Sample records for como marcador tumoral

  1. Tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... environmental substance. Other risk factors for cancer include: Benzene and other chemicals and toxins Drinking too much ... a tumor is found, a piece of the tissue is removed and examined under a microscope. This ...

  2. Tumores cerebrales

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre el tratamiento de los tumores cerebrales, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con estos tipos de cáncer.

  3. El cancer de pulmon como marcador de tabaquismo: relacion con la mortalidad por cancer no pulmonar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monica Perez-Rios; Bruce Leistikow; Agustin Montes

    Objective: To assess the possible role of tobacco smoke in non-lung cancer (excluding stomach cancer) using changes in lung cancer mortality rates as a proxy for tobacco exposure. Methods: A time series analysis of cancer mortality was performed to evaluate the possible association between changes in mortality rates for lung cancer and for non-lung, non-stomach cancer (NLNS) from 1970 to

  4. Spinal tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    Tumor - spinal cord ... spinal tumors occur in the nerves of the spinal cord itself. Most often these are ependymomas and other ... gene mutations. Spinal tumors can occur: Inside the spinal cord (intramedullary) In the membranes (meninges) covering the spinal ...

  5. Wilms' Tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    Wilms' tumor is a rare type of kidney cancer. It causes a tumor on one or both kidneys. It usually affects ... are at risk should be screened for Wilms' tumor every three months until they turn eight. Symptoms ...

  6. Carcinoid tumors.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Russell G; Geiger, William J; Davis, Nancy B

    2006-08-01

    Carcinoid tumors are rare, slow-growing neuroendocrine neoplasms that often are indolent and may not become clinically apparent until there has been metastatic spread or evidence of carcinoid syndrome. Recent evidence has revealed that the overall incidence of carcinoid tumors has been steadily increasing, and although the disease was thought to be relatively benign, it is now considered one of increasing malignancy. Carcinoid tumors derive from different embryonic divisions of the gut: foregut carcinoid tumors commonly originate in the lungs, bronchi, or stomach; midgut carcinoid tumors in the small intestine, appendix, or proximal large bowel; and hindgut carcinoid tumors in the distal colon or rectum. Carcinoid syndrome, although rare, is most associated with midgut carcinoid tumors. The diagnosis of a carcinoid tumor often is coincidental with surgery performed for another reason. Treatment and prognosis are dependent on the location of the primary tumor and the degree and extent of metastasis at the time of diagnosis. PMID:16913162

  7. Carcinoid Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    Carcinoid tumors are rare, slow-growing cancers. They usually start in the lining of the digestive tract or ... trouble breathing. Surgery is the main treatment for carcinoid tumors. If they haven't spread to other parts ...

  8. Pituitary Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medical institutions across the country. Much of this research focuses on finding better ways to prevent, treat, and ultimately cure pituitary tumors. NIH Patient Recruitment for Pituitary Tumors Clinical Trials At NIH Clinical Center Throughout the U.S. ...

  9. [Pituitary tumors].

    PubMed

    Kawamata, Takakazu; Hori, Tomokatsu

    2004-05-01

    Pituitary adenomas have been reported to be the most common benign intracranial neoplasms. Recent radiological advancement has resulted in incidental diagnosis of pituitary tumors such as pituitary adenomas and Rathke's cleft cysts. The most common location of pituitary adenomas is intrasellar region with or without suprasellar extension. Pituitary tumors in unusual site, however, have been reported previously, including the sphenoid sinus, suprasellar region, clivus, nasal cavity, or something like that. The sources of ectopic pituitary tumors have been thought to be migration of pituitary cells in pituitary adenomas and of squamous epithelial cell remnants of the obliterated craniopharyngeal canal in craniopharyngiomas. We describe ectopic pituitary tumors and recent knowledge of etiology and pathology of pituitary tumors. Furthermore, we mention recent advancement of endonasal transsphenoidal surgery to treat pituitary tumors. PMID:15148826

  10. Kidney Tumors

    Cancer.gov

    Kidney tumors are rare and generally curable in children. However, there are subsets of patients afflicted with these diseases that do not respond to treatment or eventually relapse. These patients usually have poor clinical outcomes as compared with the majority of children diagnosed with kidney tumors. All patients undergo therapy regimens that can be detrimental later in life. Through genome-wide characterization, TARGET investigators are identifying critical molecular alterations in these tumors, mostly from relapsed patients.

  11. Sinus Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... include papilloma (including inverted and squamous), fibro-osseous (meaning from bone structure) lesions (including osteoma, fibrous dysplasia), vascular (meaning from a blood vessel) tumors (including juvenile nasopharyngeal ...

  12. Hypothalamic tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... at any age, but they are often more aggressive in adults than in children. In adults, tumors ... The treatment depends on how aggressive the tumor is, and whether it is a glioma or another type of cancer. Treatment may involve combinations of surgery, radiation , ...

  13. Tumores cerebrales–para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento de los tumores cerebrales, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con estos tipos de cáncer.

  14. Glioneuronal Tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias Simon; Rudolf A. Kristof; Johannes Schramm

    \\u000a Neuronal and mixed neuronal–glial tumors are thought to arise from neuroepithelial cells. According to the 2007 WHO classification,\\u000a this group of tumors comprises ganglioglioma and gangliocytoma, desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma (DIA) and ganglioglioma,\\u000a dys-plastic cerebellar gangliocytoma (Lhermitte–Duclos disease), dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT), central neurocytoma,\\u000a cerebellar liponeurocytoma (CLN), paraganglioma of the cauda equina (PCE), and the more recently recognized subtypes papillary\\u000a glion-euronal

  15. Liver tumors.

    PubMed

    Stringer, M D

    2000-11-01

    Liver tumors in children are rare, potentially complex, and encompass a broad spectrum of disease processes. Any age group may be affected, including the fetus. Most present with abdominal distension and/or a mass. Accurate preoperative diagnosis is usually possible using a combination of ultrasound scanning and cross-sectional imaging techniques (CT and/or MR), supplemented by liver biopsy and measurement of tumor markers. The most common benign tumors are hemangiomas, but mesenchymal hamartoma, focal nodular hyperplasia, and adenoma also are found. In Western countries, hepatoblastoma is the most common primary malignant liver tumor; disease-free survival is now possible in more than 80% of affected patients because of advances in combination chemotherapy, improved techniques of surgical resection, and the selective use of liver transplantation. In contrast, there has been less progress in the management of hepatocellular cancer, which still poses many therapeutic challenges. PMID:11112837

  16. Tumor Grade

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a pathologist’s report about the visual and microscopic examination of tissue removed during a biopsy or other surgery. How are tumor grades classified? Grading systems differ depending on the type of cancer. In ...

  17. Pregnancy Tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Poor oral hygiene (not enough brushing, flossing or cleanings to remove food or plaque) Irritation of the ... of getting a pregnancy tumor. Have regular dental cleanings before you become pregnant. Visit the dentist very ...

  18. Wilms Tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a cure; tumors with "unfavorable" histology are more aggressive and difficult to cure. About 95% of Wilms ... of treatment. For example, a child with very aggressive disease should be given an intensive regimen of ...

  19. TUBERCULOSIS COMO ENFERMEDAD OCUPACIONAL

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Ticona, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Existe evidencia suficiente para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en diversos profesionales especialmente entre los trabajadores de salud. En el Perú están normados y reglamentados los derechos laborales inherentes a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional, como la cobertura por discapacidad temporal o permanente. Sin embargo, estos derechos aún no han sido suficientemente socializados. En este trabajo se presenta información sobre el riesgo de adquirir tuberculosis en el lugar de trabajo, se revisan las evidencias para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en trabajadores de salud y se presenta la legislación peruana vigente al respecto. PMID:22858771

  20. Liver tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark D. Stringer

    2000-01-01

    Liver tumors in children are rare, potentially complex, and encompass a broad spectrum of disease processes. Any age group may be affected, including the fetus. Most present with abdominal distension and\\/or a mass. Accurate preoperative diagnosis is usually possible using a combination of ultrasound scanning and cross-sectional imaging techniques (CT and\\/or MR), supplemented by liver biopsy and measurement of tumor

  1. Rare Tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunanda Pejavar; Daphne Haas-Kogan

    \\u000a Meningiomas are mostly benign tumors that arise from arachnoid cap cells of the meninges. They occur most frequently during\\u000a the fifth or sixth decades of life and account for 15–25% of all primary intracranial neoplasms (Germano et al. 1994). These\\u000a tumors are rare in children and adolescents, comprising only 1–3% of all meningiomas (Tufan et al. 2005) and less than

  2. Brain Tumor Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Financials Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Council & Reviewers Leadership News Careers Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Tumor Grade Risk Factors Brain Tumor ...

  3. Brain Tumor Risk Factors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Financials Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Council & Reviewers Leadership News Careers Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Tumor Grade Risk Factors Brain Tumor ...

  4. Brain Tumor Diagnosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Financials Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Council & Reviewers Leadership News Careers Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Tumor Grade Risk Factors Brain Tumor ...

  5. Brain Tumor Dictionary

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Financials Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Council & Reviewers Leadership News Careers Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Tumor Grade Risk Factors Brain Tumor ...

  6. Brain Tumor Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Financials Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Council & Reviewers Leadership News Careers Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Tumor Grade Risk Factors Brain Tumor ...

  7. American Brain Tumor Association

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Financials Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Council & Reviewers Leadership News Careers Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Tumor Grade Risk Factors Brain Tumor ...

  8. tumor therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatsuhiro Joki; Marcelle Machluf; Anthony Atala; Jianhong Zhu; Nicholas T. Seyfried; Ian F. Dunn; Toshiaki Abe; Rona S. Carroll

    Research studies suggest that tumor-related angiogenesis contributes to the phenotype of malignant gliomas. We assessed the effect of local delivery of the angiogenesis inhibitor endostatin on human glioma cell line (U-87MG) xenografts. Baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells were stably transfected with a human endostatin (hES) expression vector and were encapsulated in alginate-poly L-lysine (PLL) micro- capsules for long-term delivery of

  9. ADRENOCORTICAL TUMORS

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, E. Kost

    1950-01-01

    Hormonally active tumors of the adrenal cortex are either benign adenomas or adenocarcinomas. They may be located within the adrenal gland or as adrenal rests along the Wolffian tract. Hyperplastic cortical tissue without actual neoplastic formation is also capable of elaborating excessive cortical secretions. At the present state of knowledge, any one or a combination of the following compounds may be elaborated in a given case: the electrolytic, glucogenic, androgenic, or estrogenic corticosteroids. Whether or not Cushing's syndrome is primarily pituitary or adrenal in origin is still a matter of conjecture. PMID:15426994

  10. Pancreatic Exocrine Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    Pancreatic Exocrine Tumors More than 95% of pancreatic cancers are classified as exocrine tumors. These tumors start in the exocrine cells of the pancreas. The following table describes the most common pancreatic ...

  11. Tumor Formation in Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. V. Matveeva; L. A. Lutova; Yu. Nester

    2001-01-01

    The data on genetic tumors in plant species and interspecific hybrids, as well as the problems of Agrobacterium-induced tumors are reviewed. The role of the horizontal gene transfer in the induction of genetic tumors is discussed.

  12. Tumors and Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    Tumors during pregnancy are rare, but they can happen. Tumors can be either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. The most common cancers in pregnancy are breast cancer, cervical cancer, lymphoma, and melanoma. ...

  13. Brain Tumor Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... updates Please leave this field empty Brain Tumor Statistics SHARE Share on Facebook Preview your comments Share ... Close Finish Home > About Us > News > Brain Tumor Statistics Listen Brain Tumors do not discriminate. Primary brain ...

  14. Tumores extracraneales de células germinativas–para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del tumor extracraneal de células germinativas en los niños, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

  15. Carcinoma de tumor primario desconocido–para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del carcinoma de tumor primario desconocido, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

  16. Adolescent and Pediatric Brain Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Financials Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Council & Reviewers Leadership News Careers Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Tumor Grade Risk Factors Brain Tumor ...

  17. Living with a Brain Tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Financials Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Council & Reviewers Leadership News Careers Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Tumor Grade Risk Factors Brain Tumor ...

  18. Nonmalignant pediatric brain tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahmoud Rashidi; Victor Reis DaSilva; Alireza Minagar; James T. Rutka

    2003-01-01

    Brain tumors are the most common solid neoplasms in the pediatric population. Each year in the United States, approximately\\u000a 1500 to 2000 children are affected by one of these tumors. About 50% of pediatric brain tumors are malignant. Nonmalignant\\u000a pediatric brain tumors comprise an eclectic group of pathologic entities that have fascinating clinical features. Many of\\u000a these tumors demonstrate a

  19. Tumor microenvironment and nanotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Upreti, Meenakshi; Jyoti, Amar; Sethi, Pallavi

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies delineate a predominant role for the tumor microenvironment in tumor growth and progression. Improved knowledge of cancer biology and investigation of the complex functional interrelation between the cellular and noncellular compartments of the tumor microenvironment have provided an ideal platform for the evolution of novel cancer nanotherapies. In addition, multifunctional “smart” nanoparticles carrying imaging agents and delivering multiple drugs targeted preferentially to the tumor/tumor microenvironment will lead to early diagnosis and better treatment for patients with cancer. The emerging knowledge of the tumor microenvironment has enabled rational designing of nanoparticles for combinatorial treatment strategies that include radiotherapy, antiangiogenesis and chemotherapy. This multimodality approach is thus expected to achieve therapeutic efficacy and enhance the quality of life of cancer patients. This review highlights the unique characteristics of the tumor microenvironment that are exploited by nanotechnology to develop novel drug delivery systems aimed to target the tumor/tumor microenvironment. PMID:24634853

  20. Análisis de dos poblaciones de gallinas criollas (Gallus domesticus) utilizando RAPDs como marcadores moleculares An analysis of two native poultry populations (Gallus domesticus) using RAPD's as molecular markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irma Morelia Soto Huipe; Guadalupe Zavala Páramoa; Horacio Cano Camacho; Joel E. López Meza

    México has a great variety of native poultry but knowledge about its diversity is minimal. In this study, twenty individuals belonging to two populations of native hens (Gallus domesticus) were analyzed. They were chosen by egg production, through polymorphism identification generated by DNA random amplification (RAPD's). Amplification generated products show different sizes between 0.2 to 1.1 kb. Polymorphism was detected

  1. National Brain Tumor Society

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Read More June 19, 2015 Rep. Langevin to brain tumor advocates: Keep Fighting BOSTON, MA – Members of ... thanks to y Read More June 17, 2015 Brain Tumor News From the 2015 American Society for ...

  2. Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... funder of childhood brain tumor research in the world We fund innovative research to improve treatments and ... support programs Your donations help us make the world a brighter place for children with brain tumors. ...

  3. Metastatic pleural tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    Tumor - metastatic pleural ... The blood and lymph systems can carry cancer cells to other organs in the body, where they can produce new growths or tumors. The spread of cancer cells to other parts ...

  4. La posesión como hecho punible

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Friedrich Christian Schroeder

    Este trabajo estudia el delito de posesión, el cual se extiende semánticamente hasta términos como custodia, mantener disponible, almacenar, etc., y como conminada con la pena se halla la posesión de explosivos, de armas de fuego, de drogas, de pornografía infantil, etc. En este mismo trabajo se analizan, bajo la óptica del Código Penal alemán, cómo las acciones graves o

  5. Glomus jugulare tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    A glomus jugulare tumor is a tumor of a part of the temporal bone (which involves the middle and inner ear ... A glomus jugulare tumor grows in the temporal bone of the skull, in an area called the jugular foramen. The jugular ...

  6. Tumor Radiosensitivity and Apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boris Zhivotovsky; Bertrand Joseph; Sten Orrenius

    1999-01-01

    With approximately 50% of all cancer patients receiving radiation therapy at some point in their treatment, increasing the sensitivity of tumor cells to the lethal effects of irradiation has the potential to significantly improve the rate of recovery from many malignancies. The major biological determinant of radiotherapy failure is tumor radioresistance. It is well known that tumors from the same

  7. Malignant tumors of childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, B.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 34 papers about malignant tumors. some of the titles are: Invasive Cogenital Mesoblastic Nephroma, Leukemia Update, Unusual Perinatal Neoplasms, Lymphoma Update, Gonadal Germ Cell Tumors in Children, Nutritional Status and Cancer of Childhood, and Chemotherapy of Brain tumors in Children.

  8. Imagery of pineal tumors.

    PubMed

    Deiana, G; Mottolese, C; Hermier, M; Louis-Tisserand, G; Berthezene, Y

    2015-01-01

    Pineal tumors are rare and include a large variety of entities. Germ cell tumors are relatively frequent and often secreting lesions. Pineal parenchymal tumors include pineocytomas, pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation, pineoblastomas and papillary tumors of the pineal region. Other lesions including astrocytomas and meningiomas as well as congenital malformations i.e. benign cysts, lipomas, epidermoid and dermoid cysts, which can also arise from the pineal region. Imagery is often non-specific but detailed analysis of the images compared with the hormone profile can narrow the spectrum of possible diagnosis. PMID:25676911

  9. 15 INTRACRANIAL GERM CELL TUMORS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Bjornsson; B Scheithauer; H Okazakl; R W Leech

    1984-01-01

    Intracranial germ cell tumors are a heterogeneous group of lesions which occur in children and adults. Within the classification of intracranial germ cell tumors, there are a variety of different tumor types which carry different prognoses. The diagnosis of an intracranial germ cell tumor usually requires histological informa- tion, but a subgroup of tumors will secrete specific tumor markers, including

  10. Galectins in tumor angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Griffioen, Arjan W.

    2014-01-01

    The expansion of solid tumors depends on the continuous ingrowth of new blood vessels out of pre-existing capillaries. Consequently, tumor neovascularization or tumor angiogenesis is considered a hallmark of cancer and an attractive target for cancer therapy. Tumor angiogenesis is mainly carried out by endothelial cells (EC), i.e., the cells lining the luminal vessel wall. These cells have to take on different functional activities in order to successfully make new tumor blood vessels. In the last decade it has become apparent that galectins are important regulators of tumor angiogenesis. In the present review we summarize the current knowledge regarding the role galectins in tumor angiogenesis focussing on the endothelial galectins, i.e., gal-1/-3/-8/-9. PMID:25405165

  11. [Brain tumors in childhood].

    PubMed

    Sinzig, M; Gasser, J; Jauk, B; Hausegger, K A

    2008-10-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) tumors are the most common solid neoplasms in childhood and the second most common malignancies after leukemia in the pediatric age group. Supratentorial tumors are more common in children younger than 2 years old and in adolescents, whereas in patients between 2 and 12 years of age brain tumors originating in the posterior fossa dominate. This implies a relationship between the type of tumor, its location and the age of the patient, which has to be considered in differential diagnoses. Medulloblastoma represents the most common malignant brain tumor in childhood. In the posterior fossa medulloblastomas are approximately as frequent as astrocytomas. Supratentorial astrocytomas are by far the main tumor type. In this report some typical CNS neoplasms in children are discussed and their neuroradiological features are demonstrated. PMID:18493733

  12. Tumor microenvironment is multifaceted

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine Sautès-Fridman; Julien Cherfils-Vicini; Diane Damotte; Sylvain Fisson; Wolf Hervé Fridman; Isabelle Cremer; Marie-Caroline Dieu-Nosjean

    2011-01-01

    Cancer initiation, progression, and invasion occur in a complex and dynamic microenvironment which depends on the hosts and\\u000a sites where tumors develop. Tumors arising in mucosal tissues may progress in an inflammatory context linked to local viral\\u000a and\\/or bacterial infections. At the opposite, tumors developing in immunoprivileged sites are protected from microorganisms\\u000a and grow in an immunosuppressive environment. In the

  13. Tumor Microenvironment and Progression

    PubMed Central

    Dvorak, Harold F.; Weaver, Valerie M.; Tlsty, Thea D.; Bergers, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Tumor blood vessels are heterogeneous, of at least six distinct types, are induced primarily by VEGF-A, and provide a potentially useful therapeutic target. Breast cancer is characterized by changes in the microenvironment that result in altered tensional homeostasis. Also, breast cancers arise as the result of epigenetic as well as genetic changes. Tumor blood vessel pericytes result, in part, from bone marrow precursor cells, and VEGF is a negative regulator of glioblastoma tumor cell invasion. PMID:21480238

  14. Iatrogenic tumor implantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying Ma; Ping Bai

    2008-01-01

    Iatrogenic tumor implantation is a condition that results from various medical procedures used during diagnosis or treatment\\u000a of a malignancy. It involves desquamation and dissemination of tumor cells that develop into a local recurrence or distant\\u000a metastasis from the tumor under treatment. The main clinical feature of the condition is nodules at the operation’s porous\\u000a channel or incision, which is

  15. Inhibitors of Tumor Angiogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anaadriana Zakarija; William J. Gradishar

    \\u000a Tumor growth relies on formation of a vascular supply. In 1971, Judah Folkman was the first to propose that in order to grow\\u000a beyond 2–3 mm in size tumors required a new vascular network [16]. Subsequent research has confirmed that growth of a tumor,\\u000a both at the primary site and metastases, is dependent on neoangiogenesis [17, 24]. This development of a

  16. Headaches and brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Sarah; Purdy, R Allan

    2014-05-01

    This article overviews headache and brain tumors, particularly from the diagnostic point of view of patients presenting with headache as their major symptom. Common and uncommon brain tumors can produce headache and investigation is warranted if any red flags are present. An overview of particular tumors and their presentations are covered along with some investigative suggestions and pertinent treatment strategies for some patients. PMID:24703537

  17. Oxygenation of Tumor Recurrences Following Fractionated Radiotherapy of Primary Tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Kehrl; Christoph Sagowski; Sören Wenzel; Friedrich Zywietz

    2004-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Tumor oxygenation is well recognized as a major factor of tumor response to radiotherapy. In this respect, a number of studies have examined the response of primary tumors, whereas little is known about the oxygenation of tumor recurrences after radiotherapy. It was the aim of this study to investigate the oxygenation of tumor recurrences after preceding irradiation

  18. Tumor Ablation and Nanotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Manthe, Rachel L.; Foy, Susan P.; Krishnamurthy, Nishanth; Sharma, Blanka; Labhasetwar, Vinod

    2010-01-01

    Next to surgical resection, tumor ablation is a commonly used intervention in the treatment of solid tumors. Tumor ablation methods include thermal therapies, photodynamic therapy, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) producing agents. Thermal therapies induce tumor cell death via thermal energy and include radiofrequency, microwave, high intensity focused ultrasound, and cryoablation. Photodynamic therapy and ROS producing agents cause increased oxidative stress in tumor cells leading to apoptosis. While these therapies are safe and viable alternatives when resection of malignancies is not feasible, they do have associated limitations that prevent their widespread use in clinical applications. To improve the efficacy of these treatments, nanoparticles are being studied in combination with nonsurgical ablation regimens. In addition to better thermal effect on tumor ablation, nanoparticles can deliver anticancer therapeutics that show synergistic anti-tumor effect in the presence of heat and can also be imaged to achieve precision in therapy. Understanding the molecular mechanism of nanoparticle-mediated tumor ablation could further help engineer nanoparticles of appropriate composition and properties to synergize the ablation effect. This review aims to explore the various types of nonsurgical tumor ablation methods currently used in cancer treatment and potential improvements by nanotechnology applications. PMID:20866097

  19. Equine melanocytic tumors.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jeffrey C; Lembcke, Luis M

    2013-12-01

    Melanomas are among the most common skin tumors in horses, with prevalence rates reaching as high as 80% in adult gray horses. Most melanocytic tumors are benign at initial presentation; however, if left untreated, up to two-thirds can progress to overt malignant behavior. Standard local treatment options can be used to treat solitary early-stage lesions but do not address the underlying risk of recurrent tumor formation or the transformation to a malignant phenotype. An understanding of the specific molecular genetic factors associated with tumor formation should lead to targeted therapies that can be used to treat or ideally prevent disease. PMID:24267683

  20. LA BIOÉTICA COMO QUEHACER FILOSÓFICO

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Jorge José

    2009-01-01

    El artículo examina el estatuto epistemológico de la bioética como disciplina académica. El autor sostiene que el estatuto epistemológico de un discurso lo determina la pregunta fundamental que se plantea y la respuesta que se busca, focos integradores del discurso. En el caso de la bioética, la pregunta fundamental es de índole moral. La bioética es pues una disciplina ética que tiene su hogar epistemológico en la filosofía. El autor también defiende el concepto de “éticas aplicadas”. Sugiere finalmente que el método de la bioética, sobre todo la que se hace desde nuestras latitudes, debería adoptar el círculo hermenéutico como metodología para su filosofar. PMID:20463860

  1. Treatment Option Overview (Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Professional Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors Treatment Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®) General Information About Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors Key Points Extragonadal germ cell tumors form ...

  2. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE LA DIVERSIDAD DEL PASTO NATIVO Bouteloua curtipendula Michx. Torr. MEDIANTE MARCADORES DE AFLP NATIVE GRASS Bouteloua curtipendula Michx. Torr. DIVERSITY CHARACTERIZATION USING AFLP MARKERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Morales-Nieto; Adrián Quero-Carrillo; Olivier Le-Blanc; Alfonso Hernández-Garay; Jorge Pérez-Pérez; Sergio González-Muñoz

    2006-01-01

    El pasto Banderita (Bouteloua curtipendula) Michx. (Torr.), es una especie nativa de México, pero no se ha hecho un uso plani- ficado de su riqueza genética. Para determinar relaciones genéti- cas en 90 poblaciones nativas de Banderita, de varios Estados de México, se analizó la expresión de marcadores de polimorfismo de longitud de fragmentos amplificados (AFLP) y su consisten- cia,

  3. Duodenal stump tumor.

    PubMed

    Golden, R L; Sokol, E M

    1978-10-01

    A rare case of duodenal stump tumor is described. The patient was an 84-year-old woman who had undergone a subtotal gastrectomy nine years previously. The polypoid tumor of the duodenal stump may have been a factor in the production of extrahepatic biliary obstruction, for which surgical treatment was required. The aged patient withstood the operation well. PMID:701696

  4. Glomus tympanicum tumors.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Alex D; Carlson, Matthew L; Wanna, George B; Bennett, Marc L

    2015-04-01

    Glomus tympanicum (GT) tumors are benign arising from paraganglion cells of the tympanic plexus in the middle ear. Although surgical resection remains the best option for definitive treatment of these tumors, the diagnostic and management algorithms have evolved considerably with the introduction of high-resolution computed tomography, MRI, and genetic testing. PMID:25659513

  5. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... central line, and may require frequent hospital stays. Chemo is routinely used for brain tumors in kids with positive results. Although chemotherapy ... than radiation therapy. In fact, many children with brain tumors are treated with chemo in order to delay or avoid radiation treatment. ...

  6. Keratocystic odontogenic tumor.

    PubMed

    Grasmuck, Elizabeth A; Nelson, Brenda L

    2010-03-01

    The keratocystic odontogenic tumor is a benign developmental tumor with many distinguishing clinical and histologic features. These characteristics are reviewed in the setting of a typical presentation. The newly acknowledged neoplastic potential and its implications for treatment strategies are also discussed. PMID:20237995

  7. Intracranial Tumors of Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Heiskanen

    1977-01-01

    A report is made on 323 intracranial tumors of children reported to the Cancer Registry in Finland in 1958–1967. The most common sites were the cerebellum, cerebral hemispheres and brain stem. 54% of the tumors were in the posterior fossa. The most common histological types were medulloblastoma, cerebellar astrocytoma and ependymoma. The incidence on the basis of this series was

  8. Modern Brain Tumor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Barajas, Ramon F.; Cha, Soonmee

    2015-01-01

    The imaging and clinical management of patients with brain tumor continue to evolve over time and now heavily rely on physiologic imaging in addition to high-resolution structural imaging. Imaging remains a powerful noninvasive tool to positively impact the management of patients with brain tumor. This article provides an overview of the current state-of-the art clinical brain tumor imaging. In this review, we discuss general magnetic resonance (MR) imaging methods and their application to the diagnosis of, treatment planning and navigation, and disease monitoring in patients with brain tumor. We review the strengths, limitations, and pitfalls of structural imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging techniques, MR spectroscopy, perfusion imaging, positron emission tomography/MR, and functional imaging. Overall this review provides a basis for understudying the role of modern imaging in the care of brain tumor patients. PMID:25977902

  9. Nanotechnology and tumor microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Kano, Mitsunobu R

    2014-07-01

    Though much progress has been made in the development of anti-tumor chemotherapeutic agents, refractoriness is still a major clinical difficulty because little is known about the non-autonomous mechanisms involved. Abnormal capillary structures in tumors, for example, are well documented, but a thorough characterization of microcirculation, including functional consequences with particular regard to drug delivery and intratumor accumulation, is still required for many kinds of tumor. In this review, we highlight how use of synthesized nanoparticles, themselves a product of emerging nanotechnology, are beginning to open up new perspectives in understanding the functional and therapeutic consequences of capillary structure within tumors. Furthermore, nanoparticles promise exciting new clinical applications. I also stress the urgent necessity of developing clinically relevant tumor models, both in vivo and in vitro. PMID:23994441

  10. Primary cardiac tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, N A

    1980-01-01

    Cardiac tumors are a rare, but potentially curably form of heart disease. A high index of clinical suspicion is necessary for diagnosis as these tumors have protean manifestations that mimic a variety of other cardiac and noncardiac diseases. Presently, M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiography are utilized as safe, reliable, and noninvasive imaging modalities. Seventy-five per cent of these tumors are benign, with myxoma accounting for 50% and rhabodomyoma comprising 20% of lesions. Various histologic types of sarcoma are the predominant malignant cardiac neoplasms. With strict attention to avoiding perioperative tumor embolization, surgical resection of these lesions can be accomplished with minimal morbidity and mortality. Sixteen consecutive primary tumors of the heart have been surgically treated at Duke University Medical Center since 1966 with no perioperative deaths and no late recurrences. Images Figs. 2A and B. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Figs. 5A and B Fig. 6. PMID:7362282

  11. Bronchial carcinoid tumors: A rare malignant tumor.

    PubMed

    Orakwe, O I; Ukekwe, F I; Okwulehie, V; Iloanusi, N; Aghaji, Mac

    2015-01-01

    Bronchial carcinoid tumors (BCTs) are an uncommon group of lung tumors. They commonly affect the young adults and the middle aged, the same age group affected by other more common chronic lung conditions such as pulmonary tuberculosis. Diagnosis is commonly missed or delayed due to a low index of suspicion. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment with an excellent outcome. There are many reports of this rare group of tumors in the Western and Asian regions. The only report around our sub-region is a post mortem report of an atypical variant. We wish to report a case of the typical variant and increase our index of suspicion. A 25-year-old male presented with a 4 years history of cough and haemoptysis. He was repeatedly treated for bronchial asthma and pulmonary tuberculosis with no improvement of symptoms. Chest X-ray and chest computed tomography scan revealed a left upper lobe tumor. Histology reported a typical variant of BCT which was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. He had a left upper lobectomy and has done excellently well thereafter. A high index of suspicion is needed to reduce the risk of missing or delaying the diagnosis. PMID:26096254

  12. Gastrointestinal Neuroendocrine Tumors: Pancreatic Endocrine Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Metz, David C.

    2008-01-01

    Pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) have long fascinated clinicians and investigators despite their relative rarity. Their clinical presentation varies depending upon whether the tumor is functional or not and also according to the specific hormonal syndrome produced. Tumors may be sporadic or inherited but little is known about their molecular pathology, especially the sporadic forms. Chromogranin A appears to be the most useful serum marker for diagnosis, staging and monitoring. Initially, therapy should be directed at the hormonal syndrome as this has the major initial impact on the patient's health. Most PETs are relatively indolent but ultimately malignant, except for insulinomas which are predominantly benign. Surgery is the only modality that offers the possibility of cure although it is generally noncurative in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome or nonfunctional PETs with MEN1. Preoperative staging of disease extent is necessary to determine the likelihood of complete resection though debulking surgery is often felt to be useful in unresectable patients. Once metastatic, biotherapy is usually the first modality employed because it is generally well tolerated. Systemic or regional therapies are generally reserved until symptoms occur or tumor growth is rapid. Recently a number of newer agents, as well as receptor-directed radiotherapy, are being evalulated for patients with advanced disease. This review addresses a number of recent advances regarding the molecular pathology, diagnosis, localization and management of PETs including discussion of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy and other novel antitumor approaches. We conclude with a discussion of future directions and unsettled problems in the field. PMID:18703061

  13. Targeting the tumor microenvironment

    SciTech Connect

    Kenny, P.A.; Lee, G.Y.; Bissell, M.J.

    2006-11-07

    Despite some notable successes cancer remains, for the most part, a seemingly intractable problem. There is, however, a growing appreciation that targeting the tumor epithelium in isolation is not sufficient as there is an intricate mutually sustaining synergy between the tumor epithelial cells and their surrounding stroma. As the details of this dialogue emerge, new therapeutic targets have been proposed. The FDA has already approved drugs targeting microenvironmental components such as VEGF and aromatase and many more agents are in the pipeline. In this article, we describe some of the 'druggable' targets and processes within the tumor microenvironment and review the approaches being taken to disrupt these interactions.

  14. Mechanics in Tumor Growth 1 Mechanics in Tumor Growth

    E-print Network

    Preziosi, Luigi

    Mechanics in Tumor Growth 1 1 Mechanics in Tumor Growth L. Graziano Polytechnic of Turin Department Torino, Italy Abstract. This chapter focuses on the mechanical aspects of tumor growth. After describing some of the main feature of tumor growth and in particular the phenomena involving stress

  15. Tumor growth modeling based on cell and tumor lifespans

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Tumor growth modeling based on cell and tumor lifespans R. Keinj1 , T. Bastogne2,4,6 , P. Vallois3 September 9, 2012 Abstract This paper deals with the lifespan modeling of heterogenous tumors treated by radiotherapy. A bi-scale model describing the cell and tumor lifespans by random variables is proposed. First

  16. The Gastrointestinal Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Quante, Michael; Varga, Julia; Wang, Timothy C.; Greten, Florian R.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, the microenvironment of gastrointestinal tumors has gained increasing attention because it is required for tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis. The tumor microenvironment has many components and has been recognized as one of the major “hallmarks” of epithelial cancers. Although therapeutic strategies for gastrointestinal cancer have previously focused on the epithelial cell compartment, there is increasing interest in reagents that alter the microenvironment, based on reported interactions among gastrointestinal epithelial, stromal, and immune cells during gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. We review the different cellular components of the gastrointestinal tumor microenvironment and their functions in carcinogenesis, and discuss how improving our understanding of the complex stromal network could lead to new therapeutic strategies. PMID:23583733

  17. Allogeneic tumor cell vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Srivatsan, Sanjay; Patel, Jaina M; Bozeman, Erica N; Imasuen, Imade E; He, Sara; Daniels, Danielle; Selvaraj, Periasamy

    2014-01-01

    The high mortality rate associated with cancer and its resistance to conventional treatments such as radiation and chemotherapy has led to the investigation of a variety of anti-cancer immunotherapies. The development of novel immunotherapies has been bolstered by the discovery of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), through gene sequencing and proteomics. One such immunotherapy employs established allogeneic human cancer cell lines to induce antitumor immunity in patients through TAA presentation. Allogeneic cancer immunotherapies are desirable in a clinical setting due to their ease of production and availability. This review aims to summarize clinical trials of allogeneic tumor immunotherapies in various cancer types. To date, clinical trials have shown limited success due potentially to extensive degrees of inter- and intra-tumoral heterogeneity found among cancer patients. However, these clinical results provide guidance for the rational design and creation of more effective allogeneic tumor immunotherapies for use as monotherapies or in combination with other therapies. PMID:24064957

  18. Metastatic brain tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Vomiting -- with or without nausea Weakness of a body area Specific symptoms vary. The symptoms commonly seen with ... not curable. It will eventually spread to other areas of the body. Prognosis depends on the type of tumor and ...

  19. Nonislet Cell Tumor Hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Salini C.

    2013-01-01

    Nonislet cell tumor hypoglycemia (NICTH) is a rare cause of hypoglycemia. It is characterized by increased glucose utilization by tissues mediated by a tumor resulting in hypoglycemia. NICTH is usually seen in large mesenchymal tumors including tumors involving the GI tract. Here we will discuss a case, its pathophysiology, and recent advances in the management of NICTH. Our patient was diagnosed with poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus. He continued to be hypoglycemic even after starting continuous tube feeds and D5W. General workup for hypoglycemia was negative and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF II) was in the normal range. Hypoglycemia secondary to “big” IGF II was considered, and patient was started on steroids. His hypoglycemia resolved within a day of treatment with steroids. Initially patient had hypoglycemia unawareness, which he regained after maintaining euglycemia for 48 hours. PMID:24194988

  20. [Atypical tumor regression].

    PubMed

    Heitplatz, B; Müller, K-M

    2013-11-01

    A 67-year-old man presented with a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus diagnosed by biopsy. After neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy the gastroesophagectomy specimen showed diffuse polymorphic and anuclear cell residues ranging from 35 µm to 46 µm in size. Immunohistochemically, PanCK and AE1-3 revealed a positive staining while CD68 and MIB1 showed a negative staining. The retrospective anamnesis revealed that the patient had chronic polyarthritis as underlying illness, for which reason he had been taking humira and methotrexate, a cytostatic drug, for many years. Therefore, the development of the tumor might have been enhanced by these drugs. Electron microscopic analysis confirmed that the avital akaryote cell residues represented a special type of tumor regression. Complete tumor regression level IV without vital rest tumor tissue based on Baldus et al. was diagnosed. PMID:24154755

  1. Skin tumors on squirrels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Reilly, J.R.

    1955-01-01

    Skin tumors having the gross appearance of previously reported fibromas are reported on gray squirrels from N. Y., Md., Va., N. C., and W. Va. and from a fox squirrel from W. Va. and a porcupine from Pa.

  2. Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Statistics Request Permissions Print to PDF Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 04/ ... nodes or distant parts of the body. Survival statistics should be interpreted with caution. These estimates are ...

  3. Waking up dormant tumors

    E-print Network

    Tse, Joyce C.

    As appreciation grows for the contribution of the tumor microenvironment to the progression of cancer, new evidence accumulates to support that the participation of stromal cells can extend beyond the local environment. ...

  4. Choroid Plexus Tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Kongkham; James T. Rutka

    \\u000a Choroid plexus tumors (CPTs) are rare, primary brain tumors arising from the neuroepithelium of the choroid plexus. Although\\u000a they may be found in patients of any age, the vast majority occur in the pediatric population. Up to 70% of these neoplasms\\u000a occur in children, with over half arising in children under 2 years of age [39]. The annual incidence for

  5. Vulvar granular cell tumor

    PubMed Central

    Rivlin, Michel E; Meeks, G Rodney; Ghafar, Mohamed A; Lewin, Jack R

    2013-01-01

    Granular cell tumors are rare, usually benign, soft tissue neoplasms of neural origin. They occur more often in females than males, the peak age incidence is in the fourth through fifth decades. They can occur anywhere in the body with up to 15% situated in the vulva. The commonest presentation is as an asymptomatic mass. Microscopic findings are usually sufficient, but immunohistochemistry can also be helpful in confirming the diagnosis. The vulvar tumors are benign in 98% of cases with 2% reported as malignant. In this case report we describe a woman with a granular cell tumor confirmed by biopsy who underwent excision of the mass but with focal extension to the resection margin on microscopy. Our recommendation of re-excision was declined. Since it is not uncommon with these tumors to find groups of tumor cells extending beyond the macroscopic limits of growth, we conclude that it is advisable to have margins assessed intraoperatively by frozen section such that further excision can be performed for positive margins. Our patient has been followed for 18 mo without recurrence, should the tumor recur, re-excision, with frozen section control, is indicated. Recurrence rates are reported as 2%-8% with clear margins and 20% with positive margins. PMID:24303488

  6. Como Lo Hago Yo: Myelomeningocele

    PubMed Central

    Lazareff, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Fortificación con ádico fólico es efectiva, pero aún falta conciencia en los jóvenes. La legalidad del aborto aumenta la importancia de la consulta prenatal. Realizo la cirugía bajo microcoscopio por razones didácticas. Irrigación continua para reducir la temperatura del tejido. Trato a la plaqueta como tejido viable. No suturo la plaqueta. No cierro músculo. ATB por una semana después de cirugía. Hidrocefalia: Válvula en todos los casos de ventriculomegalia. Médula anclada: Desanclar una sola vez. Chiari II: Revisar la válvula. Incluir en el seguimiento rendimiento escolar, puede indicar obstrucción de la válvula o médula anclada. PMID:24791217

  7. Familial bilateral glomus jugulare tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. T. Tali; R. N. Sener; E. Ibis; H. Alper; M. Ariyurek

    1991-01-01

    Glomus jugulare tumors may be bilateral or more commonly associated with a glomus tumor in another location. These tumors can also have a familial distribution which appears to be autosomal dominant. In this paper, two brothers are presented with bilateral glomus jugulare tumors. Such occurence appears to be a unique familial manifestation.

  8. Optical imaging of tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yihan; Zhang, Wenjie; Li, Jinbo; Zhang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Tumor microenvironment plays important roles in tumor development and metastasis. Features of the tumor microenvironment that are significantly different from normal tissues include acidity, hypoxia, overexpressed proteases and so on. Therefore, these features can serve as not only biomarkers for tumor diagnosis but also theraputic targets for tumor treatment. Imaging modalities such as optical, positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been intensively applied to investigate tumor microenvironment. Various imaging probes targeting pH, hypoxia and proteases in tumor microenvironment were thus well developed. In this review, we will focus on recent examples on fluorescent probes for optical imaging of tumor microenvironment. Construction of these fluorescent probes were based on characteristic feature of pH, hypoxia and proteases in tumor microenvironment. Strategies for development of these fluorescent probes and applications of these probes in optical imaging of tumor cells or tissues will be discussed in this review paper. PMID:23342297

  9. Tumors of the stomach.

    PubMed

    Davis, G B; Blanchard, D K; Hatch, G F; Wertheimer-Hatch, L; Hatch, K F; Foster, R S; Skandalakis, J E

    2000-04-01

    This collective review includes all available case reports of smooth muscle (stromal) tumors of the stomach in the world literature from 1762 to 1996. It updates our previous review from 1767 to 1959. Overall, we identified 2189 patients with leiomyoma (LM) and 1594 with leiomyosarcoma (LMS). The peak age of incidence of LM was 50 to 59 years, while LMS was most frequently seen between ages 60 and 69. Women were more likely to develop LM, and men more commonly presented with malignant smooth muscle tumors of the stomach. Concerning the patterns of growth, LMs were more likely to grow intraluminally (endogastric), whereas LMSs were predominantly exogastric. The most common site of LMs was on the anterior or posterior wall of the body of the stomach; LMSs were most likely found along the greater curve. The presenting symptoms of both types of smooth muscle tumors were similar; in decreasing order of frequency they were bleeding, pain, palpable mass, and weight loss. Interestingly, there was no correlation between the size of the tumor and signs or symptoms of bleeding, pain, weight loss, or ulceration, although patients with LMSs were more likely to report weight loss than patients with benign tumors. For LMS, there seemed to be no correlation between tumor size or location and rate of metastasis, although the tumors that grew in a dumbbell shape (i.e., both intraluminally and extraluminally) had a higher frequency of metastasis than other growth patterns. Overall, the rate of metastasis at diagnosis was 35.4%, with the liver, spleen, and regional lymph nodes the most common sites. PMID:10706913

  10. Tumor-associated antigen of spontaneous mammary tumor in rats.

    PubMed

    Imamura, N; Yanagihara, K; Kusunoki, Y

    1984-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to detect the spontaneous mammary tumor-associated antigen ( MTAA ), and to find the cross-reacting antigen in chemically-induced mammary tumor. The antisera against spontaneous mammary tumor were raised in the WAF1 rats of the same strain and tested for the detection of tumor-associated soluble antigen of mammary tumor induced by N-ethylnitrosourea (ENU) and N-butylnitrosourea ( BNU ). The MTAA was found in the extract of spontaneous mammary tumor by the double immunodiffusion test, while it was not found in the extract of normal and fetal tissues, hyperplastic mammary gland, spontaneous fibroadenoma, and chemically-induced mammary tumor. On the other hand, the MTAA was not detected in the other types of tumors induced by ENU or BNU , i.e. gastric cancer, intestinal tumor, brain tumor, kidney tumor, bladder tumor, hemangioma, rhabdomyosarcoma, or leukemia. The spontaneous MTAA could not be detected in the spontaneous mammary tumor of C3H mice or human breast cancer either. The MTAA was extracted effectively by 3 M KC1. Furthermore, the MTAA was found in the cytoplasm of continuous established mammary tumor cell line ( SpMT -1) by the immunofluorescence test. PMID:6427720

  11. Chemoimmunotherapy: reengineering tumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gang

    2013-01-01

    Cancer chemotherapy drugs have long been considered immune suppressive. However, more recent data indicate that some cytotoxic drugs effectively treat cancer in part by facilitating an immune response to the tumor when given at the standard dose and schedule. These drugs induce a form of tumor cell death that is immunologically active, thereby inducing an adaptive immune response specific for the tumor. In addition, cancer chemotherapy drugs can promote tumor immunity through ancillary and largely unappreciated immunologic effects on both the malignant and normal host cells present within the tumor microenvironment. These more subtle immunomodulatory effects are dependent on the drug itself, its dose, and its schedule in relation to an immune-based intervention. The recent approvals of two new immune-based therapies for prostate cancer and melanoma herald a new era in cancer treatment and have led to heightened interest in immunotherapy as a valid approach to cancer treatment. A detailed understanding of the cellular and molecular basis of interactions between chemotherapy drugs and the immune system is essential for devising the optimal strategy for integrating new immune-based therapies into the standard of care for various cancers, resulting in the greatest long-term clinical benefit for cancer patients. PMID:23389507

  12. Mesenteric inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Poras

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs), also known as inflammatory pseudotumors and inflammatory fibrosarcomas, are uncommon mesenchymal tumors composed of myofibroblastic spindle cells admixed with lymphocytes, plasma cells and eosinophils. Once thought to be reactive, these lesions are now considered to be neoplastic. These tumors can occur throughout the body, most commonly in the lung, mesentery and omentum. Patients commonly present with painless abdominal mass or with intestinal obstruction. IMTs may be multicentric, have a high local recurrence rate and may metastasize in rare cases. The lesions show wide variability in their histologic features and cellularity, and marked inflammatory infiltration, predominantly of plasmatocytes and lymphocytes, and occasionally neutrophils and eosinophils. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements and/or ALK1 and p80 immunoreactivity are reported in 33-67% of the tumors. Owing to the rarity of these lesions, there are no specific imaging findings that distinguish IMTs from other mesenteric masses. Complete surgical resection is the treatment of choice. Local recurrence rates are high, and re-excision is the preferred therapy for local recurrences. ALK-positive tumors show good response to ALK inhibitors. Current knowledge and comprehensive review of the available literature on IMTs is herein presented. PMID:25608706

  13. Stochastic models for tumoral growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escudero, Carlos

    2006-02-01

    Strong experimental evidence has indicated that tumor growth belongs to the molecular beam epitaxy universality class. This type of growth is characterized by the constraint of cell proliferation to the tumor border and the surface diffusion of cells at the growing edge. Tumor growth is thus conceived as a competition for space between the tumor and the host, and cell diffusion at the tumor border is an optimal strategy adopted for minimizing the pressure and helping tumor development. Two stochastic partial differential equations are reported in this paper in order to correctly model the physical properties of tumoral growth in (1+1) and (2+1) dimensions. The advantage of these models is that they reproduce the correct geometry of the tumor and are defined in terms of polar variables. An analysis of these models allows us to quantitatively estimate the response of the tumor to an unfavorable perturbation during growth.

  14. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Changjun

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumor has received a lot of attention over the last 10 years due to its unique biologic behavior, clinicopathological features, molecular mechanisms, and treatment implications. GIST is the most common mesenchymal neoplasm in the gastrointestinal tract and has emerged from a poorly understood and treatment resistant neoplasm to a well-defined tumor entity since the discovery of particular molecular abnormalities, KIT and PDGFRA gene mutations. The understanding of GIST biology at the molecular level promised the development of novel treatment modalities. Diagnosis of GIST depends on the integrity of histology, immunohistochemistry and molecular analysis. The risk assessment of the tumor behavior relies heavily on pathological evaluation and significantly impacts clinical management. In this review, historic review, epidemiology, pathogenesis and genetics, diagnosis, role of molecular analysis, prognostic factor and treatment strategies have been discussed. PMID:22943011

  15. Radioembolization of hepatic tumors.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    Unresectable primary and metastatic liver tumors are a leading cause of cancer mortality and morbidity. This remains a challenging and key task for every oncologist despite significant advances that have been made with selective targeted systemic agents and in technology advances with radiotherapy delivery. Radioembolization (RE) is a technique of permanently implanting microspheres containing Yttrium-90 ((90)Y), a beta-emitting isotope with a treatment range of 2 mm, into hepatic tumors. This form of brachytherapy utilizes the unique dual vascular anatomy of the liver to preferentially deliver radioactive particles via the hepatic artery to tumor, sparing normal liver parenchyma. The main treatment inclusion criteria are patients with solid tumors, compensated liver functions, life expectancy of at least three months, and ECOG performance status 0-2. Benefit of RE has been proven in patients that have low-to-moderate extrahepatic disease burden, prior liver radiotherapy, heavy prior chemotherapy and biologic agent exposure, and history of hepatic surgery or ablation. Most of the clinical evidence is reported in metastatic colorectal, and neuroendocrine tumors (NET), and primary hepatocellular cancer. A growing body of data supports the use of RE in hepatic metastatic breast cancer, intrahepatic cholangiocarinoma, and many other metastatic tumor types. Side effects are typically mild constitutional and GI issues limited to the first 7-14 days post treatment, with only 6% grade 3 toxicity reported in large series. Potentially serious or fatal radiation induced liver disease is extremely rare, reported in only 1% or fewer in major series of both metastatic and primary tumors treated with RE. Currently, high priority prospective clinical trials are testing RE combined with chemotherapy in first line therapy for colorectal hepatic metastases, and combined with sorafenib for hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Fortunately, this beneficial and now widely available therapy is being increasingly incorporated into the standard therapy algorithms of multidisciplinary GI cancer teams worldwide. This form of radiotherapy differs significantly from daily external beam radiotherapy in many ways, particularly in dose rate, dosimetric coverage and duration of radiation delivery, side effects, and patient selection factors. A wealth of experience using RE in solid tumors exists and ongoing major prospective clinical trials will soon clarify the role of RE in the management of metastatic colorectal liver metastases. PMID:24982766

  16. Retroperitoneal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    PubMed Central

    Attili, Suresh VS; Chandra, C Rama; Hemant, Dadhich K; Bapsy, Poonamalle P; RamaRao, Clementeena; Anupama, G

    2005-01-01

    Background Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a neoplasm of unknown etiology occurring at various sites. By definition, it is composed of spindle cells (myofibroblasts) with variable inflammatory component, hence the name is IMT. Case presentation The present case is of a 46 years old woman presented with a history of flank pain, abdominal mass and intermittent hematuria for last 6 months. The initial diagnosis was kept as renal cell carcinoma. Finally, it turned out to be a case of retroperitoneal IMT. The patient was managed by complete surgical resection of the tumor. Conclusion IMT is a rare neoplasm of uncertain biological potential. Complete surgical resection remains the mainstay of the treatment. PMID:16212671

  17. General Information about Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (Islet Cell Tumors)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... small pancreatic NETs. A small amount of radioactive octreotide (a hormone that attaches to tumors) is injected ... vein and travels through the blood. The radioactive octreotide attaches to the tumor and a special camera ...

  18. Treatment Option Overview (Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors / Islet Cell Tumors)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... small pancreatic NETs. A small amount of radioactive octreotide (a hormone that attaches to tumors) is injected ... vein and travels through the blood. The radioactive octreotide attaches to the tumor and a special camera ...

  19. Rare and Challenging Tumor Entity: Phyllodes Tumor of the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Bannowsky, Andreas; Probst, Andreas; Dunker, Helmut; Loch, Tillmann

    2009-01-01

    Cystic epithelial-stromal tumors of the prostate are rare, with 82 cases reported in literature. These cases have been published under a variety of diagnoses, including phyllodes tumor and prostatic stromal proliferation of uncertain malignant potential as well as a malignant tumor called “prostatic stromal sarcoma”. We report a case of a 60-year-old man with the histological diagnosis of phyllodes tumor of the prostate in transurethral resection specimen. PMID:20069045

  20. The role of tumor-associated macrophages in tumor vascularization

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Tumor vascularization is a highly complex process that involves the interaction between tumors and their surrounding stroma, as well as many distinct angiogenesis-regulating factors. Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) represent one of the most abundant cell components in the tumor environment and key contributors to cancer-related inflammation. A large body of evidence supports the notion that TAMs play a critical role in promoting the formation of an abnormal tumor vascular network and subsequent tumor progression and invasion. Clinical and experimental evidence has shown that high levels of infiltrating TAMs are associated with poor patient prognosis and tumor resistance to therapies. In addition to stimulating angiogenesis during tumor growth, TAMs enhance tumor revascularization in response to cytotoxic therapy (e.g., radiotherapy), thereby causing cancer relapse. In this review, we highlight the emerging data related to the phenotype and polarization of TAMs in the tumor microenvironment, as well as the underlying mechanisms of macrophage function in the regulation of the angiogenic switch and tumor vascularization. Additionally, we discuss the potential of targeting pro-angiogenic TAMs, or reprograming TAMs toward a tumoricidal and angiostatic phenotype, to promote normalization of the tumor vasculature to enhance the outcome of cancer therapies. PMID:24314323

  1. Brain tumors and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Brogna, Christian; Gil Robles, Santiago; Duffau, Hugues

    2008-06-01

    When treating patients harboring a brain tumor, it is mandatory to integrate the dogmas of epilepsy into a neuro-oncological viewpoint. The frequency of seizures differs widely between low- and high-grade tumors because of different mechanisms of epileptogenesis. The modern theories of pathological neural networks, especially in low-grade gliomas, can provide the key for an in-depth understanding of the principles of connectionism that underline both seizures, cognitive impairment and plasticity. It is a consuetude that principles of general management of patients with nontumor-related epilepsy are applied to neuro-oncology. Nevertheless, since tumors are complex evolving lesions requiring a multidisciplinary treatment approach (surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy), it is mandatory to have a comprehensive view of the natural history of each lesion when choosing the best antiepileptic drug. More than two thirds of patients with brain tumors and medically intractable epilepsy benefit from (sub)total surgical resection. Therefore, these patients are good surgical candidates both for oncological and epileptological considerations, in order to change the natural history of the lesion and to improve the quality of life at the same time. However, 15% of patients still have intractable medical seizures after surgery. Moreover, the insula may participate more often than usually considered in (intractable) seizures. Therefore, in these patients, invasive EEG recordings and eventually a second epilepsy surgery might be proposed. PMID:18505359

  2. Tumor-induced osteomalacia

    PubMed Central

    Chong, William H; Molinolo, Alfredo A; Chen, Clara C; Collins, Michael T

    2012-01-01

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare and fascinating paraneoplastic syndrome in which patients present with bone pain, fractures, and muscle weakness. The cause is high blood levels of the recently identified phosphate and vitamin D-regulating hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). In TIO, FGF23 is secreted by mesenchymal tumors that are usually benign, but are typically very small and difficult to locate. FGF23 acts primarily at the renal tubule and impairs phosphate reabsorption and 1?-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, leading to hypophosphatemia and low levels of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D. A step-wise approach utilizing functional imaging (F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and octreotide scintigraphy) followed by anatomical imaging (computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging), and, if needed, selective venous sampling with measurement of FGF23 is usually successful in locating the tumors. For tumors that cannot be located, medical treatment with phosphate supplements and active vitamin D (calcitriol or alphacalcidiol) is usually successful; however, the medical regimen can be cumbersome and associated with complications. This review summarizes the current understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease and provides guidance in evaluating and treating these patients. Novel imaging modalities and medical treatments, which hold promise for the future, are also reviewed. PMID:21490240

  3. Telomerase in brain tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Falchetti; L. M. Larocca; R. Pallini

    2002-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years, many scientists involved in cancer research have directed their attention to telomerase, an enzymatic complex which is specifically involved in duplicating telomeres, the very ends of linear chromosomes. The discovery that most immortal cell lines in vitro and human tumor cells in vivo have telomerase activity, in contrast to telomerase-negative normal somatic cells, has made telomerase

  4. Retroperitoneal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suresh VS Attili; C Rama Chandra; Dadhich K Hemant; Poonamalle P Bapsy; Clementeena RamaRao; G Anupama

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a neoplasm of unknown etiology occurring at various sites. By definition, it is composed of spindle cells (myofibroblasts) with variable inflammatory component, hence the name is IMT. CASE PRESENTATION: The present case is of a 46 years old woman presented with a history of flank pain, abdominal mass and intermittent hematuria for last 6

  5. Serodiagnosis for tumor viruses.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Brian J; Labo, Nazzarena; Miley, Wendell J; Whitby, Denise

    2015-04-01

    The known human tumor viruses include the DNA viruses Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV), Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), human papillomavirus (HPV), and hepatitis B virus (BV). RNA tumor viruses include human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). The serological identification of antigens/antibodies in serum is a rapidly progressing field with utility for both scientists and clinicians. Serology is useful for conducting seroepidemiology studies and to inform on the pathogenesis and host immune response to a particular viral agent. Clinically, serology is useful for diagnosing current or past infection and for aiding in clinical management decisions. Serology is useful for screening blood donations for infectious agents and for monitoring the outcome of vaccination against these viruses. Serodiagnosis of human tumor viruses has improved in recent years with increased specificity and sensitivity of the assays, as well as reductions in cost and the ability to assess multiple antibody/antigens in single assays. Serodiagnosis of tumor viruses plays an important role in our understanding of the prevalence and transmission of these viruses and ultimately in the ability to develop treatments/preventions for these globally important diseases. PMID:25843726

  6. Tumor lysis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Aruna; Bansal, Deepak; Marwaha, R K; Singhi, Sunit C

    2013-01-01

    Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) refers to the constellation of deranged metabolic state, characterized by hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, hyperuricemia, hypocalcemia, and/or azotemia, secondary to rapid breakdown of tumor cells. It is a life threatening emergency that typically follows administration of chemotherapy or may be spontaneous. Malignancies which have a large tumor burden, rapid turnover, as well as speedy breakdown following chemotherapy are susceptible. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkins lymphoma (particularly Burkitt's lymphoma) are typically predisposed. TLS is best managed by early anticipation and preventive measures than the complicated task of treating an established TLS. Vigorous intravenous hydration is the cornerstone of prevention as well as treatment. Rasburicase has revolutionized the management. It is available in India for past 1 1/2 y, although the cost is a limiting factor. Children with acute leukemia in developing countries may reach health facility late, with severe anemia and hyperleukocytosis. Exchange transfusion may have to be restored to in such patients to simultaneously correct anemia and hyperleukocytosis and enable safe administration of fluids. Dialysis may be required when the metabolic 'trash' overwhelms the renal excretion, resulting in renal failure. Chemotherapeutic drugs are often administered in a phased manner in susceptible patients, in an attempt to prevent precipitous lysis of tumor cells. Presentation and management of TLS in relevance to the pediatric emergency room is outlined. PMID:22752730

  7. Tumors and cysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Chuang; D. Harwood-Nash

    1986-01-01

    “Congenital” tumors that cause hydrocephalus early in life are large masses and can easily be detected by ultrasound. CT is better for differentiating among the diverse types of mass lesions and is performed after screening by ultrasound. In our experience, ultrasound has proved successful for visulalizing all of the intracranial cysts except those in the temporal fossa. Most patients with

  8. Pathogenesis of pituitary tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shlomo Melmed

    2011-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas may hypersecrete hormones (including prolactin, growth hormone and adrenocorticotropic hormone, and rarely follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone or TSH) or may be nonfunctional. Despite their high prevalence in the general population, these tumors are invariably benign and exhibit features of differentiated pituitary cell function as well as premature proliferative arrest. Pathogenesis of dysregulated pituitary cell proliferation and unrestrained hormone

  9. What Are Lung Carcinoid Tumors?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Atypical carcinoid tumor Typical carcinoid tumor Small cell lung cancer Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is one of the fastest growing and spreading of all cancers. It is discussed in Lung Cancer (Small Cell) . Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma Large cell ...

  10. Tumor heterogeneity: causes and consequences

    PubMed Central

    Marusyk, Andriy; Polyak, Kornelia

    2009-01-01

    With rare exceptions, spontaneous tumors originate from a single cell. Yet, at the time of clinical diagnosis, the majority of human tumors display startling heterogeneity in many morphological and physiological features, such as expression of cell surface receptors, proliferative and angiogenic potential. To a substantial extent, this heterogeneity might be attributed to morphological and epigenetic plasticity, but there is also strong evidence for the co-existence of genetically divergent tumor cell clones within tumors. In this perspective, we summarize the sources of intra-tumor phenotypic heterogeneity with emphasis on genetic heterogeneity. We review experimental evidence for the existence of both intra-tumor clonal heterogeneity as well as frequent evolutionary divergence between primary tumors and metastatic outgrowths. Furthermore, we discuss potential biological and clinical implications of intra-tumor clonal heterogeneity. PMID:19931353

  11. Tumor Blood Vessel Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munn, Lance

    2009-11-01

    ``Normalization'' of tumor blood vessels has shown promise to improve the efficacy of chemotherapeutics. In theory, anti-angiogenic drugs targeting endothelial VEGF signaling can improve vessel network structure and function, enhancing the transport of subsequent cytotoxic drugs to cancer cells. In practice, the effects are unpredictable, with varying levels of success. The predominant effects of anti-VEGF therapies are decreased vessel leakiness (hydraulic conductivity), decreased vessel diameters and pruning of the immature vessel network. It is thought that each of these can influence perfusion of the vessel network, inducing flow in regions that were previously sluggish or stagnant. Unfortunately, when anti-VEGF therapies affect vessel structure and function, the changes are dynamic and overlapping in time, and it has been difficult to identify a consistent and predictable normalization ``window'' during which perfusion and subsequent drug delivery is optimal. This is largely due to the non-linearity in the system, and the inability to distinguish the effects of decreased vessel leakiness from those due to network structural changes in clinical trials or animal studies. We have developed a mathematical model to calculate blood flow in complex tumor networks imaged by two-photon microscopy. The model incorporates the necessary and sufficient components for addressing the problem of normalization of tumor vasculature: i) lattice-Boltzmann calculations of the full flow field within the vasculature and within the tissue, ii) diffusion and convection of soluble species such as oxygen or drugs within vessels and the tissue domain, iii) distinct and spatially-resolved vessel hydraulic conductivities and permeabilities for each species, iv) erythrocyte particles advecting in the flow and delivering oxygen with real oxygen release kinetics, v) shear stress-mediated vascular remodeling. This model, guided by multi-parameter intravital imaging of tumor vessel structure and function, provides a tool for identifying the structural and functional determinants of tumor vessel normalization.

  12. Glomus tumor of the mediastinum.

    PubMed

    Rychlik, Igor J; O'Donnell, Mark E; Davey, Philip; Merard, Reena; McGuigan, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Glomus tumors are rare benign myoepithelial neoplasms that can present with intractable pain. We report the case of a 59-year-old gentleman who presented with upper abdominal and chest pain caused by a posterior mediastinal glomus tumor arising from the spinal column, which required surgical resection. As glomus tumors usually develop in the limbs, this case highlights the complexity of diagnosis and treatment of glomus tumors when they present in rare locations. PMID:24585654

  13. Biology of Crown Gall Tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roni Aloni; Cornelia I. Ullrich

    Specific adaptive mechanisms for water and nutrient acquisition and the suppression of shoot and root differentiation characterize\\u000a crown gall tumor development. Strong vascularization like in animal and human tumors is the most prominent and important feature\\u000a of tumor proliferation. Vascular bundles consisting of phloem and xylem are from the onset of tumor initiation functionally\\u000a connected to the host bundle. At

  14. Tumor Microenvironment in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Lorger, Mihaela

    2012-01-01

    In addition to malignant cancer cells, tumors contain a variety of different stromal cells that constitute the tumor microenvironment. Some of these cell types provide crucial support for tumor growth, while others have been suggested to actually inhibit tumor progression. The composition of tumor microenvironment varies depending on the tumor site. The brain in particular consists of numerous specialized cell types such as microglia, astrocytes, and brain endothelial cells. In addition to these brain-resident cells, primary and metastatic brain tumors have also been shown to be infiltrated by different populations of bone marrow-derived cells. The role of different cell types that constitute tumor microenvironment in the progression of brain malignancies is only poorly understood. Tumor microenvironment has been shown to be a promising therapeutic target and diagnostic marker in extracranial malignancies. A better understanding of tumor microenvironment in the brain would therefore be expected to contribute to the development of improved therapies for brain tumors that are urgently required due to a poor availability of treatments for these malignancies. This review summarizes some of the known interactions between brain tumors and different stromal cells, and also discusses potential therapeutic approaches within this context. PMID:24213237

  15. The History of Tumor Virology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald T. Javier; Janet S. Butel

    In the century since its inception, the field of tumor virology has provided groundbreaking insights into the causes of human cancer. Peyton Rous founded this scientific field in 1911 by discovering an avian virus that induced tumors in chickens; however, it took 40years for the scientific community to comprehend the effect of this seminal finding. Later identification of mammalian tumor

  16. Wnt Down, Tumors Wind Up?

    PubMed

    Krimpenfort, Paul; Berns, Anton

    2015-06-18

    In mouse intestinal tumors induced by the inhibition of APC, the restoration of APC function causes complete tumor regression with normal differentiation and return of stem cell function irrespective of whether tumors also carried mutations in Kras and p53. These findings by Dow et al. validate the Wnt pathway as an exquisite target for intervention. PMID:26091030

  17. Tumor Physiology and Drug Resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian F. Tannock

    2001-01-01

    Clinical resistance is usually assumed to be due to the initial presence or selection of drug-resistant cells in tumors. While important, it is suggested in this review that genetically-determined causes of cellular resistance represent but one cause (and possibly not the major cause) of effective clinical resistance of solid tumors. Factors that depend on tumor physiology, and on the microenvironment

  18. Estrogen's Impact on Colon Tumor Formation 

    E-print Network

    Tinsley, Kirby

    2010-07-14

    , the risk of the colon tumors continued growth is reduced. Tumors were induced in ovariectomized mice using azoxymethane (AOM). Ten weeks after tumors formed, an estrogen or control (VEH) pellet was inserted into the mice. Ten weeks later, the tumors...

  19. Hyperdiploid tumor cells increase phenotypic heterogeneity within Glioblastoma tumors.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Prudence; Cato, Kathleen; Legaie, Roxane; Jayalath, Rumal; Olsson, Gemma; Hall, Bruce; Olson, Sarah; Boros, Samuel; Reynolds, Brent A; Harding, Angus

    2014-04-01

    Here we report the identification of a proliferative, viable, and hyperdiploid tumor cell subpopulation present within Glioblastoma (GB) patient tumors. Using xenograft tumor models, we demonstrate that hyperdiploid cell populations are maintained in xenograft tumors and that clonally expanded hyperdiploid cells support tumor formation and progression in vivo. In some patient tumorsphere lines, hyperdiploidy is maintained during long-term culture and in vivo within xenograft tumor models, suggesting that hyperdiploidy can be a stable cell state. In other patient lines hyperdiploid cells display genetic drift in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that in these patients hyperdiploidy is a transient cell state that generates novel phenotypes, potentially facilitating rapid tumor evolution. We show that the hyperdiploid cells are resistant to conventional therapy, in part due to infrequent cell division due to a delay in the G?/G? phase of the cell cycle. Hyperdiploid tumor cells are significantly larger and more metabolically active than euploid cancer cells, and this correlates to an increased sensitivity to the effects of glycolysis inhibition. Together these data identify GB hyperdiploid tumor cells as a potentially important subpopulation of cells that are well positioned to contribute to tumor evolution and disease recurrence in adult brain cancer patients, and suggest tumor metabolism as a promising point of therapeutic intervention against this subpopulation. PMID:24448662

  20. Testis tumor associated to microlithiasis

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus, Lisieux Eyer; Maciel, Felipe; Monnerat, Andrea Lima C.; Fernandes, Marcia Antunes; Dekermache, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To discuss the relationship between testicular microlithiasis and testis tumors in children and to consider the chances of testis preserving surgery in specific cases. CASE DESCRIPTION: Pre-adolescent presenting testicular microlithiasis and a larger left testis, corresponding to a cystic testicular tumor. The tumor was excised, with ipsilateral testis preservation. Histology diagnosed a testis dermoid tumor. COMMENTS: The relationship between testis tumors and testicular microlithiasis is ill defined in children. Pediatric urologists need to develop specific follow-up protocols for pre-pubertal children. PMID:24473964

  1. Elastomechanical model of tumor invasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiot, Caterina; Pugno, Nicola; Delsanto, Pier Paolo

    2006-12-01

    Tumor invasion concerns the tumor capability of colonizing the host by means of several complex biochemical processes. Since certain aspects of the problem present a striking resemblance with well known physical mechanisms, the authors propose here an analogy between tumoral invasive branching in a tissue and the mechanical insertion of a solid inclusion in an elastic material specimen. The model, which is an extension of a previous one, based on the universal growth law of West et al. [Nature (London) 413, 628 (2001)], is discussed in the case of multicellular tumor spheroids (and cords), but it may be adapted to understand invasion also in real tumors.

  2. Study of Kidney Tumors in Younger Patients

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-12

    Clear Cell Sarcoma of the Kidney; Congenital Mesoblastic Nephroma; Diffuse Hyperplastic Perilobar Nephroblastomatosis; Rhabdoid Tumor of the Kidney; Stage I Renal Cell Cancer; Stage I Wilms Tumor; Stage II Renal Cell Cancer; Stage II Wilms Tumor; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage III Wilms Tumor; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IV Wilms Tumor; Stage V Wilms Tumor

  3. Tumor metastasis to bone

    PubMed Central

    Virk, Mandeep S; Lieberman, Jay R

    2007-01-01

    Establishment of skeletal metastasis involves bidirectional interactions between the tumor cell and the cellular elements in the bone microenvironment. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of bone metastasis will be critical in developing the means to prevent bone metastasis or inhibit its progression. The receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B (RANK)/RANK ligand pathway has emerged as the key pathway regulating osteolysis in skeletal metastasis. A number of candidate factors, including the Wnt (wingless int) proteins, endothelin-1, and bone morphogenetic proteins, have been implicated in the establishment of osteoblastic metastasis. The complex nature of tumor-bone microenvironment interactions and the presence of multiple pathways that lead to bone metastasis suggests that simultaneous targeting of these pathways in the metastatic cascade are required for effective treatment. This review discusses current understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms that underlie the establishment of bone metastasis and potential molecular therapeutic strategies for prevention and treatment of bone metastasis. PMID:17634144

  4. Tumors in Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Nowell, Mark; Miserocchi, Anna; McEvoy, Andrew W

    2015-06-01

    Primary brain tumors are common causes of focal epilepsy, accounting for 5% of new-onset seizures in adults and over 10% of lesional focal epilepsies. These epilepsies are often refractory to medical treatment, and high rates of seizure freedom can be achieved with gross total resections. However, the management strategy is not straightforward, and should be decided on a case-by-case basis in a multidisciplinary team, considering the natural history of the tumor, the likelihood of seizure freedom following surgical resection, the risks of surgery, and the impact of seizures on quality of life. In this review, the authors summarize the crucial factors that help to decide how to manage this challenging patient group. PMID:26060900

  5. [Neuroendocrine tumors of the kidneys].

    PubMed

    Moch, H

    2015-05-01

    The 2004 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of renal cancer includes renal carcinoid and neuroendocrine cancer of the kidneys in the group of primary renal neuroendocrine tumors. The histological features of primary renal carcinoids are similar to those of neuroendocrine tumors found in other anatomical locations. Primary carcinoid tumors of the kidneys are frequently misdiagnosed as other kidney cancers, such as papillary renal cell carcinoma, mesonephric tumors, Wilms tumor (WT) and undifferentiated carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining results are consistent with the diagnosis of a neuroendocrine tumor with immunoreactivity for synaptophysin, chromogranin, CD56, and neuron-specific enolase (NSE). Positive expression of CD99 can also be seen. There is mainly absence of WT1, cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 20, thyroid transcription factor (TTF1) and LCA, ruling out most other differential diagnoses. Renal carcinoid tumors are regarded as low-grade neuroendocrine tumors; however, many studies have demonstrated metastatic disease in patients with renal carcinoid tumors. The prognostic value of histological parameters is uncertain. Some studies have correlated poor patient prognosis with increased mitotic activity, presence of necrosis and cytological atypia. Cases with higher mitotic rates of >?2 mitoses/10 high power fields (HPF) developed metastases more frequently; therefore, the WHO classification of neuroendocrine tumors used in other organs is recommended for primary renal carcinoid tumors. PMID:25898936

  6. Odontogenic Tumor Markers - An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Premalatha, B R; Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S; Reddy, Narendranatha P; Indu, M

    2013-01-01

    The practice of pathology is currently undergoing significant change, due to advances in the field of molecular pathology. Tumor markers are molecules that help the pathologists for confirmatory diagnosis of histopathologically confounding lesions. Odontogenic tumors are relatively rare with estimated incidence of less than 0.5 cases/ 100,000 population per year. Odontogenic tumors can pose diagnostic challenges because of overlapping histology. But, appropriate diagnosis is crucial as their treatment modality and prognosis differ; in these situations tumor markers can be helpful. But lack of comprehensive literature on specific markers for odontogenic tumors imposes pathologists to think aimlessly about various markers to arrive at an appropriate diagnosis. With this background, it is our attempt at compiling diagnostically important odontogenic tumor markers. Also, a note is added on tumor behaviour studies in common clinically important odontogenic tumors: Ameloblastoma and Keratocystic odontogenic tumor. How to cite this article: Premalatha B R, Patil S, Rao R S, Reddy N P, Indu M. Odontogenic Tumor Markers - An Overview. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(2):65-75. How to cite this article: Premalatha B R, Patil S, Rao R S, Reddy N P, Indu M. Odontogenic Tumor Markers - An Overview. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(2):65-75 PMID:24155593

  7. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sangeeta Sawant; L. Kasturi; Alpa Amin

    2002-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors are well described in lung and upper respiratory tract of young adults and children. Intra-abdominal\\u000a forms of the disease are reported to occur most frequently in the liver, followed by stomach, bowel and spleen. A13-year-old\\u000a girl who had intermittent fever ranging from 99–101 °F of three months period and significant weight loss was referred as\\u000a a case

  8. Tumor-induced osteomalacia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Schapira; Ofer Ben Izhak; Alicia Nachtigal; Amira Burstein; Rachel Bar Shalom; Ibrahim Shagrawi; Lael Anson Best

    1995-01-01

    Tumor-induced (oncogenic) osteomalacia is a rare clinicopathologic entity inwhich the clinical signs and symptoms of osteomalacia and the specific laboratory abnormalities of hypophosphatemia, hyperphosphaturia, and low serum levels of 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D are associated with the finding of a neoplastic process in the patient. To date, less than 100 cases of oncogenic osteomalacia have been described. We report a new

  9. Cervical Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne S. Tsao; Lawrence M. Roth; Alan Sandler; Jean A. Hurteau

    2001-01-01

    Background.Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are rare and potentially aggressive malignancies.Case. A 24-year-old woman in her eighth week of pregnancy presented with a cervical mass. Tissue biopsy demonstrated poorly differentiated carcinosarcoma with neuroendocrine features. Immunohistochemical studies confirmed the diagnosis of PNET. Treatment included alternating courses of cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine (CAV) and ifosfamide, etoposide (IE). A radical hysterectomy with bilateral ovarian transposition

  10. Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressor Genes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eva Y.H.P.; Muller, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer progression involves multiple genetic events, which can activate dominant-acting oncogenes and disrupt the function of specific tumor suppressor genes. This article describes several key oncogene and tumor suppressor signaling networks that have been implicated in breast cancer progression. Among the tumor suppressors, the article emphasizes BRCA1/2 and p53 tumor suppressors. In addition to these well characterized tumor suppressors, the article highlights the importance of PTEN tumor suppressor in counteracting PI3K signaling from activated oncogenes such as ErbB2. This article discusses the use of mouse models of human breast that recapitulate the key genetic events involved in the initiation and progression of breast cancer. Finally, the therapeutic potential of targeting these key tumor suppressor and oncogene signaling networks is discussed. PMID:20719876

  11. [Urinary tract tumors].

    PubMed

    Uchida, Katsunori; Shiraishi, Taizo

    2014-06-01

    The General Rule for Clinical and Pathological Studies on Bladder Cancer (3rd edition) and General Rule for Clinical and Pathological Studies on Renal Pelvic and Ureteral Cancer (2nd edition) were integrated, and the General Rule for Clinical and Pathological Studies on Renal Pelvic, Ureteral, and Bladder Cancer was published in April 2011. For histopathological diagnosis, a modification in line with the World Health Organization/International Urological Pathology 2004 classification is performed. Urothelial carcinoma is divided into non-invasive urothelial carcinoma and invasive urothelial carcinoma. With respect to the tumor grade classification for non-invasive papillary urothelial carcinoma, a two-grade classification, which is divided into low and high grade, is adopted instead of the three-grade classification adopted in the previous General Rule for Clinical and Pathological Studies. With respect to tumor subtyping for invasive urothelial carcinoma, twelve subtypes are adopted in the latest General Rule for Clinical and Pathological Studies. Subtyping also complies with the WHO/ISUP2004 classification. The handling of urothelial carcinoma with squamous, glandular, or trophoblastic differentiation is modified and they are classified in subtypes. Nine rare subtypes are also added. In the subtype classification, subtypes that are required to be differentiated from benign lesions or malignant tumors, involved in treatment selection, or related to the prognosis are included. PMID:25151778

  12. Lowering of Tumor Interstitial Fluid Pressure Reduces Tumor Cell Proliferation in a Xenograft Tumor Model1

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Matthias; Guschel, Maike; Bernd, August; Bereiter-Hahn, Jürgen; Kaufmann, Roland; Tandi, Christa; Wiig, Helge; Kippenberger, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    Abstract High tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP) is a characteristic of most solid tumors. TIFP may hamper adequate uptake of macromolecular therapeutics in tumor tissue. In addition, TIFP generates mechanical forces affecting the tumor cortex, which might influence the growth parameters of tumor cells. This seems likely as, in other tissues (namely, blood vessels or the skin), mechanical stretch is known to trigger proliferation. Therefore, we hypothesize that TIFP-induced stretch modulates proliferation-associated parameters. Solid epithelial tumors (A431 and A549) were grown in Naval Medical Research Institute nude mice, generating a TIFP of about 10 mm Hg (A431) or 5 mm Hg (A549). Tumor drainage of the central cystic area led to a rapid decline of TIFP, together with visible relaxation of the tumor cortex. It was found by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot analysis that TIFP lowering yields a decreased phosphorylation of proliferation-associated p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase and tumor relaxation. In confirmation, immunohistochemical staining showed a decrease of tumor-associated proliferation marker Ki-67 after TIFP lowering. These data suggest that the mechanical stretch induced by TIFP is a positive modulator of tumor proliferation. PMID:16611401

  13. Management of phyllodes breast tumors.

    PubMed

    Guillot, Eugenie; Couturaud, Benoit; Reyal, Fabien; Curnier, Alain; Ravinet, Julie; Laé, Marick; Bollet, Marc; Pierga, Jean-Yves; Salmon, Remy; Fitoussi, Alfred

    2011-01-01

    Phyllodes tumors are a rare distinctive fibroepithelial tumors of the breast and their management continues to be questioned. The aim of our study was to examine the treatment and outcome of 165 patients with phyllodes tumors and to review the options for surgical management. This is a retrospective study of 165 patients who presented to the Institut Curie between January 1994 and November 2008 for benign, borderline or malignant phyllodes tumors. The median follow-up was 12.65 months [range 0-149.8]. The median age at diagnosis was 44 years [range 17-79]. One hundred and sixty patients (97%) had breast-conserving treatment, of whom 3 patients (1.8%) had oncoplastic breast surgery. Younger women had a significantly higher chance of having a benign phyllodes tumor (p = 0.0001) or a tumor of small size (p < 0.0001). Histologic examination showed 114 benign (69%), 37 borderline (22%) and 14 malignant tumors (9%). The median tumor size was 30 mm [range 5-150]. The tumor margins were considered incomplete (< 10 mm) in 46 out of 165 cases (28%) with 52% revision surgery. Only the tumor grade was a significant risk factor for incomplete tumor margins (p = 0.005). Fifteen patients developed local recurrence (10%) and two, metastases. In univariate analysis, the histologic grade (p = 0.008), and tumor size (p = 0.02) were significative risk factors for local recurrence with an accentuated risk for "borderline" tumors and tumors of large size.).Similar results were obtained using multivariate analysis (p = 0.07). The mainstay of treatment for phyllodes tumors remains excision with a safe surgical margin, taking advantage breast conserving surgery where amenable. For borderline or malignant phyllodes tumors or in cases of local tumor recurrence, mastectomy, and immediate breast reconstruction may become the preferred option. Genetic analysis will potentially supplement classical histologic examination in order to improve our management of these tumors. The role of adjuvant treatments is unproven and must be considered on a case-by-case basis. PMID:21251125

  14. Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Tumors: Part I. Spectrum and Characteristics of Tumors.

    PubMed

    Dincer, Huseyin Erhan; Podgaetz, Eitan; Andrade, Rafael S

    2015-07-01

    Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors arise from Kulchitzky cells of the bronchial mucosa and include typical carcinoid, atypical carcinoid, large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, and small cell lung cancer. These tumors have a variable growth rate that determines their presentation and prognosis. Typical carcinoid has the lowest growth rate and better prognosis; in contrast, small cell lung cancer is an aggressive tumor with a very poor prognosis. Although there are some overlapping histologic features between these tumors, clinical, imaging, and immunohistochemical markers are useful in the differentiation of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors. The treatment options differ on the basis of histologic characteristics. In this article, we aim to describe the spectrum of neuroendocrine tumors of the lung, except for small cell lung cancer, and their clinical, pathologic, and imaging findings, with a focus on treatment options. PMID:26165900

  15. Roles of tumor suppressors in regulating tumor-associated inflammation.

    PubMed

    Yang, L; Karin, M

    2014-11-01

    Loss or silencing of tumor suppressors (TSs) promotes neoplastic transformation and malignant progression. To date, most work on TS has focused on their cell autonomous effects. Recent evidence, however, demonstrates an important noncell autonomous role for TS in the control of tumor-associated inflammation. We review evidence from clinical data sets and mouse model studies demonstrating enhanced inflammation and altered tumor microenvironment (TME) upon TS inactivation. We discuss clinical correlations between tumor-associated inflammation and inactivation of TS, and their therapeutic implications. This review sets forth the concept that TS can also suppress tumor-associated inflammation, a concept that provides new insights into tumor-host interactions. We also propose that in some cases the loss of TS function in cancer can be overcome through inhibition of the resulting inflammatory response, regardless whether it is a direct or an indirect consequence of TS loss. PMID:25190145

  16. Role of tumor associated macrophages in tumor angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Riabov, Vladimir; Gudima, Alexandru; Wang, Nan; Mickley, Amanda; Orekhov, Alexander; Kzhyshkowska, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Tumor angiogenesis is an essential process for supplying rapidly growing malignant tissues with essential nutrients and oxygen. An angiogenic switch allows tumor cells to survive and grow, and provides them access to vasculature resulting in metastatic disease. Monocyte-derived macrophages recruited and reprogrammed by tumor cells serve as a major source of angiogenic factors boosting the angiogenic switch. Tumor endothelium releases angiopoietin-2 and further facilitates recruitment of TIE2 receptor expressing monocytes (TEM) into tumor sites. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) sense hypoxia in avascular areas of tumors, and react by production of angiogenic factors such as VEGFA. VEGFA stimulates chemotaxis of endothelial cells (EC) and macrophages. In some tumors, TAM appeared to be a major source of MMP9. Elevated expression of MMP9 by TAM mediates extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and the release of bioactive VEGFA. Other angiogenic factors released by TAM include basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), thymidine phosphorylase (TP), urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), and adrenomedullin (ADM). The same factors used by macrophages for the induction of angiogenesis [like vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and MMP9] support lymphangiogenesis. TAM can express LYVE-1, one of the established markers of lymphatic endothelium. TAM support tumor lymphangiogenesis not only by secretion of pro-lymphangiogenic factors but also by trans-differentiation into lymphatic EC. New pro-angiogenic factor YKL-40 belongs to a family of mammalian chitinase-like proteins (CLP) that act as cytokines or growth factors. Human CLP family comprises YKL-40, YKL-39, and SI-CLP. Production of all three CLP in macrophages is antagonistically regulated by cytokines. It was recently established that YKL-40 induces angiogenesis in vitro and in animal tumor models. YKL-40-neutralizing monoclonal antibody blocks tumor angiogenesis and progression. The role of YKL-39 and SI-CLP in tumor angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis remains to be investigated. PMID:24634660

  17. Multiparametric Classification Links Tumor Microenvironments with Tumor Cell Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Gligorijevic, Bojana; Bergman, Aviv; Condeelis, John

    2014-01-01

    While it has been established that a number of microenvironment components can affect the likelihood of metastasis, the link between microenvironment and tumor cell phenotypes is poorly understood. Here we have examined microenvironment control over two different tumor cell motility phenotypes required for metastasis. By high-resolution multiphoton microscopy of mammary carcinoma in mice, we detected two phenotypes of motile tumor cells, different in locomotion speed. Only slower tumor cells exhibited protrusions with molecular, morphological, and functional characteristics associated with invadopodia. Each region in the primary tumor exhibited either fast- or slow-locomotion. To understand how the tumor microenvironment controls invadopodium formation and tumor cell locomotion, we systematically analyzed components of the microenvironment previously associated with cell invasion and migration. No single microenvironmental property was able to predict the locations of tumor cell phenotypes in the tumor if used in isolation or combined linearly. To solve this, we utilized the support vector machine (SVM) algorithm to classify phenotypes in a nonlinear fashion. This approach identified conditions that promoted either motility phenotype. We then demonstrated that varying one of the conditions may change tumor cell behavior only in a context-dependent manner. In addition, to establish the link between phenotypes and cell fates, we photoconverted and monitored the fate of tumor cells in different microenvironments, finding that only tumor cells in the invadopodium-rich microenvironments degraded extracellular matrix (ECM) and disseminated. The number of invadopodia positively correlated with degradation, while the inhibiting metalloproteases eliminated degradation and lung metastasis, consistent with a direct link among invadopodia, ECM degradation, and metastasis. We have detected and characterized two phenotypes of motile tumor cells in vivo, which occurred in spatially distinct microenvironments of primary tumors. We show how machine-learning analysis can classify heterogeneous microenvironments in vivo to enable prediction of motility phenotypes and tumor cell fate. The ability to predict the locations of tumor cell behavior leading to metastasis in breast cancer models may lead towards understanding the heterogeneity of response to treatment. PMID:25386698

  18. Therapeutic Trial for Patients With Ewing Sarcoma Family of Tumor and Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-02-04

    Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor; Ewing Sarcoma of Bone or Soft Tissue; Localized Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  19. [Germ cell and embryonal tumors].

    PubMed

    Reith, W; Mühl-Benninghaus, R; Simgen, A; Yilmaz, U

    2014-08-01

    Germ cell tumors, which constitute approximately 3-5% of tumors of the central nervous system (CNS), can be subdivided into germinomas, embryonal carcinomas, yolk sac tumors, choriocarcinomas, teratomas and mixed germ cell tumors. The diagnosis of intracranial germ cell tumor is based on the clinical symptoms, detection of tumor markers, such as alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and the beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and spinal cord, CSF cytology and histology. The diagnosis of a secreting germ cell tumor, i.e. a non-germinoma, can be made by the determination of AFP and hCG as tumor markers. Germinomas are radiosensitive but are equally as sensitive to chemotherapy. Teratomas of the CNS are mostly diagnosed in newborns and infants. The most decisive role in the treatment of teratomas is played by as complete a resection as possible. Chemotherapy and irradiation play a subordinate role.Embryonal tumors, which constitute approximately 15-20% of CNS tumors, include medulloblastomas, primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) of the CNS and the atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor of the CNS. Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in childhood and adolescence. The incidence peak is the fifth year of life with a male predisposition in a ratio of 1.5:1. Medulloblastomas constitute 12-25% of all pediatric CNS tumors and 30-40% of pediatric tumors of the posterior cranial fossa. At the time of diagnosis evidence of dissemination in the CSF cavity is found in approximately 40% of patients. The extreme cell density makes medulloblastomas hyperdense in computed tomography (CT) and can therefore be differentiated from hypodense astrocytomas. The PNETs are histologically related to medulloblastomas, pineoblastomas, atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors and peripheral neuroblastomas. They are relatively rare in children constituting less than 5% of supratentorial neoplasms. Patients are mostly clinically conspicuous due to macrocephalus and signs of brain pressure and/or seizures. In native CT the solid components of PNETs show a hyperdensity compared to the surrounding brain parenchyma probably due to the high cell density. Cysts and calcification are often detectable. The survival rate of children with CNS tumors has continuously increased in recent years. When corresponding clinical symptoms appear, such as headache, nausea or vomiting when fasting, all of which are evidence of increased intracranial pressure, MRI should be carried out as quickly as possible. Children should be treated in centers with departments of pediatric oncology and hematology and within the framework of studies. PMID:25119569

  20. Dynamic CT of pancreatic tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Hosoki, T.

    1983-05-01

    Dynamic computed tomography was performed on 19 patients with clinically diagnosed pancreatic and peripancreatic tumors. There were 10 patients with pancreatic cancer, three with inflammatory pancreatic masses, two with cystadenoma, one with insuloma, and three with peripancreatic tumors. Computed tomography was performed with a Varian-V-360-3 scanner; scanning was for 30 consecutive sec at 3 sec intervals after the bolus injection of 50 ml of contrast medium into the antecubital vein. Dynamic computed tomography (CT) may be more useful than conventional contrast CT because it facilitates: (1) correct evaluation of tumor vascularity allowing a differential diagnosis; (2) location of the boundary between tumor and a nontumor tissue; (3) detection of small tumors; and (4) visualization of pancreatic invasion by peripancreatic tumors. In addition, contrast enhancement and the degree of vascular proliferation can be quantitatively assessed by analyzing time-density curves.

  1. Sex Cord-Stromal Tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jubilee Brown; David M. Gershenson

    \\u000a Sex cord-stromal tumors are rare neoplasms which most commonly occur in the ovary. Granulosa cell tumors are the most common\\u000a histologic subtype. Presenting symptoms and signs may be specific to this group of tumors, and treatment is determined by\\u000a many factors, including age and histologic subtype. Appropriate therapy usually includes surgery, and chemotherapy often plays\\u000a a role. Much progress has

  2. Molecular Mechanisms of Tumor Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ziyad, Safiyyah

    2011-01-01

    Tumors have been recently recognized as aberrant organs composed of a complex mixture of highly interactive cells that in addition to the cancer cell include stroma (fibroblasts, adipocytes, and myofibroblasts), inflammatory (innate and adaptive immune cells), and vascular cells (endothelial and mural cells). While initially cancer cells co-opt tissue-resident vessels, the tumor eventually recruits its own vascular supply. The process of tumor neovascularization proceeds through the combined output of inductive signals from the entire cellular constituency of the tumor. During the last two decades, the identification and mechanistic outcome of signaling pathways that mediate tumor angiogenesis have been elucidated. Interestingly, many of the genes and signaling pathways activated in tumor angiogenesis are identical to those operational during developmental vascular growth, but they lack feedback regulatory control and are highly affected by inflammatory cells and hypoxia. Consequently, tumor vessels are abnormal, fragile, and hyperpermeable. The lack of hierarchy and inconsistent investment of mural cells dampen the ability of the vessels to effectively perfuse the tumor, and the resulting hypoxia installs a vicious cycle that continuously perpetuates a state of vascular inefficiency. Pharmacological targeting of blood vessels, mainly through the VEGF signaling pathway, has proven effective in normalizing tumor vessels. This normalization improves perfusion and distribution of chemotherapeutic drugs with resulting tumor suppression and moderate increase in overall survival. However, resistance to antiangiogenic therapy occurs frequently and constitutes a critical barrier in the inhibition of tumor growth. A concrete understanding of the chief signaling pathways that stimulate vascular growth in tumors and their cross-talk will continue to be essential to further refine and effectively abort the angiogenic response in cancer. PMID:22866200

  3. Drug delivery to brain tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaishri Blakeley

    2008-01-01

    A prerequisite for the efficacy of any cancer drug is that it reaches the tumor in therapeutic concentrations. This is difficult\\u000a to accomplish in most systemic solid tumors because of factors such as variable hypoxia, intratumoral pressure gradients,\\u000a and abnormal vasculature within the tumors. In brain cancer, the situation is complicated by the blood-brain barrier (BBB)\\u000a and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier,

  4. Vascular tumors simulating occlusive disease.

    PubMed

    Schröder, A; Peters, A; Riepe, G; Larena, A; Meierling, S; Mentzel, T; Katenkamp, D; Imig, H

    2001-02-01

    Two cases of vascular tumors of large vessels with intraluminal growth simulating venous thrombosis and arterial occlusive disease are reported. One was a borderline malignant epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of the femoral vein and the other a malignant epithelioid angiosarcoma of the carotid artery. Immunohistochemical studies permitted to classify the tumors. Treatment consisted in surgical resection. No recurrence and no metastasis are noted at 24 months. Uncertainty regarding biological behaviour of vascular tumors and treatment persists. PMID:11284093

  5. The dissociation of transplantable tumors.

    PubMed

    Noel, J S; Zucker, R M; Wu, N C; Demaray, S Y

    1977-07-01

    Four animal transplantable solid tumors, composed of varying morphologic architecture and intercellular specializations, were studied by light and electron microscopy. These tumors were dissociated into viable single cell populations using a combination of mechanical and enzymatic methods. The conditions necessary for optimal dissociation consisted of (a) preparation of the tumor to maximize the tissue surface area, (b) enzymatic digestion with continuous agitation and (c) additional agitation to release loosely attached cells. Other factors that influenced the dissociation were optimized and discussed. PMID:197162

  6. [Sclerotherapy for recurrent glomus tumors].

    PubMed

    Benchakroun, M; Zaddoug, O; Boussouga, M; Boukhris, J; Jaafar, A

    2013-05-01

    We report the cases of two women aged 28 and 34 years who presented recurrent glomus tumors of the hand after surgery for marginal resection of the tumor mass. The pathological study of the surgical specimen confirmed the diagnosis of recurrent glomus tumor. Due to the vascular origin of this tumor, sclerotherapy was delivered. The functional outcomes were good with dramatic pain relief within a few days. At 3-year mean follow-up, the cosmetic and functional results were very satisfactory. PMID:23660495

  7. [Malignant nail tumors].

    PubMed

    Haneke, E

    2014-04-01

    Because of the large number of different tissues making up the distal phalanx of fingers and toes, a large variety of malignant tumors can be found in and around the nail apparatus. Bowen disease is probably the most frequent nail malignancy. It is usually seen as a verrucous plaque of the nail fold and nail bed in persons above the age of 40 years. It slowly grows over a period of years or even decades before degenerating to an invasive squamous cell carcinoma. The latter may also occur primarily often as a weeping onycholysis. The next most frequent nail malignancy is ungual melanoma. Those arising from the matrix are usually pigmented and often start with a longitudinal melanonychia whereas those originating from the nail bed remain amelanotic, are often nodular and mistaken for an ingrown nail in an elderly person. The treatment of choice for in situ and early invasive subungual melanomas is generous extirpation of the nail apparatus whereas distal amputation is only indicated for advanced melanomas. In addition to these frequent nail malignancies, nail-specific carcinomas, malignant vascular and osseous tumors, other sarcomas, nail involvement in malignant systemic disorders and metastases may occur. In most cases, they cannot be diagnosed accurately on clinical grounds. Therefore, a high degree of suspicion is necessary in all isolated or single-digit proliferations that do not respond to conservative treatment. PMID:24718507

  8. Tumors of the skin and associated structures.

    PubMed

    Meleo, K A

    1997-01-01

    Because of the location of skin tumors, afflicted dogs and cats are frequently presented to veterinarians for examination. The location also facilitates the use of radiation therapy for patients with skin tumors. Few animals treated with radiation therapy for skin tumors experience significant toxicity. Animals with a variety of skin tumors can benefit from treatment with radiation therapy. These tumors include mast cell tumors, squamous cell carcinoma, tumors of the digit, tumors of the ear canal, tumors of the cutaneous adnexa, mammary gland tumors, plasma cell tumors, cutaneous melanoma, cutaneous hemangiosarcoma, and transmissible venereal tumors. The prognosis for individual patients varies with the tumor type and, in some cases, with the stage of the disease. PMID:9002168

  9. Peripheral tumor and tumor-like neurogenic lesions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evandro Abreu; Sébastien Aubert; Guillaume Wavreille; Ramon Gheno; Clarissa Canella; Anne Cotten

    Neoplasms of neurogenic origin account for about 12% of all benign and 8% of all malignant soft tissue neoplasms. Traumatic neuroma, Morton neuroma, lipomatosis of a nerve, nerve sheath ganglion, perineurioma, benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNST) are included in this group of pathologies.Clinical and radiologic evaluation of patients with neurogenic tumors and pseudotumors often reveals distinctive features.

  10. Angiomyofibroblastoma-like tumor of the scrotum.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Yang, Jung Wook; Do, Jung Mo; Seo, Deok Ha; Jung, Jae Hun; Chung, Ky Hyun; Lee, Jong Sil; Hyun, Jae Seog

    2010-05-01

    Various tumors can occur in the scrotum. Of them, angiomyofibroblastoma-like tumors are very rare mesenchymal tumors. Angiomyofibroblastoma-like tumors cannot be easily differentially diagnosed from other malignant tumors invading the male genital tract on the basis of clinical characteristics and imaging study. Therefore, surgical removal and a histopathologic diagnosis must also be performed. PMID:20495703

  11. Benign mixed tumor of the lacrimal sac

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Suk; Lee, Hwa; Chang, Minwook; Park, Minsoo; Baek, Sehyun

    2015-01-01

    Neoplasms of the lacrimal drainage system are uncommon, but potentially life-threatening and are often difficult to diagnose. Among primary lacrimal sac tumors, benign mixed tumors are extremely rare. Histologically, benign mixed tumors have been classified as a type of benign epithelial tumor. Here we report a case of benign mixed tumor of the lacrimal sac. PMID:25971182

  12. Congenital malignant rhabdoid tumor of the orbit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Brian Stidham; Richard A. Burgett; Mary M. Davis; David A. Plager

    1999-01-01

    Malignant rhabdoid tumor is a rare and highly malignant renal tumor of infancy. Extrarenal tumors involving the orbit have been reported, but never at birth.1-5 The authors describe a primary malignant rhabdoid tumor of the orbit in a neonate who had massive unilateral proptosis at birth. Clinical, radiographic, and histologic features of the tumor are discussed.

  13. TUMOR BOARD 20142015 LOCATION: LH3

    E-print Network

    TUMOR BOARD 20142015 LOCATION: LH3 DATE and Time MODERATOR TOPIC Sept 19th 8am E. BehlingKelly Canine adrenal tumors Oct 17th 8am R. Ossiboff Tumor diagnosis in zoo species Nov 21st 8am K. Hume Histiocytic tumors Dec 19th 12:15** S. Peralta Odontogenic tumors Jan 16th 8am G

  14. ABT-751 in Treating Young Patients With Refractory Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-03-14

    Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors; Childhood Germ Cell Tumor; Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Kidney Cancer; Liver Cancer; Neuroblastoma; Ovarian Cancer; Sarcoma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  15. Regorafenib in Treating Patients With Advanced or Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-25

    Gastrinoma; Glucagonoma; Insulinoma; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Pulmonary Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma; Somatostatinoma

  16. Sorafenib Tosylate in Treating Patients With Progressive Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-11-14

    Gastrinoma; Glucagonoma; Insulinoma; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Neuroendocrine Tumor; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma; Somatostatinoma; WDHA Syndrome

  17. Pazopanib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Progressive Carcinoid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-23

    Atypical Carcinoid Tumor; Foregut Carcinoid Tumor; Hindgut Carcinoid Tumor; Lung Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Midgut Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Recurrent Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Regional Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Stage IIIA Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Stage IIIB Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma

  18. Putting Tumors in Context

    SciTech Connect

    Bissell, Mina; Radisky, Derek

    2001-10-01

    The interactions between cancer cells and their micro- and macroenvironment create a context that promotes tumor growth and protects it from immune attack. The functional association of cancer cells with their surrounding tissues forms a new 'organ' that changes as malignancy progresses. Investigation of this process might provide new insights into the mechanisms of tumorigenesis and could also lead to new therapeutic targets. Under normal conditions, ORGANS are made up of TISSUES that exchange information with other cell types via cell-cell contact, cytokines and the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM). The ECM, which is produced by collaboration between STROMAL fibroblasts and EPITHELIAL cells, provides structural scaffolding for cells, as well as contextual information. The endothelial vasculature provides nutrients and oxygen, and cells of the immune system combat pathogens and remove apoptotic cells. Epithelial cells associate into intact, polarized sheets. These tissues communicate through a complex network of interactions: physically, through direct contact or through the intervening ECM, and biochemically, through both soluble and insoluble signalling molecules. In combination, these interactions provide the information that is necessary to maintain cellular differentiation and to create complex tissue structures. Occasionally, the intercellular signals that define the normal context become disrupted. Alterations in epithelial tissues can lead to movement of epithelial sheets and proliferation - for example, after activation of mesenchymal fibroblasts due to wounding.Normally, these conditions are temporary and reversible, but when inflammation is sustained, an escalating feedback loop ensues.Under persistent inflammatory conditions, continual upregulation of enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by stromal fibroblasts can disrupt the ECM, and invading immune cells can overproduce factors that promote abnormal proliferation. As this process progresses, the normal organization of the organ is replaced by a functional disorder. If there are pre-existing epithelial cells within this changing context that possess tumorigenic potential, they can start to proliferate. Alternatively, the abnormal interactions might lead to genomic instability within the epithelial cells and the acquisition of tumorigenic potential. The proliferating cancer cells can then interact with their microenvironment and enhance the abnormal interactions. At this point, the tumor has become its own organ, with a distinct context that now defines all its cellular responses. Here, we will examine how the mechanisms that contribute to the normal context also act to suppress developing tumors, how disruption of this context initiates and supports the process of tumorigenicity, and how some cells with a tumorigenic genotype can become phenotypically normal if the context is appropriately manipulated.

  19. Imaging probe for tumor malignancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Shotaro; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae; Hiraoka, Hasahiro

    2009-02-01

    Solid tumors possess unique microenvironments that are exposed to chronic hypoxic conditions ("tumor hypoxia"). Although more than half a century has passed since it was suggested that tumor hypoxia correlated with poor treatment outcomes and contributed to cancer recurrence, a fundamental solution to this problem has yet to be found. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) is the main transcription factor that regulates the cellular response to hypoxia. It induces various genes whose functions are strongly associated with malignant alteration of the entire tumor. The cellular changes induced by HIF-1 are extremely important targets of cancer therapy, particularly in therapy against refractory cancers. Imaging of the HIF-1-active microenvironment is therefore important for cancer therapy. To image HIF-1activity in vivo, we developed a PTD-ODD fusion protein, POHA, which was uniquely labeled with near-infrared fluorescent dye at the C-terminal. POHA has two functional domains: protein transduction domain (PTD) and VHL-mediated protein destruction motif in oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domain of the alpha subunit of HIF-1 (HIF-1?). It can therefore be delivered to the entire body and remain stabilized in the HIF-1-active cells. When it was intravenously injected into tumor-bearing mice, a tumor-specific fluorescence signal was detected in the tumor 6 h after the injection. These results suggest that POHA can be used an imaging probe for tumor malignancy.

  20. Polyamines in brain tumor therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. S. Redgate; S. Boggs; A. Grudziak; M. Deutsch

    1995-01-01

    Summary In the search for ways to augment current brain tumor therapies many have sought to exploit the fact that adult brain tissue is virtually lacking in cell division. This endorses a special appeal to therapeutic approaches which target the dependence on cell division for brain tumor growth. Polyamines play an essential role in the proliferation of mammalian cells and

  1. Compensatory angiogenesis and tumor refractoriness.

    PubMed

    Gacche, R N

    2015-01-01

    Since the establishment of tumor angiogenesis as a therapeutic target, an excitement in developing the anti-angiogenic agents was resulted in tailoring a humanized monoclonal antibody (Bevacizumab) against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF): a key factor in recruiting angiogenesis. The past three decades' research in the area of angiogenesis also invented a series of novel and effective anti-angiogenic agents targeting the VEGF signaling axis. Despite the demonstrable clinical benefits of anti-angiogenic therapy, the preclinical and clinical data of the current therapeutic settings clearly indicate the transient efficacy, restoration of tumor progression and aggressive recurrence of tumor invasion after the withdrawal of anti-angiogenic therapy. Therefore, the impact of this therapeutic regime on improving overall survival of patients has been disappointing in clinic. The recent advances in pathophysiology of tumor angiogenesis and related molecular and cellular underpinnings attributed the conspiracy of compensatory angiogenic pathways in conferring evasive and intrinsic tumor resistance to anti-angiogenic agents. The understandings of how these pathways functionally cross-talk for sustaining tumor angiogenesis during VEGF blockade is essential and perhaps may act as a basic prerequisite for designing novel therapeutic strategies to combat the growing arrogance of tumors toward anti-angiogenic agents. The present review offers a discourse on major compensatory angiogenic pathways operating at cellular and molecular levels and their attributes with resistance to anti-angiogenic agents along with strategic opinions on future setting in targeting tumor angiogenesis. PMID:26029827

  2. Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nilüfer TEL; Enver ?HT?YAR; M. Cem ALGIN

    SUMMARY Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare malignant neoplastic condition that diffusely involves the abdominal or pelvic peritoneum in the second or third decade of life. This tumor is characterized by nests of small undifferentiated cells that show immunohistochemical evidence of epithelial, mesenchymal, and neural differentiation. Patients often present with abdominal pain, an abdominal mass, ascites or

  3. Prognostic Factors of Krukenberg's Tumor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hark K. Kim; Dae S. Heo; Yung-J. Bang; Noe K. Kim

    2001-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to determine prognostic factors of metachronous Krukenberg's tumors of gastric origin, thereby helping to establish a therapeutic plan for this rare entity.Methods. Thirty-four female patients who underwent curative resection of gastric carcinoma from 1987 through 1996 and subsequently developed Krukenberg's tumors were identified. The covariates used for survival analysis were patient age at

  4. Computed tomography of Krukenberg tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, K.C.; Gold, B.M.

    1985-08-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of three patients with Kurkenberg tumor was reviewed retrospectively. CT showed large, lobulated, multicystic masses with soft-tissue components, indistinguishable from primary ovarian carcinoma. Much has been written about metastatic ovarian tumor, but this is the first report in the radiologic literature about their CT features. The authors emphasize the importance of recognizing the ovary as a frequent site of metastases and the proper approach to this problem. In patients with a history of colon or gastric carcinoma, the mixed cystic and solid ovarian mass on CT should be regarded as metastatic tumor until proven otherwise. A careful search for gastrointestinal tract signs or symptoms should be done in any patient with a pelvic tumor. When CT is done for evaluation of ovarian tumor, the stomach and colon should be carefully evaluated, and the ovaries routinely examined in the preoperative CT staging of gastric or colon carcinoma.

  5. [Treatment of primary mediastinal germ cell tumors].

    PubMed

    Yoshitake, T; Itoyama, S

    1989-02-01

    Primary mediastinal germ cell tumors are clinically classified into mature (benign) teratomas and malignant germ cell tumors. Mature teratomas should be surgically excised after diagnosis, because unnecessary delay may result in the rupture of tumors or in malignant degeneration. The prognosis after surgical removal of tumor is good and there is no recurrence of tumor after complete excision. Malignant germ cell tumors are therapeutically classified into seminomatous and nonseminomatous germ cell tumors. Nonseminomatous germ cell tumors comprise immature teratoma, teratocarcinoma (malignant teratoma), embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac (endodermal sinus) tumor and choriocarcinoma. Treatments for patients with them require an multidisciplinary therapeutic approach with radiotherapy or chemotherapy combined with surgical intervention. The prognosis of patients with these tumors are poor, however seminomatous germ cell tumors have a better prognosis than that of nonseminomatous tumors, because they are responsive to radiotherapy or chemotherapy and long survivals over five years after treatment are not rare among them. An aggressive cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy is performed for patients with nonseminomatous tumors who have mostly the elevated serum levels of AFP or beta-HCG as tumor marker. The serum levels of tumor markers reflect precisely the biological behavior of nonseminomatous tumors. Patients with the normalised serum levels of tumor markers after an medical intervention may have a good long prognosis following radical resection of tumors, although the sustained high serum levels of tumor markers after treatment indicate a poor prognosis. Long survivals over five years after therapy are extremely rare among them. PMID:9301895

  6. Treatment Options for Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health Professional Gestational Trophoblastic Disease Patient Health Professional GI Carcinoid Tumors Patient Health Professional Head and Neck ... Careers Visitor Information Search Search Home Cancer Types GI Carcinoid Tumors Patient GI Carcinoid Tumors Patient GI ...

  7. Protons make tumor cells move like clockwork

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Stock; Albrecht Schwab

    2009-01-01

    Cancer accounts for 13% of the yearly total mortality worldwide. Most cancer deaths are the sequel of metastatic diseases\\u000a rather than of primary tumor growth. Thus, the major challenge in tumor therapy is the tumor cells’ ability to metastasize.\\u000a The extent to which a tumor metastasizes correlates with the tumor cells’ migratory activity. Tumor cell migration requires\\u000a a coordinated formation

  8. Comprehensive management of head and neck tumors, volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Thawley, S.E.; Panje, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    This book consists of 14 parts, each containing several papers. The parts are: General Considerations in the Management of Patients with Head and Neck Tumors, Tumors of the Ear, Tumors of the Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinuses, Tumors of the Oral Cavity, Tumors of the Pharynx, Tumors of the Larynx, Tumors of the Skin, Dental and Jaw Tumors, Tumors of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands, Tumors of the Trachea, Tumors of the Eye, Orbit, and Lacrimal Apparatus, and Special Topics.

  9. Tumor Targeting via Integrin Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Marelli, Udaya Kiran; Rechenmacher, Florian; Sobahi, Tariq Rashad Ali; Mas-Moruno, Carlos; Kessler, Horst

    2013-01-01

    Selective and targeted delivery of drugs to tumors is a major challenge for an effective cancer therapy and also to overcome the side-effects associated with current treatments. Overexpression of various receptors on tumor cells is a characteristic structural and biochemical aspect of tumors and distinguishes them from physiologically normal cells. This abnormal feature is therefore suitable for selectively directing anticancer molecules to tumors by using ligands that can preferentially recognize such receptors. Several subtypes of integrin receptors that are crucial for cell adhesion, cell signaling, cell viability, and motility have been shown to have an upregulated expression on cancer cells. Thus, ligands that recognize specific integrin subtypes represent excellent candidates to be conjugated to drugs or drug carrier systems and be targeted to tumors. In this regard, integrins recognizing the RGD cell adhesive sequence have been extensively targeted for tumor-specific drug delivery. Here we review key recent examples on the presentation of RGD-based integrin ligands by means of distinct drug-delivery systems, and discuss the prospects of such therapies to specifically target tumor cells. PMID:24010121

  10. Therapeutic modalities for Pancoast tumors.

    PubMed

    Nikolaos, Panagopoulos; Vasilios, Livaditis; Efstratios, Koletsis; Panagiotis, Alexopoulos; Christos, Prokakis; Nikolaos, Baltayiannis; Antonios, Hatzimichalis; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Tsiouda, Theodora; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Madesis, Athanasios; Vretzakis, Georgios; Kolettas, Alexandros; Dimitrios, Dougenis

    2014-03-01

    A Pancoast tumor, also called a pulmonary sulcus tumor or superior sulcus tumor, is a tumor of the pulmonary apex. It is a type of lung cancer defined primarily by its location situated at the top end of either the right or left lung. It typically spreads to nearby tissues such as the ribs and vertebrae. Most Pancoast tumors are non-small cell cancers. The growing tumor can cause compression of a brachiocephalic vein, subclavian artery, phrenic nerve, recurrent laryngeal nerve, vagus nerve, or, characteristically, compression of a sympathetic ganglion resulting in a range of symptoms known as Horner's syndrome. Pancoast tumors are named for Henry Pancoast, a US radiologist, who described them in 1924 and 1932.The treatment of a Pancoast lung cancer may differ from that of other types of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Its position and close proximity to vital structures may make surgery difficult. As a result, and depending on the stage of the cancer, treatment may involve radiation and chemotherapy given prior to surgery. Surgery may consist of the removal of the upper lobe of a lung together with its associated structures as well as mediastinal lymphadenectomy. Surgical access may be via thoracotomy from the back or the front of the chest and modification. Careful patient selection, improvements in imaging such as the role of PET-CT in restaging of tumors, radiotherapy and surgical advances, the management of previously inoperable lesions by a combined experienced thoracic-neurosurgical team and prompt recognition and therapy of postoperative complications has greatly increased local control and overall survival for patients with these tumors. PMID:24672693

  11. Therapeutic modalities for Pancoast tumors

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaos, Panagopoulos; Vasilios, Livaditis; Efstratios, Koletsis; Panagiotis, Alexopoulos; Christos, Prokakis; Nikolaos, Baltayiannis; Antonios, Hatzimichalis; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Tsiouda, Theodora; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Madesis, Athanasios; Vretzakis, Georgios; Kolettas, Alexandros; Dimitrios, Dougenis

    2014-01-01

    A Pancoast tumor, also called a pulmonary sulcus tumor or superior sulcus tumor, is a tumor of the pulmonary apex. It is a type of lung cancer defined primarily by its location situated at the top end of either the right or left lung. It typically spreads to nearby tissues such as the ribs and vertebrae. Most Pancoast tumors are non-small cell cancers. The growing tumor can cause compression of a brachiocephalic vein, subclavian artery, phrenic nerve, recurrent laryngeal nerve, vagus nerve, or, characteristically, compression of a sympathetic ganglion resulting in a range of symptoms known as Horner’s syndrome. Pancoast tumors are named for Henry Pancoast, a US radiologist, who described them in 1924 and 1932.The treatment of a Pancoast lung cancer may differ from that of other types of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Its position and close proximity to vital structures may make surgery difficult. As a result, and depending on the stage of the cancer, treatment may involve radiation and chemotherapy given prior to surgery. Surgery may consist of the removal of the upper lobe of a lung together with its associated structures as well as mediastinal lymphadenectomy. Surgical access may be via thoracotomy from the back or the front of the chest and modification. Careful patient selection, improvements in imaging such as the role of PET-CT in restaging of tumors, radiotherapy and surgical advances, the management of previously inoperable lesions by a combined experienced thoracic-neurosurgical team and prompt recognition and therapy of postoperative complications has greatly increased local control and overall survival for patients with these tumors. PMID:24672693

  12. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: a review.

    PubMed

    Young, Kate; Iyer, Ridhima; Morganstein, Daniel; Chau, Ian; Cunningham, David; Starling, Naureen

    2015-03-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a rare and heterogeneous group of tumors with widely varying morphologies and behaviors. Due to their rarity and heterogeneity, progress in improving their treatment has been slow. However, in recent years there have been advances both in their characterization and in the available treatment options. This review will attempt to address these, with particular reference to pancreatic NETs. Pancreatic NETs are a subset of NETs, previously known as islet cell tumors, which appear to be a distinct biological entity, responding differently to systemic treatments compared with NETs arising elsewhere in the GI tract. PMID:25757686

  13. Brain tumors in irradiated monkeys.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haymaker, W.; Miquel, J.; Rubinstein, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    A study was made of 32 monkeys which survived one to seven years after total body exposure to protons or to high-energy X rays. Among these 32 monkeys there were 21 which survived two years or longer after exposure to 200 to 800 rad. Glioblastoma multiforme developed in 3 of the 10 monkeys surviving three to five years after receiving 600 or 800 rad 55-MeV protons. Thus, the incidence of tumor development in the present series was far higher than the incidence of spontaneously developing brain tumors in monkeys cited in the literature. This suggests that the tumors in the present series may have been radiation-induced.

  14. Vaccination against tumor cells expressing breast cancer epithelial tumor antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Hareuveni, M; Gautier, C; Kieny, M P; Wreschner, D; Chambon, P; Lathe, R

    1990-01-01

    Ninety-one percent of breast tumors aberrantly express an epithelial tumor antigen (ETA) identified by monoclonal antibody H23. Vaccinia virus recombinants expressing tumor antigens have considerable promise in the active immunotherapy of cancer, and we have evaluated the potential of vaccinia recombinants expressing the secreted (S) and cell-associated (transmembrane, T) forms of H23 ETA to elicit immunity to tumor cells expressing ETA. Tumorigenic ras-transformed Fischer rat fibroblast lines FR-S and FR-T, expressing the S or T form of H23 ETA, respectively, were constructed for use in challenge experiments. Expression of H23 ETA in these lines was confirmed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. When challenged by subcutaneous seeding of tumor cells, 97% (FR-S) and 91% (FR-T) of syngeneic Fischer rats rapidly developed tumors that failed to regress. Vaccination with recombinant vaccinia virus expressing ETA-T prior to challenge prevented tumor development in 82% of animals seeded with FR-T cells but in only 61% of animals seeded with FR-S. The vaccinia recombinant expressing the S form was a less effective immunogen, and vaccination protected only 29-30% of animals from developing tumors upon challenge with either FR-S or -T cells. The increased immunogenicity of the recombinant expressing ETA-T was reflected in elevated levels of ETA-reactive antibody in vaccinated animals, confirming that secreted antigens expressed from vaccinia virus are less effective immunogens than their membrane-associated counterparts. Images PMID:2251291

  15. Modification of tumor response by manipulation of tumor oxygenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qun; Beckers, Jill; Hetzel, Fred W.

    1999-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) requires tissue oxygenation during light irradiation. Tumor hypoxia, either pre-existing or induced by PDT during light irradiation, can severely hamper the effectiveness of a PDT treatment. Lowering the light irradiation does rate or fractionating a light dose may improve cell kill of PDT induced hypoxic cells, but will have no effects on pre-existing hypoxic cells. In the current study, we used hyper-oxygenation during PDT to overcome cell hypoxia in PDT. C3H mice with transplanted mammary carcinoma tumor were injected with 12.5 mg/kg Photofrin and irradiated with 630 nm laser light 24 hours later. Tumor oxygenation was manipulated by subjecting the animals to 3 a.t.p. hyperbaric oxygen or normobaric oxygen during PDT light irradiation. The results show a significant improvement in tumor response when PDT was delivered during hyper-oxygenation. With hyper-oxygenation, up to 80% of treated tumors showed no re-growth after 60 days. In comparison, only 20% of tumors treated while animals breathed normal room air, did not re-grow. To quantitatively evaluate the effects of manipulating tumor oxygenation, tumor p02 was measured with microelectrodes positioned in pre-existing hypoxic regions before and during the PDT light irradiation. The results show that hyper-oxygenation may oxygenate pre-existing hypoxic cells and compensate oxygen depletion induced by PDT light irradiation. In conclusion, hyper-oxygenation may provide effective ways to improve PDT treatment efficiency by oxygenating both pre-existing and treatment induced cell hypoxia.

  16. Tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas

    PubMed Central

    Tornero, O. Berbel; García, J.A. Ortega; Tortajada, J. Ferrís i; Castell, J. García; Colomer, J. Donat i; Soldin, O.P.; Soler, J.L. Fuster

    2013-01-01

    Introducción La asociación entre tumores y malformaciones congénitas está bien establecida, pero no existen datos exclusivos en el período neonatal y se desconocen los mecanismos subyacentes que generan dicha relación. Objetivos Este trabajo tiene dos objetivos: primero, analizar la frecuencia de los tumores neonatales asociados a malformaciones congénitas, y segundo, comentar las posibles hipótesis etiopatogénicas de la relación entre ambas entidades. Materiales y método Estudio retrospectivo de las historias clínicas de los tumores neonatales, en el Hospital Universitario Materno- Infantil La Fe de Valencia, desde enero de 1990 hasta diciembre de 1999. Selección y descripción de las variedades histológicas asociadas a malformaciones congénitas. Éstas se han agrupado siguiendo los criterios de la Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades CIE-9, códigos 740.0–759.9. Revisión sistemática bibliográfica de los últimos 25 años, obtenida del Medline, Cancerlit, Index Citation Science y Embase. El perfil de búsqueda utilizado fue la combinación de “neonatal/congenital-tumors/cancer/neoplasms” y “congenital malformations/birth defects”. Resultados Se identificaron 72 tumores neonatales (2,8 % del total de tumores pediátricos diagnosticados en dichos años) y 15 de ellos (20,8 %) asociados a malformaciones congénitas, enfermedades o síndromes congénitos. Las asociaciones entre tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas fueron las siguientes: a) angioma en 3 pacientes: con dos cardiopatías congénitas y una atresia de coanas-laringomalacia; b) neuroblastoma en 2 pacientes: uno con riñón en herradura y anomalías vertebrales, y otro con cardiopatía congénita; c) teratoma en 2 pacientes: uno con fisura palatina y anomalías vertebrales, y otro con metatarso varo; d) tumor del sistema nervioso central en un paciente con hernia de Bochdaleck; e) tumor cardíaco en 4 pacientes con esclerosis tuberosa; f) leucemia aguda en un paciente con síndrome de Down y cardiopatía congénita; g) tumor renal en un caso con hidrocefalia triventricular, y h) tumor adrenal en un caso con hemihipertrofia. En la bibliografía específica, las publicaciones engloban tumores de diferentes épocas pediátricas y sin unanimidad de criterios para clasificar las malformaciones congénitas. Apenas existen datos en el período neonatal y la asociación entre ambas entidades se obtiene de registros de instituciones médicas. La prevalencia oscila entre el 15 y el 31,6 %. Las hipótesis etiopatogénicas que explican la asociación entre tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas están basadas en las exposiciones prenatales (preconcepcionales y transplacentarias) a factores de riesgo potencialmente mutagénicos y carcinogénicos. Conclusiones Probablemente, los tumores neonatales se asocian con mayor frecuencia a malformaciones congénitas que los tumores diagnosticados en épocas posteriores de la vida. Para conocer la prevalencia real de la asociación entre tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas, es necesario unificar los criterios de inclusión y definición de ambas entidades. La obtención de una minuciosa historia medioambiental en todos los tumores neonatales asociados a malformaciones congénitas, donde se detallen y registren todos los factores de riesgo constitucionales y ambientales, es fundamental para mejorar nuestros escasos conocimientos de los mecanismos prenatales subyacentes y avanzar en su prevención. PMID:18559198

  17. A Rare Cutaneous Adnexal Tumor: Malignant Proliferating Trichilemmal Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Alici, Omer; Keles, Musa Kemal; Kurt, Alper

    2015-01-01

    Proliferating trichilemmal tumors (PTTs) are neoplasms derived from the outer root sheath of the hair follicle. These tumors, which commonly affect the scalp of elderly women, rarely demonstrate malignant transformation. Although invasion of the tumors into neighboring tissues and being accompanied with anaplasia and necrosis are accepted as findings of malignancy, histological features may not always be sufficient to identify these tumors. The clinical behavior of the tumor may be incompatible with its histological characteristics. Squamous-cell carcinoma should certainly be considered in differential diagnosis because of its similarity in morphological appearance with PTT. Immunostaining for CD34, P53, and Ki-67 is a useful adjuvant diagnostic method that can be used in differential diagnosis aside from morphological findings. In this study, we aimed to present the case of a 52-year-old female patient with clinicopathological features. We reported a low-grade malignant proliferating trichilemmal tumor in this patient and detected no relapse or metastasis in a 24-month period of follow-up.

  18. Infantile pericardial round cell tumor

    PubMed Central

    Sridevi, KH; Awasthy, Neeraj; Singh, Virender; Rana, Seema; Sharma, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac malignancies presenting in infancy are rare. Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare occurrence in this age group. No case of intrapericardial DSRCT has been reported in the literature in infants.

  19. Treatment Options for Pituitary Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pituitary tumor include problems with vision and certain physical changes. Signs and symptoms can be caused by ... also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI). Blood chemistry study : A procedure in which a blood sample ...

  20. General Information about Pituitary Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pituitary tumor include problems with vision and certain physical changes. Signs and symptoms can be caused by ... also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI). Blood chemistry study : A procedure in which a blood sample ...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: Desmoid tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding desmoid tumor? cancer ; cell ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (6 links) ...

  2. Diffusion Imaging of Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Stephan E.; Sun, Yanping; Mulkern, Robert V.

    2010-01-01

    MR imaging offers a tremendous armamentarium of different methods that can be employed in brain tumor characterization. MR diffusion imaging has become a widely accepted method for probing the presence of fluid pools and molecular tissue water mobility. For most clinical applications of diffusion imaging, it is assumed that the diffusion signal vs diffusion weighting factor b decays monoexponentially. Within this framework, measurement of a single diffusion coefficient in brain tumors permits an approximate categorization of tumor type and for some tumors definitive diagnosis. In most brain tumors, when compared to normal brain tissue, the diffusion coefficient is elevated. The presence of peritumoral edema, which also exhibits an elevated diffusion coefficient, often precludes delineation of the tumor based on diffusion information alone. Serially obtained diffusion data is useful to document and even predict cellular response to drug or radiation therapy. Diffusion measurements in tissues over an extended range of b-factors have clearly shown that the mono-parametric description of the MR diffusion signal decay is incomplete. Very high diffusion weighting on clinical systems requires substantial compromise in spatial resolution. But after suitable analysis, superior separation of malignant brain tumors, peritumoral edema, and normal brain tissue can be achieved. These findings are also discussed in light of tissue-specific differences in membrane structure and the restrictions membranes exert on diffusion. Finally, measurement of the directional dependence of diffusion permits assessment of white matter integrity and dislocation. Such information, particularly in conjunction with advanced post-processing, is considered immensely useful for therapy planning. Diffusion imaging, which permits monoexponential analysis and provides directional diffusion information, is performed routinely in brain tumor patients. More advanced methods require improvement in acquisition speed and spatial resolution to gain clinical acceptance. PMID:20886568

  3. Angiographic findings in tumoral calcinosis.

    PubMed

    Neeman, Ziv; Wood, Bradford J

    2003-01-01

    Tumor calcinosis is uncommon, typically manifesting as paraarticular, extracapsular soft tissue deposits containing amorphous calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate, with associated hydroxyapatite crystal. CT and MRI are the primary diagnostic radiological tools evaluating these lesions. Primary treatment is early surgical excision with wide margins, as there is a high recurrence rate. We describe the angiographic findings in tumoral calcinosis, demonstrating hypervascularity beyond the calcified mass periphery. Exact margin definition with angiography may influence management and surgical approach. PMID:12727056

  4. Lung Cancer With Tumor Emboli.

    PubMed

    Inra, Matthew L; Allen, Mark S

    2015-07-01

    We report a case of squamous cell lung carcinoma that invaded the left atrium through the left pulmonary vein. This patient had two episodes of systemic embolism before diagnosis. The second episode was treated with embolectomy, and the pathology analysis showed squamous cell carcinoma. The tumor was surgically resected, using cardiopulmonary bypass to resect the intracardiac portion. We discuss causes of tumor emboli in lung cancer and surgical treatment. PMID:26140769

  5. Radiologic management of musculoskeletal tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Pettersson, H.; Springfield, D.S.; Enneking, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    The present book is written by a radiologist and two orthopedic surgeons with long experience in musculoskeletal tumors. It is based on modern pathologic and surgical principles, and from those principles the radiologic approach is discussed. The main questions ask what information can be gained by the different modalities, and which combination of modalities is the most profitable to determine the local behaviour of the tumor, diagnosis and local extent.

  6. Are acoustic neuromas encapsulated tumors?

    PubMed

    Kuo, T C; Jackler, R K; Wong, K; Blevins, N H; Pitts, L H

    1997-12-01

    In articles and chapters on the subject of acoustic neuroma, it is almost invariably stated that they are well-encapsulated tumors. During surgical procedures, blunt mechanical dissection defines a natural subsurface cleavage plane that leaves intact a several millimeter thick rind of tumor surface. Occasionally, as a concession to neural integrity, less than complete resection is elected, leaving behind this "capsular" remnant. To clarify the nature of the surface of acoustic neuromas and to test whether this long held description is indeed correct, a microscopic analysis of 10 surgical specimens was performed. A wedge was harvested from the free surface of the tumor in the mid cerebellopontine angle that included a large, undisturbed section of the tumor surface. Histologic analysis showed that for most of the tumor surface only an extremely thin (3 to 5 microm) layer of connective tissue envelops the tumor. Neoplastic Schwann cells, which extend essentially to the margin of the tumor, were found to be somewhat flattened and compressed in the vicinity of the surface. Although acoustic neuromas are surrounded by a continuous layer of connective tissue, it is so exceptionally thin (on average less than the diameter of a red blood cell) that its edge cannot be visualized intraoperatively by a surgeon. Because the pathologic definition of a capsule is a thick, enveloping layer of connective tissue that is both micro- and macroscopically evident, it must be concluded that acoustic neuromas are nonencapsulated, at least in the conventional sense of the term. The surface peel observed intraoperatively is surgically produced during tumor debulking by cleaving of the looser central component from the more compressed portion of neoplastic cells that lies immediately beneath the free margin of the lesion. PMID:9419086

  7. Krukenberg Tumor Complicated by Pregnancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Mackey; J. Hugh; M. Smylie

    1996-01-01

    A 32-year-old female presented with a right ovarian mass, and the unilateral oophorectomy specimen revealed adenocarcinoma with signet-ring cells histology consistent with a Krukenberg tumor. The high-grade gastric primary adenocarcinoma was later identified, but by this time a viable 7-week fetus and left ovarian Krukenberg tumor were present. Second trimester palliative oophorectomy and partial gastrectomy were performed. The patient delivered

  8. Tumor formations in scleractinian corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loya, Y.; Bull, G.; Pichon, M.

    1984-03-01

    A highly localized incidence of skeletal malformations (tumors) in the scleractinian corals Platygyra pini and P. sinensis on an inshore fringing reef at Cockle Bay, Magnetic Island within the Great Barrier Reef province is reported. These tumors are typified by a localized area of increased growth rate resulting in roughly circular protuberances extending up to 4.5 cm above the colony's surface. In both species, similar proportions of their populations carried tumors (24.1 % in P. pini and 18.7 % in P. sinensis). Larger colonies (>80 cm in diameter) are at least 7 times more likely to possess tumors than smaller colonies (<40 cm in diameter). X-radiographs of the skeletal malformations indicate a point of origin, presumably from a single budded polyp with subsequent, localized, accelerated growth. The mean radial growth rate of the tumorous area was 29 % greater than that of the surrounding normal regions. In contrast to the normal tissue, the tumorous tissue exhibited proliferation of cells, atrophied gastrodermal cells and mesenterial filaments which were larger and disordered in structure. The environmental conditions at Cockle Bay are relatively extreme with high turbidity, periodic exposure of the reef flat, abrupt changes in salinity during the wet season and mechanical damage to corals caused by unpredictable cyclonic storms. It is suggested that a combination of environmental stresses coupled with an injury inflicted on the corals are possible stimuli that initiate the development of these abnormal growth through either bacterial attack or the development of an aberrant polyp during tissue repair.

  9. Glomus Tumor of the Hand

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won; Kwon, Soon Beom; Eo, Su Rak; Kwon, Chan

    2015-01-01

    Background Glomus tumors were first described by Wood in 1812 as painful subcutaneous tubercles. It is an uncommon benign neoplasm involving the glomus body, an apparatus that involves in thermoregulation of cutaneous microvasculature. Glomus tumor constitutes 1%-5% of all hand tumors. It usually occurs at the subungual region and more commonly in aged women. Its classical clinical triad consists of pain, tenderness and temperature intolerance, especially cold sensitivity. This study reviews 15 cases of glomus tumor which were analyzed according to its anatomic location, surgical approach and histologic findings. Methods Fifteen patients with subungual glomus tumors of the hand operated on between January 2006 and March 2013, were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were evaluated preoperatively with standard physical examination including ice cube test and Love's test. Diagnostic imaging consisted of ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. All procedures were performed with tourniquet control under local anesthesia. Eleven patients underwent excision using the transungual approach, 3 patients using the volar approach and 1 patient using the lateral subperiosteal approach. Results Total of 15 cases were reviewed. 11 tumors were located in the nail bed, 3 in the volar pulp and 1 in the radial aspect of the finger tip. After complete excision, patients remained asymptomatic in the immediate postoperative period. In the long term follow up, patients exhibited excellent cosmetic results with no recurrence. Conclusions Accurate diagnosis should be made by physical, radiologic and pathologic examinations. Preoperative localization and complete extirpation is essential in preventing recurrence and subsequent nail deformity. PMID:26015884

  10. Immunotherapy of malignant brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Duane A.; Fecci, Peter E.; Sampson, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Despite aggressive multi-modality therapy including surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, the prognosis for patients with malignant primary brain tumors remains very poor. Moreover, the non-specific nature of conventional therapy for brain tumors often results in incapacitating damage to surrounding normal brain and systemic tissues. Thus, there is an urgent need for the development of therapeutic strategies that precisely target tumor cells while minimizing collateral damage to neighboring eloquent cerebral cortex. The rationale for using the immune system to target brain tumors is based on the premise that the inherent specificity of immunologic reactivity could meet the clear need for more specific and precise therapy. The success of this modality is dependent on our ability to understand the mechanisms of immune regulation within the central nervous system (CNS), as well as counter the broad defects in host cell-mediated immunity that malignant gliomas are known to elicit. Recent advances in our understanding of tumor-induced and host-mediated immunosuppressive mechanisms, the development of effective strategies to combat these suppressive effects, and a better understanding of how to deliver immunologic effector molecules more efficiently to CNS tumors have all facilitated significant progress toward the realization of true clinical benefit from immunotherapeutic treatment of malignant gliomas. PMID:18363995

  11. Natural Killer Cells and Solid Tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Stojanovic; Adelheid Cerwenka

    2011-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in the innate immune response against cancer, in particular in the elimination of tumor metastases and small tumors. NK cell-mediated control of large solid tumors is usually not efficient, although tumors often express high amounts of activating ligands and low levels of inhibitory ligands, such as MHC class I. Thus, we assume

  12. Pecking order among tumor-specific antigens.

    PubMed

    Urban, J L; Van Waes, C; Schreiber, H

    1984-02-01

    The ultraviolet light-induced fibrosarcoma 1591 is regularly rejected upon transplantation into young syngeneic mice; in rare instances, however, this tumor grows progressively and the tumors that develop are then heritably stable variant progressor tumors (1591-PRO tumors). In this study, we have induced transplantation resistance to 1591-PRO tumors and determined which antigens were recognized by mice that rejected these progressor tumors. We found that cytolytic T cells of such mice recognized a 1591-specific antigen that was present not only on all the independently derived 1591-PRO tumors but also on the parental regressor tumor (1591-RE). However, the cytolytic immune response of mice that rejected 1591-RE lysed 1591-RE tumor cells but not 1591-PRO tumor cells. Thus, the 1591-RE tumor seemed to express two antigens that were specific for tumors of the 1591 lineage, one that was lost and a second that was retained by 1591-PRO tumor cells. Mice challenged with 1591-R# tumor cells mounted a response to only one of the tumor-specific antigens which was therefore "immunodominant" over the other "immunorecessive" antigen. This immunorecessive antigen became the target of the immune response once the immunodominant antigen was lost. This "pecking order" interfered with the simultaneous recognition of two tumor-specific antigens and this mechanism may favor immune escape. PMID:6230244

  13. Primary carcinoid tumor of the ear

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Inoue; K. Tanaka; S. Kannae

    1982-01-01

    A very rare case of primary carcinoid tumor in the left ear of a 35-year-old woman is described. The argyrophilic property and uniformity of the size and shape of neurosecretory granules in the cytoplasm of tumor cells, correspond to the characteristics of carcinoid tumors derived from foregut endoderm. Clinical and light microscopic observations suggest this tumor originated from middle ear

  14. Tumor suppressor molecules and methods of use

    DOEpatents

    Welch, Peter J.; Barber, Jack R.

    2004-09-07

    The invention provides substantially pure tumor suppressor nucleic acid molecules and tumor suppressor polypeptides. The invention also provides hairpin ribozymes and antibodies selective for these tumor suppressor molecules. Also provided are methods of detecting a neoplastic cell in a sample using detectable agents specific for the tumor suppressor nucleic acids and polypeptides.

  15. Tumor lysate-loaded biodegradable microparticles

    E-print Network

    Salem, Aliasger K.

    Tumor lysate-loaded biodegradable microparticles as cancer vaccines Expert Rev. Vaccines 13(1), 9 tumor lysate (TL) as a source of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) have significant potential for generating therapeutic anti-tumor immune responses. Vaccines encompassing TL bypass the limitations of single

  16. Can We Negotiate with a Tumor?

    PubMed Central

    Deschatrette, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in deciphering the molecular portraits of tumors promises an era of more personalized drug choices. However, current protocols still follow standard fixed-time schedules, which is not entirely coherent with the common observation that most tumors do not grow continuously. This unpredictability of the increases in tumor mass is not necessarily an obstacle to therapeutic efficiency, particularly if tumor dynamics could be exploited. We propose a model of tumor mass evolution as the integrated result of the dynamics of two linked complex systems, tumor cell population and tumor microenvironment, and show the practical relevance of this nonlinear approach. PMID:25084359

  17. Rare Primary Central Nervous System Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kubicky, Charlotte Dai; Sahgal, Arjun; Chang, Eric L.; Lo, Simon S.

    2014-01-01

    There are close to 70,000 new cases of primary central nervous system tumors diagnosed annually in the United States. Meningiomas, gliomas, nerve sheath tumors and pituitary tumors account for 85% of them. There is abundant literature on these commonly occurring tumors but data from the literature on infrequently encountered tumors such as atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, choroid plexus carcinoma, ganglioglioma, hemangiopericytoma, and pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma are limited. This review provides an overview of the clinicopathologic and therapeutic aspects of these rare primary central nervous system tumors. PMID:25276324

  18. Biomarkers in Tissue Samples From Patients With High-Risk Wilms Tumor

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-05

    Clear Cell Sarcoma of the Kidney; Recurrent Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors; Rhabdoid Tumor of the Kidney; Stage I Wilms Tumor; Stage II Wilms Tumor; Stage III Wilms Tumor; Stage IV Wilms Tumor; Stage V Wilms Tumor

  19. Clinical Relevance of Tumor Cells with Stem-Like Properties in Pediatric Brain Tumors

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Clinical Relevance of Tumor Cells with Stem-Like Properties in Pediatric Brain Tumors Ce brain tumors are the leading cause of cancer-related death in children. Tumor cells with stem high-grade gliomas in adults. Whether TSCs are a common component of pediatric brain tumors

  20. Pediatric liver tumors – a pictorial review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Priyanka Jha; Soni C. Chawla; Sidhartha Tavri; Chirag Patel; Charles Gooding; Heike Daldrup-Link

    2009-01-01

    Hepatic masses constitute about 5–6% of all intra-abdominal masses in children. The majority of liver tumors in children are\\u000a malignant; these malignant liver tumors constitute the third most common intra-abdominal malignancy in the pediatric age group\\u000a after Wilms’ tumor and neuroblastoma. Only about one third of the liver tumors are benign. A differential diagnosis of liver\\u000a tumors in children can

  1. Cryo-ablation improves anti-tumor immunity through recovering tumor educated dendritic cells in tumor-draining lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiao-Zheng; Wang, Qi-Fu; Han, Shuai; Wang, Hui-Qing; Ye, Yong-Yi; Zhu, Zhi-Yuan; Zhang, Shi-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Background In addition to minimally invasive destruction of tumors, cryo-ablation of tumors to some extent modulated anti-tumor immunity. Cryo-ablated tumors in glioma mice models induced anti-tumor cellular immunologic response which increases the percentage of CD3+ and CD4+T cells in blood as well as natural killer cells. As a crucial role in triggering anti-tumor immunity, dendritic cells (DCs) were educated by tumors to adopt a tolerance phenotype which helps the tumor escape from immune monitoring. This study aims to study whether cryo-ablation could influence the tolerogenic DCs, and influence anti-tumor immunity in tumor-draining lymph nodes (TDLNs). Methods Using the GL261 subcutaneous glioma mouse model, we created a tumor bearing group, cryo-ablation group, and surgery group. We analyzed alteration in phenotype and function of tolerogenic DCs, and evaluated the factors of anti-tumor immunity inhibition. Results DCs in TDLNs in GL261 subcutaneous glioma mouse model expressed tolerogenic phenotype. In contrast to surgery, cryo-ablation improved the quantity and quality of these tolerogenic DCs. Moreover, the DCs decreased the expression of intracellular interleukin-10 (IL-10) and extra-cellular IL-10. In vitro, DCs from the cryo-ablation group recovered their specific function and induced potent anti-tumor immunity through triggering T cells. In vivo, cryo-ablation showed weak anti-tumor immunity, only inhibiting the growth of rechallenged tumors. But many IL-10-low DCs, rather than IL-10-high DCs, infiltrated the tumors. More importantly, Tregs inhibited the performance of these DCs; and depletion of Tregs greatly improved anti-tumor immunity in vivo. Conclusion Cryo-ablation could recover function of tumor induced tolerogenic DCs in vitro; and depletion of Tregs could improve this anti-tumor effect in vivo. The Tregs/CD4+T and Tregs/CD25+T cells in TDLNs inhibit DCs’ activity and function. PMID:25792805

  2. Interfractional Variations of Tumor Centroid Position and Tumor Regression during Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Lung Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yanan; Lu, Yufei; Cheng, Siguo; Guo, Wei; Ye, Ke; Zhao, Huiyun; Zheng, Xiaoli; Li, Dingjie; Wang, Shujuan; Yang, Chengliang; Ge, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To determine interfractional changes of lung tumor centroid position and tumor regression during stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials. 34 patients were treated by SBRT in 4-5 fractions to a median dose of 50?Gy. The CT scans acquired for verification were registered with simulation CT scans. The gross target volume (GTV) was contoured on all verification CT scans and compared to the initial GTV in treatment plan system. Results. The mean (±standard deviation, SD) three-dimension vector shift was 5.2 ± 3.1?mm. The mean (±SD) interfractional variations of tumor centroid position were ?0.7 ± 4.5?mm in anterior-posterior (AP) direction, 0.2 ± 3.1?mm in superior-inferior (SI) direction, and 0.4 ± 2.4?mm in right-left (RL) direction. Large interfractional variations (?5?mm) were observed in 5 fractions (3.3%) in RL direction, 16 fractions (10.5%) in SI direction, and 36 fractions (23.5%) in AP direction. Tumor volume did not decrease significantly during lung SBRT. Conclusions. Small but insignificant tumor volume regression was observed during lung SBRT. While the mean interfractional variations of tumor centroid position were minimal in three directions, variations more than 5?mm account for approximately a third of all, indicating additional margin for PTV, especially in AP direction. PMID:25548770

  3. WWOX: a fragile tumor suppressor

    PubMed Central

    Schrock, Morgan S.; Huebner, Kay

    2015-01-01

    WWOX, the WW domain-containing oxidoreductase gene at chromosome region 16q23.3-q24.1, spanning chromosomal fragile site FRA16D, encodes the 46 kDa Wwox protein. WWOX is a tumor suppressor that is lost or reduced in expression in a wide variety of cancers, including breast, prostate, ovarian, and lung. The function of WWOX as a tumor suppressor implies that it serves an essential function in the prevention of carcinogenesis. Indeed, in vitro studies show that Wwox protein interacts with many binding partners to regulate cellular apoptosis, proliferation and/or maturation. It has been reported that newborn Wwox knockout mice exhibit nascent osteosarcomas while Wwox+/- mice exhibit increased incidence of spontaneous and induced tumors. Furthermore, absence or reduction of Wwox expression in mouse xenograft models results in increased tumorigenesis, which can be rescued by Wwox re-expression, though there is not universal agreement among investigators regarding the role of Wwox loss in these experimental models. Despite this proposed tumor suppressor function, the overlap of WWOX with FRA16D sensitizes the gene to protein-inactivating deletions caused by replication stress. The high frequency of deletions within the WWOX locus in cancers of various types, without the hallmark protein inactivation-associated mutations of ‘classical’ tumor suppressors, has led to the proposal that WWOX deletions in cancers are passenger events that occur in early cancer progenitor cells due to fragility of the genetic locus, rather than driver events which provide the cancer cell a selective advantage. Recently, a proposed epigenetic cause of chromosomal fragility has suggested a novel mechanism for early fragile site instability and has implications regarding the involvement of tumor suppressor genes at CFSs in cancer. In this review, we provide an overview of the evidence for WWOX as a tumor suppressor gene and put this into the context of fragility associated with the FRA16D locus. PMID:25538133

  4. Pathological classification of brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Pollo, B

    2012-04-01

    The tumors of the central nervous system are classified according to the last international classification published by World Health Organization. The Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System was done on 2007, based on morphological features, growth pattern and molecular profile of neoplastic cells, defining malignancy grade. The neuropathological diagnosis and the grading of each histotype are based on identification of histopathological criteria and immunohistochemical data. The histopathology, also consisting of findings with prognostic or predictive relevance, plays a critical role in the diagnosis and treatment of brain tumors. The recent progresses on radiological, pathological, immunohistochemical, molecular and genetic diagnosis improved the characterization of brain tumors. Molecular and genetic profiles may identify different tumor subtypes varying in biological and clinical behavior. To investigate new therapeutic approaches is important to study the molecular pathways that lead the processes of proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, anaplastic transformation. Different molecular biomarkers were identified by genetic studies and some of these are used in neuro-oncology for the evaluation of glioma patients, in particular combined deletions of the chromosome arms 1p and 19q in oligodendroglial tumors, methylation status of the O-6 methylguanine- DNA methyltransferase gene promoter and alterations in the epidermal growth factor receptor pathway in adult malignant gliomas, isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 gene mutations in diffuse gliomas, as well as BRAF status in pilocytic astrocytomas. The prognostic evaluation and the therapeutic strategies for patients depend on synthesis of clinical, pathological and biological data: histological diagnosis, malignancy grade, gene-molecular profile, radiological pictures, surgical resection and clinical findings (age, tumor location, "performance status"). PMID:22617234

  5. Radiolabeled antibodies in gynecologic tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, J.G.; Perkins, A.C.; Symonds, E.M.; Wastie, M.L.; Pimm, M.V.

    1984-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody has been raised against an osteogenic sarcoma cell line and radiolabeled with iodine-131. The antibody was administered to 12 patients with suspected ovarian tumors, two with recurrent carcinoma of the cervix and one with carcinoma of the body of the uterus. Each patient received an intravenous dose of 70 MBq I-131-labeled antibody and was imaged either 24 or 48 hours later. Image enhancement was achieved by subtraction of background activity using Tc-99m-labeled red blood cells and pertechnetate. In eleven patients with ovarian malignancies antibody uptake was detected at the suspected tumor sites, and agreed with the operative findings in the eight patients who subsequently underwent surgery. The patient in whom the antibody failed to localize was found to have a benign lesion. Uptake of antibody was seen at the tumor sites in the patients with carcinoma of the cervix and body of the uterus. The localization of tumor sites using I-131-labeled antibodies is difficult due to background activity, particularly from radioiodine in the bladder. In only five cases could the abnormal antibody concentration be identified on the iodine images alone. This problem was overcome by the use of background subtraction techniques. Immunoscintigraphy is proving useful for the assessment of tumor recurrence and as an aid to radiotherapy treatment planning.

  6. Sinonasal tumors: a clinicopathologic update of selected tumors.

    PubMed

    Slootweg, Pieter J; Ferlito, Alfio; Cardesa, Antonio; Thompson, Lester D R; Hunt, Jennifer L; Strojan, Primož; Takes, Robert P; Triantafyllou, Asterios; Woolgar, Julia A; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Devaney, Kenneth O; Barnes, Leon

    2013-01-01

    The sinonasal cavities show a wide variety of neoplasms of epithelial, mesenchymal, neural/neuroectodermal or hematopoietic origin. The differential diagnosis for these tumors may be difficult due to overlapping morphologies, variable patterns in ancillary studies, and potentially confusing terminology. In this report, an updated review of the spectrum of neoplasia is provided, using the World Health Organization 2005 classification as a guide. Classic tumors that are generally limited to the sinonasal tract are described and new information regarding molecular pathogenesis is reviewed. Also new entities that have the sinonasal tract as a site of predilection, such as sinonasal renal cell-like adenocarcinoma and NUT midline carcinoma are highlighted. PMID:22610012

  7. Malignant glomus tumor in pleural cavity

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Feng; Yang, Mei; Pu, Qiang; Ma, Lin; Liu, Chengwu; Mei, Jiandong; Guo, Chenglin

    2015-01-01

    Glomus tumors, an uncommon hypervascular tumor, arise from modified smooth muscle cells of the glomus body that plays a significant role in the regulation of skin circulation. The tumors are usually located in the extremities, typically in the subungual region of the fingers. Primary glomus tumors of the chest are extremely rare, and to our knowledge, there are no cases have been described in thoracic cavity to date. We here report a case of intrathoracic glomus tumor in a 31-year-old man who presented with a persistent chest pain. Chest computed tomography scans demonstrated an irregularly shaped mass in the left thorax. Left thoracotomy was performed under the suspicious diagnosis of unexplained thorax tumor, and a tumor located in the left upper portion of thorax was founded. Complete resection of tumor along with the partial structure of chest wall was performed. Postoperative diagnosis was malignant glomus tumor.

  8. Histological patterns of head and neck tumors: An insight to tumor histology

    PubMed Central

    Dive, Alka M; Bodhade, Ashish S; Mishra, Minal S; Upadhyaya, Neha

    2014-01-01

    This article emphasizes the basis for origin and importance of tumor patterns in diagnosis of oral and maxillofacial tumors. In this article, histological patterns and subpatterns of head and neck tumors are enlisted. Although, undifferentiated tumors remain a challenge to the histopathologist, by describing the histological patterns and the subpatterns of the tumors, an attempt has been made for the diagnosis of the tumors and subsequently for implementation of precise treatment plan for the same. PMID:24959039

  9. Tumoral calcinosis of the hand.

    PubMed

    Amati, Carlo; Pesce, Vito; Armenio, Andrea; Solarino, Giuseppe; Moretti, Biagio

    2015-01-01

    Tumoral calcinosis is a rare condition described in literature as a deposition of calcium salts in soft tissues. We here report a rare case of Tumoral calcinosis in the index finger of a hand in a 22-year-old woman. Because of the absence of any trauma, normal serum phosphate and calcium levels and no symptoms but a cosmetic defect, our case is classified as a primary tumoral calcinosis. As well as described in literature, also in this case the surgical excision was the mainstay treatment for this benign pathology. For the particular area involved we performed a radical excision followed by an interesting reverse homodigital artery flap from the ulnar side of the index. PMID:25858267

  10. Photoacoustic imaging of tumor angiogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolkman, Roy G. M.; Thumma, Kiran K.; ten Brinke, Gerbert A.; Siphanto, Ronald I.; van Neck, Han; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; van Leeuwen, Ton G.

    2008-02-01

    Photoacoustic imaging is a hybrid imaging modality that is based on the detection of acoustic waves generated by absorption of pulsed light by tissue chromophores such as hemoglobin in blood. Serial photoacoustic imaging has been performed over a 10-day period after subcutaneous inoculation of pancreatic tumor cells in a rat. The images were obtained from ultrasound generated by absorption in hemoglobin of short laser pulses at a wavelength of 1064 nm. The ultrasound signals were measured in reflection mode using a double-ring photoacoustic detector. A correction algorithm has been developed to correct for scanning and movement artifacts during the measurements. Three-dimensional data visualize the development and quantify the extent of individual blood vessels around the growing tumor, blood concentration changes inside the tumor and growth in depth of the neovascularized region.

  11. Tumor markers for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, YAN-JIE; JU, QIANG; LI, GUAN-CHENG

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. HCC affects approximately one million individuals annually worldwide, with the incidence equal to the mortality rate. In 2008, HCC was listed as the third most lethal cancer. Thus, early diagnosis is crucial for improving the survival rate for patients. ?-fetoprotein (AFP) together with iconography and pathology detection are commonly used in the clinical early diagnosis of liver cancer. However, the specificity and sensitivity of AFP used in screening for liver cancer are not satisfactory. Athough the development of molecular biology has led to the identification of new tumor markers, including proteantigens, cytokines, enzymes and isoenzymes, as well as related genes that can be used in the treatment and prognosis of liver cancer, more tumor markers are required for effective early diagnosis of diseases and monitoring of the curative effect. PMID:24649215

  12. Update on pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors

    PubMed Central

    McKenna, Logan R.

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) are relatively rare tumors comprising 1-2% of all pancreas neoplasms. In the last 10 years our understanding of this disease has increased dramatically allowing for advancements in the treatment of pNETs. Surgical excision remains the primary therapy for localized tumors and only potential for cure. New surgical techniques using laparoscopic approaches to complex pancreatic resections are a major advancement in surgical therapy and increasingly possible. With early detection being less common, most patients present with metastatic disease. Management of these patients requires multidisciplinary care combining the best of surgery, chemotherapy and other targeted therapies. In addition to surgical advances, recently, there have been significant advances in systemic therapy and targeted molecular therapy. PMID:25493258

  13. Mouse Models of Endocrine Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Georgette N.; Manchanda, Parmeet K.; Pringle, Daphne R.; Zhang, Mei; Kirschner, Lawrence S.

    2010-01-01

    Since the onset of the genomic era, there has been tremendous progress in identifying the genetic causes of endocrine tumors. Although this knowledge is valuable in its own right, understanding the molecular basis of tumorigenesis allows the development of new therapies targeted towards the causative defects. Understanding the connection between genotype and phenotype is a complex process, which can only be partially understood from analysis of primary tumors or from studies of cells in vitro. To bridge this gap, genetically modified mice have been developed in order to allow molecular dissection of the relevant defects in an intact organism. In this review, we will discuss the status of genetic modeling for hereditary and sporadic endocrine tumorigenesis with a goal towards providing a picture of how this technology will be of future benefit to clinicians developing specifically targeted therapies for endocrine tumors. PMID:20833336

  14. Tumoral calcinosis of the hand

    PubMed Central

    Amati, Carlo; Pesce, Vito; Armenio, Andrea; Solarino, Giuseppe; Moretti, Biagio

    2015-01-01

    Tumoral calcinosis is a rare condition described in literature as a deposition of calcium salts in soft tissues. We here report a rare case of Tumoral calcinosis in the index finger of a hand in a 22-year-old woman. Because of the absence of any trauma, normal serum phosphate and calcium levels and no symptoms but a cosmetic defect, our case is classified as a primary tumoral calcinosis. As well as described in literature, also in this case the surgical excision was the mainstay treatment for this benign pathology. For the particular area involved we performed a radical excision followed by an interesting reverse homodigital artery flap from the ulnar side of the index. PMID:25858267

  15. Adult Wilms tumor: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Morabito, V.; Guglielmo, N.; Melandro, F.; Mazzesi, G.; Alesini, F.; Bosco, S.; Berloco, P.B.

    2014-01-01

    Wilms tumor (WT) occurs infrequently in adults. Even rarer is adult WT with extension by direct intravascular spread into the right side of the heart. The present report describes a WT with intracaval and intracardiac extension in a 38-year-young man. In addition, thrombus extension above the infrahepatic IVC represents a major technical topic for surgeons because of the possible occurrence of uncontrollable hemorrhages and tumor fragmentation. We report the results of a surgical approach to caval thrombosis including the isolation of the IVC from the liver as routinely performed during liver harvesting. The morphologic and immune-histochemical findings confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:25553532

  16. Immunohistochemical features of the gastrointestinal tract tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Hannah H.

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal tract tumors include a wide variety of vastly different tumors and on a whole are one of the most common malignancies in western countries. These tumors often present at late stages as distant metastases which are then biopsied and may be difficult to differentiate without the aid of immunohistochemical stains. With the exception of pancreatic and biliary tumors where there are no distinct immunohistochemical patterns, most gastrointestinal tumors can be differentiated by their unique immunohistochemical profile. As the size of biopsies decrease, the role of immunohistochemical stains will become even more important in determining the origin and differentiation of gastrointestinal tract tumors. PMID:22943017

  17. The clinical spectrum of malignant nasal tumors.

    PubMed

    Komorn, R M; McFarlane, J R

    1976-12-01

    Unlike other head and neck cancer, which is almost exclusively squamous cell carcinoma, nasal malignancies present a wide and varied spectrum of tumor types. Classification of these tumors is not standardized and treatment tends to be individualized. In a review of 35 patients with primary nasal malignancies, only 33% had squamous cell carcinoma. Glandular, neurogenic, and hemopoietic tumors accounted for the other major subgroups. Despite the diverse histopathological tumor types, the diagnosis, treatment, and clinical problems seem related more to the nasal location than to the actual type of tumor. Selected cases are presented to illustrate the clinical behavior and problems that occur with nasal tumors. PMID:803067

  18. [Classification and natural history of bladder tumors].

    PubMed

    Allory, Yves

    2014-12-01

    Urinary bladder tumors are mainly of urothelial type. Classifications include stage and grade to provide with the required prognostic factors and help to select the most adequate treatment. Though somatic mutations in bladder tumors are known, their used for targeted therapy are restricted to clinical trials. Upper urinary tract tumors are classified as urinary bladder tumor at histological level, but tumor staging is specified according to calyx, renal pelvis or ureter location; in young patients with upper urinary tract tumor, a Lynch syndrome should be eliminated. PMID:25668829

  19. Multimechanistic tumor targeted oncolytic virus overcomes resistance in brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Kaoru; Wakimoto, Hiroaki; Agarwal, Aayush S; Rabkin, Samuel D; Bhere, Deepak; Martuza, Robert L; Kuroda, Toshihiko; Kasmieh, Randa; Shah, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    Only a subset of cancer patients inoculated with oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) type-1 has shown objective response in phase 1 and 2 clinical trials. This has raised speculations whether resistance of tumor cells to oHSV therapy may be a limiting factor. In this study, we have identified established and patient derived primary glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) stem cell lines (GSC) resistant to oHSV and also to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) that has recently shown promise in preclinical and initial clinical studies. We created a recombinant oHSV bearing a secretable TRAIL (oHSV-TRAIL) and hypothesized that oHSV-TRAIL could be used as a cancer therapeutic to target a broad spectrum of resistant tumors in a mechanism-based manner. Using the identified resistant GBM lines, we show that oHSV-TRAIL downregulates extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK)-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and upregulates c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38-MAPK signaling, which primes resistant GBM cells to apoptosis via activation of caspase-8, -9, and -3. We further show that oHSV-TRAIL inhibits tumor growth and invasiveness and increases survival of mice bearing resistant intracerebral tumors without affecting the normal tissues. This study sheds new light on the mechanism by which oHSV and TRAIL function in concert to overcome therapeutic-resistance, and provides an oncolytic virus based platform to target a broad spectrum of different cancer types. PMID:22929661

  20. Multimechanistic Tumor Targeted Oncolytic Virus Overcomes Resistance in Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Tamura, Kaoru; Wakimoto, Hiroaki; Agarwal, Aayush S; Rabkin, Samuel D; Bhere, Deepak; Martuza, Robert L; Kuroda, Toshihiko; Kasmieh, Randa; Shah, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    Only a subset of cancer patients inoculated with oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) type-1 has shown objective response in phase 1 and 2 clinical trials. This has raised speculations whether resistance of tumor cells to oHSV therapy may be a limiting factor. In this study, we have identified established and patient derived primary glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) stem cell lines (GSC) resistant to oHSV and also to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) that has recently shown promise in preclinical and initial clinical studies. We created a recombinant oHSV bearing a secretable TRAIL (oHSV-TRAIL) and hypothesized that oHSV-TRAIL could be used as a cancer therapeutic to target a broad spectrum of resistant tumors in a mechanism-based manner. Using the identified resistant GBM lines, we show that oHSV-TRAIL downregulates extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK)-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and upregulates c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38-MAPK signaling, which primes resistant GBM cells to apoptosis via activation of caspase-8, -9, and -3. We further show that oHSV-TRAIL inhibits tumor growth and invasiveness and increases survival of mice bearing resistant intracerebral tumors without affecting the normal tissues. This study sheds new light on the mechanism by which oHSV and TRAIL function in concert to overcome therapeutic-resistance, and provides an oncolytic virus based platform to target a broad spectrum of different cancer types. PMID:22929661

  1. Gefitinib in Treating Patients With Progressive Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    Gastrinoma; Glucagonoma; Insulinoma; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma; Somatostatinoma; WDHA Syndrome

  2. Diagnostic Study of Tumor Characteristics in Patients With Ewing's Sarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-20

    Localized Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  3. Romidepsin in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    Gastrinoma; Glucagonoma; Insulinoma; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Pulmonary Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma; Regional Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Somatostatinoma

  4. Investigación sobre los tumores cerebrales

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre los cánceres de cerebro y del sistema nervioso central; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de estos tipos de cáncer.

  5. Analyzing tumor gene expression profiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carsten Peterson; Markus Ringner

    A brief introduction to high throughput technologies for measuring and analyzing gene expression is given. Various supervised and unsupervised data mining methods for analyzing the produced high- dimensional data are discussed. The main emphasis is on supervised machine learning methods for classification and prediction of tumor gene expression profiles. Furthermore, methods to rank the genes according to their importance for

  6. [Tumor of the peroneal compartment].

    PubMed

    Kuhnen, C; Mentzel, T

    2012-03-01

    Degenerative nuclear atypia in mesenchymal neoplasia, especially in benign nerve sheath tumors, may become a pitfall leading to a wrong diagnosis of a sarcoma. Using a case of degenerative (ancient) schwannoma as an example, the characteristic findings of degenerative atypia are presented and discussed. PMID:22399195

  7. Pediatric maxillary and mandibular tumors.

    PubMed

    Trosman, Samuel J; Krakovitz, Paul R

    2015-02-01

    Pediatric maxillary and mandibular tumors offer considerable challenges to otolaryngologists, oral surgeons, pathologists, and radiologists alike. Because of the close proximity to vital structures, appropriate steps toward a definitive diagnosis and treatment plan are of paramount importance. This article reviews the most common causes of pediatric jaw masses and discusses diagnostic and therapeutic considerations and recommendations. PMID:25442129

  8. Tumor immunotargeting using innovative radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Rousseau, Caroline; Bodet-Milin, Caroline; Mathieu, Cédric; Guérard, François; Frampas, Eric; Carlier, Thomas; Chouin, Nicolas; Haddad, Ferid; Chatal, Jean-François; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Chérel, Michel; Barbet, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality. PMID:25679452

  9. Molecular Imaging of Neuroendocrine Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Carrasquillo, Jorge A.; Chen, Clara C.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are a heterogeneous group of tumors that arise from neuroendocrine cells. These tumors may arise from various organs, including lung, thymus, thyroid, stomach, duodenum, small bowel, large bowel, appendix, pancreas, adrenal, and skin. Most are well differentiated and have the ability to produce biogenic amines and various hormones. NET usually occur sporadically but they also be associated with various familial syndromes. For the vast majority of NET, surgical resection is the treatment of choice whenever feasible. Localization of NET prior to surgery and for staging and follow-up relies on both anatomic and functional imaging modalities. In fact, the unique secretory characteristics of these tumors lend themselves to imaging by molecular imaging modalities, which can target specific metabolic pathways or receptors. Neuroendocrine cells have a variety of such target receptors and pathways for which radiopharmaceuticals have been developed, including [123I/131I]-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), [ 111In]pentetreotide, [68Ga] somatostatin analogs, [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), [11C/18F] dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), [11C] 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) 99mTc pentavalent dimercaptosuccinic acid ([99mTc] (V) DMSA, and [18F] fluorodopamine (FDA). Here, we review the molecular imaging approaches for NET using various radiopharmaceuticals. PMID:21167384

  10. Tumors of the Infratemporal Fossa

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Rammohan; Quak, Jasper; Egeler, Saskia; Smeele, Ludi; Waal, Isaac v.d.; Valk, Paul v.d.; Leemans, Rene

    2000-01-01

    Neoplastic processes involving the infratemporal fossa may originate from the tissues in the region, but more often are the result of extension from neighboring structures. Metastatic lesions located in the region are rarely encountered. Because of its concealed localization, tumors may remain unnoticed for some time. Clinical signs and symptoms often arise late, are insidious, and may be mistakenly attributed to other structures. The close proximity of the area to the intracranial structures, the orbit, the paranasal sinuses, the nasopharynx, and the facial area demands careful planning of surgical excision and combined procedures may be called for. Modern imaging techniques have made three-dimensional visualization of the extent of the pathology possible. Treatment depends on the histopathology and staging of the tumor. Several surgical approaches have been developed over the years. Radical tumor excision with preservation of the quality of life remain the ultimate goal for those tumors where surgery is indicated. Experience over a decade with various pathologies is presented. ImagesFigure 1p6-bFigure 2Figure 3 PMID:17171095

  11. Tumor Immunotargeting Using Innovative Radionuclides

    PubMed Central

    Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Rousseau, Caroline; Bodet-Milin, Caroline; Mathieu, Cédric; Guérard, François; Frampas, Eric; Carlier, Thomas; Chouin, Nicolas; Haddad, Ferid; Chatal, Jean-François; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Chérel, Michel; Barbet, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality. PMID:25679452

  12. Intraocular tumors. A cytopathologic study.

    PubMed

    Scroggs, M W; Johnston, W W; Klintworth, G K

    1990-01-01

    The cytologic characteristics and histopathologic correlates of common ocular tumors were examined using (1) cytologic and histologic specimens prepared from enucleated eyes with retinoblastoma and melanoma, (2) cytologic specimens prepared from clinically obtained intraocular fluids from eyes with lymphoma, metastatic adenocarcinoma and retinoblastoma and (3) cytologic specimens prepared from orbital aspirates and cerebrospinal fluids from a patient in whom retinoblastoma had spread to the orbit and central nervous system. Retinoblastoma cells occurred singly and in clusters and were associated with abundant necrotic debris and portions of capillaries with perivascular tumor infiltrates. Melanoma cells frequently had prominent nucleoli and variable amounts of fine cytoplasmic pigmentation and were found individually and in groups. Lymphoma cells were noncohesive, with scant cytoplasm. Metastatic intraocular adenocarcinoma cells had well-defined borders, multiple nucleoli and vacuolated cytoplasm. In general, the cellular morphology in the cytologic and tissue preparations of the intraocular tumors correlated well with each other. The findings suggest that common primary and metastatic intraocular tumors can be differentiated in cytologic preparations. PMID:2343699

  13. A Paracrine Loop between Tumor Cells and Macrophages Is Required for Tumor Cell Migration in Mammary Tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey Wyckoff; Weigang Wang; Elaine Y. Lin; Yarong Wang; Fiona Pixley; E. Richard Stanley; Thomas Graf; Jeffrey W. Pollard; Jeffrey Segall; John Condeelis

    2004-01-01

    Invasion of tumor cells into the surrounding connective tissue and blood vessels is a key step in the metastatic spread of breast tumors. Although the presence of macrophages in primary tumors is associated with increased metastatic potential, the mechanistic basis for this obser- vation is unknown. Using a chemotaxis-based in vivo invasion assay and multiphoton-based intravital imaging, we show that

  14. Key roles of aquaporins in tumor biology.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Marios C; Saadoun, Samira

    2014-09-01

    Aquaporins are protein channels that facilitate the flow of water across plasma cell membranes in response to osmotic gradients. This review summarizes the evidence that aquaporins play key roles in tumor biology including tumor-associated edema, tumor cell migration, tumor proliferation and tumor angiogenesis. Aquaporin inhibitors may thus be a novel class of anti-tumor agents. However, attempts to produce small molecule aquaporin inhibitors have been largely unsuccessful. Recently, monoclonal human IgG antibodies against extracellular aquaporin-4 domains have become available and could be engineered to kill aquaporin-4 over-expressing cells in the malignant brain tumor glioblastoma. We conclude this review by discussing future directions in aquaporin tumor research. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane channels and transporters in cancers. PMID:25204262

  15. Stereotactic Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Stereotactic Radiation Therapy for brain tumors. As an alternative to surgical removal of tumors, the Trilogy system ... manufactured by Varian Medical Systems in Palo Alto, California, is a much more versatile machine using much ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cells in the gastrointestinal tract and patches of dark skin on various areas of the body. Some ... Cancer Society: Treating Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST) Cancer.Net: Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor--Diagnosis Genetic Testing Registry: Gastrointestinal ...

  17. In Vitro Model of Tumor Cell Extravasation

    E-print Network

    Jeon, Jessie S.

    Tumor cells that disseminate from the primary tumor and survive the vascular system can eventually extravasate across the endothelium to metastasize at a secondary site. In this study, we developed a microfluidic system ...

  18. Rare Tumor in Coast Redwood, Sequoia sempervirens.

    PubMed

    Emanuel, C F

    1961-05-01

    A rare tumor on a conifer, Sequoia sempervirens, is described as it appears in situ and in section. Evidence is given which indicates, but does not prove, that the tumor had a developmental origin. PMID:17748470

  19. Papillary Endolymphatic Sac Tumor: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Arava, S.; Soumya, R. M.; Chitragar, S.; Safaya, R.; Chandrashekhar, S. H.; Thakar, Alok

    2012-01-01

    Glandular tumors involving the middle ear are rare and distinguishing between adenoma and adenocarcinoma remains difficult. A distinct subclass of these tumors demonstrates microscopic papillary architecture and has a propensity to erode the petrous bone and extend intracranially. The term “aggressive papillary middle ear tumor” has recently been proposed to describe this more invasive type of middle ear tumor. These tumors cause symptoms even when microscopic in size. Although histologically benign, they have been locally destructive with frequent intracranial extension and patients may die of uncontrolled local disease. These tumors do not metastasize but there is single case report of drop metastasis to the spine in the literature. Hence this tumor must be distinguished from other benign tumors of the middle ear. These rare neoplasms constitute a distinct pathological entity and deserve wider recognition. PMID:22953101

  20. Deciphering and Reversing Tumor Immune Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Motz, Greg T.; Coukos, George

    2013-01-01

    Generating an anti-tumor immune response is a multi-step process that is executed by effector T cells that can recognize and kill tumor targets. However, tumors employ multiple strategies to attenuate the effectiveness of T cell-mediated attack. This is achieved by interfering with nearly every step required for effective immunity, from deregulation of antigen-presenting cells, to establishment of a physical barrier at the vasculature that prevents homing of effector tumor-rejecting cells, and through the suppression of effector lymphocytes through the recruitment and activation of immunosuppressive cells like myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), tolerogenic monocytes and T regulatory cells (Tregs). Here, we review the ways in which tumors exert immune suppression and highlight the new therapies that seek to reverse this phenomenon and promote anti-tumor immunity. Understanding anti-tumor immunity, and how it becomes disabled by tumors, will ultimately lead to improved immune therapies and prolonged survival of patients. PMID:23890064

  1. Histopathology of tumors of the pineal region.

    PubMed

    Fèvre-Montange, Michelle; Vasiljevic, Alexandre; Champier, Jacques; Jouvet, Anne

    2010-05-01

    Pineal region tumors are heterogeneous lesions and include mainly pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs), papillary tumors of the pineal region (PTPRs) and germ cell tumors (GCTs). This article describes the cystic pineal gland compared with normal tissue and histopathological features of the most frequent pineal region tumors. PPTs are subdivided into pineocytoma (grade I), pineoblastoma (grade IV) and tumors with intermediate differentiation (PPTIDs; grades II-III). A grading system based on the number of mitoses and neurofilament protein expression distinguishes low- from high-grade PPTID. PTPR is a new tumoral entity thought to originate from the subcommissural organ. GCTs include germinoma, embryonal carcinoma, teratoma, yolk sac tumor and choriocarcinoma and are often of mixed histologic composition. New histogenetic data for GCTs are presented. PMID:20465391

  2. Biological Stoichiometry in Tumor Micro-environments

    PubMed Central

    Kareva, Irina

    2013-01-01

    Tumors can be viewed as evolving ecological systems, in which heterogeneous populations of cancer cells compete with each other and somatic cells for space and nutrients within the ecosystem of the human body. According to the growth rate hypothesis (GRH), increased phosphorus availability in an ecosystem, such as the tumor micro-environment, may promote selection within the tumor for a more proliferative and thus potentially more malignant phenotype. The applicability of the GRH to tumor growth is evaluated using a mathematical model, which suggests that limiting phosphorus availability might promote intercellular competition within a tumor, and thereby delay disease progression. It is also shown that a tumor can respond differently to changes in its micro-environment depending on the initial distribution of clones within the tumor, regardless of its initial size. This suggests that composition of the tumor as a whole needs to be evaluated in order to maximize the efficacy of therapy. PMID:23349677

  3. Paxillin-dependent control of tumor angiogenesis

    E-print Network

    German, Alexandra Elisa

    2014-01-01

    Angiogenesis- the growth of new capillaries from existing vessels- is required for tumor growth; however, tumor vessels exhibit abnormal structure and function, which impairs the targeted delivery of anti-cancer agents. ...

  4. Regulation of invadopodia by the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Christine M; Courtneidge, Sara A

    2014-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment consists of stromal cells, extracellular matrix (ECM), and signaling molecules that communicate with cancer cells. As tumors grow and develop, the tumor microenvironment changes. In addition, the tumor microenvironment is not only influenced by signals from tumor cells, but also stromal components contribute to tumor progression and metastasis by affecting cancer cell function. One of the mechanisms that cancer cells use to invade and metastasize is mediated by actin-rich, proteolytic structures called invadopodia. Here, we discuss how signals from the tumor environment, including growth factors, hypoxia, pH, metabolism, and stromal cell interactions, affect the formation and function of invadopodia to regulate cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Understanding how the tumor microenvironment affects invadopodia biology could aid in the development of effective therapeutics to target cancer cell invasion and metastasis. PMID:24714597

  5. The Colorectal Tumor Microenvironment: The Next Decade

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole Beauchemin

    Colorectal cancer cells establish a crosstalk with the tumor microenvironment, such that implantation and development of the\\u000a tumor is generally favoured. CRC progression depends on mutations in the tumor’s oncogenic pathways as well as metastasis\\u000a suppressor genes, but is also influenced by the inflammatory components in the microenvironment. Inflammation results from\\u000a the dietary intakes and is either compounded or counterbalanced

  6. Altered MHC class I antigens in tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Algarra; A. Collado; F. Garrido

    1997-01-01

    MHC class I antigens are lost or downregulated in invasive tumors compared with autologous normal tissues. This is observed\\u000a in most of the newly induced experimental tumors analyzed if they are cloned before passaging in vivo. Similarly, this is\\u000a observed in 40%-90% of human tumors using the available panel of anti-HLA class I monoclonal antibodies. In both systems the\\u000a tumor

  7. An automatic brain tumor segmentation tool.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Idanis; Boulanger, Pierre; Greiner, Russell; Hoehn, Bret; Rowe, Lindsay; Murtha, Albert

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces an automatic brain tumor segmentation method (ABTS) for segmenting multiple components of brain tumor using four magnetic resonance image modalities. ABTS's four stages involve automatic histogram multi-thresholding and morphological operations including geodesic dilation. Our empirical results, on 16 real tumors, show that ABTS works very effectively, achieving a Dice accuracy compared to expert segmentation of 81% in segmenting edema and 85% in segmenting gross tumor volume (GTV). PMID:24110443

  8. Tumors of the ocular surface: A review

    PubMed Central

    Honavar, Santosh G; Manjandavida, Fairooz P

    2015-01-01

    Tumors of the Ocular Surface clinically manifest with a very wide spectrum and include several forms of epithelial, stromal, caruncular, and secondary tumors. As a group, these tumors are seen commonly in the clinical practice of a comprehensive ophthalmologist, cornea specialist, and an ocular oncologist. This review is aimed to discuss the common tumors of the ocular surface and emphasize on their clinical diagnosis and appropriate management. PMID:25971163

  9. Environmental risk factors for brain tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer M. Connelly; Mark G. Malkin

    2007-01-01

    Primary brain tumors, whether malignant or nonmalignant, have devastating consequences. Unfortunately, few known causes exist.\\u000a Despite decades of epidemiologic research to identify environmental causes of brain tumors, very little progress has been\\u000a made. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent studies in the epidemiology of brain tumors. Popular topics of\\u000a interest in adult brain tumor epidemiology

  10. Antibody-Based Vascular Tumor Targeting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph Schliemann; Dario Neri

    \\u000a The inhibition of angiogenesis represents a major step toward a more selective and better-tolerated therapy of cancer. An\\u000a alternative way to take advantage of a tumor’s absolute dependence on a functional neovasculature is illustrated by the strategy\\u000a of “antibody-based vascular tumor targeting.” This technology aims at the selective delivery of bioactive molecules to the\\u000a tumor site by their conjugation to

  11. Giant cell tumors of the jugular foramen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey S. Rosenbloom; Ian S. Storper; Jonathan E. Aviv; Lotfi Hacein-Bey; Jeffrey N. Bruce

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To review the diagnosis and treatment of giant cell tumors of the jugular foramen.Materials and methods: A typical case is reported. Symptoms, signs, and diagnostic studies are reviewed. Photomicrographs and angiographic studies showing the differences between these and glomus jugulare tumors are provided. A coherent approach to their management is presented.Results: These hypervascular, traditionally radioresistant tumors may cause pulsatile

  12. Knowledge driven decomposition of tumor expression profiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin H. Van Vliet; Lodewyk F. A. Wessels; Marcel J. T. Reinders

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tumors have been hypothesized to be the result of a mixture of oncogenic events, some of which will be reflected in the gene expression of the tumor. Based on this hypothesis a variety of data-driven methods have been employed to decompose tumor expression profiles into component profiles, hypothetically linked to these events. Interpretation of the resulting data-driven components is

  13. Surgery of Ovarian Tumors in Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabine Sarnacki; Hervé Brisse

    2011-01-01

    Surgery of ovarian tumors in children requires a good knowledge of these lesions. Complete resection is mandatory for malignant lesions, and in the case of benign tumors preservation of healthy ovarian tissue is crucial. Diagnosis is based on clinical features (age and hormonal status), imaging and tumor marker levels. Laparoscopy is of great help in making a diagnosis and staging

  14. Overview of Pediatric Testicular Tumors in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Min

    2014-01-01

    Prepubertal testicular tumors are rare compared with postpubertal testicular tumors. The incidence of prepubertal testicular tumors peaks at 2 years of age, tapers off after 4 years of age, and then begins to rise again at puberty. Prepubertal and postpubertal testicular tumors show many differences, including the typical tumor histology, molecular biological differences, and the malignant potential of tumors at different ages. Pediatric testicular tumors are classified as benign or malignant on the basis of their clinical behavior and histologically are divided into germ cell and gonadal stromal (nongerm cell) tumors. Many histological and biological studies have further confirmed the distinct nature of prepubertal and postpubertal testicular tumors. These differences have led to various management strategies for prepubertal and postpubertal tumors. Because overall about 75% of prepubertal testicular tumors are benign, a testis-sparing approach is becoming more common in children. Orchiectomy and observation with very selective use of chemotherapy has become the standard approach when a malignant tumor is identified. Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection and radiation therapy play very limited roles. PMID:25512812

  15. Complex glomus jugulare tumor: management issues.

    PubMed

    Shyam Kumar, S; Thakar, Alok

    2013-12-01

    Glomus tumors are rare and locally aggressive, vascular paragangliomas of the skull base. Tumors may progress to cause lower cranial nerve palsies and involve the major vascular structure in the skull base, and thus pose very difficult surgical challenges. One such case is presented, the management problems in such "complex glomus jugulare" tumors are discussed, and the literature reviewed. PMID:24427738

  16. Complementary and Aternative Therapies for Wilms Tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... by type and stage of Wilms tumor Previous Topic Clinical trials for Wilms tumor Next Topic Treatment by type and stage of Wilms tumor ... Methods and Cancer to learn more about this topic. The choice is yours You always have a ...

  17. Tumor angiogenesis: molecular pathways and therapeutic targets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara M Weis; David A Cheresh

    2011-01-01

    As angiogenesis is essential for tumor growth and metastasis, controlling tumor-associated angiogenesis is a promising tactic in limiting cancer progression. The tumor microenvironment comprises numerous signaling molecules and pathways that influence the angiogenic response. Understanding how these components functionally interact as angiogenic stimuli or as repressors and how mechanisms of resistance arise is required for the identification of new therapeutic

  18. Perfluorochemical emulsions can increase tumor radiosensitivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. A. Teicher; C. M. Rose

    1984-01-01

    An oxygen-carrying perfluorochemical emulsion enhanced the effectiveness of radiation therapy in two transplantable solid tumors in mice. The perfluorochemical emulsion had no effect on tumor growth after x-irradiation, but delayed tumor growth significantly when administered to oxygen-breathing mice before or during irradiation.

  19. The primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the heart

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaz?m Be?irli; Caner Arslan; Hasan Tüzün; Büge Öz

    2000-01-01

    A young man was admitted to hospital with dyspnea, malaise, chest pain and night sweating. Investigative studies revealed a cystic mass lesion originating from the heart. Surgical exploration of the tumor showed that it was unresectable and pathology of the biopsy material was primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Medical literature concerning this unusual type of tumor is reviewed.

  20. Endogenous Markers of TumorHypoxia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dirk Vordermark; J. Martin Brown

    2003-01-01

    Background: Eppendorf electrode measurements of tumor oxygenation have defined an adverse effect of tumor hypoxia on prognosis after radiotherapy and other treatment modalities, in particular in head and neck and cervix carcinomas as well as soft tissue sarcomas. Recently, the immunohistochemical detection of proteins involved in the “hypoxic response” of tumor cells has been discussed as a method to estimate

  1. Epidemiologic study of tumors in dinosaurs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M. Rothschild; D. H. Tanke; M. Helbling; L. D. Martin

    2003-01-01

    Occasional reports in isolated fragments of dinosaur bones have suggested that tumors might represent a population phenomenon. Previous study of humans has demonstrated that vertebral radiology is a powerful diagnostic tool for population screening. The epidemiology of tumors in dinosaurs was here investigated by fluoroscopically screening dinosaur vertebrae for evidence of tumors. Computerized tomography (CT) and cross-sections were obtained where

  2. 9 CFR 381.87 - Tumors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tumors. 381.87 Section 381.87 Animals...of Carcasses and Parts § 381.87 Tumors. Any organ or other part of a carcass which is affected by a tumor shall be condemned and when there...

  3. 9 CFR 381.87 - Tumors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tumors. 381.87 Section 381.87 Animals...of Carcasses and Parts § 381.87 Tumors. Any organ or other part of a carcass which is affected by a tumor shall be condemned and when there...

  4. 9 CFR 381.87 - Tumors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tumors. 381.87 Section 381.87 Animals...of Carcasses and Parts § 381.87 Tumors. Any organ or other part of a carcass which is affected by a tumor shall be condemned and when there...

  5. Malignant rhabdoid tumor of the colon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victoria A. Marcus; Juan Viloria; David Owen; Ming-Sound Tsao

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: Malignant rhabdoid tumors were first described in the kidney as a rare variant of Wilms' tumor with a “rhabdomyosarcomatoid” pattern and a particularly poor prognosis. Further studies have demonstrated these neoplasms as a distinct clinicopathologic entity. Subsequently, tumors with a similar histologic appearance, demonstrating the “rhabdoid” cells, have been found in a variety of extrarenal sites. METHODS: We report

  6. Malignant Rhabdoid Tumor of the Uterine Corpus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Swei Hsueh; Ting-Chang Chang

    1996-01-01

    Malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT) was first described as a variant of Wilms’ tumor but was subsequently found to be a highly malignant tumor composed of primitive cells that resemble rhabdomyoblasts. In the past decade, extrarenal MRTs were reported in different locations and organs throughout the body including the female genital tract. We here report an MRT that arose in the

  7. Progress of fundamental research in Wilms' tumor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Wen; G. J. van Steenbrugge; R. M. Egeler; R. M. Nijman

    1997-01-01

    The progress of fundamental research on the histopathological and molecular genetic properties, model systems, growth factor involvement, and tumor markers of clinical nephroblastoma (Wilms' tumor) are reviewed. Histologically, Wilms' tumor (WT) has been found to reveal a disorganized renal developmental process in which blastema and epithelia are randomly interspersed in varying amounts of stroma. Anaplasia is the only criterion for

  8. The Tumor Spectrum in the Lynch Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrice Watson; Bronson Riley

    2005-01-01

    Colorectal and endometrial cancer are the characteristic tumors of the Lynch syndrome. We reviewed the available evidence on the occurrence of other types of cancer in the syndrome, aiming to identify those types that can be included in the tumor spectrum, based on this evidence. We chose to define the tumor spectrum as comprising the cancers for which Lynch syndrome

  9. Modellierung eines Tumors Seminarvortrag von Alexander Bloch

    E-print Network

    Hanke-Bourgeois, Martin

    Modellierung eines Tumors Seminarvortrag von Alexander Bloch 31.01.2012 Johannes Gutenberg. Zusammenfassung 9. Literatur- und Abbildungsverzeichnis #12;Modellierung eines Tumors. Alexander Bloch, 31 Blutgefä�e · Invasion und Metastasenbildung #12;Modellierung eines Tumors. Alexander Bloch, 31.01.2012 2

  10. CHAPTER TEN Matrix Regulation of Tumor-

    E-print Network

    Kumar, Sanjay

    CHAPTER TEN Matrix Regulation of Tumor- Initiating Cells Sophie Y. Wong, Sanjay Kumar Department.1 What are tumor-initiating cells? 244 1.2 Significance of TICs 245 2. Identification and Isolation of mechanotransduction 250 4. Conclusion 251 References 252 Abstract The recognition that the progression of many tumors

  11. MICCAI 2012 Challenge on Brain Tumor

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    I MICCAI 2012 Challenge on Multimodal Brain Tumor Segmentation Proceedings of MICCAI-BRATS 2012 appearance and shape, segmenting brain tumors from multi-modal imaging data is one of the most challenging of lesion (primary or secondary tumors; solid or infiltratively growing), and the state of the disease (pre

  12. NCI-MICCAI Challenge on Brain Tumor

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    I NCI-MICCAI Challenge on Multimodal Brain Tumor Segmentation Proceedings of NCI-MICCAI BRATS 2013 of their unpredictable appearance and shape, segmenting brain tumors from multi-modal imaging data is one of the most; ...), the type of lesion (primary or secondary tumors; solid or infiltratively growing), and the state

  13. Mechanisms of tumor escape: role of tumor microenvironment in inducing apoptosis of cytolytic effector cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandro Poggi; Maria Raffaella Zocchi

    2006-01-01

    .??Spontaneous tumors grow and kill the host unless therapy reduces their mass to a level where the immune system, it is thought, can control their growth and diffusion. Indeed, in many instances tumors can reappear, become resistant to therapy, and escape the host immune response. Many mechanisms of tumor escape operating in the tumor microenvironment have been proposed: 1) low

  14. Malignant Rhabdoid Tumor in a Pregnant Adult Female: Literature Review of Central Nervous System Rhabdoid Tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle L. Erickson; Randall Johnson; Serguei I. Bannykh; Alain de Lotbiniere; Jung H. Kim

    2005-01-01

    Summary Rhabdoid tumors of the central nervous system are uncommon, aggressive childhood malignancies. The 13 described adult cases comprise both primary CNS tumors and malignant transformation of previously existing gliomas, meningiomas, and astrocytomas. Central nervous system rhabdoid lesions of adults have been diagnosed as primary malignant rhabdoid tumors, atypical teratoid\\/rhabdoid tumors, and more recently, rhabdoid glioblastomas. We report a case

  15. Genetic mechanisms of tumor-specific loss of 11p DNA sequences in Wilms tumor.

    PubMed Central

    Dao, D D; Schroeder, W T; Chao, L Y; Kikuchi, H; Strong, L C; Riccardi, V M; Pathak, S; Nichols, W W; Lewis, W H; Saunders, G F

    1987-01-01

    Wilms tumor, a common childhood renal tumor, occurs in both a heritable and a nonheritable form. The heritable form may occasionally be attributed to a chromosome deletion at 11p13, and tumors from patients with normal constitutional chromosomes often show deletion or rearrangement of 11p13. It has been suggested that a germinal or somatic mutation may occur on one chromosome 11 and predispose to Wilms tumor and that a subsequent somatic genetic event on the normal homologue at 11p13 may permit tumor development. To study the frequency and mechanism of such tumor-specific genetic events, we have examined the karyotype and chromosome 11 genotype of normal and tumor tissues from 13 childhood renal tumor patients with different histologic tumor types and associated clinical conditions. Tumors of eight of the 12 Wilms tumor patients, including all viable tumors examined directly, show molecular evidence of loss of 11p DNA sequences by somatic recombination (four cases), chromosome loss (two cases), and recombination (two cases) or chromosome loss and duplication. One malignant rhabdoid tumor in a patient heterozygous for multiple 11p markers did not show any tumor-specific 11p alteration. These findings confirm the critical role of 11p sequences in Wilms tumor development and reveal that mitotic recombination may be the most frequent mechanism by which tumors develop. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:3039839

  16. Minimization of Tumor Volume and Endothelial Support for a System Describing Tumor Anti-Angiogenesis

    E-print Network

    Ledzewicz, Urszula

    Minimization of Tumor Volume and Endothelial Support for a System Describing Tumor Anti is a novel treatment approach for cancer that aims at preventing a tumor from developing its own network of the tumor. In this paper a mathematical model for anti-angiogenic treatment is analyzed as a 3- dimensional

  17. Tumor stroma fosters neovascularization by recuitment of progenitor cells into the tumor bed

    PubMed Central

    Ganss, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    The tumor stroma is an active player during carcinogenesis and contains a variety of cell types such as vascular cells, fibroblasts and inflammatory cells which directly or indirectly foster neovascularization. During tumor progression stromal cells, in particular the neovasculature, acquire new characteristics distinct from their normal counterparts and display a high degree of plasticity to meet the tumor’s demands. The local environment may, to some extent, shape pre-existing, tumor-resident stromal cells. However, there is accumulating evidence that new endothelial and other stromal cells are actively recruited into tumors, and that this recruitment is essential for a unique and tumor-specific proangiogenic environment.

  18. Endoscopic snare resection of bladder tumors: evaluation of an alternative technique for bladder tumor resection.

    PubMed

    Maurice, Matthew J; Vricella, Gino J; MacLennan, Gregory; Buehner, Peter; Ponsky, Lee E

    2012-06-01

    Transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) is the standard of care for initial bladder tumor management. In response to its shortcomings, we propose an alternative technique for tumor resection and retrieval: The endoscopic snare resection of bladder tumor (ESRBT). Eleven tumors managed by ESRBT were reviewed retrospectively. Via cystoscopy, tumors were resected en bloc with an electrosurgical polypectomy snare and retrieved transurethrally. Safety and efficacy were assessed by clinical and pathologic outcomes. ESRBT was highly effective for appropriate tumors. Tumor size and location varied: Two small, six medium, three large; six lateral wall, two dome, two trigone, one posterior wall. Half of initial urothelial carcinoma specimens contained muscle. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications (mean follow-up: 17 mos; range 10-25 mos). ESRBT is a feasible technique for the resection of pedunculated bladder tumors. It offers evident and theoretical advantages over TURBT and may augment bladder tumor management. Further study is needed. PMID:22390750

  19. [Advances in the relationship between tumor cell metabolism and tumor metastasis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yalong; Fang, Nianzhen; You, Jiacong; Zhou, Qinghua

    2014-11-01

    Intracellular nutrients and the rate of energy flowing in tumor cells are often higher than that in normal cells due to the prolonged stress of tumor-specific microenvironment. In this context, the metabolism of tumor cells provides the fuel of bio-synthesis and energy required for tumor metastasis. Consistent with this, the abnormal metabolism such as extremely active glucose metabolism and excessive accumulating of fatty acid is also discovered in metastatic tumors. Previous Studies have confirmed that the regulation of tumor metabolism can affect the tumor metastasis, and some of these have been successfully applied in clinical effective, positive way. Thus, targeting metabolism of tumor cells might be an effectively positive way to prevent the metastasis of tumor. So, our review is focused on the research development of the relationship between tumor metabolism and metastasis as well as the underlying mechanism. PMID:25404272

  20. Tumor-infiltrating immune cells promoting tumor invasion and metastasis: existing theories.

    PubMed

    Man, Yan-Gao; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Mason, Jeffrey; Avital, Itzhak; Bilchik, Anton; Bruecher, Bjoern; Protic, Mladjan; Nissan, Aviram; Izadjoo, Mina; Zhang, Xichen; Jewett, Anahid

    2013-01-01

    It is a commonly held belief that infiltration of immune cells into tumor tissues and direct physical contact between tumor cells and infiltrated immune cells is associated with physical destructions of the tumor cells, reduction of the tumor burden, and improved clinical prognosis. An increasing number of studies, however, have suggested that aberrant infiltration of immune cells into tumor or normal tissues may promote tumor progression, invasion, and metastasis. Neither the primary reason for these contradictory observations, nor the mechanism for the reported diverse impact of tumor-infiltrating immune cells has been elucidated, making it difficult to judge the clinical implications of infiltration of immune cells within tumor tissues. This mini-review presents several existing hypotheses and models that favor the promoting impact of tumor-infiltrating immune cells on tumor invasion and metastasis, and also analyzes their strength and weakness. PMID:23386907

  1. Tumor size and prognosis in patients with Wilms tumor

    PubMed Central

    Provenzi, Valentina Oliveira; Rosa, Rafael Fabiano Machado; Rosa, Rosana Cardoso Manique; Roehe, Adriana Vial; dos Santos, Pedro Paulo Albino; Faulhaber, Fabrízia Rennó Sodero; de Oliveira, Ceres Andréia Vieira; Zen, Paulo Ricardo Gazzola

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Investigate the relationship of the tumor volume after preoperative chemotherapy (TVAPQ) and before preoperative chemotherapy (TVBPQ) with overall survival at two and at five years, and lifetime. METHODS: Our sample consisted of consecutive patients evaluated in the period from 1989 to 2009 in an Onco-Hematology Service. Clinical, histological and volumetric data were collected from the medical records. For analysis, chi-square, Kaplan-Meier, log-rank and Cox regression tests were used. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 32 patients, 53.1% were male with a median age at diagnosis of 43 months. There was a significant association between TVAPQ>500mL and the difference between the TVBPQ and TVAPQ (p=0.015) and histologic types of risk (p=0.008). It was also verified an association between the difference between the TVBPQ and TVAPQ and the predominant stromal tumor (p=0.037). When assessing the TVAPQ of all patients, without a cutoff, there was an association of the variable with lifetime (p=0.013), i.e., for each increase of 10mL in TVAPQ there was an average increase of 2% in the risk of death. CONCLUSIONS: Although our results indicate that the TVAPQ could be considered alone as a predictor of poor prognosis regardless of the cutoff suggested in the literature, more studies are needed to replace the histology and staging by tumor size as best prognostic variable. PMID:25623730

  2. Intravital imaging of anti-tumor immune response and the tumor microenvironment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomasz Zal; Grzegorz Chodaczek

    2010-01-01

    Tumor growth, invasiveness, and metastasis are dynamic processes involving cancer interactions with the extracellular matrix,\\u000a the vasculature, and various types of non-cancerous host cells that form the tumor stroma. An often-present stromal component\\u000a is the immune cells, such as tumor-associated myeloid and lymphocytic infiltrates, yet endogenous anti-tumor immune responses\\u000a are typically ineffective in tumor rejection and may even contribute to

  3. Blocking tumor cell eicosanoid synthesis by GPx4 impedes tumor growth and malignancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ingeborg Heirman; Daisy Ginneberge; Regina Brigelius-Flohé; Nico Hendrickx; Patrizia Agostinis; Peter Brouckaert; Pieter Rottiers; Johan Grooten

    2006-01-01

    Using tumor cell-restricted overexpression of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4), we investigated the contribution of tumor cell eicosanoids to solid tumor growth and malignant progression in two tumor models differing in tumorigenic potential. By lowering cellular lipid hydroperoxide levels, GPx4 inhibits cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) activities. GPx4 overexpression drastically impeded solid tumor growth of weakly tumorigenic L929 fibrosarcoma cells, whereas

  4. Augmenting Anti-Tumor T Cell Responses to Mimotope Vaccination by Boosting with Native Tumor Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Buhrman, Jonathan D.; Jordan, Kimberly R.; U’Ren, Lance; Sprague, Jonathan; Kemmler, Charles B.; Slansky, Jill E.

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination with antigens expressed by tumors is one strategy for stimulating enhanced T cell responses against tumors. However, these peptide vaccines rarely result in efficient expansion of tumor-specific T cells or responses that protect against tumor growth. Mimotopes, or peptide mimics of tumor antigens, elicit increased numbers of T cells that cross-react with the native tumor antigen, resulting in potent anti-tumor responses. Unfortunately, mimotopes may also elicit cells that do not cross-react or have low affinity for tumor antigen. We previously showed that one such mimotope of the dominant MHC class I tumor antigen of a mouse colon carcinoma cell-line stimulates a tumor-specific T cell clone and elicits antigen-specific cells in vivo, yet protects poorly against tumor growth. We hypothesized that boosting the mimotope vaccine with the native tumor antigen would focus the T cell response elicited by the mimotope towards high affinity, tumor-specific T cells. We show that priming T cells with the mimotope, followed by a native tumor-antigen boost improves tumor immunity, compared to T cells elicited by the same prime with a mimotope boost. Our data suggest that the improved tumor immunity results from the expansion of mimotope-elicited tumor-specific T cells that have increased avidity for the tumor antigen. The enhanced T cells are phenotypically distinct and enriched for T cell receptors previously correlated with improved anti-tumor immunity. These results suggest that incorporation of native antigen into clinical mimotope vaccine regimens may improve the efficacy of anti-tumor T cell responses. PMID:23161490

  5. Duodenal carcinoid tumor - a case report.

    PubMed

    Debnath, C R; Debnath, M R; Haque, M A; Das, S N; Moshwan, M M; Karim, R; Uddoula, M S

    2014-01-01

    Carcinoid tumors are well differentiated neuroendochrine tumors which most frequently involve the gastrointestinal tract; however duodenal carcinoid tumors are rare. They can present with various clinical symptoms and are difficult to diagnose. A 52 years old lady presented with the symptoms of recurrent upper abdominal pain, burning sensation of whole body and passage of loose stool. On endoscopy of upper GIT, there was a duodenal polyp. Polyp was removed by endoscopic resection and tissue was taken for biopsy. Histological findings of biopsy specimen shows carcinoid tumor. As duodenal carcinoid tumor is a rare presentation so we are going to present this case in this article. PMID:24584389

  6. Endovascular Embolization of Head and Neck Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Lazzaro, Marc A.; Badruddin, Aamir; Zaidat, Osama O.; Darkhabani, Ziad; Pandya, Dhruvil J.; Lynch, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Endovascular tumor embolization as adjunctive therapy for head and neck cancers is evolving and has become an important part of the tools available for their treatment. Careful study of tumor vascular anatomy and adhering to general principles of intra-arterial therapy can prove this approach to be effective and safe. Various embolic materials are available and can be suited for a given tumor and its vascular supply. This article aims to summarize current methods and agents used in endovascular head and neck tumor embolization and discuss important angiographic and treatment characteristics of selected common head and neck tumors. PMID:22022319

  7. [Are skin tumors on the increase?].

    PubMed

    Böni, R; Dummer, R; Burg, G

    1995-09-01

    The skin is the most common site of malignancy. Epithelial tumors, i.e., basalioma and squamous-cell carcinoma, are among the most frequent skin tumors but have a good prognosis if detected early. Prognosis of metastatic melanoma however is bad. Due to increased UV-exposure the frequency of all three tumors has much increased in recent years. Cutaneous lymphomas and kaposi sarcoma are rare skin tumors. The latter is nowadays of increased interest because of its association with HIV infection. An overview of the current epidemiologic data on malignant skin tumors is presented. PMID:7481614

  8. Measures of Acutance and Shape for Classification of Breast Tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rangaraj M. Rangayyan; Nema M. El-Faramawy; J. E. Leo Desautels; Onsy Abdel Alim

    1997-01-01

    Most benign breast tumors possess well-defined, sharp boundaries that delineate them from surrounding tissues, as opposed to malignant tumors. Computer techniques proposed to date for tumor analysis have concentrated on shape factors of tumor regions and texture measures. While shape measures based on contours of tumor regions can indicate differences in shape complexities between circumscribed and spiculated tumors, they are

  9. OD17-14/2 Page 1 ODONTOGENIC BENIGN TUMORS

    E-print Network

    OD17-14/2 Page 1 CHAPTER 14 ODONTOGENIC BENIGN TUMORS OF THE JAWS I. Epithelial Odontogenic Tumors (With no inductive change in connective tissue) 1. Ameloblastoma 2. Odontogenic adenomatoid tumor (Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor) 3. Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (Pindborg tumor) II. Mixed

  10. Senescent cells in growing tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapperi, Stefano; La Porta, Caterina A. M.; Sethna, James P.

    2012-02-01

    Tumors are defined by their intense proliferation, but sometimes cancer cells turn senescent and stop replicating. In the stochastic cancer model in which all cells are tumorigenic, senescence is seen as the result of random mutatations, suggesting that it could represent a barrier to tumor growth. In the hierarchical cancer model a subset of the cells, the cancer stem cells, divide indefinitely while other cells eventually turn senescent. Here we formulate cancer growth in mathematical terms and obtain distinct predictions for the evolution of senescence in the two models. We perform experiments in human melanoma cells which confirm the predictions of the hierarchical model and show that senescence is a reversible process controlled by survivin. We conclude that enhancing senescence is unlikely to provide a useful therapeutic strategy to fight cancer, unless the cancer stem cells are specifically targeted.

  11. Jessop and the Wilms' tumor.

    PubMed

    Willetts, I E

    2003-10-01

    The earliest specialists in the field of pediatric surgical oncology were the surgeons of 19th century Europe, particularly Billroth, Kocher, and Wilms. However, the first successful nephrectomy for a Wilms' tumor in a child was performed by a less famous name, Thomas Richard Jessop (1837-1903) at the Leeds General Infirmary on June 7, 1877. Jessop ultimately became Vice President of the Royal College of Surgeons of England and was a gifted teacher, being at the forefront in the development of medical education outside of London as first Professor of Surgery in Leeds. The clinical case history and operative procedure of this first successful nephrectomy for Wilms' tumor in a child is presented. PMID:14577074

  12. Endoscopic resection of subepithelial tumors.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Arthur; Bauder, Markus; Riecken, Bettina; Caca, Karel

    2014-12-16

    Management of subepithelial tumors (SETs) remains challenging. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has improved differential diagnosis of these tumors but a definitive diagnosis on EUS findings alone can be achieved in the minority of cases. Complete endoscopic resection may provide a reasonable approach for tissue acquisition and may also be therapeutic in case of malignant lesions. Small SET restricted to the submucosa can be removed with established basic resection techniques. However, resection of SET arising from deeper layers of the gastrointestinal wall requires advanced endoscopic methods and harbours the risk of perforation. Innovative techniques such as submucosal tunneling and full thickness resection have expanded the frontiers of endoscopic therapy in the past years. This review will give an overview about endoscopic resection techniques of SET with a focus on novel methods. PMID:25512768

  13. Neuromyelitis Optica Mimicking Intramedullary Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Si-Hyuck; Yoon, Kyeong-wook; Lee, Sang-koo

    2013-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is considered to be a rarer autoimmune disease than multiple sclerosis. It is very difficult to make a diagnosis of MNO for doctors who are not familiar with its clinical features and diagnostic criteria. We report a case of a young female patient who had been suffering motor weakness and radiating pain in both upper extremities. Cervical MRI showed tumorous lesion in spinal cord and performed surgery to remove lesion. We could not find a tumor mass in operation field and final diagnosis was NMO. NMO must be included in the differential diagnosis of lesions to rescue the patient from invasive surgical interventions. More specific diagnostic tools may be necessary for early diagnosis and proper treatment. PMID:23908710

  14. Pathology of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Foo, Wai Chin; Liegl-Atzwanger, Bernadette; Lazar, Alexander J.

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is a well recognized and relatively well understood soft tissue tumor. Early events in GIST development are activating mutations in KIT or PDGFRA, which occur in most GISTs and encode for mutated tyrosine receptor kinases that are therapeutic targets for tyrosine kinase inhibitors, including imatinib and sunitinib. A small minority of GISTs possessing neither KIT nor PDGFRA mutations may have germline mutations in SDH, suggesting a potential role of SDH in the pathogenesis. Immunohistochemical detection of KIT, and more recently DOG1, has proven to be reliable and useful in the diagnosis of GISTs. Because current and future therapies depend on pathologists, it is important that they recognize KIT-negative GISTs, GISTs in specific clinical contexts, GISTs with unusual morphology, and GISTs after treatment. This review focuses on recent developments in the understanding of the biology, immunohistochemical diagnosis, the role of molecular analysis, and risk assessment of GISTs. PMID:22855636

  15. Pathology Case Study: Cystic Tumor

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dunn, Jean

    This cytogenetics case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. This case involves 21-year-old male presented with a mass in his right thigh. Prior to this, the patient was healthy and had no major health concerns. The tumor was removed and the attending doctor ordered a cytogenetic analysis of the specimen. The results from that analysis along with microscopic images and electron photomicrographs of the tumor are included in the case study to aid in the understanding of the final diagnosis. The official final diagnosis is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâ??s findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâ??s conditions.

  16. Ehrlich tumor inhibition using doxorubicin containing liposomes.

    PubMed

    Elbialy, Nihal Saad; Mady, Mohsen Mahmoud

    2015-04-01

    Ehrlich tumors were grown in female balb mice by subcutaneous injection of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells. Mice bearing Ehrlich tumor were injected with saline, DOX in solution or DOX encapsulated within liposomes prepared from DMPC/CHOL/DPPG/PEG-PE (100:100:60:4) in molar ratio. Cytotoxicity assay showed that the IC50 of liposomes containing DOX was greater than that DOX only. Tumor growth inhibition curves in terms of mean tumor size (cm(3)) were presented. All the DOX formulations were effective in preventing tumor growth compared to saline. Treatment with DOX loaded liposomes displayed a pronounced inhibition in tumor growth than treatment with DOX only. Histopathological examination of the entire tumor sections for the various groups revealed marked differences in cellular features accompanied by varying degrees in necrosis percentage ranging from 12% for saline treated mice to 70% for DOX loaded liposome treated mice. The proposed liposomal formulation can efficiently deliver the drug into the tumor cells by endocytosis (or passive diffusion) and lead to a high concentration of DOX in the tumor cells. The study showed that the formulation of liposomal doxorubicin improved the therapeutic index of DOX and had increased anti-tumor activity against Ehrlich tumor models. PMID:25972739

  17. Vaccines for tumor prevention: a pipe dream?

    PubMed

    Forni, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Whether or not a tumor expresses peculiar antigens that differentiate it from normal cells was intensively investigated in the 1950s. A conclusive answer was provided in 1960 when George Klein showed that a tumor can be rejected by the immune response elicited by a vaccine administered to the same mouse in which the tumor was induced. Whether immunogenicity was a feature restricted only to tumors artificially induced by viruses or by high doses of chemical carcinogens was then hotly debated until Terry Boon showed, in the 1980s, that almost any tumor can be recognized by a syngeneic immune system triggered by an appropriate cancer vaccine. However, the therapeutic efficacy of vaccine-induced immunity against an advanced tumor is marginal. The combination of an anti-tumor vaccine with new sophisticated maneuvers to contrast tumor-induced suppression may yield new and effective therapeutic strategies. Also, the exploitation of tumor vaccines to prevent tumors in cohorts of people with a specific risk of cancer may become a fresh strategy with great potential to control tumor onset. PMID:26142669

  18. Breast cancer circulating tumor cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria João Carvalho; Mafalda Laranjo; Margarida Abrantes; António S. Cabrita; Filomena Botelho; Carlos F. de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Metastasization of breast cancer involves various mechanisms responsible for progression from invasive lesion to dissemination\\u000a in distant organs. Regional lymph node metastasization was considered an initial step in this process, but it is now recognized\\u000a that hematogenous dissemination is a deviation from lymphatic circulation. The detection of circulating tumor cells (CTC)\\u000a is an aim in several oncology areas. For this

  19. Liver transplantation for neuroendocrine tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sander Florman; Ben Toure; Leona Kim; Gabriel Gondolesi; Sasan Roayaie; Nancy Krieger; Thomas Fishbein; Sukru Emre; Charles Miller; Myron Schwartz

    2004-01-01

    Liver transplantation for the treatment of metastatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) is radical. Although cure is not impossible,\\u000a it is improbable. The reported experience with transplantation for NETs is limited to less than 150 cases with widely varying\\u000a results and few 5-year disease-free survivors. We reviewed our experience with transplantation for patients with NETs. Fourteen\\u000a symptomatic patients with unresectable NET liver

  20. Assessing ODE models of tumor growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrovolny, Hana; Jaafari, Hana; Ellis, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Mathematical models are often used to study and optimize treatment of cancer. In order to accurately predict the efficacy of a particular treatment, the model must correctly describe tumor growth. Over the years, several differential equation models of tumor growth have been proposed and independently fit to experimental data sets. While all the models provide reasonable fits to tumor growth data, the models have never been confronted with the same experimental data to determine whether any of the models provides a more accurate description of tumor growth. We collected tumor growth data from the literature and fit the various tumor growth models to the data to determine which model best describes tumor growth. Our results indicate that no single model can capture the variety of growth behavior captured in experiments.

  1. Treatment of posterior fossa tumors in children.

    PubMed

    Muzumdar, Dattatraya; Ventureyra, Enrique C G

    2010-04-01

    The most common posterior fossa tumors in children are medulloblastoma, astrocytoma and ependymoma. Atypical rhabdoid teratoid tumors and brain stem gliomas are relatively rare. As the posterior fossa is a limited space, the tumors presenting in this region cause symptoms early on and require prompt treatment to avoid potential morbidity and mortality. Early detection and diagnosis of these tumors and prompt neurosurgical consultation is crucial in the optimum management of pediatric infratentorial brain tumors. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment, as it provides biopsy and decompression of the tumor. Adjuvant therapy is required in the majority of cases. Recent advances in the field of radiation biology and pharmacology have improved dose and delivery techniques of chemoradiation therapy. In the current era, advances in translational research and molecular genetics have assumed a major role in the pursuit of achieving a 'cure' for these potentially malignant tumors. PMID:20367206

  2. Tumor mechanics and metabolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Tung, Jason C; Barnes, J Matthew; Desai, Shraddha R; Sistrunk, Christopher; Conklin, Matthew W; Schedin, Pepper; Eliceiri, Kevin W; Keely, Patricia J; Seewaldt, Victoria L; Weaver, Valerie M

    2015-02-01

    Desmosplasia is a characteristic of most solid tumors and leads to fibrosis through abnormal extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition, remodeling, and posttranslational modifications. The resulting stiff tumor stroma not only compromises vascular integrity to induce hypoxia and impede drug delivery, but also promotes aggressiveness by potentiating the activity of key growth, invasion, and survival pathways. Intriguingly, many of the protumorigenic signaling pathways that are mechanically activated by ECM stiffness also promote glucose uptake and aerobic glycolysis, and an altered metabolism is a recognized hallmark of cancer. Indeed, emerging evidence suggests that metabolic alterations and an abnormal ECM may cooperatively drive cancer cell aggression and treatment resistance. Accordingly, improved methods to monitor tissue mechanics and metabolism promise to improve diagnostics and treatments to ameliorate ECM stiffening and elevated mechanosignaling may improve patient outcome. Here we discuss the interplay between ECM mechanics and metabolism in tumor biology and suggest that monitoring these processes and targeting their regulatory pathways may improve diagnostics, therapy, and the prevention of malignant transformation. PMID:25532934

  3. Calpains: markers of tumor aggressiveness?

    PubMed

    Roumes, Hélène; Leloup, Ludovic; Dargelos, Elise; Brustis, Jean-Jacques; Daury, Laetitia; Cottin, Patrick

    2010-05-15

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) are soft-tissue sarcoma commonly encountered in childhood. RMS cells can acquire invasive behavior and form metastases. The metastatic dissemination implicates many proteases among which are mu-calpain and m-calpain. Study of calpain expression and activity underline the deregulation of calpain activity in RMS. Analysis of kinetic characteristics of RMS cells, compared to human myoblasts LHCN-M2 cells, shows an important migration velocity in RMS cells. One of the major results of this study is the positive linear correlation between calpain activity and migration velocity presenting calpains as a marker of tumor aggressiveness. The RMS cytoskeleton is disorganized. Specifying the role of mu- and m-calpain using antisense oligonucleotides led to show that both calpains up-regulate alpha- and beta-actin in ARMS cells. Moreover, the invasive behavior of these cells is higher than that of LHCN-M2 cells. However, it is similar to that of non-treated LHCN-M2 cells, when calpains are inhibited. In summary, calpains may be involved in the anarchic adhesion, migration and invasion of RMS. The direct relationship between calpain activity and migration velocities or invasive behavior indicates that calpains could be considered as markers of tumor aggressiveness and as potential targets for limiting development of RMS tumor as well as their metastatic behavior. PMID:20193680

  4. Endoscopic treatment of orbital tumors.

    PubMed

    Signorelli, Francesco; Anile, Carmelo; Rigante, Mario; Paludetti, Gaetano; Pompucci, Angelo; Mangiola, Annunziato

    2015-03-16

    Different orbital and transcranial approaches are performed in order to manage orbital tumors, depending on the location and size of the lesion within the orbit. These approaches provide a satisfactory view of the superior and lateral aspects of the orbit and the optic canal but involve risks associated with their invasiveness because they require significant displacement of orbital structures. In addition, external approaches to intraconal lesions may also require deinsertion of extraocular muscles, with subsequent impact on extraocular mobility. Recently, minimally invasive techniques have been proposed as valid alternative to external approaches for selected orbital lesions. Among them, transnasal endoscopic approaches, "pure" or combined with external approaches, have been reported, especially for intraconal lesions located inferiorly and medially to the optic nerve. The avoidance of muscle detachment and the shortness of the surgical intraorbital trajectory makes endoscopic approach less invasive, thus minimizing tissue damage. Endoscopic surgery decreases the recovery time and improves the cosmetic outcome not requiring skin incisions. The purpose of this study is to review and discuss the current surgical techniques for orbital tumors removal, focusing on endoscopic approaches to the orbit and outlining the key anatomic principles to follow for safe tumor resection. PMID:25789299

  5. Intrathoracic giant solitary fibrous tumor

    PubMed Central

    Aydemir, Bülent; Çelik, Sezai; Okay, Tamer; Do?usoy, Ilgaz

    2013-01-01

    Background Solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura is a rare, usually benign, and slow-growing neoplasm. Complete surgical resection for giant tumor of the pleura is challenging because of poor exposure and a large blood supply. We report the case of a giant hypervascular fibrous tumor that filled nearly the entire left hemithorax and anterior mediastinum, and its preoperative management. Case Report: A 59-year-old woman presented to us with exertional dyspnea and chest pain. A chest radiograph showed the right hemithorax completely opaque and a mediastinal shift to the left hemithorax. A tomography scan of the thorax showed a giant mass that almost completely filled the right hemithorax and compressed the mediastinum to the left. Because of excessive bleeding during dissection, the operation was terminated after a biopsy specimen was obtained. The biopsy was diagnosed as a benign fibrous tumour. A thoracic computed tomography angiogram showed that the mass was supplied by multiple intercostal arteries as well as an aberrant artery that branches off the celiac trunk in the subdiaphragmatic region. Due to the many arteries that needed to be embolized, the final decision was to control the bleeding following resection by inducing total circulatory arrest with the help of cardiopulmonary bypass. The bleeding could not be controlled under cardiopulmonary bypass and the patient’s death was confirmed. Conclusions: We report this case to emphasize the necessity of preoperative embolization; the use of cardiopulmonary bypass and total circulatory arrest is not a valid alternative method to control the bleeding. PMID:23826442

  6. Percutaneous Tumor Ablation with Radiofrequency

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Bradford J.; Ramkaransingh, Jeffrey R.; Fojo, Tito; Walther, McClellan M.; Libutti, Stephen K.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFA) is a new minimally invasive treatment for localized cancer. Minimally invasive surgical options require less resources, time, recovery, and cost, and often offer reduced morbidity and mortality, compared with more invasive methods. To be useful, image-guided, minimally invasive, local treatments will have to meet those expectations without sacrificing efficacy. METHODS Image-guided, local cancer treatment relies on the assumption that local disease control may improve survival. Recent developments in ablative techniques are being applied to patients with inoperable, small, or solitary liver tumors, recurrent metachronous hereditary renal cell carcinoma, and neoplasms in the bone, lung, breast, and adrenal gland. RESULTS Recent refinements in ablation technology enable large tumor volumes to be treated with image-guided needle placement, either percutaneously, laparoscopically, or with open surgery. Local disease control potentially could result in improved survival, or enhanced operability. CONCLUSIONS Consensus indications in oncology are ill-defined, despite widespread proliferation of the technology. A brief review is presented of the current status of image-guided tumor ablation therapy. More rigorous scientific review, long-term follow-up, and randomized prospective trials are needed to help define the role of RFA in oncology. PMID:11900230

  7. Endoscopic treatment of orbital tumors

    PubMed Central

    Signorelli, Francesco; Anile, Carmelo; Rigante, Mario; Paludetti, Gaetano; Pompucci, Angelo; Mangiola, Annunziato

    2015-01-01

    Different orbital and transcranial approaches are performed in order to manage orbital tumors, depending on the location and size of the lesion within the orbit. These approaches provide a satisfactory view of the superior and lateral aspects of the orbit and the optic canal but involve risks associated with their invasiveness because they require significant displacement of orbital structures. In addition, external approaches to intraconal lesions may also require deinsertion of extraocular muscles, with subsequent impact on extraocular mobility. Recently, minimally invasive techniques have been proposed as valid alternative to external approaches for selected orbital lesions. Among them, transnasal endoscopic approaches, “pure” or combined with external approaches, have been reported, especially for intraconal lesions located inferiorly and medially to the optic nerve. The avoidance of muscle detachment and the shortness of the surgical intraorbital trajectory makes endoscopic approach less invasive, thus minimizing tissue damage. Endoscopic surgery decreases the recovery time and improves the cosmetic outcome not requiring skin incisions. The purpose of this study is to review and discuss the current surgical techniques for orbital tumors removal, focusing on endoscopic approaches to the orbit and outlining the key anatomic principles to follow for safe tumor resection. PMID:25789299

  8. Treatment of pituitary tumors: surgery.

    PubMed

    Buchfelder, Michael

    2005-10-01

    Following a century of technical developments and refinements, a variety of standard operation techniques to date are available for the surgical treatment of pituitary tumors. The vast majority of the lesions can be dealt with satisfactorily utilizing transsphenoidal approaches. The goal of surgical treatment is rapid eradication of the tumor mass, decompression of visual pathways, and elimination of hormonal oversecretion while preserving the normal gland and avoiding potential surgical complications. The tumor's size, extension, and configuration and the magnitude of hormonal oversecretion, are the essential factors that decide whether all the goals can be reached. Another important factor is the individual skill and experience of the surgeon. Still, several lesions that are mainly developed outside of the sella require transcranial approaches, of which the pterional and subfrontal routes are the most widely used. With microsurgical techniques and standard approaches, mortality is far below 1% and morbidity is remarkably low. The most favorable surgical results are obtained with microadenomas, which in the MR image are depicted as distinct low intensity lesions. Only recently has the recovery of pituitary function following surgery been convincingly demonstrated. With the extended transsphenoidal approaches, lesions become accessible that previously have been considered contraindications for transsphenoidal surgery. The introduction of new technical gadgets such as neuronavigation, endoscopy, and intraoperative imaging open new avenues and, even more, widen the spectrum of accessible lesions. Indications for surgery, the preoperative workup, surgical techniques, results, limitations, and new technical developments are briefly reviewed in this article. PMID:16311412

  9. Evaluation of Tumor-infiltrating Leukocyte Subsets in a Subcutaneous Tumor Model.

    PubMed

    Pachynski, Russell K; Scholz, Alexander; Monnier, Justin; Butcher, Eugene C; Zabel, Brian A

    2015-01-01

    Specialized immune cells that infiltrate the tumor microenvironment regulate the growth and survival of neoplasia.  Malignant cells must elude or subvert anti-tumor immune responses in order to survive and flourish. Tumors take advantage of a number of different mechanisms of immune "escape," including the recruitment of tolerogenic DC, immunosuppressive regulatory T cells (Tregs), and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) that inhibit cytotoxic anti-tumor responses. Conversely, anti-tumor effector immune cells can slow the growth and expansion of malignancies: immunostimulatory dendritic cells, natural killer cells which harbor innate anti-tumor immunity, and cytotoxic T cells all can participate in tumor suppression. The balance between pro- and anti-tumor leukocytes ultimately determines the behavior and fate of transformed cells; a multitude of human clinical studies have borne this out. Thus, detailed analysis of leukocyte subsets within the tumor microenvironment has become increasingly important. Here, we describe a method for analyzing infiltrating leukocyte subsets present in the tumor microenvironment in a mouse tumor model. Mouse B16 melanoma tumor cells were inoculated subcutaneously in C57BL/6 mice. At a specified time, tumors and surrounding skin were resected en bloc and processed into single cell suspensions, which were then stained for multi-color flow cytometry. Using a variety of leukocyte subset markers, we were able to compare the relative percentages of infiltrating leukocyte subsets between control and chemerin-expressing tumors. Investigators may use such a tool to study the immune presence in the tumor microenvironment and when combined with traditional caliper size measurements of tumor growth, will potentially allow them to elucidate the impact of changes in immune composition on tumor growth. Such a technique can be applied to any tumor model in which the tumor and its microenvironment can be resected and processed. PMID:25938949

  10. Targeting the tumor stroma in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Heindryckx, Femke; Gerwins, Pär

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common and deadly cancers worldwide. In ninety percent of the cases it develops as a result of chronic liver damage and it is thus a typical inflammation-related cancer characterized by the close relation between the tumor microenvironment and tumor cells. The stromal environment consists out of several cell types, including hepatic stellate cells, macrophages and endothelial cells. They are not just active bystanders in the pathogenesis of HCC, but play an important and active role in tumor initiation, progression and metastasis. Furthermore, the tumor itself influences these cells to create a background that is beneficial for sustaining tumor growth. One of the key players is the hepatic stellate cell, which is activated during liver damage and differentiates towards a myofibroblast-like cell. Activated stellate cells are responsible for the deposition of extracellular matrix, increase the production of angiogenic factors and stimulate the recruitment of macrophages. The increase of angiogenic factors (which are secreted by macrophages, tumor cells and activated stellate cells) will induce the formation of new blood vessels, thereby supplying the tumor with more oxygen and nutrients, thus supporting tumor growth and offering a passageway in the circulatory system. In addition, the secretion of chemokines by the tumor cells leads to the recruitment of tumor associated macrophages. These tumor associated macrophages are key actors of cancer-related inflammation, being the main type of inflammatory cells infiltrating the tumor environment and exerting a tumor promoting effect by secreting growth factors, stimulating angiogenesis and influencing the activation of stellate cells. This complex interplay between the several cell types involved in liver cancer emphasizes the need for targeting the tumor stroma in HCC patients. PMID:25729472

  11. Collision tumor with inflammatory breast carcinoma and malignant phyllodes tumor: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Shin, Young Duck; Lee, Seul Kee; Kim, Kyu Sun; Park, Mi Ja; Kim, Joo Heon; Yim, Hyun Sun; Choi, Young Jin

    2014-01-01

    There have been some reports of coincidental presentation of breast carcinoma and phyllodes tumor in the same breast. Most of the cases were carcinoma that arose from a phyllodes tumor with a histologically identified transitional area, and they behaved less aggressively than the usually encountered carcinoma. Collision tumors are rare clinical entities in which two histologically distinct tumor types show involvement at the same site. The occurrence of these tumors in the breast is extremely rare. Here, we report a case of 45-year-old woman who had both invasive ductal carcinoma as the finding of inflammatory carcinoma and a malignant phyllodes tumor in the same breast. There was no evidence of a transitional area between the phyllodes tumor and the invasive ductal carcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a collision tumor of inflammatory breast carcinoma coincident with a malignant phyllodes tumor in same breast. PMID:24400686

  12. FOXL2 mutation is absent in uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Sarah; Staats, Paul N; Senz, Janine; Kommoss, Friedrich; De Nictolis, Michele; Huntsman, David G; Gilks, C Blake; Oliva, Esther

    2015-05-01

    Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors (UTROSCTs) are rare uterine neoplasms characterized by pure or predominant epithelial-like patterns that share morphologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural features with ovarian sex cord tumors. FOXL2 immunoexpression has recently been found in sex cord stromal tumors of the ovary, including granulosa cell tumors, Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, thecomas, and fibromas, but mutations have been identified mostly in adult granulosa cell tumors. In this study, we investigated FOXL2 mutation status and protein expression in UTROSCTs. Mutational analysis using a TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction-based allelic discrimination assay was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue from 15 UTROSCTs. FOXL2 mutation was absent in all tumors. FOXL2 immunoexpression was tested in all 15 tumors. Intensity of staining was scored as weak, moderate, or strong. Percentage of tumor cells with nuclear staining was recorded as follows: 0 (negative); 1+ (1% to 25%); 2+ (26% to 50%); 3+ (51% to 75%); and 4+ (76% to 100%). Nuclear expression of FOXL2 was present in 6 of 15 (40%) UTROSCTs. One tumor demonstrated strong 4+ staining. Moderate expression was seen in 3 cases, including 2 and 1 showing 2+ and 1+ staining, respectively. Weak expression was observed in 2 tumors demonstrating 3+ and 1+ staining. Although UTROSCTs show overlapping morphologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural features with sex cord stromal tumors of the ovary, they do not harbor FOXL2 mutation despite focal immunoreactivity in a subset of these tumors. PMID:25581731

  13. Imaging Tumor Hypoxia to Advance Radiation Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chen-Ting; Boss, Mary-Keara

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Most solid tumors contain regions of low oxygenation or hypoxia. Tumor hypoxia has been associated with a poor clinical outcome and plays a critical role in tumor radioresistance. Recent Advances: Two main types of hypoxia exist in the tumor microenvironment: chronic and cycling hypoxia. Chronic hypoxia results from the limited diffusion distance of oxygen, and cycling hypoxia primarily results from the variation in microvessel red blood cell flux and temporary disturbances in perfusion. Chronic hypoxia may cause either tumor progression or regressive effects depending on the tumor model. However, there is a general trend toward the development of a more aggressive phenotype after cycling hypoxia. With advanced hypoxia imaging techniques, spatiotemporal characteristics of tumor hypoxia and the changes to the tumor microenvironment can be analyzed. Critical Issues: In this review, we focus on the biological and clinical consequences of chronic and cycling hypoxia on radiation treatment. We also discuss the advanced non-invasive imaging techniques that have been developed to detect and monitor tumor hypoxia in preclinical and clinical studies. Future Directions: A better understanding of the mechanisms of tumor hypoxia with non-invasive imaging will provide a basis for improved radiation therapeutic practices. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 313–337. PMID:24329000

  14. Metabolism of orthotopic mouse brain tumor models.

    PubMed

    Rosol, Michael; Harutyunyan, Ira; Xu, Jingying; Melendez, Elizabeth; Smbatyan, Goar; Finlay, Jonathan L; Krieger, Mark D; Gonzalez-Gomez, Ignacio; Reynolds, C Patrick; Nelson, Marvin D; Erdreich-Epstein, Anat; Blüml, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    We used magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine whether orthotopic mouse brain tumors grown as xenografts in immunocompromised mice either from human brain tumor cells implanted immediately after surgery or from cultured human tumor lines show metabolic profiles comparable to those of the original tumors. Using a 7 T scanner, spectra were acquired from mice with a human atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) either implanted directly from the surgical specimen or first grown in culture, directly implanted choroid plexus carcinoma (CPC), and two medulloblastoma cell lines. The results were compared with spectra from these same tumors or tumor types in patients and with controls. Metabolic variability of tumors from a single cell line was also evaluated using the medulloblastoma lines. The main metabolic features of human tumors were qualitatively replicated in xenografts. AT/RTs in mice exhibited choline, creatine, and myo-inositol levels comparable to those observed in the patient. As in patients, choline was prominent in experimental CPC. Tumors from a single cell line were comparable. Significant correlations were found with key metabolites in humans and mice; however, differences including lower lipids in the implanted AT/RTs than in patient spectra and taurine observed in all animal spectra were also noted. The causes of these dissimilarities warrant further investigation. PMID:19728974

  15. Surgical Treatment of Gastric Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Seong-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumor is the most common mesenchymal tumor in the gastrointestinal tract and is most frequently developed in the stomach in the form of submucosal tumor. The incidence of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor is estimated to be as high as 25% of the population when all small and asymptomatic tumors are included. Because gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor is not completely distinguished from other submucosal tumors, a surgical excisional biopsy is recommended for tumors >2 cm. The surgical principles of gastrointestinal stromal tumor are composed of an R0 resection with a normal mucosa margin, no systemic lymph node dissection, and avoidance of perforation, which results in peritoneal seeding even in cases with otherwise low risk profiles. Laparoscopic surgery has been indicated for gastrointestinal stromal tumors <5 cm, and the indication for laparoscopic surgery is expanded to larger tumors if the above mentioned surgical principles can be maintained. A simple exogastric resection and various transgastric resection techniques are used for gastrointestinal stromal tumors in favorable locations (the fundus, body, greater curvature side). For a lesion at the gastroesophageal junction in the posterior wall of the stomach, enucleation techniques have been tried preserve the organ's function. Those methods have a theoretical risk of seeding a ruptured tumor, but this risk has not been evaluated by well-designed clinical trials. While some clinical trials are still on-going, neoadjuvant imatinib is suggested when marginally unresectable or multiorgan resection is anticipated to reduce the extent of surgery and the chance of incomplete resection, rupture or bleeding. PMID:23610714

  16. Dual Role of ?6?4 Integrin in Epidermal Tumor Growth: Tumor-suppressive Versus Tumor-promoting Function

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Karine; Kreft, Maaike; Song, Ji-Ying; Janssen, Hans

    2007-01-01

    An increased expression of the integrin ?6?4 is correlated with a poor prognosis in patients with squamous cell carcinomas. However, little is known about the role of ?6?4 in the early stages of tumor development. We have isolated cells from mouse skin (mouse tumor-initiating cells [mTICs]) that are deficient in both p53 and Smad4 and carry conditional alleles of the ?4 gene (Itgb4). The mTICs display many features of multipotent epidermal stem cells and produce well-differentiated tumors after subcutaneous injection into nude mice. Deletion of Itgb4 led to enhanced tumor growth, indicating that ?6?4 mediates a tumor-suppressive effect. Reconstitution experiments with ?4-chimeras showed that this effect is not dependent on ligation of ?6?4 to laminin-5, but on the recruitment by this integrin of the cytoskeletal linker protein plectin to the plasma membrane. Depletion of plectin, like that of ?4, led to increased tumor growth. In contrast, when mTICs had been further transformed with oncogenic Ras, ?6?4 stimulated tumor growth, as previously observed in human squamous neoplasms. Expression of different effector-loop mutants of RasV12 suggests that this effect depends on a strong activation of the Erk pathway. Together, these data show that depending on the mutations involved, ?6?4 can either mediate an adhesion-independent tumor-suppressive effect or act as a tumor promotor. PMID:17699601

  17. Epigenetic states of cells of origin and tumor evolution drive tumor-initiating cell phenotype and tumor heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Chow, Kin-Hoe; Shin, Dong-Mi; Jenkins, Molly H; Miller, Emily E; Shih, David J; Choi, Seungbum; Low, Benjamin E; Philip, Vivek; Rybinski, Brad; Bronson, Roderick T; Taylor, Michael D; Yun, Kyuson

    2014-09-01

    A central confounding factor in the development of targeted therapies is tumor cell heterogeneity, particularly in tumor-initiating cells (TIC), within clinically identical tumors. Here, we show how activation of the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) pathway in neural stem and progenitor cells creates a foundation for tumor cell evolution to heterogeneous states that are histologically indistinguishable but molecularly distinct. In spontaneous medulloblastomas that arise in Patched (Ptch)(+/-) mice, we identified three distinct tumor subtypes. Through cell type-specific activation of the SHH pathway in vivo, we determined that different cells of origin evolved in unique ways to generate these subtypes. Moreover, TICs in each subtype had distinct molecular and cellular phenotypes. At the bulk tumor level, the three tumor subtypes could be distinguished by a 465-gene signature and by differential activation levels of the ERK and AKT pathways. Notably, TICs from different subtypes were differentially sensitive to SHH or AKT pathway inhibitors, highlighting new mechanisms of resistance to targeted therapies. In summary, our results show how evolutionary processes act on distinct cells of origin to contribute to tumoral heterogeneity, at both bulk tumor and TIC levels. PMID:25136069

  18. Implication of tumor microenvironment in chemoresistance: tumor-associated stromal cells protect tumor cells from cell death.

    PubMed

    Castells, Magali; Thibault, Benoît; Delord, Jean-Pierre; Couderc, Bettina

    2012-01-01

    Tumor development principally occurs following the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations in tumor cells. These changes pave the way for the transformation of chemosensitive cells to chemoresistant ones by influencing the uptake, metabolism, or export of drugs at the cellular level. Numerous reports have revealed the complexity of tumors and their microenvironment with tumor cells located within a heterogeneous population of stromal cells. These stromal cells (fibroblasts, endothelial or mesothelial cells, adipocytes or adipose tissue-derived stromal cells, immune cells and bone marrow-derived stem cells) could be involved in the chemoresistance that is acquired by tumor cells via several mechanisms: (i) cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions influencing the cancer cell sensitivity to apoptosis; (ii) local release of soluble factors promoting survival and tumor growth (crosstalk between stromal and tumor cells); (iii) direct cell-cell interactions with tumor cells (crosstalk or oncologic trogocytosis); (iv) generation of specific niches within the tumor microenvironment that facilitate the acquisition of drug resistance; or (v) conversion of the cancer cells to cancer-initiating cells or cancer stem cells. This review will focus on the implication of each member of the heterogeneous population of stromal cells in conferring resistance to cytotoxins and physiological mediators of cell death. PMID:22949815

  19. Radiation-induced nitric oxide mitigates tumor hypoxia and radioresistance in a murine SCCVII tumor model

    SciTech Connect

    Nagane, Masaki, E-mail: nagane@vetmed.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)] [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Yasui, Hironobu, E-mail: yassan@vetmed.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)] [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Yamamori, Tohru, E-mail: yamamorit@vetmed.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)] [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Zhao, Songji, E-mail: zsi@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Tracer Kinetics and Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)] [Department of Tracer Kinetics and Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Kuge, Yuji, E-mail: kuge@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Central Institute of Isotope Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)] [Central Institute of Isotope Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Tamaki, Nagara, E-mail: natamaki@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)] [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Kameya, Hiromi, E-mail: kameya@affrc.go.jp [Food Safety Division, National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan)] [Food Safety Division, National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan); Nakamura, Hideo, E-mail: naka@science-edu.org [Department of Chemistry, Hokkaido University of Education, Hakodate (Japan)] [Department of Chemistry, Hokkaido University of Education, Hakodate (Japan); Fujii, Hirotada, E-mail: hgfujii@sapmed.ac.jp [Center for Medical Education, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo (Japan)] [Center for Medical Education, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo (Japan); Inanami, Osamu, E-mail: inanami@vetmed.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)] [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    2013-08-02

    Highlights: •IR-induced NO increased tissue perfusion and pO{sub 2}. •IR increased NO production in tumors without changes in the mRNA and protein levels of NOS isoforms. •NOS activity assay showed that IR upregulated eNOS activity in tumors. •IR-induced NO decreased tumor hypoxia and altered tumor radiosensitivity. -- Abstract: Tumor hypoxia, which occurs mainly as a result of inadequate tissue perfusion in solid tumors, is a well-known challenge for successful radiotherapy. Recent evidence suggests that ionizing radiation (IR) upregulates nitric oxide (NO) production and that IR-induced NO has the potential to increase intratumoral circulation. However, the kinetics of NO production and the responsible isoforms for NO synthase in tumors exposed to IR remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the mechanism by which IR stimulates NO production in tumors and the effect of IR-induced NO on tumor radiosensitivity. Hoechst33342 perfusion assay and electron spin resonance oxymetry showed that IR increased tissue perfusion and pO{sub 2} in tumor tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis using two different hypoxic probes showed that IR decreased hypoxic regions in tumors; treatment with a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, L-NAME, abrogated the effects of IR. Moreover, IR increased endothelial NOS (eNOS) activity without affecting its mRNA or protein expression levels in SCCVII-transplanted tumors. Tumor growth delay assay showed that L-NAME decreased the anti-tumor effect of fractionated radiation (10 Gy × 2). These results suggested that IR increased eNOS activity and subsequent tissue perfusion in tumors. Increases in intratumoral circulation simultaneously decreased tumor hypoxia. As a result, IR-induced NO increased tumor radiosensitivity. Our study provides a new insight into the NO-dependent mechanism for efficient fractionated radiotherapy.

  20. Joint tumor growth prediction and tumor segmentation on therapeutic follow-up PET images.

    PubMed

    Mi, Hongmei; Petitjean, Caroline; Vera, Pierre; Ruan, Su

    2015-07-01

    Tumor response to treatment varies among patients. Patient-specific prediction of tumor evolution based on medical images during the treatment can help to build and adapt patient's treatment planning in a non-invasive way. Personalized tumor growth modeling allows patient-specific prediction by estimating model parameters based on individual's images. The model parameters are often estimated by optimizing a cost function constructed based on the tumor delineations. In this paper, we propose a joint framework for tumor growth prediction and tumor segmentation in the context of patient's therapeutic follow ups. Throughout the treatment, a series of sequential positron emission tomography (PET) images are acquired for tumor response monitoring. We propose to take into account the predicted information, which is used in combination with the random walks (RW) algorithm, to develop an automatic tumor segmentation method on PET images. Moreover, we propose an iterative scheme of RW, making the segmentation more performant. Furthermore, the obtained segmentation is applied to the process of model parameter estimation so as to get the model based prediction of tumor evolution. We evaluate our methods on 7 lung tumor patients, totaling 29 PET exams, under radiotherapy by comparing the obtained tumor prediction and tumor segmentation with manual tumor delineation by expert. Our system produces promising results when compared to the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:25988489

  1. Diethylstilbestrol inhibits tumor growth and prolactin production in rat pituitary tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, R. V.; Landefeld, T. D.; Maslar, I.; Frohman, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    Treatment of rats bearing transplantable MtT/W15 tumors with 10 mg of diethylstilbestrol (DES) for 3 weeks led to inhibition of tumor growth. The inhibition of tumor growth was reversible after removal of the DES. Histologic examination revealed decreased mitotic activity; however, DES did not produce cell necrosis. Concomitantly, the anterior pituitary glands of animals treated with DES became hyperplastic, with an increased number of prolactin (PRL)-producing cells. DES resulted in a decreased number of PRL cells in the tumor and decreased serum PRL/tumor weight, compared with that of control rats. There was also an increase in the number of growth hormone (GH) tumor cells and an increased serum GH/tumor weight. 17 beta-Estradiol had an effect similar to that of DES, while progesterone did not inhibit tumor growth or cause pituitary cell hyperplasia. Ovariectomy resulted in a decrease in the tumor growth rate, compared with that of control animals, suggesting that the MtT/W 15 tumors are relatively dependent on estrogens for optimal growth. These results indicate that DES inhibition of MtT/W 15 tumor growth is an excellent model for study of the mechanism of the inhibition of tumor growth and the modification of GH and PRL expression by the tumor cells. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:3976841

  2. CT and MR findings of Krukenberg tumors: Comparison with primary ovarian tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Seung Hyup; Kim, Won Hong; Park, Kyung Joo [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of)] [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-05-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the CT and MR findings of Krukenberg tumors and to compare them with those of primary ovarian tumors. This study included 20 patients with Krukenberg tumors and 65 patients with various primary ovarian tumors. CT/MR/both imaging studies were available in 15/1/4 patients with Krukenberg tumor and 31/10/24 patients with primary ovarian tumors, respectively. Imaging findings of the tumors were categorized into three subgroups: a solid mass with intratumoral cysts, a solid mass without intratumoral cysts, and a predominantly cystic mass. Among 32 Krukenberg tumors (bilateral in 12 patients), 22 were solid masses with intratumoral cysts, in 14 of which the wall of the intratumoral cysts showed apparently strong contrast enhancement on CT and/or MRI. Six Krukenberg tumors were solid masses without intratumoral cysts, and four were predominantly cystic masses. Imaging findings of 88 primary ovarian tumors (bilateral in 23 patients) were 5 solid masses with intratumoral cysts, 27 solid masses without intratumoral cysts, and 56 predominantly cystic masses. None of the five primary ovarian tumors with solid mass with intratumoral cysts demonstrated apparently strong contrast enhancement of the cyst wall. Krukenberg tumor should be suspected when one sees solid ovarian tumors containing well demarcated intratumoral cystic lesions, especially if the walls of those cysts demonstrate apparently strong contrast enhancement. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Cryotherapy of metastatic carcinoid tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Shapiro; M. Shafir; M. Sung; R. Warner; N. Glajchen

    1998-01-01

    .  \\u000a \\u000a Background: To describe the use of hepatic cryotherapy to treat patients with symptomatic carcinoid metastates.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: Hepatic cryotherapy was performed on five patients with carcinoid syndrome resulting from metastatic carcinoid tumors. Intraoperative\\u000a ultrasound was used to guide the cryotherapy and to assess the adequacy of freezing.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results: All five patients had relief of the carcinoid syndrome after treatment. In

  4. Tumor necrosis by controlled ebullism.

    PubMed

    Babich, A

    2005-01-01

    In the early days of manned space flight, experiments were done in which dogs and chimpanzees were exposed to near vacuum in anticipation of possible manned space flight accidents. These specimens experienced what was termed "ebullism". This syndrome involved boiling of body fluids resulting in extreme dehydration and circulatory failure. Whereas malignant tumors are typically warmer than normal tissue, it should be possible to destroy them while sparing normal tissue through this phenomenon by subjecting patients to low pressure slightly greater than that which would produce systemic ebullism. PMID:15607564

  5. Pathology Case Study: Metastasizing Tumor

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rao, Uma N. M.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a woman presented with a low-grade sarcoma with features of plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumor in the subcutaneous soft tissue of left posterior thigh. Visitors can view both gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of soft tissue pathology.

  6. Tumor biobanks in translational medicine.

    PubMed

    Botti, Gerardo; Franco, Renato; Cantile, Monica; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Ascierto, Paolo Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The concept of tissue banking as a "bio-repository" aimed to collection, storing and distribution of human biological material and clinical information, is emerging as a successful strategy to support clinical and translational research. In particular, Tumor Biobanks represent a key resource for diagnosis, research and experimental therapies, especially for those correlated to clinical application of a new type of medicine known as "intelligent drugs". Biobanks are not "spontaneous" collections, but they needs an institutional organization, basically a research unit, whose effectiveness and quality can be guaranteed only if it is carefully organized according to precise and shared rules. PMID:23031272

  7. Tumor Bioengineering Using a Transglutaminase Crosslinked Hydrogel

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Josephine Y.; Tan, Shih-Jye; Yang, Zhi; Tayag, Charisse; Han, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Development of a physiologically relevant 3D model system for cancer research and drug development is a current challenge. We have adopted a 3D culture system based on a transglutaminase-crosslinked gelatin gel (Col-Tgel) to mimic the tumor 3D microenvironment. The system has several unique advantages over other alternatives including presenting cell-matrix interaction sites from collagen-derived peptides, geometry-initiated multicellular tumor spheroids, and metabolic gradients in the tumor microenvironment. Also it provides a controllable wide spectrum of gel stiffness for mechanical signals, and technical compatibility with imaging based screening due to its transparent properties. In addition, the Col-Tgel provides a cure-in-situ delivery vehicle for tumor xenograft formation in animals enhancing tumor cell uptake rate. Overall, this distinctive 3D system could offer a platform to more accurately mimic in vivo situations to study tumor formation and progression both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25133673

  8. Vasculogenic mimicry: lessons from melanocytic tumors.

    PubMed

    Spiliopoulos, Konstantinos; Peschos, Dimitrios; Batistatou, Anna; Ntountas, Ioannis; Agnantis, Niki; Kitsos, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    Tumor cell vasculogenic mimicry refers to the formation of tumor cell-lined vessels that contribute to tumor neovascularization and nutrient and oxygen supply. These tumor cells express many endothelial and stem cell markers, resulting in them having a unique phenotype. This phenomenon is observed in a variety of neoplasms, such as glioblastomas and sarcomas, as well as breast, ovarian, liver and lung carcinomas. It is also evident in melanocytic lesions, regardless of their benign or malignant nature. The biochemical and molecular events that regulate vasculogenic mimicry provide opportunities for development of novel forms of tumor-targeted treatments. Furthermore, the presence of this process in a tumor might have prognostic implications. PMID:25977376

  9. Options for management of intra ocular tumors

    PubMed Central

    Lingam, Gopal

    2015-01-01

    The management of intra ocular tumors has undergone a sea change from the era of enucleation or external beam radiation. With the advent of new chemotherapy protocols, globe and vision salvage have become possible in a majority of cases of retinoblastoma. This article is an overview of the various modalities available for the management of intra ocular tumors and their indications. Chemotherapy has been covered elsewhere in this series of articles on ocular oncology. Photocoagulation and cryopexy are easily administered modalities of treatment for small tumors and totally within the ophthalmologist's domain. Slightly larger tumors are treatable with brachytherapy. The susceptibility of the tumors to chemotherapy and radiation decide the choice of treatment and the dosage. Management of intra ocular tumors very often needs a multidisciplinary approach including ophthalmologist, oncologist, radiation physicist, and radiotherapist. PMID:25971164

  10. Effects of methoxychlor on skin tumor development.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, C; Tabbert, J

    1994-12-01

    Organochlorine pesticides increase the incidence of liver cancer through a multistage process involving tumor promotion. Mirex, an organochlorine pesticide has been shown to be a tumor promoter in mouse skin. In the present study, the effects of methoxychlor, a commonly used organochlorine pesticide, on the development of papillomas in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-initiated mouse skin and induction of mouse epidermal ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity were investigated and compared with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), a well-known tumor promoter. Methoxychlor neither caused tumor development nor induced epidermal ODC activity. However, TPA resulted in 100% tumor incidence and 8.8 tumors per mouse after 20 weeks of promotion, and induced epidermal ODC activity. PMID:7871547

  11. Influence of Dendritic Cells on Tumor Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Stella C.; Hunt, Ruth; Dore, Caroline; Medawar, Peter B.

    1985-07-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) exposed to antigen are potent initiators of immune responses, and the numbers of DC and the dose of antigen control the level of response. The influence of these variables was tested on the growth of mouse sarcoma cells in vivo. When normal syngeneic DC (100,000) were given to mice with palpable tumors, tumor regression or delay in tumor growth was obtained. DC exposed to increasing doses of tumor extract in vitro before administration had progressively less effect. DC exposed to antigen delayed tumor growth significantly only when given on the same day as 500 tumor cells. The studies suggested that low doses of antigen on DC elicit immune responses and that high doses block them. The numbers of antigen-presenting cells and the dose of antigen modulate the degree of immunity to mouse sarcoma in vivo.

  12. Embryonal brain tumors and developmental control genes

    SciTech Connect

    Aguzzi, A. [Univ. Hospital, Schmelzbergstr (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    Cell proliferation in embryogenesis and neoplastic transformation is thought to be controlled by similar sets of regulatory genes. This is certainly true for tumors of embryonic origin, such as Ewing sarcoma, Wilms` tumor and retinoblastoma, in which developmental control genes are either activated as oncogenes to promote proliferation, or are inactivated to eliminate their growth suppressing function. However, to date little is known about the genetic events underlying the pathogenesis of medulloblastoma, the most common brain tumor in children, which still carries an unfavourable prognosis. None of the common genetic alterations identified in other neuroectodermal tumors, such as mutation of the p53 gene or amplification of tyrosine kinase receptor genes, could be uncovered as key events in the formation of medulloblastoma. The identification of regulatory genes which are expressed in this pediatric brain tumor may provide an alternative approach to gain insight into the molecular aspects of tumor formation.

  13. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of mandible.

    PubMed

    Zakhary, Ibrahim; Elsalanty, Mohammed; Ishag, Ilia; Taher, Taher; Hassan, Mohammed; Gehani, Rafi; Orafi, Marai; El-Mekkawi, Hatem

    2011-03-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor is a common tumor that rarely affects the head and neck region. The patient presented in this report is a teenage girl presented with a lesion in the right body of the mandible with severe disfigurement of the lower face. The lesion was first histopathologically diagnosed as embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. After excision, however, the histopathology report proved the diagnosis of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor. PMID:21415661

  14. Molecular Biomarker Analyses Using Circulating Tumor Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth A. Punnoose; Siminder K. Atwal; Jill M. Spoerke; Heidi Savage; Ajay Pandita; Ru-Fang Yeh; Andrea Pirzkall; Bernard M. Fine; Lukas C. Amler; Daniel S. Chen; Mark R. Lackner; Janine Santos

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundEvaluation of cancer biomarkers from blood could significantly enable biomarker assessment by providing a relatively non-invasive source of representative tumor material. Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) isolated from blood of metastatic cancer patients hold significant promise in this regard.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsUsing spiked tumor-cells we evaluated CTC capture on different CTC technology platforms, including CellSearch® and two biochip platforms, and used the isolated

  15. Kidney Tumors | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Kidney tumors are rare and generally curable in children. However, there are subsets of patients afflicted with these diseases that do not respond to treatment or eventually relapse. These patients usually have poor clinical outcomes as compared with the majority of children diagnosed with kidney tumors. All patients undergo therapy regimens that can be detrimental later in life. Through genome-wide characterization, TARGET investigators are identifying critical molecular alterations in these tumors, mostly from relapsed patients.

  16. Neuroradiologic Review in Pediatric Brain Tumor Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monika Warmuth-Metz; Brigitte Bison; Susanne Leykamm

    2009-01-01

    \\u000a Abstract\\u000a   The GPOH (German Society of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology) is running various multicenter treatment studies for\\u000a brain tumors in children and adolescents. To achieve a common base for the evaluation of tumors, a possible dissemination\\u000a and responses to treatment or the natural course of a CNS (central nervous system) tumor, all imaging studies of patients\\u000a included in these studies

  17. Immunotargeting of tumor subpopulations in melanoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Maurer, Margarita; Somasundaram, Rajasekharan; Herlyn, Meenhard; Wagner, Stephan N.

    2012-01-01

    Several melanoma cell subpopulations with tumor-initiating and/or tumor-maintaining properties exist that may contribute to chemoresistance and tumor recurrence after standard therapies. One of these subpopulations expresses a B-cell marker, CD20. In a small pilot trial, we showed that a subset of Stage IV melanoma patients may potentially benefit from an adjuvant treatment using the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab. PMID:23243627

  18. Reirradiation of tumors in cats and dogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Turrel; A. P. Theon

    1988-01-01

    Fifty-one cats and dogs with tumor recurrence after irradiation were treated with a second course of radiotherapy, using either teletherapy or brachytherapy. Eighty-six percent of the tumors had partial or complete response at 2 months after reirradiation. Tumor response was significantly (P = 0.041) affected when the interval between the 2 courses of irradiation was greater than 5 months. The

  19. Hypoxia and tumor-associated macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Van Overmeire, Eva; Laoui, Damya; Keirsse, Jiri; Van Ginderachter, Jo A

    2014-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) provide a significant contribution to tumor growth and metastasis. We demonstrated the existence of two main TAM subsets, differing in activation state and localization. Of these, M2-like TAMs reside in hypoxic regions of the tumor mass and can be used as targets for hypoxia tracers. This said, hypoxia does not regulate the differentiation of TAMs but finely tunes the activity of the M2-like population. PMID:24744977

  20. Krukenberg tumor in pregnancy. The lethal outcome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreja Gliši?; Jasmina Atanackovi?

    2006-01-01

    Krukenberg tumor refers to gastrointestinal cancer metastatic to the ovaries and its prognosis is uniformly poor. This case\\u000a report concerns a 38-year-old pregnant woman suffering from abdominal pain and iterative vomiting episodes. She presented\\u000a with a large abdominopelvic tumor. Because of suspected ovarian torsion, we performed urgent surgery. At laparotomy, bilateral\\u000a ovarian tumors, ascites and gastric cancer located at the

  1. Radiological evaluation of Pott puffy tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, R.G.; Sty, J.R.; Landers, A.D.

    1986-03-14

    The Pott puffy tumor represents frontal osteomyelitis with subperiosteal (pericranial) abscess, secondary to frontal sinusitis. Pott puffy tumor is one of several potential complications of infection of a frontal sinus. Computed tomography (CT) and radionuclide bone imaging have proved to be invaluable tools in the diagnosis of frontal sinusitis, osteomyelitis, and intracranial infection. This article details the radionuclide bone imaging and findings on CT in three children with Pott puffy tumor, as well as the clinical features and pathophysicological mechanisms.

  2. Inhibition of Vascularization in Tumor Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalerandi, M.; Sansone, B. Capogrosso

    2002-11-01

    The transition to a vascular phase is a prerequisite for fast tumor growth. During the avascular phase, the neoplasm feeds only from the (relatively few) existing nearby blood vessels. During angiogenesis, the number of capillaries surrounding and infiltrating the tumor increases dramatically. A model which includes physical and biological mechanisms of the interactions between the tumor and vascular growth describes the avascular-vascular transition. Numerical results agree with clinical observations and predict the influence of therapies aiming to inhibit the transition.

  3. Tumor cell migration in complex microenvironments

    PubMed Central

    Polacheck, William J.; Zervantonakis, Ioannis K.; Kamm, Roger D.

    2012-01-01

    Tumor cell migration is essential for invasion and dissemination from primary solid tumors and for the establishment of lethal secondary metastases at distant organs. In vivo and in vitro models enabled identification of different factors in the tumor microenvironment that regulate tumor progression and metastasis. However, the mechanisms by which tumor cells integrate these chemical and mechanical signals from multiple sources to navigate the complex microenvironment remain poorly understood. In this review, we discuss the factors that influence tumor cell migration with a focus on the migration of transformed carcinoma cells. We provide an overview of the experimental and computational methods that allow the investigation of tumor cell migration, and we highlight the benefits and shortcomings of the various assays. We emphasize that the chemical and mechanical stimulus paradigms are not independent and that crosstalk between them motivates the development of new assays capable of applying multiple, simultaneous stimuli and imaging the cellular migratory response in real-time. These next-generation assays will more closely mimic the in vivo microenvironment to provide new insights into tumor progression, inform techniques to control tumor cell migration, and render cancer more treatable. PMID:22926411

  4. Imaging Tumor Cell Movement In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Entenberg, David; Kedrin, Dmitriy; Wyckoff, Jeffrey; Sahai, Erik; Condeelis, John; Segall, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    This unit describes the methods that we have been developing for analyzing tumor cell motility in mouse and rat models of breast cancer metastasis. Rodents are commonly used both to provide a mammalian system for studying human tumor cells (as xenografts in immunocompromised mice) as well as for following the development of tumors from a specific tissue type in transgenic lines. The Basic Protocol in this unit describes the standard methods used for generation of mammary tumors and imaging them. Additional protocols for labeling macrophages, blood vessel imaging, and image analysis are also included. PMID:23456602

  5. Maximizing Tumor Immunity With Fractionated Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Schaue, Doerthe, E-mail: dschaue@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ratikan, Josephine A.; Iwamoto, Keisuke S.; McBride, William H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Technologic advances have led to increased clinical use of higher-sized fractions of radiation dose and higher total doses. How these modify the pathways involved in tumor cell death, normal tissue response, and signaling to the immune system has been inadequately explored. Here we ask how radiation dose and fraction size affect antitumor immunity, the suppression thereof, and how this might relate to tumor control. Methods and Materials: Mice bearing B16-OVA murine melanoma were treated with up to 15 Gy radiation given in various-size fractions, and tumor growth followed. The tumor-specific immune response in the spleen was assessed by interferon-{gamma} enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay with ovalbumin (OVA) as the surrogate tumor antigen and the contribution of regulatory T cells (Tregs) determined by the proportion of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup hi}Foxp3{sup +} T cells. Results: After single doses, tumor control increased with the size of radiation dose, as did the number of tumor-reactive T cells. This was offset at the highest dose by an increase in Treg representation. Fractionated treatment with medium-size radiation doses of 7.5 Gy/fraction gave the best tumor control and tumor immunity while maintaining low Treg numbers. Conclusions: Radiation can be an immune adjuvant, but the response varies with the size of dose per fraction. The ultimate challenge is to optimally integrate cancer immunotherapy into radiation therapy.

  6. Current Advance in Small Bowel Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Dae Young

    2011-01-01

    Small intestinal tumors are difficult challenge to gastroenterologists. The difficulty in making a diagnosis of small intestinal tumor lies in the relative inaccessibility and absence of typical presentation. New endoscopic and radiologic technologies provide clear and fine anatomical visualization of the small bowel and are approved to improve the diagnostic sensitivity and accuracy. Patients at risk of small intestinal tumors might gain a benefit from proper surveillance with this new technology. Minimally invasive therapy is now available with advance of balloon assisted enteroscopy. This review describes the general aspect of the small intestinal tumors, focusing on the new modalities for diagnosis. PMID:22741107

  7. Histological patterns in orbital malignant tumors.

    PubMed

    Ibric-Cioranu, Viorel; Nicolae, Vasile; Iorgulescu, Daniel; F?ge?an, Iulian Mihai; Petrescu Seceleanu, Vlad; Cernu?c?-Mi?ariu, Mihaela; Nicolae, Silviu; Ibric-Cioranu, Sorin

    2014-01-01

    There is a wide variety of tumors affecting the orbit. The most encountered histological type of malignant orbital tumor is the basal cell carcinoma followed by the malignant melanoma and the squamous cell carcinoma. The authors conducted a retrospective review of the malignant orbit tumors from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Emergency Hospital of Sibiu, Romania. The main surgical methods implied were tumor resection, exenteration and extended exenteration. The reconstruction was performed with the help of local flaps using different techniques: advancement, translation or rotation. The use of local flaps allowed for a good esthetic outcome and a decrease in the healing time. PMID:25178348

  8. Trogocytic intercellular membrane exchanges among hematological tumors.

    PubMed

    LeMaoult, Joel; Caumartin, Julien; Daouya, Marina; Switala, Magdalena; Rebmann, Vera; Arnulf, Bertrand; Carosella, Edgardo D

    2015-01-01

    Trogocytosis is the transfer of plasma membrane fragments and the molecules they contain between one donor and one acceptor/acquirer cell. Through trogocytosis, acceptor cells temporarily display and use cell-surface molecules they do not express themselves, but borrow from other cells. Here, we investigated whether liquid tumors possessed a trogocytic capability, if immune escape molecules could be acquired by tumor cells, transferred between cells of the same tumor, and if this could benefit the tumor as a whole.For this, we investigated trogocytosis in hematological cell lines and freshly isolated hematological tumor cells. We demonstrate that hematological tumor lines possess a trogocytic capability that allows them to capture membranes that contain the immune-inhibitory molecule HLA-G from allogeneic as well as from autologous sources. We further show that freshly isolated hematological tumor cells also possess these capabilities. This work reports for the first time the trogocytic capabilities of liquid tumor cells and introduces the notion of immune escape strategy sharing among tumor cells through trogocytosis of membrane-bound immune-inhibitory molecules. PMID:25887663

  9. Consequences of chromosomal abnormalities in tumor development.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-García, I

    1997-01-01

    This article highlights recent advances in the molecular structure and function of proteins that are activated or created by chromosomal abnormalities and discusses their possible role in tumor development. The molecular characterization of these proteins has revealed that tumor-specific fusion proteins are the consequence of most chromosome translocations associated with leukemias and solid tumors. An emerging common theme is that creation of these proteins disrupts the normal development of tumor-specific target cells by blocking apoptosis. These insights identify these chromosomal translocation-associated genes as potential targets for improved cancer therapies. PMID:9442903

  10. Malignant Rhabdoid Tumors of the CNS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael R. Carter

    \\u000a Rhabdoid tumors are a group of rare and highly aggressive neoplasms occurring at almost any anatomical location and presenting\\u000a predominantly in early childhood [15].\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRT) were first described in the kidney and were thought to represent a sarcomatous variant of\\u000a Wilms' tumor [3]. Similar tumors were subsequently identified at numerous extra-renal locations, including the CNS, which\\u000a remains

  11. Myopericytoma tumor of the glans penis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Dayron; Cornejo, Kristine M; Sadow, Peter M; Santiago-Lastra, Yahir; Feldman, Adam S

    2015-06-01

    Myopericytoma is a low grade spindle cell neoplasm largely occurring in skin. We describe the first reported case of a penile myopericytoma. Histologically, the penile tumor was composed of a perivascular proliferation of tumor cells with ovoid shaped nuclei and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Immunohistochemically, the tumor was reactive for markers of smooth muscle differentiation and vascular differentiation. The tumor was noted to be negative for BRAF by immunohistochemistry and wild-type upon gene sequencing using SnaPshot. Our finding serves to expand the anatomical distribution of myopericytoma and broadens the spectrum of primary mesenchymal neoplasms that may be encountered in the penis. PMID:26068635

  12. Tumors in Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.W. [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States); Rubinstein, J.H. [Univ. of Cincinnati College of Medicine, OH (United States)

    1995-03-13

    The 14 tumors reported in Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome since 1989, when added to the 22 previously reported, are beginning to show a pattern of neural and developmental tumors, especially of the head, which is malformed in the syndrome. Among the neoplasms were 12 of the nervous system: 2 each of oligodendroglioma, medulloblastoma, neuroblastoma, and 3 other benign tumors; 2 of nasopharyngeal rhabdomyosarcoma; and 1 each of leiomyosarcoma, seminoma, and embryonal carcinoma. Among the other benign tumors were an ondontoma, a choristoma, a dermoid cyst, and 2 pilomatrixomas. 20 refs., 1 tab.

  13. Tumor vascular disruption using various radiation types

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility of disrupting a tumor’s vascular structure with various radiation types and radionuclides is investigated. Calculated absorbed dose profiles for photons and 4He ions suggest that low-energy beta-gamma and alpha emitting radionuclides can deposit sufficient absorbed dose to disrupt a tumor’s vascular structure while minimizing the dose outside the blood vessel. Candidate radionuclides uniformly distributed in microspheres are theoretically investigated with respect to their vascular disruption potential and to offer an alternative to 90Y microsphere therapy. Requisite activities of candidate low-energy beta-gamma and alpha emitting radionuclides to facilitate vascular disruption are calculated. PMID:24749005

  14. Diffuse soft tissue calcification in tumoral calcinosis

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, E.S.; Schumacher, H.R.; Dalinka, M.K.

    1981-10-01

    Tumoral calcinosis is a rare disease characterized biochemically by hyperphosphatemia, normocalcemia, and reduced fractional excretion of phosphate. Radiographically, it has been defined by the presence of large, amorphous juxtaarticular calcific deposits. A 53-year-old woman with tumoral calcinosis was found to have unusual diffuse soft tissue calcification indistinguishable from that usually seen in collagen vascular disease and previously referred to as calcinosis universalis. It is suggested that tumoral calcinosis is a misnomer as the calcification seen in patients with this disease may be 'tumoral' or diffuse.

  15. TNF Alpha concentration in tumored and non-tumored Sinclair swine 

    E-print Network

    Ash, Joan Olivia Rogers

    1998-01-01

    The infiltration of pigment-laden macrophages (PLM) in Sinclair swine cutaneous melanoma during the time frame in which histopathological evidence of tumor regression is observed suggests that they may play a role in this event. Tumor necrosis...

  16. High-Dose Thiotepa Plus Peripheral Stem Cell Transplantation in Treating Patients With Refractory Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-03-06

    Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors; Childhood Germ Cell Tumor; Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Cancer; Retinoblastoma; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  17. Ion transporters in brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Cong, Damin; Zhu, Wen; Kuo, John S; Hu, Shaoshan; Sun, Dandan

    2015-01-01

    Ion transporters are important in regulation of ionic homeostasis, cell volume, and cellular signal transduction under physiological conditions. They have recently emerged as important players in cancer progression. In this review, we discussed two important ion transporter proteins, sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter isoform 1 (NKCC-1) and sodium-hydrogen exchanger isoform 1 (NHE-1) in Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and other malignant tumors. NKCC-1 is a Na(+)- dependent Cl(-) transporter that mediates the movement of Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-) ions across the plasma membrane and maintains cell volume and intracellular K(+) and Cl(-) homeostasis. NHE-1 is a ubiquitously expressed cell membrane protein which regulates intracellular pH (pH(i)) and extracellular pH (pH(e)) homeostasis and cell volume. Here, we summarized recent pre-clinical experimental studies on NKCC-1 and NHE-1 in GBM and other malignant tumors, such as breast cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, and lung cancer cells. These studies illustrated that pharmacological inhibition or down-regulation of these ion transporter proteins reduces proliferation, increases apoptosis, and suppresses migration and invasion of cancer cells. These new findings reveal the potentials of these ion transporters as new targets for cancer diagnosis and/or treatment. PMID:25620102

  18. Wilms Tumor Survival in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Axt, Jason; Abdallah, Fatmah; Axt, Meridith; Githanga, Jessie; Hansen, Erik; Lessan, Joel; Li, Ming; Musimbi, Joyce; Mwachiro, Michael; Newton, Mark; Ndung’u, James; Njuguna, Festis; Nzioka, Ancent; Oruko, Oliver; Patel, Kirtika; Tenge, Robert; Ukoli, Flora; White, Russel; O’Neill, James; Lovvorn, Harold

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Survival from Wilms Tumor (WT) exceeds 90% at 5 years in developed nations, whereas at last report, 2-year event-free survival (EFS) in Kenya reached only 35%. To clarify factors linked to these poor outcomes in Kenya, we established a comprehensive web-based WT registry, comprised of patients from the four primary hospitals treating childhood cancers. Materials and Methods WT patients diagnosed between January 2008 and January 2012 were identified. Files were abstracted for demographic characteristics, treatment regimens, and enrollment in the Kenyan National Hospital Insurance Fund (NHIF). Children under 15 years of age having both a primary kidney tumor on imaging and concordant histology consistent with WT were included. Results Two-year event-free survival (EFS) was 52.7% for all patients (n=133), although loss to follow up (LTFU) was 50%. For the 33 patients who completed all scheduled standard therapy, 2-year EFS was 94%. Patients enrolled in NHIF tended to complete more standard therapy and had a lower hazard of death (Cox 0.192, p <0.001). Conclusion Survival of Kenyan WT patients has increased slightly since last report. Notably, WT patients completing all phases of standard therapy experienced 2-year survival approaching the benchmarks of developed nations. Efforts in Kenya should be made to enhance compliance with WT treatment through NHIF enrollment. PMID:23845615

  19. Development of AntiTumor Immunity Following Thymidine Kinase-Mediated Killing of Experimental Brain Tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Barba; Joseph Hardin; Michel Sadelain; Fred H. Gage

    1994-01-01

    Using the 9L experimental brain tumor model, we studied long-term tumor regression and immunologic consequences of tumor killing in a model of in vivo gene transfer of the herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) gene and ganciclovir (GCV) treatments. Fibroblasts modified to produce retroviral vectors carrying the HSV-TK gene were implanted into established 9L brain tumors in Fischer 344

  20. Tumor specific phage particles promote tumor regression in a mouse melanoma model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fredrik Eriksson; W. David Culp; Robert Massey; Lars Egevad; Donita Garland; Mats A. A. Persson; Pavel Pisa

    2007-01-01

    Within cancer research, phage display libraries have been widely used for the identification of tumor targeting peptides and\\u000a antibodies. Additionally, phages are known to be highly immunogenic; therefore we evaluated the immunotherapeutic potential\\u000a of tumor specific phages to treat established solid tumors in a mouse model of melanoma. We developed two tumor specific phages,\\u000a one derived from a peptide phage

  1. Clinical Relevance of Tumor Cells with StemLike Properties in Pediatric Brain Tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cécile Thirant; Barbara Bessette; Pascale Varlet; Stéphanie Puget; Josette Cadusseau; Silvina Dos Reis Tavares; Jeanne-Marie Studler; David Carlos Silvestre; Aurélie Susini; Chiara Villa; Catherine Miquel; Alexandra Bogeas; Anne-Laure Surena; Amélia Dias-Morais; Nadine Léonard; Françoise Pflumio; Ivan Bièche; François D. Boussin; Christian Sainte-Rose; Jacques Grill; Catherine Daumas-Duport; Hervé Chneiweiss; Marie-Pierre Junier

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundPrimitive brain tumors are the leading cause of cancer-related death in children. Tumor cells with stem-like properties (TSCs), thought to account for tumorigenesis and therapeutic resistance, have been isolated from high-grade gliomas in adults. Whether TSCs are a common component of pediatric brain tumors and are of clinical relevance remains to be determined.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsTumor cells with self-renewal properties were isolated

  2. Somatostatin analog Sandostatin and inhibition of tumor growth in patients with metastatic endocrine gastroenteropancreatic tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rudolf Arnold; Christian Neuhaus; Ralph Benning; Wolf B. Schwerk; Michael E. Trautmann; Klaus Joseph; Christian Bruns

    1993-01-01

    A prospective study was performed to determine the efficacy of octreotide (Sandostatin®; SMS 201–995) 200 µg tid in controlling tumor growth. The study included 21 patients with metastasized endocrine GEP tumors: 6 gastrinomas, 8 carcinoid syndromes, 7 nonfunctioning tumors. Treatment was performed for 3 to 59 months (median 15 months). Evaluation of the response to octreotide was facilitated in 12

  3. Identification of Tumorsphere- and Tumor-Initiating Cells in HER2\\/Neu-Induced Mammary Tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeff C. Liu; Rajwinder S. Lehal; Jinny Kim

    2007-01-01

    A variety of human malignancies, including breast cancer, are thought to be organized in a hierarchy, whereby a relatively minor population of tumor initiating cells (TIC) is responsible for tumor growth and the vast majority of remaining cells is nontumorigenic. Analysis of TICs in model systems of breast cancer would offer uniform and accessible source of tumor cells and the

  4. Activity of drug-loaded tumor-penetrating microparticles in peritoneal pancreatic tumors.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ze; Tsai, Max; Wang, Jie; Cole, David J; Wientjes, M Guillaume; Au, Jessie L-S

    2014-01-01

    Intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy confers significant survival benefits in cancer patients. However, several problems, including local toxicity and ineffectiveness against bulky tumors, have prohibited it from becoming a standard of care. We have developed drug-loaded, polymeric tumor-penetrating microparticles (TPM) to address these problems. Initial studies showed that TPM provides tumor-selective delivery and is effective against ovarian SKOV3 tumors of relatively small size (<50 mg). The present study evaluated whether the TPM activity extends to other tumor types that are more bulky and have different morphologies and disease presentation. We evaluated TPM in mice bearing two IP human pancreatic tumors with different growth characteristics and morphologies (rapidly growing, large and porous Hs766T vs. slowly growing, smaller and densely packed MiaPaCa2), and at different disease stage (early stage with smaller tumors vs. late stage with larger tumors plus peritoneal carcinomatosis). Comparison of treatments with TPM or paclitaxel in Cremophor micelles, at equi-toxic doses, shows, in all tumor types: (a) higher paclitaxel levels in tumors (up to 55-fold) for TPM, (b) greater efficacy for TPM, including significantly longer survival and higher cure rate, and (c) a single dose of TPM was equally efficacious as multiple doses of paclitaxel/Cremophor. The results indicate tumor targeting property and superior antitumor activity of paclitaxel-loaded TPM are generalizable to small and large peritoneal tumors, with or without accompanying carcinomatosis. PMID:24200079

  5. Dll4 activation of Notch signaling reduces tumor vascularity and inhibits tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Cassin Kimmel; la Luz Sierra, Maria de; Bernardo, Marcelino; McCormick, Peter J.; Maric, Dragan; Regino, Celeste; Choyke, Peter; Tosato, Giovanna

    2008-01-01

    Gene targeting experiments have shown that Delta-like 4 (Dll4) is a vascular-specific Notch ligand critical to normal vascular development. Recent studies have demonstrated that inhibition of Dll4/Notch signaling in tumor-bearing mice resulted in excessive, yet nonproductive tumor neovascularization and unexpectedly reduced tumor growth. Because nonfunctional blood vessels have the potential to normalize, we explored the alternative approach of stimulating Notch signaling in the tumor vasculature to inhibit tumor growth. Here we show that retrovirus-induced over-expression of Dll4 in tumor cells activates Notch signaling in cocultured endothelial cells and limits vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)–induced endothelial cell growth. Tumors produced in mice by injection of human and murine tumor cells transduced with Dll4 were significantly smaller, less vascularized and more hypoxic than controls, and displayed evidence of Notch activation. In addition, tumor blood perfusion was reduced as documented by vascular imaging. These results demonstrate that Notch activation in the tumor microenvironment reduces tumor neovascularization and blood perfusion, and suggest that Dll4-induced Notch activation may represent an effective therapeutic approach for the treatment of solid tumors. PMID:18577711

  6. Management of Hydrocephalus in Children with Posterior Fossa Tumors: Role of Tumor Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernt Johan Due-Tønnessen; Eirik Helseth

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The majority of children with posterior fossa tumors have hydrocephalus (HC) at the time of presentation. There is no consensus regarding the management of HC in these children. Here, we report the rate of cure of HC with tumor surgery alone. Patients and Methods: This is a retrospective study of 87 children with posterior fossa tumors in which 35

  7. Tumor M2 pyruvate kinase: a tumor marker and its clinical application in gastrointestinal malignancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip D Hardt; Nils Ewald

    2008-01-01

    Proliferating cells, in particular tumor cells, express a dimeric isoenzyme of pyruvate kinase, termed Tumor M2 pyruvate kinase. In the last few years, much attention has been paid to this novel tumor marker that can be determined in EDTA-plasma and in the feces. It has been used in diagnosis and surveillance of a variety of malignant diseases. As compared with

  8. Tumoral expression of IL-33 inhibits tumor growth and modifies the tumor microenvironment through CD8+ T and NK cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xin; Wang, Xuefeng; Yang, Qianting; Zhao, Xin; Wen, Wen; Li, Gang; Lu, Junfeng; Qin, Wenxin; Qi, Yuan; Xie, Fang; Jiang, Jingting; Wu, Changping; Zhang, Xueguang; Chen, Xinchun; Turnquist, Heth; Zhu, Yibei; Lu, Binfeng

    2015-01-01

    Cancer immunotherapy has shown great promise as a new standard cancer therapeutic modality. However, the response rates are limited for current approach that depends on enhancing spontaneous antitumor immune responses. Therefore, increasing tumor immunogenicity by expressing appropriate cytokines should further improve the current immunotherapy. IL-33 is a member of the IL-1 family of cytokines and is released by necrotic epithelial cells or activated innate immune cells and is thus considered a "danger" signal. The role of IL-33 in promoting type 2 immune responses and tissue inflammation has been well established. However, whether IL-33 drives antitumor immune responses is controversial. Our previous work established that IL-33 promoted the function of CD8(+) T cells. In this study, we showed that the expression of IL-33 in two types of cancer cells potently inhibited tumor growth and metastasis. Mechanistically, IL-33 increased numbers and IFN-? production by CD8(+) T and NK cells in tumor tissues, thereby inducing a tumor microenvironment favoring tumor eradication. Importantly, IL-33 greatly increased tumor Ag-specific CD8(+) T cells. Furthermore, both NK and CD8(+) T cells were required for the antitumor effect of IL-33. Moreover, depletion of regulatory T cells worked synergistically with IL-33 expression for tumor elimination. Our studies established "alarmin" IL-33 as a promising new cytokine for tumor immunotherapy through promoting cancer-eradicating type 1 immune responses. PMID:25429071

  9. Modulation of Tumor Angiogenesis by Stem Cell Factor1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Zhang; George Stoica; Serban I. Tasca; Katherine A. Kelly; Cynthia J. Meininger

    2000-01-01

    Mast cells accumulate within solid tumors and can release many an- giogenic factors, suggesting that they may modulate vascularization of tumors. Stem cell factor (SCF) stimulates mast cell migration, prolifera- tion, and degranulation and therefore may influence mast cell behavior within tumors. We investigated the contribution of SCF to tumor angio- genesis by manipulating its level in mammary tumors. Sense

  10. Inhibition of Notch signaling targets breast tumor initiating cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Kondratyev

    2011-01-01

    The cancer stem cell hypothesis claims that only a small subpopulation of cells within a tumor is responsible for tumor growth, recurrence after treatment and metastasis. These cells have been termed tumor-initiating cells or cancer stem cells and are functionally defined by their capacity to elicit the growth of tumors in immune-compromised animals that recapitulate the cellularity of the tumor

  11. Does tumor growth follow a "universal law" ? Caterina Guiot*,

    E-print Network

    Grether, Gregory

    1 Does tumor growth follow a "universal law" ? Caterina Guiot*, , Piero Giorgio Degiorgis , , Pier recently proposed. Here we investigate the extension of this model to the growth of solid malignant tumors, relating properly rescaled tumor masses and tumor growth times. The results support the notion that tumor

  12. Intraoperative infrared imaging of brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Gorbach, Alexander M.; Heiss, John D.; Kopylev, Leonid; Oldfield, Edward H.

    2014-01-01

    Object Although clinical imaging defines the anatomical relationship between a brain tumor and the surrounding brain and neurological deficits indicate the neurophysiological consequences of the tumor, the effect of a brain tumor on vascular physiology is less clear. Methods An infrared camera was used to measure the temperature of the cortical surface before, during, and after removal of a mass in 34 patients (primary brain tumor in 21 patients, brain metastases in 10 and falx meningioma, cavernous angioma, and radiation necrosis–astrocytosis in one patient each). To establish the magnitude of the effect on blood flow induced by the tumor, the images were compared with those from a group of six patients who underwent temporal lobectomy for epilepsy. In four cases a cerebral artery was temporarily occluded during the course of the surgery and infrared emissions from the cortex before and after occlusion were compared to establish the relationship of local temperature to regional blood flow. Discrete temperature gradients were associated with surgically verified lesions in all cases. Depending on the type of tumor, the cortex overlying the tumor was either colder or warmer than the surrounding cortex. Spatial reorganization of thermal gradients was observed after tumor resection. Temperature gradients of the cortex in patients with tumors exceeded those measured in the cortex of patients who underwent epilepsy surgery. Conclusions Brain tumors induce changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the cortex, which can be made visible by performing infrared imaging during cranial surgery. A reduction in CBF beyond the tumor margin improves after removal of the lesion. PMID:15599965

  13. Temozolomide and O6-benzylguanine in Treating Children With Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-28

    Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors; Childhood Germ Cell Tumor; Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Kidney Cancer; Liver Cancer; Neuroblastoma; Ovarian Cancer; Sarcoma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  14. Enhanced delivery of liposomes to lung tumor through targeting interleukin-4 receptor on both tumor cells and tumor endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chi, Lianhua; Na, Moon-Hee; Jung, Hyun-Kyung; Vadevoo, Sri Murugan Poongkavithai; Kim, Cheong-Wun; Padmanaban, Guruprasath; Park, Tae-In; Park, Jae-Yong; Hwang, Ilseon; Park, Keon Uk; Liang, Frank; Lu, Maggie; Park, Jiho; Kim, In-San; Lee, Byung-Heon

    2015-07-10

    A growing body of evidence suggests that pathological lesions express tissue-specific molecular targets or biomarkers within the tissue. Interleukin-4 receptor (IL-4R) is overexpressed in many types of cancer cells, including lung cancer. Here we investigated the properties of IL-4R-binding peptide-1 (IL4RPep-1), a CRKRLDRNC peptide, and its ability to target the delivery of liposomes to lung tumor. IL4RPep-1 preferentially bound to H226 lung tumor cells which express higher levers of IL-4R compared to H460 lung tumor cells which express less IL-4R. Mutational analysis revealed that C1, R2, and R4 residues of IL4RPep-1 were the key binding determinants. IL4RPep-1-labeled liposomes containing doxorubicin were more efficiently internalized in H226 cells and effectively delivered doxorubicin into the cells compared to unlabeled liposomes. In vivo fluorescence imaging of nude mice subcutaneously xenotransplanted with H226 tumor cells indicated that IL4RPep-1-labeled liposomes accumulate more efficiently in the tumor and inhibit tumor growth more effectively compared to unlabeled liposomes. Interestingly, expression of IL-4R was high in vascular endothelial cells of tumor, while little was detected in vascular endothelial cells of control organs including the liver. IL-4R expression in cultured human vascular endothelial cells was also up-regulated when activated by a pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-?. Moreover, the up-regulation of IL-4R expression was observed in primary human lung cancer tissues. These results indicate that IL-4R-targeting nanocarriers may be a useful strategy to enhance drug delivery through the recognition of IL-4R in both tumor cells and tumor endothelial cells. PMID:25979323

  15. Gene Expression Profiling of Childhood Adrenocortical Tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alina Nico West; Geoffrey A. Neale; Stanley Pounds; Bonald C. Figueredo; Carlos RodriguezGalindo; Antonio G. Oliveira Filho; David Malkin; Enzo Lalli; Raul Ribeiro; Gerard P. Zambetti

    2007-01-01

    Pediatric adrenocortical tumors (ACT) are rare and often fatal malignancies; little is known regarding their etiology and biology. To provide additional insight into the nature of ACT, we determined the gene expression profiles of 24 pediatric tumors ( five adenomas, 18 carcinomas, and one undeter- mined) and seven normal adrenal glands. Distinct patterns of gene expression, validated by quantitative real-time

  16. Microfluidic Platforms for Capturing Circulating Tumor Cells

    E-print Network

    Tang, William C

    Microfluidic Platforms for Capturing Circulating Tumor Cells Sweta Gupta, Allison C. Baker-cost microfluidic device that can be used to isolate and capture circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from whole blood. The device was made from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) consisting of a microfluidic channel with microposts

  17. The Cavitron ultrasonic aspirator in tumor surgery.

    PubMed

    Epstein, F

    1983-01-01

    The CUSA Ultrasonic Surgical System fragments and aspirates a wide spectrum of firm tumors of the central nervous system with little transmitted movement to adjacent normal neural structures. The CUSA system is clearly of limited value in removing extremely calcified or dense fibrous tumors. It lacks primary hemostatic properties, and conventional hemostatic techniques are necessary. PMID:6680087

  18. Villous tumors of the duodenum and jejunum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seid-Hossein Mir-Madjlessi; Richard G. Farmer; William A. Hawk

    1973-01-01

    Three cases of villous tumors of the duodenum and one case of villous tumor of the jejunum are reported, and the literature of villous adenomas of the small intestine is reviewed. The clinical manifestations of villous adenomas of the small intestine are nonspecific gastrointestinal complaints, intestinal bleeding, intestinal obstruction including intussusception, and biliary tract involvement with obstructive jaundice. Roentgenographic study

  19. Cancer-associated fibroblasts in digestive tumors

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lei; Xu, A-Man; Liu, Sha; Liu, Wei; Li, Tuan-Jie

    2014-01-01

    The significant influence of tumor stroma on malignant cells has been extensively investigated in this era of targeted therapy. The tumor microenvironment, as a dynamic system, is orchestrated by various cells including tumor vascular composing cells, inflammatory cells and fibroblasts. As a major and important component in tumor stroma, increasing evidence has shown that spindle-shaped cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are a significant modifier of cancer evolution, and promote tumorigenesis, tumor invasion and metastasis by stimulating angiogenesis, malignant cell survival, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and proliferation via direct cell-to-cell contact or secretion of soluble factors in most digestive solid tumors. CAFs are thought to be activated, characterized by the expression of ?-smooth muscle actin, fibroblast activated protein, fibroblast specific protein, vimentin, fibronectin, etc. They are hypothesized to originate from normal or aged fibroblasts, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells, or vascular endothelial cells. EMT may also be an important process generating CAFs, and most probably, CAFs may originate from multiple cells. A close link exists between EMT, tumor stem cells, and chemo-resistance of tumor cells, which is largely orchestrated by CAFs. CAFs significantly induce immunosuppression, and may be a prognostic marker in various malignancies. Targeted therapy toward CAFs has displayed promising anticancer efficacy, which further reinforces the necessity to explore the relationship between CAFs and their hosts. PMID:25548479

  20. Genomic profiling of tumor initiating prostatospheres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Ana Duhagon; Elaine M Hurt; Jose R Sotelo-Silveira; Xiaohu Zhang; William L Farrar

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis proposes that a population of tumor cells bearing stem cell properties is responsible for the origin and maintenance of tumors. Normal and cancer stem cells possess the ability to grow in vitro as self-renewing spheres, but the molecular basis of this phenotype remains largely unknown. We intended to establish a comprehensive culture system

  1. Primary peritoneal malignant mixed mesodermal (Müllerian) tumor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahmoud R Hussein; Saad Rezk Abudlwahed Hussein; Ahmad Rezk Abd-Elwahed

    Aims and background. Malignant mixed mesodermal tumor (MMMT) is a biphasic neoplasm (carcinosarcoma) composed of both epithelial and mesenchymal ele - ments. Extragenital MMMT, including primary peritoneal MMMT, is an extremely rare tumor with features consistent with its origin from the secondary Müllerian sys - tem. The neoplastic elements of extragenital MMMT presumably arise directly from themesotheliumorsubmesothelialstromaandhenceparallelthebiphasicpatternof the genital (uterine

  2. Antiangiogenic Therapy in Brain Tumor Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. J. A. Bernsen; A. J. van der Kogel

    1999-01-01

    The prognosis of patients with malignant brain tumors remains poor despite new developments in neurosurgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Malignant gliomas are highly vascularized, and there is ample evidence that their growth is angiogenesis-dependent. Therefore, new therapeutic approaches often include the inhibition of angiogenesis. In this review, experimental studies of antiangiogenic agents in brain tumor models are summarized. The results of

  3. Tumorous diseases of turkeys - an update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This update is primarily focused on addressing various aspects of virus-induced tumorous diseases of turkeys including review of current methods for diagnosis and control of these diseases of turkeys. Virus-induced tumorous diseases of turkeys are caused primarily by retroviruses, namely reticuloend...

  4. An overview of tumorous diseases of turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This overview is primarily aimed at addressing various aspects of virus-induced tumorous diseases of turkeys including review of current methods for diagnosis and control of these diseases of turkeys. Virus-induced tumorous diseases of turkeys are caused primarily by retroviruses, namely reticuloend...

  5. Immunoconjugates Against Solid Tumors: Mind the Gap

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A D Ricart

    2011-01-01

    The objective of immunoconjugate development is to combine the specificity of immunoglobulins with the efficacy of cytotoxic molecules. This therapeutic approach has been validated in hematologic malignancies; however, several obstacles to achieving efficacy in treating solid tumors have been identified. These include insufficient specificity of targets and poor antibody delivery, most specifically to the tumor core. Heterogeneous antigen expression, imperfect

  6. Altered Tumor-Cell Glycosylation Promotes Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Häuselmann, Irina; Borsig, Lubor

    2014-01-01

    Malignant transformation of cells is associated with aberrant glycosylation presented on the cell-surface. Commonly observed changes in glycan structures during malignancy encompass aberrant expression and glycosylation of mucins; abnormal branching of N-glycans; and increased presence of sialic acid on proteins and glycolipids. Accumulating evidence supports the notion that the presence of certain glycan structures correlates with cancer progression by affecting tumor-cell invasiveness, ability to disseminate through the blood circulation and to metastasize in distant organs. During metastasis tumor-cell-derived glycans enable binding to cells in their microenvironment including endothelium and blood constituents through glycan-binding receptors – lectins. In this review, we will discuss current concepts how tumor-cell-derived glycans contribute to metastasis with the focus on three types of lectins: siglecs, galectins, and selectins. Siglecs are present on virtually all hematopoietic cells and usually negatively regulate immune responses. Galectins are mostly expressed by tumor cells and support tumor-cell survival. Selectins are vascular adhesion receptors that promote tumor-cell dissemination. All lectins facilitate interactions within the tumor microenvironment and thereby promote cancer progression. The identification of mechanisms how tumor glycans contribute to metastasis may help to improve diagnosis, prognosis, and aid to develop clinical strategies to prevent metastasis. PMID:24592356

  7. Comparative Genomic Hybridization Analysis of Adrenocortical Tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STAN SIDHU; DEBORAH J. MARSH; GEORGE THEODOSOPOULOS; JEANETTE PHILIPS; CHRISTOPHER P. BAMBACH; PETER CAMPBELL; CHRISTOPHER J. MAGAREY; COLIN F. J. RUSSELL; KLAUS-MARTIN SCHULTE; HANS-DIETRICH ROHER; LEIGH DELBRIDGE

    2010-01-01

    Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is a molecular cy- togenetic technique that allows the entire genome of a tumor to be surveyed for gains and losses of DNA copy sequences. A limited number of studies reporting the use of this technique in adult adrenocortical tumors have yielded conflicting results. In this study we performed CGH analysis on 13 malignant, 18 benign,

  8. Vascular tumors of the choroid and retina

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugam, P Mahesh; Ramanjulu, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Vascular tumors of the retina and choroid can be seen occasionally. In the following article, the key clinical and diagnostic features of the major retinal and choroidal vascular tumors, their systemic associations, and the literature pertaining to the most currently available treatment strategies are reviewed. PMID:25827544

  9. Transsacrococcygeal approach for resection of retrorectal tumors.

    PubMed

    Gong, Lei; Liu, Wei; Li, Peiyu; Huang, Xiaohui

    2015-06-01

    Retrorectal tumors, are a rare and interesting entity, traditionally managed with surgery. The surgical approach is a key to get an easy and safe access. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of resection by a transsacrococcygeal approach. Thirty-six patients had retrorectal tumors resected by a transsacrococcygeal approach in our department. All the tumors were en bloc resected, irrespective of size and anatomical depth. The clinic data were retrospectively reviewed. Tumor mean size was 10 ± 4.4 cm. In 16 cases, tumors were 10 cm or more in size. The largest tumor measured 20 cm. The estimated mean blood loss was 130 ml. No mortality and severe postoperative complications were observed. The most significant issues were wound infection and delayed healing. Pathology showed 15 cases of epidermal cysts, two cases of enterogenous cyst, one case of bronchogenic cyst, 12 cases of teratoma, two cases of schwannoma, two cases of low-grade malignant fibrous myxoma, one case of aggressive angiomyxoma, one case of desmoid tumor. The transsacrococcygeal approach gives an easy access and good visualization with fewer complications. This surgical approach shows to be safe and effective for resection of retrorectal tumors. PMID:26031268

  10. Towards the Standardization of Tumor Diagnosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The differential diagnosis of chicken tumors is important but has been difficult in practice for a variety of reasons. Methods and criteria have varied among laboratories. This poster is based on a new publication (1) designed to encourage greater standardization of tumor diagnosis. The use of a...

  11. Targeting Tumor Suppressor Networks for Cancer Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xuning Emily; Ngo, Bryan; Modrek, Aram Sandaldjian; Lee, Wen-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a consequence of mutations in genes that control cell proliferation, differentiation and cellular homeostasis. These genes are classified into two categories: oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Together, overexpression of oncogenes and loss of tumor suppressors are the dominant driving forces for tumorigenesis. Hence, targeting oncogenes and tumor suppressors hold tremendous therapeutic potential for cancer treatment. In the last decade, the predominant cancer drug discovery strategy has relied on a traditional reductionist approach of dissecting molecular signaling pathways and designing inhibitors for the selected oncogenic targets. Remarkable therapies have been developed using this approach; however, targeting oncogenes is only part of the picture. Our understanding of the importance of tumor suppressors in preventing tumorigenesis has also advanced significantly and provides a new therapeutic window of opportunity. Given that tumor suppressors are frequently mutated, deleted, or silenced with loss-of-function, restoring their normal functions to treat cancer holds tremendous therapeutic potential. With the rapid expansion in our knowledge on cancer over the last several decades, developing effective anticancer regimens against tumor suppressor pathways has never been more promising. In this article, we will review the concept of tumor suppression, and outline the major therapeutic strategies and challenges of targeting tumor suppressor networks for cancer therapeutics. PMID:24387338

  12. Photodynamic therapy of advanced malignant tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lian-Xing Wang; Lu-Pin Dai; Wen-Qin Lu

    1993-01-01

    Forty patients with advanced tumors were treated by photodynamic therapy (PDT) from May 1991 to August 1991 in our hospital with age ranges from 30 to 81 years old. The pathological diagnosis shows that 13 had tumors in the colon, 3 in the stomach, 2 in the oesophageal, 2 in the palatum, 1 in the cervix, and 19 others with

  13. Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the pelvis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shiu Yan J. Wat; Monalisa Sur; Kavita Dhamanaskar

    2008-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are well recognized in the pleura, but their occurrence at other sites has only become appreciated in recent years, as a consequence of which extrapleural examples often go unrecognized and misdiagnosed. Because of their rarity, overall experience concerning this tumor has not been significant and reports detailing radiological findings are few. We herein report an unusual

  14. Tumor stroma derived biomarkers in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sund, Malin; Kalluri, Raghu

    2015-01-01

    In recent years the importance of the tumor stroma for the development, promotion and invasion of cancer is becoming increasingly clear. Besides a malignantly transformed cancer cell, tumors also contains many other cell types, including endothelial cells, fibroblasts and cells of the immune system. These cells together with the cancer cells produce the sum extracellular matrix (ECM) of the tumor. The ECM and the non-malignant cells of the tumor are defined as the “tumor stroma”. Just as the malignant cell itself can be the source of substances that can be used as biomarkers of cancer, the tumor stroma contains factors that potentially can be used as biomarkers when treating patients with cancer. In this review we will discuss the role of the tumor stroma as a source of new cancer biomarkers. This concept highlights a novel view of cancer and treats them as organized organs. Additionally, this further stresses the importance of including factors related to the tumor stroma into the diagnostic and therapeutic equation of cancer. PMID:19259624

  15. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Yagnik, Vipul; Chadha, Amit; Chaudhari, Sanjay; Patel, Keyuri

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) of bladder is an uncommon benign tumor of bladder, which is of unknown neoplastic potential, characterized by spindle cell proliferation with characteristic fibroinflammatory and pseudosarcomatous appearance. Essential criteria for the diagnosis of IMT are: spindle myoepithelial cell proliferation and lymphocytic infiltrate. Complete surgical resection is the treatment of choice. PMID:20882160

  16. Shark Cartilage Contains Inhibitors of Tumor Angiogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Lee; Robert Langer

    1983-01-01

    Shark cartilage contains a substance that strongly inhibits the growth of new blood vessels toward solid tumors, thereby restricting tumor growth. The abundance of this factor in shark cartilage, in contrast to cartilage from mammalian sources, may make sharks an ideal source of the inhibitor and may help to explain the rarity of neoplasms in these animals.

  17. Dependence of FDG uptake on tumor microenvironment

    SciTech Connect

    Pugachev, Andrei [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)]. E-mail: pugachea@mskcc.org; Ruan, Shutian [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Carlin, Sean [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Larson, Steven M. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Campa, Jose [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Ling, C. Clifton [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Humm, John L. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2005-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the factors affecting the {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) uptake in tumors at a microscopic level, by correlating it with tumor hypoxia, cellular proliferation, and blood perfusion. Methods and Materials: Nude mice bearing Dunning prostate tumors (R3327-AT) were injected with {sup 18}F-FDG and pimonidazole, bromodeoxyuridine, and, 1 min before sacrifice, with Hoechst 33342. Selected tumor sections were imaged by phosphor plate autoradiography, while adjacent sections were used to obtain the images of the spatial distribution of Hoechst 33342, pimonidazole, and bromodeoxyuridine. The images were co-registered and analyzed on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Results: Statistical analysis of the data obtained from these tumors demonstrated that {sup 18}F-FDG uptake was positively correlated with pimonidazole staining intensity in each data set studied. Correlation of FDG uptake with bromodeoxyuridine staining intensity was always negative. In addition, FDG uptake was always negatively correlated with the staining intensity of Hoechst 33342. Conclusions: For the Dunning prostate tumors studied, FDG uptake was always positively correlated with hypoxia and negatively correlated with both cellular proliferation and blood flow. Therefore, for the tumor model studied, higher FDG uptake is indicative of tumor hypoxia, but neither blood flow nor cellular proliferation.

  18. Acinar pancreatic tumor with metastatic fat necrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Armin E. Good; Bertram Schnitzer; Hidenori Kawanishi; Kyriakos C. Demetropoulos; Robert Rapp

    1976-01-01

    Summary This report deals with a pancreatic tumor associated with metastatic fat necrosis. Our patient displayed the full gamut of nodular panniculitis, polyarthritis, fever, eosinophilia, hyperlipasemia, lytic bones lesions, and marrow fat necrosis. The rheumatologic features are reviewed. Elevated serum lipase is a most helpful laboratory confirmation. The tumor in our patient presented a difficult problem in classification. Although the

  19. Breast cancer intra-tumor heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In recent years it has become clear that cancer cells within a single tumor can display striking morphological, genetic and behavioral variability. Burgeoning genetic, epigenetic and phenomenological data support the existence of intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity in breast cancers; however, its basis is yet to be fully defined. Two of the most widely evoked concepts to explain the origin of heterogeneity within tumors are the cancer stem cell hypothesis and the clonal evolution model. Although the cancer stem cell model appeared to provide an explanation for the variability among the neoplastic cells within a given cancer, advances in massively parallel sequencing have provided several lines of evidence to suggest that intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity likely plays a fundamental role in the phenotypic heterogeneity observed in cancers. Many challenges remain, however, in the interpretation of the next generation sequencing results obtained so far. Here we review the models that explain tumor heterogeneity, the causes of intra-tumor genetic diversity and their impact on our understanding and management of breast cancer, methods to study intra-tumor heterogeneity and the assessment of intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity in the clinic. PMID:25928070

  20. Retroperitoneal Extragastrointestinal Stromal Tumor: Radiologic Pathologic Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Watal, Pankaj; Brahmbhatt, Swetang G.; Thoriya, Prashant J.; Bahri, Nandini U.

    2014-01-01

    Neoplasms with histology and immunohistochemistry similar to gastrointestinal stromal tumors may occur primarily outside the gastrointestinal tract, usually in the omentum and mesentery. These are referred to as extragastrointestinal stromal tumors (EGISTs). Retroperitoneum is a very rare site for such neoplasms. We report a patient with EGIST in the retroperitoneum, elaborating the cross-sectional imaging and histopathologic findings. PMID:25161803

  1. Simulating tumor growth in confined heterogeneous environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gevertz, Jana L.; Gillies, George T.; Torquato, Salvatore

    2008-09-01

    The holy grail of computational tumor modeling is to develop a simulation tool that can be utilized in the clinic to predict neoplastic progression and propose individualized optimal treatment strategies. In order to develop such a predictive model, one must account for many of the complex processes involved in tumor growth. One interaction that has not been incorporated into computational models of neoplastic progression is the impact that organ-imposed physical confinement and heterogeneity have on tumor growth. For this reason, we have taken a cellular automaton algorithm that was originally designed to simulate spherically symmetric tumor growth and generalized the algorithm to incorporate the effects of tissue shape and structure. We show that models that do not account for organ/tissue geometry and topology lead to false conclusions about tumor spread, shape and size. The impact that confinement has on tumor growth is more pronounced when a neoplasm is growing close to, versus far from, the confining boundary. Thus, any clinical simulation tool of cancer progression must not only consider the shape and structure of the organ in which a tumor is growing, but must also consider the location of the tumor within the organ if it is to accurately predict neoplastic growth dynamics.

  2. Citología intraoperatoria de tumores del estroma gastrointestinal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mercedes Santamaría Martínez; Ana Bertol Uso; Irene Amat Villegas; Raquel Beloqui Pérez

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY Introduction: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are frequent mesenchymal tumors origi- nating from Cajal interstitial cells (CIC). They are localized in the digestive tract wall but do not usually involve the mucosa and therefore can be difficult to detect by endoscopic biopsy. A preo- perative diagnosis can sometimes be made on the basis of fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy. In

  3. Discovery of Tumor Suppressor Gene Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheimer, Steven B.

    1995-01-01

    This is an update of a 1991 review on tumor suppressor genes written at a time when understanding of how the genes work was limited. A recent major breakthrough in the understanding of the function of tumor suppressor genes is discussed. (LZ)

  4. High Efficiency Diffusion Molecular Retention Tumor Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanyan; Yuan, Hushan; Cho, Hoonsung; Kuruppu, Darshini; Jokivarsi, Kimmo; Agarwal, Aayush; Shah, Khalid; Josephson, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Here we introduce diffusion molecular retention (DMR) tumor targeting, a technique that employs PEG-fluorochrome shielded probes that, after a peritumoral (PT) injection, undergo slow vascular uptake and extensive interstitial diffusion, with tumor retention only through integrin molecular recognition. To demonstrate DMR, RGD (integrin binding) and RAD (control) probes were synthesized bearing DOTA (for 111 In3+), a NIR fluorochrome, and 5 kDa PEG that endows probes with a protein-like volume of 25 kDa and decreases non-specific interactions. With a GFP-BT-20 breast carcinoma model, tumor targeting by the DMR or IV methods was assessed by surface fluorescence, biodistribution of [111In] RGD and [111In] RAD probes, and whole animal SPECT. After a PT injection, both probes rapidly diffused through the normal and tumor interstitium, with retention of the RGD probe due to integrin interactions. With PT injection and the [111In] RGD probe, SPECT indicated a highly tumor specific uptake at 24 h post injection, with 352%ID/g tumor obtained by DMR (vs 4.14%ID/g by IV). The high efficiency molecular targeting of DMR employed low probe doses (e.g. 25 ng as RGD peptide), which minimizes toxicity risks and facilitates clinical translation. DMR applications include the delivery of fluorochromes for intraoperative tumor margin delineation, the delivery of radioisotopes (e.g. toxic, short range alpha emitters) for radiotherapy, or the delivery of photosensitizers to tumors accessible to light. PMID:23505478

  5. Materials Based Tumor Immunotherapy Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weiwei Aileen; Mooney, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Immunotherapy is a promising approach for treating cancer. However, there are limitations inherent to current approaches which may be addressed by integrating them with biomaterial-based strategies. Material platforms have been fabricated to interact with immune cells through spatially- and temporally-controlled delivery of immune modulators and to promote immune cell crosstalk. Particle vaccines have been developed to specifically target and deliver agents to organs, cells and subcellular compartments. These strategies have been shown to generate antigen-specific CTL responses and, in some cases, tumor regression. Therefore, collaboration between immunology and materials engineering is likely to result in the creation of strong vaccines to combat cancer in the future. PMID:23337254

  6. [Tumor markers for hepatocellular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Tateishi, Ryosuke; Enooku, Kenichiro; Shiina, Shuichiro; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2012-05-01

    Three tumor markers for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are available in Japan: alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonists-II (PIVKA-II), and Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-L3). Although AFP has drawbacks in its specificity, it is widely utilized in treatment evaluation and prognosis prediction. PIVKA-II is a unique marker that does not correlate with AFP value and can predict microvascular invasion. AFP-L3 is a highly specific marker and strong predictor of poor prognosis. These three markers are indispensable in every aspect of clinical practice of hepatocellular carcinoma including surveillance, diagnosis, treatment evaluation, and prognosis prediction. PMID:22620007

  7. Creating a tumor-resistant microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zoubi, Mazhar; Salem, Ahmed F.; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E.; Whitaker-Menezes, Diana; Lamb, Rebecca; Hulit, James; Howell, Anthony; Gandara, Ricardo; Sartini, Marina; Arafat, Hwyda; Bevilacqua, Generoso; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we provide the necessary proof of concept, that it is possible to metabolically create a non-permissive or “hostile” stromal microenvironment, which actively prevents tumor engraftment in vivo. We developed a novel genetically engineered fibroblast cell line that completely prevents tumor formation in mice, with a 100% protection rate. No host side effects were apparent. This could represent a viable cellular strategy for preventing and treating a variety of human cancers. More specifically, we examined the autocrine and paracrine effects of the cellular delivery of TNF? on breast cancer tumor growth and cancer metabolism. For this purpose, we recombinantly overexpressed TNF? in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) or human immortalized fibroblasts (hTERT-BJ1). Our results directly show that TNF? functions as a potent tumor suppressor. Remarkably, TNF?-expressing breast cancer cells were viable, without any significant increases in their basal apoptotic rate. However, after 4 weeks post-implantation, TNF?-expressing breast cancer cells failed to form any tumors in xenografted mice (0 tumors/10 injections), ultimately conferring 100% protection against tumorigenesis. Similarly, TNF?-overexpressing fibroblasts were also viable, without any increases in apoptosis. Significantly, complete tumor suppression was obtained by co-injecting TNF? expressing stromal fibroblasts with human breast cancer cells, indicating that paracrine cell-mediated delivery of TNF? can also prevent tumor engraftment and growth (0 tumors/10 injections). Mechanistically, TNF? induced autophagy and mitochondrial dysfunction in both epithelial cancer cells and stromal fibroblasts, preventing energy transfer from the tumor microenvironment, likely “starving” the cancer cells to death. In addition, via qRT-PCR analysis of MDA-MB-231 cells, we observed that TNF? mediated the upregulation of gene transcripts associated with inflammation and senescence [IL-1-?, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, COX-2, p21(WAF1/CIP1)] and downregulated known tumor-promoting genes (collagen VI and MMP2). Recombinant overexpression of TNF? receptor(s) in MDA-MB-231 cells also significantly reduced tumor growth, but was not as effective as the TNF? ligand itself in preventing tumor growth. Thus, we propose that stromal cell-mediated delivery of TNF? to human tumors [using transfected fibroblasts or mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs)] may be a novel and effective strategy for the prevention and treatment of human cancers. PMID:23292149

  8. Spinal and Paraspinal Ewing Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Indelicato, Daniel J., E-mail: dindelicato@floridaproton.or [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Keole, Sameer R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Shahlaee, Amir H. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); Morris, Christopher G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Gibbs, C. Parker; Scarborough, Mark T. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); Pincus, David W. [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); Marcus, Robert B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: To perform a review of the 40-year University of Florida experience treating spinal and paraspinal Ewing tumors. Patients and Methods: A total of 27 patients were treated between 1965 and 2007. For local management, 21 patients were treated with radiotherapy (RT) alone and 6 with surgery plus RT. All patients with metastatic disease were treated with RT alone. The risk profiles of each group were otherwise similar. The median age was 17 years, and the most frequent subsite was the sacral spine (n = 9). The median potential follow-up was 16 years. Results: The 5-year actuarial overall survival, cause-specific survival, and local control rate was 62%, 62%, and 90%, respectively. For the nonmetastatic subset (n = 22), the 5-year overall survival, cause-specific survival, and local control rate was 71%, 71%, and 89%, respectively. The local control rate was 84% for patients treated with RT alone vs. 100% for those treated with surgery plus RT. Patients who were >14 years old and those who were treated with intensive therapy demonstrated superior local control. Of 9 patients in our series with Frankel C or greater neurologic deficits at presentation, 7 experienced a full recovery with treatment. Of the 27 patients, 37% experienced Common Toxicity Criteria Grade 3 or greater toxicity, including 2 deaths from sepsis. Conclusion: Aggressive management of spinal and paraspinal Ewing tumors with RT with or without surgery results in high toxicity but excellent local control and neurologic outcomes. Efforts should be focused on identifying disease amenable to combined modality local therapy and improving RT techniques.

  9. Thermal Ablation of Lung Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sonntag, P. David; Hinshaw, J. Louis; Lubner, Meghan G.; Brace, Christopher L.; Lee, Fred T.

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death in the United States, accounting for an estimated 29% of cancer deaths in 2009.1 Pneumonectomy or lobectomy with hilar and mediastinal lymph node sampling is the gold standard treatment and offers the best option for cure of stage 1/2 nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC).2 Unfortunately, only 15% of patients present with stage 1/2 disease, and many of these patients do not meet the pulmonary physiologic guidelines for lobar resection.3 In addition to lung cancer, pulmonary metastases are present in 25% to 30% of patients dying from all types of cancer.4 For some patients with oligometastatic pulmonary disease, metastectomy is associated with an improvement in survival.5 External beam radiation traditionally has been offered as the alternative to surgical resection for NSCLC or pulmonary metastatic disease. Unfortunately, the 5-year survival following radiation for stage 1 and 2 NSCLC remains low at 15% to 20%, with local recurrence being the most common mode of failure.6,7 Thermal ablation offers an intriguing therapeutic option to increase local tumor control and survival in patients with early stage NSCLC or with limited metastatic disease from nonlung primaries who are not surgical candidates because of poor cardiopulmonary reserve, anatomic constraints limiting resection, failure of traditional therapies, or refusal of operative approaches. Thermal ablation has been shown to be effective in treating tumors in bone, kidney, and liver.8–11 Most preclinical and clinical trials have focused on demonstrating the feasibility of three modalities for pulmonary thermal ablation, namely radiofrequency (RF) ablation, microwave (MW) ablation, and cryoablation. This article discusses the unique challenges of performing thermal ablation in lung tissue and reviews the current literature regarding RF, MW, and cryoablation in the lung. PMID:21377589

  10. Radiotherapy for Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Contessa, Joseph N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Griffith, Kent A. [Comprehensive Cancer Center Biostatistics Unit, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Wolff, Elizabeth [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ensminger, William; Zalupski, Mark [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ben-Josef, Edgar, E-mail: edgarb@med.umich.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNTs) are rare malignant neoplasms considered to be resistant to radiotherapy (RT), although data on efficacy are scarce. We reviewed our institutional experience to further delineate the role of RT for patients with PNTs. Methods and Materials: Between 1986 and 2006, 36 patients with PNTs were treated with RT to 49 sites. Of these 36 patients, 23 had radiographic follow-up data, which were used to determine the tumor response rate and freedom from local progression. Long-term toxicity was graded according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Results: The overall response rate to RT was 39% (13% complete response, 26% partial response, 56% stable disease, and 4% progressive disease). A significant difference in the freedom from local progression between the groups receiving either greater than or less than the median 2 Gy/fraction biologically equivalent dose of 49.6 Gy was found, with all radiographic progression occurring in patients who had received <=32 Gy. The actuarial 3-year local freedom from progression rate was 49%. Palliation was achieved in 90% of patients, with either improvement or resolution of symptoms after RT. Of 35 patients, 33 had metastatic disease at their referral for RT, and the median overall survival for this patient population was 2 years. Three long-term Grade 3 or greater toxicities were recorded. Conclusion: RT is an effective modality for achieving local control in patients with PNTs. RT produces high rates of symptomatic palliation and freedom from local progression. Prospective trials of radiotherapy for PNTs are warranted.

  11. Morphogenesis and Complexity of the Tumor Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izquierdo-Kulich, E.; Nieto-Villar, J. M.

    A mechanism to describe the apoptosis process at mesoscopic level through p53 is proposed in this paper. A deterministic model given by three differential equations is deduced from the mesoscopic approach, which exhibits sustained oscillations caused by a supercritical Andronov-Hopf bifurcation. Taking as hypothesis that the p53 sustained oscillation is the fundamental mechanism for apoptosis regulation; the model predicts that it is necessary a strict control of p53 to stimulated it, which is an important consideration to established new therapy strategy to fight cancer. The mathematical modeling of tumor growth allows us to describe the most important regularities of these systems. A stochastic model, based on the most important processes that take place at the level of individual cells, is proposed to predict the dynamical behavior of the expected radius of the tumor and its fractal dimension. It was found that the tumor has a characteristic fractal dimension, which contains the necessary information to predict the tumor growth until it reaches a stationary state. The mathematical modeling of tumor growth is an approach to explain the complex nature of these systems. A model that describes tumor growth was obtained by using a mesoscopic formalism and fractal dimension. This model theoretically predicts the relation between the morphology of the cell pattern and the mitosis/apoptosis quotient that helps to predict tumor growth from tumoral cells fractal dimension. The relation between the tumor macroscopic morphology and the cell pattern morphology is also determined. This could explain why the interface fractal dimension decreases with the increase of the cell pattern fractal dimension and consequently with the increase of the mitosis/apoptosis relation. Indexes to characterize tumoral cell proliferation and invasion capacities are proposed and used to predict the growth of different types of tumors. These indexes also show that the proliferation capacity is directly proportional to the invasion capacity. The proposed model assumes: i) only interface cells proliferate and invade the host, and ii) the fractal dimension of tumoral cell patterns, can reproduce the Gompertzian growth law. A mathematical model was obtained to describe the relation between the tissue morphology of cervix carcinoma and both dynamic processes of mitosis and apoptosis, and an expression to quantify the tumor aggressiveness, which in this context is associated with the tumor growth rate. The proposed model was applied to Stage III cervix carcinoma in vivo studies. In this study we found that the apoptosis rate was significantly smaller in the tumor tissues and both the mitosis rate and aggressiveness index decrease with Stage III patient's age. These quantitative results correspond to observed behavior in clinical and genetics studies. Finally, the entropy production rate was determined for avascular tumor growth. The proposed formula relates the fractal dimension of the tumor contour with the quotient between mitosis and apoptosis rate, which can be used to characterize the degree of proliferation of tumor cells. The entropy production rate was determined for fourteen tumor cell lines as a physical function of cancer robustness. The entropy production rate is a hallmark that allows us the possibility of prognosis of tumor proliferation and invasion capacities, key factors to improve cancer therapy.

  12. Radiation therapy in pediatric pineal tumors.

    PubMed

    Claude, L; Faure-Conter, C; Frappaz, D; Mottolèse, C; Carrie, C

    2015-01-01

    Pineal tumor management in pediatric patients must be based on close co-operation between oncologists, surgeons, radiation oncologists, neurologists, ophthalmologists, and endocrinologists. Radiation therapy (RT) remains critical in most situations and should be assessed as soon as the diagnosis is made, in order to optimize the radiation technique. This paper will focus on RT modalities, indications, as well as modalities in main pediatric pineal tumors (germ cell tumors and pineal parenchyma tumors). RT modalities are presently being debated and new RT techniques (intensity-modulated RT, proton therapy etc.) that are now available for pineal lesions need to be evaluated. Radiation strategies are also controversial for germ cell tumors: cranio-spinal radiation versus chemotherapy followed by focal radiation, which also requires discussion. PMID:25612810

  13. Strange Attractor in Immunology of Tumor Growth

    E-print Network

    Margarita Voitikova

    1997-08-21

    The time delayed cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response on the tumor growth has been developed on the basis of discrete approximation (2-dimensional map). The growth kinetic has been described by logistic law with growth rate being the bifurcation parameter. Increase in the growth rate results in instability of the tumor state and causes period-doubling bifurcations in the immune+tumor system. For larger values of tumor growth rate a strange attractor has been observed. The model proposed is able to describe the metastable-state production when time series data of the immune state and the number of tumor cells are irregular and unpredictable. This metastatic disease may be caused not by exterior (medical) factors, but interior density dependent ones.

  14. Malignant Sweat Gland Tumors: An Update.

    PubMed

    Brenn, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Sweat gland carcinomas represent an important and somewhat contentious group of tumors in diagnostic skin pathology. Although their overall incidence is rare, they show a wide range of histologic features, and reliable classification is often challenging. Awareness and recognition of these tumors is, however, important as they may be associated with significant morbidity and even disease-related mortality, especially if left untreated. According to their behavior, sweat gland carcinomas are traditionally separated into tumors with low-grade and high-grade malignant behavior. This article is aimed at increasing awareness and providing an overview of malignant sweat gland tumors with emphasis on recently reported and novel findings and diagnostically challenging and potentially underrecognized entities. It further aims to illustrate the wide morphologic range of these tumors and provides a discussion of the relevant immunohistochemistry, disease-specific behavior, and differential diagnosis. PMID:26050261

  15. [Cytoreductive surgery for malignant peritoneal tumors].

    PubMed

    Piso, P; Leebmann, H; März, L; Mayr, M

    2015-01-01

    Cytoreductive surgery is an essential part of a multimodality treatment concept for peritoneal metastases. Indications are primary peritoneal tumors like peritoneal mesothelioma or secondaries from colorectal cancer or pseudomyxoma peritonei. Patients with gastric or ovarian carcinoma or abdominal sarcoma with peritoneal seedings can be treated within studies. Tumor entity, tumor load, and tumor distribution are the most critical issues for patient selection. Complete macroscopic cytoreduction is the strongest prognostic factor and can be achieved by parietal and visceral peritonectomy. The operation should be performed in a standardized manner. Due to possible tumor manifestation in all four quadrants of the abdomen and extensive extraperitoneal dissection, extensive surgical and oncological expertise is prerequisite. Treatment in specialized surgical oncology centers is recommended to minimize morbidity and mortality. The German Society for General and Visceral Surgery is certifying centers of competence for surgical treatment of peritoneal malignancies. Data of all patients are documented in the HIPEC register. The inclusion of patients in studies is recommended. PMID:24722868

  16. Cell Fusion Connects Oncogenesis with Tumor Evolution.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaofeng; Merchak, Kevin; Lee, Woojin; Grande, Joseph P; Cascalho, Marilia; Platt, Jeffrey L

    2015-07-01

    Cell fusion likely drives tumor evolution by undermining chromosomal and DNA stability and/or by generating phenotypic diversity; however, whether a cell fusion event can initiate malignancy and direct tumor evolution is unknown. We report that a fusion event involving normal, nontransformed, cytogenetically stable epithelial cells can initiate chromosomal instability, DNA damage, cell transformation, and malignancy. Clonal analysis of fused cells reveals that the karyotypic and phenotypic potential of tumors formed by cell fusion is established immediately or within a few cell divisions after the fusion event, without further ongoing genetic and phenotypic plasticity, and that subsequent evolution of such tumors reflects selection from the initial diverse population rather than ongoing plasticity of the progeny. Thus, one cell fusion event can both initiate malignancy and fuel evolution of the tumor that ensues. PMID:26066710

  17. Blood porphyrin luminescence and tumor growth correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courrol, Lilia Coronato; Silva, Flávia Rodrigues de Oliveira; Bellini, Maria Helena; Mansano, Ronaldo Domingues; Schor, Nestor; Vieira, Nilson Dias, Jr.

    2007-02-01

    Fluorescence technique appears very important for the diagnosis of cancer. Fluorescence detection has advantages over other light-based investigation methods: high sensitivity, high speed, and safety. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for approximately 3% of new cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. Unfortunately many RCC masses remain asymptomatic and nonpalpable until they are advanced. Diagnosis and localization of early carcinoma play an important role in the prevention and curative treatment of RCC. Certain drugs or chemicals such as porphyrin derivatives accumulate substantially more in tumors than normal tissues. The autofluorescence of blood porphyrin of healthy and tumor induced male SCID mice was analyzed using fluorescence and excitation spectroscopy. A significant contrast between normal and tumor blood could be established. Blood porphyrin fluorophore showed enhanced fluorescence band (around 630 nm) in function of the tumor growth. This indicates that either the autofluorescence intensity of the blood fluorescence may provide a good parameter for the "first approximation" characterization of the tumor stage.

  18. Genes Expressed in Human Tumor Endothelium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St. Croix, Brad; Rago, Carlo; Velculescu, Victor; Traverso, Giovanni; Romans, Katharine E.; Montgomery, Elizabeth; Lal, Anita; Riggins, Gregory J.; Lengauer, Christoph; Vogelstein, Bert; Kinzler, Kenneth W.

    2000-08-01

    To gain a molecular understanding of tumor angiogenesis, we compared gene expression patterns of endothelial cells derived from blood vessels of normal and malignant colorectal tissues. Of over 170 transcripts predominantly expressed in the endothelium, 79 were differentially expressed, including 46 that were specifically elevated in tumor-associated endothelium. Several of these genes encode extracellular matrix proteins, but most are of unknown function. Most of these tumor endothelial markers were expressed in a wide range of tumor types, as well as in normal vessels associated with wound healing and corpus luteum formation. These studies demonstrate that tumor and normal endothelium are distinct at the molecular level, a finding that may have significant implications for the development of anti-angiogenic therapies.

  19. Diagnostic laparoscopic biopsy for intraabdominal tumors.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Yasuo; Karashima, Ryuichi; Ida, Satoshi; Imamura, Yu; Iwagami, Shiro; Baba, Yoshifumi; Miyamoto, Yuji; Yoshida, Naoya; Baba, Hideo

    2015-03-01

    Improvements in imaging technology have resulted in an increase in the incidental detection of intraabdominal tumors. Diagnostic computed tomography (CT)- and ultrasound (US)-guided biopsy, while minimally invasive, often provides specimens that are insufficient for histological evaluation. Moreover, it can be difficult to perform because the location and size of the tumor. In such cases, laparoscopic biopsy is useful because it is less invasive than laparotomy, but more reliable than imaging-guided biopsy, to obtain a sufficient specimen, regardless of the location and size of the tumor. We report a series of seven patients who underwent laparoscopic biopsy of intraabdominal tumors of unknown origin. There were no cases of conversion to laparotomy and all patients were able to resume oral intake on postoperative day 1. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. Thus, laparoscopic biopsy for a tumor of unknown origin is useful and minimally invasive. PMID:25212568

  20. TWISTED TANGO: Brain Tumor Neurovascular Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Hjelmeland, Anita B.; Lathia, Justin D.; Sathornsumetee, Sith; Rich, Jeremy N.

    2013-01-01

    The brain is a remarkably complicated organ with complexity derived from cellular and microenvironmental interactions. Similarly, brain tumor cells actively modify and are regulated by their microenvironment. Brain tumors are highly heterogeneous and frequently display a cellular hierarchy with self-renewing tumorigenic brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs) at the apex. While BTSCs are distinct from neural stem cells, they share characteristics including bidirectional interplay with supportive vasculature critical for maintenance of undifferentiated states and survival. BTSCs stimulate angiogenesis through growth factor secretion and are enriched in perivascular niches. Microenvironmental conditions – including hypoxia– drive expression of stem cell genes and pro-angiogenic factors further linking cellular hierarchy regulation and instructive stromal elements. BTSCs may also directly contribute to tumor vasculature through plasticity towards an endothelial lineage. Interrogating the co-dependence of BTSCs and the perivascular niche may directly inform clinical approaches for brain tumor therapy through targeting of highly angiogenic and tumorigenic cellular subsets. PMID:22030548

  1. Solitary Fibrous Tumor With Myxoid Stromal Change.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Yong; Park, So Eun; Shin, Soo Jung; Kim, Chul Woo; Kim, Sang Seok; Kim, Kwang Ho

    2015-07-01

    We report the case of a 46-year-old Korean woman who presented with a 5-month history of a hyperkeratotic plaque on the left palm. On examination, the plaque showed an annular pattern with an umbilicated central nodule and a peripheral palisading induration, which had a verrucous surface. After surgical resection, histopathologic analysis revealed that the tumor was composed of haphazardly arranged spindle cells and displayed a predominantly myxoid appearance in the stroma. The tumor cells were positive for CD34 and bcl-2, but negative for smooth muscle actin and S-100. The clinical manifestation and histopathologic findings were most consistent with a diagnosis of solitary fibrous tumor with myxoid stromal change. There was no evidence of recurrence or metastasis during the 8-month follow-up period. This case highlights the importance of an accurate diagnosis of solitary fibrous tumors, which may have extensive myxoid stromal change, hence mimicking other myxoid-type spindle cell tumors. PMID:25140663

  2. Diagnosis and treatment of pineal region tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Neuwelt, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this volume is to review the pertinent literature dealing with pineal tumors and thus aid in the handling of these rather uncommon lesions. After the first, introductory, chapter, three chapters treat the pathology and diagnosis of pineal tumors. There is also one chapter on intracranial germ cell tumors (natural history and pathogenesis) and one on the normal function of the pineal gland. With the exception of the chapter on diagnostic radiology of pineal tumors, which seems somewhat superficial, these five chapters summarize current knowledge about the nature of these complex lesions and their symptomatology very well. The next nine chapters deal with biopsy and surgery of these tumors and how to manage the patient. The first of these gives a historical review of the development of surgical techniques - from the first attempt by Horsley in 1905 to the microsurgical techniques of today. It is followed by a very important and detailed description of the microsurgical anatomy of the pineal region.

  3. Vascular basophilia in ocular and orbital tumors.

    PubMed

    Stowe, G C; Zakov, Z N; Albert, D M; Smith, T R; Sang, D N; Craft, J L

    1979-10-01

    The occurrence of vascular basophilia in ocular tumors has been a selective histologic feature of retinoblastomas. We recently observed a metastatic oat-cell carcinoma to the choroid which also demonstrated such a vascular hematoxyphilia. Histologic review of a variety of ocular and orbital metastatic carcinomas failed to yield a similar basophilic pattern. Examination of 100 consecutive retinoblastomas for vascular basophilia revealed an incidence of 6.0%. Similar material was not seen in any of 125 melanomas, including 10 with areas of necrosis. Histochemical studies showed the basophilic material to be DNA, and electron microscopy revealed the nuclear debris of pyknotic tumor cells to be continuous with identical material surrounding the adjacent blood vessels. The pathogenesis of vascular deposition of DNA in these two ocular tumors remains unclear. This finding most likely represents a form of tumor activity requiring comparatively healthy blood vessels to adequately precipitate liberated nucleic acids being filtered from the necrotic and degenerating tumor tissue. PMID:225286

  4. Morphologic spectrum of glial tumors: an increased trend towards oligodendroglial tumors in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Glial tumors are most common brain tumors in our population. While the exact etiology and pathogenesis is unknown, the evaluation of current trends in the frequency and morphology of glial tumors is imperative to constitute better diagnostic and treatment protocols. Data pertaining to frequency and spectrum of glial tumors is scarcely available in our population. The aim of this study was to determine the morphologic spectrum of glial tumors prevalent in our population. Method 126 cases of glial tumors were retrospectively analyzed over a period of 5 years. Patients from all age groups and both genders were included in this study. Glial tumors were classified and graded according to WHO classification. Results Glial tumors were more common in males with a sex ratio of 2:1 and mean age of 38.26 years. Astrocytomas were most common glial tumors (51.6%) followed by oligodendrogliomas (23%). Glioblastoma was the most frequent astrocytic tumor and was incomparably frequent in older age group. Conclusion In our study, Oligodendrogliomas and mixed oligoastrocytomas represent major pattern of disease in comparison with available regional data. Knowledge of these changing trends and patterns of glial tumor morphology and frequency can help in improvements and applications of newly emerging diagnostic and treatment modalities. PMID:25009580

  5. ULTRASONOGRAPHIC FEATURES OF CANINE GASTROINTESTINAL STROMAL TUMORS COMPARED TO OTHER GASTROINTESTINAL SPINDLE CELL TUMORS.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Joshua; Sutherland-Smith, James; Penninck, Dominique; Jennings, Samuel; Barber, Lisa; Barton, Bruce

    2015-07-01

    Canine gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are a recent subtype of gastrointestinal spindle cell tumor recognized with the increasing use of immunohistochemistry. To our knowledge, no imaging features have been described in immunistochemically confirmed canine GISTs. The objective of this retrospective, cross-sectional study was to describe ultrasonographic features of canine GISTs compared with other spindle cell tumors. Thirty-seven dogs with an ultrasonographically visible gastrointestinal mass and a histopathologic diagnosis of spindle cell neoplasia were examined. Immunohistochemistry staining was performed for retrieved tissue samples to further differentiate the tumor type and each sample was interpreted by a single veterinary pathologist. Ultrasonographic features recorded examined included mass echogenicity, homogeneity, presence of cavitation, layer of origin, bowel wall symmetry, and loss of wall layering, location, size, vascularity, and evidence of perforation or ulceration. Tumor types included 19 GISTs, eight leiomyosarcomas, six leiomyomas, and four nonspecified sarcomas. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors were significantly more likely to be associated (P < 0.03) with abdominal effusion than other tumor types. There was overlap between the anatomical locations of all tumors types with the exception of the cecum where all eight tumors identified were GISTs. Besides location, there were no unique ultrasound features of GISTs that would allow distinction from other gastrointestinal spindle cell tumors. Similar to previous studies, GISTs appeared to be the most common spindle cell tumor associated with the cecum in our sample of dogs. The high frequency of abdominal effusion with GIST's was of unknown etiology could possibly have been due to septic peritonitis. PMID:25846814

  6. One cell, multiple roles: contribution of mesenchymal stem cells to tumor development in tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of tissue reparative and immunosuppressive abilities of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has drawn more attention to tumor microenvironment and its role in providing the soil for the tumor cell growth. MSCs are recruited to tumor which is referred as the never healing wound and altered by the inflammation environment, thereby helping to construct the tumor microenvironment. The environment orchestrated by MSCs and other factors can be associated with angiogenesis, immunosuppression, inhibition of apoptosis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), survival of cancer stem cells, which all contribute to tumor growth and progression. In this review, we will discuss how MSCs are recruited to the tumor microenvironment and what effects they have on tumor progression. PMID:23336752

  7. Diagnosis of pancreatic tumors by endoscopic ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Hiroki; Kitano, Masayuki; Kamata, Ken; El-Masry, Muhammad; Kudo, Masatoshi

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatic tumors are highly diverse, as they can be solid or cystic, and benign or malignant. Since their imaging features overlap considerably, it is often difficult to characterize these tumors. In addition, small pancreatic tumors, especially those less than 2 cm in diameter, are difficult to detect and diagnose. For characterizing pancreatic tumors and detecting small pancreatic tumors, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is the most sensitive of the imaging procedures currently available. This technique also provides good results in terms of the preoperative staging of pancreatic tumors. EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has also proved to be a safe and useful method for tissue sampling of pancreatic tumors. Despite these advantages, however, it is still difficult to differentiate between benign and malignant, solid or cystic pancreatic tumors, malignant neoplasms, and chronic pancreatitis using EUS, even when EUS-FNA is performed. Recently, contrast-enhanced EUS with Doppler mode (CE-EUS) employing ultrasound contrast agents, which indicate vascularization in pancreatic lesions, has been found to be useful in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic tumors, especially small pancreatic tumors. However, Doppler ultrasonography with contrast-enhancement has several limitations, including blooming artifacts, poor spatial resolution, and low sensitivity to slow flow. Consequently, an echoendoscope was developed recently that has a broad-band transducer and an imaging mode that was designed specifically for contrast-enhanced harmonic EUS (CEH-EUS) with a second-generation ultrasound contrast agent. The CEH-EUS technique is expected to improve the differential diagnosis of pancreatic disease in the future. This review describes the EUS appearances of common solid and cystic pancreatic masses, the diagnostic accuracy of EUS-FNA, and the relative efficacies and advantages of CE-EUS and CEH-EUS along with their relative advantages and their complementary roles in clinical practice. PMID:21160578

  8. Reirradiation of tumors in cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Turrel, J M; Théon, A P

    1988-08-15

    Fifty-one cats and dogs with tumor recurrence after irradiation were treated with a second course of radiotherapy, using either teletherapy or brachytherapy. Eighty-six percent of the tumors had partial or complete response at 2 months after reirradiation. Tumor response was significantly (P = 0.041) affected when the interval between the 2 courses of irradiation was greater than 5 months. The estimated local tumor control rate was 38% at 1 year after reirradiation. Of all the factors examined, complete response at 2 months, reirradiation field size less than or equal to 10 cm2, and reirradiation dose greater than 40 gray emerged as predictors of local tumor control. The estimated overall survival rate was 47% at 2 years. Tumor location had a significant (P = 0.001) influence on overall survival; animals with cutaneous tumors had the longest survival times, and those with oral tumors had the shortest survival times. The other significant (P = 0.001) factor affecting overall survival time was the field size of the reirradiated site. Estimated survival time after reirradiation was 41% at 1 year. Favorable prognostic indicators were complete response at 2 months and location of tumor; animals with skin tumors had a favorable prognosis. The acute effects of reirradiation on normal tissues were acceptable, but 12% of the animals had severe delayed complications. Significant risk of complications after reirradiation was associated with squamous cell carcinoma (P = 0.015) and reirradiated field size greater than 30 cm2 (P = 0.056). When the interval between irradiations was greater than 5 months, the risk of complications was significantly (P = 0.022) lower.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3139592

  9. Accurate Identification of Somatic Mutations in Clinical Tumor Specimens /

    E-print Network

    Yost, Shawn Eric

    2013-01-01

    of a cancer treatment given a tumor?s molecular profile, andcancers, stable cell lines cultured in vitro show a distinct expression profile from primary GBM tumorscancer types. Having established a comprehensive mutational profile of the primary tumor,

  10. General Information About Staging Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs), and tumors of the pineal region. Classic Desmoplastic/nodular Large cell Medulloblastoma with ... nervous system neuroblastoma Ependymoblastoma Medulloepithelioma – Tumors of the Pineal Region Pineoblastoma Pineocytoma – Central Nervous System Atypical Teratoid/ ...

  11. General Information about Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs), and tumors of the pineal region. Classic Desmoplastic/nodular Large cell Medulloblastoma with ... nervous system neuroblastoma Ependymoblastoma Medulloepithelioma – Tumors of the Pineal Region Pineoblastoma Pineocytoma – Central Nervous System Atypical Teratoid/ ...

  12. What's New in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Topic Additional resources for gastrointestinal stromal tumor What’s new in gastrointestinal stromal tumor research and treatment? There ... GIST) Talking With Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST) Research? Other Resources ...

  13. What's New in Pituitary Tumor Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Next Topic Additional resources for pituitary tumors What’s new in pituitary tumor research and treatment? Research into ... of non-functioning adenomas, which may lead to new medical therapies for these tumors. Imaging tests such ...

  14. What's New in Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Topic Additional resources for gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors What’s new in gastrointestinal carcinoid tumor research and treatment? There ... for the causes of , ways to prevent , and new approaches to diagnose and treat GI carcinoid tumors. ...

  15. Kidney Cancer in Children (Wilms Tumor): After Treatment Information

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Germ Cell Tumors Kidney/Wilms Tumor Liver Cancer Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Skin Cancer Soft Tissue Sarcoma Thyroid ... Tumor Liver Cancer Lymphoma (non-Hodgkin) Lymphoma (Hodgkin) Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Retinoblastoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Skin Cancer Soft Tissue Sarcoma ...

  16. Global microRNA depletion suppresses tumor angiogenesis

    E-print Network

    Chen, Sidi

    MicroRNAs delicately regulate the balance of angiogenesis. Here we show that depletion of all microRNAs suppresses tumor angiogenesis. We generated microRNA-deficient tumors by knocking out Dicer1. These tumors are highly ...

  17. What Are the Key Statistics about Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for gastrointestinal stromal tumors? What are the key statistics about gastrointestinal stromal tumors? Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) ... They are slightly more common in men. Survival statistics for GIST are discussed in the section, “ Survival ...

  18. What Are the Key Statistics about Wilms Tumor?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... factors for Wilms tumor? What are the key statistics about Wilms tumor? Each year, about 500 new ... rare in adults, although cases have been reported. Statistics related to survival for Wilms tumors are discussed ...

  19. What Are the Key Statistics about Pituitary Tumors?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... factors for pituitary tumors? What are the key statistics about pituitary tumors? About 10,000 pituitary tumors ... Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects Cancer Facts & Statistics News About Cancer Expert Voices Blog Programs & Services ...

  20. Therapeutic implications of tumor interstitial fluid pressure in subcutaneous RG-2 tumors1

    PubMed Central

    Navalitloha, Yot; Schwartz, Erica S.; Groothuis, Elizabeth N.; Allen, Cathleen V.; Levy, Robert M.; Groothuis, Dennis R.

    2006-01-01

    Increased interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) in brain tumors results in rapid removal of drugs from tumor extracellular space. We studied the effects of dexamethasone and hypothermia on IFP in s.c. RG-2 rat gliomas, because they could potentially be useful as means of maintaining drug concentrations in human brain tumors. We used dexamethasone, external hypothermia, combined dexamethasone and hypothermia, and infusions of room temperature saline versus chilled saline. We measured tumor IFP and efflux half-time of 14C-sucrose from tumors. In untreated s.c. tumors, IFP was 9.1 ± 2.1 mmHg, tumor temperature was 33.7°C ± 0.7°C, and efflux half-time was 7.3 ± 0.7 min. Externally induced hypothermia decreased tumor temperature to 8.9°C ± 2.9°C, tumor IFP decreased to 3.2 ± 1.1 mmHg, and efflux half-time increased to 13.5 min. Dexamethasone decreased IFP to 2.4 ± 1.0 mmHg and increased efflux half-time to 15.4 min. Combined hypothermia and dexamethasone further increased the efflux half-time to 17.6 min. We tried to lower the tumor temperature by chilling the infusion solution, but at an infusion rate of 48 ?l/min, the efflux rate was the same for room temperature saline and 15°C saline. The efflux rate was increased in both infusion groups, which suggests that efflux due to tumor IFP and that of the infusate were additive. Since lowering tumor IFP decreases efflux from brain tumors, it provides a means to increase drug residence time, which in turn increases the time-concentration exposure product of therapeutic drug available to tumor. PMID:16775223

  1. Understanding Tumor Cell Invasion | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    One truism about cancer is that patients rarely die from a single tumor, but rather from the tumors that metastasize, or spread, from the initial tumor. A key early step in metastasis of solid tumors is called collective cell invasion, which is when a group of tumor cells breaks through the dense collagen-based extracellular matrix (ECM) that normally keeps one tissue separate from another. Somehow, metastasizing tumor cells breach this barrier by overcoming its structural and mechanical properties.

  2. Tumor targeting by conjugation of DHA to paclitaxel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. O Bradley; C. S Swindell; F. H Anthony; P. A Witman; P Devanesan; N. L Webb; S. D Baker; A. C Wolff; R. C Donehower

    2001-01-01

    Targeting an anti-cancer drug to tumors should increase the Area Under the drug concentration–time Curve (AUC) in tumors while decreasing the AUC in normal cells and should therefore increase the therapeutic index of that drug. Anti-tumor drugs typically have half-lives far shorter than the cell cycle transit times of most tumor cells. Tumor targeting, with concomitant long tumor exposure times,

  3. Bone tumors: Diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Huvos, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents treatment modalities of all skeletal neoplasms with special emphasis on clinicopathologic correlations and differential diagnosis. This describes the clinical, radiographic, and pathologic features, plus interdisciplinary approaches to treatment for each tumor type and also covers benign and malignant bone-forming and cartilage-forming tumors, tumors of connective tissue origin, tumors of histoiocytic or fibrohistiocytic origin, and tumors and tumor-like lesions of blood vessels arising in the skeletal system.

  4. Persistence of tumor-infiltrating CD8 T cells is tumor-dependent but antigen-independent

    E-print Network

    Olurinde, Mobolaji O.

    How tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) that are tumor-specific but functionally tolerant persist in the antigen-expressing tumor tissue is largely unknown. We have previously developed a modified TRansgenic Adenocarcinoma ...

  5. Excisional biopsy of skin tumors.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Becker, Daniel G; Long, William B; Masterson, Thomas M

    2004-01-01

    The most frequently encountered neoplasm in the US is skin cancer. More than 600,000 new cases of malignant skin tumors are diagnosed in the US each year. One standard method of treatment of skin tumors is excisional biopsy. There are seven technical considerations involved in the excisional biopsy of skin tumors: (1) aseptic technique, (2) examination and demarcation of skin lesion, (3) skin biomechanical properties, (4) anesthesia, (5) excisional biopsy, (6) wound closure, and (7) postoperative care. The physician must use aseptic techniques and wear a cap, mask, and powder-free gloves. Hair is a source of wound contamination, and removal of hair prevents it from becoming entangled in suture and the wound during closure. Because surgical electric clippers cut hair close to the skin surface without nicking the skin, we now use only electric clippers to remove hair. The physician's visualization of the wound can be enhanced by magnification (2.5x) loupes. The physician's plan for excisional biopsy is dictated by the suspected pathology of the skin lesion. The ultimate appearance and function of a scar after closure of excisional biopsy can be predicted by the static and dynamic skin tensions on the surrounding skin. Infiltration anesthesia is preferred over regional nerve block because it does not interfere with the muscle movement that causes dynamic tensions, which elongate the configuration of the defect. Most skin lesions are amenable to a circular excision. In these instances, it is worthwhile to use circular-shaped excisions. The reusable metal trephines have been replaced by disposable trephines that have ribbed plastic handles attached to 316 stainless steel circular cutting blades. Wound closure is accomplished in the same direction as the long axis of the elliptical defect by first approximating the midportion of the defect with a 4-0 synthetic CAPROSYN* monofila-ment absorbable suture attached to the swage of the laser-drilled, compound-curved reverse cutting edge needle. Additional interrupted dermal (subcuticular) sutures are placed in each wound quadrant to approximate further the divided edges of the dermis. Compound-curved reverse cutting edge needles have been specifically designed for dermal closure. Reinforced Steri-Strips are then applied transversly across the incision to facilitate further skin edge approximation. Rigorous follow-up examination is essential for any patient with a history of a skin cancer to detect recurrence and prevent further actinic damage. The use of wide diameter trephine biopsy instruments are still not widely used by physicians because most physicians do not have the technical skills to approximate the defect with dermal sutures. Consequently, this need for a rapid dermal skin closure technique that can be used by a primary care physician must be devised before the trephine excisional biopsy technique is widely used by the primary care physician. This goal can be achieved by developing a disposable stapler for subcuticular closure of the skin. PMID:15301664

  6. Are biomechanical changes necessary for tumor progression?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kas, Josef A.

    2014-03-01

    Already the Roman Celsus recognized rigid tissue as characteristic for solid tumors. Conversely, changes towards a weaker cytoskeleton have been described as a feature of cancer cells since the early days of tumor biology. It remains unclear if a carcinoma's rigid signature stems from more inflexible cells or is caused by the stroma. Despite that the importance of cell biomechanics for tumor progression becomes more and more evident the chicken-and-egg problem to what extent cancer cells already change their mechanical properties within the solid tumor in order to transgress its boundary or mechanical changes are induced by the microenvironment when the cell has left the tumor has been discussed highly controversial. Comprehensive clinical biomechanical measurements only exist from tumor tissue without the possibility to identify individual cells or from individual cancer cells from pleural effusions. Since the biomechanical properties of cells in carcinomas remain unknown measurements on individual cells that directly stem out of primary tumor samples are required, which we have conducted. We found in cervix and mammary carcinomas a distinctive increase of softer cells as well as contractile cells. A soft and contractile cell is like a strong elastic rope. The cell can generate a strong tensile tension to pull its self along and is soft against compression to avoid jamming.

  7. Emerging Trends for Radioimmunotherapy in Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Suprit; Kaur, Sukhwinder; Ponnusamy, Moorthy P.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Due to its ability to target both known and occult lesions, radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is an attractive therapeutic modality for solid tumors. Poor tumor uptake and undesirable pharmacokinetics, however, have precluded the administration of radioimmunoconjugates at therapeutically relevant doses thereby limiting the clinical utility of RIT. In solid tumors, efficacy of RIT is further compromised by heterogeneities in blood flow, tumor stroma, expression of target antigens and radioresistance. As a result significant efforts have been invested toward developing strategies to overcome these impediments. Further, there is an emerging interest in exploiting short-range, high energy ?-particle emitting radionuclides for the eradication of minimal residual and micrometastatic disease. As a result several modalities for localized therapy and models of minimal disease have been developed for preclinical evaluation. This review provides a brief update on the recent efforts toward improving the efficacy of RIT for solid tumors, and development of RIT strategies for minimal disease associated with solid tumors. Further, some of promising approaches to improve tumor targeting, which showed promise in the past, but have now been ignored are also discussed. PMID:23844555

  8. Changes in lung tumor shape during respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyriakou, E.; McKenzie, D. R.

    2012-02-01

    Evidence that some lung tumors change shape during respiration is derived from respiratory gated CT data by statistical shape modeling and image manipulation. Some tumors behave as rigid objects while others show systematic shape changes. Two views of lung motion are presented to allow analysis of the results. In the first, lung motion is viewed as a wave motion in which inertial effects arising from mass are present and in the second it is a quasistatic motion in which the mass of the lung tissues is neglected. In the first scenario, the extremes of tumor compression and expansion are expected to correlate with maximum upward and downward velocity of the tumor, respectively. In the second, they should occur at end exhale and end inhale, respectively. An observed correlation between tumor strain and tumor velocity provides more support for the first view of lung motion and may explain why previous attempts at observing tumor shape changes during respiration have largely failed. The implications for the optimum gating of radiation therapy are discussed.

  9. New approach to optical imaging of tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achilefu, Samuel I.; Bugaj, Joseph E.; Dorshow, Richard B.; Jimenez, Hermo N.; Rajagopalan, Raghavan

    2001-07-01

    Site specific delivery of drugs and contrast agents to tumors protects normal tissues from the cytotoxic effect of drugs, and enhances the contrast between normal and diseased tissues. In optical medicine, biocompatible dyes can be used as phototherapeutics or as contrast agents. Previous studies have shown that the use of covalent or non-covalent dye conjugates of carriers such as antibiodies, liposomes, and polysaccharides improves the delivery of such molecules to tumors. However, large biomolecules can elicit adverse immunogenic reactions and also result in long blood clearance times, delaying visualization of target tissues. A viable alternative to this strategy is to use small bioactive molecule-dye conjugates. These molecules have several advantages over large biomolecules, including ease of synthesis of a variety of high purity compounds for combinatorial screening of new targets, enhanced diffusivity to solid tumors, and the ability to affect the pharmacokinetics of the conjugates by minor structural changes. Thus, we conjugated a near infrared absorbing dye to several bioactive peptides that specifically target overexpressed tumor receptors in established rat tumor lines. High tumor uptake of the conjugates was obtained without loss of either the peptide receptor affinity or the dye fluorescence. These findings demonstrate the efficacy of a small peptide-dye conjugate strategy for in vivo tumor imaging. Site-specific delivery of photodynamic therapy agents may also benefit from this approach.

  10. Eicosanoid regulation of angiogenesis in tumors.

    PubMed

    Nie, Daotai; Honn, Kenneth V

    2004-02-01

    Tumor angiogenesis, the formation of new capillary blood vessels in tumors from pre-existing vasculature, is required for tumor growth and progression. Eicosanoids, the bioactive lipids derived from arachidonic acid, possess potent and diverse biological activities. In response to stimuli, arachidonic acid is mobilized from phospholipid pools and metabolized by cyclooxygenases (COX), lipoxygenases (LOX), and p450 epoxygenases (EOX) to form a variety of eicosanoids. The involvement of eicosanoids in tumor angiogenesis and progression is implicated by the observations that nonsteroidal anti-inflammation drugs (NSAIDs) reduce tumor growth and angiogenesis. Subsequently, it is found that the levels of COX-2 and/or 12-LOX are frequently increased in various cancers. Further studies using molecular and pharmacological approaches have found that COX-2 and 12-LOX, when overexpressed in carcinoma cells, enhance their angiogenic potential and stimulate tumor growth. In this article, we discuss how COX and LOX in cancer cells modulate tumor angiogenesis and present the possibility of using NSAIDs and LOX inhibitors as antiangiogenesis agents. PMID:15034803

  11. Histopathology of pineal germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Vasiljevic, A; Szathmari, A; Champier, J; Fèvre-Montange, M; Jouvet, A

    2015-01-01

    Germ cell tumors (GCTs) classically occur in gonads. However, they are the most frequent neoplasms in the pineal region. The pineal location of GCTs may be caused by the neoplastic transformation of a primordial germ cell that has mismigrated. The World Health Organization (WHO) recognizes 5 histological types of intracranial GCTs: germinoma and non-germinomatous tumors including embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac tumor, choriocarcinoma and mature or immature teratoma. Germinomas and teratomas are frequently encountered as pure tumors whereas the other types are mostly part of mixed GCTs. In this situation, the neuropathologist has to be able to identify each component of a GCT. When diagnosis is difficult, use of recent immunohistochemical markers such as OCT(octamer-binding transcription factor)3/4, Glypican 3, SALL(sal-like protein)4 may be required. OCT3/4 is helpful in the diagnosis of germinomas, Glypican 3 in the diagnosis of yolk sac tumors and SALL4 in the diagnosis of the germ cell nature of an intracranial tumor. When the germ cell nature of a pineal tumor is doubtful, the finding of an isochromosome 12p suggests the diagnosis of GCT. The final pathological report should always be confronted with the clinical data, especially the serum or cerebrospinal fluid levels of ?-human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and alpha-fetoprotein. PMID:24726316

  12. Tumor-targeted delivery of liposome-encapsulated doxorubicin by use of a peptide that selectively binds to irradiated tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amanda Lowery; Halina Onishko; Dennis E. Hallahan; Zhaozhong Han

    2011-01-01

    Tumor-targeted drug delivery improves anti-tumor efficacy and reduces systemic toxicity by limiting bioavailability of cytotoxic drugs to within tumors. Targeting reagents, such as peptides or antibodies recognizing molecular targets over-expressed within tumors, have been used to improve liposome-encapsulated drug accumulation within tumors and resulted in enhanced tumor growth control. In this report, we expand the scope of targeting reagents by

  13. Tumor-Associated Macrophages as Major Players in the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Chanmee, Theerawut; Ontong, Pawared; Konno, Kenjiro; Itano, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    During tumor progression, circulating monocytes and macrophages are actively recruited into tumors where they alter the tumor microenvironment to accelerate tumor progression. Macrophages shift their functional phenotypes in response to various microenvironmental signals generated from tumor and stromal cells. Based on their function, macrophages are divided broadly into two categories: classical M1 and alternative M2 macrophages. The M1 macrophage is involved in the inflammatory response, pathogen clearance, and antitumor immunity. In contrast, the M2 macrophage influences an anti-inflammatory response, wound healing, and pro-tumorigenic properties. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) closely resemble the M2-polarized macrophages and are critical modulators of the tumor microenvironment. Clinicopathological studies have suggested that TAM accumulation in tumors correlates with a poor clinical outcome. Consistent with that evidence, experimental and animal studies have supported the notion that TAMs can provide a favorable microenvironment to promote tumor development and progression. In this review article, we present an overview of mechanisms responsible for TAM recruitment and highlight the roles of TAMs in the regulation of tumor angiogenesis, invasion, metastasis, immunosuppression, and chemotherapeutic resistance. Finally, we discuss TAM-targeting therapy as a promising novel strategy for an indirect cancer therapy. PMID:25125485

  14. Automated Quantification of Tumor Viability in a Rabbit Liver Tumor Model after Chemoembolization Using Infrared Imaging.

    PubMed

    D'inca, Hadrien; Namur, Julien; Ghegediban, Saida Homayra; Wassef, Michel; Pascale, Florentina; Laurent, Alexandre; Manfait, Michel

    2015-07-01

    The rabbit VX2 tumor is a fast-growing carcinoma model commonly used to study new therapeutic devices, such as catheter-based therapies for patients with inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma. The evaluation of tumor viability after such locoregional therapies is essential to directing hepatocellular carcinoma management. We used infrared microspectroscopy for the automatic characterization and quantification of the VX2 liver tumor viability after drug-eluting beads transarterial chemoembolization (DEB-TACE). The protocol consisted of K-means clustering followed by principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The K-means clustering was used to classify the spectra from the infrared images of control or treated tumors and to build a database of many tissue spectra. On the basis of this reference library, the PCA-LDA analysis was used to build a predictive model to identify and quantify automatically tumor viability on unknown tissue sections. For the DEB group, the LDA model determined that the surface of tumor necrosis represented 91.6% ± 8.9% (control group: 33.1% ± 19.6%; Mann-Whitney P = 0.0004) and the viable tumor 2.6% ± 4% (control group: 62.2% ± 15.2%; Mann-Whitney P = 0.0004). Tissue quantification measurements correlated well with tumor necrosis (r = 0.827, P < 0.0001) and viable tumor (r = 0.840, P < 0.0001). Infrared imaging and PCA-LDA analysis could be helpful for easily assessing tumor viability. PMID:25979795

  15. Primary malignant giant cell tumor of bone: "dedifferentiated" giant cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Meis, J M; Dorfman, H D; Nathanson, S D; Haggar, A M; Wu, K K

    1989-09-01

    Well documented examples of primary malignant giant cell tumor of bone (giant cell tumor and concurrent sarcoma arising de novo) are exceedingly rare in the literature. We report a case arising in the left ischium of a 44-yr-old man. He had no previous history of radiation therapy or multiple resections. Histologically, the tumor was a typical giant cell tumor of bone juxtaposed to a malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH). The juxtaposition of a high grade sarcoma (MFH) and a locally aggressive nonmalignant neoplasm such as giant cell tumor is analogous to several other tumors of bone and soft tissue in which a low grade malignant or locally aggressive tumor can be associated with MFH or fibrosarcoma de novo, namely chondrosarcoma, chordoma, liposarcoma, and well differentiated intraosseous and parosteal osteosarcoma. The presence of a high grade malignant component in each of the aforementioned neoplasms generally portends a more ominous prognosis, although this is not invariably true. Recognition of the phenomenon of "dedifferentiation" (or tumor progression) in some bone tumors and sarcomas is important to ensure appropriate treatment. Distinction from secondary malignant giant cell tumors which are usually radiation induced is also important, since the latter have a much worse prognosis than those with dedifferentiation occurring de novo. PMID:2554283

  16. Tumor vascular reactivity as a marker to predict tumor response to chemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Songhyun; Seong, Myeongsu; Jeong, Hyeryun; Kim, Jae G.

    2015-03-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers for females. To monitor chemotherapeutic efficacy of breast cancer, medical imaging systems such as X-ray mammography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasonography have been used. Currently, it can take up to 3 to 6 weeks to see the tumor response from chemotherapy by monitoring tumor volume changes. In this study, we used near infrared spectroscopy to see if we can predict breast cancer treatment efficacy earlier than tumor volume changes by monitoring tumor vascular reactivity during inhalational gas interventions. The results show the amplitude of oxy-hemoglobin changes (vascular reactivity) during hyperoxic gas inhalation is well correlated with tumor growth, and responded 1 day earlier than tumor volume changes after chemotherapy. In addition, we fitted oxyhemoglobin concentration increase during hyperoxic gas intervention using a double exponential fitting model. From these, we found the change of amplitude 1 value is well matched with tumor growth and regression. Especially, it predicts the chemotherapeutic response of breast tumor better than the amplitude of oxyhemoglobin concentration change during hyperoxic gas intervention. These results may imply that near infrared spectroscopy with respiratory challenges can be useful in early detection of tumor and also in prediction of tumor response to chemotherapy.

  17. Non-rhabdoid pediatric SMARCB1-deficient tumors: overlap between chordomas and malignant rhabdoid tumors?

    PubMed

    Renard, Caroline; Pissaloux, Daniel; Decouvelaere, Anne Valérie; Bourdeaut, Franck; Ranchère, Dominique

    2014-09-01

    Somatic alterations in the tumor suppressor gene SMARCB1 were first described in the malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT) of infancy. Since then, SMARCB1 alterations have been found in other tumors, forming a varied group of SMARCB1-deficient tumors, which sometimes shares overlapping immunohistochemical and histological findings. Thus, the diagnosis is challenging. We report two cases of pediatric SMARCB1-deficient tumors from the clivus that illustrate the diagnostic difficulties. Both cases were strongly positive for epithelial markers associated with loss of BAF47 (INI1) expression, and were negative for S100 and CD34. Molecular analyses of the SMARCB1 gene found a deletion of all nine exons in both cases. In the first case, a 5-year-old girl presented with a thoracic metastasis of a clival tumor, which was diagnosed as MRT and treated accordingly. The morphological findings and the expression of brachyury would favor the diagnosis of a poorly differentiated chordoma. The second case was a quickly fatal clival tumor in a 2-year-old boy: This tumor was morphologically undifferentiated and raises the problem of differential diagnosis between an MRT, a malignant myoepithelial tumor, or an undifferentiated chordoma due to the location and the expression of brachyury. Studies of biological signatures, such as transcriptome profiling, could help to understand the apparent overlap between these tumors. PMID:25053104

  18. Obesity inhibits lymphangiogenesis in prostate tumors.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Ângela; Pereira, Sofia S; Machado, Christiane L; Morais, Tiago; Costa, Madalena; Monteiro, Mariana P

    2014-01-01

    Lymphangiogenesis is the process that leads to new lymphatic vessels formation from preexisting blood vessels in the presence of appropriate inducing signals, which in pathologic conditions such as cancer, may contribute to tumor cells dissemination. The aim of the present study was to study the role of obesity, leptin and insulin in tumor lymphangiogenesis. For that, we have quantified the lymphatic vessels in prostate tumors through their immunohistochemistry staining by Lyve-1 in RM1 prostate tumors induced in different obese mice models (ob/ob, db/db and diet induced obese (DIO) and in normal weight C57BL/6J mice (control). Lymph vessels density was determined by Lyve-1 immunohistochemistry of prostate adenocarcinomas, while the percentage of the Lyve-1 stained area and lymphatic vessels number were obtained using a morphometric computerized tool. Obese ob/ob and DIO mice presented prostate tumors that were significantly larger (p<0.001) than controls, while tumors of db/db mice were significantly smaller (p=0.047). Lyve-1 expression was significantly higher in prostate tumors of DIO mice compared to tumors of db/db mice (p<0.05); furthermore Lyve-1 expression was negatively correlated with the percentage of the epididymal fat and body weight (p<0.01). No significantly correlations were found between Lyve-1 expression and tumor weight and leptin or insulin plasma levels. Our results suggest that obesity may have a protective effect against prostate cancer dissemination by inhibiting lymphangiogenesis through a still unidentified mechanism that appears not to involve leptin or insulin. PMID:24427356

  19. Tumor growth inhibition through targeting liposomally bound curcumin to tumor vasculature.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Goutam; Barui, Sugata; Saha, Soumen; Chaudhuri, Arabinda

    2013-12-28

    Increasing number of Phase I/II clinical studies have demonstrated clinical potential of curcumin for treatment of various types of human cancers. Despite significant anti-tumor efficacies and bio-safety profiles of curcumin, poor systemic bioavailability is retarding its clinical success. Efforts are now being directed toward developing stable formulations of curcumin using various drug delivery systems. To this end, herein we report on the development of a new tumor vasculature targeting liposomal formulation of curcumin containing a lipopeptide with RGDK-head group and two stearyl tails, di-oleyolphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) and cholesterol. We show that essentially water insoluble curcumin can be solubilized in fairly high concentrations (~500 ?g/mL) in such formulation. Findings in the Annexin V/Propidium iodide (PI) binding based flow cytometric assays showed significant apoptosis inducing properties of the present curcumin formulation in both endothelial (HUVEC) and tumor (B16F10) cells. Using syngeneic mouse tumor model, we show that growth of solid melanoma tumor can be inhibited by targeting such liposomal formulation of curcumin to tumor vasculature. Results in immunohistochemical staining of the tumor cryosections are consistent with tumor growth inhibition being mediated by apoptosis of tumor endothelial cells. Findings in both in vitro and in vivo mechanistic studies are consistent with the supposition that the presently described liposomal formulation of curcumin inhibits tumor growth by blocking VEGF-induced STAT3 phosphorylation in tumor endothelium. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on inhibiting tumor growth through targeting liposomal formulation of curcumin to tumor vasculatures. PMID:24036260

  20. Tumor-induced osteomalacia due to a recurrent mesenchymal tumor overexpressing several growth factor receptors

    PubMed Central

    Gerothanasi, Nikolina; Frydas, Athanasios; Triantafyllou, Evangelia; Poulios, Chris; Hytiroglou, Prodromos; Apostolou, Panagiotis; Papasotiriou, Ioannis; Tournis, Symeon; Kesisoglou, Isaak; Yovos, John G

    2015-01-01

    Summary Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome caused primarily by benign mesenchymal tumors. These tumors typically follow a benign clinical course and local recurrence occurs in <5% of cases. We investigated a 49-year-old man with a recurrent mesenchymal phosphaturic tumor showing no signs of malignancy. The patient suffered from chronic muscle weakness, myalgia and cramps. His medical record included the diagnosis of oncogenic osteomalacia, for which he was submitted to tumor resection in the left leg three times before. Laboratory examination showed hypophosphatemia, hyperphosphaturia and an elevated serum FGF23 level. A radical surgical approach (amputation) was advised, however, complete biochemical and clinical remission was not reached. Molecular analysis of the tumor cells demonstrated overexpression of growth factor receptors implicated in tumor angiogenesis and metastatic potential (platelet derived growth factor type A (PDGFRA), PDGFRB and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor) together with increased expression of FGF23, x-linked-phosphate-regulating endopeptidase and KLOTHO. TIO is usually associated with benign phosphauturic tumors and, when identified, resection of the tumor leads to complete remission in the majority of cases. The underlying pathophysiology of recurrences in these tumors is not known. This is the first report showing increased expression of growth factor receptors in a locally aggressive but histopathologically benign phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor. Learning points TIO is usually associated with benign soft tissue or bone neoplasms of mesenchymal origin.These tumors typically follow a benign clinical course and even in the rare malignant cases local recurrence occurs in <5%.Successful identification and removal of the tumor leads to full recovery in the majority of cases.

  1. Estrogen's Impact on Colon Tumor Formation

    E-print Network

    Tinsley, Kirby

    2010-07-14

    of tumor formation 17). This is shown by one of the most serious complications arising from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) being colorectal cancer (18). One area that more information is needed on is the possible effect E2 may have on tissue... inflammation in the colon. The inflammation being the cause of the cancer is shown through different characteristics of tumors in IBD patients vs. tumors in non-IBD patients (19). Other studies have demonstrated that E2 can reduce inflammation in cells...

  2. Adenomatous tumors of the middle ear.

    PubMed

    Pelosi, Stanley; Koss, Shira

    2015-04-01

    Adenomatous tumors are an uncommon cause of a middle ear mass. Clinical findings may be nonspecific, leading to difficulties in differentiation from other middle ear tumors. Controversy also exists whether to classify middle ear adenoma and carcinoid as separate neoplasms, or alternatively within a spectrum of the same pathologic entity. Most adenomatous middle ear tumors are indolent in behavior, with a benign histologic appearance and slowly progressive growth. The mainstay of treatment is complete surgical resection, which affords the greatest likelihood of cure. PMID:25769353

  3. Best way to remove a subungual tumor.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jonathan; Zaiac, Martin N

    2015-04-01

    "Subungual tumors are relatively rare; yet dermatologists are often called upon to examine, diagnose, and treat these patients. Many dermatologists do not feel comfortable performing surgical procedures of the nail unit. With knowledge of the nail unit anatomy and execution of few simple techniques, dermatologist can safely and effectively remove subungual tumors in the office setting. This article reviews the basic steps for removal of a subungual tumor. It discusses preoperative evaluation, highlights techniques to avoid complete nail plate avulsion, and touches on potential complications and postoperative care." PMID:25828719

  4. FNA of thyroid granular cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Harp, Eric; Caraway, Nancy P

    2013-09-01

    Granular cell tumor rarely occurs in the thyroid. This case report describes the cytologic features of a granular cell tumor seen in a fine needle aspirate obtained from a 27-year-old woman with a gradually enlarging thyroid nodule. The aspirate showed single as well as syncytial clusters of cells with abundant granular cytoplasm. The differential diagnosis in this case included granular cell tumor, Hurthle cell lesion/neoplasm, and a histiocytic reparative process. Immunohistochemical studies, including S-100 protein and CD68, performed on a cell block preparation were helpful in supporting the diagnosis. PMID:22508678

  5. The Tumor Microenvironment and DNA Repair

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Thomas J.; Glazer, Peter M.

    2010-01-01

    Genetic instability is one of the hallmarks of cancer cells. As tumors grow, they progressively acquire mutations that ultimately allow them to invade normal tissues and metastasize to distant sites. This increased propensity for mutation also leads to cancers that are resistant to therapeutic intervention. Recent evidence has shown that the tumor microenvironment plays a major role in the etiology of this phenomenon; as tumors are exposed to repeated cycles of hypoxia and reoxygenation, they downregulate a number of DNA repair pathways, thus leading to genetic instability. Understanding the mechanisms involved in this process may provide insights into the development of novel treatment strategies. PMID:20832021

  6. Papillary tumor of the pineal region.

    PubMed

    Vandergriff, Clayton; Opatowsky, Michael; O'Rourke, Brian; Layton, Kennith

    2012-01-01

    Presented is a patient with papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR), an uncommon and recently recognized neoplasm. As its name implies, PTPR does not arise from the pineal gland itself. The cell of origin is thought to be the specialized ependymocytes of the subcommissural organ. Primary tumors of the pineal region include pineal parenchymal neoplasms, germ cell neoplasms, and tumors arising from adjacent structures, including meningiomas, astrocytomas, and ependymomas. Like other masses in this location, PTPR often leads to obstructive hydrocephalus. Due to the relative paucity of reported cases of PTPR, its natural history is unknown. PMID:22275792

  7. Papillary tumor of the pineal region

    PubMed Central

    Opatowsky, Michael; O'Rourke, Brian; Layton, Kennith

    2012-01-01

    Presented is a patient with papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR), an uncommon and recently recognized neoplasm. As its name implies, PTPR does not arise from the pineal gland itself. The cell of origin is thought to be the specialized ependymocytes of the subcommissural organ. Primary tumors of the pineal region include pineal parenchymal neoplasms, germ cell neoplasms, and tumors arising from adjacent structures, including meningiomas, astrocytomas, and ependymomas. Like other masses in this location, PTPR often leads to obstructive hydrocephalus. Due to the relative paucity of reported cases of PTPR, its natural history is unknown. PMID:22275792

  8. Hyperthermia effects in animals with spontaneous tumors.

    PubMed

    Gillette, E L

    1982-06-01

    Hyperthermia caused complete regression of various animal tumors. Preliminary indications are that hyperthermia combined with irradiation increased the probability for tumor control with no increase in normal tissue complications. Dose-response assays planned will make comparisons of hyperthermia and irradiation alone and combined more meaningful. Whole-body hyperthermia alone and combined with chemotherapeutic agents is being studied in dogs. Of great interest is the toxicity observed in older animals bearing tumors. Their response is more relevant to that expected in humans with cancer than is that of young healthy animals. PMID:6757753

  9. Canine hematopoietic tumors: diagnosis, treatment and complications

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1986-02-01

    Canine hematopoietic tumors constitute a group of neoplasms that are frequently encountered in veterinary practice. Although common, they are also a diagnostically confusing group of tumors due to continued revision of their definition and classification. The confusion that arises from these changes presents the clinician with a perpetual challenge of diagnosis and therapy. Therapy of canine hematopoietic tumors has traditionally evolved from treatment of human patients with similar diseases, and in turn, these neoplasms have served as models for evaluating newer therapies for possible application in human patients. Methods of treatment have included chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery, and hyperthermia. 9 tabs.

  10. Chemokines in tumor development and progression

    SciTech Connect

    Mukaida, Naofumi, E-mail: naofumim@kenroku.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Division of Molecular Bioregulation, Cancer Research Institute, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan) [Division of Molecular Bioregulation, Cancer Research Institute, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Baba, Tomohisa [Division of Molecular Bioregulation, Cancer Research Institute, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan)] [Division of Molecular Bioregulation, Cancer Research Institute, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan)

    2012-01-15

    Chemokines were originally identified as mediators of the inflammatory process and regulators of leukocyte trafficking. Subsequent studies revealed their essential roles in leukocyte physiology and pathology. Moreover, chemokines have profound effects on other types of cells associated with the inflammatory response, such as endothelial cells and fibroblasts. Thus, chemokines are crucial for cancer-related inflammation, which can promote tumor development and progression. Increasing evidence points to the vital effects of several chemokines on the proliferative and invasive properties of tumor cells. The wide range of activities of chemokines in tumorigenesis highlights their roles in tumor development and progression.

  11. Infrared spectra of thyroid tumor tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Skornyakov, I. V.; Butra, V. A.

    2010-07-01

    We used infrared spectroscopy methods to study thyroid tumor tissues removed during surgery. The IR spectra of the surgical material are compared with data from histological examination. We show that in malignant neoplasms, the spectra of proteins in the region of C=O vibrations are different from the spectra of these substances in benign tumors and in tissues outside the pathological focus at a distance >1 cm from the margin of the tumor. The differences in the spectra are due to changes in the supermolecular structure of the proteins, resulting from rearrangement of the system of hydrogen bonds. We identify the spectral signs of malignant pathologies.

  12. Solid-tumor radionuclide therapy dosimetry: New paradigms in view of tumor microenvironment and angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xuping; Palmer, Matthew R.; Makrigiorgos, G. Mike; Kassis, Amin I.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study is to evaluate requirements for radionuclide-based solid tumor therapy by assessing the radial dose distribution of beta-particle-emitting and alpha-particle-emitting molecules localized either solely within endothelial cells of tumor vasculature or diffusing from the vasculature throughout the adjacent viable tumor cells. Methods: Tumor blood vessels were modeled as a group of microcylindrical layers comprising endothelial cells (one-cell thick, 10 ?m diameter), viable tumor cells (25-cell thick, 250 ?m radius), and necrotic tumor region (>250 ?m from any blood vessel). Sources of radioactivity were assumed to distribute uniformly in either endothelial cells or in concentric cylindrical 10 ?m shells within the viable tumor-cell region. The EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulation code system was used for beta particle dosimetry and a dose-point kernel method for alpha particle dosimetry. The radioactive decays required to deposit cytocidal doses (?100 Gy) in the vascular endothelial cells (endothelial cell mean dose) or, alternatively, at the tumor edge [tumor-edge mean dose (TEMD)] of adjacent viable tumor cells were then determined for six beta (32P, 33P, 67Cu, 90Y, 131I, and 188Re) and two alpha (211At and 213Bi) particle emitters. Results: Contrary to previous modeling in targeted radionuclide therapy dosimetry of solid tumors, the present work restricts the region of tumor viability to 250 ?m around tumor blood vessels for consistency with biological observations. For delivering ?100 Gy at the viable tumor edge (TEMD) rather than throughout a solid tumor, energetic beta emitters 90Y, 32P, and 188Re can be effective even when the radionuclide is confined to the blood vessel (i.e., no diffusion into the tumor). Furthermore, the increase in tumor-edge dose consequent to beta emitter diffusion is dependent on the energy of the emitted beta particles, being much greater for lower-energy emitters 131I, 67Cu, and 33P relative to higher-energy emitters 90Y, 32P, and 188Re. Compared to alpha particle emitters, a ?150–400 times higher number of beta-particle-emitting radioactive atoms is required to deposit the same dose in tumor neovasculature. However, for the alpha particle emitters 211At and 213Bi to be effective in irradiating viable tumor-cell regions in addition to the vasculature, the carrier molecules must diffuse substantially from the vasculature into the viable tumor. Conclusion: The presented data enable comparison of radionuclides used for antiangiogenic therapy on the basis of their radioactive decay properties, tumor neovasculature geometry, and tumor-cell viability. For alpha particle emitters or low-energy beta particle emitters, the targeting carrier molecule should be chosen to permit the radiopharmaceutical to diffuse from the endothelial wall of the blood vessel, while for long-range energetic beta particle emitters that target neovasculature, a radiopharmaceutical that binds to newly formed endothelial cells and does not diffuse is preferable. The work is a first approximation to modeling of tumor neovasculature that ignores factors such as pharmacokinetics and targeting capability of carrier molecules. The calculations quantify the interplay between irradiation of neovasculature, the surrounding viable tumor cells, and the physical properties of commonly used radionuclides and can be used to assist estimation of radioactivity to be administered for neovasculature-targeted tumor therapy. PMID:20632610

  13. Photobiomodulation on tumor cells in vitro and tumor tissue in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Dong-Liang; Liu, Timon Cheng-Yi; Jin, Hua

    2006-01-01

    Background and Objective: There are many kinds of photobiomodulation (PBM) on tumor cells whereas PBM induced oncogenic transformation has not been found. These will be discussed in view of the anti-cancer efficacy of PBM. Study Design/Materials and Methods: The biological information model of PBM (BIMP) will be used to study PBM on tumor cells. Results: The PBM on tumor cells includes cell proliferation, cell cycle modulation, cell adhesion, cell differentiation and so on. The PBM on small tumor tissue in vivo may include the inhibition or promotion of tumor growth. The PBM can be designed to play an important role in anti-cancer treatments in terms of BIMP. Conclusions and discussion: PBM on tumor cells may develop into a novel anti-cancer therapeutic approach.

  14. Treatment of Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors by Stage

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with endoscopy, or treated with a medicine like octreotide (Sandostatin) or lanreotide (Somatuline) that will lower both gastrin ... t causing symptoms, some doctors recommend treatment with octreotide or lanreotide because it may slow tumor growth. ...

  15. Microenvironmental regulation of tumor progression and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Quail, DF; Joyce, JA

    2014-01-01

    Cancers develop in complex tissue environments, which they depend upon for sustained growth, invasion and metastasis. Unlike tumor cells, stromal cell types within the tumor microenvironment (TME) are genetically stable, and thus represent an attractive therapeutic target with reduced risk of resistance and tumor recurrence. However, specifically disrupting the pro-tumorigenic TME is a challenging undertaking, as the TME has diverse capacities to induce both beneficial and adverse consequences for tumorigenesis. Furthermore, many studies have shown that the microenvironment is capable of normalizing tumor cells, suggesting that reeducation of stromal cells, rather than targeted ablation per se, may be an effective strategy for treating cancer. Here, we will discuss the paradoxical roles of the TME during specific stages of cancer progression and metastasis, and recent therapeutic attempts to re-educate stromal cells within the TME to have anti-tumorigenic effects. PMID:24202395

  16. A case of phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor.

    PubMed

    Pallavi, Ranjita; Ravella, Pavan Mahendra; Gupta, Priyanka; Popescu, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors (PMTs) are rare and found to be commonly associated with phosphaturia and oncogenic osteomalacia. They commonly affect middle-aged adults and are located mostly in the extremities. Most of them are benign with only a few metastatic cases described in the literature. PMT-mixed connective tissue (PMTMCT) type is the most common PMT. Though most cases of PMTMCT have been associated with oncogenic osteomalacia and phosphaturia, there have been many reports of nonphosphaturic variants of this tumor with no clinical or laboratory evidence of tumor-induced osteomalacia. However, most of these nonphosphaturic variants previously described were not metastatic. We describe an unusual case of PMTMCT with widespread osseous metastases and without evidence of tumor-induced osteomalacia or phosphaturia. PMID:24247100

  17. Juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the epididymis.

    PubMed

    Gravas, Stavros; Georgiadis, Thomas; Vassiliadis, Fedon; Kehayas, Platon

    2007-01-01

    We report the first case of a juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the epididymis in a young man. Clinical and histological findings are presented and the clinical significance of the case is discussed. PMID:17406141

  18. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor – An Evolving Concept

    PubMed Central

    Tornillo, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most frequent mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. The discovery that these tumors, formerly thought of smooth muscle origin, are indeed better characterized by specific activating mutation in genes coding for the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) CKIT and PDGFRA and that these mutations are strongly predictive for the response to targeted therapy with RTK inhibitors has made GISTs the typical example of the integration of basic molecular knowledge in the daily clinical activity. The information on the mutational status of these tumors is essential to predict (and subsequently to plan) the therapy. As resistant cases are frequently wild type, other possible oncogenic events, defining other “entities,” have been discovered (e.g., succinil dehydrogenase mutation/dysregulation, insuline growth factor expression, and mutations in the RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway). The classification of disease must nowadays rely on the integration of the clinico-morphological characteristics with the molecular data. PMID:25593916

  19. Localization of tumors by radiolabelled antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. Hansen; F. J. Primus

    1975-01-01

    A method of utilizing radiolabelled antibodies to carcinoembryonic antigens for determining the site of tumors which produce or are associated with carcinoembryonic antigen is disclosed. 3 claims, no drawings.

  20. Does Tumor Development Follow a Programmed Path?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Robert

    2011-03-01

    The initiation and progression of a tumor is a complex process, resembling the growth of a embryo in terms of the stages of development and increasing differentiation and somatic evolution of constituent cells in the community of cells that constitute the tumor. Typically we view cancer cells as rogue individuals violating the rules of the games played within an organism, but I would suggest that what we see is a programmed and algorithmic process. I will then question If tumor progression is dominated by the random acquisition of successive survival traits, or by a systematic and sequential unpacking of ``weapons'' from a pre-adapted ``toolkit'' of genetic and epigenetic potentialities? Can we then address this hypothesis by data mining solid tumors layer by layer? Support of the NSF and the NCI is gratefully acknowledged.

  1. Drugs Approved for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  2. Radiofrequency Ablation Therapy for Solid Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Kam, Anthony (NIH) [NIH

    2002-12-04

    Surgical resection, systemic chemotherapy, and local radiation have been the conventional treatments for localized solid cancer. Because certain patients are not candidates for tumor resection and because many tumors are poorly responsive to chemotherapy and radiation, there has been an impetus to develop alternative therapies. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a minimally invasive therapy for localized solid cancers that has gained considerable attention in the last 12 years. Advantages of minimally invasive therapies over surgery include less recovery time, lower morbidity and mortality, eligibility of more patients, and lower cost. RFA has been applied most extensively to inoperable hepatic tumors. It is investigational for tumors in the kidney, lung, bone, breast, and adrenal gland. This colloquium will review the mechanism, techniques, limitations, and clinical applications of RFA. The ultimate role that RFA will play in cancer therapy will depend on the results of long-term follow-up and prospective randomized trials.

  3. Nod1-dependent control of tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Correia, Jean; Miranda, Yvonne; Austin-Brown, Nikki; Hsu, Jenny; Mathison, John; Xiang, Rong; Zhou, Huamin; Li, Qinxi; Han, Jiahuai; Ulevitch, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    Nod1, a cytosolic protein that senses meso-diaminopimelic acid-containing ligands derived from peptidoglycan, plays a role in host responses to invasive bacteria. Here we describe a function for Nod1, whereby it controls tumor formation. Cell lines derived from the human breast cancer epithelial cell line MCF-7 were used in a severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) mouse xenograft model to characterize a pathway linking Nod1 to the growth of estrogen-sensitive tumors. In MCF-7 cells, the absence of Nod1 correlates with tumor growth, an increased sensitivity to estrogen-induced cell proliferation, and a failure to undergo Nod1-dependent apoptosis. Conversely, overexpression of Nod1 in MCF-7 cells results in inhibition of estrogen-dependent tumor growth and reduction of estrogen-induced proliferative responses in vitro. PMID:16446438

  4. Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Infratemporal Fossa

    PubMed Central

    Freiser, Monika E.; Castaño, Johnathan E.; Whittington, Elizabeth E.; Arnold, David J.; Sidani, Charif A.

    2014-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors represent fewer than 2% of all soft tissue tumors, and only about 12–15% of them occur in the head and neck. We report a case of a 38-year-old male who presented with a six-month history of increasing right cheek swelling. Computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses with contrast demonstrated a well-circumscribed avidly enhancing mass in the right retroantral fat. On magnetic resonance imaging the lesion was homogenously slightly hyperintense to muscle on T1 weighted and T2 weighted images and enhanced avidly with contrast. Surgical resection was performed and pathology was consistent with solitary fibrous tumor. There have been very few reported cases of solitary fibrous tumors in the infratemporal fossa and none described as originating in the retroantral fat. PMID:25926911

  5. Preoperative Embolization of Cervical Spine Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, Sylvia C.; Strecker, Ernst-Peter [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Diakonissenkrankenhaus, Diakonissenstrasse 28, D-76199 Karlsruhe (Germany); Ackermann, Ludwig W.; Harms, Juergen [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Klinikum Karlsbad-Langensteinbach Guttmannstrasse 1, D-76307 Karlsbad (Germany)

    1997-09-15

    Purpose: To assess the technical success rate, complications, and effect on intraoperative blood loss of preoperative transarterial embolization of cervical spine tumors. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 38 patients with tumors of the cervical spine; 69 vertebrae were affected. Polyvinyl alcohol particles, coils, gelfoam particles, either alone or in combination, were used for preoperative tumor embolization. After embolization a total of 57 corporectomies with titanium basket implantation were performed. Results: In 36 of 38 patients, complete (n= 27) or partial (n= 9) embolization was achieved. In 23 patients one vertebral artery was completely occluded by coil placement, and in one patient the ipsilateral internal and external carotid arteries were occluded in addition. No neurological complications could be directly related to the embolization, but two postoperative brain stem infarctions occurred. The mean intraoperative blood loss was 2.4 L. Conclusion: Transarterial embolization of cervical spine tumors is a safe and effective procedure to facilitate extensive surgery.

  6. Fully endoscopic resection of pineal region tumors.

    PubMed

    Shahinian, Hrayr; Ra, Yoon

    2013-06-01

    Background and Objective Surgical treatment for pineal tumors is technically challenging-weighing the risks and benefits of microsurgical resection for the patient with a pineal tumor versus settling for an endoscopic third ventriculostomy and biopsy is sometimes difficult. Traditional microsurgical resection for pineal region tumors has typically required large open craniotomies and involvement or retraction of neural tissue with significant mortality and morbidity. With the advancement of high-resolution fiber optics, a fully endoscopic, supracerebellar, infratentorial approach, without any cerebellar retraction or manipulation of neural tissue, is introduced for the gross total resection of pineal region tumors. Conclusion As an endoscopic modification of the open craniotomy procedure, this technique combines the advantages and benefits of both open microsurgical resection and minimally invasive endoscopic surgeries. PMID:24436899

  7. Calcifying Fibrous Tumor of the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Larson, Brent K; Dhall, Deepti

    2015-07-01

    Calcifying fibrous tumor is a benign mass lesion classically described as a soft tissue tumor. However, a thorough review of the literature reveals that it can occur virtually anywhere, including the tubular gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Its clinical manifestations are variable in the GI tract, and its imaging findings are nonspecific. However, it has unique histologic and immunophenotypical features that must be recognized by GI pathologists to differentiate it from an assortment of other rare mesenchymal lesions of the abdomen and GI tract. Calcifying fibrous tumor is composed of a paucicellular collagen matrix, interspersed calcified bodies, and a sparse inflammatory infiltrate. Although calcifying fibrous tumor is benign, pathologists must be aware that it may occur in the GI tract to differentiate it from other potentially more aggressive, rare mesenchymal lesions. PMID:26125434

  8. Heme oxygenase-1 system and gastrointestinal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiao; Fan, Wen-Guo; Li, Dong-Pei; Lin, Marie CM; Kung, Hsiangfu

    2010-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) system catabolizes heme into three products: carbon monoxide, biliverdin/bilirubin and free iron. It is involved in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. A great deal of data has demonstrated the roles of HO-1 in the formation, growth and metastasis of tumors. The interest in this system by investigators involved in gastrointestinal tumors is fairly recent, and few papers on HO-1 have touched upon this subject. This review focuses on the current understanding of the physiological significance of HO-1 induction and its possible roles in the gastrointestinal tumors studied to date. The implications for possible therapeutic manipulation of HO-1 in gastrointestinal tumors are also discussed. PMID:20518085

  9. PHACES syndrome associated with carcinoid endobronchial tumor.

    PubMed

    Mama, Nadia; H'mida, Dorra; Lahmar, Imen; Yacoubi, Mohamed Tahar; Tlili-Graiess, Kalthoum

    2014-05-01

    PHACES syndrome consists of the constellation of manifestations including posterior fossa anomalies of the brain (most commonly Dandy-Walker malformations), hemangiomas of the face and scalp, arterial abnormalities, cardiac defects, eye anomalies and sternal defects. We present a case with a possible PHACES syndrome including sternal cleft and supraumbilical raphé, precordial skin tag, persistent left superior vena cava and subtle narrowing of the aorta with an endobronchial carcinoid tumor. All these anomalies were discovered on chest multi-detector CT. This is a unique case of PHACES syndrome associated with carcinoid tumor. Review of the literature revealed 3 cases of PHACES syndrome with glial tumor. The authors tried to find the relationship between PHACES syndrome and carcinoid tumors or gliomas, which all derive from the neural crest cells. PMID:24337788

  10. Treatment Option Overview (Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ovarian germ cell tumor are swelling of the abdomen or vaginal bleeding after menopause. Ovarian germ cell ... if you have either of the following: Swollen abdomen without weight gain in other parts of the ...

  11. Targeting of drugs and nanoparticles to tumors

    E-print Network

    Ruoslahti, Erkki

    The various types of cells that comprise the tumor mass all carry molecular markers that are not expressed or are expressed at much lower levels in normal cells. These differentially expressed molecules can be used as ...

  12. Functional characterization of mobilized tumor cells

    E-print Network

    Yao, Xiaosai

    2014-01-01

    Despite being responsible for 90% of cancer mortality, metastasis is not well understood. This thesis is focused on the circulation step of the metastatic cascade, examining three types of mobilized tumor cells: circulating ...

  13. Tumor Profiling: Development of Prognostic and Predictive Factors to Guide Brain Tumor Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen H. Settle; Erik P. Sulman

    2011-01-01

    Primary brain tumors are a heterogeneous group of malignancies with highly variable outcomes, and diagnosis is largely based\\u000a on the histological appearance of the tumors. However, the diversity of primary brain tumors has made prognostic determinations\\u000a based purely on clinicopathologic variables difficult. There is an increasing body of data suggesting a significant amount\\u000a of molecular diversity accounts for the heterogeneity

  14. The irradiated tumor microenvironment: role of tumor-associated macrophages in vascular recovery

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Jeffery S.; Brown, J. Martin

    2013-01-01

    Radiotherapy is an important modality used in the treatment of more than 50% of cancer patients in the US. However, despite sophisticated techniques for radiation delivery as well as the combination of radiation with chemotherapy, tumors can recur. Thus, any method of improving the local control of the primary tumor by radiotherapy would produce a major improvement in the curability of cancer patients. One of the challenges in the field is to understand how the tumor vasculature can regrow after radiation in order to support tumor recurrence, as it is unlikely that any of the endothelial cells within the tumor could survive the doses given in a typical radiotherapy regimen. There is now considerable evidence from both preclinical and clinical studies that the tumor vasculature can be restored following radiotherapy from an influx of circulating cells consisting primarily of bone marrow derived monocytes and macrophages. The radiation-induced influx of bone marrow derived cells (BMDCs) into tumors can be prevented through the blockade of various cytokine pathways and such strategies can inhibit tumor recurrence. However, the post-radiation interactions between surviving tumor cells, recruited immune cells, and the remaining stroma remain poorly defined. While prior studies have described the monocyte/macrophage inflammatory response within normal tissues and in the tumor microenvironment, less is known about this response with respect to a tumor after radiation therapy. The goal of this review is to summarize existing research studies to provide an understanding of how the myelomonocytic lineage may influence vascular recovery within the irradiated tumor microenvironment. PMID:23882218

  15. Tumor-Infiltrating ?? T Lymphocytes: Pathogenic Role, Clinical Significance, and Differential Programing in the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Lo Presti, Elena; Dieli, Franceso; Meraviglia, Serena

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing clinical evidence indicating that the immune system may either promote or inhibit tumor progression. Several studies have demonstrated that tumors undergoing remission are largely infiltrated by T lymphocytes [tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs)], but on the other hand, several studies have shown that tumors may be infiltrated by TILs endowed with suppressive features, suggesting that TILs are rather associated with tumor progression and unfavorable prognosis. ?? T lymphocytes are an important component of TILs that may contribute to tumor immunosurveillance, as also suggested by promising reports from several small phase-I clinical trials. Typically, ???T lymphocytes perform effector functions involved in anti-tumor immune responses (cytotoxicity, production of IFN-? and TNF-?, and dendritic cell maturation), but under appropriate conditions they may divert from the typical Th1-like phenotype and polarize to Th2, Th17, and Treg cells thus acquiring the capability to inhibit anti-tumor immune responses and promote tumor growth. Recent studies have shown a high frequency of ?? T lymphocytes infiltrating different types of cancer, but the nature of this association and the exact mechanisms underlying it remain uncertain and whether or not the presence of tumor-infiltrating ?? T lymphocytes is a definite prognostic factor remains controversial. In this paper, we will review studies of tumor-infiltrating ?? T lymphocytes from patients with different types of cancer, and we will discuss their clinical relevance. Moreover, we will also discuss on the complex interplay between cancer, tumor stroma, and ?? T lymphocytes as a major determinant of the final outcome of the ?? T lymphocyte response. Finally, we propose that targeting ?? T lymphocyte polarization and skewing their phenotype to adapt to the microenvironment might hold great promise for the treatment of cancer. PMID:25505472

  16. DLL4 Blockade Inhibits Tumor Growth and Reduces Tumor-Initiating Cell Frequency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy Hoey; Wan-Ching Yen; Fumiko Axelrod; Jesspreet Basi; Lucas Donigian; Scott Dylla; Maureen Fitch-Bruhns; Sasha Lazetic; In-Kyung Park; Aaron Sato; Sanjeev Satyal; Xinhao Wang; Michael F. Clarke; John Lewicki; Austin Gurney

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Previous studies have shown that blocking DLL4 signaling reduced tumor growth by disrupting productive angiogenesis. We developed selective anti-human and anti-mouse DLL4 antibodies to dissect the mechanisms involved by analyzing the contributions of selectively targeting DLL4 in the tumor or in the host vasculature and stroma in xeno- graft models derived from primary human tumors. We found that each

  17. Tumor senescence and radioresistant tumor-initiating cells (TICs): let sleeping dogs lie!

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gaetano Zafarana; Robert G Bristow

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Preclinical data from cell lines and experimental tumors support the concept that breast cancer-derived tumor-initiating cells (TICs) are relatively resistant to ionizing radiation and chemotherapy. This could be a major determinant of tumor recurrence following treatment. Increased clonogenic survival is observed in CD24-\\/low\\/CD44+ TICs derived from mammosphere cultures and is associated with (a) reduced production of reactive oxygen species,

  18. COX2\\/VEGF-Dependent Facilitation of Tumor-Associated Angiogenesis and Tumor Growth in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoko Yoshida; Hideki Amano; Izumi Hayashi; Hidero Kitasato; Mariko Kamata; Madoka Inukai; Hirokuni Yoshimura; Masataka Majima

    2003-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are known to suppress the occurrence and progression of malignancies such as colorectal cancers. However, the precise mechanism of these actions remains unknown. We have evaluated the role of an inducible cyclo-oxygenase (COX-2) in tumor-associated angiogenesis and tumor growth, and identified the downstream molecules involved using a ddy mouse model of sponge angiogenesis, which mimics tumor angiogenesis

  19. Tumor Volume-Adapted Dosing in Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy of Lung Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Trakul, Nicholas; Chang, Christine N.; Harris, Jeremy [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Chapman, Christopher [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Rao, Aarti [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); University of California, Davis, School of Medicine, Davis, CA (United States); Shen, John [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); University of California, Irvine, School of Medicine, Irvine, CA (United States); Quinlan-Davidson, Sean [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, McMaster University, Juravinski Cancer Centre, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Filion, Edith J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Departement de Medecine, Service de Radio-Oncologie, Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Wakelee, Heather A.; Colevas, A. Dimitrios [Department of Medicine, Division of Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States) [Department of Medicine, Division of Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Whyte, Richard I. [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Division of General Thoracic Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States) [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Division of General Thoracic Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); and others

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Current stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) protocols for lung tumors prescribe a uniform dose regimen irrespective of tumor size. We report the outcomes of a lung tumor volume-adapted SABR dosing strategy. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the outcomes in 111 patients with a total of 138 primary or metastatic lung tumors treated by SABR, including local control, regional control, distant metastasis, overall survival, and treatment toxicity. We also performed subset analysis on 83 patients with 97 tumors treated with a volume-adapted dosing strategy in which small tumors (gross tumor volume <12 mL) received single-fraction regimens with biologically effective doses (BED) <100 Gy (total dose, 18-25 Gy) (Group 1), and larger tumors (gross tumor volume {>=}12 mL) received multifraction regimens with BED {>=}100 Gy (total dose, 50-60 Gy in three to four fractions) (Group 2). Results: The median follow-up time was 13.5 months. Local control for Groups 1 and 2 was 91.4% and 92.5%, respectively (p = 0.24) at 12 months. For primary lung tumors only (excluding metastases), local control was 92.6% and 91.7%, respectively (p = 0.58). Regional control, freedom from distant metastasis, and overall survival did not differ significantly between Groups 1 and 2. Rates of radiation pneumonitis, chest wall toxicity, and esophagitis were low in both groups, but all Grade 3 toxicities developed in Group 2 (p = 0.02). Conclusion: A volume-adapted dosing approach for SABR of lung tumors seems to provide excellent local control for both small- and large-volume tumors and may reduce toxicity.

  20. Malignant rhabdoid tumor of the liver presented with initial tumor rupture.

    PubMed

    Kachanov, Denis; Teleshova, Margarita; Kim, Eduard; Dobrenkov, Konstantin; Moiseenko, Roman; Usychkina, Anastasya; Filin, Andrey; Semenkov, Alexey; Mitrofanova, Anna; Konovalov, Dmitry; Shamanskaya, Tatyana; Novichkova, Galina; Varfolomeeva, Svetlana

    2014-09-01

    Malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT) of the liver is a rare, highly aggressive tumor of early childhood. We report a 6-month-old boy who was diagnosed with MRT of the liver and presented with spontaneous tumor rupture. The patient underwent intensified chemotherapy and a radical surgical procedure. Twenty four months from the time of the diagnosis, he is alive without evidence of disease. This is the second report of prolonged survival after initial rupture of hepatic MRT. PMID:24894493