; Nappi, Lucia; Rescigno, Pasquale; Buonerba, Carlo; Calabrese, Filomena; Ottaviano, Margaret; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Matano, Elide; Damiano, Vincenzo; Palmieri, Giovannella



Metastatic brain tumor  


... powered x-rays on a small area of the brain. Medications for brain tumor symptoms may include: Antacids or antihistamines to control stress ulcers Anticonvulsants such as phenytoin or levetiracetam to ...


The gastrointestinal tumor microenvironment.  


Over the past decade, the microenvironment of gastrointestinal tumors has gained increasing attention because it is required for tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis. The tumor microenvironment has many components and has been recognized as one of the major hallmarks of epithelial cancers. Although therapeutic strategies for gastrointestinal cancer have previously focused on the epithelial cell compartment, there is increasing interest in reagents that alter the microenvironment, based on reported interactions among gastrointestinal epithelial, stromal, and immune cells during gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. We review the different cellular components of the gastrointestinal tumor microenvironment and their functions in carcinogenesis and discuss how improving our understanding of the complex stromal network could lead to new therapeutic strategies. PMID:23583733

Quante, Michael; Varga, Julia; Wang, Timothy C; Greten, Florian R



Primary renal carcinoid tumor.  


Primary renal carcinoid tumor is extremely rare and, therefore, its pathogenesis and prognosis is not well known. We report a primary renal carcinoid in a 26-year-old man treated by radical nephrectomy. PMID:24029267

Kanodia, K V; Vanikar, A V; Patel, R D; Suthar, K S; Kute, V B; Modi, P R; Trivedi, H L



What Are Pituitary Tumors?  


... shortage of the other pituitary hormones. Microadenoma versus macroadenoma Pituitary adenomas can be divided into 2 categories ... or secrete enough hormones to cause a problem. Macroadenomas are tumors 1 cm across or larger. Macroadenomas ...


Skin tumors on squirrels  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Skin tumors having the gross appearance of previously reported fibromas are reported on gray squirrels from N. Y., Md., Va., N. C., and W. Va. and from a fox squirrel from W. Va. and a porcupine from Pa.

Herman, C.M.; Reilly, J.R.



Salivary gland tumors  


Salivary gland tumors are abnormal cells growing in the ducts that drain the salivary glands. ... The salivary glands are located around the mouth. They produce saliva, which moistens food to help with chewing and swallowing. Saliva ...


Antibody tumor penetration  

PubMed Central

Antibodies have proven to be effective agents in cancer imaging and therapy. One of the major challenges still facing the field is the heterogeneous distribution of these agents in tumors when administered systemically. Large regions of untargeted cells can therefore escape therapy and potentially select for more resistant cells. We present here a summary of theoretical and experimental approaches to analyze and improve antibody penetration in tumor tissue.

Thurber, Greg M.; Schmidt, Michael M.; Wittrup, K. Dane



Modulation of tumor oxygenation  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a large body of evidence suggesting that deficiencies in the O2 supply of tumors exist due to restrictions (i) in the O2 delivery by perfusion and\\/or diffusion, and (ii) in the O2 transport capacity. Whereas the former are mostly based on inadequate and heterogeneous microcirculatory functions, the latter are predominantly due to tumor-associated anemia. Possible uses and limitations

Peter Vaupel; DebraK Kelleher; Oliver Thews



Managing Presacral Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Presacral or retrorectal tumors are uncommon. At the Mayo Clinic, a large tertiary care center, only 120 patients with retrorectal\\u000a tumors were seen over a 20-year period (Jao et al. 1985). Uhlig reviewed the medical records of Portland Oregon’s major hospitals\\u000a over a 30-year period prior to 1975 and identified 63 cases, approximately 2 per year in major metropolitan area

Richard M. Devine


Multicentric extramedullary myeloid tumor  

PubMed Central

Granulocytic sarcomas or extramedullary myeloid tumors represent the soft tissue counterpart of acute myeloid leukemia. The term is used for any solid collection of leukemic cells. There have been reports of these tumors occurring before the involvement of blood or bone marrow. Our patient had simultaneous involvement of three sites, which was diagnosed on cytology. Further confirmation was done on peripheral blood and bone marrow evaluation.

Dhingra, Meetu; Radhika, K; Paul, Roshni T; Aruna, Prayaga K



Brain Tumor Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary malignant brain cancer, one of the most deadly diseases, has a high rate of recurrence after treatment. Studies in\\u000a the past several years have led to the hypothesis that the root of the recurrence may be brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs), stem-like\\u000a subpopulation of cells that are responsible for propagating the tumor. Current treatments combining surgery and chemoradiotherapy\\u000a could

Zhigang Xie



Brain tumor stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of brain tumor stem cells is gaining increased recognition in neuro-oncology. Until recently, the paradigm of\\u000a a tumor-initiating stem cell was confined to hematopoietic malignancies where the hierarchical lineages of stem progenitor\\u000a cells are well established. The demonstration of persistent stem cells and cycling progenitors in the adult brain, coupled\\u000a with the expansion of the cancer stem cell

Georgia Panagiotakos; Viviane Tabar



Brain Tumor Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dogma that solid tumors are composed of tumor cells that all share the same ability to produce proliferating daughter\\u000a cells has been challenged in recent years. There is growing evidence that many adult tissues contain a set of tissue stem\\u000a cells, which might undergo malignant transformation while retaining their stem cell characteristics. These include the ability\\u000a of indefinite self-renewal

Christian Nern; Daniel Sommerlad; Till Acker; Karl H. Plate


Intramedullary spinal cord tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  The three most common types of intramedullary spinal cord tumors are low-grade astrocytomas, ependymomas, and high-grade astrocytomas.\\u000a Surgical extirpation is the necessary and sufficient primary treatment for most intramedullary spinal cord tumors. Radiation\\u000a therapy may also have a role in the management of persistent, recurrent, or progressive low-grade astrocytomas and ependymomas.\\u000a The current treatment of spinal cord high-grade astrocytomas,

Daniel C. Bowers; Bradley E. Weprin



Radiology of juxtaglomerular tumors  

SciTech Connect

Nine cases of proven juxtaglomerular tumor of the kidney are reviewed. Each patient presented with hypertension; elevated peripheral renin levels were found in four patients. As in past studies, this tumor occurred more frequently in women (7/9 cases). Although the patients tended to be younger (mean age, 31 years) than those with essential hypertension, all but two patients were more than 20 years of age. In all cases, the tumor was solitary, well-defined, and curable by surgery. The tumor was identified by excretory urography in 5/8 patients who underwent this procedure. A solid renal mass was detected in each of the seven patients examined by ultrasound. Since the tumor tends to be isodense with normal renal parenchyma, it is sometimes not seen on computed tomography without intravenouse contrast material. Arteriography revealed a hypovascular mass in each of the nine patients. The combination of a hypovascular solid renal mass in a patient with elevated renin but no renal artery lesions should suggest the diagnosis of a juxtaglomerular cell tumor.

Dunnick, N.R. (Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC); Hartman, D.S.; Ford, K.K.; Davis, C.J. Jr.; Amis, E.S. Jr.



Automatic brain tumor segmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A system that automatically segments and labels complete glioblastoma-multiform tumor volumes in magnetic resonance images of the human brain is presented. The magnetic resonance images consist of three feature images (T1- weighted, proton density, T2-weighted) and are processed by a system which integrates knowledge-based techniques with multispectral analysis and is independent of a particular magnetic resonance scanning protocol. Initial segmentation is performed by an unsupervised clustering algorithm. The segmented image, along with cluster centers for each class are provided to a rule-based expert system which extracts the intra-cranial region. Multispectral histogram analysis separates suspected tumor from the rest of the intra-cranial region, with region analysis used in performing the final tumor labeling. This system has been trained on eleven volume data sets and tested on twenty-two unseen volume data sets acquired from a single magnetic resonance imaging system. The knowledge-based tumor segmentation was compared with radiologist-verified `ground truth' tumor volumes and results generated by a supervised fuzzy clustering algorithm. The results of this system generally correspond well to ground truth, both on a per slice basis and more importantly in tracking total tumor volume during treatment over time.

Clark, Matthew C.; Hall, Lawrence O.; Goldgof, Dmitry B.; Velthuizen, Robert P.; Murtaugh, F. R.; Silbiger, Martin L.



Lacrimal sac tumors.  


This is a clinicopathologic study of 115 lacrimal sac neoplasms in adults (mean 52 years). The most common presenting signs and symptoms were epiphora (53%), recurrent dacryocystitis (38%), and/or lacrimal sac mass (36%). The tumors were divided into epithelial (82 cases) and nonepithelial (33 cases) neoplasms. Benign epithelial tumors included squamous and transitional cell papillomas (32), oncocytomas (4), and benign mixed tumors (2). The malignant epithelial neoplasms included squamous cell carcinoma (22), transitional cell carcinoma (5), adenocarcinoma (4), mucoepidermoid (3), adenoid cystic (3), and poorly differentiated carcinoma (1). The nonepithelial tumors consisted of fibrous histiocytoma (13), lymphoid lesions (10), malignant melanoma (6), hemangiopericytoma (1), lipoma (1), granulocytic sarcoma (1), and neurofibroma (1). Review of the literature, including our own series, discloses a 55% malignancy rate for tumors originating in the lacrimal sac. Malignant epithelial neoplasms, especially invasive transitional cell carcinoma, often recur locally and can metastasize and be fatal. Epithelial malignancies tend to grow along the epithelium of the lacrimal drainage system, and thus cure is dependent on a wide surgical excision of the tumor and of the entire lacrimal drainage system (canaliculi, sac, and nasolacrimal duct) combined with a lateral rhinostomy and radiation therapy. PMID:7947444

Stefanyszyn, M A; Hidayat, A A; Pe'er, J J; Flanagan, J C



[Tumor metastasis and adhesion molecules].  


Effective prevention of tumor metastasis would be a great contribution to the therapy of malignant tumors. Recent progress in the research of adhesion molecules has revealed that cell adhesion is an essential process in tumor metastasis. In this study, we discuss the possible involvement of adhesion molecules in various steps of tumor metastasis. PMID:8439182

Miyasaka, M; Toyama-Sorimachi, N



Molecular mechanisms of tumor vascularization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor angiogenesis is a fast growing sub-domain of angiogenesis research and tumor biology. Basic mechanisms have been unraveled and many key players identified. For many years, tumor vascularization was explained solely by the ingrowth of new vessels into the tumor from preexisting one's. However, in recent years, additional mechanisms have been recognized. These include angioblasts recruitment, cooption, vasculogenic mimicry and

Patrick Auguste; Sylvie Lemiere; Fréderic Larrieu-Lahargue; Andreas Bikfalvi



Optical imaging of tumor microenvironment  

PubMed Central

Tumor microenvironment plays important roles in tumor development and metastasis. Features of the tumor microenvironment that are significantly different from normal tissues include acidity, hypoxia, overexpressed proteases and so on. Therefore, these features can serve as not only biomarkers for tumor diagnosis but also theraputic targets for tumor treatment. Imaging modalities such as optical, positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been intensively applied to investigate tumor microenvironment. Various imaging probes targeting pH, hypoxia and proteases in tumor microenvironment were thus well developed. In this review, we will focus on recent examples on fluorescent probes for optical imaging of tumor microenvironment. Construction of these fluorescent probes were based on characteristic feature of pH, hypoxia and proteases in tumor microenvironment. Strategies for development of these fluorescent probes and applications of these probes in optical imaging of tumor cells or tissues will be discussed in this review paper.

Wu, Yihan; Zhang, Wenjie; Li, Jinbo; Zhang, Yan



Treatment of superior sulcus tumor (Pancoast tumor).  


It appears that combined preoperative radiation and surgery continue to offer the best survival results in patients with superior sulcus tumors. Patients with involvement of the brachial plexus, Horner's syndrome, rib invasion, and ipsilateral neck node metastases are still candidates for combined modality therapy, with expectations of survival of about 30 to 40 per cent. However, those presenting with invasion of vertebrae, involvement of subclavian vessels, and mediastinal lymph node metastases do poorly. In this latter group, treatment by high-dose external radiation alone may prove to be as effective as combined modality treatment. PMID:3629433

Hilaris, B S; Martini, N; Wong, G Y; Nori, D



Molecular heterogeneity of tumor endothelium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumors depend on a vascular supply for their growth. Tumor blood vessels, which are derived from normal tissue vasculature,\\u000a display a markedly abnormal phenotype. Tumor endothelial properties are highly varied in space and time. An important goal\\u000a is to delineate the range of phenotypes in tumor endothelium and to identify tumor endothelial-specific molecular signatures.\\u000a This information should lead to a

William C. Aird



[Malignant odontogenic tumors].  


Malignant odontogenic tumors are extremely rare. As with benign odontogenic tumors, malignant epithelial odontogenic tumors or odontogenic carcinomas are distinguished from the even rarer mesenchymal ones, the odontogenic sarcomas. The existence of odontogenic carcinosarcomas is not yet acknowledged by the World Health Organization. Odontogenic carcinomas comprise ameloblastic carcinoma (AmCa), primary intraosseous carcinoma (PIOC), clear cell odontogenic carcinoma, odontogenic ghost cell carcinoma (OGCC), and the special case of metastasizing ameloblastoma. Odontogenic sarcomas consist of ameloblastic fibrosarcoma and ameloblastic fibrodentinosarcoma and fibroodontosarcoma. Whereas metastasizing ameloblastoma can be diagnosed only after having metastasized, all other malignant odontogenic tumors present with atypia, increased cellularity and mitoses, and invasion. Odontogenic sarcomas are regarded as low-grade tumors that rarely metastasize. Odontogenic carcinomas, however, especially AmCa, OGCC, and PIOC, are more aggressive, with a 5-year survival rate of about 70% for AmCa and OGCC and a 3-year survival rate of about 37% for PIOC. Radical surgery, eventually in combination with radiotherapy, is the treatment of choice. PMID:18392827

Jundt, G; Reichart, P A



Induction of tumor resistance with BCG-associated tumor antigen.  


Soluble material enriched in tumor-associated antigen was prepared by affinity chromatography from a KCl extract of the chemically-induced D-23 rat hepatoma. Microgram quantities of the above material bound spontaneously to living BCG when the two were incubated briefly in vitro. When injected into normal syngeneic rats, the BCG-associated tumor antigen induced a measure of resistance against challenge with D-23 tumor cells. Peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) obtained from such actively immunized subjects were able to suppress the growth of D-23 tumor cells at a test site in muscle. In contrast, immunization with either BCG alone, tumor protein alone, or tumor protein admixed with BCG in circumstances designed to impede association of the protein, failed to provoke the formation of tumor suppressor PEC. The results encourage of the belief that binding of tumor antigen to BCG favors the induction of a cell-mediated tumor suppressive response. PMID:200576

Crum, E D; McGregor, D D



Tumor metabolism as modulator of immune response and tumor progression.  


About a century ago Otto Warburg observed that tumor cells exhibited increased glycolysis despite the presence of oxygen and stated this metabolic shift to glycolysis as the origin of cancer cell. In the meantime it has become clear, that the altered glucose metabolism is only one piece of the tumor metabolome puzzle. In addition, amino acid, lipid and adenosine metabolism are adapted to fulfill the tumors needs for energy and generation of building blocks such as lipids and nucleotides for new cell structures. The altered tumor metabolism leads to accumulation of specific metabolites in the tumor environment and creates a favorable milieu for tumor growth, progression and metastasis. These tumor-derived metabolites are important players in immune escape mechanisms beside other known factors such as cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. A variety of metabolites re-educate immune cells and prevent an effective immune response against tumor cells. Furthermore, tumor infiltrating immune cells support tumor growth by the secretion of cytokines, growth factors and other metabolic determinants. Hence, a complex interplay of tumor metabolites, cytokines and stromal factors is active in tumors and facilitates their establishment and growth. Pharmacological blockade of tumor metabolites could overcome some limitations of cancer treatment and rescue the endogenous immune response against tumor cells. PMID:22414910

Gottfried, Eva; Kreutz, Marina; Mackensen, Andreas



Tumor-induced osteomalacia  

PubMed Central

Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is an acquired disorder of isolated renal phosphate wasting associated with tumors, typically of mesenchymal origin. Patients with TIO share similar biochemical and skeletal phenotypes with patients who have autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (ADHR) and X-linked hypophosphatemia. The study of TIO introduced the idea of the existence of circulating factors, referred to as ‘phosphatonins’, produced by the tumor, which act upon the kidney to reduce phosphate reabsorption. Although several factors have been identified, the phosphatonin FGF-23, also identified as the causative factor in ADHR, is currently the best characterized of these factors relative to phosphate handling. This review describes the importance of TIO in understanding phosphate homeostasis in the context of new endocrine interactions between the skeleton and the kidney.

Farrow, Emily G; White, Kenneth E



Mouse liver tumors  

SciTech Connect

The author discusses the conference of the European Society of Toxicology's question of why the mouse liver is more prone to ''spontaneous'' tumors than many other organs or the liver of other species. The significance of an increase in this tumor incidence by chemical compounds with respect to man, where, at least in most countries, a high incidence of liver tumors does not exist, is thoroughly discussed. The problems are comprehensively dealt with, from the biological and pathological manifestations to the molecular basis, with respect to carcinogen metabolizing enzymes, DNA damage and its repair, as well as to the role of oncogenes in spontaneous liver tumorigenesis in mice. Modifying factors such as diet, ageing, and hormones are considered. The collected information is evaluated and the scientific findings placed in context to human cancer risk.

Chambers, P.L.; Henschler, D.; Oesch, F.



Gastrointestinal stromal tumor  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal stromal tumor has received a lot of attention over the last 10 years due to its unique biologic behavior, clinicopathological features, molecular mechanisms, and treatment implications. GIST is the most common mesenchymal neoplasm in the gastrointestinal tract and has emerged from a poorly understood and treatment resistant neoplasm to a well-defined tumor entity since the discovery of particular molecular abnormalities, KIT and PDGFRA gene mutations. The understanding of GIST biology at the molecular level promised the development of novel treatment modalities. Diagnosis of GIST depends on the integrity of histology, immunohistochemistry and molecular analysis. The risk assessment of the tumor behavior relies heavily on pathological evaluation and significantly impacts clinical management. In this review, historic review, epidemiology, pathogenesis and genetics, diagnosis, role of molecular analysis, prognostic factor and treatment strategies have been discussed.

Yue, Changjun



Pott's puffy tumor.  


Pott's Puffy tumor is a rare clinical entity characterized by subperiosteal abscess associated with osteomyelitis. It is usually seen as a complication of frontal sinusitis or trauma predominantly in the adolescent age group. Pott's Puffy tumor can be associated with cortical vein thrombosis, epidural abscess, subdural empyema, and brain abscess. The cause of vein thrombosis is explained by venous derange of the frontal sinus, which occurs through diplopic veins, which communicate with the dural venous plexus; septic thrombi can potentially evolve from foci within the frontal sinus and propagate through this venous system. An apparently healthy 7-year-old girl presented to the emergency service of otolaryngology with complaints of swelling of forehead and periorbital zone, headache, chills, fever, and rhinorrhea. The patient described in this case report had 2 important complications of paranasal sinus disease: the relatively common complication of postseptal cellulites and the less common complication of Pott's Puffy tumor. PMID:19098585

Karaman, Emin; Hacizade, Yusif; Isildak, Huseyin; Kaytaz, Asim



Adenosine promotes tumor metastasis.  


An early step in tumor metastasis is a reduction in cell-cell adhesion to enable cell scattering. Contacts between cells are stabilized by accumulation in the plasma membrane of the small guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) Rap1B. The membrane localization of Rap1B is increased when it is posttranslationally modified by prenylation of its C-terminal Cys-Ala-Ala-X motif. A new study shows that Rap1B prenylation and plasma membrane localization were reduced when Rap1B was phosphorylated by protein kinase A (PKA). In some tumors, high adenosine production and an abundance of G(s)-coupled adenosine A(2B) receptors would be expected to cause persistent PKA signaling and reduced Rap1B prenylation. These findings suggest that adenosine signaling reduces prenylation and plasma membrane localization of Rap1B, resulting in enhanced tumor cell scattering and invasiveness. PMID:23716715

Linden, Joel



Bilateral Wilms' tumor  

SciTech Connect

Twenty children with bilateral Wilms' tumor were presented to the Children's Hospital Medical Center and Children's Cancer Research Foundation, Sidney Farber Cancer Institute, and Joint Center for Radiation Therapy (CHMC-CCRF, SFCI, JCRT) from January 1, 1956 to December 31, 1976. Of these 20, 16 had simultaneous and 4 had metachronous disease on presentation. All patients were treated with surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. Of the 16 patients with simultaneous disease, 10 (63%) are alive and free of disease 12+ to 175+ months post diagnosis and treatment, with median follow-up of 121 months. There were no long-term survivors in the metachronous group; all were dead of disease within 21 months from initial presentation of original tumor. With these data we relate prognosis to extent of disease and discuss a general approach to the management of bilateral Wilms' tumor.

Malcolm, A.W.; Jaffe, N.; Folkman, M.J.; Cassady, J.R.



Conjunctival Stromal Tumor  

PubMed Central

Purpose To describe the clinical, histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural features of a case series of benign stromal tumors in the bulbar conjunctiva. Design Observational case series. Participants Four patients with a conjunctival lesion that were classified histologically as low grade stromal tumors consisting of spindle-shaped cells with occasional pseudonuclear inclusion and multinucleated cells in a partly myxoid matrix. Methods Four cases of low grade conjunctival stromal tumors were retrospectively identified in an ophthalmic pathology laboratory database. Patients’ records were analyzed for demographic data, clinical appearance and the post-operative course. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens were routinely processed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and periodic acid Schiff (PAS). Immunohistochemical stains for vimentin, S100, CD34, SMA (smooth muscle actin), CD68, and factor XIIIa were performed. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed on three of the cases. Main Outcome Measures Histopathologic evaluation (including immunostains and TEM) and clinical correlation. Results All four tumors occurred in the bulbar conjunctiva of patients between 41 to 53 years of age. None of the patients developed recurrence after excisional biopsy. Histologically, all tumors exhibited spindle-shaped cells with pseudonuclear inclusions and occasional multinuclear cells. Mitotic figures were not observed. The stroma appeared myxoid to collagenous. Immunohistochemical stains were positive for CD34, vimentin, and focally for CD68, but were negative for S100 and SMA. Conclusions We propose to classify these benign lesions which share distinct histopathologic features as “conjunctival stromal tumor (COST)”. A reactive/inflammatory component needs to be considered in the pathogenesis of this lesion.

Herwig, Martina C.; Wells, Jill R.; Grossniklaus, Hans E.



Radiation therapy: retinal tumors.  


The major retinal tumor that requires radiotherapy (RT) is retinoblastoma (RB); to a lesser degree, RT is used for some cases of retinal capillary hemangioma and lymphoma of the retina. Although there are concerns about the risk of RT-induced second malignancy in patients who carry a germline mutation in the RB1 gene, RT remains a very important part of our approach to intra-ocular and extra-ocular RB. Technical innovations in RT allow more precise targeting of retinal tumors and decreased exposure of adjacent normal tissue, an advance that is particularly significant for patients with hereditary RB who are at risk of additional malignancies. PMID:23989127

Sethi, Roshan V; MacDonald, Shannon M; Kim, David Y; Mukai, Shizuo



Gastrointestinal stromal tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  We reviewed radiologic features of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) and correlated them with clinical and pathologic\\u000a findings.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We investigated a series of 39 c-Kit–positive GISTs. Clinical and radiologic findings and management of these patients were\\u000a recorded.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Twenty women and 19 men (mean age 64 years) had histologically proved GIST. Tumor locations were the small bowel (n = 20), stomach (n

A. Darnell; E. Dalmau; C. Pericay; E. Musulén; J. Martín; J. Puig; A. Malet; E. Saigí; M. Rey



Rare ovarian tumors in childhood.  


Between 1972 and 1990 44 patients with ovarian tumors were treated at the Department of Pediatric Surgery of the University of Heidelberg. 27 patients (61%) suffered from tumor-like lesions: neonatal, pubertal (functional) cysts, and cysts in case of syndromes. 17 genuine tumors were found (39%): 8 germ-cell tumors, 7 cystomas respectively cystadenomas and 2 tumors of the gonadal stroma. Malignancy has been observed only in two cases: 1 malignant teratoma and 1 malignant granulosa-theca-cell tumor. 2 tumor-like lesions were caused by syndromes: Albright-McCune-Sternberg- and Stein-Leventhal syndrome: Treatment of uncommon tumors depends on their size, hormonal activity, on the syndromes with which they are associated, and on the tumor status. PMID:1657126

Roth, H; Daum, R; Benz, G; Schäfer, K



Mouse Models for Tumor Metastasis  

PubMed Central

Tumor metastasis is the main cause of death of cancer patients. Here we describe two mouse models for investigating tumor metastasis. In the first spontaneous metastasis mouse model, 4T1 mouse breast tumor cells are injected into the mammary gland of host mice and the metastasis of 4T1 tumor cells into the lung are examined with a colonogenic assay. In the second experimental metastasis mouse model, luciferase-labeled MDA-MB-231 human breast tumor cells are injected into the tail vein of NOD-SCID immunodeficient mice and the colonization of MDA-MB-231 tumor cells in the lung are monitored using noninvasive bioluminescence imaging.

Yang, Shengyu; Zhang, J. Jillian; Huang, Xin-Yun



[Solid pseudopapillary epithelial pancreatic tumor].  


Solid pseudopapillary pancreatic neoplasm-is a tumor, which appears rarely, predominantly in young women, has low malignant potential and unknown histogenesis. Morphological peculiarities of the tumor may be the same as in endocrinal tumors and ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma, with which it must be differed. Immunohistochemical investigation of the tumor does not permit to obtain information for strict diferential diagnosis conduction; macroscopic and microscopic peculiarities of the tumor while staining with hematoxilin and eosin give more important information for its diagnosis. The treatment is surgical and consists of radical resection of the tumor. PMID:19957740

Kuryk, O H; Kucher, M D; Iakovenko, V O; Kriuchyna, Ie A



Tumor necrosis factor signaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single mouse click on the topic tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in PubMed reveals about 50 000 articles providing one or the other information about this pleiotropic cytokine or its relatives. This demonstrates the enormous scientific and clinical interest in elucidating the biology of a molecule (or rather a large family of molecules), which began now almost 30 years ago

H Wajant; K Pfizenmaier; P Scheurich



Pediatric Extradural Spinal Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have reviewed 16 children with extradural spinal tumors, both benign and malignant, treated from 1998 to 2006 in Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India. The duration of symptomatology, clinical signs, radiological investigations, surgical approach, outcome and histopathological variation from the Western world was noted and evaluated. The age of these children ranged from 3 to 20

Raj Kumar; Pramod J. Giri



Brain Tumor Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancers are composed of heterogeneous cell popula- tions ranging from highly proliferative immature cells to more dif- ferentiated cells of various cell lineages. Recent advances in stem cell research have allowed for the demonstration of the existence of cancer stem cells in acute myeloid leukemia, breast cancer, and, most recently, in brain tumors. Each of these has some similarities with




Pediatric orbital tumors.  


The proper management of orbital tumors in children requires a knowledge of the lesions commonly seen in this area, in addition to the appropriate methods of investigation and treatment. A multidisciplinary approach is most beneficial in obtaining the desired results. PMID:2829096

Stefanyszyn, M A; Handler, S D; Wright, J E



Putting Tumors in Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interactions between cancer cells and their micro- and macroenvironment create a context that promotes tumor growth and protects it from immune attack. The functional association of cancer cells with their surrounding tissues forms a new 'organ' that changes as malignancy progresses. Investigation of this process might provide new insights into the mechanisms of tumorigenesis and could also lead to

Mina Bissell; Derek Radisky



Vaccination Against Tumor Cells Expressing Breast Cancer Epithelial Tumor Antigen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety-one percent of breast tumors aberrantly express an epithelial tumor antigen (ETA) identified by monoclonal antibody H23. Vaccinia virus recombinants expressing tumor antigens have considerable promise in the active immunotherapy of cancer, and we have evaluated the potential of vaccinia recombinants expressing the secreted (S) and cell-associated (transmembrane, T) forms of H23 ETA to elicit immunity to tumor cells expressing

Mara Hareuveni; Claudie Gautier; Marie-Paule Kieny; Daniel Wreschner; Pierre Chambon; Richard Lathe



Correlation between tumor angiogenesis and invasiveness in thymic epithelial tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Because it is difficult to predict the behavior of thymomas on the basis of morphology alone, other methods for determining tumor aggressiveness must be explored. This study investigated the correlation between angiogenic grade and invasiveness in thymic epithelial tumors. Methods: Immunohistochemical studies of 46 surgically resected thymic epithelial tumors (18 noninvasive thymomas, 20 invasive thymomas, and 8 thymic carcinomas)

Masaki Tomita; Yasunori Matsuzaki; Masao Edagawa; Masayuki Maeda; Tetsuya Shimizu; Masaki Hara; Toshio Onitsuka



Tumores de Cólon - Primeir o Achado do Adenocarcinoma de Pâncreas: Relato de Caso Colon Tumors - First find of the Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: Case Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: OBJETIVO: Relatar um caso raro de adenocarcinoma de pâncreas que se apresentou como tumores colorretais sincrônicos. Paciente masculino, 76 anos, apresentava dor abdominal difusa de forte intensidade, diarréia e vômitos há sete dias. Tratava de gastrite há dois anos e nos últimos quatro meses apresentava hiporexia e perda de peso. Estava emagrecido, desidra- tado e desnutrido, com distensão abdominal




Tumor Promotion in Rat Liver.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An initiation promotion bioassay for chemical carcinogens and tumor promoters has been developed in rat liver using presumed preneoplastic lesions, foci of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGTase)-positive hepatocytes, as the endpoint. To evaluate the tumor-...

S. L. Herren M. A. Pereira



Compendium of Tumor Immunotherapy Protocols.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the sixth edition of the Compendium of Tumor Immunotherapy Protocols, a publication sponsored by the International Cancer Research Data Bank, National Cancer Institute, and published on an annual basis by the International Registry of Tumor Immuno...



Novel Breast Tumor Metalloproteinase Inhibitor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMP) are a family of enzymes that degrade the extracellular matrix. Modulation of MMP activity may attenuate the invasiveness of some tumors. MMP activity may also be involved in breast tumor fibrosis because the balance of conn...

M. J. Banda




PubMed Central

A series of experiments was undertaken in an attempt to transplant rabbit tumors to animals of alien species using the anterior chamber of the eye as an inoculation site. The uterine tumor H-31 and the breast tumors T-36 and B-240 were successfully transplanted to all the various animals tried, including guinea pigs, swine, goats, and sheep, and the H-31 and T-36 tumors were maintained by serial transfer in the two first species. On the other hand, all attempts to transfer the Brown-Pearce tumor to guinea pigs were unsuccessful. The growth characteristics of the transplanted tumors were generally similar to those observed in the natural host, but noteworthy exceptions occurred. The tumors obtained a blood supply from the foreign host and invaded the periorbital tissues but did not metastasize. Histologically, the cellular morphology of the rabbit tumors was retained, but variations in parenchymal-stromal relations characterized the form of growth in different species.

Greene, Harry S. N.



Inhibiting Tumor Angiogenesis in Children

In this trial, researchers are testing an angiogenesis inhibitor called cediranib in pediatric patients who have solid tumors (except brain tumors) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a type of blood cancer.


Pericytes limit tumor cell metastasis  

PubMed Central

Previously we observed that neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) deficiency in ? tumor cells facilitates metastasis into distant organs and local lymph nodes. Here, we show that NCAM-deficient ? cell tumors grew leaky blood vessels with perturbed pericyte-endothelial cell-cell interactions and deficient perivascular deposition of ECM components. Conversely, tumor cell expression of NCAM in a fibrosarcoma model (T241) improved pericyte recruitment and increased perivascular deposition of ECM molecules. Together, these findings suggest that NCAM may limit tumor cell metastasis by stabilizing the microvessel wall. To directly address whether pericyte dysfunction increases the metastatic potential of solid tumors, we studied ? cell tumorigenesis in primary pericyte-deficient Pdgfbret/ret mice. This resulted in ? tumor cell metastases in distant organs and local lymph nodes, demonstrating a role for pericytes in limiting tumor cell metastasis. These data support a new model for how tumor cells trigger metastasis by perturbing pericyte-endothelial cell-cell interactions.

Xian, Xiaojie; Hakansson, Joakim; Stahlberg, Anders; Lindblom, Per; Betsholtz, Christer; Gerhardt, Holger; Semb, Henrik



Endocrine Tumors: Diagnosis, Treatment, Pathophysiology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Cancergram covers the clinical aspects of endocrine gland tumors, including detection, diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment. The Cancergram also offers selective coverage of the epidemiology and etiology of endocrine tumors, and related preclinic...



Endocrine Tumors: Diagnosis, Treatment, Pathophysiology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Cancergram covers the clinical aspects of endocrine gland tumors, including detection, diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment. The Cancergram also offers selective coverage of the epidemiology and etiology, of endocrine tumors, and related preclini...



Atypical Teratoid Rhaboid Tumor (ATRT)  


... Tumor (ATRT) Bone and Connective Tissue Brain Cysts Choroid Plexus Craniopharyngioma Ependymoma Germ Cell Glioblastoma Gliomas Hemangioma ... Tumor (ATRT) Bone and Connective Tissue Brain Cysts Choroid Plexus Craniopharyngioma Ependymoma Germ Cell Glioblastoma Gliomas Hemangioma ...


Bone and Connective Tissue Tumors  


... Tumor (ATRT) Bone and Connective Tissue Brain Cysts Choroid Plexus Craniopharyngioma Ependymoma Germ Cell Glioblastoma Gliomas Hemangioma ... Tumor (ATRT) Bone and Connective Tissue Brain Cysts Choroid Plexus Craniopharyngioma Ependymoma Germ Cell Glioblastoma Gliomas Hemangioma ...


Treatment resistance of solid tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypoxia is a characteristic property of locally advanced solid tumors, resulting from an imbalance between the supply and\\u000a consumption of oxygen. Major pathogenetic mechanisms for the development of hypoxia are (1) structural and functional abnormalities\\u000a of the tumor microvasculature, (2) increased diffusion distances, and (3) tumor-associated and therapy-induced anemia. The\\u000a oxygenation status is independent of clinical tumor size, stage, grade,

Peter Vaupel; Oliver Thews; Michael Hoeckel



PET Imaging of Brain Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of primary brain tumors is ~ 11:100,000 of the population. In the year 2006, ~ 18,820 new cases of brain and\\u000a other nervous system tumors were diagnosed in the United States [1] and these tumors were the cause of death in ~ 12,820 patients.\\u000a Despite advances in diagnosis and therapy, the prognosis for patients with primary brain tumors

Alan J. Fischman


Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pancreatic endocrine tumors are rare neoplasms accounting for less than 5% of pancreatic malignancies. They are broadly classified\\u000a into either functioning tumors (insulinomas, gastrinomas, glucagonomas, VIPomas, and somatostatinomas) or nonfunctioning tumors.\\u000a The diagnosis of these tumors is difficult and requires a careful history and examination combined with laboratory tests and\\u000a radiologic imaging. Signs and symptoms are usually related to hormone

Karen Davies; Kevin C. Conlon



Tumor Microenvironment in the Brain  

PubMed Central

In addition to malignant cancer cells, tumors contain a variety of different stromal cells that constitute the tumor microenvironment. Some of these cell types provide crucial support for tumor growth, while others have been suggested to actually inhibit tumor progression. The composition of tumor microenvironment varies depending on the tumor site. The brain in particular consists of numerous specialized cell types such as microglia, astrocytes, and brain endothelial cells. In addition to these brain-resident cells, primary and metastatic brain tumors have also been shown to be infiltrated by different populations of bone marrow-derived cells. The role of different cell types that constitute tumor microenvironment in the progression of brain malignancies is only poorly understood. Tumor microenvironment has been shown to be a promising therapeutic target and diagnostic marker in extracranial malignancies. A better understanding of tumor microenvironment in the brain would therefore be expected to contribute to the development of improved therapies for brain tumors that are urgently required due to a poor availability of treatments for these malignancies. This review summarizes some of the known interactions between brain tumors and different stromal cells, and also discusses potential therapeutic approaches within this context.

Lorger, Mihaela




Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional imaging techniques, such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MR), are of immeasurable assistance in the diagnosis and characterization of primary intracranial tumors. Factors which can be accurately deduced via these techniques includes the location, size, mass effect and edema associated with brain tumors; usually a differential diagnosis of tumor type can be generated based on characteristics

Ferenc A. Jolesz


Assessing Tumor Response to Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most anticancer drugs are effective only in subgroups of pa- tients, and our current understanding of tumor biology does not allow us to predict accurately which patient will benefit from a specific therapeutic regimen. Various techniques have, therefore, been developed for monitoring tumor response to therapy, but measuring tumor shrinkage on CT represents the current standard. Although response assessment on

Wolfgang A. Weber


The History of Tumor Virology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the century since its inception, the field of tumor virology has provided groundbreaking insights into the causes of human cancer. Peyton Rous founded this scientific field in 1911 by discovering an avian virus that induced tumors in chickens; however, it took 40years for the scientific community to comprehend the effect of this seminal finding. Later identification of mammalian tumor

Ronald T. Javier; Janet S. Butel


Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor of the maxilla (Pindborg tumor).  


Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT), or the Pindborg tumor, is very rare neoplasm, which accounts up to 1% of all odontogenic tumors. These tumors involve mandible almost twice as common as the maxillary bone, mostly in the premolar and molar region and present at first with local swelling. There is no gender predilection and the tumor usually appears between 2nd and 6th decade of life. We report the case of a 36-year-old male patient with a Pindborg tumor in the maxillary region on the right side, also involving the adjacent maxillary sinus, with destroying of the local anatomical structures. Complete surgical excision of the tumor has been performed and four years after surgical treatment, there is no sign of recurrence. PMID:23397788

Müller, Danko; Manojlovi?, Spomenka; Luksi?, Ivica; Grgurevi?, Jaksa



Tumor metastasis to bone  

PubMed Central

Establishment of skeletal metastasis involves bidirectional interactions between the tumor cell and the cellular elements in the bone microenvironment. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of bone metastasis will be critical in developing the means to prevent bone metastasis or inhibit its progression. The receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B (RANK)/RANK ligand pathway has emerged as the key pathway regulating osteolysis in skeletal metastasis. A number of candidate factors, including the Wnt (wingless int) proteins, endothelin-1, and bone morphogenetic proteins, have been implicated in the establishment of osteoblastic metastasis. The complex nature of tumor-bone microenvironment interactions and the presence of multiple pathways that lead to bone metastasis suggests that simultaneous targeting of these pathways in the metastatic cascade are required for effective treatment. This review discusses current understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms that underlie the establishment of bone metastasis and potential molecular therapeutic strategies for prevention and treatment of bone metastasis.

Virk, Mandeep S; Lieberman, Jay R



Tumors of the thymus.  


Thymic neoplasms are a common cause of an anterior mediastinal mass and may be benign or malignant. Thymic cysts are congenital or acquired and may be associated with a thymic malignancy. True thymic hyperplasia and thymic lymphoid hyperplasia may enlarge the thymus and simulate a neoplasm. Thymoma and thymic carcinoma are epithelial malignancies with distinct clinicopathologic features. Thymic carcinoid is a rare aggressive neuroendocrine malignancy associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia 1. Thymolipoma is a benign neoplasm. Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma may primarily or secondarily involve the thymus. Primary mediastinal germ cell tumors may arise primarily within the thymus and include mature teratoma, seminoma, and non-seminomatous malignant germ cell tumors. PMID:10404501

Strollo, D C; Rosado-de-Christenson, M L



Notch tumor suppressor function  

PubMed Central

Cancer development results from deregulated control of stem cell populations and alterations in their surrounding environment. Notch signaling is an important form of direct cell-cell communication involved in cell fate determination, stem cell potential and lineage commitment. The biological function of this pathway is critically context-dependent. Here we review the pro-differentiation role and tumor suppressing function of this pathway, as revealed by loss of function in keratinocytes and skin, downstream of p53 and in cross-connection with other determinants of stem cell potential and/or tumor formation, like p63 and Rho/CDC42 effectors. The possibility that Notch signaling elicits a duality of signals, involved in growth/differentiation control and cell survival will be discussed, in the context of novel approaches for cancer therapy.

Dotto, G. Paolo



Pulmonary Tumor Embolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 36-year-old woman with breast cancer was admitted with shortness of breath. A computed tomography angiogram was obtained\\u000a and was negative for pulmonary embolism. She quickly developed hypoxemic respiratory failure and was transferred to the intensive\\u000a care unit. She appeared to be improving when she suffered sudden cardiac death. Autopsy showed extensive lymphatic and vascular\\u000a tumor emboli, which were the

Matthew Lammi; John Wurzel; Gerard J. Criner



Imaging of Mediastinal Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mediastinum comprises the region extending from the thoracic inlet to the diaphragm in the central thorax, interposed\\u000a between the two pleural cavities [1]. Tradi - tionally, the mediastinum is separated into three compartments (anterior, middle\\u000a and posterior) as a classification scheme, since various tumor types are more common in certain locations. These compartments\\u000a are not actual anatomic locations divided

Scott Moore; Hetal Dave-Verma; Ajay Singh


Cervical Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background.Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are rare and potentially aggressive malignancies.Case. A 24-year-old woman in her eighth week of pregnancy presented with a cervical mass. Tissue biopsy demonstrated poorly differentiated carcinosarcoma with neuroendocrine features. Immunohistochemical studies confirmed the diagnosis of PNET. Treatment included alternating courses of cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine (CAV) and ifosfamide, etoposide (IE). A radical hysterectomy with bilateral ovarian transposition

Anne S. Tsao; Lawrence M. Roth; Alan Sandler; Jean A. Hurteau



[Epidemiology of lung tumors].  


Approximately one out of 500 chest radiographs shows the incidental finding of a solitary pulmonary nodule and almost one half of these pulmonary lesions are caused by a tumor. Unfortunately, only 2% to 5% of all lung tumors are of benign origin, e. g. lipoma, fibroma, hamartoma, and chondroma, and the majority are malignant neoplasms, most commonly primary lung cancer followed by metastases of extrapulmonary primary carcinomas. Thus, a careful diagnostic work up of solitary pulmonary nodules, including histological diagnosis, is mandatory for an adequate management and treatment of patients with pulmonary lesions. Despite all recent improvements of treatment modalities, lung cancer continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality among malignant diseases worldwide. The prognosis of affected patients is still very poor and a 5-years survival rate of only 14% makes lung cancer the number one cause of death due to cancer in Switzerland. Active and passive tobacco smoking are by far the best known risk factor for the development of lung cancer, but there are severe other probably less known factors that may increase the individual risk for malignant neoplasms of the lung. These risk factors include e. g. exposure to natural ionic radiation, consisting of terrestrial radiation and indoor radiation caused by radon gas, exposure to respirable dust and Diesel engine emissions, asbestos, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In the majority of cases, the latency between exposure and development of cancer is years to decades and the person concerned was occupationally exposed. Therefore, a detailed evaluation of a patient's medical and occupational history is needed. Due to its poor prognosis, prevention and early diagnosis of lung cancer is crucial to improve our patients' outcome. Good knowledge of epidemiology and aetiology of pulmonary tumors is the key to preventive measures and identification of individuals at increased risk for lung cancer. An overview will be provided on the epidemiology of lung tumors and predominantly preventable risk factors for lung cancer. PMID:22753285

Ott, S; Geiser, T



Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 60 years, basic scientists, pathologists, and clinical investigators have studied gastrointestinal stromal tumors\\u000a (GISTs), with no major advances in patient care. Recent discoveries have led to an understanding of the biological role of\\u000a Kit in GISTs and the development of one of the most exciting examples of targeted therapy to date. The success of the Kit\\u000a tyrosine

Dejka M. Steinert; Jonathan Trent


[Gastrointestinal stromal tumors].  


Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are generally found in the stomach or small intestine and less commonly in the colon or rectum. Complete surgical removal remains the best current therapy for GISTs. The treatment of advanced GIST patients is with imatinib, a selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor. In our series, 23 patients observed between 1994 and 2004 and affected by GIST were treated with complete negative margin resections (three cases by laparoscopy). PMID:16437933

Eccher, C; Famà, R; Berlanda, G; Silvestri, M; Prezzi, C


Peripheral Nerve Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Peripheral nerve tumors (PNTs) are rare soft tissue lesions that can arise anywhere on the body and as a result have a wide\\u000a differential diagnosis, which is often confirmed to be a PNT only at surgery. PNTs occur both sporadically and within the\\u000a context of genetically predisposing syndromes; hence, a thorough history of the mass and associated symptoms, with a

Joseph Wiley; Asis Kumar Bhattacharyya; Gelareh Zadeh; Patrick Shannon; Abhijit Guha


Connective tissue tumors.  


Connective tissue consists of collagen, elastic fibers and ground substances produced by fibrocytes. These cells are usually spindle-shaped with slender nuclei and bipolar cytoplasmic extensions. Apart from labeling for vimentin and variable reactivity for factor XIIIa and CD34, fibrocytes are immunonegative. Electron microscopy reveals prominent endoplasmic reticulum, but is otherwise indistinct. Lesions with fibrocytic differentiation can be divided into five categories: scars, keloids, dermatofibromas, nodular fasciitis, and superficial fibromatoses are inflammatory lesions. Thereby, dermatofibromas and their subcutaneous/deep soft tissue counterpart nodular fasciitis can present with a wide variety of clinicopathologic variants which may be misinterpreted as malignancies. Prurigo nodularis, chondrodermatitis nodularis helicis, acanthoma fissuratum, and knuckle pads are hyperplasias; fibroma molle, fibrous papules, connective tissue nevi, and elastofibroma are hamartomas; and fibroma of tendon sheath, pleomorphic fibroma, and giant cell tumor of tendon sheath are benign neoplasms. Deep fibromatoses, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, giant cell fibroblastoma, giant cell angiofibroma, hyalinizing spindle cell tumor with giant rosettes, solitary fibrous tumor, myxofibrosarcoma, low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma, acral myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma, and classical fibrosarcoma, are malignant neoplasms, that is fibrosarcomas of variable malignant potential. Lesions dominated by myocytes/ myofibroblasts, e.g. cutaneous myofibroma/infantile myofibromatosis, or by macrophages, e.g. xanthogranulomas, are not part of this chapter. PMID:12079232

Zelger, Bernhard



Tumor Targeting Peptides for Cytotoxic Chemotherapy Delivery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tumors cannot grow without a blood supply. The distinct characteristics of tumor vasculature make it possible to design therapeutic agents that specifically target the tumor, but not normal blood vessels. Identifying tools for therapeutic tumor targeting ...

K. Porkka



Odontogenic Tumor Markers - An Overview  

PubMed Central

The practice of pathology is currently undergoing significant change, due to advances in the field of molecular pathology. Tumor markers are molecules that help the pathologists for confirmatory diagnosis of histopathologically confounding lesions. Odontogenic tumors are relatively rare with estimated incidence of less than 0.5 cases/ 100,000 population per year. Odontogenic tumors can pose diagnostic challenges because of overlapping histology. But, appropriate diagnosis is crucial as their treatment modality and prognosis differ; in these situations tumor markers can be helpful. But lack of comprehensive literature on specific markers for odontogenic tumors imposes pathologists to think aimlessly about various markers to arrive at an appropriate diagnosis. With this background, it is our attempt at compiling diagnostically important odontogenic tumor markers. Also, a note is added on tumor behaviour studies in common clinically important odontogenic tumors: Ameloblastoma and Keratocystic odontogenic tumor. How to cite this article: Premalatha B R, Patil S, Rao R S, Reddy N P, Indu M. Odontogenic Tumor Markers - An Overview. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(2):65-75. How to cite this article: Premalatha B R, Patil S, Rao R S, Reddy N P, Indu M. Odontogenic Tumor Markers - An Overview. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(2):65-75

Premalatha, B R; Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S; Reddy, Narendranatha P; Indu, M



Tumor size: effect on monoclonal antibody uptake in tumor models  

SciTech Connect

Studies were performed to determine the effect of tumor size on the incorporation of radiolabeled monoclonal antitumor antibodies (MoAbs) into human tumors growing in nude mice. The colon tumors ranged in size from 0.03-1.6 g, the melanoma from 0.1 to 6.7 g, and the lymphoma from 0.06 to 10.2 g. Indium-111 was primarily used as the radiolabel, however, both 125I and 111In were used as tracers for the MoAb in one experiment. The per g radiopharmaceutical uptake by tumors was inversely proportional to tumor size when tumor specific MoAb was administered. This finding was independent of the radiolabel and was demonstrable when the mice bore two tumors of differing size. When the MoAb was not specific for the tumor, the data were less well defined and a statistically significant correlation with size did not occur. These data are strong evidence for a decrease in per g uptake of labeled tumor specific antibodies as tumors increase in size.

Hagan, P.L.; Halpern, S.E.; Dillman, R.O.; Shawler, D.L.; Johnson, D.E.; Chen, A.; Krishnan, L.; Frincke, J.; Bartholomew, R.M.; David, G.S.



Immune responses to human tumors: development of tumor vaccines.  


Strong evidence has been accumulated demonstrating that tumor cells in humans and animal are recognized in general as non-self by the immune system and they are able to induce an immune response which often leads to their elimination. In humans, this evidence includes: (a) The development of T-cell lines and clones with antitumor activity (cytotoxic or helper) which is restricted to autologous tumor cells or to cells expressing the same tumor peptide/HLA epitope; (b) the presence of oligoclonal T cells infiltrating many tumors; (c) the identification and molecular cloning of tumor antigens and of peptides derived from these antigens, which elicit HLA-restricted immune responses. Their discovery provided the ultimate proof for the presence of specific immune responses in human tumors. The availability for the first time of molecularly cloned tumor antigens permitted the development of peptide or recombinant tumor vaccines. Although significant progress has been made and tumor peptide vaccines capable of eliciting biological responses in more than 50% of the patients and objective clinical responses in 10 to 42% of the patients have been reported, certain major problems remain and need to be resolved in order to develop effective tumor vaccines. These problems emanate from the following mechanisms that the tumor cells are employing to avoid detection and destruction by the immune system: (i) Down-regulation of HLA class I expression on the surface of tumor cells; (ii) Down-regulation of tumor antigen expression or selection of negative tumor variants; (iii) Expression of naturally occurring altered peptide ligands by tumor cells; (iv) Lack of costimulatory molecules on tumors cells; (v) Production of immunosuppressive cytokines, such as TGF-beta and IL-10; (vi) Induction of lymphocyte apoptosis by tumor cells using the Fas/Fas L pathway; (vii) Down-regulation or absence of CD3 zeta (zeta) transcripts or protein in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), and others. The selection of optimal tumor antigens for vaccine development is another issue that requires attention. Lineage specific or differentiation antigens appear to be better candidates for the development of tumor vaccines because they are expressed in all tumor cells. Methods for antigen presentation, such as those using dendritic cells, also play a critical role in the development of tumor vaccines. In addition to the progress towards the development of tumor vaccines, substantial progress has been made in developing advanced methods of adoptive immunotherapy based on TIL. This approach can be effective when an immune response can not be elicited in vivo. The progress made towards the development of tumor vaccines and approaches for adoptive immunotherapy has been substantial. Additional studies need to be carried out to develop new and effective tumor vaccines and adoptive immunotherapy methods. PMID:12894571

Platsoucas, Chris D; Fincke, John E; Pappas, John; Jung, Weon-Ju; Heckel, Mark; Schwarting, Roland; Magira, Eleni; Monos, Dimitri; Freedman, Ralph S


Malignant small round cell tumors  

PubMed Central

Malignant small round cell tumors are characterised by small, round, relatively undifferentiated cells. They generally include Ewing's sarcoma, peripheral neuroectodermal tumor, rhabdomyosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, retinoblastoma, neuroblastoma, hepatoblastoma, and nephroblastoma or Wilms’ tumor. Other differential diagnoses of small round cell tumors include small cell osteogenic sarcoma, undifferentiated hepatoblastoma, granulocytic sarcoma, and intraabdominal desmoplastic small round cell tumor. Differential diagnosis of small round cell tumors is particularly difficult due to their undifferentiated or primitive character. Tumors that show good differentiation are generally easy to diagnose, but when a tumor is poorly differentiated, identification of the diagnostic, morphological features is difficult and therefore, no definitive diagnosis may be possible. As seen in several study reports, fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has become an important modality of diagnosis for these tumors. The technique yields adequate numbers of dissociated, viable cells, making it ideally suitable for ancillary techniques. Typically, a multimodal approach is employed and the principal ancillary techniques that have been found to be useful in classification are immunohistochemistry and immunophenotyping by flow cytometry, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and electron microscopy. However, the recent characterization of chromosomal breakpoints and the corresponding genes involved in malignant small round cell tumors means that it is possible to use molecular genetic approaches for detection.

Rajwanshi, Arvind; Srinivas, Radhika; Upasana, Gautam



[Soft tissue tumors in neonates].  


Soft tissue tumors account for approximately 25% of neonatal tumors and are most often benign (more than 2/3 of cases). Vascular tumors are the most frequent benign tumors and infantile hemangioma accounts for 32% of these tumors, affecting 1 out of 200 children at birth. Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KH) is a rare vascular tumor with locally aggressive behavior. More than 50% of KH are associated with the Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon, a condition characterized by thrombocytopenia and consumptive coagulopathy. Malignant soft tissue tumors are, after neuroblastoma, the second cause of cancer in neonates. Infantile fibrosarcoma (IF) is a rare tumor that most often affects the extremities of children aged 4 years or younger. A recurrent t(12;15) (p13;q25) rearrangement fusing the ETV6 gene with the NTRK3 neurotrophin-3 receptor gene has been identified in IF. Complete conservative surgical resection is usually curative. Chemotherapy is indicated when initial surgical removal cannot be accomplished without unacceptable morbidity. Prognosis of IF is excellent, with reported overall survival rates ranging from 80 to 100%. Neonatal rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a rare tumor (0.5-1% of RMS). The primary tumor predominantly involves the limbs and the genitourinary tract. Treatment is based on age-adapted chemotherapy and surgery. Prognosis of RMS in children less than 1 year old appears to be comparable with that of older children. PMID:19398311

Minard-Colin, V; Orbach, D; Martelli, H; Bodemer, C; Oberlin, O



Pathogenesis of Corticotropic Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Subcellular molecular mechanisms underlying ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas remain elusive. Genetic and acquired animal\\u000a and cell models have provided insights into corticotroph cell tumorigenesis, including cell cycle abnormalities and aberrant\\u000a glucocorticoid feedback mechanisms. Novel peptide therapies targeting somatostatin and\\/or dopamine (D2) receptors and emerging microRNA studies may shed light on additional cellular pathways that regulate tumoral corticotroph\\u000a cell function.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Studying human

Anat Ben-Shlomo; Ning-Ai Liu; Shlomo Melmed


A rare tumor of the lung: inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is a rare benign lesion whose tumor origin is now proven. It represents 0.7% of all lung tumors. We report the case of a three-year-old child who suffered from a chronic cough with recurrent respiratory infections. Chest X-ray and computed tomography revealed the presence of a left lower lobe lung mass. After pneumonectomy, histological examination combined with immunohistochemical study discovered an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:



Mushrooms, tumors, and immunity.  


Medicinal properties have been attributed to mushrooms for thousands of years. Mushroom extracts are widely sold as nutritional supplements and touted as beneficial for health. Yet, there has not been a critical review attempting to integrate their nutraceutical potential with basic science. Relatively few studies are available on the biologic effects of mushroom consumption, and those have been performed exclusively in murine models. In this paper, we review existing data on the mechanism of whole mushrooms and isolated mushroom compounds, in particular (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans, and the means by which they modulate the immune system and potentially exert tumor-inhibitory effects. We believe that the antitumor mechanisms of several species of whole mushrooms as well as of polysaccharides isolated from Lentinus edodes, Schizophyllum commune, Grifola frondosa, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum are mediated largely by T cells and macrophages. Despite the structural and functional similarities of these glucans, they differ in their effectiveness against specific tumors and in their ability to elicit various cellular responses, particularly cytokine expression and production. Unfortunately, our data base on the involvement of these important mediators is still rather limited, as are studies concerning the molecular mechanisms of the interactions of glucans with their target cells. As long as it remains unclear what receptors are involved in, and what downstream events are triggered by, the binding of these glucans to their target cells, it will be difficult to make further progress in understanding not only their antitumor mechanisms but also their other biological activities. PMID:10460691

Borchers, A T; Stern, J S; Hackman, R M; Keen, C L; Gershwin, M E



Radiation Treatment of Endocrine Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Radiation therapy (RT) is an integral component of the multidisciplinary management of a variety of endocrine neoplasia. Typical\\u000a indications include unresectable or recurrent, benign or malignant tumors of the pituitary, thyroid and parathyroid glands.\\u000a Typical doses administered over 5–7 weeks for benign tumors and malignant tumors are 45–50 Gy and 60–70 Gy, respectively.\\u000a RT techniques employed in these treatments include

Sunil Krishnan; Deepa Suresh; Robert L. Foote


Tumor Markers in Gynecologic Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of biochemical tumor markers has increased the use of antibody-dependent tumor marker assays in gynecologic oncology. Several monoclonal antibodies directed against novel epitopes on tumor-associated antigens have allowed the development of sensitive assays for serum markers. Assays for human chorionic gonadotrophin and TA-4 have been improved. CA 125 has provided a useful first-generation markers. Ovarian cystoadeno-carcinoma-associated antigen and

Samir A. Farghaly



Prognostic indicators in pituitary tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in molecular pathology have shed light not only on the cellular composition and derivation of various tumors,\\u000a but also on their growth potential, likelihood of recurrence, and prognosis. The development of reliable and prognostically\\u000a informative methods of assessing tumor behavior is particularly important in pituitary tumors, where no precise correlation\\u000a exists between morphology and clinical aggressiveness. Among the

Agustinus Suhardja; Kalman Kovacs; Oded Greenberg; Bernd W. Scheithauer; Ricardo V. Lloyd



Proton Therapy for Thoracoabdominal Tumors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In advanced-stage disease of certain thoracoabdominal tumors, proton therapy (PT) with concurrent chemotherapy may be an option to reduce side effects. Several technological developments, including a respiratory gating system and implantation of fiducial markers for image guided radiation therapy (IGRT), are necessary for the treatment in thoracoabdominal tumors. In this chapter, the role of PT for tumors of the lung, the esophagus, and liver are discussed.

Sakurai, Hideyuki; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Sugahara, Shinji; Nakayama, Hidetsugu; Tokuuye, Koichi


Update on brain tumor imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain tumor imaging has evolved from a strictly morphologybased discipline to one that encompasses function, physiology, and\\u000a anatomy, enabled by advances in imaging and computer technology. This review outlines the current imaging standard for patients\\u000a with brain tumors and summarizes the latest advances in physiology-based imaging methods that complement traditional brain\\u000a tumor imaging protocol. Emphasis is placed on the strengths

Soonmee Cha



Radiofrequency Tumor Ablation in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Percutaneous image-guided radiofrequency (RF) tumor ablation continues to gain momentum in adult patients as a viable and\\u000a effective therapeutic option in the treatment of solid tumors in a variety of locations including the skeleton, liver, spleen,\\u000a kidney, adrenal gland, and lung (1–6). In all these areas, the basic concept of RF tumor ablation is similar: localized and contained heat generation

William E. Shiels; Stephen D. Brown



PubMed Central

El artículo examina el estatuto epistemológico de la bioética como disciplina académica. El autor sostiene que el estatuto epistemológico de un discurso lo determina la pregunta fundamental que se plantea y la respuesta que se busca, focos integradores del discurso. En el caso de la bioética, la pregunta fundamental es de índole moral. La bioética es pues una disciplina ética que tiene su hogar epistemológico en la filosofía. El autor también defiende el concepto de “éticas aplicadas”. Sugiere finalmente que el método de la bioética, sobre todo la que se hace desde nuestras latitudes, debería adoptar el círculo hermenéutico como metodología para su filosofar.

Ferrer, Jorge Jose



Sialyltransferase activity in tumor tissues.  


Sialyltransferase (ST) activity was examined in tumor and control tissues. Within each group of control tissues a wide variation in the levels of ST activity was observed. Only in 20% of the tumors was the ST activity above the range of enzyme activity of the corresponding group of control tissues. Compared with its corresponding normal counterpart from the same individual, ST was elevated in tumor tissue by a factor of 2.1 on average. The distribution function indicates an increase in enzyme activity in 74% of the tumors. Other tumor markers were also determined for comparison. The ratio of the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) subunits (M/H) was increased in tumors by a factor of 1.3 on average; the frequency of increase was 75%. From the distribution function of our data it follows that a decrease in the ratio of the creatine kinase (CK) subunits (B/M) occurs in 56% of tumors, the average factor being 0.8. The Regan isoenzyme of the alkaline phosphatase (AP) could be demonstrated in 13% of the tumors. In serum and in tissues ST was found to be composed of multiple forms. However, an isoenzyme of higher tumor specificity has not yet been established. PMID:6328100

Berge, P G; Wilhelm, A; Schriewer, H



Abrikossoff's Tumor: An Unusual Presentation  

PubMed Central

Abrikossoff's tumor or granular cell tumor is an infrequent benign neoplasm, first described by the Russian pathologist Abrikossoff in 1926. The neoplasm can affect all parts of the body with head and neck areas affected in 45-65% of patients. More than half of the head and neck lesions are localized to the oral cavity, especially the tongue. An aggressive malignant form of granular cell myoblastoma that metastasizes is rare. The treatment of choice of Abrikossoff's tumor is local surgical excision with a wide margin. Here, we present a case of Abrikossoff's tumor, occurring in the upper arm, presenting as a panniculitis-like lesion.

Pushpa, Gnanaraj; Karve, Pradyot P.; Subashini, K; Narasimhan, Murali N; Ahmad, Parveen Bashir



Conservative management of ureteral tumor.  


The traditional approach to transitional-cell carcinoma of the ureter has been nephroureterectomy with excision of a cuff of bladder. Evidence indicates that noninvasive transitional-cell tumor of the ureter is amenable to local resection. Five cases are presented in which transitional-cell carcinoma of the ureter was resected locally. None of the patients died from recurrence of their original tumor. It is suggested that the approach to ureteral tumor includes excisional biopsy with frozen section and reconstruction of ureteral continuity in the case of low-grade noninvasive transitional-cell tumor. PMID:21322982

De Wolf, W C; Rodgers, R; Blackard, C



Hybrid peripheral nerve sheath tumor.  


In recent literature, there have been case reports of an extremely rare entity characterized by hybrid peripheral nerve tumors consisting of elements of neurofibroma, schwannoma, and/or perineurioma. The authors present a unique case of a patient with multiple painful hybrid tumors with negative genetic testing for neurofibromatosis Type 1 and no clinical evidence of neurofibromatosis Type 2 or schwannomatosis. A 28-year-old woman presented with tentatively diagnosed schwannomatosis. She had painful bilateral retromastoid scalp tumors as well as multiple other painful tumors in the distribution of the saphenous, femoral, and sciatic nerves. Her family history was significant for a paternal grandfather with a solitary schwannoma. The patient underwent multiple surgical procedures for tumor resection, including tumors in the regions of the retromastoid scalp, bilateral sciatic nerves, left femoral nerve, and left axilla. These tumors were examined and evaluated histologically. Within the tumors, components of both neurofibromas and schwannomas were found, even though these 2 peripheral nerve sheath tumors have been long considered to be distinct entities. This case report suggests a distinct syndrome that has not previously been appreciated. PMID:22978539

Lang, Shih-Shan; Zager, Eric L; Coyne, Thomas M; Nangunoori, Raj; Kneeland, J Bruce; Nathanson, Katherine L



Treatment of Pediatric Brain Tumors  

PubMed Central

Over the past decades considerable advances have been made in neurosurgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy resulting in improved survival and cure rates for children with brain tumors. Here we review four of the most common subtypes of pediatric brain tumors, low-grade and high-grade astrocytomas, medulloblastomas and ependymomas, highlighting their molecular features regarding their tumor biology and promising potential therapeutic targets that may hold promise for finding new “molecularly targeted” drugs. Importantly, appropriate clinical trial design will play a critical role in the evaluation of new and novel treatment approaches for pediatric brain tumors.

Karajannis, Matthias; Allen, Jeffrey C.; Newcomb, Elizabeth W.



Retrotransposon Targeting of Tumor Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cancer gene therapy might provide highly selective, treatment without systemic toxicity. Cancer gene therapy techniques include oncogene inactivation, tumor suppressor gene replacement, inhibition of angiogenesis, immunopotentiation, molecular chemotherap...

D. Wu G. DeVaux



Laparoscopic nephrectomy for Wilms' tumor.  


The role of minimally invasive surgery for the treatment of pediatric urological tumors has been limited to biopsies and resection for small neuroblastomas and benign tumors. The purpose of this study is to present the experience of a Brazilian group pioneering laparoscopic nephrectomy for Wilms' tumor. A total of 15 children with unilateral non-metastatic Wilms' tumor were preoperatively treated with vincristine and actinomycin D, and afterwards were submitted to laparoscopic nephrectomy and lymph node sampling. A Veress needle umbilical punction was performed and a four-trocar transperitoneal approach was used. The tumor was extracted inside a plastic bag and without morcellation through a Pfannenstiel incision. In all 15 patients the tumor was completely removed, as well as lymph node samples and no ruptures occurred. A fibrous capsule involved the tumor, making the dissection easy to perform. Intraoperative bleeding was minimal. The postoperative course was free of complications and all the patients were discharged early. No recurrences or long-term complications have been detected in 7-61 months or more of follow-up. We conclude that laparoscopic nephrectomy for Wilms' tumor is a feasible and safe procedure in a selected group of children after chemotherapy. It reproduces all the steps of the open surgical approach required to treat this tumor, with the advantages of a short hospital stay and cosmetically more acceptable incisions. PMID:19496712

Duarte, Ricardo Jordão; Dénes, Francisco Tibor; Cristofani, Lílian Maria; Srougi, Miguel



Surgical treatment of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) are uncommon but clinically challenging and fascinating tumors. GEP-NETs\\u000a present as either functional or as nonfunctional tumors. Functional tumors are commonly associated with a specific hormonal\\u000a syndrome directly related to a hormone secreted by the tumor, like gastrinomas with a Zollinger–Ellison syndrome or carcinoid\\u000a syndrome in patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NET) of the ileum. Nonfunctional tumors

Volker Fendrich; Detlef K. Bartsch



Granulosa Cell Tumor of the Ovary: Tumor Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Granulosa cell tumors of the ovary are rare neoplasms that originate from sex-cord stromal cells. The long natural history of granulosa cell tumors and their tendency to recur years after the initial diagnosis are the most prominent of their characteristics. The secretion of estradiol is the reason for signs at presentation such as vaginal bleeding and precocious puberty. Abdominal pain

Georgios V. Koukourakis; Vasilios E. Kouloulias; Michael J. Koukourakis; Georgios A. Zacharias; Christos Papadimitriou; Kyriaki Mystakidou; Kyriaki Pistevou-Gompaki; John Kouvaris; Athanasios Gouliamos



Tumor bed expression in xenografted artificial heterogeneous colon tumors.  


Artificial heterogeneous xenograft tumors (AHTs) were produced by injecting admixtures of two clonal cell lines (A and D) originally isolated from the DLD-1 human colon adenocarcinoma. The volumetric growth of unirradiated pure A or D tumors and 2 different admixtures (approximately 90% A + 10% D or 10% A + 90% D) were compared to growth of similar tumors growing in normal tissue stroma that had received 5, 10, or 15 Gy of X rays 1 day prior to cell injections. The X-irradiations produced a dose dependent delay in growth at sizes of 500 mm3 (designated as the tumor bed effect, TBE) for both pure and admixed tumors of about 2 at 15 Gy. There were no significant differences in TBE among the various groups. Also, determination of tumor cell yields, or colony forming efficiencies, showed no differences among tumors growing in undamaged or damaged stroma. However, beginning at about 20 days postirradiation, there was a significant change in the percentage composition of the tumors growing in the irradiated stroma. Both admixtures became significantly enriched in the subpopulation that was originally predominant. In contrast, the percentage compositions of the admixtures growing in unirradiated stroma remained stable over the duration of the experiment period (to about 70 days postirradiation). We interpret these data to indicate that the radiation damage to the normal tissue produced an intratumor environment leading to competitive exclusion dynamics of the minority subpopulation. Clinical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:3391812

Leith, J T; Faulkner, L E; Bliven, S F; Michelson, S



Putting Tumors in Context  

SciTech Connect

The interactions between cancer cells and their micro- and macroenvironment create a context that promotes tumor growth and protects it from immune attack. The functional association of cancer cells with their surrounding tissues forms a new 'organ' that changes as malignancy progresses. Investigation of this process might provide new insights into the mechanisms of tumorigenesis and could also lead to new therapeutic targets. Under normal conditions, ORGANS are made up of TISSUES that exchange information with other cell types via cell-cell contact, cytokines and the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM). The ECM, which is produced by collaboration between STROMAL fibroblasts and EPITHELIAL cells, provides structural scaffolding for cells, as well as contextual information. The endothelial vasculature provides nutrients and oxygen, and cells of the immune system combat pathogens and remove apoptotic cells. Epithelial cells associate into intact, polarized sheets. These tissues communicate through a complex network of interactions: physically, through direct contact or through the intervening ECM, and biochemically, through both soluble and insoluble signalling molecules. In combination, these interactions provide the information that is necessary to maintain cellular differentiation and to create complex tissue structures. Occasionally, the intercellular signals that define the normal context become disrupted. Alterations in epithelial tissues can lead to movement of epithelial sheets and proliferation - for example, after activation of mesenchymal fibroblasts due to wounding.Normally, these conditions are temporary and reversible, but when inflammation is sustained, an escalating feedback loop ensues.Under persistent inflammatory conditions, continual upregulation of enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by stromal fibroblasts can disrupt the ECM, and invading immune cells can overproduce factors that promote abnormal proliferation. As this process progresses, the normal organization of the organ is replaced by a functional disorder. If there are pre-existing epithelial cells within this changing context that possess tumorigenic potential, they can start to proliferate. Alternatively, the abnormal interactions might lead to genomic instability within the epithelial cells and the acquisition of tumorigenic potential. The proliferating cancer cells can then interact with their microenvironment and enhance the abnormal interactions. At this point, the tumor has become its own organ, with a distinct context that now defines all its cellular responses. Here, we will examine how the mechanisms that contribute to the normal context also act to suppress developing tumors, how disruption of this context initiates and supports the process of tumorigenicity, and how some cells with a tumorigenic genotype can become phenotypically normal if the context is appropriately manipulated.

Bissell, Mina; Radisky, Derek



Unclassified pediatric renal stromal tumor overlapping with metanephric stromal tumor and solitary fibrous tumor with diffuse S-100 protein expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metanephric stromal tumor (MST) is a rare pediatric neoplasm unique to the kidneys that is currently included in the spectrum of metanephric tumors, along with metanephric adenoma and adenofibroma. We herein report an unusual case of pediatric renal stromal tumor overlapping with MST and solitary fibrous tumor (SFT). Histologically, the tumor was composed of bland-looking spindle to stellate cells embedded

Franca Brancato; Alessandra Gurrera; Michele Bisceglia; Rita Alaggio; Andrea Di Cataldo; Vincenzo Di Benedetto; Gaetano Magro



Infância, exclusão social e educação como utopia realizável  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: A infância, como construção social, tem sofrido, no decurso da 2ª modernidade, processos de reinstitucionalização que, em larga medida, põem em causa as representações e imagens das crianças, dominantes nos últimos 200 anos. A análise da (re)construção das identidades sociais e das subjectividades infantis constitui, desse modo, uma tarefa teórica da mais exigente actualidade. O que, entretanto, aqui se

Manuel Jacinto Sarmento



Adorno, arte e educação: negócio da arte como negação  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: O eixo temático desta investigação trata de compreender que a obra de arte corporifica na sua forma interna uma autonomia relativa com relação à realidade empírica sobre a qual se torna refle- xão crítica. Ao se caracterizar como mediação com a realidade social que a produziu, a arte é por isso mesmo a sua negação. É esse princí- pio

Luiz Hermenegildo Fabiano




Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: O artigo visa a tecer algumas considerações acerca da noção de linguagem cinematográfica de Pasolini tomando como referência seu texto Il cinema di poesia. O objetivo é conhecer aspectos da percepção estética e política desse intelectual e refletir sobre o objetivo de Pasolini de mostrar que o cinema é a linguagem expressiva da realidade. A poesia está no modo

Ana Paula Schlesener


Juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the testis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the testis is a rare type of intermediate stromal cell tumor. Only 11 cases of juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the testis have been reported to the national tumor registry as of December 2001. We report an additional case of primary juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the testis. The benign lesion was managed successfully with

Randy Fagin; Ema Berbescu; Steve Landis; Kenneth Strumpf; Umeshchandra Patil



Congenital malignant rhabdoid tumor of the orbit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malignant rhabdoid tumor is a rare and highly malignant renal tumor of infancy. Extrarenal tumors involving the orbit have been reported, but never at birth.1-5 The authors describe a primary malignant rhabdoid tumor of the orbit in a neonate who had massive unilateral proptosis at birth. Clinical, radiographic, and histologic features of the tumor are discussed.

D. Brian Stidham; Richard A. Burgett; Mary M. Davis; David A. Plager



Familial carotid body tumors: Incidence and implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carotid body tumors may occur sporadically (90%) or in a familial pattern (10%). One third of the patients with familial disease have bilateral tumors. We report the case of a patient with bilateral carotid body tumors and a strong family history of such tumors. Details of his evaluation and treatment are reviewed. Relatives of patients with carotid body tumors should

Brian A. Ridge; David C. Brewster; R. Clement Darling; Richard P. Cambria; Glenn M. LaMuraglia; William M. Abbott



Papillary glioneuronal tumor of the frontal lobe.  


Glioneuronal tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) comprise a group of generally low-grade tumors expressing glial and neuronal cells of varying differentiation. Papillary glioneuronal tumor (PGNT) is a new tumor identified in the World Health Organization's classification of CNS tumors (2007). We report a patient with PGNT and highlight the diagnostic features, including a description of "spidery" astrocytes. PMID:20156688

Mahajan, Hema; Varikatt, Winny; Dexter, Mark; Boadle, Ross; Ng, Thomas



Local Excision of Rectal Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In endoscopically non-resectable benign rectal tumors, local excision is the treatment of choice. Furthermore, patients with early rectal carcinomas can be cured by a transanal excision. A transanal approach may also be justified considering the higher morbidity and mortality rates of a transabdominal procedure. Patients and Method: 57 patients with rectal tumors were treated with a transanal excision. In

Heinz Wykypiel; Friedrich Conrad; Anton Klingler; Reinhard Mittermair; Jörg Tschmelitsch



Staging of primary mediastinal tumors.  


Primary mediastinal tumors, with the exception of lymphoma, are generally rare neoplasms. The diagnosis, classification, and treatment of these tumors still cause some degree of difficulty due to their low incidence and morphologic heterogeneity. This is particularly true for thymic epithelial neoplasms, that is, thymoma and thymic carcinoma, and also applies to primary neuroendocrine carcinomas of the thymus and primary mediastinal germ cell tumors. The appropriate staging of these tumors, likewise, has been a matter of debate over the years and numerous proposals for the staging of thymic epithelial neoplasms have been put forward in the last few decades. Unfortunately, variations of such proposals have been used in some instances to stage other tumors such as thymic neuroendocrine carcinomas and germ cell tumors, which has led to the often inappropriate use of a single staging system for different types of tumors with different biological behavior. This review will provide an overview of the staging of primary mediastinal tumors with special emphasis on more recent assessments in this particular area. PMID:23232566

Weissferdt, Annikka; Moran, Cesar A



Sialyltransferase activity in tumor tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Sialyltransferase (ST) activity was examined in tumor and control tissues. Within each group of control tissues a wide variation in the levels of ST activity was observed. Only in 20% of the tumors was the ST activity above the range of enzyme activity of the corresponding group of control tissues. Compared with its corresponding normal counterpart from the same

P.-G. Berge; A. Wilhelm; H. Schriewer



Polyamines in brain tumor therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In the search for ways to augment current brain tumor therapies many have sought to exploit the fact that adult brain tissue is virtually lacking in cell division. This endorses a special appeal to therapeutic approaches which target the dependence on cell division for brain tumor growth. Polyamines play an essential role in the proliferation of mammalian cells and

E. S. Redgate; S. Boggs; A. Grudziak; M. Deutsch



Compendium of Tumor Immunotherapy Protocols.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The contents of the Compendium have been organized to permit rapid scanning. The protocol summaries are arranged in sections according to tumor groups, with the largest sections first. Within each section the protocols are sequenced by site of tumor and s...



Childhood Solid Tumors and Lymphomas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The concept of this topic includes childhood tumors of the kidney, brain and CNS system, lymphomas and sarcomas and other soft tissue tumors. Leukemias are excluded from this Cancergram and are included in a separate Cancergram (CT03) on leukemias. Abstra...



Radionuclide imaging of tumor angiogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angiogenesis is a multistep process regulated by pro- and antiangiogenic factors. In order to grow and metastasize, tumors need a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients. For growth beyond 1-2 mm in size, tumors are dependent on angiogenesis. Inhibition of angiogenesis is a new cancer treatment strategy that is now widely investigated clinically. Researchers have begun to search for objective

Ingrid Dijkgraaf; Otto C. Boerman



Gene Therapy for Pituitary Tumors  

PubMed Central

Pituitary tumors are the most common primary intracranial neoplasms. Although most pituitary tumors are considered typically benign, others can cause severe and progressive disease. The principal aims of pituitary tumor treatment are the elimination or reduction of the tumor mass, normalization of hormone secretion and preservation of remaining pituitary function. In spite of major advances in the therapy of pituitary tumors, for some of the most difficult tumors, current therapies that include medical, surgical and radiotherapeutic methods are often unsatisfactory and there is a need to develop new treatment strategies. Gene therapy, which uses nucleic acids as drugs, has emerged as an attractive therapeutic option for the treatment of pituitary tumors that do not respond to classical treatment strategies if the patients become intolerant to the therapy. The development of animal models for pituitary tumors and hormone hypersecretion has proven to be critical for the implementation of novel treatment strategies and gene therapy approaches. Preclinical trials using several gene therapy approaches for the treatment of anterior pituitary diseases have been successfully implemented. Several issues need to be addressed before clinical implementation becomes a reality, including the development of more effective and safer viral vectors, uncovering novel therapeutic targets and development of targeted expression of therapeutic transgenes. With the development of efficient gene delivery vectors allowing long-term transgene expression with minimal toxicity, gene therapy will become one of the most promising approaches for treating pituitary adenomas.

Seilicovich, Adriana; Pisera, Daniel; Sciascia, Sandra A.; Candolfi, Marianela; Puntel, Mariana; Xiong, Weidong; Jaita, Gabriela; Castro, Maria G.



Pericytes limit tumor cell metastasis.  


Previously we observed that neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) deficiency in beta tumor cells facilitates metastasis into distant organs and local lymph nodes. Here, we show that NCAM-deficient beta cell tumors grew leaky blood vessels with perturbed pericyte-endothelial cell-cell interactions and deficient perivascular deposition of ECM components. Conversely, tumor cell expression of NCAM in a fibrosarcoma model (T241) improved pericyte recruitment and increased perivascular deposition of ECM molecules. Together, these findings suggest that NCAM may limit tumor cell metastasis by stabilizing the microvessel wall. To directly address whether pericyte dysfunction increases the metastatic potential of solid tumors, we studied beta cell tumorigenesis in primary pericyte-deficient Pdgfb(ret/ret) mice. This resulted in beta tumor cell metastases in distant organs and local lymph nodes, demonstrating a role for pericytes in limiting tumor cell metastasis. These data support a new model for how tumor cells trigger metastasis by perturbing pericyte-endothelial cell-cell interactions. PMID:16470244

Xian, Xiaojie; Håkansson, Joakim; Ståhlberg, Anders; Lindblom, Per; Betsholtz, Christer; Gerhardt, Holger; Semb, Henrik




EPA Science Inventory

An initiation promotion bioassay for chemical carcinogens and tumor promoters has been developed in rat liver using presumed preneoplastic lesions, foci of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGTase)-positive hepatocytes, as the endpoint. To evaluate the tumor-promoting activity of phe...


Angiogenic factors as tumor markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of angiogenesis plays a critical role in tumor growth and metastasis. Recently, there has been much interest in the possible use of angiogenic growth factors as tumor markers. This paper will review the results thus far of attempts at measuring various angiogenic factors in bodily fluids. In the future, angiogenic factors will most likely be useful as a

Mai Nguyen



The History of Tumor Virology  

PubMed Central

In the century since its inception, the field of tumor virology has provided groundbreaking insights into the causes of human cancer. Peyton Rous founded this scientific field in 1911 by discovering an avian virus that induced tumors in chickens; however, it took 40 years for the scientific community to comprehend the effect of this seminal finding. Later identification of mammalian tumor viruses in the 1930s by Richard Shope and John Bittner, and in the 1950s by Ludwik Gross, sparked the first intense interest in tumor virology by suggesting the possibility of a similar causal role for viruses in human cancers. This change in attitude opened the door in the 1960s and 1970s for the discovery of the first human tumor viruses—EBV, hepatitis B virus, and the papillomaviruses. Such knowledge proved instrumental to the development of the first cancer vaccines against cancers having an infectious etiology. Tumor virologists additionally recognized that viruses could serve as powerful discovery tools, leading to revolutionary breakthroughs in the 1970s and 1980s that included the concept of the oncogene, the identification of the p53 tumor suppressor, and the function of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor. The subsequent availability of more advanced molecular technologies paved the way in the 1980s and 1990s for the identification of additional human tumor viruses—human T-cell leukemia virus type 1, hepatitis C virus, and Kaposi’s sarcoma virus. In fact, current estimates suggest that viruses are involved in 15% to 20% of human cancers worldwide. Thus, viruses not only have been shown to represent etiologic agents for many human cancers but have also served as tools to reveal mechanisms that are involved in all human malignancies. This rich history promises that tumor virology will continue to contribute to our understanding of cancer and to the development of new therapeutic and preventive measures for this disease in the 21st century.

Javier, Ronald T.; Butel, Janet S.



Sorafenib Tosylate in Treating Patients With Progressive Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

Gastrinoma; Glucagonoma; Insulinoma; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Neuroendocrine Tumor; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma; Somatostatinoma; WDHA Syndrome



Can Wilms Tumor Be Found Early?  


... Tumor + - Text Size Download Printable Version [PDF] » Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging TOPICS Document Topics GO » SEE ... Wilms Tumor? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Wilms Tumor Talking With ...


Can Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors Be Found Early?  


... Tumors + - Text Size Download Printable Version [PDF] » Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging TOPICS Document Topics GO » SEE ... Carcinoid Tumors? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors Talking ...


Role of EMMPRIN in Tumor Progression.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Crucial steps in tumor progression and the process of metastasis, e. g. tumor growth, invasion through extracellular matrices and angiogenesis, involve proteolytic modification of the pericellular matrix surrounding tumor cells. A major class of proteases...

B. Toole



Studies on the tumor initiating, tumor promoting, and tumor co-initiating properties of respiratory carcinogens  

SciTech Connect

With mouse skin as the bioassay model, the multifaceted behavior of chemicals and mixtures can be elucidated using the protocols of tumor initiation, tumor promotion, tumor co-initiation, and complete carcinogenesis. In addition to studies with individual respiratory carcinogens, we report the tumorigenic and carcinogenic effects of complex environmental mixtures. We sought to compare the potency of human respiratory carcinogens, based on epidemiological data, with the bioassay potency data obtained from mouse skin tumor initiation and mouse skin complete carcinogenesis experiments as well as the bioassay potency data obtained from short-term genetic toxicology bioassays. Three human respiratory carcinogens were used: emissions from coke ovens, emissions from roofing tar pots, and cigarette smoke. When the potency obtained from mouse skin tumor initiation experiments of these materials was compared with the potency based on human respiratory cancer, a surprisingly close correlation was observed. 10 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs. (DT)

Nesnow, S.; Triplett, L.L.; Slaga, T.J.



Endothelial cells expressing Bcl-2 promotes tumor metastasis by enhancing tumor angiogenesis, blood vessel leakiness and tumor invasion.  


Metastatic spread of tumor cells to vital organs is the major cause of mortality in cancer patients. Bcl-2, a key antiapoptotic protein, is expressed at high levels in a number of human tumors. We have recently shown that Bcl-2 is also overexpressed in tumor-associated blood vessels in head-and-neck cancer patients. Interestingly, enhanced Bcl-2 expression in tumor blood vessels is directly correlated with metastatic status of these cancer patients. In addition, endothelial cells (ECs) expressing Bcl-2 showed increased production of interleukin-8 (IL-8) resulting in significantly enhanced tumor cell proliferation and tumor cell invasion. Therefore, we hypothesized that Bcl-2 expression in tumor-associated ECs may promote tumor metastasis by enhancing tumor cell invasiveness and release in the circulation. To test our hypothesis, we coimplanted tumor cells along with ECs expressing Bcl-2 (EC-Bcl-2) in the flanks of SCID mice. Our results demonstrate that incorporation of EC-Bcl-2 in primary tumors significantly enhanced tumor cell metastasis to lungs and this EC-Bcl-2-mediated tumor metastasis was independent of primary tumor size. In addition, Bcl-2-mediated tumor metastasis directly correlated with increased tumor angiogenesis. Bcl-2 expression in ECs also promoted transendothelial cell permeability, blood vessel leakiness and tumor cell invasion. EC-Bcl-2-mediated tumor cell proliferation and tumor cell invasion were significantly mediated by IL-8. These results suggest that Bcl-2, when expressed at higher levels in tumor-associated ECs, may promote tumor metastasis by enhancing tumor angiogenesis, blood vessel leakiness and tumor cell invasiveness. PMID:18490895

Kumar, Pawan; Ning, Yu; Polverini, Peter J



From Como to Copenhagen: The Beginnings and Ends of Complementarity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines the transformation of Bohr's interpretation of quantum phenomena and quantum mechanics, known as complementarity, from the version presented in his famous Como lecture (1927), which introduced complementarity, to a new version that was developed by Bohr shortly thereafter, in part under the impact of his intervening exchanges with Einstein. While the existence of more than one version of Bohr's complementarity (and of still different versions of the Copenhagen interpretation by others) has been noted, Bohr's rethinking itself of complementarity has rarely been adequately addressed. Apart from refining and indeed correcting the Como argument, the transformation in question was, I argue, defined by a shift from a more philosophical to a more experimental argument. My aim is to explore both this shift and the complexity of the relationships between physics and philosophy in Bohr's thinking in order to understand better the beginnings and the ends, also in the sense of aims, of Bohr's complementarity.

Plotnitsky, Arkady



Case report: duodenal stromal tumor.  


Tumors of the small intestine are rare lesions, but they should be kept in mind as possible causes of gastrointestinal symptoms. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the digestive tract. A 78 year-old woman complaining of abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting after meal and weight loss for three months was admitted to our clinic. On physical examination, there was only epigastric tenderness. No mass was palpated. She was anemic and total protein and albumin levels were low. Other laboratory tests were normal. A 9.0 x 7.5 cm heterogeneous mass was detected on the abdominal computerized tomography scan. Endoscopy confirmed a polypoid and vegetative mass in the second part of the duodenum. Histopathological diagnosis of endoscopic biopsy was gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. On the 11th postoperative day, relaparotomy was performed due to biliary leakage from the subhepatic drain. Biliary leakage was from the choledochojejunostomy. Choledochojejunostomy and pancreaticojejunostomy were revised. She was discharged on the postoperative 25th day. Histopathological examination of the resection specimen revealed duodenal stromal tumor. Although stromal tumors are relatively rare in the duodenum, in the case of upper gastrointestinal obstruction and anemia, this type of tumors should be considered in differential diagnosis. PMID:15832594

Akkus, M A; Kismet, K; Erel, S; Adibelli, M A; Pulat, H


[Surgical management of retrorectal tumors].  


Retrorectal tumors (RRT) constitute an anatomical grouping of various tumors of different nature, both benign and malignant. The diversity of their presentation, surgical management, and prognosis are illustrated by five clinical cases. A simple categorization would distinguish vestigial tumors (whether cystic or solid), congenital nonvestigial tumors such as chordoma, and tumors of neural or bony origin. Imaging by CT scan and by MRI will usually determine the nature of the tumor and its relationship to the surrounding anatomical structures. The principle of treatment is complete removal with free margins. The surgical approach may be posterior, anterior or combined depending on the nature and the size of the lesion and on how high it is situated relative to the second sacral vertebra. Complete resection may be both difficult and bloody. Sacral segments may need to be resected either for reasons of surgical approach or to obtain clear margins. Rectal resection is rarely necessary. The prognosis of these lesions depends on the nature of the tumor and particularly on the quality and completeness of the resection. PMID:15133436

Ko?odziejski, L S; Dyczek, S T; Pogodzinski, M



Tumor Associated Regulatory Dendritic Cells  

PubMed Central

Immune effector and regulatory cells in the tumor microenvironment are key factors in tumor development and progression as the pathogenesis of cancer vitally depends on the multifaceted interactions between various microenvironmental stimuli provided by tumor-associated immune cells. Immune regulatory cells participate in all stages of cancer development from the induction of genomic instability to the maintenance of intratumoral angiogenesis, proliferation and spreading of malignant cells, and formation of premetastatic niches in distal tissues. Dendritic cells in the tumor microenvironment serve as a double-edged sword and, in addition to initiating potent anti-tumor immune responses, may mediate genomic damage, support neovascularization, block anti-tumor immunity and stimulate cancerous cell growth and spreading. Regulatory dendritic cells in cancer may directly and indirectly maintain antigen-specific and non-specific T cell unresponsiveness by controlling T cell polarization, MDSC and Treg differentiation and activity, and affecting specific microenvironmental conditions in premalignant niches. Understanding the mechanisms involved in regulatory dendritic cell polarization and operation and revealing pharmacological means for harnessing these pathways will provide additional opportunities for modifying the tumor microenvironment and improving the efficacy of different therapeutic approaches to cancer.

Ma, Yang; Shurin, Galina V.; Gutkin, Dmitriy W.; Shurin, Michael R.



Statistical mechanics model of angiogenic tumor growth.  


We examine a lattice model of tumor growth where the survival of tumor cells depends on the supplied nutrients. When such a supply is random, the extinction of tumors belongs to the directed percolation universality class. However, when the supply is correlated with the distribution of tumor cells, which as we suggest might mimic the angiogenic growth, the extinction shows different critical behavior. Such a correlation affects also the morphology of the growing tumors and drastically raises tumor-survival probability. PMID:22400505

Ferreira, António Luis; Lipowska, Dorota; Lipowski, Adam



Spectroscopic-guided brain tumor resection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pilot in vivo study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of using optical spectroscopy for brain tumor margin detection. Fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectra were acquired using a portable clinical spectroscopic system from normal brain tissues, tumors, and tumor margins in 21 brain tumor patients undergoing craniotomy. Results form this study show the potential of optical spectroscopy in detecting infiltrating tumor margins of primary brain tumors.

Lin, Wei-Chiang; Toms, Steven A.; Jansen, E. Duco; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita



Tumor growth modeling based on cell and tumor lifespans.  


This paper deals with the lifespan modeling of heterogenous tumors treated by radiotherapy. A bi-scale model describing the cell and tumor lifespans by random variables is proposed. First- and second-order moments as well as the cumulative distribution functions and confidence intervals are expressed for the two lifespans with respect to the model parameters. One interesting result is that the mean value of the tumor lifespan can be approached by a logarithmic function of the initial cancer cell number. Moreover, we show that TCP and NTCP, used in radiotherapy to evaluate, optimize and compare treatment plans, can be derived from the tumor lifespan and the surrounding healthy tissue, respectively. Finally, we propose a ROC curve, entitled ECT (Efficiency-Complication Trade-off), suited to the selection by clinicians of the appropriate treatment planning. PMID:22820494

Keinj, R; Bastogne, T; Vallois, P



Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors in childhood.  


Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare tumor of intermediate malignant potential that can occur anywhere in the body. Surgical resection is the principal treatment. We report on nine children diagnosed with IMT at our institution over a 10-year period. Presenting symptoms were reflective of tumor location. Complete surgical resection was curative. Local recurrence occurred in the presence of involved surgical margins. One patient with metastatic disease achieved long-term remission with chemotherapy alone. Severe inflammatory response and death occurred in one patient. The 3-year event free and overall survivals (OS) were 58 ± 20% and 89 ± 10% respectively. PMID:23988029

Mehta, Bhakti; Mascarenhas, Leo; Zhou, Shengmei; Wang, Larry; Venkatramani, Rajkumar



Crown Gall Tumor Disc Bioassay  

PubMed Central

Seventeen samples consisting of purified compounds and various ethanol extracts from plant sources were tested for activity on the initiation of crown gall tumors on potato discs. The results demonstrated definite correlation between the ability of these samples to inhibit the formation of crown gall tumors and their activity on the P388 leukemia system in mice. Samples showing only cytotoxic effects in KB cell cultures did not affect tumor initiation in our system. The active materials had no effects on bacterial viability or on the ability of the bacteria to attach to a tumorbinding site.

Galsky, Alan G.; Wilsey, James P.; Powell, Richard G.



Lipoblastoma: a rare mediastinal tumor.  


Lipoblastoma is a rare benign mesenchymal tumor of embryonal fat that occurs almost exclusively in infants and children less than age 3. It is a benign tumor with a high recurrence rate. We present a case of mediastinal lipoblastoma in a 21-month-old girl who presented with respiratory infection and progressive dyspnea. Complete surgical excision of the mass was achieved through a lateral thoracotomy. Her postoperative course was uneventful and the histopathologic examination proved that the mass was a lipoblastoma. We emphasize that this rare mediastinal tumor should be included in the differential diagnosis of infants having a mediastinal mass. PMID:19853146

Moaath, Alsmady; Raed, Ennab; Mohammad, Rashadan; Mohammad, Saleem



Heterogeneity of tumor cells from a single mouse mammary tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the use of a variety of cell culture and separation methods, four cell lines were isolated from a single au tochthonous BALB\\/cfC3H mammary tumor. These lines differ markedly from each other in culture morphology, various in vitro growth properties, expression of murine mammary tumor virus antigen, and karyotype, yet all four lines are tumorigenic in normal, syngeneic hosts, yielding

Daniel L. Dexter; Henryk M. Kowalski; Beverly A. Blazar; Zuzana Fligiel; R Vogel; G H Heppner



Modification of tumor response by manipulation of tumor oxygenation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) requires tissue oxygenation during light irradiation. Tumor hypoxia, either pre-existing or induced by PDT during light irradiation, can severely hamper the effectiveness of a PDT treatment. Lowering the light irradiation does rate or fractionating a light dose may improve cell kill of PDT induced hypoxic cells, but will have no effects on pre-existing hypoxic cells. In the current study, we used hyper-oxygenation during PDT to overcome cell hypoxia in PDT. C3H mice with transplanted mammary carcinoma tumor were injected with 12.5 mg/kg Photofrin and irradiated with 630 nm laser light 24 hours later. Tumor oxygenation was manipulated by subjecting the animals to 3 a.t.p. hyperbaric oxygen or normobaric oxygen during PDT light irradiation. The results show a significant improvement in tumor response when PDT was delivered during hyper-oxygenation. With hyper-oxygenation, up to 80% of treated tumors showed no re-growth after 60 days. In comparison, only 20% of tumors treated while animals breathed normal room air, did not re-grow. To quantitatively evaluate the effects of manipulating tumor oxygenation, tumor p02 was measured with microelectrodes positioned in pre-existing hypoxic regions before and during the PDT light irradiation. The results show that hyper-oxygenation may oxygenate pre-existing hypoxic cells and compensate oxygen depletion induced by PDT light irradiation. In conclusion, hyper-oxygenation may provide effective ways to improve PDT treatment efficiency by oxygenating both pre-existing and treatment induced cell hypoxia.

Chen, Qun; Beckers, Jill; Hetzel, Fred W.



Macrophages in Tumor Microenvironments and the Progression of Tumors  

PubMed Central

Macrophages are widely distributed innate immune cells that play indispensable roles in the innate and adaptive immune response to pathogens and in-tissue homeostasis. Macrophages can be activated by a variety of stimuli and polarized to functionally different phenotypes. Two distinct subsets of macrophages have been proposed, including classically activated (M1) and alternatively activated (M2) macrophages. M1 macrophages express a series of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and effector molecules, such as IL-12, IL-23, TNF-?, iNOS and MHCI/II. In contrast, M2 macrophages express a wide array of anti-inflammatory molecules, such as IL-10, TGF-?, and arginase1. In most tumors, the infiltrated macrophages are considered to be of the M2 phenotype, which provides an immunosuppressive microenvironment for tumor growth. Furthermore, tumor-associated macrophages secrete many cytokines, chemokines, and proteases, which promote tumor angiogenesis, growth, metastasis, and immunosuppression. Recently, it was also found that tumor-associated macrophages interact with cancer stem cells. This interaction leads to tumorigenesis, metastasis, and drug resistance. So mediating macrophage to resist tumors is considered to be potential therapy.

Hao, Ning-Bo; Lu, Mu-Han; Fan, Ya-Han; Cao, Ya-Ling; Zhang, Zhi-Ren; Yang, Shi-Ming



Comprehensive management of head and neck tumors, volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This book consists of 14 parts, each containing several papers. The parts are: General Considerations in the Management of Patients with Head and Neck Tumors, Tumors of the Ear, Tumors of the Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinuses, Tumors of the Oral Cavity, Tumors of the Pharynx, Tumors of the Larynx, Tumors of the Skin, Dental and Jaw Tumors, Tumors of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands, Tumors of the Trachea, Tumors of the Eye, Orbit, and Lacrimal Apparatus, and Special Topics.

Thawley, S.E.; Panje, W.R.



Selectins promote tumor metastasis.  


Cancer metastasis is facilitated by cell-cell interactions between cancer cells and endothelial cells in distant tissues. In addition, cancer cell interactions with platelets and leukocytes contribute to cancer cell adhesion, extravasation, and the establishment of metastatic lesions. Selectins are carbohydrate-binding molecules that bind to sialylated, fucosylated glycan structures, and are found on endothelial cells, platelets and leukocytes. There are three members of the selectin family: P-selectin expressed on activated platelets and endothelial cells, L-selectin present on leukocytes and E-selectin expressed on activated endothelial cells. Besides the accepted roles of selectins in physiological processes, such as inflammation, immune response and hemostasis, there is accumulating evidence for the potential of selectins to contribute to a number of pathophysiological processes, including cancer metastasis. Cancer cell interactions with selectins are possible due to a frequent presence of carbohydrate determinants--selectin ligands on the cell surface of tumor cells from various type of cancer. The degree of selectin ligand expression by cancer cells is well correlated with metastasis and poor prognosis for cancer patients. Initial adhesion events of cancer cells facilitated by selectins result in activation of integrins, release of chemokines and are possibly associated with the formation of permissive metastatic microenvironment. While E-selectin has been evaluated as one of the initiating adhesion events during metastasis, it is becoming apparent that P-selectin and L-selectin-mediated interactions significantly contribute to this process as well. In this review we discuss the current evidence for selectins as potential facilitators of metastasis. PMID:20452433

Läubli, Heinz; Borsig, Lubor



Applicant Services in COMO: Analysis of Data from the U.S. Training and Employment Service Applicant Follow-Up Survey (COMO Data Analysis).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study evaluates services provided to job-applicants by the 'COMO' (Comprehensive Model) model Employment Service Offices. One-month follow-up data was collected on samples of ES applicants in 6 COMO cities and 3 non-COMO cities at different points in ...



Ultrasonographic Diagnosis of Intraocular Tumors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Most intraocular tumors are malignant and often require enucleation during the late stage. 12 cases of retinolbastoma and 5 of uveal melanoma are diagnosed by ultrasonography. The echograms show abnormal echoes of various amplitudes in the normally anecho...

G. Song



[Surgical approaches to thalamic tumors].  


The paper summarizes the results of surgical treatment of patients with thalamic tumors of different topographic variants. Since 1985 till 2010 127 patients were operated, 147 direct surgical interventions were performed. Repeated surgeries were required due to partial resection of a tumor or recurrence. In most cases resection of tumors was performed via transcallosal (48%) and occipital interhemispheric (29%) approaches. Less common approaches included transcortical (frontal, temporal, parietal) (14%), pterional through lateral and basal parts of Sylvian fissure (6%) and subtentorial supracerebellar (3%). Selection of approach is based on topographic features of tumor within thalamus, direction of its growth and relations with adjacent structures (internal capsule, brainstem, hypothalamus, ventricular system). Each approach has its own advantages and drawbacks which are highlighted in the paper. PMID:21698917

Konovalov, A N; Kadyrov, Sh U



How Are Pituitary Tumors Diagnosed?  


... noticed. Large tumors can affect nearby nerves or parts of the brain, leading to headaches and visual problems. As the ... large enough to press on nearby nerves or parts of the brain, leading to neurologic symptoms that may include: Paralysis ...


Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor in colon  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is an uncommon mesenchymal solid tumor commonly documented in children and young adults. Here, we report a case of IMT in colon confirmed pathologically after laparoscopic anterior resection. A 35-year-old man presented with anal bleeding after defecation for 2 weeks. Colonoscopy demonstrated a mass with shallow ulceration in the central area and irregular margin accompanied by intact mucosa in the descending colon. Computer tomography showed a well-demarcated and homogenous solitary mass in the descending colon. We performed laparoscopic anterior resection. This case was diagnosed as IMT after microscopic examination. The tumor was composed of a proliferation of spindle-shaped cells arranged in the hyaline material with chronic inflammatory cells, composed mainly of plasma cells and lymphocytes. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were positive for smooth muscle actin, and vimentin, and negative for desmin, CD117 (c-kit), anaplastic lymphoma kinase-1.

Kim, Eun Young; Lee, Yoon Suk; Yang, Naery; Chung, Dong Jin; Yim, Kwang-il; Kim, Jin Il; Oh, Seung Taek



Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium

The Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) is a comprehensive and coordinated effort to accelerate the understanding of the molecular basis of cancer through the application of robust, quantitative, proteomic technologies and workflows.


Delivering nanomedicine to solid tumors  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in nanotechnology have offered new hope for cancer detection, prevention, and treatment. While the enhanced permeability and retention effect has served as a key rationale for using nanoparticles to treat solid tumors, it does not enable uniform delivery of these particles to all regions of tumors in sufficient quantities. This heterogeneous distribution of therapeutics is a result of physiological barriers presented by the abnormal tumor vasculature and interstitial matrix. These barriers are likely to be responsible for the modest survival benefit offered by many FDA-approved nanotherapeutics and must be overcome for the promise of nanomedicine in patients to be realized. Here, we review these barriers to the delivery of cancer therapeutics and summarize strategies that have been developed to overcome these barriers. Finally, we discuss design considerations for optimizing the delivery of nanoparticles to tumors.

Jain, Rakesh K.; Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos



Treatment for Advanced Carcinoid Tumors

In this trial, patients with advanced nueroendocrine carcinoid tumors that have spread (metastasized) or that cannot be surgically removed (unresectable) will be randomly assigned to receive the drug octreotide acetate along with either bevacizumab or another drug called interferon alfa.


Benign tumors of the spine.  


Benign tumors in the spine include osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, aneurysmal bone cyst, osteochondroma, neurofibroma, giant cell tumor of bone, eosinophilic granuloma, and hemangioma. Although some are incidental findings, some cause local pain, radicular symptoms, neurologic compromise, spinal instability, and deformity. The evaluation of spinal tumors includes a thorough history and physical examination, imaging, sometimes laboratory evaluation, and biopsy when indicated. Appropriate treatment may be observational (eg, eosinophilic granuloma) or ablative (eg, osteoid osteoma, neurofibroma, hemangioma), but generally is surgical, depending on the level of pain, instability, neurologic compromise, and natural history of the lesion. Knowledge of the epidemiology, common presentation, imaging, and treatment of benign bone tumors is essential for successful management of these lesions. PMID:23118137

Thakur, Nikhil A; Daniels, Alan H; Schiller, Jonathan; Valdes, Mauricio A; Czerwein, John K; Schiller, Alan; Esmende, Sean; Terek, Richard M



Percutaneous Ablation of Adrenal Tumors  

PubMed Central

Adrenal tumors comprise a broad spectrum of benign and malignant neoplasms, and include functional adrenal adenomas, pheochromocytomas, primary adrenocortical carcinoma and adrenal metastases. Percutaneous ablative approaches that have been described and used in the treatment of adrenal tumors include percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA), cryoablation, microwave ablation and chemical ablation. Local tumor ablation in the adrenal gland presents unique challenges, secondary to the adrenal gland’s unique anatomic and physiologic features. The results of clinical series employing percutaneous ablative techniques in the treatment of adrenal tumors are reviewed in this article. Clinical and technical considerations unique to ablation in the adrenal gland are presented, including approaches commonly used in our practices, and risks and potential complications are discussed.

Venkatesan, Aradhana M.; Locklin, Julia; Dupuy, Damian E.; Wood, Bradford J.



Adhesion molecules in tumor metastasis.  


It is now clear that adhesive interactions play a critical role in the process of metastatic tumor dissemination. Adhesion molecules act as both positive and negative modulators of the metastatic process. Molecules such as E-cadherin that promote homotypic tumor cell adhesion function to maintain intercellular contacts that confine cells to the primary tumor site and are negatively correlated with metastatic potential. Because tumor cells are rapidly eliminated from the circulation, those cells that can quickly arrest in the vasculature at a secondary site and pass through the vessel wall into the surrounding tissue will have a selective advantage toward establishing new metastatic colonies. The first step in this process is specific adhesion to venular endothelial cells in selected organs, a process mediated by tumor cell surface molecules such as Sialyl LewisX or the VLA-4 (alpha 4 beta 1) integrin that mediate binding to endothelial adhesion molecules such as the E-selectin or the vascular cell adhesion molecule, VCAM-1. Site-specific endothelial determinants such as the lung endothelial cell adhesion molecule, LuECAM, may additionally specify particular sites for preferential adhesion and subsequent site-specific metastasis of particular tumor types. After adherence to endothelial cells and subsequent endothelial retraction, metastatic tumor cells must adhere to elements of the subendothelial basement membrane such as laminin and types IV and V collagen, interactions frequently mediated by members of the beta 1 and beta 4 integrin families. Finally, metastatic tumor cell adhesion to connective tissue elements such as fibronectin, type I collagen and hyaluronan, mediated by molecules such as the beta 1 integrins and by the CD44 cell surface adhesion molecule, are required for movement of tumor cells into the subendothelial stroma and subsequent growth at these new sites. Thus, metastatic potential can be influenced both positively and negatively by a variety of cell surface adhesive molecules that act both independently and in concert to direct tumor cells to particular tissues, allowing them to arrest in those tissues, migrate across the vessel wall and grow at the secondary site. In the current review, I discuss the nature of the adhesion molecules that have been implicated in the metastatic process, emphasizing those molecules that have been shown to correlate with metastasis in clinical human tumors or that have been shown to influence metastatic potential in in vivo experimental assays. PMID:8400144

Zetter, B R



Molecular Genetics of Neuroendocrine Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through insights into the molecular genetics of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), the genes predisposing to multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes were identified. In MEN1, tumors occur in the parathyroids, endocrine pancreas, anterior pituitary, adrenal glands and thymic neuroendocrine tissues. The MEN1 gene encodes a putative growth-suppressor protein, menin, binding JunD, a transcriptional factor belonging to the AP-1 complex. However, new partners

A. Calender



Radioguided Surgery of Brain Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Surgery is still considered as the primary therapeutic procedure for brain tumors. The precise delineation and excision of\\u000a brain tumor extent allows one to improve survival outcome and quality of life of surgically treated patients. In that context,\\u000a many technical adjuncts to surgery, such as neuronavigation, ultrasound or intraoperative MRI have been explored to achieve\\u000a the most complete removal of

Laurent Menard


[Biochemical characteristics of skeletal tumors].  


Tissues of 38 varieties of human skeletal tumors were studied by a complex of biochemical assays. It was found that such biochemical parameter as concentration of connective tissue components points to the degree of malignancy. The peculiarities of biochemical characteristics of skeletal tumors are of importance in differential diagnosis and may be used in the examination of tissue specimens obtained by biopsy or during surgery. PMID:7064409

Slutski?, L I; Sosaar, V B; Amelin, A Z; Vantsevich, L M



Gene expression in bladder tumors  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Methods for analyzing tumor cells, particularly bladder tumor cells employ gene expression analysis of samples. Gene expression patterns are formed and compared to reference patterns. Alternatively gene expression patterns are manipulated to exclude genes which are expressed in contaminating cell populations. Another alternative employs subtraction of the expression of genes which are expressed in contaminating cell types. These methods provide improved accuracy as well as alternative basis for analysis from diagnostic and prognostic tools currently available.



Macrophages in the Tumor Microenvironment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Solid tumors consist of neoplastic cells, non-malignant stromal cells and migratory haematopoietic cells. Complex interactions\\u000a between the cell types in this microenvironment regulate tumor growth, progression, metastasis and angiogenesis. There is\\u000a also strong evidence that this microenvironment is inflammatory and that activation of the innate immune system plays a role\\u000a in the progression of cancer. One such inflammatory cell that

Monica Escorcio-Correia; Thorsten Hagemann


Extragastrointestinal Stromal Tumor during Pregnacy.  


Extragastrointestinal stromal tumors (EGISTs) are mesenchymal neoplasms without connection to the gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) and EGIST are similar according to their clinicopathologic and histomorphologic features. Both of them most often express immunoreactivity for CD-117, a c-kit proto-oncogene protein. The coexistence of GIST and pregnancy is very rare, with only two cases reported in the literature. In this paper, we presented the first EGIST case during pregnancy in the literature. PMID:23119199

Gözükara, Ilay; Dilek, T U Kutlu; Durukan, Hüseyin; Düsmez Apa, Duygu; Kabil Kucur, Suna; Dilek, Saffet



Headache associated with pituitary tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to analyze the presence of headache in pituitary tumors and their characteristics, the relationship\\u000a between pituitary tumor size, biological type, local extension and intrasellar pressure (ISP). This is a prospective study,\\u000a of 64 consecutive patients presenting with primary pituitary masses at Neuroendocrinological Department of General Hospital\\u000a of Fortaleza from October 2005 to December 2006.

Jackson A. Gondim; João Paulo Cavalcante de Almeida; Lucas Alverne Freitas de Albuquerque; Michele Schops; Érika Gomes; Tânia Ferraz



Krukenberg Tumor of Breast Origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term Krukenberg tumor refers to metastatic disease of the ovary, especially those metastases containing mucin-secreting signet ring cells. Krukenberg tumor of breast origin is not a frequent condition. Case Report: A 49-year-old postmenopausal woman was admitted with pains in her breast, and masses in both breasts were biopsied. Pathology showed invasive ductal cancer with mucin-secreting signet ring cells. X-rays

Enver Ilhan; Ibrahim Gulhan; Nazif Erkan; Cem Buyuktosun; Sevil Sayhan



Cellphones linked to brain tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Millions of research dollars have been spent worldwide to determine whether cellphones cause brain tumors. Now, what health experts call a large-scale, well-conducted study has yielded the most conclusive evidence of such a link to date. Researchers have found an association between long-term cellphone use and a rare, benign tumor, causing concern among radiation specialists and epidemiologists, though they emphasize

P. P. Predd



Biochemical Testing for Neuroendocrine Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter, we focus on the use of biochemical markers for the diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) and exclusion\\u000a of conditions that masquerade as NETs. In addition, we outline the use of biochemical markers for followup, response to intervention\\u000a and prognosis. Previous publications have focused only on markers specific to certain tumor types, but the uniqueness of this\\u000a chapter

Aaron I. Vinik; Maria P. Silva


Radiologic management of musculoskeletal tumors  

SciTech Connect

The present book is written by a radiologist and two orthopedic surgeons with long experience in musculoskeletal tumors. It is based on modern pathologic and surgical principles, and from those principles the radiologic approach is discussed. The main questions ask what information can be gained by the different modalities, and which combination of modalities is the most profitable to determine the local behaviour of the tumor, diagnosis and local extent.

Pettersson, H.; Springfield, D.S.; Enneking, W.F.



Tumoral calcinosis: a case report.  


Tumoral calcinosis is a rare tumour-like mass characterized by soft tissue calcification of obscure aetiology. A case of tumoral calcinosis is presented here, and its clinical, radiological and pathological features are described. The differential diagnosis versus hydatid cyst is discussed. Diagnosis is possible with imaging techniques but histopathological study is essential to establish it with certainty. Complete surgical excision appears to be the only effective treatment. PMID:15832746

Nardello, Oreste; Muggianu, Marilena; Cagetti, Marino


Allelotyping of follicular thyroid tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

To elucidate further the genetic mechanisms for follicular thyroid tumor development and progression, we allelotyped follicular thyroid tumors and other thyroid lesions from 92 patients. In general, a low frequency of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) was found, the highest being for chromosomes 3q, 10q, 11p, 11q, 13q, and 22q (10%–15%). However, detailed study of LOH of these chromosome arms with

Jan Zedenius; Göran Wallin; Ann Svensson; Lars Grimelius; Anders Höög; Göran Lundell; Martin Bäckdahl; Catharina Larsson



Immunotherapy of malignant brain tumors  

PubMed Central

Summary Despite aggressive multi-modality therapy including surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, the prognosis for patients with malignant primary brain tumors remains very poor. Moreover, the non-specific nature of conventional therapy for brain tumors often results in incapacitating damage to surrounding normal brain and systemic tissues. Thus, there is an urgent need for the development of therapeutic strategies that precisely target tumor cells while minimizing collateral damage to neighboring eloquent cerebral cortex. The rationale for using the immune system to target brain tumors is based on the premise that the inherent specificity of immunologic reactivity could meet the clear need for more specific and precise therapy. The success of this modality is dependent on our ability to understand the mechanisms of immune regulation within the central nervous system (CNS), as well as counter the broad defects in host cell-mediated immunity that malignant gliomas are known to elicit. Recent advances in our understanding of tumor-induced and host-mediated immunosuppressive mechanisms, the development of effective strategies to combat these suppressive effects, and a better understanding of how to deliver immunologic effector molecules more efficiently to CNS tumors have all facilitated significant progress toward the realization of true clinical benefit from immunotherapeutic treatment of malignant gliomas.

Mitchell, Duane A.; Fecci, Peter E.; Sampson, John H.



Glomus Tumors of the Hand  

PubMed Central

Objective: The purpose of this study is to present a review of the current understanding of glomus tumors of the hand. Methods: Clinical cases are used to demonstrate the relevance of history and physical examination in deriving the diagnosis of this rare, but important entity. Treatment, complications, and review of the literature are presented. Results: Glomus tumors are rare vascular lesions representing approximately 1% of all hand tumors. Derived from the glomus body, they are usually found at the tip of digits and present as a classic triad of severe pain, point tenderness, and cold sensitivity. Clinical features include blue discoloration, palpable nodule, and nail deformity in subungual tumors. The Hildreth's test and the Love's pin test are reliable methods of diagnosing glomus hand tumors with sensitivity and specificity exceeding 90%. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice. Possible complications following operative management include recurrence and nail deformity. Conclusion: This article outlines the current knowledge relating to the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of glomus tumors of the hand.

Hazani, Ron; Houle, John M.; Kasdan, Morton L.; Wilhelmi, Bradon J.



Multimodality evaluation of cervical tumors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clinical signs of radiotherapy failure are often not present until well after treatment has been completed. Methods which could predict the response of tumors either before or early into the radiotherapy schedule would have important implications for patient management. Recent studies performed at our institution suggest that MR perfusion imaging maya be useful in distinguishing between individuals who are likely to benefit from radiation therapy and those who are not. Because MR perfusion imaging reflects tissue vascularity as well as perfusion, quantitative positron emission tomographic (PET) blood flow studies were performed to obtain an independent assessment of tumor perfusion. MR perfusion and PET quantitative blood flow studies were acquired on four women diagnosed with advanced cervical cancer. The MR perfusion studies were acquired on a 1 cm sagittal slice through the epicenter of the tumor mass. Quantitative PET blood flow studies were performed using an autoradiographic technique. The PET and MRI were registered using a manual interactive routine and the mean blood flow in the tumor was compared to the relative signal intensity in a corresponding region on the MR image. The mean blood flow in the cervical tumors ranged form 30-48 ml/min/100 grams. The observed blood flow values are consistent with the assumed relationship between MR contrast enhancement and the distribution of tissue perfusion. The information offered by these studies provides an additional window into the evaluation of the response of cervical tumors to radiation therapy.

Madsen, Mark T.; Mayr, Nina A.; Yuh, William T.; Ehrhardt, James C.; Magnotta, Vincent A.; Ponto, Laura L.; Vannier, Michael W.; Hichwa, Richard D.



Brainstem Tumors: Where Are We Today?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brainstem tumors comprise 10–20% of all pediatric central nervous system tumors. The management of these tumors has evolved dramatically in the past century. Once considered uniformly fatal, it is now known that brainstem tumors have distinguishing characteristics and do not behave identically. The focality and location of the lesion is determined from the clinical history, presentation, and associated imaging. Based

Pablo F. Recinos; Daniel M. Sciubba; George I. Jallo



Positron emission tomography: imaging tumor response  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal in cancer practice is to effect tumor response to treatment. Tumor response in conventional practice is observed from structural appearance such as tumor shrinkage or disappearance. Positron emission tomography (PET), however, is a quantitative imaging modality that allows physicians to expand and redefine this conventional definition of tumor response. PET provides a wide range of tissue-specific radiopharmaceutical uptake

Janet F. Eary; Kenneth A. Krohn



Engineering tumors with 3D scaffolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microenvironmental conditions control tumorigenesis and biomimetic culture systems that allow for in vitro and in vivo tumor modeling may greatly aid studies of cancer cells' dependency on these conditions. We engineered three-dimensional (3D) human tumor models using carcinoma cells in polymeric scaffolds that recreated microenvironmental characteristics representative of tumors in vivo. Strikingly, the angiogenic characteristics of tumor cells were dramatically

Claudia Fischbach; Ruth Chen; Takuya Matsumoto; Tobias Schmelzle; Joan S Brugge; Peter J Polverini; David J Mooney



Infantile and adult testicular germ cell tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most adult testicular germ cell tumors have a characteristic chromosomal abnormality that is an isochromosome 12p [i(12p)]. Furthermore, these tumors are characterized by a chromosome number in the triploid range and gains and losses of (parts of) specific chromosomes. Cytogenetic investigation of three cases of infantile testicular germ cell tumors, all diagnosed as yolk sac tumors, revealed highly abnormal karyotypes.

Jannie van Echten; Albertus Timmer; Anneke Y van der Veen; Willemina M Molenaar; Bauke de Jong



Oncogenes as inducers of tumor angiogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dominantly acting transforming oncogenes are generally considered to contribute to tumor development and progression by their direct effects on tumor cell proliferation and differentiation. However, the growth of solid tumors beyond 1–2 mm in diameter requires the induction and maintenance of a tumor blood vessel supply, which is attributed in large part to the production of angiogenesis promoting growth factors

J. Rak; J. Filmus; G. Finkenzeller; S. Grugel; D. Marmé; R. S. Kerbel



Tumor-Infiltrating Immune Cells: Triggers for Tumor Capsule Disruption and Tumor Progression?  

PubMed Central

Background: Our previous studies of human breast and prostate cancer have shown that aberrant immune cell infiltration is associated with focal tumor capsule disruption and tumor cell budding that facilitate invasion and metastasis. Our current study attempted to determine whether aberrant immune cell infiltration would have similar impact on colorectal cancer (CRC). Materials and Methods: Tissue sections from 100 patients with primary CRC were assessed for the frequencies of focal basement membrane (BM) disruption, muscularis mucosa (MM) fragmentation, and tumor cell dissemination in epithelial structures adjacent and distal to infiltrating lymphoid aggregates using a panel of biomarkers and quantitative digital imaging. Results: Our study revealed: (1) epithelial structures adjacent to lymphoid follicles or aggregates had a significantly higher (p<0.001) frequency of focally disrupted BM, dissociated epithelial cells in the stroma, disseminated epithelial cells within lymphatic ducts or blood vessels, and fragmented MM than their distal counterparts, (2) a majority of dissociated epithelial cells within the stroma or vascular structures were immediately subjacent to or physically associated with infiltrating immune cells, (3) the junctions of pre-invasive and invasive lesions were almost exclusively located at sites adjacent to lymphoid follicles or aggregates, (4) infiltrating immune cells were preferentially associated with epithelial capsules that show distinct degenerative alterations, and (5) infiltrating immune cells appeared to facilitate tumor stem cell proliferation, budding, and dissemination. Conclusions: Aberrant immune cell infiltration may have the same destructive impact on the capsule of all epithelium-derived tumors. This, in turn, may selectively favor the proliferation of tumor stem or progenitor cells overlying these focal disruptions. These proliferating epithelial tumor cells subsequently disseminate from the focal disruption leading to tumor invasion and metastasis.

Jiang, Bin; Mason, Jeffrey; Jewett, Anahid; Liu, Min-ling; Chen, Wen; Qian, Jun; Ding, Yijiang; Ding, Shuqing; Ni, Min; Zhang, Xichen; Man, Yan-gao



Three tumor sensitivity tests evaluated with mouse tumors.  


The predictive value of three types of tumor sensitivity tests was evaluated using mouse tumors. Sensitivities of osteosarcoma C22LR, Lewis lung and M2661 carcinoma were determined for the following drugs: DNA interacting or alkylating agent (doxorubicin, cisplatin, 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea, melphalan), antimetabolite (5-fluorouracil, methotrexate) and microtubule inhibitor (vinblastine, vincristine). Volume measurements of the subcutaneously growing tumors after treatment with the same drugs were considered to be the traditional reference system with which the results of the in vitro clonogenic assay, the labeled precursor incorporation assay and the subrenal capsule assay were compared. Results obtained with the in vitro clonogenic assay were highly reproducible. With the 1-h drug exposure technique the predictive accuracy was 71%. This result is in the same range as those found by others for human tumors. Predictive accuracy after continuous drug exposure was only 25%. Vinblastine, vincristine and cisplatin caused no inhibition of labeled precursor incorporation. However, the assay is too unreliable to use, due to the extreme variability when used with the other drugs. From 31 consecutively performed duplicate tests in the subrenal capsule assay, nine showed opposite results. This degree of disagreement between duplicate test results was considered too high to make reliable predictions of tumor sensitivity with this assay. PMID:3476675

Lelieveld, P; Mulder, J H



Inhibition of IL-17A in Tumor Microenvironment Augments Cytotoxicity of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Tumor-Bearing Mice  

PubMed Central

It remains controversial whether IL-17A promotes or inhibits cancer progression. We hypothesized that IL-17A that is locally produced in the tumor microenvironment has an important role in angiogenesis and tumor immunity. We investigated the effect of inhibiting IL-17A at tumor sites on tumor growth and on local and systemic anti-tumor immunity. MC38 or B16 cells were inoculated subcutaneously into mice, and intratumoral injection of an adenovirus vector expressing siRNA against the mouse IL-17A gene (Ad-si-IL-17) significantly inhibited tumor growth in both tumor models compared with control mice. Inhibition of IL-17A at tumor sites significantly suppressed CD31, MMP9, and VEGF expression in tumor tissue. The cytotoxic activity of CD8+ T cells from tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in mice treated with Ad-si-IL-17 was significantly higher than in control mice; however, CD8+ T cells from splenocytes had similar activity levels. Suppression of IL-17A at tumor sites led to a Th1-dominant environment, and moreover, eliminated myeloid-derived suppressor cells and regulatory T cells at tumor sites but not in splenocytes. In conclusion, blockade of IL-17A at tumor sites helped suppress tumor growth by inhibiting angiogenesis as well as cytotoxic T lymphocytes activation at tumor sites.

Hayata, Keiji; Iwahashi, Makoto; Ojima, Toshiyasu; Katsuda, Masahiro; Iida, Takeshi; Nakamori, Mikihito; Ueda, Kentaro; Nakamura, Masaki; Miyazawa, Motoki; Tsuji, Toshiaki; Yamaue, Hiroki



Cancer stem cells and tumor dormancy.  


The cancer stem cell hypothesis postulates that only a subpopulation of cancer cells in a tumor is capable of initiating, sustaining, and reinitiating tumors, while the bulk of the population comprises non-stem cancer cells that lack tumor initiation potential. The interactions of these two phenotypically distinct populations can provoke various nonlinear growth kinetics in the emerging tumor. An environmentally independent, intrinsic dormant state is an inevitable early tumor progression bottleneck within a range of biologically realistic cell kinetic parameters. In certain conditions, cell kinetics can combine to enable escape to tumor progression, yielding morphologically distinct self-metastatic expansion of multiple self-limiting tumor clones. PMID:23143975

Enderling, Heiko



Late recurrence of a cardiac glomus tumor.  


Glomus tumors, also known as paragangliomas or chemodectomas, arise from well-differentiated mesenchymal cells that are known to be benign. These tumors account for 2% of all soft tissue tumors. The first case of a cardiac glomus tumor was reported in 1924 by Masson.1 Glomus tumors located within the pericardial tissue are extremely rare. We present the case of a recurrent cardiac glomus tumor. The preoperative investigation, diagnostic problems and surgical treatment of this case will be highlighted. Moreover we wish to emphasize the importance of such an entity and to remind readers that it must be included in the differential diagnosis of a pericardial tumor. PMID:21452115

Elkrinawi, R; Usta, E; Baumbach, H; Franke, U F W



Status of gallium-67 in tumor detector  

SciTech Connect

The efficacy of gallium-67 citrate in detecting specific tumors is discussed. Tumors in which gallium-67 imaging is useful as a diagnostic tool include Hodgkin's disease, histiocystic lymphoma, Burkitt's lymphoma, hepatoma melanoma, and leukemia. It has not been found to be effective in diagnosing head and neck tumors, gastrointestinal tumors, genitourinary tract tumors, breast tumors, and pediatric tumors. Gallium may be useful in the evaluation of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, testicular carcinoma, mesothelioma, and carcinoma of the lung. It may also be useful for determining response to treatment and prognosis in some neoplasms.

Hoffer, P.



Ionizing radiation increases systemic nanoparticle tumor accumulation  

PubMed Central

Nanoparticle-based therapies are currently being explored for both the imaging and treatment of primary and metastatic cancers. Effective nanoparticle cancer therapy requires significant accumulations of nanoparticles within the tumor environment. Various techniques have been used to improve tumor nanoparticle uptake and biodistribution. Most notable of these techniques are the use of tumor-specific-peptide-conjugated nanoparticles and chemical modification of the nanoparticles with immune-evading polymers. Another strategy for improving the tumor uptake of the nanoparticles is modification of the tumor microenvironment with a goal of enhancing the enhanced permeability and retention effect inherent to solid tumors. We demonstrate a two-fold increase in the tumor accumulation of systemically delivered iron oxide nanoparticles following a single, 15 Gy radiation dose in a syngeneic mouse breast tumor model. This increase in nanoparticle tumor accumulation correlates with a radiation-induced decrease in tumor interstitial pressure and a subsequent increase in vascular permeability.

Giustini, A.J.; Petryk, A.A.; Hoopes, P.J.



Ionizing radiation increases systemic nanoparticle tumor accumulation.  


Nanoparticle-based therapies are currently being explored for both the imaging and treatment of primary and metastatic cancers. Effective nanoparticle cancer therapy requires significant accumulations of nanoparticles within the tumor environment. Various techniques have been used to improve tumor nanoparticle uptake and biodistribution. Most notable of these techniques is the use of tumor-specific peptide-conjugated nanoparticles and chemical modification of the nanoparticles with immune-evading polymers. Another strategy for improving the tumor uptake of the nanoparticles is modification of the tumor microenvironment with a goal of intensifying the enhanced permeability and retention effect inherent to solid tumors. We demonstrate a twofold increase in the tumor accumulation of systemically delivered iron oxide nanoparticles following a single 15-Gy radiation dose in a syngeneic mouse breast tumor model. This increase in nanoparticle tumor accumulation correlates with a radiation-induced decrease in tumor interstitial pressure and a subsequent increase in vascular permeability. PMID:22633900

Giustini, Andrew J; Petryk, Alicia A; Hoopes, P Jack



Pediatric liver tumors – a pictorial review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatic masses constitute about 5–6% of all intra-abdominal masses in children. The majority of liver tumors in children are\\u000a malignant; these malignant liver tumors constitute the third most common intra-abdominal malignancy in the pediatric age group\\u000a after Wilms’ tumor and neuroblastoma. Only about one third of the liver tumors are benign. A differential diagnosis of liver\\u000a tumors in children can

Priyanka Jha; Soni C. Chawla; Sidhartha Tavri; Chirag Patel; Charles Gooding; Heike Daldrup-Link



Metastasis Suppressors and the Tumor Microenvironment  

PubMed Central

The most lethal and debilitating attribute of cancer cells is their ability to metastasize. Throughout the process of metastasis, tumor cells interact with other tumor cells, host cells and a variety of molecules. Tumor cells are also faced with a number of insults, such as hemodynamic sheer pressure and immune selection. This brief review explores how metastasis suppressor proteins regulate interactions between tumor cells and the microenvironments in which tumor cells find themselves.

Cook, Leah M.; Hurst, Douglas R.; Welch, Danny R.



Dendritic cells as initiators of tumor immune responses: a possible strategy for tumor immunotherapy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since all T-cell-mediated immune responses require antigen presentation, antigen-presenting cells (APCs) may be of central importance for the generation and regulation of tumor immunity. This article describes approaches used to induce tumor immunity via modulation of the presentation of tumor antigen, either by tumor-antigen-exposed dendritic cells or by tumor cells engineered to act as APCs.

Stephan Grabbe; Stefan Beissert; Thomas Schwarz; Richard D. Granstein



Review of the granulosa-theca cell tumors from the Emil Novak Ovarian Tumor Registry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our purpose was to review patients with granulosa and theca cell tumors as filed in the Emil Novak Ovarian Tumor Registry. Study Design: Our study was a descriptive, retrospective study of 454 case records. Results: The reviewed diagnoses were for 97 patients with granulosa cell tumors, 116 with theca cell tumors, and 97 with granulosa-theca cell tumors. The remaining

Hendrik S. Cronjé; Illse Niemand; Roosmarie H. Bam; J. Donald Woodruff



Heterogeneity of the Tumor Vasculature  

PubMed Central

The blood vessels supplying tumors are strikingly heterogeneous and differ from their normal counterparts with respect to organization, structure, and function. Six distinctly different tumor vessel types have been identified, and much has been learned about the steps and mechanisms by which they form. Four of the six vessel types (mother vessels, capillaries, glomeruloid microvascular proliferations, and vascular malformations) develop from preexisting normal venules and capillaries by angiogenesis. The two remaining vessel types (feeder arteries and draining veins) develop from arterio-venogenesis, a parallel, poorly understood process that involves the remodeling of preexisting arteries and veins. All six of these tumor vessel types can be induced to form sequentially in normal mouse tissues by an adenoviral vector expressing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A164. Current antiangiogenic cancer therapies directed at VEGF-A or its receptors have been of only limited benefit to cancer patients, perhaps because they target only the endothelial cells of the tumor blood vessel subset that requires exogenous VEGF-A for maintenance. A goal of future work is to identify therapeutic targets on tumor blood vessel endothelial cells that have lost this requirement.

Nagy, Janice A.; Chang, Sung-Hee; Shih, Shou-Ching; Dvorak, Ann M.; Dvorak, Harold F.



[Metalloproteinases in tumor progression. Review].  


The two biological characteristics that determine the malignancy of cancer are infiltration and metastasis. The study of these mechanisms is related to the invasion of tumoral cells and the relationship of these cells with their stroma, which interact producing the movement and accumulation of inflammatory cells, the formation of new blood vessels, multiplication of fibroblasts and the synthesis of the components of the extra cellular matrix production. Tumoral invasion is conditioned through various enzyme activities, in particular proteases which degrade the matrix, thus facilitating the progression of the tumor. The metalloproteinases (MMP) are a family of proteinases that play an important role in cancer as well as in numerous other diseases. MMP are, therefore, a potential factor in cancer therapy. Several synthetic MMP inhibitors have been developed and have shown successful anti-tumor activity in a variety of animal species, but in clinical studies of patients with advanced forms of cancer, this therapeutic strategy has not resulted as effective. In this article, due to the biological and clinical importance of this therapy, we summarize the current views on the role of metalloproteinases (MMP) in tumor promotion, proliferation, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis. PMID:16886780

Arvelo, Francisco; Cotte, Carlos



[Fibrous tumor of the pleura].  


Pleural fibroma, or fibrous tumor of the pleura, is an uncommon entity which is characterized by slow proliferation of undifferentiated, intermediary or mature fibroblasts associated with collagen fibers forming a tumor stroma. We report a case in a 49-Year-old man who developed exercise-induced dyspnea and right chest pain. The thoracic CT scan revealed the presence of a mass in the right lung base composed of heterogeneous encapsulated tIssue. Tumor resection was performed leading to the histological diagnosis of pleural fibroma. Immunohistochemistry tests revealed positive vimetin and CD34, and negative cytokeratin uptake. These immunohistochemistry data contributed to the differential diagnosis with malignant pleural mesothelium. Pleural fibroma is a benign tumor in 80% of the cases. Prognosis is excellent. Local recurrence is exceptional and generally occurs after incomplete resection. Radial surgical treatment determines the prognosis and is required to prevent local recurrence. Other criteria of malignancy are not correlated with the clinical course of this type of tumor. PMID:15292827

Rouas, L; Mahassini, N; Jahid, A; Zouaidia, F; Laraqui, L; Bernoussi, Z; Nabih, N; Saïdi, H; Mansouri, F; Elhachimi, A



The genetics of neuroendocrine tumors.  


Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) present a wide spectrum of malignant diseases from rather benign to very malignant variants. The majority of these tumors are sporadic, but there are several familial (inherited) syndromes to consider, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and type 2 (MEN-1 and MEN-2), von Hippel-Lindau syndrome (VHL), tuberosclerosis, and neurofibromatosis syndromes. The MEN-1 gene is mutated not only in MEN-1 families, but a recent study shows that more than 40% of sporadic pancreatic NETs (PNETs) harbor MEN-1 gene mutations. The same study reported that ATRX/DAXX genes are mutated in a significant number of tumors, as are genes encoding components of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signal transduction pathway. These findings have implications for the new therapies that have been approved for the treatment of PNETs, such as the tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib, as well the mTOR inhibitor everolimus. Small intestinal NETs show a less varied mutational pattern in that the majority of genetic alterations are found on chromosome 18. There seem to be no differences between the sporadic and the familiar type of small intestinal NETs (carcinoids). A wide range of genetic alterations have been described for the different subtypes of NETs, but the mechanisms underlying tumor development are essentially unknown except for MEN-2, in which an activating mutation of the RET proto-oncogene drives tumor progression and affords a direct genotype/phenotype correlation. Genome-wide screening of different types of NETs can now be performed for a reasonable price and is likely to generate new insights into the tumor biology and carcinogenesis in various subtypes of NETs. PMID:23391111

Öberg, Kjell



Circadian rhythms and tumor growth.  


Hormone secretion, metabolism, and the cell cycle are under rhythmic control. Lack of rhythmic control has been predicted to lead to uncontrolled proliferation and cancer. Consistent with this prediction are findings that circadian disruption by dim light at night or chronic jet lag accelerates tumor growth in desynchronized animals. Circadian controlled factors such as insulin/IGF-1, glucocorticoids, catecholamines, and melatonin have be implicated in controlling tumor growth in the desynchronized animals. Recent attention has focused on the signaling pathways activated by the circadian controlled factors because these pathways hold the potential for the development of novel strategies for cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:22252116

Greene, Michael W



Cellular immunity and immunotherapy of brain tumors.  


Factors influencing the host immune response to central nervous system (CNS) tumors are not yet well understood. This review will outline what is known about anti-tumor immune responses against CNS tumors and describe how advances in our knowledge of basic immunology may be applied to brain tumor immunotherapy. We will first focus on cellular immune system interactions involved in peripheral anti-tumor immune responses. Then, we will discuss characteristics of tumors arising within the confines of the CNS that distinguish them from peripheral neoplasms, emphasizing immune defects that seem to limit or curtail specific anti-tumor immunity against brain tumors. Finally, the current state of immune-based treatment paradigms and future directions will be discussed, paying particular attention to adoptive cellular immunotherapy and tumor vaccine approaches for the treatment of malignant gliomas. PMID:15353342

Prins, Robert M; Liau, Linda M



Endodermal Sinus Tumor of Vagina in Infants  

PubMed Central

Abstract Endodermal sinus tumor (or Yolk Sac tumor) of the vagina is a rare malignant germcell tumor which is seen exclusively in children younger than 3 years of age. We report two cases of endodermal sinus tumor of the vagina. In both cases no radiological investigation was done and serum alpha-fetoprotein was elevated. The histopathological examination of both the tumor masses revealed vaginal endodermal sinus tumor. Periodic-acid-Schiff stain with diastase showed diastase resistant hyaline globules. These findings confirmed the diagnosis of endodermal sinus tumor in both cases. Vaginal endodermal sinus tumor is both locally aggressive and capable of metastasis. The serum alpha-fetoprotein level is a useful marker for diagnosis and monitoring the recurrence of vaginal endodermal sinus tumor in infants. Early detection and therapy is important because of its aggressive nature and good response to chemotherapy.

Chauhan, Smita; Nigam, Jitendra Singh; Singh, Pallavi; Misra, Vatsala; Thakur, Brijesh



Multimechanistic tumor targeted oncolytic virus overcomes resistance in brain tumors.  


Only a subset of cancer patients inoculated with oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) type-1 has shown objective response in phase 1 and 2 clinical trials. This has raised speculations whether resistance of tumor cells to oHSV therapy may be a limiting factor. In this study, we have identified established and patient derived primary glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) stem cell lines (GSC) resistant to oHSV and also to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) that has recently shown promise in preclinical and initial clinical studies. We created a recombinant oHSV bearing a secretable TRAIL (oHSV-TRAIL) and hypothesized that oHSV-TRAIL could be used as a cancer therapeutic to target a broad spectrum of resistant tumors in a mechanism-based manner. Using the identified resistant GBM lines, we show that oHSV-TRAIL downregulates extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK)-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and upregulates c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38-MAPK signaling, which primes resistant GBM cells to apoptosis via activation of caspase-8, -9, and -3. We further show that oHSV-TRAIL inhibits tumor growth and invasiveness and increases survival of mice bearing resistant intracerebral tumors without affecting the normal tissues. This study sheds new light on the mechanism by which oHSV and TRAIL function in concert to overcome therapeutic-resistance, and provides an oncolytic virus based platform to target a broad spectrum of different cancer types. PMID:22929661

Tamura, Kaoru; Wakimoto, Hiroaki; Agarwal, Aayush S; Rabkin, Samuel D; Bhere, Deepak; Martuza, Robert L; Kuroda, Toshihiko; Kasmieh, Randa; Shah, Khalid



Mucinous tumors of the ovary: a review.  


Mucinous ovarian tumors are among the most difficult ovarian neoplasms for surgical pathologists to interpret. Approximately 20% of primary ovarian mucinous tumors are borderline tumors, noninvasive (intraglandular; intraepithelial) carcinomas, or invasive carcinomas; the remainder are cystadenomas. The borderline tumors may be of intestinal type or mullerian (endocervical-like) type. The intestinal-type tumors are by far the most common. Their frequently heterogeneous composition with coexisting elements of cystadenoma, stromal microinvasion, noninvasive carcinoma, and invasive carcinoma requires careful gross examination and extensive sampling of the tumors. The inherent glandular complexity of proliferating mucinous tumors complicates recognition of stromal invasion. Some mucinous carcinomas with expansile (confluent) invasion may be very difficult to discriminate from extensive noninvasive carcinoma. Interobserver reproducibility probably requires use of an arbitrary minimum size criterion for the diagnosis of expansile invasion. Primary invasive carcinomas with an infiltrative growth pattern are less common. Rarely, distinct mural nodules of reactive or neoplastic type are found in the cystic wall of a mucinous tumor. Pseudomyxoma peritonei almost never results from a ruptured primary ovarian mucinous neoplasm, but often produces secondary borderline-like ovarian tumors with prominent pseudomyxoma ovarii. Prognosis of mucinous tumors is highly dependent on stage and histologic composition. Borderline tumors, noninvasive carcinomas, microinvasive tumors, and invasive carcinomas with an expansile growth pattern are generally stage I and have an excellent prognosis with only occasional examples of metastatic spread. Invasive carcinomas with an infiltrative growth pattern are more aggressive, accounting for almost all high-stage mucinous tumors, and are responsible for most deaths caused by tumor. A high index of suspicion that a mucinous tumor is actually a metastasis from another organ is required by pathologists and gynecologists to prevent misdiagnosis of a metastatic neoplasm as a primary ovarian tumor. Secondary mucinous tumors are significantly more often bilateral, <10 cm in maximal dimension, and of high stage. Numerous immunohistochemical stains proposed to aid in the differential diagnosis of primary vs. secondary mucinous tumors also are reviewed. PMID:15626914

Hart, William R



Microfluidic Culture Models of Tumor Angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Blood vessels control all stages of tumor development and therapy by defining the physicochemical and cellular state of the tumor microenvironment. However, no pathologically relevant culture systems currently exist that recapitulate the associated cellular and convective mass transfer processes that are implicated in tumor angiogenesis. By integrating tissue engineering and microfluidic technologies, it will be possible to develop tumor-mimetic culture environments with embedded microvascular structures. Utilization of these microfluidic tumor models will help reveal the importance of the transport of chemical and cellular factors in tumor angiogenesis, and provide a test bed that may ultimately improve current strategies to antiangiogenic therapy.



Molecular Signatures in Urologic Tumors  

PubMed Central

Urologic tumors continue to represent a huge fraction of cancer cases in the United States, with over 376,310 estimated new diagnoses in 2013. As with many types of tumors, urologic tumors vary greatly in their phenotype, ranging from minimally invasive to malignancies possessing great metastatic potential. The increasing need for more efficient and less invasive methods of cancer detection, as well as the ability to predict severity of the disease phenotype is readily evident—yet reliable methods remain elusive in a clinical setting today. Comprehensive panels of gene clusters are being developed toward the generation of molecular signatures in order to better diagnose urologic malignancies, and identify effective treatment strategies in the emerging era of personalized medicine. In this review, we discuss the current literature on the credibility and biomarker value of such molecular signatures in the context of clinical significance relating to the pathological aggressiveness of urologic tumors (prostate, bladder and renal cancer)—also exploiting their predictive potential in the response to treatment.

Larkin, Spencer; Kyprianou, Natasha



Primary tumors of the liver.  


Primary tumors of the liver that are of clinical significance are rare. Ninety-five percent of such lesions when encountered will be malignant and only 5% will be benign. Malignant primary hepatic lesions represent 2% to 3% of primary cancers encountered in the United States. Hepatocellular carcinoma constitutes 90% of malignant liver primaries in the adult. Seventy-five percent of cases are associated with cirrhosis of the liver and patients with hepatitis B infection have a 33- to 200-fold excess risk for this malignancy. Cholangiocarcinoma represents 5% to 10% of hepatic primary malignancies while hepatoblastoma is distinctly uncommon in adults. Treatment is primarily surgical, and resectability is limited by the presence of cirrhosis and spread of the tumor within and outside of the liver. Of the benign liver tumors, the liver cell adenoma seem to be associated with oral contraception and have a proclivity for intraperitoneal hemorrhage, especially during pregnancy. Focal nodular hyperplasia is a tumor-like condition that also may be associated with oral contraception. This article describes five cases, two of which had quite unique presentations. PMID:1602511

Anderson, B B; Ukah, F; Tette, A; Villaflor, S G; Koh, D; Seton, P



Primary tumors of the liver.  

PubMed Central

Primary tumors of the liver that are of clinical significance are rare. Ninety-five percent of such lesions when encountered will be malignant and only 5% will be benign. Malignant primary hepatic lesions represent 2% to 3% of primary cancers encountered in the United States. Hepatocellular carcinoma constitutes 90% of malignant liver primaries in the adult. Seventy-five percent of cases are associated with cirrhosis of the liver and patients with hepatitis B infection have a 33- to 200-fold excess risk for this malignancy. Cholangiocarcinoma represents 5% to 10% of hepatic primary malignancies while hepatoblastoma is distinctly uncommon in adults. Treatment is primarily surgical, and resectability is limited by the presence of cirrhosis and spread of the tumor within and outside of the liver. Of the benign liver tumors, the liver cell adenoma seem to be associated with oral contraception and have a proclivity for intraperitoneal hemorrhage, especially during pregnancy. Focal nodular hyperplasia is a tumor-like condition that also may be associated with oral contraception. This article describes five cases, two of which had quite unique presentations. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11

Anderson, B. B.; Ukah, F.; Tette, A.; Villaflor, S. G.; Koh, D.; Seton, P.



Dock 3 Tumor Suppressor Gene.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates to a newly identified tumor suppressor gene, designated DOS (for Deleted in Osteosarcoma and alternatively referred to herein as DOCK 3) which has been cloned from human and mouse cells. The DOS nucleic acid and protein molecules and...

A. McClatchey C. Paulding D. Haber V. Yajnik



Laser application in tracheobronchial tumors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ninety three patients with obstructing tracheobronchial tumors were treated with Neodymium: Yttrium - Aluminum - Garnet (Nd:YAG) laser photocoagulation over a period of six years. There were sixty seven Males and 26 Females with a mean age of 44.3 years (range 6- 79 years). 21 benign and 72 malignant lesions were treated with a total 212 sessions of laser photocoagulation (mean 2.4 sessions). The anatomical distribution of lesions were as follows; larynx 9 (three benign and 6 malignant) trachea 39 (27 benign and 12 malignant) left main bronchus 27 (14 malignant) right main bronchus 24 (14 malignant) and vocal cords - 9 (three malignant). There were 21 patients with squamous cell carcinoma, two adenocarcinomas, one adenoid cystic carcinoma, 7 cases of locally infiltrating tumors from thyroid and esophagus, 6 cases of carcinoid tumor and 16 benign lesions. Twenty one patients had a tracheostomy tube in place when treatment was started. Eighteen of the 21 patients with tracheostomy were weaned off the tube in a mean of 5.5 days from the start of treatment. Lumen was restored in 31 (79.4%) patients. In the other eight (20.6%), lumen was achieved, but not sustained. Complications included bleeding in three cases which were managed conservatively, two cases of pneumothorax, and four cases of bronchospasm. There were six deaths during the follow up but none attributable to the procedure. Laser photocoagulation offered effective treatment in the majority of patients with obstructing tracheobronchial tumors, with acceptable morbidity.

Rau, B. Krishna; Krishna, Sharon



Tumor radioresponsiveness versus fractionation sensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the introduction of mammalian cell survival curves, the parameters D0 and N have been used as quantitative measures of inherent radiation sensitivity, as was the shoulder width Dq. These parameters are more generally applicable at high doses. We propose to introduce a measure of tumor radioresponsitivity that is more applicable to the clinical treatment schedules that employ small fractional

H. D. Thames; H. D. Suit



Endolymphatic sac tumor and otalgia  

PubMed Central

Otalgia is a common complaint seen by general practitioners, but its etiology is vast. Rarely, otalgia could be secondary to a neoplasm. We describe a case of otalgia and ear discharge in which the imaging revealed a rare neoplasm, an endolymphatic sac tumor, which contributed to the patient's symptoms. The primary diagnosis was made via characteristic imaging features that were later confirmed by histology.

Kershen, Michael L.; Skaggs, Lauren; Bhatki, Amol; Gilbert, Steven C.; Gomez, Conan E.; Opatowsky, Michael J.



Familial Testicular Germ Cell Tumors  

PubMed Central

In this review, we define familial testicular germ cell tumors (FTGCT) as testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) diagnosed in at least two blood relatives, a situation which occurs in 1-2% of all cases of TGCT. Brothers and fathers of TGCT patients have an 8-10 and 4-6 fold increased risk of TGCT, respectively, and an even higher elevated risk of TGCT in twin brothers of men with TGCT has been observed, suggesting that genetic elements play an important role in these tumors. Nevertheless, previous linkage studies with multiple FTGCT families did not uncover any high-penetrance genes and it has been concluded that the combined effects of multiple common alleles, each conferring modest risk, might underlie FTGCT. In agreement with this assumption, recent candidate gene association analyses have identified the chromosome Y gr/gr deletion and mutations in the PDE11A gene as genetic modifiers of FTGCT risk. Moreover, two genomewide association studies of predominantly sporadic but also familial cases of TGCT have identified three additional susceptibility loci, KITLG, SPRY4 and BAK1. Notably, all five loci are involved in the biology of primordial germ cells, representing the cell of origin of TGCT, suggesting that the tumors arise as a result of disturbed testicular development.

Kratz, Christian P.; Mai, Phuong L.; Greene, Mark H.



Radiation Therapy for Ewing Tumors  


... as the spine or pelvis (hip bones). Conformal proton beam radiation therapy: Proton beam therapy is related to 3D-CRT and uses ... x-rays like most other techniques, it focuses proton beams on the tumor. Protons are positive parts of ...


Imaging angiogenesis of genitourinary tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angiogenesis is a key process in the growth and metastasis of cancer, and genitourinary tumors are no exception. The evolution of angiogenesis as an important target for novel anticancer therapeutics has brought with it new challenges for in vivo imaging. Most imaging techniques quantify physiological parameters, such as blood volume and capillary endothelial permeability. Although CT, PET and ultrasonography have

Ying-Kiat Zee; James P. B. O'Connor; Geoff J. M. Parker; Alan Jackson; Andrew R. Clamp; M. Ben Taylor; Noel W. Clarke; Gordon C. Jayson



Updates on abdominal desmoid tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desmoid tumor is a monoclonal, fi broblastic proliferation arising in musculoaponeurotic structures. This connective tissue hyperplasia infi ltrates locally, recurs frequently after resection but does not metastasize. Abdominal desmoid occurs sporadically, in association with some familial syndromes and often represents a clinical dilemma for surgeons. The enigmatic biology and anatomical location of abdominal desmoids make treatment recommendations diffi cult. This

Bernardino Rampone; Corrado Pedrazzani; Daniele Marrelli; Enrico Pinto; Franco Roviello



Giant cell tumor of bone.  


Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is one type of giant cell-rich lesion of bone. This benign mesenchymal tumor has characteristic multinuclear giant cells. Mononuclear stromal cells are the physiologically active and diagnostic cell type. Most GCTs are located in the epiphyseal regions of long bones. The axial skeleton-primarily the sacrum-is a secondary site of involvement. Most patients present with pain, swelling, joint effusion, and disability in the third and fourth decades of life. Imaging studies are important for tumor staging and radiographic grading. Typically, these clinically active but slow-growing tumors are confined to bone, with relatively well-defined radiographic borders. Monostotic disease is most common. Metastatic spread to the lungs is rare. Extended intralesional curettage with or without adjuvant therapy is the primary treatment choice. Local recurrence is seen in ? 20% of cases, and a second local intralesional procedure is typically sufficient in cases that are detected early. Medical therapies include diphosphonates and denosumab. Denosumab has been approved for use in osteoporosis as well as breast and prostate cancer metastatic to bone. Medical therapy and radiotherapy can alter the management of GCT of bone, especially in multifocal disease, local recurrences, and bulky central/axial disease. PMID:23378375

Raskin, Kevin A; Schwab, Joseph H; Mankin, Henry J; Springfield, Dempsey S; Hornicek, Francis J



Sinonasal Metastatic Tumors in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: To analyze the incidence of the metastatic tumors within sinonasal tract in Taiwan and review the data in the English literature. Methods: Retrospective reviewed of patients from 1990 to 2005 with a histologically proven diagnosis of metastatic malignancies in the sinonasal tract. Results: Among seventeen enrolled patients, 9 were men and 8 were women, with ages ranging from 24

Hsueh-Hsin Huang; Tuan-Jen Fang; Po-Hung Chang; Ta-Jen Lee


Radiotherapy for Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNTs) are rare malignant neoplasms considered to be resistant to radiotherapy (RT), although data on efficacy are scarce. We reviewed our institutional experience to further delineate the role of RT for patients with PNTs. Methods and Materials: Between 1986 and 2006, 36 patients with PNTs were treated with RT to 49 sites. Of these 36 patients,

Joseph N. Contessa; Kent A. Griffith; Elizabeth Wolff; William Ensminger; Mark Zalupski; Theodore S. Lawrence; Edgar Ben-Josef



[Computed tomography of pancreatic tumors].  


Computed tomography (CT) and in particular multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT), also known as multislice CT (MSCT), is ideally suited for detecting pancreatic tumors because of the high spatial resolution.The method of choice is hydro-CT which involves distension of the stomach and duodenum by administration of 1-1.5 l water as a negative contrast medium under medically induced hypotension by administration of buscopan. The patient is laid on the right side at an angle of 30-45 degrees in order to obtain an artefact-free image of the close anatomical relationship around the pancreas head. In addition, curved MPRs or in rare cases 3D reconstructions could be very helpful in identifying the critical anatomic tumor site in the neighbourhood of the visceral vessel system. After the correct diagnosis of an adenocarcinoma has been made only 20% of all patients are shown to have a surgically resectable disease, but the overall survival rate is significantly higher after resection in combination with a multimodal tumor therapy strategy. The reason is that the correct diagnosis of the resectability of the tumor is one of the main criteria for overall survival of these patients. Currently practically all pancreatic tumors can be detected using MDCT and the detection rate varies between 70% and 100% (most recent literature references give a sensitivity of 89% and specificity up to 99%). In some rare cases the differentiation between focal necrotizing pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma can be difficult even with sophisticated protocols. Resectability can be correctly diagnosed with MDCT with a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 89%. MDCT is an ideal tool for the detection of neuroendocrine tumors, metastases and for the differentiation of cystic pancreatic lesions such as pseudocysts, microcystic adenomas or intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN). Particularly, the differentiation of the latter into benign, borderline or malignant transformation is not always possible, but indirect signs, such as small nodules adjacent to the ductal wall, the diameter of the pancreatic duct, or a direct communication between cystic lesions and duct can be detected because of the high spatial resolution and is comparable to the findings in MRI. Moreover MD-CT is an ideal procedure for the differentiation of local tumor stages in patients under neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:19137277

Grenacher, L; Klauss, M



O trabalho como principio educativo e o trabalho na forma social do capital  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: O texto tem como finalidade analisar criticamente a concepção do trabalho como princípio educativo no interior da forma social do capital. À luz da contribuição teórica de Marx, sobretudo em O Capital, discute o significado das três categorias fundantes de trabalho ? trabalho concreto, trabalho abstrato e trabalho produtivo ?, bem como a relação de contradição que ocorre entre

Paulo Sergio Tumolo


Efetividade da reabilitação pulmonar como tratamento coadjuvante da doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 Introdução: O paciente portador de DPOC diminui sua atividade física global devido a piora progressiva da função pulmonar como conseqüência de qualquer forma de esforço físico por ele realizado. A reabilitação pulmonar (RP) é utilizada nos EUA e Europa como alternativa terapêutica no tratamento da DPOC. Objetivo: Avaliar a efetividade do programa de RP como tratamento coadjuvante da DPOC.





Microsoft Academic Search

El presente artículo tiene como título: “La oralidad como expresión de la cultura popular tradicional en la comunidad La Josefa en Caonao” se centra en analizar la significación de la tradición oral para la comunidad de la Josefa. Sobre la base de los conceptos de cultura, cultura identitaria y tradición se analiza a la tradición oral como expresión de la

Yoanelys Mirabal Pérez; Lahera Alejandre



Tumor-to-tumor metastasis from lung cancer: a clinicopathological postmortem study.  


This study examined 47 cases of lung cancer concomitant with other tumors and found eight cases (17 %) with nine foci of tumor-to-tumor metastasis, defined as metastasis of lung cancer into another tumor. Donor lung cancers were four adenocarcinomas, two squamous cell carcinomas, and two small cell carcinomas. Tumor-to-tumor metastasis was found in five of six renal cell carcinomas (83 %), one of eight thyroid papillary carcinomas (13 %), one of three adrenocortical adenomas (33 %), one of three pancreatic endocrine microadenomas (33 %), and another lung cancer (one of six cases of multiple lung cancers, 17 %). The higher recipient incidence in renal cell carcinoma was statistically significant compared with prostatic carcinoma (0/16, P?tumor-to-tumor metastasis cases. The total clinical course of patients with tumor-to-tumor metastasis was shorter than that of the patients without tumor-to-tumor metastasis (mean, 5.4 versus 18.8 months; P?=?0.046). Tumor-to-tumor metastasis sometimes mimicked undifferentiated recipient tumor cells. Immunostains for thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1), Napsin A, cytokeratin 7 (CK7), and CK5/6 were useful to confirm tumor-to-tumor metastasis. However, TTF-1-, Napsin A-, and/or CK7-negative lung adenocarcinoma components metastasized to renal cell carcinoma in three cases, and recipient renal cell carcinomas were focally Napsin A+ (two cases) or CK7+ (two cases). Tumor-to-tumor metastasis can occur as a result of metastasis from lung cancer with more aggressive behavior. Tumor-to-tumor metastasis should be carefully distinguished from undifferentiated recipient tumor cells. PMID:23913165

Matsukuma, Susumu; Kono, Takako; Takeo, Hiroaki; Hamakawa, Yusuke; Sato, Kimiya



Neuroectodermal ovarian tumors: a brief overview.  


Primary neuroectodermal tumors of the ovary are rare monophasic teratomas composed exclusively or almost exclusively of neuroectodemal tissue. Approximately 60 neuroectodermal tumors of the ovary have been reported in the literature. These tumors were classified as ependymoma, astrocytoma, glioblastoma multiforme, ependymoblastoma or as primitive neuroepithelial tumors such as medullo-blastoma, medulloepithelioma and neuroblastoma. Most tumors were diagnosed in the third and fourth decades of life, but occasionally they were first discovered in children, adolescents or older women. Microscopically, they are identical to equivalent neuroectodermal tumors of the central nervous system. The review of the literature shows that most patients with clinical stage I and II were treated surgically, whereas those with stage III or IV tumors received additional radiation or chemotherapy, or both. The clinical stage at the time of diagnosis is the most important prognostic parameter of these tumors. PMID:18366014

Morovic, Anamarija; Damjanov, Ivan



Endogenous Myc maintains the tumor microenvironment  

PubMed Central

The ubiquitous deregulation of Myc in human cancers makes it an intriguing therapeutic target, a notion supported by recent studies in Ras-driven lung tumors showing that inhibiting endogenous Myc triggers ubiquitous tumor regression. However, neither the therapeutic mechanism nor the applicability of Myc inhibition to other tumor types driven by other oncogenic mechanisms is established. Here, we show that inhibition of endogenous Myc also triggers ubiquitous regression of tumors in a simian virus 40 (SV40)-driven pancreatic islet tumor model. Such regression is presaged by collapse of the tumor microenvironment and involution of tumor vasculature. Hence, in addition to its diverse intracellular roles, endogenous Myc serves an essential and nonredundant role in coupling diverse intracellular oncogenic pathways to the tumor microenvironment, further bolstering its credentials as a pharmacological target.

Sodir, Nicole M.; Swigart, Lamorna Brown; Karnezis, Anthony N.; Hanahan, Douglas; Evan, Gerard I.; Soucek, Laura



Periorbital Masson's tumor: a case series.  


Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (IPEH) or Masson's tumor is an unusual variety of benign vascular tumor. Involvement of periorbital area is uncommon. We report 2 cases of periorbital IPEH and review relevant literature. PMID:20829727

Wagh, Vijay B; Kyprianou, Ioannis; Burns, Joyce; Brown, Laurence J R; Vaidhyanath, Ram; Sampath, Raghavan


Biological stoichiometry in tumor micro-environments.  


Tumors can be viewed as evolving ecological systems, in which heterogeneous populations of cancer cells compete with each other and somatic cells for space and nutrients within the ecosystem of the human body. According to the growth rate hypothesis (GRH), increased phosphorus availability in an ecosystem, such as the tumor micro-environment, may promote selection within the tumor for a more proliferative and thus potentially more malignant phenotype. The applicability of the GRH to tumor growth is evaluated using a mathematical model, which suggests that limiting phosphorus availability might promote intercellular competition within a tumor, and thereby delay disease progression. It is also shown that a tumor can respond differently to changes in its micro-environment depending on the initial distribution of clones within the tumor, regardless of its initial size. This suggests that composition of the tumor as a whole needs to be evaluated in order to maximize the efficacy of therapy. PMID:23349677

Kareva, Irina



Papillary Endolymphatic Sac Tumor: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Glandular tumors involving the middle ear are rare and distinguishing between adenoma and adenocarcinoma remains difficult. A distinct subclass of these tumors demonstrates microscopic papillary architecture and has a propensity to erode the petrous bone and extend intracranially. The term “aggressive papillary middle ear tumor” has recently been proposed to describe this more invasive type of middle ear tumor. These tumors cause symptoms even when microscopic in size. Although histologically benign, they have been locally destructive with frequent intracranial extension and patients may die of uncontrolled local disease. These tumors do not metastasize but there is single case report of drop metastasis to the spine in the literature. Hence this tumor must be distinguished from other benign tumors of the middle ear. These rare neoplasms constitute a distinct pathological entity and deserve wider recognition.

Arava, S.; Soumya, R. M.; Chitragar, S.; Safaya, R.; Chandrashekhar, S. H.; Thakar, Alok



Role of Tumor Stroma in Prostate Carcinogenesis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project ultimately aims to identify the role of tumor stroma in inducing prostate carcinogenesis. The hypothesis to be tested is that tumor stroma, in the form of carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) isolated from human prostate cancer patients, c...

R. J. Taylor



New Transgenic Approach to Target Tumor Vasculature.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Breast cancer growth relies on a blood supply. Therefore, anticancer therapies that disrupt tumor angiogenesis to starve tumor cells can be very effective. To examine the importance of candidate proteins in adult angiogenesis, we generated a transgenic mo...

E. B. Pasquale



Biological Stoichiometry in Tumor Micro-environments  

PubMed Central

Tumors can be viewed as evolving ecological systems, in which heterogeneous populations of cancer cells compete with each other and somatic cells for space and nutrients within the ecosystem of the human body. According to the growth rate hypothesis (GRH), increased phosphorus availability in an ecosystem, such as the tumor micro-environment, may promote selection within the tumor for a more proliferative and thus potentially more malignant phenotype. The applicability of the GRH to tumor growth is evaluated using a mathematical model, which suggests that limiting phosphorus availability might promote intercellular competition within a tumor, and thereby delay disease progression. It is also shown that a tumor can respond differently to changes in its micro-environment depending on the initial distribution of clones within the tumor, regardless of its initial size. This suggests that composition of the tumor as a whole needs to be evaluated in order to maximize the efficacy of therapy.

Kareva, Irina



Imaging and resectability issues of sinonasal tumors.  


Sinonasal tumors can invade into the critical structures of the anterior and central skull base. Although the determination of precise tumor histology is difficult with imaging, radiology is important in helping differentiate malignant from benign disease. Imaging helps to map the anatomical extent of intracranial and intraorbital tumor, which has important implications for staging, treatment and prognosis. Imaging also helps to facilitate and plan for craniofacial or endoscopic surgical approaches and radiation planning. This paper will review the locoregional invasion patterns for sinonasal tumors, with emphasis on their imaging features. The authors will discuss the implications for staging, resection potential, choice and details of radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy and prognosis. The imaging assessment of structures and compartments that are critical to the skull base team are highlighted: orbit, cavernous sinus, anterior cranial fossa dura/intracranial tumor, lateral frontal sinus, vascular tumor encasement, perineural tumor spread and tumor effect on the surrounding bony structures. PMID:23477517

Singh, Navneet; Eskander, Antoine; Huang, Shao-Hui; Curtin, Hugh; Bartlett, Eric; Vescan, Allan; Kraus, Dennis; O'Sullivan, Brian; Gentili, Fred; Gullane, Patrick; Yu, Eugene



Cushing syndrome due to adrenal tumor  


... are more common than pituitary tumors or ectopic ACTH secretion . In adults, adrenal tumors are less likely ... cortisol levels Tests to determine cause: Abdominal CT ACTH High-dose dexamethasone suppression test Other findings may ...


Study of Tumor Growth under Hyperthermia Condition  

PubMed Central

The new concept of keeping primary tumor under control in situ to suppress distant foci sheds light on the treatment of metastatic tumor. Hyperthermia is considered as one of the means for controlling tumor growth. To simulate the tumor growth, a continuum mathematical model has been introduced. The newest understanding of the Warburg effect on the cellular metabolism and diffusion of the nutrients in the tissue has been taken into consideration. The numerical results are compared with the in vivo experimental data by fitting the tumor cell doubling time/tumor cell growth rate under different thermal conditions. Both the tumor growth curve and corresponding average glucose concentration have been predicted. The numerical results have quantitatively illustrated the controlling effect on tumor growth under hyperthermia condition in the initial stage.

Zhu, Qing; Zhang, Aili; Liu, Ping; Xu, Lisa X.



Antibody Targeting of Caveolae in Breast Tumors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this project, the authors propose to compare, at the molecular level, protein expression in caveolae in tumor vs. normal endothelium to identify caveolar proteins unique to the tumor endothelium that can be used as molecular targets for therapeutic pro...

J. E. Schnitzer



Tumor Progression While on Chemotherapy  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the influence of the response to preoperative chemotherapy, especially tumor progression, on the outcome following resection of multiple colorectal liver metastases (CRM). Summary Background Data: Hepatic resection is the only treatment that currently offers a chance of long-term survival, although it is associated with a poor outcome in patients with multinodular CRM. Because of its better efficacy, chemotherapy is increasingly proposed as neoadjuvant treatment in such patients to allow or to facilitate the radicality of resection. However, little is known of the efficacy of such a strategy and the influence of the response to chemotherapy on the outcome of hepatic resection. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the course of 131 consecutive patients who underwent liver resection for multiple (?4) CRM after systemic chemotherapy between 1993 and 2000, representing 30% of all liver resections performed for CRM in our institution during that period. Chemotherapy included mainly 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and either oxaliplatin or irinotecan for a mean of 9.8 courses (median, 9 courses). Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the type of response obtained to preoperative chemotherapy. All liver resections were performed with curative intent. We analyzed patient outcome in relation to response to preoperative chemotherapy. Results: There were 58 patients (44%) who underwent hepatectomy after an objective tumor response (group 1), 39 (30%) after tumor stabilization (group 2), and 34 (26%) after tumor progression (group 3). At the time of diagnosis, mean tumor size and number of metastases were similar in the 3 groups. No differences were observed regarding patient demographics, characteristics of the primary tumor, type of liver resection, and postoperative course. First line treatments were different between groups with a higher proportion of oxaliplatin- and/or irinotecan-based treatments in group 1 (P < 0.01). A higher number of lines of chemotherapy were used in group 2 (P = 0.002). Overall survival was 86%, 41%, and 28% at 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively. Five-year survival was much lower in group 3 compared with groups 1 and 2 (8% vs. 37% and 30%, respectively at 5 years, P < 0.0001). Disease-free survival was 3% compared with 21% and 20%, respectively (P = 0.02). In a multivariate analysis, tumor progression on chemotherapy (P < 0.0001), elevated preoperative serum CA 19–9 (P < 0.0001), number of resected metastases (P < 0.001), and the number of lines of chemotherapy (P < 0.04), but not the type of first line treatment, were independently associated with decreased survival. Conclusions: Liver resection is able to offer long-term survival to patients with multiple colorectal metastases provided that the metastatic disease is controlled by chemotherapy prior to surgery. Tumor progression before surgery is associated with a poor outcome, even after potentially curative hepatectomy. Tumor control before surgery is crucial to offer a chance of prolonged remission in patients with multiple metastases.

Adam, Rene; Pascal, Gerard; Castaing, Denis; Azoulay, Daniel; Delvart, Valerie; Paule, Bernard; Levi, Francis; Bismuth, Henri



Primary tumors and tumor-like lesions of the clavicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty eight patients seen at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center over a 50-year period were reviewed for lesions of the clavicle. A variety of malignant neoplasms, benign neoplasms, and tumor-like lesions were seen. There were 30 malignant neoplasms, the commonest of which were plasmacytomas, osteosarcomas, and Ewing sarcomas. There were five postradiation sarcomas. An unusual granulocytic sarcoma with dense sclerosis was

Julius Smith; Frank Yuppa; Robin C. Watson



Resection of a heart tumor using autotransplantation.  


A 38 year old male patient presented with a cardiac tumor. Echocardiography and visualization of the left atrium revealed a large myxoma. Surgical resection of the tumor was performed with the aid of cardiopulmonary bypass. The extensive size of the tumor base and its localisation at the posterior left atrial wall made a conventional approach impossible. Therefore radical resection of the tumor was undertaken using autotransplantation. After a routine postoperative course, the patient was discharged on the twenty seventh hospital day. PMID:3287682

Scheld, H H; Nestle, H W; Kling, D; Stertmann, W A; Langebartels, H; Hehrlein, F W



A Global Approach to Tumor Immunology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological and clinical advances in the understanding of tumor immunology suggest that immune responsiveness of human tumors is a complex biological phenomenon that could be best studied by a real-time comparison of tumor\\/host interactions in the tumor microenvironment through a high-throughput discovery-driven approach. This conclusion is derived from our recognition that too many hypotheses or, in other words, no solid

Ena Wang; Monica C Panelli; Vladia Monsurró; Francesco M Marincola


Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas.  


Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas is considered to be a rare pancreatic tumor. These tumors are typically present in women in their third decade of life. The tumors have a low malignant potential. We report a case of 22-year-old female who presented with intermittent abdominal pain of 3 years duration. Distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy was done as a definitive treatment. The importance of accurate diagnosis and treatment is emphasized. PMID:18603707

Kamat, Rima N; Naik, Leena D; Joshi, Rajeev M; Amrapurkar, Anjali D; Shetty, T S


Pott's puffy tumor: multidetector computed tomography findings.  


A subperiostal abscess of the frontal bone as a complication of osteomyelitis, appearing as a puffy, indolent tumor of the forehead, was first described by Pott. This less-common complication of is known as Pott's Puffy tumor. The complications of Pott's Puffy tumor are preseptal and orbital cellulites by downward spread to the orbit and intracranial infection by posterior extension. We present a case of Pott's Puffy tumor complicated by intracranial infection imaged by means of multidetector computed tomography. PMID:19098586

Durur-Subasi, Irmak; Kantarci, Mecit; Karakaya, Afak; Orbak, Zerrin; Ogul, Hayri; Alp, Handan



Environmental risk factors for brain tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary brain tumors, whether malignant or nonmalignant, have devastating consequences. Unfortunately, few known causes exist.\\u000a Despite decades of epidemiologic research to identify environmental causes of brain tumors, very little progress has been\\u000a made. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent studies in the epidemiology of brain tumors. Popular topics of\\u000a interest in adult brain tumor epidemiology

Jennifer M. Connelly; Mark G. Malkin



Focus on treatment of lung carcinoid tumor  

PubMed Central

Bronchial typical carcinoid tumors are neuroendocrine bronchopulmonary tumors with a low-grade malignancy, and an atypical carcinoid is an intermediate form of these tumors. There is a lack of knowledge on the optimal treatment for these tumors. The surgical treatment of choice consists of a lobectomy supplemented by dissection. The benefit of chemotherapy and radiotherapy is unclear. Targeted therapy could be used in this condition, but there is a lack of research recommending it.

Noel-Savina, Elise; Descourt, Renaud



Thrombopoietin Receptor Levels in Tumor Cell Lines and Primary Tumors  

PubMed Central

Thrombopoietin (TPO) receptor agonists represent a new approach for the treatment of thrombocytopenia, which may develop as a consequence of immune thrombocytopenia, chemotherapy treatment, chronic hepatitis C infection, or myelodysplastic syndromes. There are concerns that use of certain growth factors can hasten disease progression in some types of hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. In this study, expression of MPL (TPO-R) mRNA was examined in tumor cell lines, patient tumor samples (renal cell carcinoma, prostatic carcinoma, soft tissue and bony/cartilage sarcoma, colon cancer, and lymphoma), and normal tissues using microarray analysis and qRT-PCR. MPL mRNA is expressed at very low or undetectable levels compared with erythropoietin receptor (EPOR), human epidermal growth factor (ERBB2; HER2), and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) in these patient samples. These data suggest TPO-R agonists will likely preferentially stimulate proliferation and differentiation of cells of megakaryocytic lineage, potentially demonstrating their utility for correcting thrombocytopenia in clinical settings.

Erickson-Miller, Connie L.; Chadderton, Antony; Gibbard, Anna; Kirchner, Jennifer; Pillarisetti, Kodandaram; Baker, Katherine; Pandite, Lini; El-Hariry, Iman; Mostafa Kamel, Yasser; Liu, Yuan; Martin, Anne-Marie; Messam, Conrad



Systemic amyloidosis presenting as splenic tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of amyloidosis manifesting as a splenic tumor and pleural effusion. Only one case of a splenic amyloid tumor has been reported in the literature, but its radiological findings were not described. Therefore, we present the computed tomographic (CT), sonographic, and angiographic features of splenic amyloid tumor.

Tzu-Yin Liu; Shinn-Cherng Chen; Liang-Yen Wang; Wan-Long Chuang; Wen-Yu Chang; Chiang-Shin Liu



Transoral Robotic Surgery for Parapharyngeal Space Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes of patients with parapharyngeal space (PPS) tumors treated with a transoral robotic surgery (TORS) approach. Materials and Methods: We prospectively enrolled well-defined benign PPS tumors accessible from the oropharynx with no carotid encasement or bone erosion. We designated outcome measures that included technical feasibility of the approach, local tumor control and complication rates. Descriptive statistics

Bert W. O’Malley Jr; Harry Quon; Fernando D. Leonhardt; Ara A. Chalian; Gregory S. Weinstein



Clinical data of Granulosa cell tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical data from Granulosa cell tumors (GCT) of the ovary were compared with data from 528 cases of malignant ovarian tumor in regard to symptomatology, treatment and prognosis. GCT are more frequent under the age of 30 and their biology requires a clinical separation from other feminizing mesenchymal tumors. Irregularities of ulterine bleeding as a result of hormonal activity were

K.-W. Schweppe; F. K. Beller



Radiotherapy of Tumors of the Salivary Glands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

85% of 91 irradiated tumors were malign, 12% were pleomorphic adenomas and 3% were benign. 70% were primary tumors, 30% were relapses. Two thirds of all tumors were carcinomas. More than the half of the local irradiations were performed with cobalt 60, on...

W. Tressel



Role of PTEN in the Tumor Microenvironment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent scientific advances have revealed that a malignant tumor can be viewed as an organ consisting of different types of interacting cells. Different tumor cell types play different roles in the growth and development of the tumor and thus in the end, a...

G. Leone



Further immunization studies with mammary tumor virus.  


A single i.m. dose of formalin-inactivated murine mammary tumor virus greatly reduces viral expression and mammary tumorigenesis in Af (tumor incidence, 39%) and RIIIf (tumor incidence, 11%) mice, which carry only endogenous, gamete-transmitted virus. In C57BL mice, 1 mug of vaccine in Freund's complete adjuvant protects against later challenge with RIII virus. PMID:175938

Charney, J; Holben, J A; Cody, C M; Moore, D H



Cancer immunoprevention: tracking down persistent tumor antigens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immune response can effectively hamper the progression of preclinical stages of tumor growth. Medicine in the postgenomic era offers an increasing possibility of detecting healthy individuals at risk of developing cancer who could benefit from tumor-preventive vaccines. The identification of novel tumor antigens that fulfill two conditions will be crucial for the development of cancer immunoprevention. First, an ideal

Pier-Luigi Lollini; Guido Forni



T cell-mediated help against tumors.  


Adoptive transfer of tumor antigen-specific T helper (Th) cells is a surprisingly potent anti-tumor therapy. Even in RIP1-Tag2 mice with a rapidly growing, aggressive endogenous beta cell tumor Th can significantly extend life time and are more efficient than any other therapy studied. The therapeutic effect of Th cells seems to be independent of tumor cell destruction. It critically relies on three principles: (1) inhibition of tumor angiogenesis, (2) inhibition of beta cell proliferation, and (3) induction of tumor dormancy. As tumor cell destruction by cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells (CTL) largely failed in tumor therapy, induction of tumor dormancy by Th cell-mediated immune responses represents a novel therapeutic option that may be combined with other cytotoxic regimens, e.g., radio- and/or chemotherapy, as it is established for bone marrow transplantation. Importantly, Th cell efficacy strictly requires interferon gamma (IFNgamma) signaling, and in the absence of IFNgamma, Th cells may even worsen tumor diseases. Therefore, using the immune system to control tumor dormancy represents a novel approach, especially as therapy of tumors resistant to conventional therapies. Yet, it is important to underline that Th cell-based antitumor effects critically depend on a functional cytokine network, especially appropriate IFNgamma signaling. PMID:18838866

Wieder, Thomas; Braumüller, Heidi; Kneilling, Manfred; Pichler, Bernd; Röcken, Martin



[Development of anti tumor agents targeting angiogenesis].  


Aberrant angiogenesis is closely involved in invasion/metastasis as well as enlargement of tumor. One recent highlight is to develop anti angiogenic drugs by targeting tumor angiogenesis. Here we describe how tumor angiogenesis is regulated and also recent topics related to angiogenic drug in clinical trials. PMID:9030228

Ono, M; Kuwano, M



Soft tissue mixed tumor of the hand  

PubMed Central

Mixed tumors are relatively common in the skin and salivary glands, but extremely rare in soft tissues, often resulting in diagnostic problems. The occurrence of these tumors in the hand is especially limited. In this article we report the clinical, radiological, and histological features of a mixed tumor of the hypothenar region of the right hand.

Shimosawa, Hiroshi; Susa, Michiro; Honma, Takayuki; Hiraishi, Eiichi; Sakihara, Hiroshi



Changes in the treatment of Pancoast tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our understanding of superior sulcus tumors has evolved over time. The unique feature of Pancoast tumors is their location, in which the anatomy poses limitations to resection. Many resections are found to be incomplete, and the majority of recurrences have involved local failure. New surgical approaches allow greater flexibility according to tumor location and may improve these outcomes. Furthermore, new

Frank C Detterbeck



Cerebral primitive neuroectodermal tumors in childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of 17 infants and children with cerebral primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) detected by computed tomography is presented. The pertinent literature is reviewed. Because of ongoing nosological difficulty, we include in this series only those tumors which are located in the cerebral hemisphere, and are composed of predominantly undifferentiated neuroepithelial tumor with or without glial or neuronal differentiation. The

Tadanori Tomita; David G. McLone; Masaharu Yasue



Metastatic Carcinoid Tumors: A Clinical Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carcinoid tumors are neuroendocrine tumors derived from enterochromaffin cells, which are widely distrib- uted in the body. They can originate from any location in the body, but they are traditionally described as originat- ing from the foregut, midgut, and hindgut. Although the overall incidence of carcinoid tumors appears to have increased in the past decades, the prognosis for patients with



Gene therapy targeting to tumor endothelium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor-associated vasculature is a relatively accessible component of solid cancers that is essential for tumor survival and growth, providing a vulnerable target for cancer gene therapy administered by intravenous injection. Several features of tumor-associated vasculature are different from normal vasculature, including overexpression of receptors for angiogenic growth factors, markers of vasculogenesis, upregulation of coagulation cascades, aberrant expression of adhesion molecules

M Bazan-Peregrino; L W Seymour; A L Harris



Temperature control in deep tumor treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor cells are more sensitive to temperature increase than normal tissue. Hyperthermia has been used as a potential modality for cancer treatment. Another benefit from the thermal interruption of tumor cells is the immunological reactions, caused by inflammation and other mechanisms, and more interestingly caused by antigen(s) release. The temperature control is crucial both in direct tumor destruction through acute

Sang w. Jeong; Hong Liu; Wei R. Chen



Tumor angiogenesis: molecular pathways and therapeutic targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

As angiogenesis is essential for tumor growth and metastasis, controlling tumor-associated angiogenesis is a promising tactic in limiting cancer progression. The tumor microenvironment comprises numerous signaling molecules and pathways that influence the angiogenic response. Understanding how these components functionally interact as angiogenic stimuli or as repressors and how mechanisms of resistance arise is required for the identification of new therapeutic

Sara M Weis; David A Cheresh



Multiparametric MR assessment of pediatric brain tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

MR assessment of pediatric brain tumors has expanded to include physiologic information related to cellular metabolites, hemodynamic and diffusion parameters. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between MR and proton MR spectroscopic imaging in children with primary brain tumors. Twenty-one patients (mean age 9 years) with histologically verified brain tumors underwent conventional MR imaging, hemodynamic MR

A. A. Tzika; L. Astrakas; M. Zarifi; N. Petridou; T. Young-Poussaint; L. Goumnerova; D. Zurakowski; D. Anthony; P. Black



Modelling Early Tumor Growth with Diffusion Equation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This essay is aimed at forming a lecture series on the modelling of early tumor growth using diffusion equations. We present basic models for tumor growth and discuss the linear stability of their steady states. The models discussed predict the size of the proliferating layer, the size of the tumor, and the effects of the immune system response, on

Asha Saidi Kalula; Jacek Banasiak


Tumor-Associated Macrophages in Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neoplastic cells form only one part of a complex network of cell types that make up a breast tumor. The normal cell types that make up the nonneoplastic components of tumors include fibroblasts, endothelium, and inflammatory cells, such as tumor associated macrophages (TAMs). TAMs have the potential to carry out both anti- and protumor activities. In their antitumor role TAMs

Russell D. Leek; Adrian L. Harris



Mouse models of CNS embryonal tumors.  


Central nervous system (CNS) embryonal tumors are devastating cancers in children, consisting of medulloblastomas, CNS primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors. One of the reasons that CNS embryonal tumors remain difficult to treat is their rarity, which makes conducting clinical trials for these tumors difficult. Recent advances of molecular biology have led us to identify molecular and genetic causality of brain tumors. Based on the genetic alterations found in humans, multiple models of human CNS embryonal tumors have been generated in genetically engineered mice. These mouse models are valuable tools for understanding brain tumor biology and discovering novel therapeutic targets and drugs. In this article, we review molecular and cytogenetic characteristics of human CNS embryonal tumors and corresponding mouse models that have been developed. These findings indicate that common genetic abnormalities are seen in variants of human CNS embryonal tumors, and multiple histological variants of these tumors can be generated from a single set of genetic abnormalities in mice. These data provide insight into the biology and classification of CNS embryonal tumors. PMID:19856214

Momota, Hiroyuki; Holland, Eric C



CD73 promotes tumor growth and metastasis  

PubMed Central

Our recent data and that of others demonstrate that both tumor and host CD73-generated adenosine promote tumor growth and metastasis in a multifactorial manner. Results with small molecule inhibitors or monoclonal antibodies against CD73 in multiple tumor models suggest that CD73 is a previously unappreciated important target for effective cancer therapy.

Zhang, Bin



In Vitro Model of Tumor Cell Extravasation  

PubMed Central

Tumor cells that disseminate from the primary tumor and survive the vascular system can eventually extravasate across the endothelium to metastasize at a secondary site. In this study, we developed a microfluidic system to mimic tumor cell extravasation where cancer cells can transmigrate across an endothelial monolayer into a hydrogel that models the extracellular space. The experimental protocol is optimized to ensure the formation of an intact endothelium prior to the introduction of tumor cells and also to observe tumor cell extravasation by having a suitable tumor seeding density. Extravasation is observed for 38.8% of the tumor cells in contact with the endothelium within 1 day after their introduction. Permeability of the EC monolayer as measured by the diffusion of fluorescently-labeled dextran across the monolayer increased 3.8 fold 24 hours after introducing tumor cells, suggesting that the presence of tumor cells increases endothelial permeability. The percent of tumor cells extravasated remained nearly constant from1 to 3 days after tumor seeding, indicating extravasation in our system generally occurs within the first 24 hours of tumor cell contact with the endothelium.

Jeon, Jessie S.; Zervantonakis, Ioannis K.; Chung, Seok; Kamm, Roger D.; Charest, Joseph L.



Perfluorochemical emulsions can increase tumor radiosensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

An oxygen-carrying perfluorochemical emulsion enhanced the effectiveness of radiation therapy in two transplantable solid tumors in mice. The perfluorochemical emulsion had no effect on tumor growth after x-irradiation, but delayed tumor growth significantly when administered to oxygen-breathing mice before or during irradiation.

B. A. Teicher; C. M. Rose



Immunohistochemical localization of renin in renal tumors.  

PubMed Central

Immunoperoxidase staining for renin was performed with renal tumors, including juxtaglomerular (JG) tumor, Wilms' tumors, renal adenocarcinomas, renal oncocytomas, and cortical adenomas. Compared with the JG apparatus adjacent to the glomerulus, JG tumor cells were less darkly but diffusely stained for renin. One of five Wilms' tumors revealed more numerous renin-containing tumor cells than the adjacent renal cortex, whereas three of ten renal adenocarcinomas and two of three renal oncocytomas revealed only focally renin-positive tumor cell cytoplasms. None of six cortical adenomas were positive for renin. With available fresh tumor tissue, renin activity was studied by measuring newly formed angiotensin I by radioimmunoassay. JG tumor contained markedly elevated renin activity, whereas one Wilms' tumor and two renal adenocarcinomas contained no more than 2% of renin activity of the renal cortex, more than 50% of which was inactive renin. These findings suggest that the JG tumor elaborates enormous amounts of active renin, whereas other renal tumors produce lesser amounts of renin, more than half of which is inactive renin. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6

Tomita, T.; Poisner, A.; Inagami, T.



A Multiscale Model for Avascular Tumor Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The desire to understand tumor complexity has given rise to mathematical models to describe the tumor microenvironment. We present a new mathematical model for avascular tumor growth and development that spans three distinct scales. At the cellular level, a lattice Monte Carlo model describes cellular dynamics (proliferation, adhesion, and viability). At the subcellular level, a Boolean network regulates the expression

Y. Jiang; Jelena Pjesivac-Grbovic; Charles Cantrell; James P. Freyer



Genomic aberrations in borderline ovarian tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: According to the scientific literature, less than 30 borderline ovarian tumors have been karyotyped and less than 100 analyzed for genomic imbalances by CGH. METHODS: We report a series of borderline ovarian tumors (n = 23) analyzed by G-banding and karyotyping as well as high resolution CGH; in addition, the tumors were analyzed for microsatellite stability status and by

Francesca Micci; Lisbeth Haugom; Terje Ahlquist; Hege K Andersen; Vera M Abeler; Ben Davidson; Claes G Trope; Ragnhild A Lothe; Sverre Heim



Spindle Cell Tumor of the Distal Rectum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonepithelial mesenchymal tumors (gastrointestinal stromal tumors [GISTs], leiomyomas, and leiomyosarcomas) can occur along any portion of the alimentary tract. Although classically described as smooth muscle tumors (SMT) due to the presence of histopathological features of smooth muscle cells, recent advances in immunohistochemistry have led to the proposal that GIST neoplasms may originate from the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) (1),

Anil M. Bahadursingh; Parsia A. Vagefi; Antonio Howell; Charlene Prather; Walter E. Longo



The Tumor Spectrum in the Lynch Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colorectal and endometrial cancer are the characteristic tumors of the Lynch syndrome. We reviewed the available evidence on the occurrence of other types of cancer in the syndrome, aiming to identify those types that can be included in the tumor spectrum, based on this evidence. We chose to define the tumor spectrum as comprising the cancers for which Lynch syndrome

Patrice Watson; Bronson Riley



Fibroblastic tumors of intermediate malignancy in childhood.  


Pediatric fibroblastic-myofibroblastic tumors of intermediate prognosis are locally aggressive tumors that rarely metastasize. They are potentially curable, but managing them is often a challenge in terms of their correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment. This paper reviews the most recent biological findings and latest novelties in the multidisciplinary treatment of childhood desmoid-type fibromatoses, infantile fibrosarcoma and inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. PMID:23406563

Ferrari, Andrea; Alaggio, Rita; Meazza, Cristina; Chiaravalli, Stefano; Vajna de Pava, Marco; Casanova, Michela; Cavaliere, Elena; Bisogno, Gianni



Adequate antigen availability: a key issue for novel approaches to tumor vaccination and tumor immunotherapy.  


A crucial parameter for activation of the anti-tumor immune response is an adequate antigen availability (AAA) defined here as the optimal tumor antigen dose and related antigen processing and MHC-II-restricted presentation necessary to efficiently trigger tumor-specific TH cells. We will discuss two distinct experimental systems: a) a preventive anti-tumor vaccination system; b) a therapy-induced anti-tumor vaccination approach. In the first case tumor cells are rendered constitutively MHC-II+ by transfecting them with the MHC-II transcriptional activator CIITA. Here AAA is generated by the function of tumor's newly expressed MHC-II molecules to present tumor-associated antigens to tumor-specific TH cells. In the second case, AAA is generated by treating established tumors with neovasculature-targeted TNF?. In conjuction with Melphalan, targeted TNF? delivery produces extensive areas of tumor necrosis that generate AAA capable of optimally activate tumor-specific TH cells which in turn activate CTL immune effectors. In both experimental systems tumor rejection and persistent and long-lived TH cell anti-tumor memory, responsible of defending the animals from subsequent challenges with tumor cells, are achieved. Based on these and other investigators' results we propose that AAA is a key element for triggering adaptive immune functions resulting in subversion from a pro-tumor to an anti-tumor microenvironment, tumor rejection and acquisition of anti-tumor immune memory. Hypotheses of neuro-immune networks involved in these approaches are discussed. These considerations are important also for the comprehension of how chemotherapy and/or radiation therapies may help to block and/or to eradicate the tumor and for the construction of suitable anti-tumor vaccine strategies. PMID:23224729

Accolla, Roberto S; Tosi, Giovanna



Correlation of endoscopic biopsy with tumor marker status in primary intracranial germ cell tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  We retrospectively analyzed the results of eight patients who underwent endoscopic biopsy of a newly diagnosed primary intracranial germ cell tumor (GCT), and correlated tumor pathology with serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tumor markers and treatment outcome in order to determine the reliability of GCT sampling by this method. A biopsy diagnosis was made in each patient, and the tumor

Neal Luther; Mark A. Edgar; Ira J. Dunkel; Mark M. Souweidane



Influence of tumor antigen on maintenance versus depression of tumor- -specific immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The development of immunity to tumor-specific transplan tation antigens has been studied with a syngeneic methyl- cholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma. Of several immunization procedures tested, live tumor implantation followed by resection gave the strongest immune resistance to challenge implantation of tumor cells. The immune resistance persisted with only slight decline for at least 100 days after the sensitizing tumor was cured

Jan Vaage



Sox17 promotes tumor angiogenesis and destabilizes tumor vessels in mice.  


Little is known about the transcriptional regulation of tumor angiogenesis, and tumor ECs (tECs) remain poorly characterized. Here, we studied the expression pattern of the transcription factor Sox17 in the vasculature of murine and human tumors and investigated the function of Sox17 during tumor angiogenesis using Sox17 genetic mouse models. Sox17 was specifically expressed in tECs in a heterogeneous pattern; in particular, strong Sox17 expression distinguished tECs with high VEGFR2 expression. Whereas overexpression of Sox17 in tECs promoted tumor angiogenesis and vascular abnormalities, Sox17 deletion in tECs reduced tumor angiogenesis and normalized tumor vessels, inhibiting tumor growth. Tumor vessel normalization by Sox17 deletion was long lasting, improved anticancer drug delivery into tumors, and inhibited tumor metastasis. Sox17 promoted endothelial sprouting behavior and upregulated VEGFR2 expression in a cell-intrinsic manner. Moreover, Sox17 increased the percentage of tumor-associated CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells within tumors. The vascular effects of Sox17 persisted throughout tumor growth. Interestingly, Sox17 expression specific to tECs was also observed in highly vascularized human glioblastoma samples. Our findings establish Sox17 as a key regulator of tumor angiogenesis and tumor progression. PMID:23241958

Yang, Hanseul; Lee, Sungsu; Lee, Seungjoo; Kim, Kangsan; Yang, Yeseul; Kim, Jeong Hoon; Adams, Ralf H; Wells, James M; Morrison, Sean J; Koh, Gou Young; Kim, Injune



Sox17 promotes tumor angiogenesis and destabilizes tumor vessels in mice  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the transcriptional regulation of tumor angiogenesis, and tumor ECs (tECs) remain poorly characterized. Here, we studied the expression pattern of the transcription factor Sox17 in the vasculature of murine and human tumors and investigated the function of Sox17 during tumor angiogenesis using Sox17 genetic mouse models. Sox17 was specifically expressed in tECs in a heterogeneous pattern; in particular, strong Sox17 expression distinguished tECs with high VEGFR2 expression. Whereas overexpression of Sox17 in tECs promoted tumor angiogenesis and vascular abnormalities, Sox17 deletion in tECs reduced tumor angiogenesis and normalized tumor vessels, inhibiting tumor growth. Tumor vessel normalization by Sox17 deletion was long lasting, improved anticancer drug delivery into tumors, and inhibited tumor metastasis. Sox17 promoted endothelial sprouting behavior and upregulated VEGFR2 expression in a cell-intrinsic manner. Moreover, Sox17 increased the percentage of tumor-associated CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells within tumors. The vascular effects of Sox17 persisted throughout tumor growth. Interestingly, Sox17 expression specific to tECs was also observed in highly vascularized human glioblastoma samples. Our findings establish Sox17 as a key regulator of tumor angiogenesis and tumor progression.

Yang, Hanseul; Lee, Sungsu; Lee, Seungjoo; Kim, Kangsan; Yang, Yeseul; Kim, Jeong Hoon; Adams, Ralf H.; Wells, James M.; Morrison, Sean J.; Koh, Gou Young; Kim, Injune



Dendritic Cell-Tumor Fusion Vaccine Prevents Tumor Growth in Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen presenting cells that are uniquely effective in generating primary immune responses. DCs that are manipulated to present tumor antigens induce antitumor immunity in animal models and preclinical human studies. A myriad of strategies have been developed to load tumor antigen effectively onto DCs. DC-tumor fusion presents a spec- trum of tumor-associated antigens to helper

Gi-Young KIM; Ho-Jin CHAE; Ki-Hyung KIM; Man-Soo YOON; Kyu-Sub LEE; Chang-Min LEE; Dong-Oh MOON; Jun-Sik LEE; Young-Il JEONG; Yung Hyun CHOI; Yeong-Min PARK



Case report: Recurrence of a uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex-cord tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundUterine tumors resembling ovarian sex-cord tumors are very rare uterine neoplasias that generally behave in a benign manner. We report the case of a uterine tumor resembling an ovarian sex-cord tumor that recurred after hysterectomy.

Alix C. O'Meara; Olivier T. Giger; Michael Kurrer; Gabriel Schaer



Malignant Rhabdoid Tumor in a Pregnant Adult Female: Literature Review of Central Nervous System Rhabdoid Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Rhabdoid tumors of the central nervous system are uncommon, aggressive childhood malignancies. The 13 described adult cases comprise both primary CNS tumors and malignant transformation of previously existing gliomas, meningiomas, and astrocytomas. Central nervous system rhabdoid lesions of adults have been diagnosed as primary malignant rhabdoid tumors, atypical teratoid\\/rhabdoid tumors, and more recently, rhabdoid glioblastomas. We report a case

Michelle L. Erickson; Randall Johnson; Serguei I. Bannykh; Alain de Lotbiniere; Jung H. Kim



Tumor-stroma interactions directing phenotype and progression of epithelial skin tumor cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor-stroma interactions play a significant role in tumor development and progression. Alterations in the stromal microenvironment, including enhanced vasculature (angiogenesis), modified extracellular matrix composition, inflammatory cells, and dys-balanced protease activity, are essential regulatory factors of tumor growth and invasion. Differential modulation of stromal characteristics is induced by epithelial skin tumor cells depending on their transformation stage when grown as surface

Margareta M. Mueller; Norbert E. Fusenig



Neuromyelitis Optica Mimicking Intramedullary Tumor  

PubMed Central

Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is considered to be a rarer autoimmune disease than multiple sclerosis. It is very difficult to make a diagnosis of MNO for doctors who are not familiar with its clinical features and diagnostic criteria. We report a case of a young female patient who had been suffering motor weakness and radiating pain in both upper extremities. Cervical MRI showed tumorous lesion in spinal cord and performed surgery to remove lesion. We could not find a tumor mass in operation field and final diagnosis was NMO. NMO must be included in the differential diagnosis of lesions to rescue the patient from invasive surgical interventions. More specific diagnostic tools may be necessary for early diagnosis and proper treatment.

Oh, Si-Hyuck; Yoon, Kyeong-wook; Lee, Sang-koo



Senescent cells in growing tumors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tumors are defined by their intense proliferation, but sometimes cancer cells turn senescent and stop replicating. In the stochastic cancer model in which all cells are tumorigenic, senescence is seen as the result of random mutatations, suggesting that it could represent a barrier to tumor growth. In the hierarchical cancer model a subset of the cells, the cancer stem cells, divide indefinitely while other cells eventually turn senescent. Here we formulate cancer growth in mathematical terms and obtain distinct predictions for the evolution of senescence in the two models. We perform experiments in human melanoma cells which confirm the predictions of the hierarchical model and show that senescence is a reversible process controlled by survivin. We conclude that enhancing senescence is unlikely to provide a useful therapeutic strategy to fight cancer, unless the cancer stem cells are specifically targeted.

Zapperi, Stefano; La Porta, Caterina A. M.; Sethna, James P.



Pathology of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is a well recognized and relatively well understood soft tissue tumor. Early events in GIST development are activating mutations in KIT or PDGFRA, which occur in most GISTs and encode for mutated tyrosine receptor kinases that are therapeutic targets for tyrosine kinase inhibitors, including imatinib and sunitinib. A small minority of GISTs possessing neither KIT nor PDGFRA mutations may have germline mutations in SDH, suggesting a potential role of SDH in the pathogenesis. Immunohistochemical detection of KIT, and more recently DOG1, has proven to be reliable and useful in the diagnosis of GISTs. Because current and future therapies depend on pathologists, it is important that they recognize KIT-negative GISTs, GISTs in specific clinical contexts, GISTs with unusual morphology, and GISTs after treatment. This review focuses on recent developments in the understanding of the biology, immunohistochemical diagnosis, the role of molecular analysis, and risk assessment of GISTs.

Foo, Wai Chin; Liegl-Atzwanger, Bernadette; Lazar, Alexander J.



A late recurring and easily forgotten tumor: ovarian granulosa cell tumor.  


Ovarian granulosa cell tumor (GCT) is a malignant tumor with slow progression. The recurrence of granulosa cell tumor often happens after 5 years, leading to a 'forgotten tumor' by the patient. We present the case of a 64-year-old woman with a presentation of left flank pain. An initial computed tomography scan revealed a single tumor with multiple adjacent organ invasions. Surgical intervention was prescribed and the pathological results revealed a metastatic granulosa cell tumor. We also review the literature for the follow-up and further management of this tumor. PMID:22591557

Chen, Yi-Chan; Chang, Liang-Che; Soong, Ruey-Shyang



Tumor Vessel Associated-Pericytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In blood vessels, the crosstalk between vascular endothelial cells and mural cells (pericytes\\/vascular smooth muscle cells)\\u000a play a central role in the regulation of vascular formation, maturation, remodeling, stabilization and function. During embryonic\\u000a development as well as tumor growth and metastasis the process of angiogenesis is tightly regulated by vascular endothelial\\u000a growth factor. Since vascular endothelial growth factor receptor is

Arne Bartol; Anna M. Laib; Hellmut G. Augustin


Tumoral angiogenesis and breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer (BC) is the most common neoplasm in women in Western countries. Tumoral angiogenesis (TA) is essential for the\\u000a growth and spread of BC cells. There are at least 6 different angiogenic growth factors associated with TA in BC. The major\\u000a mediator of TA is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a homodimeric heparin-binding glycoprotein. VEGF signals through\\u000a VEGF receptor-2

Parham Khosravi Shahi; Alicia Soria Lovelle; Gumersindo Pérez Manga



Endolymphatic sac tumor and otalgia.  


Otalgia is a common complaint seen by general practitioners, but its etiology is vast. Rarely, otalgia could be secondary to a neoplasm. We describe a case of otalgia and ear discharge in which the imaging revealed a rare neoplasm, an endolymphatic sac tumor, which contributed to the patient's symptoms. The primary diagnosis was made via characteristic imaging features that were later confirmed by histology. PMID:23543975

Zarghouni, Mehrzad; Kershen, Michael L; Skaggs, Lauren; Bhatki, Amol; Gilbert, Steven C; Gomez, Conan E; Opatowsky, Michael J



Paraganglioma: a potentially challenging tumor.  


Paragangliomas are usually low-grade neoplasms with a benign natural history. While the treatment of paraganglioma has historically been controversial, surgery and radiotherapy have become standardized as therapies of choice for primary therapy. More recently, stereotactic radiosurgery has been used effectively against this rare tumor. The development of metastatic disease in patients with paraganglioma is an unusual and challenging event. This case report and review describes the specific features of this disease and the multiple therapeutic options. PMID:18494358

Trombetta, Mark; Silverman, Jan; Colonias, Athanasios; Lee, Vincent; Mohanty, Alok; Parda, David



Management of metastatic brain tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Brain metastases are the most common neurological complication of systemic cancer. They represent a serious cause of morbidity\\u000a and mortality and a significant challenge for neurosurgeons. They outnumber all other intracranial tumors combined and, with\\u000a advances in technology and treatment of systemic cancer, are on the increase as cancer patients live longer.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: We have reviewed the major factors

Raymond Sawaya; B. Lee Ligon; Rajesh K. Bindal



Optical Imaging of Primary Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The rapidly emerging field of optical imaging of tumors is an exciting area of translational research. A search in PubMed\\u000a for “clinical optical imaging in cancer” reveals that the first article published was in 1964 and almost half of all the articles\\u000a have been published in the last 5 years. Fluorescent probes and mechanisms to target them to cancer cells

J. Robert Newman; Eben L. Rosenthal


Tumor-infiltrating immune cells promoting tumor invasion and metastasis: existing theories.  


It is a commonly held belief that infiltration of immune cells into tumor tissues and direct physical contact between tumor cells and infiltrated immune cells is associated with physical destructions of the tumor cells, reduction of the tumor burden, and improved clinical prognosis. An increasing number of studies, however, have suggested that aberrant infiltration of immune cells into tumor or normal tissues may promote tumor progression, invasion, and metastasis. Neither the primary reason for these contradictory observations, nor the mechanism for the reported diverse impact of tumor-infiltrating immune cells has been elucidated, making it difficult to judge the clinical implications of infiltration of immune cells within tumor tissues. This mini-review presents several existing hypotheses and models that favor the promoting impact of tumor-infiltrating immune cells on tumor invasion and metastasis, and also analyzes their strength and weakness. PMID:23386907

Man, Yan-Gao; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Mason, Jeffrey; Avital, Itzhak; Bilchik, Anton; Bruecher, Bjoern; Protic, Mladjan; Nissan, Aviram; Izadjoo, Mina; Zhang, Xichen; Jewett, Anahid



Tumor-Infiltrating Immune Cells Promoting Tumor Invasion and Metastasis: Existing Theories  

PubMed Central

It is a commonly held belief that infiltration of immune cells into tumor tissues and direct physical contact between tumor cells and infiltrated immune cells is associated with physical destructions of the tumor cells, reduction of the tumor burden, and improved clinical prognosis. An increasing number of studies, however, have suggested that aberrant infiltration of immune cells into tumor or normal tissues may promote tumor progression, invasion, and metastasis. Neither the primary reason for these contradictory observations, nor the mechanism for the reported diverse impact of tumor-infiltrating immune cells has been elucidated, making it difficult to judge the clinical implications of infiltration of immune cells within tumor tissues. This mini-review presents several existing hypotheses and models that favor the promoting impact of tumor-infiltrating immune cells on tumor invasion and metastasis, and also analyzes their strength and weakness.

Man, Yan-gao; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Mason, Jeffrey; Avital, Itzhak; Bilchik, Anton; Bruecher, Bjoern; Protic, Mladjan; Nissan, Aviram; Izadjoo, Mina; Zhang, Xichen; Jewett, Anahid



Temperature control in deep tumor treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tumor cells are more sensitive to temperature increase than normal tissue. Hyperthermia has been used as a potential modality for cancer treatment. Another benefit from the thermal interruption of tumor cells is the immunological reactions, caused by inflammation and other mechanisms, and more interestingly caused by antigen(s) release. The temperature control is crucial both in direct tumor destruction through acute thermal effect and in immune reactions. Low temperature may not achieve the desired tumor cell killing. High temperature could result in over heating of the tumor, hence introducing undesirable damage to surrounding normal tissue. High temperature could completely denature the cell proteins, hence rendering tumor antigen(s) useless in immunological stimulation. A combination of an 805-nm laser and in-situ indocyanine green (ICG) solutions were used in treating rat tumors. Temperature measured at different locations showed that the effective photothermal interaction could reach as deep as 1 cm below the treatment surface and the temperature inside the tumor can be controlled by the laser and dye parameters. Multiple beams were also used to irradiate the tumor. When the tumor is free of ICG, the temperature increase of the tumor was less significant under the laser irradiation with a power density of 0.33 W/cm2; tumor tissue at a depth of 1 cm only experienced a 7°C-temperature increase. However, when the tumor contained ICG solution, the temperature at 1-cm depth experienced more than 15°C-temperature increase. Multiple-fiber irradiation further enhanced the photothermal selectivity. Furthermore, when one fiber was used, the edge of the tumor experienced less impact by the laser beam, while multiple beams resulted in an almost uniform temperature increase over the entire tumor.

Jeong, Sang w.; Liu, Hong; Chen, Wei R.



Percutaneous Tumor Ablation with Radiofrequency  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFA) is a new minimally invasive treatment for localized cancer. Minimally invasive surgical options require less resources, time, recovery, and cost, and often offer reduced morbidity and mortality, compared with more invasive methods. To be useful, image-guided, minimally invasive, local treatments will have to meet those expectations without sacrificing efficacy. METHODS Image-guided, local cancer treatment relies on the assumption that local disease control may improve survival. Recent developments in ablative techniques are being applied to patients with inoperable, small, or solitary liver tumors, recurrent metachronous hereditary renal cell carcinoma, and neoplasms in the bone, lung, breast, and adrenal gland. RESULTS Recent refinements in ablation technology enable large tumor volumes to be treated with image-guided needle placement, either percutaneously, laparoscopically, or with open surgery. Local disease control potentially could result in improved survival, or enhanced operability. CONCLUSIONS Consensus indications in oncology are ill-defined, despite widespread proliferation of the technology. A brief review is presented of the current status of image-guided tumor ablation therapy. More rigorous scientific review, long-term follow-up, and randomized prospective trials are needed to help define the role of RFA in oncology.

Wood, Bradford J.; Ramkaransingh, Jeffrey R.; Fojo, Tito; Walther, McClellan M.; Libutti, Stephen K.



Antiangiogenic therapy in brain tumors  

PubMed Central

Angiogenesis, the recruitment of new blood vessels, is an essential component of tumor progression. Malignant brain tumors are highly vascularized and their growth is angiogenesis-dependent. As such, inhibition of the sprouting of new capillaries from pre-existing blood vessels is one of the most promising antiglioma therapeutic approaches. Numerous classes of molecules have been implicated in regulating angiogenesis and, thus, novel agents that target and counteract angiogenesis are now being developed. The therapeutic trials of a number of angiogenesis inhibitors as antiglioma drugs are currently under intense investigation. Preliminary studies of angiogenic blockade in glioblastoma have been promising and several clinical trials are now underway to develop optimum treatment strategies for antiangiogenic agents. This review will cover state-of-the-art antiangiogenic targets for brain tumor treatment and discuss future challenges. An increased understanding of the angiogenic process, the diversity of its inducers and mediators, appropriate drug schedules and the use of these agents with other modalities may lead to radically new treatment regimens to achieve maximal efficacy.

Lakka, Sajani S; Rao, Jasti S



Neurocognitive effects of CNS tumors.  


There is ample evidence that many children treated for brain tumors experience long-term neurocognitive deficits. The severity of those deficits is determined by a complex interaction of the child's genetic make-up and age, neuroanatomical damage caused by tumor and surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the psychosocial environment, and the intensity of targeted rehabilitation. The consequences of neurocognitive deficits are moderated by the number and severity of other deficits, including neurological and endocrine impairments, and this wider context must be considered. The impact of intellectual decline on academic functioning is evident, and underlies, for example, poor reading, writing, and mathematical skills. The effects of early brain damage on development are cumulative as more functions are expected to mature. Many survivors of CNS tumors can be expected to grow into deficits that have far-reaching consequences not only for academic achievement but also for their psychological and social development and their ability to be self-sufficient. Because the problems typically only become apparent over time, surveillance for their detection is an essential prerequisite for early educational and other interventions to support learning and successful transition to independent adult life. PMID:23622305

Bull, K S; Kennedy, C R



Advancements in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.  


Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) have increased in incidence in the USA over the last 20 years. Although PanNETs are often misconceived as being indolent tumors as they have a far more favorable prognosis over pancreatic adenocarcinoma, roughly 60-70% of patients have metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis due to presentation late in the disease process. While improvements in imaging modalities allow for early detection and better tumor localization, recent advancements in basic science, as well as surgical and medical management of PanNETs have further improved the prognosis. The mainstay of therapy for localized PanNETs is surgical intervention, which has become safer and is slowly shifting towards a more minimally invasive approach. However, the prognosis still remains relatively bleak for patients with unresectable disease. Fortunately, novel molecular targeted therapies, such as everolimus and sunitinib, have recently come into the limelight and have shown significant promise for the treatment of locally advanced and metastatic disease. PMID:23899286

Sadaria, Miral R; Hruban, Ralph H; Edil, Barish H



Pazopanib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Progressive Carcinoid Tumors

Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Pulmonary Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Regional Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Stage III Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage IV Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma



Endovascular Embolization of Head and Neck Tumors  

PubMed Central

Endovascular tumor embolization as adjunctive therapy for head and neck cancers is evolving and has become an important part of the tools available for their treatment. Careful study of tumor vascular anatomy and adhering to general principles of intra-arterial therapy can prove this approach to be effective and safe. Various embolic materials are available and can be suited for a given tumor and its vascular supply. This article aims to summarize current methods and agents used in endovascular head and neck tumor embolization and discuss important angiographic and treatment characteristics of selected common head and neck tumors.

Lazzaro, Marc A.; Badruddin, Aamir; Zaidat, Osama O.; Darkhabani, Ziad; Pandya, Dhruvil J.; Lynch, John R.



Zebrafish models of germ cell tumor.  


Germ cell tumors are neoplasms arising from pluripotent germ cells. In humans, these tumors occur in infants, children and young adults. The tumors display a wide range of histologic differentiation states which exhibit different clinical behaviors. Information about the molecular basis of germ cell tumors, and representative animal models of these neoplasms, are lacking. Germline development in zebrafish and humans is broadly conserved, making the fish a useful model to probe the connections between germ cell development and tumorigenesis. Here, we provide an overview of germline development and a brief review of germ cell tumor biology in humans and zebrafish. We also outline some methods for studying the zebrafish germline. PMID:21951524

Neumann, Joanie C; Lillard, Kate; Damoulis, Vanessa; Amatruda, James F



Mesothelioma following Wilms' tumor in childhood  

SciTech Connect

A high percentage of children with Wilms' tumor are cured with multimodal treatment. A small percentage of these children will develop second tumors, perhaps related to a genetic predisposition to neoplasia or possibly secondary to the treatment utilized for Wilms' tumor. Malignant mesothelioma has been associated with contact with asbestos but has also been reported after radiation exposure. Two patients are reported who developed malignant mesothelioma of the pleura after treatment for Wilms' tumor in childhood. Both received orthovoltage radiation; one patient also received triethylenemelamine (TEM), an alkylating agent closely related to nitrogen mustard, for 5 years. Factors in the development of second tumors are discussed.

Antman, K.H.; Ruxer, R.L. Jr.; Aisner, J.; Vawter, G.



Visualizing movement in the tumor microenvironment landscape  

PubMed Central

The local microenvironment influences tumor progression in several important ways. A recent study by Nguyen-Ngoc and colleagues used explants of primary human and mouse mammary tumors to examine how the composition of the extracellular matrix modulates tumor cell invasion. Culture in the presence of a three-dimensional laminin-rich basement membrane, similar to the mammary basement membrane in vivo, resulted in minimal invasion. In contrast, identical tumor fragments in a collagen I matrix which resembles the interstitial breast stroma exhibited a pronounced protrusive migration and local dissemination. These data emphasize the importance of the laminin-rich basement membrane in constraining tumor cell invasion.



Magnetohydrodynamic thermochemotherapy and MRI of mouse tumors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dextran-ferrite magnetic fluid was successfully tested as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent. The same magnetic fluid was then combined with Melphalan, a chemotherapeutic drug, and used for magnetohydrodynamic thermochemotherapy of different tumors. The placement of the tumors in an AC magnetic field led to hyperthermia at 46 °C for 30 min. In combination with tumor slime aspiration, a 30% regression of ˜130 mm3 non-metastatic P388 tumors in BDF1 mice was reached, together with a life span increase of 290%. The same procedure associated with cyclophosphamide treatment of ˜500 mm3 metastases tumor increased the animal's life span by 180%.

Brusentsov, Nikolay A.; Brusentsova, Tatiana N.; Filinova, Elena Yu.; Jurchenko, Nikolay Y.; Kupriyanov, Dmitry A.; Pirogov, Yuri A.; Dubina, Andry I.; Shumskikh, Maxim N.; Shumakov, Leonid I.; Anashkina, Ekaterina N.; Shevelev, Alexandr A.; Uchevatkin, Andry A.



Aneuploid islet cell tumor with late metastasis.  


An unusual case of insulin producing islet cell tumor is reported which recurred after a 16 yr interval. In most instances malignancy of islet cell tumors is impossible to assess morphologically or functionally but depends on the recognition of metastases. Nuclear DNA analysis provides significant prognostic and biological information in a number of solid human tumors. Retrospective computerized nuclear image analysis of the primary tumor in the present case showed an aneuploid DNA profile similar to that seen in the metastasis. It appears that ploidy studies may be useful in predicting malignant potential of islet cell tumors. PMID:7991294

Lee, C S; Vellar, I D; Page, R; Ennis, G; Alford, F; Rode, J



Deferoxamine mesylate enhancement of 67 Ga tumor-to-blood ratios and tumor imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve the tumor-to-blood ratio in 67Ga tumor imaging, the effect of administration of deferoxamine mesylate (DFO) was evaluated. DFO improved 67Ga tumor-to-blood ratios in tumor-bearing rats. Administration of DFO 12 h after 67Ga injection did not decrease the concentration of radioactivity in the tumor of rats, but administration of DFO 4 h after 67Ga decreased the concentration of radioactivity

Kiyoshi Koizumi; Norihisa Tonami; Kinichi Hisada



Tumor-derived interleukin (IL)-6 induced anti-tumor effect in immune-compromised hosts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor-derived cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-6, function in the context of tumor-to-host interactions, and their functions in immune-compromised hosts need to be addressed in the light of ever- increasing number of patients under immunosuppression. We studied the effects, in immune-comprised animals, of tumor-derived IL-6 on tumor growth using an experimental tumor vaccination model. Murine mammary carcinoma FM3A clone 25 (CL25)

Hiroshi Ishiguro; Takashi Kishimoto; Mitsuko Furuya; Yuichiro Nagai; Toru Watanabe; Hiroshi Ishikura



New Concepts in Tumor Antigens: Their Significance in Future Immunotherapies for Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identification and molecular characterization of self-antigens expressed by human malignancies that are capable of elicitation of anti-tumor immune responses in patients have been an active field in tumor immunology. More than 2,000 tumor antigens have been identified, and most of these antigens are self-antigens. These significant progresses have led to the renaissance of tumor immunology and studies on anti-tumor

Fan Yang; Xiao-Feng Yang


Intravital imaging of anti-tumor immune response and the tumor microenvironment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor growth, invasiveness, and metastasis are dynamic processes involving cancer interactions with the extracellular matrix,\\u000a the vasculature, and various types of non-cancerous host cells that form the tumor stroma. An often-present stromal component\\u000a is the immune cells, such as tumor-associated myeloid and lymphocytic infiltrates, yet endogenous anti-tumor immune responses\\u000a are typically ineffective in tumor rejection and may even contribute to

Tomasz Zal; Grzegorz Chodaczek



21. Increased FDG uptake in Childhood CNS Tumors is Associated with Tumor Malignancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In adults PET scanning of CNS tumors with the tracer FDG (18F-flourodeoxyglucose) can provide information about the degree of malignancy, tumor extent, and dissemination. FDG PET can also be able to assess tumor response to therapy and to differentiate recurrence from necrosis. Although CNS tumors are the most common solid tumor in childhood, so far only few PET-studies have

L. Borgwardt; H. Carstensen; K. Schmiegelow; L. Højgaard



Tumor antigen precursor protein profiles of adult and pediatric brain tumors identify potential targets for immunotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives We evaluated and compared tumor antigen precursor protein (TAPP) profiles in adult and pediatric brain tumors of 31 genes\\u000a related to tumor associated antigens (TAA) for possible use in immunotherapy. Antigens were selected based on their potential\\u000a to stimulate T cell responses against tumors of neuroectodermal origin. Methods Thirty-seven brain tumor specimens from 11 adult and 26 pediatric patients

Jian Gang Zhang; Carol A. Kruse; Lara Driggers; Neil Hoa; Jeffrey Wisoff; Jeffrey C. Allen; David Zagzag; Elizabeth W. Newcomb; Martin R. Jadus



Human Tumor Xenografts Treated with Recombinant Human Tumor Necrosis Factor Alone or in Combination with Interferons  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the activity of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor (rliuTNF) on six different human tumor xenografts derived from primary breast and bowel tumors and maintained by passage in nude mice. When 5 pg rHuTNF was given daily intratumorally to mice with established (approximately, 0.5 cm) tumors, total tumor regression was observed by 3-4 weeks in three of six

Frances R. Balkwill; Audrey Lee; Gary Aldam; Elaine Moodie; J. Alero Thomas; Jan Tavernier; Walter Fiers


Bayesian Inference of Tumor Hypoxia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tumor hypoxia is a state of oxygen deprivation in tumors. It has been associated with aggressive tumor phenotypes and with increased resistance to conventional cancer therapies. In this study, we report on the application of Bayesian sequential analysis in estimating the most probable value of tumor hypoxia quantification based on immunohistochemical assays of a biomarker. The `gold standard' of tumor hypoxia assessment is a direct measurement of pO2 in vivo by the Eppendorf polarographic electrode, which is an invasive technique restricted to accessible sites and living tissues. An attractive alternative is immunohistochemical staining to detect proteins expressed by cells during hypoxia. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is an enzyme expressed on the cell membrane during hypoxia to balance the immediate extracellular microenvironment. CAIX is widely regarded as a surrogate marker of chronic hypoxia in various cancers. The study was conducted with two different experimental procedures. The first data set was a group of three patients with invasive cervical carcinomas, from which five biopsies were obtained. Each of the biopsies was fully sectioned and from each section, the proportion of CAIX-positive cells was estimated. Measurements were made by image analysis of multiple deep sections cut through these biopsies, labeled for CAIX using both immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical techniques [1]. The second data set was a group of 24 patients, also with invasive cervical carcinomas, from which two biopsies were obtained. Bayesian parameter estimation was applied to obtain a reliable inference about the proportion of CAIX-positive cells within the carcinomas, based on the available biopsies. From the first data set, two to three biopsies were found to be sufficient to infer the overall CAIX percentage in the simple form: best estimate+/-uncertainty. The second data-set led to a similar result in 70% of the cases. In the remaining cases Bayes' theorem warned us automatically that the inference from the data could not be summarized by just two numbers, but the full posterior probability density function (pdf) had to be used.

Gunawan, R.; Tenti, G.; Sivaloganathan, S.



Adenoviral targeting of gene expression to tumors.  


Using biochemical, imaging and histological methods, we employed transcriptional targeting to increase the specificity of tumor gene expression in vivo for intravenously administered recombinant adenovirus vectors. Surprisingly, the relative specificity of tumor expression in comparison with other tissues was increased for a constitutively expressing recombinant adenovirus, AdCMVLuc, by simply reducing the viral dose. Even at lower doses, however, the high frequency of viral infection and transgene expression in the liver using constitutive promoters still represents a substantial problem. To further augment tumor specificity, we constructed a series of adenoviruses expressing luciferase from several other promoters and tested their ability to selectively transcribe genes in tumor cells, both in vitro and in vivo. Constitutively active viral promoters (RSV, SRalpha) varied widely in their tumor selectivity, but hypoxia-responsive promoters (carbonic anhydrase 9, PAI-1, SOD2 and several chimeric constructs) showed the most tumor-selective expression. Our results show that tumor targeting to HT1080 fibrosarcomas was readily achieved using transcriptional targeting mechanisms. We attribute the relatively high level of gene transfer and expression in HT1080 tumors in vivo to increased viral access to the tumor, presumably due to discontinuities in tumor vasculature and augmented expression from stress-responsive promoters in the hypoxic and inflammatory tumor microenvironment. PMID:20139924

Hogg, R T; Garcia, J A; Gerard, R D



Tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 functions as a tumor suppressor  

PubMed Central

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a key player in inflammatory bowel disease and has been variably associated with carcinogenesis, but details of the cross talk between inflammatory and tumorigenic pathways remain incompletely understood. It has been shown that, in C57BL/6 mice, signaling via TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) is protective from injury and inflammation in experimental colitis. Therefore, we hypothesized that loss of TNFR1 signaling would confer increased risk of developing colitis-associated carcinoma. Using three models of murine tumorigenesis based on repeated bouts of inflammation or systemic tumor initiator, we sought to determine the roles of TNF and TNFR1 with regard to neoplastic transformation in the colon in wild-type (WT), TNFR1 knockout (R1KO), and TNF knockout (TNFKO) mice. We found R1KO animals to have more severe disease, as defined by weight loss, hematochezia, and histology. TNFKO mice demonstrated less weight loss but were consistently smaller, and rates and duration of hematochezia were comparable to WT mice. Histological inflammation scores were higher and neoplastic lesions occurred more frequently and earlier in R1KO mice. Apoptosis is not affected in R1KO mice although epithelial proliferation following injury is more ardent even before tumorigenesis is apparent. Lastly, there is earlier and more intense expression of activated ?-catenin in these mice, implying a connection between TNFR1 and Wnt signaling. Taken together, these findings show that in the context of colitis-associated carcinogenesis TNFR1 functions as a tumor suppressor, exerting this effect not via apoptosis but by modulating activation of ?-catenin and controlling epithelial proliferation.

Chang, Fengqi; Lacey, Michelle R.; Bouljihad, Mostafa; zu Bentrup, Kerstin Honer



Quantitative relationships of intravascular tumor cells, tumor vessels and pulmonary metastases following tumor implantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY An experimental model has been developed to quantify some of the major processes initiated by tumor transplanta tion and culminating in pulmonary métastases. The T241 fibrosarcoma, chosen because of its high hematogenous metastatic propensity and reproducible biological behavior, is transplanted into the femoral region of the C57BL mouse. Experiments are performed at specified times after trans plantation to determine

Lance Allen Liotta; Jerome Kleinerman; Gerald M. Saidel



Autophagy sensitivity of neuroendocrine lung tumor cells.  


Neuroendocrine (NE) phenotypes characterize a spectrum of lung tumors, including low-grade typical and intermediate-grade atypical carcinoid, high-grade large-cell NE carcinoma and small cell lung carcinoma. Currently, no effective treatments are available to cure NE lung tumors, demanding identification of biological features specific to these tumors. Here, we report that autophagy has an important role for NE lung tumor cell proliferation and survival. We found that the expression levels of the autophagy marker LC3 are relatively high in a panel of lung tumor cell lines expressing high levels of neuron-specific enolase (NSE), a key NE marker in lung tumors. In response to bafilomycin A1 and chloroquine, NE lung tumor cells exhibited cytotoxicity whereas non-NE lung tumor cells exhibited cytostasis, indicating a distinct role of autophagy for NE lung tumor cell survival. Intriguingly, in certain NE lung tumor cell lines, the levels of processed LC3 (LC3-II) were inversely correlated with AKT activity. When AKT activity was inhibited using AKTi or MK2206, the levels of LC3-II and SQSTM1/p62 were increased. In contrast, torin 1, rapamycin or mTOR knockdown increased p62 levels, suggesting that these two pathways have opposing effects on autophagy in certain NE lung tumors. Moreover, inhibition of one pathway resulted in reduced activity of the other, suggesting that these two pathways crosstalk in the tumors. These results suggest that NE lung tumor cells share a common feature of autophagy and are more sensitive to autophagy inhibition than non-NE lung tumor cells. PMID:24126619

Hong, Seung-Keun; Kim, Jin-Hwan; Starenki, Dmytro; Park, Jong-In



Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Young Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors

Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific



Significance of P53 in human thyroid tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutational changes in the p53 tumor suppressor gene are the most frequent genetic alterations in human malignant tumors. Studies have shown a correlation of p53 expression in breast cancer with tumor prognosis. In contrast to mutational activation of ras and GSP in thyroid tumors, little is known about the role of p53 in thyroid tumor development. Therefore thyroid tumors and

Dietmar Simon; Peter E. Goretzki; Victor Goreley; Birgit Ebling; Ellen Reishaus; John Lyons; Hans Haubruck; Hans D. Röher



Pediatric Spinal Cord Tumors and Masses  

PubMed Central

Background/Objective: Spinal cord tumors are a relatively rare diagnosis, accounting for 1% to 10% of all pediatric central nervous system tumors. Understanding the etiology and clinical outcomes of these tumors is therefore very important. This study presents detailed information regarding clinical presentation, histological findings, outcomes, functional assessment, and management of a series of patients with this diagnosis. Method: Retrospective, descriptive study. Subjects: Thirty-five children with a final diagnosis of spinal cord tumor or mass, excluding dysraphism. Results: Neurodevelopmental tumors (dermoid tumors, epidermoid tumors, and teratomas) were the most common tumor type (31%), followed by astrocytomas (29%) and neuroblastomas (14%). Other types included schwannomas, meningiomas, giant cell tumors, extradural cystic masses, leukemic-related masses, and masses related to neurofibromatosis. Mean age at diagnosis was 6.6 years (SD = 5.5 y) and did not vary significantly by tumor type except for children with neuroblastoma (mean = 0.4 y, SD = 0.5 y). More boys (57%) were identified in the series than girls (43%); however, there was no association between tumor type and sex. Presenting complaints of pain were noted in 57% and were localized to the back, neck, or extremities. Extremity weakness was reported as an initial presenting symptom in 46%. Three children had scoliosis as a presenting issue and 14 had gait abnormalities. Regardless of treatment modality, mobility was retained in 83% of children with or without gait aids. Neurogenic bowel and/or bladder were present in 23% of the population. Conclusions: This study corroborates other studies indicating that intramedullary tumors are the predominant form of pediatric spinal cord tumor. This population, however, presented with an unusually large number of developmental tumors, contrary to several published studies. The disparity may be the result of this institution acting as a regional referral center, thus increasing the number of this type of patient. The population is too small to make any other conjecture. The predominance of astrocytomas and neuroblastomas among those patients with poor outcomes and the prevalence of developmental tumors suggest the need for broader investigation. Although, in general, spinal cord tumors are relatively rare, this preliminary study supports the need to further evaluate associations between tumor type, presenting symptoms, treatment, and functional outcome in children with spinal cord tumors.

Wilson, Pamela E; Oleszek, Joyce L; Clayton, Gerald H



Tumor-derived Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Is a Critical Factor in Tumor Expansion and Vascular Function1  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is considerable controversy concerning the importance of tumor- derived angiogenic factors to the neovascularization of solid tumors. Tumor, endothelial, and stromal expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have been hypothesized to be critical for tumor angiogenesis. To determine the relative contribution of tumor versus nontransformed tissue expression of VEGF to tumor growth, we used gene targeting and cre-loxP

Jeremy Grunstein; W. Gregory Roberts; Odile Mathieu-Costello; Douglas Hanahan; Randall S. Johnson



Environmental control of invasiveness and metastatic dissemination of tumor cells: the role of tumor cell-host cell interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in tumor biology led to the realization that, in order to understand the mechanisms involved in proliferation and invasion of tumor cells, an analysis of the complex interactions that tumor cells establish with host cells of tumor microenvironment is required. The bidirectional interactions between tumor cells and components of tumor microenvironment, in particular endothelial cells, cells of monocyte\\/macrophage

Lido Calorini; Francesca Bianchini



Maximizing Tumor Immunity With Fractionated Radiation  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE Technological advances have led to increased clinical use of higher sized fractions of radiation dose and higher total doses. How these modify the pathways involved in tumor cell death, normal tissue response, and signaling to the immune system has been inadequately explored. Here we ask how radiation dose and fraction size affect anti-tumor immunity, the suppression thereof and how this might relate to tumor control. MATERIALS and METHODS Mice bearing B16-OVA murine melanoma were treated with up to 15Gy radiation given in various sized fractions and tumor growth followed. The tumor-specific immune response in the spleen was assessed by IFN?-Enzyme-Linked Immuno-Spot (ELISPOT) assay with ovalbumin (OVA) as the surrogate tumor antigen and the contribution of regulatory T cells (Tregs) determined by the proportion of CD4+CD25hiFoxp3+ T cells. RESULTS After single doses, tumor control increased with the size of radiation dose, as did the number of tumor-reactive T cells. This was offset at the highest dose by an increase in Treg representation. Fractionated treatment with medium-size radiation doses of 7.5Gy/fraction gave the best tumor control and tumor immunity while maintaining low Treg numbers. CONCLUSIONS Radiation can be an immune adjuvant but the response varies with the size of dose per fraction. The ultimate challenge is to optimally integrate cancer immunotherapy into radiation therapy.

Schaue, Dorthe; Ratikan, Josephine A.; Iwamoto, Keisuke S.; McBride, William H.



Ablative therapies for renal tumors  

PubMed Central

Owing to an increased use of diagnostic imaging for evaluating patients with other abdominal conditions, incidentally discovered kidney masses now account for a majority of renal tumors. Renal ablative therapy is assuming a more important role in patients with borderline renal impairment. Renal ablation uses heat or cold to bring about cell death. Radiofrequency ablation and cryoablation are two such procedures, and 5-year results are now emerging from both modalities. Renal biopsy at the time of ablation is extremely important in order to establish tissue diagnosis. Real-time temperature monitoring at the time of radiofrequency ablation is very useful to ensure adequacy of ablation.

Ramanathan, Rajan; Leveillee, Raymond J.



Tumors: Too sweet to remember?  

PubMed Central

Immunity, based on a natural and an educated system, is responsible for recognition and elimination of infectious particles, cellular waste, modified self and transformed cells. This dual system guarantees that dangerous particles are removed immediately after appearance and that a memory with maturated weapons exists, if the organism is re-infected by the same particle. For malignant cells, however, the immune response seems to be restricted to innate immunity, because at least for the humoral response, all so far detected tumor-specific antibodies belong to the natural immunity. In this review we try to explain why malignant cells might be "too sweet" to induce a memory.

Vollmers, H Peter; Brandlein, Stephanie



Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of trachea.  


Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is an uncommon entity usually encountered among children and involving the lungs. Involvement of trachea, however, is extremely rare with only a few published case reports. The condition may present with deceptive clinical features. We report a case of tracheal IMT in a 23-year-old female who presented with clinical symptoms mimicking asthma. On further evaluation, she was detected to have a tracheal mass that was diagnosed as IMT on histopathology and was successfully treated surgically. This case report highlights the rarity and diagnostic challenge associated with the condition. PMID:23328150

Jain, Sunila; Chopra, Prem; Agarwal, Alok; Gogia, Shweta; Basu, Arup



Proteases as Modulators of Tumor-Stromal Interaction: Primary Tumors to Bone Metastases  

PubMed Central

Summary As cells undergo oncogenic transformation and as transformed cells arrive at metastatic sites, a complex interplay occurs with the surrounding stroma. This dialogue between tumor and stroma ultimately dictates the success of the tumor cells in the given microenvironment. As a result, understanding the molecular mechanisms at work is important for developing new therapeutic modalities. Proteases are major players in the interaction between tumor and stroma. This review will focus on the role of proteases in modulating tumor-stromal interactions of both primary breast and prostate tumors as well as at bone metastatic sites in a way that favors tumor growth.

Wilson, Thomas J.; Singh, Rakesh K.



Vaccination with tumor cells pulsed with foreign peptide induces immunity to the tumor itself  

PubMed Central

EMT-6 mammary carcinoma and B16 melanoma (B16M) cells are lethal and barely immunogenic in syngeneic BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, respectively. We show that mice vaccinated with tumor cells pulsed with a MHC class I-restricted peptide develop a T cell response, not only to the peptide, but also to the unpulsed tumor. These mice display protective immunity against the unpulsed tumor, and their T cells adoptively transfer tumor-specific protection to immunodeficient SCID mice. Our data have implications for cancer vaccine strategies. Grafting a single well-defined foreign peptide on tumor cells might suffice to trigger anti-tumor immunity.

Schlingmann, Tobias R.; Rininsland, Frauke H.; Bartholomae, Wolf C.; Kuekrek, Haydar; Lehmann, Paul V.; Tary-Lehmann, Magdalena



Implication of Tumor Microenvironment in Chemoresistance: Tumor-Associated Stromal Cells Protect Tumor Cells from Cell Death  

PubMed Central

Tumor development principally occurs following the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations in tumor cells. These changes pave the way for the transformation of chemosensitive cells to chemoresistant ones by influencing the uptake, metabolism, or export of drugs at the cellular level. Numerous reports have revealed the complexity of tumors and their microenvironment with tumor cells located within a heterogeneous population of stromal cells. These stromal cells (fibroblasts, endothelial or mesothelial cells, adipocytes or adipose tissue-derived stromal cells, immune cells and bone marrow-derived stem cells) could be involved in the chemoresistance that is acquired by tumor cells via several mechanisms: (i) cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions influencing the cancer cell sensitivity to apoptosis; (ii) local release of soluble factors promoting survival and tumor growth (crosstalk between stromal and tumor cells); (iii) direct cell-cell interactions with tumor cells (crosstalk or oncologic trogocytosis); (iv) generation of specific niches within the tumor microenvironment that facilitate the acquisition of drug resistance; or (v) conversion of the cancer cells to cancer-initiating cells or cancer stem cells. This review will focus on the implication of each member of the heterogeneous population of stromal cells in conferring resistance to cytotoxins and physiological mediators of cell death.

Castells, Magali; Thibault, Benoit; Delord, Jean-Pierre; Couderc, Bettina



Tumor growth dynamics: insights into evolutionary processes.  


Identifying the types of event that drive tumor evolution and progression is crucial for understanding cancer. We suggest that the analysis of tumor growth dynamics can provide a window into tumor biology and evolution by connecting them with the types of genetic change that have occurred. Although fundamentally important, the documentation of tumor growth kinetics is more sparse in the literature than is the molecular analysis of cells. Here, we provide a historical summary of tumor growth patterns and argue that they can be classified into five basic categories. We then illustrate how those categories can provide insights into events that drive tumor progression, by discussing a particular evolutionary model as an example and encouraging such analysis in a more general setting. PMID:23816268

Rodriguez-Brenes, Ignacio A; Komarova, Natalia L; Wodarz, Dominik



Podocalyxin expression in malignant astrocytic tumors  

SciTech Connect

Podocalyxin is an anti-adhesive mucin-like transmembrane sialoglycoprotein that has been implicated in the development of aggressive forms of cancer. Podocalyxin is also known as keratan sulfate (KS) proteoglycan. Recently, we revealed that highly sulfated KS or another mucin-like transmembrane sialoglycoprotein podoplanin/aggrus is upregulated in malignant astrocytic tumors. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between podocalyxin expression and malignant progression of astrocytic tumors. In this study, 51 astrocytic tumors were investigated for podocalyxin expression using immunohistochemistry, Western blot analysis, and quantitative real-time PCR. Immunohistochemistry detected podocalyxin on the surface of tumor cells in six of 14 anaplastic astrocytomas (42.9%) and in 17 of 31 glioblastomas (54.8%), especially around proliferating endothelial cells. In diffuse astrocytoma, podocalyxin expression was observed only in vascular endothelial cells. Podocalyxin might be associated with the malignant progression of astrocytic tumors, and be a useful prognostic marker for astrocytic tumors.

Hayatsu, Norihito [Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Yoshida-konoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Kaneko, Mika Kato [Department of Cancer Biology, Unit 173, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Mishima, Kazuhiko; Nishikawa, Ryo; Matsutani, Masao [Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, 1397-1 Yamane Hidaka-shi, Saitama 350-1298 (Japan); Price, Janet E. [Department of Cancer Biology, Unit 173, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Kato, Yukinari [Department of Cancer Biology, Unit 173, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)], E-mail:



What underlies the diversity of brain tumors?  


Glioma and medulloblastoma represent the most commonly occurring malignant brain tumors in adults and in children, respectively. Recent genomic and transcriptional approaches present a complex group of diseases and delineate a number of molecular subgroups within tumors that share a common histopathology. Differences in cells of origin, regional niches, developmental timing, and genetic events all contribute to this heterogeneity. In an attempt to recapitulate the diversity of brain tumors, an increasing array of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) has been developed. These models often utilize promoters and genetic drivers from normal brain development and can provide insight into specific cells from which these tumors originate. GEMMs show promise in both developmental biology and developmental therapeutics. This review describes numerous murine brain tumor models in the context of normal brain development and the potential for these animals to impact brain tumor research. PMID:23085857

Swartling, Fredrik J; Hede, Sanna-Maria; Weiss, William A



Tumor response evaluation in oncology: current update.  


Quantification of tumor burden and assessment of changes in tumor size after chemotherapy are commonly performed to evaluate treatment response in oncology trials. Validation and adoption of different criteria have been attempted in the past to achieve uniformity in scanning techniques and measurement metrics so that comparison of different oncological trials is feasible. Response assessment of solid tumors is usually consisted of either bidimensional (World Health Organization criteria) or unidimensional (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors [RECIST] guidelines) measurement of tumors before and after chemotherapy. RECIST 1.1 criteria have been recently published. In this article, we try to provide a comprehensive review of the tumor response evaluation guidelines that were recently updated in attempts to overcome limitations of the previous criteria as well as incorporate recent advances in imaging techniques. PMID:20657213

Shanbhogue, Alampady Krishna Prasad; Karnad, Anand B; Prasad, Srinivasa R



Diethylstilbestrol inhibits tumor growth and prolactin production in rat pituitary tumors.  

PubMed Central

Treatment of rats bearing transplantable MtT/W15 tumors with 10 mg of diethylstilbestrol (DES) for 3 weeks led to inhibition of tumor growth. The inhibition of tumor growth was reversible after removal of the DES. Histologic examination revealed decreased mitotic activity; however, DES did not produce cell necrosis. Concomitantly, the anterior pituitary glands of animals treated with DES became hyperplastic, with an increased number of prolactin (PRL)-producing cells. DES resulted in a decreased number of PRL cells in the tumor and decreased serum PRL/tumor weight, compared with that of control rats. There was also an increase in the number of growth hormone (GH) tumor cells and an increased serum GH/tumor weight. 17 beta-Estradiol had an effect similar to that of DES, while progesterone did not inhibit tumor growth or cause pituitary cell hyperplasia. Ovariectomy resulted in a decrease in the tumor growth rate, compared with that of control animals, suggesting that the MtT/W 15 tumors are relatively dependent on estrogens for optimal growth. These results indicate that DES inhibition of MtT/W 15 tumor growth is an excellent model for study of the mechanism of the inhibition of tumor growth and the modification of GH and PRL expression by the tumor cells. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6

Lloyd, R. V.; Landefeld, T. D.; Maslar, I.; Frohman, L. A.



CCR Connections - Pediatric Tumors Made Personal

A mixed collection of relatively rare but often deadly pediatric tumors are collectively known as small round blue cell tumors (SRBCT) for precisely the reason one might imagine. Examined under a microscope after routine processing, bone marrow biopsies from cancers including neuroblastoma, Ewing sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and lymphoma appear as small, blue, and round cells. Despite some distinguishing molecular markers to guide them, oncologists can, on occasion, find it hard to diagnose these tumors specifically.


History and General Aspects of Tumor Grading  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between tumor morphology and the clinical behavior of tumors has been known for more than a century, and\\u000a the study of such clinicopathologic correlations could be traced to the teachings of Rudolf Virchow and the scientific beginnings\\u000a of microscopic pathology. From the historical point of view, however, the first attempts to correlate the microscopic features\\u000a of tumors with

Ivan Damjanov


Tumor treatment with nanosecond pulsed electric fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanosecond pulsed electric fields have demonstrated remarkable potential as tumor therapy. The application of 300-ns pulses with amplitudes of 40-50 kV\\/cm to melanomas grown in mice caused complete remission of the tumors. It is believed that the primary process that kills the tumor cells is the induction of apoptosis. Electrical models predict that for the application of shorter pulses, higher

J. F. Kolb; X. Chen; J. Zhuang; W. Ren; N. Scully; R. J. Swanson; S. J. Beebe; K. H. Schoenbach



Epidemiologic impact of children with brain tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of CNS tumors during childhood and adolescence has been steadily increasing. In many countries, brain and spinal\\u000a cord tumors are now second in frequency only to leukemia as a cancer affecting children, and the most common cause of cancer\\u000a mortality in the young. In the United States, brain tumors are now more common than acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and

W. Archie Bleyer



Overnutrition facilitates the development of experimental tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The summarising panel concluded that, inad lib.-fed and other rats with genetically-determined or carcinogen-induced tumors with numerous localisations, overnutrition does\\u000a induce tumors or permit then to grow. Epidemiological studies suggest similar mechanisms in man, but with much fewer tumor\\u000a localisations, and with much less certainty. The role played by saturated and unsaturated fat, the effect of fatty tissues\\u000a on hormone

Peter Reizenstein; Artemis Simopoulos



Tumorigenic potential of circulating prostate tumor cells.  


Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have received intense scientific scrutiny because they travel in the bloodstream and are therefore well situated to mediate hematogenous metastasis. However, the potential of CTCs to actually form new tumors has not been tested. Popular methods of isolating CTCs are biased towards larger, more differentiated, non-viable cells, creating a barrier to testing their tumor forming potential. Without relying on cell size or the expression of differentiation markers, our objective was to isolate viable prostate CTCs from mice and humans and assay their ability to initiate new tumors. Therefore, blood was collected from transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice and from human patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (PCa). Gradient density centrifugation or red cell lysis was used to remove erythrocytes, and then leukocytes were depleted by magnetic separation using CD45 immunoaffinity beads. CTCs fractions from TRAMP mice and PCa patients were verified by immunocytochemical staining for cytokeratin 8 and EpCAM, and inoculated into immunodeficient mice. TRAMP tumor growth was monitored by palpation. Human tumor growth formation was monitored up to 8 months by ultrasensitive PSA assays performed on mouse serum. We found viable tumor cells present in the bloodstream that were successfully isolated from mice without relying on cell surface markers. Two out of nine immunodeficient mice inoculated with TRAMP CTCs developed massive liver metastases. CTCs were identified in blood from PCa patients but did not form tumors. In conclusion, viable CTCs can be isolated without relying on epithelial surface markers or size fractionation. TRAMP CTCs were tumorigenic, so CTCs isolated in this way contain viable tumor-initiating cells. Only two of nine hosts grew TRAMP tumors and none of the human CTCs formed tumors, which suggests that most CTCs have relatively low tumor-forming potential. Future studies should identify and target the highly tumorigenic cells. PMID:23530114

Carvalho, Filipe L F; Simons, Brian W; Antonarakis, Emmanuel S; Rasheed, Zeshaan; Douglas, Nora; Villegas, Daniela; Matsui, William; Berman, David M



Interplay between inflammation and tumor angiogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The association of inflammation and neoplasia was first observed when Westphal reported dense areas of mast cells at the periphery\\u000a of tumors in 1891 [1]. These inflammatory cells infiltrating tumor tissues were believed to mediate phagocytic functions to aid in host defense\\u000a against the tumor. Now a new paradigm is being widely accepted that inflammation at the site of a

Yan Li; Xiao-yu R. Song; Marian T. Nakada


Images of Cleavage: Tumor Proteases in Action  

Microsoft Academic Search

The roles of proteases in cancer are now known to be much broader than simply degradation of extracellular matrices during\\u000a tumor invasion and metastasis. Furthermore, proteases from tumor-associated cells (e.g., fibroblasts, inflammatory cells,\\u000a and endothelial cells) as well as tumor cells are recognized to contribute to proteolytic pathways critical to neoplastic\\u000a progression. Although increased expression of proteases at the level

Kamiar Moin; Mansoureh Sameni; Christopher Jedeszko; Quanwen Li; Mary B. Olive; Raymond R. Mattingly; Bonnie F. Sloane


Sellar and Pituitary Tumors in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sellar and parasellar tumors are rare in children and adolescents, but can be associated with significant morbidity. In addition\\u000a to clinical features resulting from mass effect, and hormonal insufficiencies and excess depending on the nature of the tumor,\\u000a children with these tumors often present with a slowing of growth velocity and pubertal delay, features unique to children\\u000a and adolescents. Craniopharyngiomas

Takara Stanley; Rajani Prabhakaran; Madhusmita Misra


Laparoscopic liver resection of benign liver tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility, safety, and outcome of laparoscopic liver resection\\u000a for benign liver tumors in a multicenter setting. Background: Despite restrictive, tailored indications for resection in benign\\u000a liver tumors, an increasing number of articles have been published concerning laparoscopic liver resection of these tumors.\\u000a Methods: A retrospective study was performed in 18

B. Descottes; D. Glineur; F. Lachachi; D. Valleix; J. Paineau; A. Hamy; M. Morino; H. Bismuth; D. Castaing; E. Savier; P. Honore; O. Detry; M. Legrand; J. S. Azagra; M. Goergen; M. Ceuterick; J. Marescaux; D. Mutter; B. Hemptinne; R. Troisi; J. Weerts; B. Dallemagne; C. Jehaes; M. Gelin; V. Donckier; R. Aerts; B. Topal; C. Bertrand; B. Mansvelt; L. Krunckelsven; D. Herman; M. Kint; E. Totte; R. Schockmel; J. F. Gigot



Inhibition of Vascularization in Tumor Growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transition to a vascular phase is a prerequisite for fast tumor growth. During the avascular phase, the neoplasm feeds only from the (relatively few) existing nearby blood vessels. During angiogenesis, the number of capillaries surrounding and infiltrating the tumor increases dramatically. A model which includes physical and biological mechanisms of the interactions between the tumor and vascular growth describes the avascular-vascular transition. Numerical results agree with clinical observations and predict the influence of therapies aiming to inhibit the transition.

Scalerandi, M.; Sansone, B. Capogrosso



Brain Tumor Detection Using MRI Image Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Brain tumor is the most commonly occurring malignancy among human beings, so study of brain tumor is important. In this paper,\\u000a we propose an image segmentation method to indentify or detect tumor from the brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There\\u000a are many thresholding methods developed but they have different result in each image. So we need a method by which

Debnath Bhattacharyya; Tai-hoon Kim


Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided tumor ablation.  


With the introduction of curvilinear endosonoscopes, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) has achieved the role of a therapeutic modality as well as diagnostic procedure. EUS-guided tumor ablation is one such therapeutic modality. Various techniques of EUS-guided tumor ablation have been described, including radiofrequency ablation, photodynamic therapy, laser ablation, and ethanol injection. Most of the currently described techniques are experimental. Development and continuous improvement of devices, as well as establishment of indications for EUS-guided tumor ablations, are mandatory. PMID:22632957

Yoon, Won Jae; Brugge, William R



Optimal seizure management in brain tumor patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of epilepsy in brain tumor patients is probably multifactorial, and its incidence depends on tumor type and\\u000a location. Refractory epilepsy is common in patients with a structural brain lesion, and a role for multidrug resistance proteins\\u000a has been suggested. Until now, the medical treatment of epilepsy in brain tumor patients has only been studied retrospectively.\\u000a Therefore, the optimal

Melanie S. M. van Breemen; Charles J. Vecht



PKC? expression in gastrointestinal stromal tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastrointestinal stromal tumor is characterized by a gain of function mutation of KIT gene and the expression of c-kit protein, but in 5% of cases, c-kit expression is negative although histological findings of gastrointestinal stromal tumor are most suspicious. The existence of c-kit-negative gastrointestinal stromal tumors points to the need of additional markers for making the diagnosis. In this study,

Kyoung-Mee Kim; Dong Wook Kang; Woo Sung Moon; Jae Bok Park; Cheol Keun Park; Jin Hee Sohn; Jin Sook Jeong; Mee-Yon Cho; So-Young Jin; Jong Sang Choi; Dae Young Kang



Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GISTs): An Updated Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are relatively common mesenchymal tumors of the digestive tract characterized by c-KIT\\u000a mutations. This is a comprehensive review of the current data of the literature on the various aspects of the diagnosis and\\u000a treatment of these tumors.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The stomach is the most commonly involved site for these tumors in the digestive tract. Computed tomography and endoscopy

Anastasios Machairas; Eva Karamitopoulou; Dimitrios Tsapralis; Theodore Karatzas; Nickolas Machairas; Evangelos P. Misiakos



Holographic optical coherence imaging of tumor spheroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present depth-resolved coherence-domain images of living tissue using a dynamic holographic semiconductor film. An AlGaAs photorefractive quantum-well device is used in an adaptive interferometer that records coherent backscattered (image-bearing) light from inside rat osteogenic sarcoma tumor spheroids up to 1 mm in diameter in vitro. The data consist of sequential holographic image frames at successive depths through the tumor represented as a visual video ``fly-through.'' The images from the tumor spheroids reveal heterogeneous structures presumably caused by necrosis and microcalcifications characteristic of human tumors in their early avascular growth.

Yu, P.; Mustata, M.; Turek, J. J.; French, P. M. W.; Melloch, M. R.; Nolte, D. D.



[Tumor-induced osteomalacia: rhinosinusal hemangiopericytoma].  


Tumor-induced osteomalacia is a rare disease of bone metabolism. The characteristic of this disease is an increase in phosphate excretion followed by hypophosphatemia, due to phosphaturic agents produced by different types of tumors. Tumor resection results in complete resolution of clinical, biochemical and radiological abnormalities. We present the case of a 61 year old man with signs, symptoms and laboratory findings consistent with oncogenic osteomalacia due to a rhino-sinusal mesenchymal tumor. The histological diagnosis showed a vascular neoplasm: hemangiopericytoma. PMID:23335705

Serafini, Enriqueta M; Pisarevsky, Ana A; Plumet Garrido, Javier; Zamora, Rafael J; Petrucci, Enrique A



Tumor cell metabolism: an integral view.  


Cancer is a genetic disease that is caused by mutations in oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and stability genes. The fact that the metabolism of tumor cells is altered has been known for many years. However, the mechanisms and consequences of metabolic reprogramming have just begun to be understood. In this review, an integral view of tumor cell metabolism is presented, showing how metabolic pathways are reprogrammed to satisfy tumor cell proliferation and survival requirements. In tumor cells, glycolysis is strongly enhanced to fulfill the high ATP demands of these cells; glucose carbons are the main building blocks in fatty acid and nucleotide biosynthesis. Glutaminolysis is also increased to satisfy NADPH regeneration, whereas glutamine carbons replenish the Krebs cycle, which produces metabolites that are constantly used for macromolecular biosynthesis. A characteristic feature of the tumor microenvironment is acidosis, which results from the local increase in lactic acid production by tumor cells. This phenomenon is attributed to the carbons from glutamine and glucose, which are also used for lactic acid production. Lactic acidosis also directs the metabolic reprogramming of tumor cells and serves as an additional selective pressure. Finally, we also discuss the role of mitochondria in supporting tumor cell metabolism. PMID:22057267

Romero-Garcia, Susana; Lopez-Gonzalez, Jose Sullivan; Báez-Viveros, José Luis; Aguilar-Cazares, Dolores; Prado-Garcia, Heriberto



Electric Field Analysis of Breast Tumor Cells  

PubMed Central

An attractive alternative treatment for malignant tumors that are refractive to conventional therapies, such as surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, is electrical-pulse-mediated drug delivery. Electric field distribution of tissue/tumor is important for effective treatment of tissues. This paper deals with the electric field distribution study of a tissue model using MAXWELL 3D Simulator. Our results indicate that tumor tissue had lower electric field strength compared to normal cells, which makes them susceptible to electrical-pulse-mediated drug delivery. This difference could be due to the altered properties of tumor cells compared to normal cells, and our results corroborate this.

Sree, V. Gowri; Udayakumar, K.; Sundararajan, R.



Maximizing Tumor Immunity With Fractionated Radiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Technologic advances have led to increased clinical use of higher-sized fractions of radiation dose and higher total doses. How these modify the pathways involved in tumor cell death, normal tissue response, and signaling to the immune system has been inadequately explored. Here we ask how radiation dose and fraction size affect antitumor immunity, the suppression thereof, and how this might relate to tumor control. Methods and Materials: Mice bearing B16-OVA murine melanoma were treated with up to 15 Gy radiation given in various-size fractions, and tumor growth followed. The tumor-specific immune response in the spleen was assessed by interferon-{gamma} enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay with ovalbumin (OVA) as the surrogate tumor antigen and the contribution of regulatory T cells (Tregs) determined by the proportion of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup hi}Foxp3{sup +} T cells. Results: After single doses, tumor control increased with the size of radiation dose, as did the number of tumor-reactive T cells. This was offset at the highest dose by an increase in Treg representation. Fractionated treatment with medium-size radiation doses of 7.5 Gy/fraction gave the best tumor control and tumor immunity while maintaining low Treg numbers. Conclusions: Radiation can be an immune adjuvant, but the response varies with the size of dose per fraction. The ultimate challenge is to optimally integrate cancer immunotherapy into radiation therapy.

Schaue, Doerthe, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ratikan, Josephine A.; Iwamoto, Keisuke S.; McBride, William H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)



Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Solid Tumors

Bladder Cancer; Breast Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Kidney Cancer; Lung Cancer; Ovarian Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific



Information for Healthcare Professionals: Tumor Necrosis ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Information for Healthcare Professionals: Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Blockers (marketed ... Although there were other contributory factors, the role ... More results from


[Adenomatoid tumor of the pleura. Case report].  


We report a case of an adenomatoid tumor of particular location within the pleura, incidentally discovered on a pulmonary lobectomy specimen after surgical resection of a pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma. This adenomatoid tumor appeared as a unique pleural mass located away from the primary carcinoma and consisted of a cellular proliferation organised in tubes and sheets. Adenomatoid tumors are considered as benign tumors of mesothelial nature. Their morphological and immunohistochemical features in association with their location to the pleura, warrant a precise analysis to eliminate malignant tumours such as malignant mesothelioma or metastatic adenocarcinoma. PMID:11015658

Handra-Luca, A; Couvelard, A; Abd Alsamad, I; Launay, O; Larousserie, F; Walker, F; Henin, D



Imaging tumor cell movement in vivo.  


This unit describes the methods that we have been developing for analyzing tumor cell motility in mouse and rat models of breast cancer metastasis. Rodents are commonly used both to provide a mammalian system for studying human tumor cells (as xenografts in immunocompromised mice) as well as for following the development of tumors from a specific tissue type in transgenic lines. The Basic Protocol in this unit describes the standard methods used for generation of mammary tumors and imaging them. Additional protocols for labeling macrophages, blood vessel imaging, and image analysis are also included. PMID:23456602

Entenberg, David; Kedrin, Dmitriy; Wyckoff, Jeffrey; Sahai, Erik; Condeelis, John; Segall, Jeffrey E



Interstitial irradiation of brain tumors: a review  

SciTech Connect

As an adjuvant to surgery, radiation therapy has consistently proven to be the most successful form of treatment for primary and secondary malignant brain tumors and possibly for inoperable benign tumors. Because the risk of radiation necrosis of normal brain limits the amount of radiation that can be given by external beam therapy at conventional dose rates, interstitial radiation of brain tumors is a logical alternative treatment approach. We discuss the radiobiological advantages of low dose rate irradiation and intratumoral placement of sources that make interstitial irradiation an attractive treatment for brain tumors and review the history of clinical brachytherapy for intracranial neoplasia.

Bernstein, M.; Gutin, P.H.



Large cystic granulosa cell tumor: case report.  


This is a case of a large granulosa cell tumor of the ovary. The patient was a 42-year-old, white woman, gravida 1, para 1. The family claimed that she had a "water tumor" in her abdomen. The patient was afraid of seeing a doctor. She died at home without any medical attention. During autopsy we removed approximately 20 gallons of turbid reddish brown fluid from the cystic tumor. The tumor's cystic wall and the fluid weighed approximately 77 kg (170 pounds). No metastasis was found in any other organs. PMID:2375372

Choi, C H; Pritchard, J R



Buckling Instability in Growing Tumor Spheroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A growing tumor is subjected to intrinsic physical forces, arising from the cellular turnover in a spatially constrained environment. This work demonstrates that such residual solid stresses can provoke a buckling instability in heterogeneous tumor spheroids. The growth rate ratio between the outer shell of proliferative cells and the inner necrotic core is the control parameter of this instability. The buckled morphology is found to depend both on the elastic and the geometric properties of the tumor components, suggesting a key role of residual stresses for promoting tumor invasiveness.

Ciarletta, P.



A rare posterior cranial fossa tumor.  


Among tumors of the central nervous system, tumors of the mixed glioneuronal type form an important recognized subset. Some of the examples for mixed glioneuronal tumors include gangliocytoma, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT), ganglioglioma, anaplastic ganglioglioma, and central neurocytoma. The rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor (RGNT) of the fourth ventricle is a new entity that has only slowly emerged in the literature due to its prior classification with other low-grade mixed glial and neuronal tumors. These tumors are relatively infrequent lesions, and therefore, they can be challenging to diagnose for the practicing pathologist. This is a rare biphasic tumor with clearly defined neurocytic and glial components. The tumor is found exclusively in the posterior fossa, where it arises in the midline, usually occupying a substantial fraction of the fourth ventricle, and it is observed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a circumscribed, solid mass with heterogeneous contrast enhancement. We describe here a case of RGNT occurring in a 22-year-old male. PMID:23361291

Nandeesh, Bevinahalli N; Chabra, Manmeet Singh; Babu, Manjaly K; Chand, Ashish K


Mutant Sodium Channel for Tumor Therapy  

PubMed Central

Viral vectors have been used to deliver a wide range of therapeutic genes to tumors. In this study, a novel tumor therapy was achieved by the delivery of a mammalian brain sodium channel, ASIC2a, carrying a mutation that renders it constitutively open. This channel was delivered to tumor cells using a herpes simplex virus-1/Epstein–Barr virus (HSV/EBV) hybrid amplicon vector in which gene expression was controlled by a tetracycline regulatory system (tet-on) with silencer elements. Upon infection and doxycycline induction of mutant channel expression in tumor cells, the open channel led to amiloride-sensitive sodium influx as assessed by patch clamp recording and sodium imaging in culture. Within hours, tumor cells swelled and died. In addition to cells expressing the mutant channel, adjacent, noninfected cells connected by gap junctions also died. Intratumoral injection of HSV/EBV amplicon vector encoding the mutant sodium channel and systemic administration of doxycycline led to regression of subcutaneous tumors in nude mice as assessed by in vivo bioluminescence imaging. The advantage of this direct mode of tumor therapy is that all types of tumor cells become susceptible and death is rapid with no time for the tumor cells to become resistant.

Tannous, Bakhos A; Christensen, Adam P; Pike, Lisa; Wurdinger, Thomas; Perry, Katherine F; Saydam, Okay; Jacobs, Andreas H; Garcia-Anoveros, Jaime; Weissleder, Ralph; Sena-Esteves, Miguel; Corey, David P; Breakefield, Xandra O



Somatostatin receptors in differentiated ovarian tumors  

SciTech Connect

The presence of somatostatin receptors was investigated in 57 primary human ovarian tumors using in vitro receptor autoradiography with three different somatostatin radioligands, {sup 125}I-(Tyr11)-somatostatin-14, {sup 125}I-(Leu8, D-Trp22, Tyr25)-somatostatin-28, or {sup 125}I-(Tyr3)-SMS 201-995. Three cases, all belonging to epithelial tumors, were receptor positive; specifically 1 of 42 adenocarcinomas, 1 of 3 borderline malignancies, and 1 of 2 cystadenomas. Four other epithelial tumors (3 fibroadenomas, 1 Brenner tumor), 4 sex cord-stromal tumors (2 fibrothecomas, 2 granulosa cell tumors), and 2 germ cell tumors (1 dysgerminoma, 1 teratoma) were receptor negative. In the positive cases, the somatostatin receptors were localized on epithelial cells exclusively, were of high affinity (KD = 4.6 nmol/l (nanomolar)), and specific for somatostatin analogs. These receptors bound somatostatin-14 and somatostatin-28 radioligands with a higher affinity than the octapeptide (Tyr3)-SMS 201-995. Healthy ovarian tissue had no somatostatin receptors. A subpopulation of relatively well-differentiated ovarian tumors, therefore, was identified pathobiochemically on the basis of its somatostatin receptor content. This small group of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors may be a target for in vivo diagnostic imaging with somatostatin ligands.

Reubi, J.C.; Horisberger, U.; Klijn, J.G.; Foekens, J.A. (Sandoz Research Institute Berne, (Switzerland))



[Clinical and neuroradiological diagnostics of orbital tumors].  


Exophthalmus is the leading sign of space-occupying lesions of the orbit. Patients may further present with lid swelling, impaired ocular motility and optic neuropathy including a relative afferent pupillary defect, compressive optic disc edema or optic atrophy. Orbital tumors can be classified into various categories depending on the etiology, as lymphoproliferative lesions (in particular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma as the most common malignant orbital tumor of adulthood), optic nerve and meningeal lesions, lacrimal gland lesions, secondary orbital tumors which extend to the orbit from neighboring structures and metastases. Slightly less common are vasculogenic and cystic lesions including cavernous hemangioma as the most common benign orbital tumor of adulthood and dermoid cysts as the most common benign orbital tumor of childhood. Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common malignant orbital tumor of childhood but has a low total incidence. Orbital tumors might not only cause symptoms like pain, diplopia and loss of visual acuity but may also lead to esthetically disfiguring changes. Particular attention should be paid to underlying systemic diseases and generalized tumor diseases. This article illustrates the approach to a detailed clinical and neuroradiological assessment which is mandatory for the care of orbital tumor patients. PMID:21695605

Poloschek, C M; Lagrèze, W A; Ridder, G J; Hader, C



Inferring tumor progression from genomic heterogeneity.  


Cancer progression in humans is difficult to infer because we do not routinely sample patients at multiple stages of their disease. However, heterogeneous breast tumors provide a unique opportunity to study human tumor progression because they still contain evidence of early and intermediate subpopulations in the form of the phylogenetic relationships. We have developed a method we call Sector-Ploidy-Profiling (SPP) to study the clonal composition of breast tumors. SPP involves macro-dissecting tumors, flow-sorting genomic subpopulations by DNA content, and profiling genomes using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Breast carcinomas display two classes of genomic structural variation: (1) monogenomic and (2) polygenomic. Monogenomic tumors appear to contain a single major clonal subpopulation with a highly stable chromosome structure. Polygenomic tumors contain multiple clonal tumor subpopulations, which may occupy the same sectors, or separate anatomic locations. In polygenomic tumors, we show that heterogeneity can be ascribed to a few clonal subpopulations, rather than a series of gradual intermediates. By comparing multiple subpopulations from different anatomic locations, we have inferred pathways of cancer progression and the organization of tumor growth. PMID:19903760

Navin, Nicholas; Krasnitz, Alexander; Rodgers, Linda; Cook, Kerry; Meth, Jennifer; Kendall, Jude; Riggs, Michael; Eberling, Yvonne; Troge, Jennifer; Grubor, Vladimir; Levy, Dan; Lundin, Pär; Månér, Susanne; Zetterberg, Anders; Hicks, James; Wigler, Michael



Exploiting tumor epigenetics to improve oncolytic virotherapy  

PubMed Central

Oncolytic viruses (OVs) comprise a versatile and multi-mechanistic therapeutic platform in the growing arsenal of anticancer biologics. These replicating therapeutics find favorable conditions in the tumor niche, characterized among others by increased metabolism, reduced anti-tumor/antiviral immunity, and disorganized vasculature. Through a self-amplification that is dependent on multiple cancer-specific defects, these agents exhibit remarkable tumor selectivity. With several OVs completing or entering Phase III clinical evaluation, their therapeutic potential as well as the challenges ahead are increasingly clear. One key hurdle is tumor heterogeneity, which results in variations in the ability of tumors to support productive infection by OVs and to induce adaptive anti-tumor immunity. To this end, mounting evidence suggests tumor epigenetics may play a key role. This review will focus on the epigenetic landscape of tumors and how it relates to OV infection. Therapeutic strategies aiming to exploit the epigenetic identity of tumors in order to improve OV therapy are also discussed.

Forbes, Nicole E.; Abdelbary, Hesham; Lupien, Mathieu; Bell, John C.; Diallo, Jean-Simon



Postoperative retroperitoneal desmoid tumor mimics recurrent gastrointestinal stromal tumor: A case report  

PubMed Central

Desmoid tumor is a locally invasive, myofibroblastic, nonmetastatic tumor. Its pathogenesis remains unclear and it may involve genetic abnormalities, sex hormones and traumatic injury, including surgery. Postoperative intra-abdominal desmoid tumor is rare, especially in the retroperitoneum. We report a case of postoperative retroperitoneal desmoid tumor that developed 29 mo after the first excision of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Sporadic trauma-related intra-abdominal desmoid tumors reported in the English literature are also reviewed. Despite an extremely low incidence, postoperative desmoid tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis when a recurrent neoplasm is found at least one year after operation. However, it is a clinical challenge to distinguish recurrent malignant neoplasms from desmoid tumors, and surgical resection is the treatment option depending on the anatomic location.

Shih, Liang-Yu; Wei, Chang-Kuo; Lin, Chih-Wen; Tseng, Chih-En



Deferoxamine mesylate enhancement of 67Ga tumor-to-blood ratios and tumor imaging.  


To improve the tumor-to-blood ratio in 67Ga tumor imaging, the effect of administration of deferoxamine mesylate (DFO) was evaluated. DFO improved 67Ga tumor-to-blood ratios in tumor-bearing rats. Administration of DFO 12 h after 67Ga injection did not decrease the concentration of radioactivity in the tumor of rats, but administration of DFO 4 h after 67Ga decreased the concentration of radioactivity in the tumor. Serum unsaturated iron binding capacity in rats was transiently increased by DFO administration, but when DFO was administered before 67Ga injection the tumor uptake showed rather decreased levels. In human studies, DFO accelerated the excretion of 67Ga from the blood, but tumor images were not necessarily improved. PMID:6954069

Koizumi, K; Tonami, N; Hisada, K



Tumor antigens: Biological activity of components of soluble antigens of MTV-induced mammary tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antigens (AMMT) of MTV-induced mammary tumors of BALB\\/cfC3H CRGL mice were solubilized by treatment of homogenates of the tumor with 1 M perchloric acid. The soluble antigens exhibited biological activity by their ability to induce DNA synthesis in spleen cells of mice bearing syngeneic transplants of the tumor. AMMT-induced DNA synthesis, however, was abrogated by serum from tumor-bearing mice. AMMT

Calbert A. Laing; Gloria H. Heppner; J. George Bekesi



Relationship of tumor hypoxia and response to photodynamic treatment in an experimental mouse tumor.  


The relationship between tumor oxygenation and the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy (PDT) was studied in vitro and in vivo using the RIF mouse tumor model. The oxygen dependence of photodynamic inactivation of RIF cells, which had been exposed to 25 mg/kg porphyrin (dihematoporphyrin ether) in vivo, isolated and illuminated in vitro, was determined. No cell kill was achieved under anoxic conditions, full effect was reached at 5% O2, and the half value of cell inactivation was found to be at 1% O2. Tumor hypoxia was assessed after in vivo gamma-irradiation of control and PDT-treated tumors by in vitro clonogenic assay of cell radiosensitivity. In vitro control experiments established that the radio-sensitivity of PDT-surviving RIF cells was identical to that of untreated control cells. RIF tumors of treatment size (80-120 mg) contained no detectable hypoxic tumor cell fraction. PDT treatment consisting of i.p. injection of 10 mg/kg dihematoporphyrin ether 24 h prior to 45 J/cm2 of 630 nm light, rendered approximately 9% of tumor cells severely hypoxic within 10 min of treatment time. An illumination period of 30 min (135 J/cm2) induced a hypoxic tumor cell fraction of 17%, which increased to 47% within 1 h posttreatment. Despite the prompt induction of tumor hypoxia during PDT light treatment, the tumors proved highly curable (81% cures) under the present treatment conditions (depilation of tumor area, 10 mg/kg dihematoporphyrin ether i.p., 135 J/cm2). Considering the reduced effectiveness of photodynamic cell kill at low oxygen concentrations, the rapid induction of tumor hypoxia by PDT itself, and the high tumor cure rate, it has to be concluded that in the RIF tumor hypoxic tumor cells are inactivated by a mechanism other than direct photodynamic cytotoxicity, and are thus not limiting to PDT tumor response. PMID:3581062

Henderson, B W; Fingar, V H



A rare presentation of hybrid odontogenic tumor involving calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor and plexiform ameloblastoma  

PubMed Central

A hybrid odontogenic tumor comprising two distinct lesions is extremely rare. We presented a hybrid odontogenic tumor composed of a calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT) and a plexiform ameloblastoma. This tumor was observed in the anterior area of the mandible of a 17-year-old Indian male. Masses of ghost epithelial cells with the characteristics of CCOT were seen in the lining of the cyst. The odontogenic epithelia with the features of plexiform ameloblastoma were also observed.

Chaubey, Snehal S.; Mishra, Sunil S.; Degwekar, Shirish S.; Chaubey, Saujanya



Administration of 6-gingerol greatly enhances the number of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in murine tumors.  


Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) play critical roles in host antitumor immune responses. It is known that cancer patients with tumor-reactive lymphocyte infiltration in their tumors have better prognoses, while patients with tumors infiltrated by immunosuppressive cells have worse prognoses. We found that administration of 6-gingerol, which is a component of ginger, inhibited tumor growth in several types of murine tumors, such as B16F1 melanomas, Renca renal cell carcinomas and CT26 colon carcinomas, which were established by inoculating tumor cells on the flanks of mice. However, administration of 6-gingerol did not lead to complete eradication of the tumors. 6-Gingerol treatment of tumor-bearing mice caused massive infiltration of CD4 and CD8 T-cells and B220(+) B-cells, but reduced the number of CD4(+) Foxp3(+) regulatory T-cells. The CD8 tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes in 6-gingerol-treated mice strongly expressed IFN-?, a marker of activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) CD107a and chemokine receptors that are expressed on T(H) 1 cells, such as CXCR3 and CCR5. To test whether 6-gingerol could promote infiltration of tumor antigen-specific CD8 T-cells into tumors, we adoptively transferred CFSE-labeled OT-1 CD8 T-cells into EG7 tumor-bearing mice. We found that CD8 T cells isolated from 6-gingerol pretreated OT-1 mice, but not from control OT-1 mice, massively infiltrated tumors and tumor draining lymph nodes and divided several times. Our results strongly suggest that 6-gingerol can be used in tumor immunotherapy to increase the number of TILs. PMID:21792901

Ju, Seong-A; Park, Sang-Min; Lee, Yea-Sol; Bae, Jun-Hyeong; Yu, Rina; An, Won G; Suh, Jae-Hee; Kim, Byung-Sam



Preconditioning of the Tumor Vasculature and Tumor Cells by Intermittent Hypoxia: Implications for Anticancer Therapies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypoxia is a common feature in tumors associated with an increased resistance of tumor cells to therapies. In addition to O2 diffusion-limited hypoxia, another form of tumor hypoxia characterized by fluctuating changes in pO2 within the disorganized tumor vascular network is described. Here, we postulated that this form of intermittent hypoxia promotes endothelial cell survival, thereby extending the concept of

Philippe Martinive; Florence Defresne; Caroline Bouzin; Julie Saliez; Florence Lair; Vincent Gregoire; Carine Michiels; Chantal Dessy; Olivier Feron



Benign bone tumors and tumor-like lesions: value of cross-sectional imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the role of CT and MR imaging in the diagnosis of benign bone tumors and tumor-like lesions of bone with\\u000a with regard to differential diagnosis, the assessment of tumor-related complications, and the detection of postoperative recurrence.\\u000a Indications for cross-sectional imaging of specific lesions, including osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, enchondroma, osteochondroma,\\u000a intraosseous lipoma, hemangioma, giant cell tumor, aneurysmal bone

Klaus Woertler



A TV Digital Interativa como Ferramenta de Apoio à Educação Infantil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Televisão Digital e Interativa (TVDI) deve revolucionar o mundo das mídias digitais de forma similar à inserção da televisão há cinqüenta anos ou a Web na última década. Na fase atual de discussão do tema, é importante não apenas considerar aspectos técnicos, como também os impactos sociais dessa tecnologia no nosso País. O governo brasileiro coloca a educação como

C. A. S. Santos; Tatiana Aires




Microsoft Academic Search

El objetivo del siguiente trabajo es describir casos análogos de fobia o miedo a los viajes en otras culturas y tiempos diferente a los modernos. En este sentido, consideramos que tanto la cultura aymará como la vida en la antigua roma nos proveen de ejemplos suficientes para considerar a la fobia a los viajes como un problema en extensión. Por

Maximiliano Korstanje



El desarrollo de la escucha como habilidad para comprender, a partir de la asignatura inglés  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este artículo aborda una problemática actual al profundizar en el desarrollo de la habilidad Escuchar como habilidad para comprender, se hace una sistematización de conocimientos teóricos sobre la temática, se intenta mostrar cómo una actividad común de audición encontrada en la mayoría de los libros de texto modernos de la enseñanza del EFL (inglés como idioma extranjero), puede ser explotada

Rafael Lorenzo Hechavarría Pérez



Platelet interaction with a pancreatic ascites tumor.  

PubMed Central

The mechanism leading to the hypercoagulability in pancreatic carcinoma is unclear. The rapid progress of the disease after its diagnosis and the inaccessibility of the tumor make studies on the mechanism difficult in man. With the successful induction of this malignancy and conversion of it into an ascites tumor in Syrian golden hamsters, interactions between isolated tumor cells and individual hemostatic components can be investigated. In this paper, studies on in vitro tumor cell-platelet interactions and some hemostatic changes in hamsters following intravenous injection of isolated tumor cells are described. Freshly isolated tumor cells and tumor-cell sonicates, but not those that had been kept at 4 or -70 C overnight, induced comparable aggregation of human platelets in both heparinized and citrated platelet-rich plasmas (hPRP and cPRP). The aggregation was not followed by clot formation; a specific synthetic thrombin inhibitor had no effect on the aggregation in either hPRP or cPRP. Washed and gel-filtered platelets, even in the presence of 5% of citrated or heparinized platelet-poor plasma (cPPP or hPPP) failed to be aggregated by tumor cells. Tumor-cell-induced platelet aggregation was accompanied by thromboxane formation and serotonin release, both of which were several orders of magnitude greater in cPPP than in hPRP. Aspirin, apyrase, and PGI2 all inhibited tumor-cell-induced platelet aggregation in both PRPs, but the inhibition by aspirin was minimal. Intravenous infusion of isolated tumor cells into normal hamsters resulted in a 50% reduction of platelet count and a 20-30% decline in antithrombin III and fibrinogen. Platelet aggregates and fibrin strands were seen in the lungs of these animals. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 6

Hamilton, J.; Subbarao, V.; Granack, K.; Ts'ao, C.



Tumor M2 pyruvate kinase: a tumor marker and its clinical application in gastrointestinal malignancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proliferating cells, in particular tumor cells, express a dimeric isoenzyme of pyruvate kinase, termed Tumor M2 pyruvate kinase. In the last few years, much attention has been paid to this novel tumor marker that can be determined in EDTA-plasma and in the feces. It has been used in diagnosis and surveillance of a variety of malignant diseases. As compared with

Philip D Hardt; Nils Ewald



Serum tumor markers in the evaluation of male germ cell tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum tumor markers play a critical role in the diagnosis, staging, risk stratification, and surveillance of patients with testicular germ cell tumors (GCTs). Production of the oncofetal substances ? fetoprotein and human chorionic gonadotropin can aid the diagnosis of testicular GCTs, and specific patterns of marker elevation can be used to determine the type of tumor, particularly as it pertains

LaMont J. Barlow; Gina M. Badalato; James M. McKiernan



Collision tumor of the colon – colonic adenocarcinoma and ovarian granulosa cell tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Collision tumors of the colon are rare. We report the first case, to our knowledge in the English literature, of a collision tumor composed of a colonic adenocarcinoma arising in a sigmoid diverticulum coexisting with a recurrent ovarian granulosa cell tumor. CASE PRESENTATION: A 64-year old woman presented with small bowel obstruction and a large, heterogenous, solid\\/cystic serosal based

Mayur Brahmania; Chandra S Kanthan; Rani Kanthan



Desmoplastic small round cell tumor of the pancreas: An unusual primary site for an uncommon tumor  

PubMed Central

Pancreas is a rare location for desmoplastic small round cell tumor. The present case highlights the dilemma in diagnosis and ascertaining the site of tumor origin. Morphologic and immunohistochemical features were complemented with the molecular markers and tumor origin which was initially nebulous was subsequently confirmed on exploratory laparotomy.

Qureshi, Sajid S.; Shrikhande, Shailesh; Ramadwar, Mukta; Desai, Saral; Visvanathan, Seethalakhsmi; Medhi, Seema S.; Laskar, Siddharth; Muckaden, Mary A.; Pai, Suresh K.; Desai, Sangeeta; Kurkure, Purna A.



Neuroectodermal differentiation in Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors does not predict tumor behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The observation that neuroectodermal differentiation imparts a worse prognosis to the Ewing family of tumors has been suggested by some studies and refuted by others. To assess whether the diagnosis of Ewing's sarcoma versus peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) affects prognosis, we analyzed tumors from 63 analogously treated pediatric and young adult patients from the National Cancer Institute and St

David M Parham; Yasmine Hijazi; Seth M Steinberg; William H Meyer; Marc Horowitz; Chin-Yuan Tzen; Leonard H Wexler; Maria Tsokos



Heterogeneity of Angiogenesis and Blood Vessel Maturation in Human Tumors: Implications for Antiangiogenic Tumor Therapies1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microvessel density (MVD) counting techniques have been widely used to assess the vasculature in tumors. MVD counts assess the presence of blood vessels but do not give an indication of the degree of angiogenesis and the functional status of the tumor neovasculature. To analyze angiogenesis and the functional status of the tumor vascular bed, we have quantitated endo- thelial cell

Anne Eberhard; Sebastian Kahlert; Valentin Goede; Bernhard Hemmerlein; Karl H. Plate; Hellmut G. Augustin



Identification of Tumor Rejection Antigens for Breast Cancer Using a Mouse Tumor Rejection Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the proposed study, we aim to identify tumor rejection antigens using mouse tumor rejection models. The study has three specific aims: (1) to determine the antigen repertoire induced by tumor rejection in FVB/N mice; (2) to identify the human homologue...

M. L. Disis



Identification of Tumor Rejection Antigens for Breast Cancer Using a Mouse Tumor Rejection Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Our goal in this proposal is to identify antigens that are associated with tumor rejection. Whereas this study would not be possible in humans, we have recently established a tumor rejection model by implanting the mouse tumors derived from neu-tg mice in...

M. L. Disis



Clear-cell variant of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (Pindborg tumor) in the mandible.  


We present an uncommon case (female patient aged 59 years) of the clear-cell variant of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) (also known as Pindborg tumor) in the mandible. The clinical characteristics and probable origins of the clear tumor cells of previously reported cases of clear-cell variant of intraosseous CEOT are also summarized and discussed. PMID:23703711

Chen, Ching-Yi; Wu, Chung-Wei; Wang, Wen-Chen; Lin, Li-Min; Chen, Yuk-Kwan



Correlation of MRI Biomarkers with Tumor Necrosis in Hras5 Tumor Xenograft in Athymic Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can measure the effects of therapies targeting the tumor vasculature and has demonstrated that vascular-damaging agents (VDA) induce acute vascular shutdown in tumors in human and animal models. However, at subtherapeutic doses, blood flow may recover before the induction of significant levels of necrosis. We present the relation- ship between changes in MRI biomarkers and tumor

Daniel P. Bradley; Jean J. Tessier; Susan E. Ashton; John C. Waterton; Zena Wilson; Philip L. Worthington; Anderson J. Ryan



Acute tumor lysis syndrome in solid tumors--a case report and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a potential complication in cancer therapy. It may occur in highly sensitive tumors, especially in childhood cancers and acute leukemias, whereas it is rare in the treatment of adult solid tumors. TLS is characterized by hyperuricemia, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia and hypocalcemia following massive lysis of malignant cells. Complications include acute renal failure and metabolic acidosis.

L. Baeksgaard; J. B. Sørensen



Clear-cell variant of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (Pindborg tumor) in the mandible  

PubMed Central

We present an uncommon case (female patient aged 59 years) of the clear-cell variant of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) (also known as Pindborg tumor) in the mandible. The clinical characteristics and probable origins of the clear tumor cells of previously reported cases of clear-cell variant of intraosseous CEOT are also summarized and discussed.

Chen, Ching-Yi; Wu, Chung-Wei; Wang, Wen-Chen; Lin, Li-Min; Chen, Yuk-Kwan



Radiometallacarboranes as tumor imaging reagents  

SciTech Connect

Monoclonal antibodies (Mab), when conjugated with bifunctional chelation reagents containing a radiometal, have provided sensitive and accurate imaging agents for the detection of cancer and other diseases. The bifunctional chelates presently in use are generally of the aminocarboxylate family and subject to catabolism with release of metal ion in vivo. The authors have now designed, synthesized, and evaluated a functionalized cluster containing a radiotransition metal (venus flytrap cluster, VFC) which makes use of an inorganic ligand set, incorporates exceedingly strong cluster bonding based upon a bridged commo-bis(dicarbollide) structure, and can be prepared in the aqueous media commonly used to supply radiometal salts. The species reported here presages the existence of a large family of functionalized metallacarborane clusters which may serve as biologically inviolable radio-transition-metal carriers for the antibody-mediated {gamma}-imaging or {beta}-therapy of tumors.

Hawthorne, M.F.; Varadarajan, A.; Knobler, C.B.; Chakrabarti, S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA)); Paxton, R.J.; Beatty, B.G.; Curtis, F.L. (Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte, CA (USA))



Spinal and Paraspinal Ewing Tumors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To perform a review of the 40-year University of Florida experience treating spinal and paraspinal Ewing tumors. Patients and Methods: A total of 27 patients were treated between 1965 and 2007. For local management, 21 patients were treated with radiotherapy (RT) alone and 6 with surgery plus RT. All patients with metastatic disease were treated with RT alone. The risk profiles of each group were otherwise similar. The median age was 17 years, and the most frequent subsite was the sacral spine (n = 9). The median potential follow-up was 16 years. Results: The 5-year actuarial overall survival, cause-specific survival, and local control rate was 62%, 62%, and 90%, respectively. For the nonmetastatic subset (n = 22), the 5-year overall survival, cause-specific survival, and local control rate was 71%, 71%, and 89%, respectively. The local control rate was 84% for patients treated with RT alone vs. 100% for those treated with surgery plus RT. Patients who were >14 years old and those who were treated with intensive therapy demonstrated superior local control. Of 9 patients in our series with Frankel C or greater neurologic deficits at presentation, 7 experienced a full recovery with treatment. Of the 27 patients, 37% experienced Common Toxicity Criteria Grade 3 or greater toxicity, including 2 deaths from sepsis. Conclusion: Aggressive management of spinal and paraspinal Ewing tumors with RT with or without surgery results in high toxicity but excellent local control and neurologic outcomes. Efforts should be focused on identifying disease amenable to combined modality local therapy and improving RT techniques.

Indelicato, Daniel J., E-mail: dindelicato@floridaproton.or [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Keole, Sameer R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Shahlaee, Amir H. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); Morris, Christopher G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Gibbs, C. Parker; Scarborough, Mark T. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); Pincus, David W. [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); Marcus, Robert B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States)



Delayed contrast extravasation MRI for depicting tumor and non-tumoral tissues in primary and metastatic brain tumors.  


The current standard of care for newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is resection followed by radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide. Recent studies suggest that nearly half of the patients with early radiological deterioration post treatment do not suffer from tumor recurrence but from pseudoprogression. Similarly, a significant number of patients with brain metastases suffer from radiation necrosis following radiation treatments. Conventional MRI is currently unable to differentiate tumor progression from treatment-induced effects. The ability to clearly differentiate tumor from non-tumoral tissues is crucial for appropriate patient management. Ten patients with primary brain tumors and 10 patients with brain metastases were scanned by delayed contrast extravasation MRI prior to surgery. Enhancement subtraction maps calculated from high resolution MR images acquired up to 75 min after contrast administration were used for obtaining stereotactic biopsies. Histological assessment was then compared with the pre-surgical calculated maps. In addition, the application of our maps for prediction of progression was studied in a small cohort of 13 newly diagnosed GBM patients undergoing standard chemoradiation and followed up to 19.7 months post therapy. The maps showed two primary enhancement populations: the slow population where contrast clearance from the tissue was slower than contrast accumulation and the fast population where clearance was faster than accumulation. Comparison with histology confirmed the fast population to consist of morphologically active tumor and the slow population to consist of non-tumoral tissues. Our maps demonstrated significant correlation with perfusion-weighted MR data acquired simultaneously, although contradicting examples were shown. Preliminary results suggest that early changes in the fast volumes may serve as a predictor for time to progression. These preliminary results suggest that our high resolution MRI-based delayed enhancement subtraction maps may be applied for clear depiction of tumor and non-tumoral tissues in patients with primary brain tumors and patients with brain metastases. PMID:23251672

Zach, Leor; Guez, David; Last, David; Daniels, Dianne; Grober, Yuval; Nissim, Ouzi; Hoffmann, Chen; Nass, Dvora; Talianski, Alisa; Spiegelmann, Roberto; Cohen, Zvi R; Mardor, Yael



High-Dose Thiotepa Plus Peripheral Stem Cell Transplantation in Treating Patients With Refractory Solid Tumors

Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors; Childhood Germ Cell Tumor; Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Cancer; Retinoblastoma; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific



Clinical Assessment of the New Tumor Marker TPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryBackground: TPS (Tissue Polypeptide Specific Antigen) is defined by a monoclonal antibody against an epitope of the soluble Tissue Polypeptide Antigen (TPA). It is considered to be a tumor marker indicating cellular proliferation, not just tumor load. Serial values of this unique marker during tumor therapy might, therefore, be more sensitive and earlier signs of tumor response than conventional tumor

B. M. Frey; R. Morant; H. J. Senn; W. F. Riesen



Effective bleeding control during resection of giant carotid body tumor.  


Carotid body tumor is a rare neoplasm located at the carotid bifurcation. Ligation and excision of the external carotid artery together with the tumor is preferred in patients with transmural tumor invasion. In those without transmural tumor invasion, temporary occlusion of the external carotid artery at the bifurcation allows trouble-free tumor excision and keeps the external carotid artery intact. PMID:17130335

Korkut, A Kubilay; Lice, Hasan; Aygutalp, Nadir



Classification of brain tumors using PCA-ANN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study is conducted to assist radiologists in marking tumor boundaries and in decision making process for multiclass classification of brain tumors. Primary brain tumors and secondary brain tumors along with normal regions are segmented by Gradient Vector Flow (GVF)-a boundary based technique. GVF is a user interactive model for extracting tumor boundaries. These segmented regions of interest (ROIs)

Vinod Kumar; Jainy Sachdeva; Indra Gupta; Niranjan Khandelwal; Chirag Kamal Ahuja



Early tumor effect on splenic Th lymphocytes in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumors are characterized by their ability to avoid the host immune system. Ehrlich ascites tumor cells were used to investigate the early alterations of the host immune system after tumor inoculation. The results show that frequencies of splenic Th lymphocytes were drastically reduced during tumor growth, reaching a minimum only two days after tumor inoculation. The frequency of splenic CD4+

Juan A Segura; Laura G Barbero; Javier Márquez



Nonlinear simulation of the effect of microenvironment on tumor growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present and investigate a model for solid tumor growth that incorporates features of the tumor microenvironment. Using analysis and nonlinear numerical simulations, we explore the effects of the interaction between the genetic characteristics of the tumor and the tumor microenvironment on the resulting tumor progression and morphology. We find that the range of morphological responses can

Paul Macklin; John Lowengrub



Cannibalism: A way to feed on metastatic tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cannibalism of tumors is an old story for pathologists, but it remained a mystery for at least one century. Recent data highlighted tumor cannibalism as a key advantage in tumor malignancy, possibly involved in resistance of tumors to the specific immune reaction. However, new data suggests also that metastatic tumor cells may use this peculiar function to feed in conditions

Stefano Fais



Headache in children with brain tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the criteria for early differential diagnosis between migraine and headache due to brain tumors, we analyzed the symptoms and signs of two groups of children. The first group consisted of 67 children in whom a brain tumor had been diagnosed. The second group was composed of 600 children who had been diagnosed as migraine cases. Among the features

Livia N. Rossi; Franco Vassella



Tumor hypoxia: its impact on cancer therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of radiation resistant cells in solid human tumors is believed to be a major reason why radiotherapy fails to eradicate some such neoplasms. The presence of unperfused regions containing hypoxic cells may also contribute to resistance to some chemotherapeutic agents. This paper reviews the evidence that radiation resistant hypoxic cells exist in solid tumors, the assumptions and results

John E. Moulder; Sara Rockwell


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