Sample records for compact gamma ray

  1. Gamma rays from compact binary system

    E-print Network

    Josep M. Paredes

    2008-10-24

    Some of the very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray sources detected with the modern generation of Cherenkov telescopes have been identified with previously known X-ray binary systems. These detections demonstrate the richness of non-thermal phenomena in compact galactic objects containing relativistic outflows or winds produced near black holes and neutron stars. Recently, the well-known microquasar Cygnus X-3 seems to be associated with a gamma-ray source detected with AGILE. Here I summarise the main observational results on gamma-ray emission from X-ray binaries, as well as some of the proposed scenarios to explain the production of VHE gamma-rays.

  2. COMPACT, TUNABLE COMPTON SCATTERING GAMMA-RAY SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Hartemann, F V; Albert, F; Anderson, G G; Anderson, S G; Bayramian, A J; Betts, S M; Chu, T S; Cross, R R; Ebbers, C A; Fisher, S E; Gibson, D J; Ladran, A S; Marsh, R A; Messerly, M J; O'Neill, K L; Semenov, V A; Shverdin, M Y; Siders, C W; McNabb, D P; Barty, C J; Vlieks, A E; Jongewaard, E N; Tantawi, S G; Raubenheimer, T O

    2009-08-20

    Recent progress in accelerator physics and laser technology have enabled the development of a new class of gamma-ray light sources based on Compton scattering between a high-brightness, relativistic electron beam and a high intensity laser pulse produced via chirped-pulse amplification (CPA). A precision, tunable gamma-ray source driven by a compact, high-gradient X-band linac is currently under development at LLNL. High-brightness, relativistic electron bunches produced by the linac interact with a Joule-class, 10 ps laser pulse to generate tunable {gamma}-rays in the 0.5-2.5 MeV photon energy range via Compton scattering. The source will be used to excite nuclear resonance fluorescence lines in various isotopes; applications include homeland security, stockpile science and surveillance, nuclear fuel assay, and waste imaging and assay. The source design, key parameters, and current status are presented.

  3. Compact Binary Progenitors of Short Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giacomazzo, Bruno; Perna, Rosalba; Rezzolla, Luciano; Troja, Eleonora; Lazzati, Davide

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, detailed observations and accurate numerical simulations have provided support to the idea that mergers of compact binaries containing either two neutron stars (NSs) or an NS and a black hole (BH) may constitute the central engine of short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs). The merger of such compact binaries is expected to lead to the production of a spinning BH surrounded by an accreting torus. Several mechanisms can extract energy from this system and power the SGRBs. Here we connect observations and numerical simulations of compact binary mergers, and use the current sample of SGRBs with measured energies to constrain the mass of their powering tori. By comparing the masses of the tori with the results of fully general-relativistic simulations, we are able to infer the properties of the binary progenitors that yield SGRBs. By assuming a constant efficiency in converting torus mass into jet energy epsilon(sub jet) = 10%, we find that most of the tori have masses smaller than 0.01 Solar M, favoring "high-mass" binary NSs mergers, i.e., binaries with total masses approx >1.5 the maximum mass of an isolated NS. This has important consequences for the gravitational wave signals that may be detected in association with SGRBs, since "high-mass" systems do not form a long-lived hypermassive NS after the merger. While NS-BH systems cannot be excluded to be the engine of at least some of the SGRBs, the BH would need to have an initial spin of approx. 0.9 or higher.

  4. Science of Compact X- and Gamma-ray Sources: MAXI and GLAST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Dave

    2008-01-01

    MAXI and GLAST will be surveying the sky simultaneously. Compact objects that may show variability will be excellent targets for coordinated multiwavelength studies. Gamma-ray bursts (and afterglows), pulsars, high-mass X-ray binaries, microquasars, and active galactic nuclei are all objects whose X- and gamma-ray relationship can be explored by such observations. Of particular interest will be variable unidentified gamma-ray sources, whose contemporaneous observations by MAXI may prove decisive in identifying the source of the high-energy emission.

  5. Self-Shielding of X-rays and Gamma-Rays in Compact Sources

    E-print Network

    Andrei F. Illarionov; Julian H. Krolik

    1996-04-29

    It is generally supposed that when the "compactness" $l \\equiv L\\sigma_T/(r m_e c^3)$ in photons above the pair-production threshold is large, few $\\gamma$-rays can escape. We demonstrate that even when $l \\gg 1$, if the high energy and low energy photons are produced in geometrically-separated regions, many of the $\\gamma$-rays can, in fact, escape. Pair-production along a thin surface separating the two sources creates enough Compton optical depth to deflect most of the low energy photons away from the high energy ones. Those few low-energy photons which penetrate the shielding surface are reduced in opacity by advection to large distance and small density, by relativistic beaming along the inner edge of the surface, and by Compton upscattering to higher energies inside the surface. The pairs in this surface flow outward relativistically, forming a structure resembling a pair-dominated mildly relativistic jet.

  6. Compact high-resolution gamma-ray computed tomography system for multiphase flow studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bieberle, A.; Nehring, H.; Berger, R.; Arlit, M.; Haerting, H.-U.; Schubert, M. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Fluid Dynamics, Bautzner Landstrasse 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Hampel, U. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Fluid Dynamics, Bautzner Landstrasse 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden, AREVA Endowed Chair of Imaging Techniques in Energy and Process Engineering, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    In this paper, a compact high-resolution gamma-ray Computed Tomography (CompaCT) measurement system for multiphase flow studies and tomographic imaging of technical objects is presented. Its compact and robust design makes it particularly suitable for studies on industrial facilities and outdoor applications. Special care has been given to thermal ruggedness, shock resistance, and radiation protection. Main components of the system are a collimated {sup 137}Cs isotopic source, a thermally stabilised modular high-resolution gamma-ray detector arc with 112 scintillation detector elements, and a transportable rotary unit. The CompaCT allows full CT scans of objects with a diameter of up to 130 mm and can be operated with any tilting angle from 0 Degree-Sign (horizontal) to 90 Degree-Sign (vertical).

  7. Nuclear gamma rays from compact objects. [nuclear interactions around neutron stars and black holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lingenfelter, R. E.; Higdon, J. C.; Ramaty, R.

    1978-01-01

    Accreting compact objects may be important gamma ray line sources and may explain recent observations of celestial gamma-ray line emission from a transient source in the direction of the galactic anti-center, from the galactic center, and possibly from the radio galaxy Centaurus A. The identification of the lines from the transient source requires a strong redshift. Such a redshift permits the identification of these lines with the most intense nuclear emission lines expected in nature, positron annihilation, and neutron capture on hydrogen and iron. Their production as a result of nuclear interactions in accreting gas around a neutron star is proposed. The gamma-ray line emission from the galactic center and possibly Centaurus A appears to have a surprisingly high luminosity, amounting to perhaps as much as 10% of the total luminosity of these sources. Such high gamma-ray line emission efficiencies could result from nuclear interactions in accreting gas around a massive black hole.

  8. Searching gamma-ray bursts for gravitational lensing echoes - Implications for compact dark matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemiroff, R. J.; Norris, J. P.; Wickramasinghe, W. A. D. T.; Horack, J. M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Fishman, G. J.; Meegan, C. A.; Wilson, R. B.; Paciesas, W. S.

    1993-01-01

    The first available 44 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment on board the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory have been inspected for echo signals following shortly after the main signal. No significant echoes have been found. Echoes would have been expected were the GRBs distant enough and the universe populated with a sufficient density of compact objects composing the dark matter. Constraints on dark matter abundance and GRB redshifts from the present data are presented and discussed. Based on these preliminary results, a universe filled to critical density of compact objects between 10 exp 6.5 and 10 exp 8.1 solar masses are now marginally excluded, or the most likely cosmological distance paradigm for GRBs is not correct. We expect future constraints to be able either to test currently popular cosmological dark matter paradigms or to indicate that GRBs do not lie at cosmological distances.

  9. Supernovae in Helium Star--Compact Object Binaries: A Possible Gamma-ray Burst Mechanism

    E-print Network

    Avery E. Broderick

    2005-08-01

    Helium star--compact object binaries, and helium star--neutron star binaries in particular, are widely believed to be the progenitors of the observed double neutron star systems. In these, the second neutron star is presumed to be the compact remnant of the helium star supernova. Here, the observational implications of such a supernova are discussed, and in particular are explored as a candidate gamma-ray burst mechanism. In this scenario the supernova results in a transient period of rapid accretion onto the compact object, extracting via magnetic torques its rotational energy at highly super-Eddington luminosities in the form of a narrowly beamed, strongly electromagnetically dominated jet. Compton scattering of supernova photons advected within the ejecta, and photons originating at shocks driven into the ejecta by the jet, will cool the jet and can produce the observed prompt emission characteristics, including the peak--inferred isotropic energy relation, X-ray flash characteristics, subpulse light curves, energy dependent time lags and subpulse broadening, and late time spectral softening. The duration of the burst is limited by the rate of Compton cooling of the jet, eventually creating an optically thick, moderately relativistically expanding fireball which can produce the afterglow emission. If the black hole or neutron star stays bound to a compact remnant, late term light curve variability may be observed as in SN 2003dh.

  10. Gravitationally Lensed Gamma-Ray Bursts as Probes of Dark Compact Objects

    E-print Network

    G. F. Marani; R. J. Nemiroff; J. P. Norris; K. Hurley; J. T. Bonnell

    1998-12-29

    If dark matter in the form of compact objects comprises a large fraction of the mass of the universe, then gravitational lensing effects on gamma-ray bursts are expected. We utilize BATSE and Ulysses data to search for lenses of different mass ranges, which cause lensing in the milli, pico, and femto regimes. Null results are used to set weak limits on the cosmological abundance of compact objects in mass ranges from 10$^{-16}$ to 10$^{-9}$ $M_{\\odot} $. A stronger limit is found for a much discussed $\\Omega = 0.15$ universe dominated by black holes of masses $\\sim 10^{6.5} M_{\\odot}$, which is ruled out at the $\\sim$ 90% confidence level.

  11. Central compact objects, superslow X-ray pulsars, gamma-ray bursts: do they have anything to do with magnetars?

    E-print Network

    Tong, H

    2014-01-01

    Magnetars and many of the magnetar-related objects are summarized together and discussed. It is shown that there is an abuse of language in the use of "magnetar". Anomalous X-ray pulsars and soft gamma-ray repeaters are well-known magnetar candidates. The current so called anti-magnetar (for central compact objects), accreting magnetar (for superslow X-ray pulsars in high mass X-ray binaries), and millisecond magnetar (for the central engine of some gamma-ray bursts), they may not be real magnetars in present understandings. Their observational behaviors are not caused by the magnetic energy. Many of them are just neutron stars with strong surface dipole field. A neutron star plus strong dipole field is not a magnetar. The characteristic parameters of the neutron stars for the central engine of some gamma-ray bursts are atypical from the neutron stars in the Galaxy. Possible signature of magnetic activities in accreting systems are discussed, including repeated bursts and a hard X-ray tail. China's future har...

  12. Compact Gamma-Ray Imager for In-Vivo Gene Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwald, A. C.

    2000-06-01

    A compact, low-cost, gamma-ray imaging system is needed to study gene expression in small animals. State-of-the-art electronic imaging systems have insufficient resolution and animals must be sacrificed for detailed imaging that precludes time evolution studies. With improved electronics radioactive tracers attached to gene markers can be used to track the absorption and mobility of gene therapy medications in live animals. Other instrumentation being developed for medical applications does not have the response to match the radiation source for this work. The objective of this research was to develop thick film (Cd,Zn)Te detectors matched to the gamma ray energy of {sup 129}I. The detector would be a direct readout device using p-i-n diodes formed from the high Z material absorbing the radiation, with separate readout. Higher quality semiconducting material was expected from epitaxial growth on GaAs, a near lattice matched substrate. In practice, it was difficult to obtain material with high resistance and low leakage current. Spire Corporation achieved the goal of fabricating working detectors in (Cd,Zn)Te deposited on GaAs. The spectra of an alpha emitter ({sup 225}Am) was adequately resolved in thin film devices. Thick p-i-n diodes were fabricated but other processing problems prevented full demonstration of a gamma ray detector.

  13. Testing a Light-weight Compact Gamma Ray Detector for Measuring Snow Water Equivalent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiet, E., II; Solie, D. J.; Sturm, M.

    2014-12-01

    The use of gamma ray to measure snow water equivalent (SWE) trace back to the 1970s during the Soviet Union hydrology program. Over the years research has shown that gamma detectors could be used to monitor SWE, and their use significantly expanded. In the 1980s several airborne campaigns were launched in North America to measure SWR; these gamma flights are still in use today. However, these airborne flights require a twin-engine aircraft and a detector with a computer that weighs 250 kg, which is unsuitable for use with unmanned airborne systems (UAS), our primary interest. Here we describe results of tests of a compact gamma detector weighing 2 kg. The envisioned deployment of this detector is on a small quad-copter UAS that can hover low over remote clearings in the boreal forest of interior Alaska. Such a technique may allow SWE estimates in places that otherwise would be difficult to measure. We tested the detector over snow and water bodies and found for SWE between 0 and 50 cm a sensitivity of ą 2 cm SWE, which is sufficient to resolve any significant snowfall in the region. In this presentation we will discuss our preliminary results and our future strategy for deploying the sensor on a UAS.

  14. Prospects for compact high-intensity laser synchrotron x-ray and gamma sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogorelsky, I. V.

    1997-03-01

    A laser interacting with a relativistic electron beam behaves like a virtual wiggler of an extremely short period equal to half of the laser wavelength. This approach opens a route to relatively compact, high-brightness x-ray sources alternative or complementary to conventional synchrotron light sources. Although not new, the laser synchrotron source (LSS) concept is still waiting for a convincing demonstration. Available at the BNL Accelerator Test Facility (ATF), a high-brightness electron beam and the high-power CO2 laser may be used for prototype LSS demonstration. In a feasible demonstration experiment, 10-GW, 100-ps CO2 laser beam will be brought to a head-on collision with a 10-ps, 0.5-nC, 50 MeV electron bunch. Flashes of collimated 4.7 keV (2.6 Ĺ) x-rays of 10-ps pulse duration, with a flux of ˜1019photons/sec, will be produced via linear Compton backscattering. The x-ray spectrum is tunable proportionally to the e-beam energy. A rational short-term extension of the proposed experiment would be further enhancement of the x-ray flux to the 1022 photons/sec level, after the ongoing ATF CO2 laser upgrade to 5 TW peak power and electron bunch shortening to 3 ps is realized. In the future, exploiting the promising approach of a high-gradient laser wake field accelerator, a compact "table-top" LSS of monochromatic gamma radiation may become feasible.

  15. Prospects for compact high-intensity laser synchrotron x-ray and gamma sources

    SciTech Connect

    Pogorelsky, I.V.

    1997-01-01

    A laser interacting with a relativistic electron beam behaves like a virtual wiggler of an extremely short period equal to half of the laser wavelength. This approach opens a route to relatively compact, high- brightness x-ray sources alternative or complementary to conventional synchrotron light sources. Although not new, the laser synchrotron source (LSS) concept is still waiting for a convincing demonstration. Available at the BNL Accelerator Test Facility (ATF), a high- brightness electron beam and the high-power C0{sub 2} laser may be used as prototype LSS brick stones. In a feasible demonstration experiment, 10 GW, 100 ps C0{sub 2} laser beam will be brought to a head-on collision with a 10 ps, 0.5 nC, 50 MeV electron bunch. Flashes of collimated 4.7 keV (2.6 A) x-rays of 10-ps pulse duration, with a flux of {approximately}10{sup 19} photons/sec, will be produced via linear Compton backscattering. The x-ray spectra is tunable proportionally to the e- beam energy. A rational short-term extension of the proposed experiment would be further enhancement of the x-ray flux to the 10{sup 22} photon/sec level, after the ongoing ATF C0{sub 2} laser upgrade to 5 TW peak power and electron bunch shortening to 3 ps is realized. In the future, exploiting the promising approach of a high-gradient laser wake field accelerator, a compact ``table- top`` LSS of monochromatic gamma radiation may become feasible.

  16. A performance study of an electron-tracking Compton camera with a compact system for environmental gamma-ray observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizumoto, T.; Tomono, D.; Takada, A.; Tanimori, T.; Komura, S.; Kubo, H.; Matsuoka, Y.; Mizumura, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Nakamura, S.; Oda, M.; Parker, J. D.; Sawano, T.; Bando, N.; Nabetani, A.

    2015-06-01

    An electron-tracking Compton camera (ETCC) is a detector that can determine the arrival direction and energy of incident sub-MeV/MeV gamma-ray events on an event-by-event basis. It is a hybrid detector consisting of a gaseous time projection chamber (TPC), that is the Compton-scattering target and the tracker of recoil electrons, and a position-sensitive scintillation camera that absorbs of the scattered gamma rays, to measure gamma rays in the environment from contaminated soil. To measure of environmental gamma rays from soil contaminated with radioactive cesium (Cs), we developed a portable battery-powered ETCC system with a compact readout circuit and data-acquisition system for the SMILE-II experiment [1,2]. We checked the gamma-ray imaging ability and ETCC performance in the laboratory by using several gamma-ray point sources. The performance test indicates that the field of view (FoV) of the detector is about 1 sr and that the detection efficiency and angular resolution for 662 keV gamma rays from the center of the FoV is (9.31 ą 0.95) × 10?5 and 5.9° ą 0.6°, respectively. Furthermore, the ETCC can detect 0.15 ?Sv/h from a 137Cs gamma-ray source with a significance of 5? in 13 min in the laboratory. In this paper, we report the specifications of the ETCC and the results of the performance tests. Furthermore, we discuss its potential use for environmental gamma-ray measurements.

  17. Gamma Rays

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Life Decay Chains Radioactive Equilibrium Curies Alpha Particles Beta Particles Gamma Rays Other Decay Modes A gamma ray is a packet of ... energy. It often follows the emission of a beta particle. What happens ... an example of radioactive decay by gamma radiation. When a neutron transforms to ...

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF A PRECISION TUNABLE GAMMA-RAY SOURCE DRIVEN BY A COMPACT X-BAND LINAC

    SciTech Connect

    Hartemann, F V; Albert, F; Anderson, G G; Anderson, S G; Bayramian, A J; Betts, S M; Chu, T S; Cross, R R; Ebbers, C A; Fisher, S E; Gibson, D J; Ladran, A S; Messerly, M J; Semenov, V A; Shverdin, M Y; Siders, C W; McNabb, D P; Barty, C J; Vlieks, A E; Jongewaard, E N; Tantawi, S G

    2009-04-30

    A precision, tunable gamma-ray source driven by a compact, high-gradient X-band linac is currently under development at LLNL. High-brightness, relativistic electron bunches produced by the linac interact with a Joule-class, 10 ps laser pulse to generate tunable {gamma}-rays in the 0.5-2.5 MeV photon energy range via Compton scattering. The source will be used to excite nuclear resonance fluorescence lines in various isotopes; applications include homeland security, stockpile science and surveillance, nuclear fuel assay, and waste imaging and assay. The source design, key parameters, and current status are presented.

  19. Diversity of Short Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows from Compact Binary Mergers Hosting Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holcomb, Cole; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; De Colle, Fabio; Montes, Gabriela

    2014-07-01

    Short-duration gamma-ray bursts (sGRBs) are widely believed to result from the mergers of compact binaries. This model predicts an afterglow that bears the characteristic signatures of a constant, low-density medium, including a smooth prompt-afterglow transition, and a simple temporal evolution. However, these expectations are in conflict with observations for a non-negligible fraction of sGRB afterglows. In particular, the onset of the afterglow phase for some of these events appears to be delayed and, in addition, a few of them exhibit late-time rapid fading in their light curves. We show that these peculiar observations can be explained independently of ongoing central engine activity if some sGRB progenitors are compact binaries hosting at least one pulsar. The Poynting flux emanating from the pulsar companion can excavate a bow-shock cavity surrounding the binary. If this cavity is larger than the shock deceleration length scale in the undisturbed interstellar medium, then the onset of the afterglow will be delayed. Should the deceleration occur entirely within the swept-up thin shell, a rapid fade in the light curve will ensue. We identify two types of pulsar that can achieve the conditions necessary for altering the afterglow: low-field, long-lived pulsars, and high-field pulsars. We find that a sizable fraction (?20%-50%) of low-field pulsars are likely to reside in neutron star binaries based on observations, while their high-field counterparts are not. Hydrodynamical calculations motivated by this model are shown to be in good agreement with observations of sGRB afterglow light curves.

  20. Experimental investigation of silicon photomultipliers as compact light readout systems for gamma-ray spectroscopy applications in fusion plasmas.

    PubMed

    Nocente, M; Fazzi, A; Tardocchi, M; Cazzaniga, C; Lorenzoli, M; Pirovano, C; Rebai, M; Uboldi, C; Varoli, V; Gorini, G

    2014-11-01

    A matrix of Silicon Photo Multipliers has been developed for light readout from a large area 1 in. × 1 in. LaBr3 crystal. The system has been characterized in the laboratory and its performance compared to that of a conventional photo multiplier tube. A pulse duration of 100 ns was achieved, which opens up to spectroscopy applications at high counting rates. The energy resolution measured using radioactive sources extrapolates to 3%-4% in the energy range E? = 3-5 MeV, enabling gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements at good energy resolution. The results reported here are of relevance in view of the development of compact gamma-ray detectors with spectroscopy capabilities, such as an enhanced gamma-ray camera for high power fusion plasmas, where the use of photomultiplier is impeded by space limitation and sensitivity to magnetic fields. PMID:25430287

  1. A compact low energy multibeam gamma-ray densitometer for pipe-flow measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjugum, Stein-Arild; Frieling, Joop; Johansen, Geir Anton

    2002-12-01

    A compact low-energy multibeam gamma-ray densitometer for oil/water/gas pipe-flow measurement has been built at the University of Bergen (UoB). The instrument consists of one Am-241 source and three detectors, all collimated and embedded in the pipe wall. Only the 59.5 keV radiation energy of the source is utilized. Two of the detectors measure transmitted radiation across the pipe flow, and one measure scattered radiation at a 90° angle. The purpose of the multibeam measurement geometry is to acquire flow regime information and to reduce the flow regime dependency of the gas volume fraction (GVF) measurements. The measurement of scattered radiation enables the dual modality densitometry (DMD) measurement principle to be exploited. Its basic principle is to combine the measurement of scattered and transmitted radiation in order to obtain salinity independent GVF measurements. The salinity dependency is otherwise strongly significant when using low-energy radiation. It is also possible to measure the salinity by using this principle. The instrument is a laboratory prototype, and it has been used for characterising the measurement principle and to test different detector alternatives. The testing of the instrument includes static tests on plastic phantoms, tests on simulated water/gas flow and three phase flow loop tests. Both the multibeam measurement principle and the DMD principle have been verified to provide valuable information. This paper presents the physics behind, experimental results and an evaluation of the system.

  2. Topics in gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Observations of gamma rays from solar flares, gamma ray bursts, the Galactic center, galactic nucleosynthesis, SS433, and Cygnus X-3, and their effects on astrophysical problems are discussed. It is observed that gamma ray spectra from solar flares are applicable to the study of particle acceleration and confinement and the determination of chemical abundances in the solar atmosphere. The gamma ray lines from the compact galactic object SS433 are utilized to examine the acceleration of jets, and analysis of the gamma ray lines of Cygnus X-3 reveal that particles can be accelerated in compact sources to ultrahigh energies.

  3. Late stages of the evolution of close compact binaries: Type I supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and supersoft X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutukov, A. V.; Fedorova, A. V.

    2007-04-01

    We consider the evolution of close binaries resulting in the most intensive explosive phenomena in the stellar Universe—Type Ia supernovae and gamma-ray bursts. For Type Ia supernovae, which represent thermonuclear explosions of carbon-oxygen dwarfs whose masses reach the Chandrasekhar limit during the accretion of matter from the donor star, we derive the conditions for the accumulation of the limiting mass by the degenerate dwarf in the close binary. Accretion onto the degenerate dwarf can be accompanied by supersoft X-ray radiation with luminosity 1-104 L ?. Gamma-ray bursts are believe to accompany the formation and rapid evolution of compact accretion-decretion disks during the formation of relativistic objects—black holes and neutron stars. The rapid (˜1 M ?/ s) accretion of matter from these disks onto the central compact relativistic star results in an energy release of ˜0.1 M ? c 2 ˜ 1053 erg in the form of gamma-rays and neutrinos over a time of 0.1-1000 s. Such disks can form via the collapse of the rapidly rotating cores of Type Ib, Ic supernovae, which are components in extremely close binaries, or alternately due to the collapse of accreting oxygen-neon degenerate dwarfs with the Chandrasekhar mass into neutron stars, or the merging of neutron stars with neutron stars or black holes in close binaries. We present numerical models of the evolution of some close binaries that result in Type Ia supernovae, and also estimate the rates of these supernovae (˜0.003/year) and of gamma-ray bursts (˜10-4/year) in our Galaxy for various evolutionary scenarios. The collimation of the gamma-ray burst radiation within an opening angle of several degrees “matches” the latter estimate with the observed rate of these events, ˜10-7-10-8/year calculated for a galaxy with the mass of our Galaxy.

  4. Properties of long gamma-ray bursts from massive compact binaries.

    PubMed

    Church, Ross P; Levan, Andrew J; Davies, Melvyn B; Kim, Chunglee

    2013-06-13

    We consider the implications of a model for long-duration gamma-ray bursts in which the progenitor is spun up in a close binary by tidal interactions with a massive black-hole companion. We investigate a sample of such binaries produced by a binary population synthesis, and show that the model predicts several common features in the accretion on to the newly formed black hole. In all cases, the accretion rate declines as approximately t(-5/3) until a break at a time of order 10(4)?s. The accretion rate declines steeply thereafter. Subsequently, there is flaring activity, with the flare peaking between 10(4) and 10(5)?s, the peak time being correlated with the flare energy. We show that these times are set by the semi-major axis of the binary, and hence the process of tidal spin-up; furthermore, they are consistent with flares seen in the X-ray light curves of some long gamma-ray bursts. PMID:23630369

  5. Limits on the cosmological abundance of supermassive compact objects from a millilensing search in gamma-ray burst data

    E-print Network

    Robert J. Nemiroff; Gabriela F. Marani; Jay P. Norris; Jerry T. Bonnell

    2001-01-26

    A new search for the gravitational lens effects of a significant cosmological density of supermassive compact objects (SCOs) on gamma-ray bursts has yielded a null result. We inspected the timing data of 774 BATSE-triggered GRBs for evidence of millilensing: repeated peaks similar in light-curve shape and spectra. Our null detection leads us to conclude that, in all candidate universes simulated, $\\Omega_{SCO} < 0.1$ is favored for $10^5 < M_{SCO}/M_{\\odot} < 10^9$, while in some universes and mass ranges the density limits are as much as 10 times lower. Therefore, a cosmologically significant population of SCOs near globular cluster mass neither came out of the primordial universe, nor condensed at recombination.

  6. A Compact Monitoring System for Recording X-Rays, Gamma Rays and Neutrons Generated By Atmospheric Lightning Discharges and Other Natural Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, I. M.; Alves, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    The generation of X-rays, gamma-rays and neutrons by atmospheric lightning discharges has been predicted by different researchers several decades ago. But only within the last 25 years the first experimental evidences of events relating the generation of these radiations with lightning have been made; since then there is a continuing effort to collect more information about this type of phenomenon. In this study we describe a compact monitoring system to detect simultaneously X-rays, gamma-rays and neutrons using rather inexpensive off-the-shelf commercial detectors (Micro Roengten Radiation Monitor, 8-inch gamma tube coupled to a 3x3 inch sodium iodide [Nai(Tl)] crystal, Ludlum He-3 neutron detector) and accompanying computer interfaces. The system is extremely portable and can be powered with small automotive batteries, if necessary. Measurements are performed at ground-level. Preliminary measurements have already yielded positive results, e.g., changes in the neutron flux related to a lightning discharge and varying weather conditions have been observed in the city of Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil (23° 11? 11?S, 45° 52? 43? W, 600 m above sea level). This a pilot study, in the near future a larger number of these compact monitoring system will be installed in different location in order to increase the area coverage. Although the main objective of the study is to detect high-energy events produced by lightning discharges, the monitoring system will also be able to detect changes in the radiation background produced by other natural phenomena.

  7. Gamma-ray-computed tomography to investigate compaction on sewage-sludge-treated soil.

    PubMed

    Pires, Luiz F; de Macedo, Jose R; de Souza, Manoel D; Bacchi, Osny O S; Reichardt, Klaus

    2003-07-01

    Soil compaction is one of the fundamental parameters to evaluate the environmental impact of agricultural machinery traffic on soils. Compaction causes modifications on soil physical properties such as changes in porosity and structure that are related to soil water movement and gas exchange The objective of this work was to evaluate soil surface sealing after sewage-sludge application, and the influence of agricultural machinery traffic, through computed tomography. A first generation tomograph was used having a 137Cs source and a 3 in x 3 in NaI(Tl) scintillation crystal detector coupled to a photomultiplier tube. Image analysis and tomographic unit profiles could successfully be used for the detection of soil surface sealing and soil compaction due to machinery traffic associated to sewage-sludge application. PMID:12878118

  8. High energy gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C. E.

    1974-01-01

    The SAS-2 gamma ray experiment and its detection of celestial gamma rays are described. Data also cover intensity of high energy gamma rays, gamma ray distribution, gamma ray origin, and diffuse radiation.

  9. Future prospects for gamma-ray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C.

    1980-01-01

    Astrophysical phenomena discussed are: the very energetic and nuclear processes associated with compact objects; astrophysical nucleo-synthesis; solar particle acceleration; the chemical composition of the planets and other bodies of the solar system; the structure of our galaxy; the origin and dynamic pressure effects of the cosmic rays; the high energy particles and energetic processes in other galaxies, especially active ones; and the degree of matter antimater symmetry of the universe. The gamma ray results of GAMMA-I, the gamma ray observatory, the gamma ray burst network, solar polar, and very high energy gamma ray telescopes on the ground provide justification for more sophisticated telescopes.

  10. Sandstone and shale compaction curves derived from sonic and gamma ray logs in offshore wells, North Slope, Alaska; parameters for basin modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowan, Elisabeth L.; Hayba, Daniel O.; Nelson, Philip H.; Burns, W. Matthew; Houseknecht, David W.

    2003-01-01

    Representative compaction curves for the principle lithologies are essential input for reliable models of basin history. Compaction curves influence estimates of maximum burial and erosion. Different compaction curves may produce significantly different thermal histories. Default compaction curves provided by basin modeling packages may or may not be a good proxy for the compaction properties in a given area. Compaction curves in the published literature span a wide range, even within one lithology, e.g., sandstone (see Panel 3). An abundance of geophysical well data for the North Slope, from both government and private sources, provides us with an unusually good opportunity to develop compaction curves for the Cretaceous-Tertiary Brookian sandstones, siltstones, and shales. We examined the sonic and gamma ray logs from 19 offshore wells (see map), where significant erosion is least likely to have occurred. Our data are primarily from the Cretaceous-Tertiary Brookian sequence and are less complete for older sequences. For each well, the fraction of shale (Vsh) at a given depth was estimated from the gamma ray log, and porosity was computed from sonic travel time. By compositing porosities for the near-pure sand (Vsh99%)from many individual wells we obtained data over sufficient depth intervals to define sandstone and shale 'master' compaction curves. A siltstone curve was defined using the sonic-derived porosities for Vsh values of 50%. These compaction curves generally match most of the sonic porosities with an error of 5% or less. Onshore, the curves are used to estimate the depth of maximum burial at the end of Brookian sedimentation. The depth of sonic-derived porosity profiles is adjusted to give the best match with the 'master' compaction curves. The amount of the depth adjustment is the erosion estimate. Using our compaction curves, erosion estimates on the North Slope range from zero in much of the offshore, to as much as 1500 ft along the coast, and to more than 10,000 ft in the foothills (Panel 3). Compaction curves provide an alternative to vitrinite reflectance for estimating erosion. Vitrinite reflectance data are often very sparse in contrast to well log data and are subject to inconsistencies when measurements are made by different labs. The phenomenon of 'recycling' can also make the reflectance values of dispersed vitrinite problematic for quantifying erosion. Recycling is suspected in dispersed vitrinite in North Slope rocks, particularly in the younger, Cretaceous-Tertiary section. The compaction curves defined here are being integrated into our burial history and thermal models to determine the timing of source rock maturation. An example on Panel 3 shows the results of calculating the maturity of the Shublik Fm. at the Tulaga well using two different sets of shale and siltstone compaction curves. Finally, accurate compaction curves improve a model's ability to realistically simulate the pressure regime during burial, including overpressures.

  11. Gamma ray detector shield

    DOEpatents

    Ohlinger, R.D.; Humphrey, H.W.

    1985-08-26

    A gamma ray detector shield comprised of a rigid, lead, cylindrical-shaped vessel having upper and lower portions with an pneumatically driven, sliding top assembly. Disposed inside the lead shield is a gamma ray scintillation crystal detector. Access to the gamma detector is through the sliding top assembly.

  12. The Magnetospheric Flare on Compact Magnetized Object (Neutron Star or White Dwarf) - Model for Cosmological Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB)

    E-print Network

    Ya. N. Istomin; B. V. Komberg

    2002-06-18

    The SN explosion in the closed binary can give the magnetospheric flare possessing the properties of GRB. The SN shock, flowing around the magnetosphere of a magnetized neutron star or a white dwarf, produces a narrow magnetic tail 10^9 cm long, 10^8 cm wide and a magnetic field of 10^6 Gauss. Fast particles (Lorentz factor of 10^4), generated in the tail by reconnection processes, radaite gamma rays of the 100 KeV - 1 MeV energies. The duration of radiation T 10 sec) GRB. The duration of the afterglow is inversly proportional to the photon energy and is several months for optic.

  13. Gamma-ray Astronomy

    E-print Network

    Jim Hinton

    2007-12-20

    The relevance of gamma-ray astronomy to the search for the origin of the galactic and, to a lesser extent, the ultra-high-energy cosmic rays has long been recognised. The current renaissance in the TeV gamma-ray field has resulted in a wealth of new data on galactic and extragalactic particle accelerators, and almost all the new results in this field were presented at the recent International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC). Here I summarise the 175 papers submitted on the topic of gamma-ray astronomy to the 30th ICRC in Merida, Mexico in July 2007.

  14. Gamma-ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Wijers, Ralph A. M. J.; Woosley, Stan

    2012-11-01

    Prologue C. Kouveliotou, R. A . M. J. Wijers and S. E. Woosley; 1. The discovery of the gamma-ray burst phenomenon R. W. Klebesadel; 2. Instrumental principles E. E. Fenimore; 3. The BATSE era G. J. Fishman and C. A. Meegan; 4. The cosmological era L. Piro and K. Hurley; 5. The Swift era N. Gehrels and D. N. Burrows; 6. Discoveries enabled by multi-wavelength afterglow observations of gamma-ray bursts J. Greiner; 7. Prompt emission from gamma-ray bursts T. Piran, R. Sari and R. Mochkovitch; 8. Basic gamma-ray burst afterglows P. Mészáros and R. A. M. J. Wijers; 9. The GRB-supernova connection J. Hjorth and J. S. Bloom; 10. Models for gamma-ray burst progenitors and central engines S. E. Woosley; 11. Jets and gamma-ray burst unification schemes J. Granot and E. Ramirez-Ruiz; 12. High-energy cosmic rays and neutrinos E. Waxman; 13. Long gamma-ray burst host galaxies and their environments J. P. U. Fynbo, D. Malesani and P. Jakobsson; 14. Gamma-ray burst cosmology V. Bromm and A. Loeb; 15. Epilogue R. D. Blandford; Index.

  15. Last moments in the life of a compact binary system: gravitational waves, gamma-ray bursts and magnetar formation

    E-print Network

    S. Rosswog

    2006-12-20

    The first detections of afterglows from short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have confirmed the previous suspicion that they are triggered by a different central engine than long bursts. In particular, the recent detections of short GRBs in galaxies without star formation lends support to the idea that an old stellar population is involved. Most prominent are mergers of either double neutron stars or of a neutron star with a stellar-mass black hole companion. Since the final identification of the central engine will only come from an integral view of several properties, we review the observable signatures that can be expected from both double neutron stars and neutron star black hole systems. We discuss the gravitational wave emission, the structure of the neutrino-cooled accretion disks, the resulting neutrino signal and possible mechanisms to launch a GRB. In addition, we address the speculative idea that in some cases a magnetar-like object may be the final outcome of a double neutron star merger. We also discuss possibilities to explain the late-time X-ray activity that has been observed in several bursts.

  16. Cosmological gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paczynski, Bohdan

    1991-01-01

    The distribution in angle and flux of gamma-ray bursts indicates that the majority of gamma-ray bursters are at cosmological distances, i.e., at z of about 1. The rate is then about 10 exp -8/yr in a galaxy like the Milky Way, i.e., orders of magnitude lower than the estimated rate for collisions between neutron stars in close binary systems. The energy per burst is about 10 exp 51 ergs, assuming isotropic emission. The events appear to be less energetic and more frequent if their emission is strongly beamed. Some tests for the distance scale are discussed: a correlation between the burst's strength and its spectrum; the absorption by the Galactic gas below about 2 keV; the X-ray tails caused by forward scattering by the Galactic dust; about 1 month recurrence of some bursts caused by gravitational lensing by foreground galaxies; and a search for gamma-ray bursts in M31. The bursts appear to be a manifestation of something exotic, but conventional compact objects can provide an explanation. The best possibility is offered by a decay of a bindary composed of a spinning-stellar-mass black-hole primary and a neutron or a strange-quark star secondary. In the final phase the secondary is tidally disrupted, forms an accretion disk, and up to 10 exp 54 ergs are released. A very small fraction of this energy powers the gamma-ray burst.

  17. Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gearld J.

    2003-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts originate from cosmological distances and represent the largest known explosions in the Universe. The observed temporal and spectral characteristics of bursts in the gamma-ray region, primarily from data obtained with the BATSE experiment on the Compton Observatory, will be described. The talk will concentrate on recent studies of burst properties, correlations of GRB parameters and other statistical studies that have recently come to light. A summary of recent discoveries and observations in other wavelength regions will also be presented, along with their implications for models of the burst emission mechanism. Various models for the energy source of gamma-ray bursts will be described.

  18. Gamma ray optics

    SciTech Connect

    Jentschel, M.; Guenther, M. M.; Habs, D.; Thirolf, P. G. [Institut Laue-Langevin, F38042 Grenoble (France); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, D-85748 Garching, Germany and Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2012-07-09

    Via refractive or diffractive scattering one can shape {gamma} ray beams in terms of beam divergence, spot size and monochromaticity. These concepts might be particular important in combination with future highly brilliant gamma ray sources and might push the sensibility of planned experiments by several orders of magnitude. We will demonstrate the experimental feasibility of gamma ray monochromatization on a ppm level and the creation of a gamma ray beam with nanoradian divergence. The results are obtained using the inpile target position of the High Flux Reactor of the ILL Grenoble and the crystal spectrometer GAMS. Since the refractive index is believed to vanish to zero with 1/E{sup 2}, the concept of refractive optics has never been considered for gamma rays. The combination of refractive optics with monochromator crystals is proposed to be a promising design. Using the crystal spectrometer GAMS, we have measured for the first time the refractive index at energies in the energy range of 180 - 2000 keV. The results indicate a deviation from simple 1/E{sup 2} extrapolation of X-ray results towards higher energies. A first interpretation of these new results will be presented. We will discuss the consequences of these results on the construction of refractive optics such as lenses or refracting prisms for gamma rays and their combination with single crystal monochromators.

  19. Gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, William S.

    1991-01-01

    Miscellaneous tasks related to the development of the Bursts and Transient Source Experiment on the Gamma Ray Observatory and to analysis of archival data from balloon flight experiments were performed. The results are summarized and relevant references are included.

  20. High Energy Gamma Rays

    E-print Network

    R. Mukherjee

    2000-09-22

    This article reviews the present status of high energy gamma-ray astronomy at energies above 30 MeV. Observations in the past decade using both space- and ground-based experiments have been primarily responsible for giving a tremendous boost to our knowledge of the high energy Universe. High energy gamma-rays have been detected from a wide range of Galactic and extragalactic astrophysical sources, such as gamma-ray bursters, pulsars, and active galaxies. These observations have established high energy gamma-ray astronomy as a vital and exciting field, that has a bright future. This review summarizes the experimental techniques, observations and results obtained with recent experiments, and concludes with a short description of future prospects.

  1. Gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    Cosmic gamma rays, the physical processes responsible for their production and the astrophysical sites from which they were seen are reported. The bulk of the observed gamma ray emission is in the photon energy range from about 0.1 MeV to 1 GeV, where observations are carried out above the atmosphere. There are also, however, gamma ray observations at higher energies obtained by detecting the Cerenkov light produced by the high energy photons in the atmosphere. Gamma ray emission was observed from sources as close as the Sun and the Moon and as distant as the quasar 3C273, as well as from various other galactic and extragalactic sites. The radiation processes also range from the well understood, e.g. energetic particle interactions with matter, to the still incompletely researched, such as radiation transfer in optically thick electron positron plasmas in intense neutron star magnetic fields.

  2. Gamma-Ray Bursts

    E-print Network

    P. Meszaros

    2006-05-30

    Gamma-ray bursts are the most luminous explosions in the Universe, and their origin and mechanism are the focus of intense research and debate. More than three decades after their discovery, and after pioneering breakthroughs from space and ground experiments, their study is entering a new phase with the recently launched Swift satellite. The interplay between these observations and theoretical models of the prompt gamma ray burst and its afterglow is reviewed.

  3. Gamma ray camera

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, C.D.; Wang, S.

    1980-09-09

    An anger gamma ray camera is improved by the substitution of a gamma ray sensitive, proximity type image intensifier tube for the scintillator screen in the anger camera, the image intensifier tube having a negatively charged flat scintillator screen and a flat photocathode layer and a grounded, flat output phosphor display screen all of the same dimension (Unity image magnification) and all within a grounded metallic tube envelope and having a metallic, inwardly concaved input window between the scintillator screen and the collimator.

  4. The gamma-ray observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    An overview is given of the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) mission. Detection of gamma rays and gamma ray sources, operations using the Space Shuttle, and instruments aboard the GRO, including the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), the Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (OSSE), the Imaging Compton Telescope (COMPTEL), and the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) are among the topics surveyed.

  5. Gamma ray camera

    DOEpatents

    Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A gamma ray camera for detecting rays emanating from a radiation source such as an isotope. The gamma ray camera includes a sensor array formed of a visible light crystal for converting incident gamma rays to a plurality of corresponding visible light photons, and a photosensor array responsive to the visible light photons in order to form an electronic image of the radiation therefrom. The photosensor array is adapted to record an integrated amount of charge proportional to the incident gamma rays closest to it, and includes a transparent metallic layer, photodiode consisting of a p-i-n structure formed on one side of the transparent metallic layer, and comprising an upper p-type layer, an intermediate layer and a lower n-type layer. In the preferred mode, the scintillator crystal is composed essentially of a cesium iodide (CsI) crystal preferably doped with a predetermined amount impurity, and the p-type upper intermediate layers and said n-type layer are essentially composed of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). The gamma ray camera further includes a collimator interposed between the radiation source and the sensor array, and a readout circuit formed on one side of the photosensor array.

  6. Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil; Meszaros, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are bright flashes of gamma-rays coming from the cosmos. They occur roughly once per day ,last typically lOs of seconds and are the most luminous events in the universe. More than three decades after their discovery, and after pioneering advances from space and ground experiments, they still remain mysterious. The launch of the Swift and Fermi satellites in 2004 and 2008 brought in a trove of qualitatively new data. In this review we survey the interplay between these recent observations and the theoretical models of the prompt GRB emission and the subsequent afterglows.

  7. Gamma-ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Gehrels, Neil; Mészáros, Péter

    2012-08-24

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are bright flashes of gamma rays coming from the cosmos. They occur roughly once per day, typically last for tens of seconds, and are the most luminous events in the universe. More than three decades after their discovery, and after pioneering advances from space and ground experiments, they still remain mysterious. The launch of the Swift and Fermi satellites in 2004 and 2008 brought in a trove of qualitatively new data. In this Review, we survey the interplay between these recent observations and the theoretical models of the prompt GRB emission and the subsequent afterglow. PMID:22923573

  8. Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meegan, Charles A.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are now known to be the most powerful explosions in the Universe. I will summarize the history of observations of GRBs, and how we came to know that the sources are so distant. I will also give an overview of the most prominent theories as to the cause of bursts.

  9. Celestial gamma ray study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michelson, Peter F.

    1995-01-01

    This report documents the research activities performed by Stanford University investigators as part of the data reduction effort and overall support of the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Observatory. This report is arranged chronologically, with each subsection detailing activities during roughly a one year period of time, beginning in June 1991.

  10. Gamma-Ray Burst Wallsheet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-01-01

    The Gamma-ray Burst Wallsheet was developed to illustrate the properties of light emanating from a gamma-ray burst as seen by three distant satellites, including NASA's Swift. The back of the wallsheet has one of the three activities in the accompanying educator guide (Angling for Gamma-ray Bursts).

  11. Soft gamma rays from black holes versus neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Edison P.

    1992-01-01

    The recent launches of GRANAT and GRO provide unprecedented opportunities to study compact collapsed objects from their hard x ray and gamma ray emissions. The spectral range above 100 keV can now be explored with much higher sensitivity and time resolution than before. The soft gamma ray spectral data is reviewed of black holes and neutron stars, radiation, and particle energization mechanisms and potentially distinguishing gamma ray signatures. These may include soft x ray excesses versus deficiencies, thermal versus nonthermal processes, transient gamma ray bumps versus power law tails, lines, and periodicities. Some of the highest priority future observations are outlines which will shed much light on such systems.

  12. The Extragalactic Gamma Ray Background

    E-print Network

    Charles D. Dermer

    2007-05-10

    One way to understand the nonthermal history of the universe is by establishing the origins of the unresolved and truly diffuse extragalactic gamma rays. Dim blazars and radio/gamma galaxies certainly make an important contribution to the galactic gamma-ray background given the EGRET discoveries, and previous treatments are reviewed and compared with a new analysis. Studies of the gamma-ray intensity from cosmic rays in star-forming galaxies and from structure formation shocks, as well as from dim GRBs, are briefly reviewed. A new hard gamma-ray source class seems required from the predicted aggregate intensity compared with the measured intensity.

  13. Gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, William S.

    1994-01-01

    The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) is one of four instruments on the Compton observatory which was launched by the space shuttle Atlantis on April 5, 1991. As of mid-March, 1994, BATSE detected more than 925 cosmic gamma-ray bursts and more than 725 solar flares. Pulsed gamma rays have been detected from at least 16 sources and emission from at least 28 sources (including most of the pulsed sources) has been detected by the earth occultation technique. UAH participation in BATSE is extensive but can be divided into two main areas, operations and data analysis. The daily BATSE operations tasks represent a substantial level of effort and involve a large team composed of MSFC personnel as well as contractors such as UAH. The scientific data reduction and analysis of BATSE data is also a substantial level of effort in which UAH personnel have made significant contributions.

  14. Gamma ray collimator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casanova, Edgar J. (inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A gamma ray collimator including a housing having first and second sections is disclosed. The first section encloses a first section of depleted uranium which is disposed for receiving and supporting a radiation emitting component such as cobalt 60. The second section encloses a depleted uranium member which is provided with a conical cut out focusing portion disposed in communication with the radiation emitting element for focusing the emitted radiation to the target.

  15. Gamma ray collimator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casanova, Edgar J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A gamma ray collimator including a housing having first and second sections. The first section encloses a first section of depleted uranium which is disposed for receiving and supporting a radiation emitting component such as cobalt 60. The second section encloses a depleted uranium member which is provided with a conical cut-out focusing portion disposed in communication with the radiation emitting element for focusing the emitted radiation to the target.

  16. ACCELERATING COMPACT OBJECT MERGERS IN TRIPLE SYSTEMS WITH THE KOZAI RESONANCE: A MECHANISM FOR 'PROMPT' TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE, GAMMA-RAY BURSTS, AND OTHER EXOTICA

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Todd A., E-mail: thompson@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Department of Astronomy and Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2011-11-10

    White dwarf-white dwarf (WD-WD) and neutron star-neutron star (NS-NS) mergers may produce Type Ia supernovae and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), respectively. A general problem is how to produce binaries with semi-major axes small enough to merge in significantly less than the Hubble time (t{sub H}), and thus accommodate the observation that these events closely follow episodes of star formation. I explore the possibility that such systems are not binaries at all, but actually coeval, or dynamical formed, triple systems. The tertiary induces Kozai oscillations in the inner binary, driving it to high eccentricity, and reducing its gravitational wave (GW) merger timescale. This effect significantly increases the allowed range of binary period P such that the merger time is t{sub merge} < t{sub H}. In principle, Chandrasekhar-mass binaries with P {approx} 300 days can merge in {approx}< t{sub H} if they contain a prograde solar-mass tertiary at high enough inclination. For retrograde tertiaries, the maximum P such that t{sub merge} {approx}< t{sub H} is yet larger. In contrast, P {approx}< 0.3 days is required in the absence of a tertiary. I discuss implications of these findings for the production of transients formed via compact object binary mergers. Based on the statistics of solar-type binaries, I argue that many such binaries should be in triple systems affected by the Kozai resonance. If true, expectations for the mHz GW signal from individual sources, the diffuse background, and the foreground for GW experiments like LISA are modified. This work motivates future studies of triples systems of A, B, and O stars, and new types of searches for WD-WD binaries in triple systems.

  17. Gamma ray astrophysics to the year 2000. Report of the NASA Gamma Ray Program Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Important developments in gamma-ray astrophysics up to energies of 100 GeV during the last decade are reviewed. Also, the report seeks to define the major current scientific goals of the field and proposes a vigorous program to pursue them, extending to the year 2000. The goals of gamma-ray astronomy include the study of gamma rays which provide the most direct means of studying many important problems in high energy astrophysics including explosive nucleosynthesis, accelerated particle interactions and sources, and high-energy processes around compact objects. The current research program in gamma-ray astronomy in the U.S. including the space program, balloon program and foreign programs in gamma-ray astronomy is described. The high priority recommendations for future study include an Explorer-class high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy mission and a Get Away Special cannister (GAS-can) or Scout class multiwavelength experiment for the study of gamma-ray bursts. Continuing programs include an extended Gamma Ray Observatory mission, continuation of the vigorous program of balloon observations of the nearby Supernova 1987A, augmentation of the balloon program to provide for new instruments and rapid scientific results, and continuation of support for theoretical research. Long term recommendations include new space missions using advanced detectors to better study gamma-ray sources, the development of these detectors, continued study for the assembly of large detectors in space, collaboration with the gamma-ray astronomy missions initiated by other countries, and consideration of the Space Station attached payloads for gamma-ray experiments.

  18. Gamma-ray Bursts: The Prompt Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Jerry

    2005-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are the largest explosions in the Universe. The radiation is thought to come from a hypernova initiated from the collapse of a massive star or perhaps the merger of two compact stars such s neutron stars and/or black holes. Most of the observed energy is radiated as gamma rays, usually lasting from a fraction of a second to several hundred seconds. The energy generation process is usually referred to as the "central engine". Observed properties of this prompt emission, including spectra, time profiles and durations will be discussed. The history of these observations and future GRB spacecraft will also be described.

  19. Gamma Ray Astronomy with Muons

    E-print Network

    F. Halzen; T. Stanev; G. B. Yodh

    1996-08-29

    Although gamma ray showers are muon-poor, they still produce a number of muons sufficient to make the sources observed by GeV and TeV telescopes observable also in muons. For sources with hard gamma ray spectra there is a relative `enhancement' of muons from gamma ray primaries as compared to that from nucleon primaries. All shower gamma rays above the photoproduction threshold contribute to the number of muons $N_\\mu$, which is thus proportional to the primary gamma ray energy. With gamma ray energy 50 times higher than the muon energy and a probability of muon production by the gammas of about 1\\%, muon detectors can match the detection efficiency of a GeV satellite detector if their effective area is larger by $10^4$. The muons must have enough energy for sufficiently accurate reconstruction of their direction for doing astronomy. These conditions are satisfied by relatively shallow neutrino detectors such as AMANDA and Lake Baikal and by gamma ray detectors like MILAGRO. TeV muons from gamma ray primaries, on the other hand, are rare because they are only produced by higher energy gamma rays whose flux is suppressed by the decreasing flux at the source and by absorption on interstellar light. We show that there is a window of opportunity for muon astronomy with the AMANDA, Lake Baikal and MILAGRO detectors.

  20. {gamma} ray astronomy with muons

    SciTech Connect

    Halzen, F. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Stanev, T. [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)] [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Yodh, G.B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92715 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92715 (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Although {gamma} ray showers are muon poor, they still produce a number of muons sufficient to make the sources observed by GeV and TeV telescopes observable also in muons. For sources with hard {gamma} ray spectra there is a relative {open_quotes}enhancement{close_quotes} of muons from {gamma} ray primaries as compared to that from nucleon primaries. All shower {gamma} rays above the photoproduction threshold contribute to the number of muons N{sub {mu}}, which is thus proportional to the primary {gamma} ray energy. With {gamma} ray energy 50 times higher than the muon energy and a probability of muon production by the {gamma}{close_quote}s of about 1{percent}, muon detectors can match the detection efficiency of a GeV satellite detector if their effective area is larger by 10{sup 4}. The muons must have enough energy for sufficiently accurate reconstruction of their direction for doing astronomy. These conditions are satisfied by relatively shallow neutrino detectors such as AMANDA and Lake Baikal, and by {gamma} ray detectors such as MILAGRO. TeV muons from {gamma} ray primaries, on the other hand, are rare because they are only produced by higher energy {gamma} rays whose flux is suppressed by the decreasing flux at the source and by absorption on interstellar light. We show that there is a window of opportunity for muon astronomy with the AMANDA, Lake Baikal, and MILAGRO detectors. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  1. Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2006-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are among the most fascinating occurrences in the cosmos. They are thought to be the birth cries of black holes throughout the universe. There has been tremendous recent progress in our understanding of bursts with the new data from the Swift mission. Swift was launched in November 2004 and is a multiwave length observatory designed to determine the origin of bursts and use them to probe the early Universe. It was developed and is being operated by an international team of scientists from the US, UK and Italian. The first year of findings from the mission will be presented. A large step forward has been made in our understanding of the mysterious short GRBs. High redshift bursts have been detected leading to a better understanding of star formation rates and distant galaxy environments. GRBs have been found with giant X-ray flares occurring in their afterglow. These, and other topics, will be discussed.

  2. Digital Pulse Processing and Gamma Ray Tracking

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Two of the big changes in new generations of Nuclear Physics instrumentation will be the incorporation of digital processing and the use of gamma ray tracking. The Nuclear Physics Group at Daresbury has set up a project to investigate digital pulse processing for gamma ray detectors and how best to implement gamma ray tracking in large Germanium gamma ray detectors. Topics on this site include but are not limited to: gamma ray tracking, overview of the Gamma Ray Tracking Project, pictures of one of the tracking gamma ray detectors (TIGRE), pictures of test experiment, gamma ray tracking project publications, and links to other gamma ray tracking pages.

  3. Towed seabed gamma ray spectrometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1994-01-01

    For more than 50 years, the measurement of radioactivity has been used for onshore geological surveys and in laboratories. The British Geological Survey (BGS) has extended the use of this type of equipment to the marine environment with the development of seabed gamma ray spectrometer systems. The present seabed gamma ray spectrometer, known as the Eel, has been successfully used

  4. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Gehrels; E. Chipman; D. Kniffen

    1994-01-01

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Compton) is the second in NASA's series of great Observatories. Launched on 1991 April 5, Compton represents a dramatic increase in capability over previous gamma-ray missions. The spacecraft and scientific instruments are all in good health, and many significant discoveries have already been made. We describe the capabilities of the four scientific instruments,

  5. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, N.; Chipman, E.; Kniffen, D.

    1994-01-01

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Compton) is the second in NASA's series of great Observatories. Launched on 1991 April 5, Compton represents a dramatic increase in capability over previous gamma-ray missions. The spacecraft and scientific instruments are all in good health, and many significant discoveries have already been made. We describe the capabilities of the four scientific instruments, and the observing program of the first 2 years of the mission. Examples of early discoveries by Compton are enumerated, including the discovery that gamma-ray bursts are isotropic but spatially inhomogeneous in their distribution; the discovery of a new class of high-energy extragalacatic gamma-ray sources, the gamma-ray AGNs; the discovery of emission from SN 1987A in the nuclear line of Co-57; and the mapping of emission from Al-26 in the interstellar medium (ISM) near the Galactic center. Future observations will include deep surveys of selected regions of the sky, long-tem studies of individual objects, correlative studies of objects at gamma-ray and other energies, a Galactic plane survey at intermediate gamma-ray energies, and improved statistics on gamma-ray bursts to search for small anisotropies. After completion of the all-sky survey, a Guest Investigator program is in progress with guest observers' time share increasing from 30% upward for the late mission phases.

  6. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, N.; Chipman, E.; Kniffen, D.

    1994-06-01

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Compton) is the second in NASA's series of great Observatories. Launched on 1991 April 5, Compton represents a dramatic increase in capability over previous gamma-ray missions. The spacecraft and scientific instruments are all in good health, and many significant discoveries have already been made. We describe the capabilities of the four scientific instruments, and the observing program of the first 2 years of the mission. Examples of early discoveries by Compton are enumerated, including the discovery that gamma-ray bursts are isotropic but spatially inhomogeneous in their distribution; the discovery of a new class of high-energy extragalacatic gamma-ray sources, the gamma-ray AGNs; the discovery of emission from SN 1987A in the nuclear line of Co-57; and the mapping of emission from Al-26 in the interstellar medium (ISM) near the Galactic center. Future observations will include deep surveys of selected regions of the sky, long-tem studies of individual objects, correlative studies of objects at gamma-ray and other energies, a Galactic plane survey at intermediate gamma-ray energies, and improved statistics on gamma-ray bursts to search for small anisotropies. After completion of the all-sky survey, a Guest Investigator program is in progress with guest observers' time share increasing from 30% upward for the late mission phases.

  7. Gamma Ray Bursts - Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, N.; Cannizzo, J. K.

    2010-01-01

    We are in an exciting period of discovery for gamma-ray bursts. The Swift observatory is detecting 100 bursts per year, providing arcsecond localizations and sensitive observations of the prompt and afterglow emission. The Fermi observatory is observing 250 bursts per year with its medium-energy GRB instrument and about 10 bursts per year with its high-energy LAT instrument. In addition, rapid-response telescopes on the ground are providing new capabilities to study optical emission during the prompt phase and spectral signatures of the host galaxies. The combined data set is enabling great advances in our understanding of GRBs including afterglow physics, short burst origin, and high energy emission.

  8. Gamma Rays from Dark Matter

    E-print Network

    R. J. Protheroe

    2000-11-02

    I give a brief review of high energy gamma-ray signatures of dark matter. The decay of massive $X$-particles and subsequent hadronization have been suggested as the origin of the highest energy cosmic rays. Propagation over cosmological distances to Earth (as would be the case in some topological defect origin models for the $X$-particles) results in potentially observable gamma-ray fluxes at GeV energies. Massive relic particles on the other hand, would cluster in galaxy halos, including that of our Galaxy, and may give rise to anisotropic gamma ray and cosmic ray signals at ultra high energies. Future observations above 100 Gev of gamma rays due to WIMP annihilation in the halo of the Galaxy may be used to place constraints on supersymmetry parameter space.

  9. Gamma rays from molecular clouds

    E-print Network

    Stefano Gabici; Felix Aharonian; Pasquale Blasi

    2006-10-02

    It is believed that the observed diffuse gamma ray emission from the galactic plane is the result of interactions between cosmic rays and the interstellar gas. Such emission can be amplified if cosmic rays penetrate into dense molecular clouds. The propagation of cosmic rays inside a molecular cloud has been studied assuming an arbitrary energy and space dependent diffusion coefficient. If the diffusion coefficient inside the cloud is significantly smaller compared to the average one derived for the galactic disk, the observed gamma ray spectrum appears harder than the cosmic ray spectrum, mainly due to the slower penetration of the low energy particles towards the core of the cloud. This may produce a great variety of gamma ray spectra.

  10. Gamma-Ray Burst Lines

    E-print Network

    Michael S. Briggs

    1999-10-20

    The evidence for spectral features in gamma-ray bursts is summarized. As a guide for evaluating the evidence, the properties of gamma-ray detectors and the methods of analyzing gamma-ray spectra are reviewed. In the 1980's, observations indicated that absorption features below 100 keV were present in a large fraction of bright gamma-ray bursts. There were also reports of emission features around 400 keV. During the 1990's the situation has become much less clear. A small fraction of bursts observed with BATSE have statistically significant low-energy features, but the reality of the features is suspect because in several cases the data of the BATSE detectors appear to be inconsistent. Furthermore, most of the possible features appear in emission rather than the expected absorption. Analysis of data from other instruments has either not been finalized or has not detected lines.

  11. Multiwavelength Astronomy: Gamma Ray Science

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dieter Hartmann, a high-energy physicist, presents a story-based lesson on the science of Gamma-Ray astronomy. The lesson focuses on gamma-ray bursts; examining their sources, types, and links to the origin and evolution of the Universe. The story-based format of the lesson also provides insights into the nature of science. Students answer questions based on the reading guide. A list of supplemental websites is also included.

  12. Gamma Ray Bursts and CETI

    E-print Network

    Frank D. Smith Jr

    1993-02-10

    Gamma ray burst sources are isotropically distributed. They could be located at distances $\\sim 1000$ AU. (Katz \\cite{JK92}) GRB signals have many narrow peaks that are unresolved at the millisecond time resolution of existing observations. \\cite{JK87} CETI could use stars as gravitational lenses for interstellar gamma ray laser beam communication. Much better time resolution of GRB signals could rule out (or confirm?) the speculative hypothesis that GRB = CETI.

  13. Ultra-compact (X-ray) binaries

    E-print Network

    G. Nelemans; P. G. Jonker

    2006-05-30

    A short review of ultra-compact binaries, focused on ultra-compact X-ray binaries, is followed by a discussion of recent results of our VLT campaign to obtain optical spectra of (candidate) ultra-compact X-ray binaries. We find evidence for carbon/oxygen as well as helium/nitrogen discs and no evidence for (traces) of hydrogen. This suggests that the donors in the observed systems are white dwarfs. However, we also find large differences between the two C/O discs of which we have good spectra, which highlights the need for a better understanding of the optical spectra.

  14. Physics of Gamma Ray Burst Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meszaros, Peter

    2004-01-01

    During this grant period, the physics of gamma-ray bursts was investigated. A number of new results have emerged. The importance of pair formation in high compactness burst spectra may help explain x-ray flashes; a universal jet shape is a likely explanation for the distribution of jet break times; gravitational waves may be copiously produced both in short bursts from compact mergers and in long bursts arising from collapsars; x-ray iron lines are likely to be due to interaction with the stellar atmosphere of the progenitor; prompt optical flashes from reverse shocks will give diagnostics on the Lorentz factor and the environment; GeV and TeV emission from bursts may be expected in the external shock; etc. The group working with the PI included postdocs Dr. Bing Zhang (now assistant professor at University of Nevada); Dr. Shiho Kobayashi; graduate student Lijun Gou; collaborators Drs. Tim Kallman and Martin Rees. Meszaros shared with Rees and Dr. Bohan Paczynsky the AAS Rossi Prize in 2000 for their work on the theory of gamma ray bursts. The refereed publications and conference proceedings resulting from this research are summarized below. The PI gave a number of invited talks at major conferences, also listed.

  15. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, N.; Chipman, E.; Kniffen, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (Compton) was launched by the Space Shuttle Atlantis on 5 April 1991. The spacecraft and instruments are in good health and returning exciting results. The mission provides nearly six orders of magnitude in spectral coverage, from 30 keV to 30 GeV, with sensitivity over the entire range an order of magnitude better than that of previous observations. The 16,000 kilogram observatory contains four instruments on a stabilized platform. The mission began normal operations on 16 May 1991 and is now over half-way through a full-sky survey. The mission duration is expected to be from six to ten years. A Science Support Center has been established at Goddard Space Flight Center for the purpose of supporting a vigorous Guest Investigator Program. New scientific results to date include: (1) the establishment of the isotropy, combined with spatial inhomogeneity, of the distribution of gamma-ray bursts in the sky; (2) the discovery of intense high energy (100 MeV) gamma-ray emission from 3C 279 and other quasars and BL Lac objects, making these the most distant and luminous gamma-ray sources ever detected; (3) one of the first images of a gamma-ray burst; (4) the observation of intense nuclear and position-annihilation gamma-ray lines and neutrons from several large solar flares; and (5) the detection of a third gamma-ray pulsar, plus several other transient and pulsing hard X-ray sources.

  16. The Animated Gamma-ray Sky Revealed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope

    ScienceCinema

    Isabelle Grenier

    2010-01-08

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been observing the sky in gamma-rays since August 2008.  In addition to breakthrough capabilities in energy coverage (20 MeV-300 GeV) and angular resolution, the wide field of view of the Large Area Telescope enables observations of 20% of the sky at any instant, and of the whole sky every three hours. It has revealed a very animated sky with bright gamma-ray bursts flashing and vanishing in minutes, powerful active galactic nuclei flaring over hours and days, many pulsars twinkling in the Milky Way, and X-ray binaries shimmering along their orbit. Most of these variable sources had not been seen by the Fermi predecessor, EGRET, and the wealth of new data already brings important clues to the origin of the high-energy emission and particles powered by the compact objects. The telescope also brings crisp images of the bright gamma-ray emission produced by cosmic-ray interactions in the interstellar medium, thus allowing to measure the cosmic nuclei and electron spectra across the Galaxy, to weigh interstellar clouds, in particular in the dark-gas phase. The telescope sensitivity at high energy will soon provide useful constraints on dark-matter annihilations in a variety of environments. I will review the current results and future prospects of the Fermi mission.

  17. The Animated Gamma-ray Sky Revealed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Isabelle Grenier

    2009-04-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been observing the sky in gamma-rays since August 2008.  In addition to breakthrough capabilities in energy coverage (20 MeV-300 GeV) and angular resolution, the wide field of view of the Large Area Telescope enables observations of 20% of the sky at any instant, and of the whole sky every three hours. It has revealed a very animated sky with bright gamma-ray bursts flashing and vanishing in minutes, powerful active galactic nuclei flaring over hours and days, many pulsars twinkling in the Milky Way, and X-ray binaries shimmering along their orbit. Most of these variable sources had not been seen by the Fermi predecessor, EGRET, and the wealth of new data already brings important clues to the origin of the high-energy emission and particles powered by the compact objects. The telescope also brings crisp images of the bright gamma-ray emission produced by cosmic-ray interactions in the interstellar medium, thus allowing to measure the cosmic nuclei and electron spectra across the Galaxy, to weigh interstellar clouds, in particular in the dark-gas phase. The telescope sensitivity at high energy will soon provide useful constraints on dark-matter annihilations in a variety of environments. I will review the current results and future prospects of the Fermi mission.

  18. Gamma-Ray Bursts: A Mystery Story

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, Ann

    2007-01-01

    With the success of the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer currently in orbit, this is quite an exciting time in the history of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). The study of GRBs is a modern astronomical mystery story that began over 30 years ago with the serendipitous discovery of these astronomical events by military satellites in the late 1960's. Until the launch of BATSE on the Compton Gamma-ray Observatory, astronomers had no clue whether GRBs originated at the edge of our solar system, in our own Milky Way Galaxy or incredibly far away near the edge of the observable Universe. Data from BATSE proved that GRBs are distributed isotropically on the sky and thus could not be the related to objects in the disk of our Galaxy. Given the intensity of the gamma-ray emission, an extragalactic origin would require an astounding amount of energy. Without sufficient data to decide the issue, a great debate continued about whether GRBs were located in the halo of our own galaxy or were at extragalactic - even cosmological distances. This debate continued until 1997 when the BeppoSAX mission discovered a fading X-ray afterglow signal in the same location as a GRB. This discovery enabled other telescopes, to observe afterglow emission at optical and radio wavelengths and prove that GRBs were at cosmological distances by measuring large redshifts in the optical spectra. Like BeppoSAX Swift, slews to new GRB locations to measure afterglow emission. In addition to improved GRB sensitivity, a significant advantage of Swift over BeppoSAX and other missions is its ability to slew very quickly, allowing x-ray and optical follow-up measurements to be made as early as a minute after the gamma-ray burst trigger rather than the previous 6-8 hour delay. Swift afterglow measurements along with follow-up ground-based observations, and theoretical work have allowed astronomers to identify two plausible scenarios for the creation of a GRB: either through core collapse of super massive stars or colliding compact objects in distant galaxies. The pieces of the puzzle are beginning to fall into place and yet the story isn't quite finished. I will frame the history of gamma-ray bursts as a mystery story and will end with a description of what we still don't know and what we'll have to do to get the next clues.

  19. Gamma ray spectroscopy in astrophysics. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, T. L. (editor); Ramaty, R. (editor)

    1978-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical aspects of gamma ray spectroscopy in high energy astrophysics are discussed. Line spectra from solar, stellar, planetary, and cosmic gamma rays are examined as well as HEAO investigations, the prospects of a gamma ray observatory, and follow-on X-ray experiments in space.

  20. The Universe Viewed in Gamma-Rays 1 Concept of new gamma ray detector

    E-print Network

    Enomoto, Ryoji

    The Universe Viewed in Gamma-Rays 1 Concept of new gamma ray detector Satoko Osone Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-Ha, Kashiwa City,Chiba 277-8582, Japan Abstract We present a concept of a new gamma ray detector in order to observe undetected TeV gamma ray

  1. Gamma ray flares in AGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kafatos, M.

    1992-01-01

    The inner regions of accretion disks of supermassive black holes can become unstable when the existing temperatures are sufficiently high. This naturally occurs for two-temperature disks in the case of rapidly spinning (Kerr) black holes. Physical effects in the hot, inner regions are such that non-steady flows can result. Effects which would be relevant in producing variability in intense gamma-ray sources (MeV to GeV range), such as the recent discovery of strong gamma-ray emission in 3C 279, are discussed.

  2. Towed seabed gamma ray spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.G. (British Geological Survey, Nottingham (United Kingdom))

    1994-08-01

    For more than 50 years, the measurement of radioactivity has been used for onshore geological surveys and in laboratories. The British Geological Survey (BGS) has extended the use of this type of equipment to the marine environment with the development of seabed gamma ray spectrometer systems. The present seabed gamma ray spectrometer, known as the Eel, has been successfully used for sediment and solid rock mapping, mineral exploration, and radioactive pollution studies. The range of applications for the system continues to expand. This paper examines the technological aspects of the Eel and some of the applications for which it has been used.

  3. The GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope angular resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheymits, Maxim; Leonov, Alexey

    The measurements of gamma-ray fluxes and cosmic-ray electrons and positrons in the energy range from 100 MeV to several TeV, which will be realized by the specially designed GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope, concern with the following broad range of science topics. Search for signatures of dark matter, surveying the celestial sphere in order to study point and extended sources of gamma-rays, measuring the energy spectra of Galactic and extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray emission, study of gamma-ray bursts and gamma-ray emission from the Sun. To clarify these scientific problems with the new experimental data the GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope possesses unique physical characteristics comparing with previous and present experiments. For gamma-ray energies more than 100 GeV GAMMA-400 provides the energy resolution nearby 1% and angular resolution better than 0.02 deg. The methods, developed to reconstruct the direction of incident gamma photon, are presented in this paper. The main point concerns with the space topology of high energy gamma photon interaction in the matter of GAMMA-400. Multiple secondary particles, generated inside gamma-ray telescope, produce significant problems to restore the direction of initial gamma photon. Also back-splash particles, i.e., charged particles and gamma photons generated in calorimeter and moved upward, mask the initial tracks of electron/positron pair from conversion of incident gamma photon. The processed methods allow us to reconstruct the direction of electromagnetic shower axis and extract the electron/positron trace. As a result, the direction of incident gamma photon with the energy of 100 GeV is calculated with an accuracy of more than 0.02 deg.

  4. Compact X-ray Sources in Nearby Galaxy Nuclei

    E-print Network

    E. J. M. Colbert; R. F. Mushotzky

    1998-09-11

    We have found compact, near-nuclear X-ray sources in 21 (54\\%) of a complete sample of 39 nearby face-on spiral and elliptical galaxies with available ROSAT HRI data. ROSAT X-ray luminosities (0.2 $-$ 2.4 keV) of these compact X-ray sources are $\\sim$10$^{37}$$-$10$^{40}$ erg~s$^{-1}$. The mean displacement between the location of the compact X-ray source and the optical photometric center of the galaxy is $\\sim$390 pc. ASCA spectra of six of the 21 galaxies show the presence of a hard component with relatively steep ($\\Gamma \\approx$ 2.5) spectral slope. A multicolor disk blackbody plus power-law model fits the data from the spiral galaxies well, suggesting that the X-ray objects in these galaxies may be similar to a black hole candidate (BHC) in its soft (high) state. ASCA data from the elliptical galaxies indicate that hot (kT $\\approx$ 0.7 keV) gas dominates the emission. The fact that the spectral slope of the spiral galaxy sources is steeper than in normal type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and that relatively low absorbing columns (N$_H \\approx$ 10$^{21}$ cm$^{-2}$) were found to the power-law component indicates that these objects are somehow geometrically and/or physically different from AGNs in normal active galaxies. The X-ray sources in the spiral galaxies may be BHCs, low-luminosity AGNs, or possibly X-ray luminous supernovae. We estimate the black hole masses of the X-ray sources in the spiral galaxies (if they are BHCs or AGNs) to be $\\sim$10$^2$$-$10$^3$ M$_\\odot$. The X-ray sources in the elliptical galaxies may be BHCs, AGNs or young X-ray supernova also.

  5. Gamma ray astronomy. [source mechanisms review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D.

    1974-01-01

    The various source mechanisms for celestial gamma rays are reviewed. The gamma-ray data are examined as a source of information about the processes and source locations for the production of charged particle cosmic rays, galactic structure, explosive nucleosynthesis in supernovae, regions of confinement for cosmic rays, regions where matter-antimatter annihilation occurs, and the general condition in cosmological space both in the past and present. Topics include gamma rays from pi mesons by nuclear interactions, nuclear and supernovae lines, diffuse emission and discrete sources, interstellar absorption and detection of gamma rays, and others. A brief view of the available gamma-ray detection systems and techniques is presented.

  6. Swift: Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-12-17

    In this video segment adapted from Penn State Public Broadcasting's Swift: Eyes Through Time, learn about the Swift satellite — a NASA mission with international participation — and how it is collecting data about gamma-ray bursts that may yield important discoveries about the Universe.

  7. Gamma ray bursters: a solution?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. Hurst

    2003-01-01

    We certainly live in exciting astronomical times. Recently a Gamma Ray Burster, designated GRB 030329, produced an optical afterglow or transient (OT), which at one stage on March 29, was observed at magnitude 12.4. There has been discussion that it may have been as bright as magnitude 3 and therefore a naked eye object at the moment of outburst but

  8. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Gehrels; E. Chipman; D. A. Kniffen

    1993-01-01

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (Compton) was launched by the Space Shuttle Atlantis on 5 April 1991. The spacecraft and instruments are in good health and returning exciting results. The mission provides nearly six orders of magnitude in spectral coverage, from 30 keV to 30 GeV, with sensitivity over the entire range an order of magnitude better than

  9. Gamma ray astrophysics: the EGRET results

    E-print Network

    D J Thompson

    2008-11-05

    Cosmic gamma rays provide insight into some of the most dynamic processes in the Universe. At the dawn of a new generation of gamma-ray telescopes, this review summarizes results from the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, the principal predecessor mission studying high-energy photons in the 100 MeV energy range. EGRET viewed a gamma-ray sky dominated by prominent emission from the Milky Way, but featuring an array of other sources, including quasars, pulsars, gamma-ray bursts, and many sources that remain unidentified. A central feature of the EGRET results was the high degree of variability seen in many gamma-ray sources, indicative of the powerful forces at work in objects visible to gamma-ray telescopes.

  10. Photoabsorption of Gamma Rays in Relativistic Jets

    E-print Network

    Charles Dermer

    2004-02-18

    A derivation of the \\gamma\\gamma --> e^+ e^- optical depth for \\gamma rays produced in a comoving spherical emitting region is presented. Employing a simplified expression for the \\gamma\\gamma absorption cross section, analytic expressions for the minimum Doppler factor implied by the requirement of gamma-ray transparency are derived for a broken power-law spectrum of target photons which are isotropically distributed in the comoving frame. Application to specific systems is illustrated.

  11. Gamma-Ray Bursts in the Gravitational Wave Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perna, Rosalba

    2014-03-01

    The observation of gravitational waves will open a new, unexplored window onto the Universe. Among the sources of gravitational wave transients, compact objects such as neutron stars (NSs) and black holes (BHs) will likely play the most important role. In this talk, I will discuss the expected gravitational wave signal in two important situations: when an NS or a BH is born during a core collapse supernova, and when two compact objects (either NS-NS or NS-BH) in a binary merge. These events are believed to be accompanied by a strong electromagnetic signature in gamma rays - a long Gamma-Ray Burst from the core collapse event, and a Short Gamma-Ray Burst from the binary merger. I will further discuss what we can learn from the complementary observations of the electromagnetic and the gravitational wave signals during these events. NSF.

  12. Nuclear gamma rays from energetic particle interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.; Kozlovsky, B.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Gamma ray line emission from nuclear deexcitation following energetic particle reactions is evaluated. The compiled nuclear data and the calculated gamma ray spectra and intensities can be used for the study of astrophysical sites which contain large fluxes of energetic protons and nuclei. A detailed evaluation of gamma ray line production in the interstellar medium is made.

  13. Gamma ray astrophysics. [emphasizing processes and absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1974-01-01

    Gamma ray production processes are reviewed, including Compton scattering, synchrotron radiation, bremsstrahlung interactions, meson decay, nucleon-antinucleon annihilations, and pion production. Gamma ray absorption mechanisms through interactions with radiation and with matter are discussed, along with redshifts and gamma ray fluxes.

  14. Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes (TGFs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the observation of Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flashes (TGFs) by Gamma-Ray Telescopes. These were: (1) BATSE /Compton Observatory, (2) Solar Spectroscopic Imager, (3) AGILE Gamma-ray Telescope, and (4) Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. It contains charts which display the counts over time, a map or the TGFs observed by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). and a map showing the latitude and longitude of 85 of the TGFs observed by the Fermi GBM.

  15. Gravitational collapse as the source of gamma-ray bursts

    E-print Network

    V. V. Sokolov

    2008-05-21

    If the threshold for $e^{-}e^{+}$ pair production depends on an angle between photon momenta, and if the $\\gamma$-rays are collimated right in gamma-ray burst (GRB) source then another solution of the compactness problem is possible. The list of basic assumptions of the scenario describing the GRB with energy release $< 10^{49}$ erg is adduced: the matter is about an alternative to the ultrarelativistic fireball if all long-duration GRBs are physically connected with core-collapse supernovae (SNe). The questions about radiation pressure and how the jet arises on account of even a small radiation field asymmetry in a compact GRB source of size $\\lesssim 10^8$ cm, and observational consequences of the compact model of GRBs are considered.

  16. High Redshift Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2012-01-01

    The Swift Observatory has been detecting 100 gamma-ray bursts per year for 7 years and has greatly stimulated the field with new findings. Observations are made of the X-ray and optical afterglow from 1 minute after the burst, continuing for days. GRBs are providing a new tool to study the high redshift universe. Swift has detected several events at z>5 and one at z=9.4 giving information on metallicity, star formation rate and reionization. The talk will present the latest results.

  17. ROSAT: X ray survey of compact groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vangorkom, Jacqueline

    1993-01-01

    This is the final technical report on grant NAG5-1954, which was awarded under the NASA ROSAT Guest Investigator Program to Columbia University. This grant was awarded for a number of projects on two rather different topics: (1) an x-ray survey of compact groups of galaxies; and (2) the fate of gas in merging galaxies. Progress made in these projects is presented.

  18. Studying Gamma Ray Bursts from a

    E-print Network

    Â?umer, Slobodan

    Studying Gamma Ray Bursts from a new perspective! {... Unraveling some mysteries and adding new Radio Op0cal X-ray Short ( energy -ray photons... ... accompained by a considerable long las0ng emission

  19. A model of unpulsed very high energy gamma rays from the Crab Nebula and pulsar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, P. W.; Cheng, K. S.; Lau, M. M.

    1991-01-01

    The angular resolution of gamma-ray detectors does not allow one to separate the nebula from the pulsar in the Crab. It is generally assumed that the steady emission of gamma rays comes from the nebula. Using the 'outer magnetospheric gap' model, an alternative mechanism in which the steady emission of gamma rays could come from a compact region, a couple of light cylinder radii beyond the pulsar.

  20. Gamma-ray emission from thunderstorm discharges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Gurevich; A. P. Chubenko; A. N. Karashtin; G. G. Mitko; A. S. Naumov; M. O. Ptitsyn; V. A. Ryabov; A. L. Shepetov; Yu. V. Shlyugaev; L. I. Vildanova; K. P. Zybin

    2011-01-01

    Fine features of gamma-ray radiation registered during a thunderstorm at Tien-Shan Mountain Cosmic Ray Station are presented. Long duration (100–600 ms) gamma-ray bursts are found. They are for the first time identified with atmospheric discharges (lighting). Gamma-ray emission lasts all the time of the discharge and is extremely non-uniform consisting of numerous flashes. Its peak intensity in the flashes exceeds

  1. Characteristics of gamma-ray line flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bai, T.; Dennis, B.

    1983-01-01

    Observations of solar gamma rays by the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) demonstrate that energetic protons and ions are rapidly accelerated during the impulsive phase. To understand the acceleration mechanisms for these particles, the characteristics of the gamma ray line flares observed by SMM were studied. Some very intense hard X-ray flares without detectable gamma ray lines were also investigated. Gamma ray line flares are distinguished from other flares by: (1) intense hard X-ray and microwave emissions; (2) delay of high energy hard X-rays; (3) emission of type 2 and/or type 4 radio bursts; and (4) flat hard X-ray spectra (average power law index: 3.1). The majority of the gamma ray line flares shared all these characteristics, and the remainder shared at least three of them. Positive correlations were found between durations of spike bursts and spatial sizes of flare loops as well as between delay times and durations of spike bursts.

  2. Gravitational wave: gamma-ray burst connections.

    PubMed

    Hough, Jim

    2007-05-15

    After 35 years of experimental research, we are rapidly approaching the point at which gravitational waves (GWs) from astrophysical sources may be directly detected by the long-baseline detectors LIGO (USA), GEO 600 (Germany/UK), VIRGO (Italy/France) and TAMA 300 (Japan), which are now in or coming into operation.A promising source of GWs is the coalescence of compact binary systems, events which are now believed to be the origin of short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). In this paper, a brief review of the state of the art in detector development and exploitation will be given, with particular relevance to a search for signals associated with GRBs, and plans for the future will be discussed. PMID:17293333

  3. The 28th International Cosmic Ray Conference 1 X-ray and Gamma-ray Measurements

    E-print Network

    Enomoto, Ryoji

    The 28th International Cosmic Ray Conference 1 X-ray and Gamma-ray Measurements Masaki Mori and gamma-ray measurements, of the 28th International Cosmic Ray Conference. 1. Introduction Thick atmosphere of the earth forces direct observations of X-rays and gamma-rays on satellites in space

  4. A tuneable ultra-compact high-power, ultra-short pulsed, bright gamma-ray source based on bremsstrahlung radiation from laser-plasma accelerated electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Cipiccia, S.; Wiggins, S. M.; Shanks, R. P.; Islam, M. R.; Vieux, G.; Issac, R. C.; Brunetti, E.; Ersfeld, B.; Welsh, G. H.; Anania, M. P.; Jaroszynski, D. A. [University of Strathclyde, Physics Department, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, John Anderson Building, 107 Rottenrow, Glasgow, G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Maneuski, D.; Shea, V. O. [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Lemos, N. R. C.; Bendoyro, R. A.; Dias, J. M. [GoLP/Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1049-001, Lisbon (Portugal); Rajeev, P. P.; Foster, P. [Central Laser Facility, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Bourgeois, N.; Ibbotson, T. P. A. [Oxford University, Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); and others

    2012-03-15

    The laser driven plasma wakefield accelerator is a very compact source of high energy electrons. When the quasi-monoenergetic beam from these accelerators passes through dense material, high energy bremsstrahlung photons are emitted in a collimated beam with high flux. We show how a source based on this emission process can produce more than 10{sup 9} photons per pulse with a mean energy of 10 MeV. We present experimental results that show the feasibility of this method of producing high energy photons and compare the experimental results with GEANT4 Montecarlo simulations, which also give the scaling required to evaluate its suitability as method to produce radioisotopes via photo-nuclear reactions or for imaging applications.

  5. High Energy Emission from Gamma Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Meszaros, P.; Razzaque, S.; Wang, X. Y. [Dept. of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Dept. of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2006-07-11

    Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRB) are powerful sources of MeV gamma-rays, whose prompt emission has been detected in some case up to tens of GeV. Leptonic emission mechanisms could produce also TeV gamma-rays, and if proton acceleration takes place, hadronic and photopion processes are expected to produce TeV neutrino emission as well. Current models for the production of GeV-TeV photons and neutrinos are discussed.

  6. Understanding Doppler Broadening of Gamma Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Rawool-Sullivan, Mohini [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sullivan, John P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-07-03

    Doppler-broadened gamma ray peaks are observed routinely in the collection and analysis of gamma-ray spectra. If not recognized and understood, the appearance of Doppler broadening can complicate the interpretation of a spectrum and the correct identification of the gamma ray-emitting material. We have conducted a study using a simulation code to demonstrate how Doppler broadening arises and provide a real-world example in which Doppler broadening is found. This report describes that study and its results.

  7. The Mystery of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    2004-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts remain one of the greatest mysteries in astrophysics. Observations of gamma-ray bursts made by the BATSE experiment on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory will be described. Most workers in the field now believe that they originate from cosmological distances. This view has been reinforced by observations this year of several optical afterglow counterparts to gamma-ray bursts. A summary of these recent discoveries will be presented, along with their implications for models of the burst emission mechanism and the energy source of the bursts.

  8. Low-level gamma-ray spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Brodzinski, R.L.

    1990-10-01

    Low-level gamma-ray spectrometry generally equates to high-sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometry that can be attained by background reduction, selective signal identification, or some combination of both. Various methods for selectively identifying gamma-ray events and for reducing the background in gamma-ray spectrometers are given. The relative magnitude of each effect on overall sensitivity and the relative cost'' for implementing them are given so that a cost/benefit comparison can be made and a sufficiently sensitive spectrometer system can be designed for any application without going to excessive or unnecessary expense. 10 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Gamma-ray background: a review

    E-print Network

    Tanja M. Kneiske

    2007-11-29

    The gamma-ray background is still a subject under great debate. All phenomena in the universe emitting gamma-rays can contribute directly as diffuse emission or as an isotropic component from unresolved point sources. The question of the origin of the extragalactic component cannot be answered without determining the galactic emission. To discuss in detail all models resulting in gamma-ray background contributions is far beyond the scope of this paper. Therefore the focus will be on recent publications on the extragalactic high energy (>100 MeV) part of the gamma-ray background.

  10. Observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    1999-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are now generally believed to originate from cosmological distances and represent the largest known explosions in the Universe. These lectures will describe the temporal and spectral characteristic of gamma-ray bursts, their intensity and sky distribution, and other observed characteristics in the gamma-ray region, primarily from data obtained with the BATSE experiment on the Compton Observatory. A summary of recent discoveries and observations in other wavelength regions will also be presented, along with their implications for models of the burst emission mechanism. Various possibilities and models for the energy source(s) of gamma-ray bursts will be described.

  11. Gamma-ray burst models.

    PubMed

    King, Andrew

    2007-05-15

    I consider various possibilities for making gamma-ray bursts, particularly from close binaries. In addition to the much-studied neutron star+neutron star and black hole+neutron star cases usually considered good candidates for short-duration bursts, there are also other possibilities. In particular, neutron star+massive white dwarf has several desirable features. These systems are likely to produce long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), in some cases definitely without an accompanying supernova, as observed recently. This class of burst would have a strong correlation with star formation and occur close to the host galaxy. However, rare members of the class need not be near star-forming regions and could have any type of host galaxy. Thus, a long-duration burst far from any star-forming region would also be a signature of this class. Estimates based on the existence of a known progenitor suggest that this type of GRB may be quite common, in agreement with the fact that the absence of a supernova can only be established in nearby bursts. PMID:17293332

  12. Research in cosmic and gamma ray astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, E. C.; Davis, L., Jr.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Prince, T. A.

    1989-01-01

    Research activities in cosmic rays, gamma rays, and astrophysical plasmas are covered. The activities are divided into sections and described, followed by a bibliography. The astrophysical aspects of cosmic rays, gamma rays, and of the radiation and electromagnetic field environment of the Earth and other planets are investigated. These investigations are performed by means of energetic particle and photon detector systems flown on spacecraft and balloons.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED NEUTRON INDUCED PROMPT GAMMA RAY ANALYSIS SYSTEM FOR SURVEY OF ANTI-PERSONNEL MINES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Iguchi; J. Kawarabayashi; K. Watanabe; K. Nishimura; T. Handa; H. Sawamura

    An advanced neutron induced prompt gamma ray analysis system has been designed for detection and localization of anti-personnel landmines. The system consists of an improved Cockcroft-Walton type accelerator neutron source using DD fusion reaction and multi-functional gamma ray spectrometers combining a compact multi-Compton gamma camera based on stacked BGO scintillators to deduce the incident direction of 10.8 MeV gamma rays

  14. Application of HEALpix Pixelization to Gamma-ray Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. H. Burnett; B. Lesnick; M. Roth

    2007-01-01

    The HEALpix scheme for tessellating the sky is a natural way to represent all-sky data that is naturally binned in sky coordinates. Gamma-ray data are collected and saved as individual photons, and usually analyzed as such. We present a summary data representation that is compact, saves energy information, and is consistent with the energy-dependent resolution. We take advantage of the

  15. Gamma ray emission from radiative supernova remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asvarov, Abdul

    In this presentation we have considered Gamma-ray emission from supernova remnants (SNRs) evolving in high density environments, for which the radiative phase of evolution is more typical. Gamma-rays from such objects are believed to have hadronic origin, i.e. as a result of decay of neutral pi-mesons, created in the p-p collisions of relativistic hadrons (protons, etc.) with interstellar medium protons. DSA mechanism is considered as the main mechanism of acceleration of relativistic particles. We assume that SNR evolves in more or less homogeneous interstellar medium. This is contrary to two main models of origin of Gamma-rays from shell type SNRs, which are: 1) Runaway CR model which considers Gamma-ray emission from molecular clouds illuminated by runaway CRs that have escaped from the SNRs; 2) Crushed Cloud model, which considers the shocked interstellar clouds being responsible for the gamma-ray emission of the SNR. The considered model gives the largest conversion rate of SN energy to gamma-rays. It has been found that under certain (close to real) conditions considered here type of SNRs can easily provide the flux of gamma-rays with energies > 100 MeV, typical for the large number of unidentified sources listed in the recent Fermi LAT source catalog. We have obtained conditions under which SNRs are better observable in gamma-rays than in other bands of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  16. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory: mission status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Gehrels; E. Chipman; D. A. Kniffen

    1994-01-01

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (Compton) is the second in NASA's series of Great Observatories. Compton has now been operating for over two and a half years, and has given a dramatic increase in capability over previous gamma-ray missions. The spacecraft and scientific instruments are all in good health, and many significant discoveries have already been made and

  17. A 16N gamma-ray facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, Ethan L.; Pehl, Richard H.; Stanley, Michelle R.; Foster, Charles C.; Komisarcik, Kevin; East, Gary W.; Vanderwerp, John D.; Friesel, Dennis L.

    1997-02-01

    A practical 16N gamma-ray source is created in a medium-energy cyclotron environment. A 16N source emits 6129 and 7115 keV gamma rays. The viability of this several ?Ci source for detector calibration and studying detector physics is established.

  18. Very high-energy gamma rays from gamma-ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Paula M

    2007-05-15

    Very high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray astronomy has undergone a transformation in the last few years, with telescopes of unprecedented sensitivity having greatly expanded the source catalogue. Such progress makes the detection of a gamma-ray burst at the highest energies much more likely than previously. This paper describes the facilities currently operating and their chances for detecting gamma-ray bursts, and reviews predictions for VHE gamma-ray emission from gamma-ray bursts. Results to date are summarized. PMID:17293337

  19. Atmospheric gamma-ray and neutron flashes

    SciTech Connect

    Babich, L. P., E-mail: babich@elph.vniief.ru; Kudryavtsev, A. Yu., E-mail: kay@sar.ru; Kudryavtseva, M. L., E-mail: kay@sar.ru; Kutsyk, I. M. [All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF), Russian Federal Nuclear Center (Russian Federation)

    2008-01-15

    Gamma-ray pulses are calculated from 2D numerical simulations of an upward atmospheric discharge in a self-consistent electric field using the multigroup approach to the kinetics of relativistic runaway electrons (REs). Computed {gamma}-ray numbers and spectra are consistent with those of terrestrial {gamma}-ray flashes (TGFs) observed aboard spacecrafts. The RE flux is concentrated mainly within the domain of the Blue Jet fluorescence. This confirms that exactly the domain adjacent to a thundercloud is the source of the observed {gamma}-ray flashes. The yield of photonuclear neutrons is calculated. One {gamma}-ray pulse generates {approx}10{sup 14}-10{sup 15} neutrons. The possibility of the direct deposition of REs to the detector readings and the origin of the lightning-advanced TGFs are discussed.

  20. Gamma-Ray Bursts: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    1995-01-01

    A history and overview of the observed properties of gamma-ray bursts are presented. The phenomenon of gamma-ray bursts is without precedent in astronomy, having no observed property that would be a direct indicator of their distance and no counterpart object in another wavelength region. Their brief, random appearance only in the gamma-ray region has made their study difficult. The observed time profiles, spectral properties, and durations of gamma-ray bursts cover a wide range. All proposed models for their origin must be considered speculative. It is humbling to think that even after 25 years since their discovery, the distance scale of gamma-ray bursts is still very much debatable.

  1. Energetics of Gamma Ray Bursts

    E-print Network

    Jiménez, R; Piran, T; Jimenez, Raul; Band, David; Piran, Tsvi

    2001-01-01

    We determine the distribution of total energy emitted by gamma-ray bursts for bursts with fluences and distance information. Our core sample consists of eight bursts with BATSE spectra and spectroscopic redshifts. We extend this sample by adding four bursts with BATSE spectra and host galaxy R magnitudes. From these R magnitudes we calculate a redshift probability distribution; this method requires a model of the host galaxy population. From a sample of ten bursts with both spectroscopic redshifts and host galaxy R magnitudes (some do not have BATSE spectra) we find that the burst rate is proportional to the galaxy luminosity at the epoch of the burst. Assuming that the total energy emitted has a log-normal distribution, we find that the average emitted energy (assumed to be radiated isotropically) is $ = 1.3^{+1.2}_{-1.0} \\times 10^{53}$ ergs (for H$_0$ = 65 km s$^{-1}$ Mpc$^{-1}$, $\\Omega_m=0.3$ and $\\Omega_\\Lambda=0.7$); the distribution has a logarithmic width of $\\sigma_\\gamma=1.7^{+0.7}_{-0.3}$. The cor...

  2. Gamma-Ray Emission from X-Ray Binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shrader, Chris R.

    2007-01-01

    We summarize the current observational picture regarding high-energy emission from Galactic X-ray binaries, reviewing the results of the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory mission. We speculate on the prospects for the GLAST era.

  3. Gamma-Ray Bursts and Particle Astrophysics

    E-print Network

    B. Gendre

    2008-07-24

    Gamma-ray bursts are violent events occurring randomly in the sky. In this review, I will present the fireball model, proposed to explain the phenomenon of gamma-ray bursts. This model has important consequences for the production and observation at Earth of gravitational waves, high energy neutrinos, cosmic rays and high energy photons, and the second part of this review will be focused on these aspects. A last section will briefly discuss the topic of the use of gamma-ray bursts as standard candles and possible cosmological studies.

  4. Special issue on compact x-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooker, Simon; Midorikawa, Katsumi; Rosenzweig, James

    2014-04-01

    Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics is delighted to announce a forthcoming special issue on compact x-ray sources, to appear in the winter of 2014, and invites you to submit a paper. The potential for high-brilliance x- and gamma-ray sources driven by advanced, compact accelerators has gained increasing attention in recent years. These novel sources—sometimes dubbed 'fifth generation sources'—will build on the revolutionary advance of the x-ray free-electron laser (FEL). New radiation sources of this type have widespread applications, including in ultra-fast imaging, diagnostic and therapeutic medicine, and studies of matter under extreme conditions. Rapid advances in compact accelerators and in FEL techniques make this an opportune moment to consider the opportunities which could be realized by bringing these two fields together. Further, the successful development of compact radiation sources driven by compact accelerators will be a significant milestone on the road to the development of high-gradient colliders able to operate at the frontiers of particle physics. Thus the time is right to publish a peer-reviewed collection of contributions concerning the state-of-the-art in: advanced and novel acceleration techniques; sophisticated physics at the frontier of FELs; and the underlying and enabling techniques of high brightness electron beam physics. Interdisciplinary research connecting two or more of these fields is also increasingly represented, as exemplified by entirely new concepts such as plasma based electron beam sources, and coherent imaging with fs-class electron beams. We hope that in producing this special edition of Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics (iopscience.iop.org/0953-4075/) we may help further a challenging mission and ongoing intellectual adventure: the harnessing of newly emergent, compact advanced accelerators to the creation of new, agile light sources with unprecedented capabilities. New schemes for compact accelerators: laser- and beam-driven plasma accelerators; dielectric laser accelerators; THz accelerators. Latest results for compact accelerators. Target design and staging of advanced accelerators. Advanced injection and phase space manipulation techniques. Novel diagnostics: single-shot measurement of sub-fs bunch duration; measurement of ultra-low emittance. Generation and characterization of incoherent radiation: betatron and undulator radiation; Thomson/Compton scattering sources, novel THz sources. Generation and characterization of coherent radiation. Novel FEL simulation techniques. Advances in simulations of novel accelerators: simulations of injection and acceleration processes; simulations of coherent and incoherent radiation sources; start-to-end simulations of fifth generation light sources. Novel undulator schemes. Novel laser drivers for laser-driven accelerators: high-repetition rate laser systems; high wall-plug efficiency systems. Applications of compact accelerators: imaging; radiography; medical applications; electron diffraction and microscopy. Please submit your article by 15 May 2014 (expected web publication: winter 2014); submissions received after this date will be considered for the journal, but may not be included in the special issue.

  5. Gamma-ray Burst Cosmology

    E-print Network

    Wang, F Y; Liang, E W

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the most luminous electromagnetic explosions in the Universe, which emit up to $8.8\\times10^{54}$ erg isotropic equivalent energy in the hard X-ray band. The high luminosity makes them detectable out to the largest distances yet explored in the Universe. GRBs, as bright beacons in the deep Universe, would be the ideal tool to probe the properties of high-redshift universe: including the cosmic expansion and dark energy, star formation rate, the reionization epoch and the metal enrichment history of the Universe. In this article, we review the luminosity correlations of GRBs, and implications for constraining the cosmological parameters and dark energy. Observations show that the progenitors of long GRBs are massive stars. So it is expected that long GRBs are tracers of star formation rate. We also review the high-redshift star formation rate derived from GRBs, and implications for the cosmic reionization history. The afterglows of GRBs generally have broken power-law spectra, so it...

  6. Compact Gamma-Beam Source for Nuclear Security Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladkikh, P.; Urakawa, J.

    2015-10-01

    A compact gamma-beam source dedicated to the development of the nuclear security technologies by use of the nuclear resonance fluorescence is described. Besides, such source is a very promising tool for novel technologies of the express cargoes inspection to prevent nuclear terrorism. Gamma-beam with the quanta energies from 0.3MeV to 7.2MeV is generated in the Compton scattering of the "green" laser photons on the electron beam with energies from 90MeV to 430MeV. The characteristic property of the proposed gammabeam source is a narrow spectrum (less than 1%) at high average gamma-yield (of 1013?/s) due to special operation mode.

  7. A directional gamma ray detector using a single chip computational sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathan Schemm; Sina Balkir; Michael W. Hoffman; Mark Bauer

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the design and test results of a computational radiation sensor system based on a single chip solution that can determine the direction of gamma rays emitted from a radiation source. The overall system is formed by merging a sensor section with a compact and low power computational radiation sensor section. The sensor section houses three NaI gamma

  8. Thermal neutron capture gamma-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Tuli, J.K.

    1983-01-01

    The energy and intensity of gamma rays as seen in thermal neutron capture are presented. Only those (n,..cap alpha..), E = thermal, reactions for which the residual nucleus mass number is greater than or equal to 45 are included. These correspond to evaluations published in Nuclear Data Sheets. The publication source data are contained in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF). The data presented here do not involve any additional evaluation. Appendix I lists all the residual nuclides for which the data are included here. Appendix II gives a cumulated index to A-chain evaluations including the year of publication. The capture gamma ray data are given in two tables - the Table 1 is the list of all gamma rays seen in (n,..gamma..) reaction given in the order of increasing energy; the Table II lists the gamma rays according to the nuclide.

  9. Optical reprocessing of gamma-ray bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Melia, F.; Rappaport, S.; Joss, P.C.

    1986-06-01

    One model for the optical flashes associated with three cosmic gamma-ray burst sources invokes the reprocessing of some of the gamma-radiation emitted by a hypothesized collapsed object in the surface layers of a nearby companion star. This model was investigated by carrying out detail, fully hydrodynamical calculations of such reprocessing in the surface layers of very low mass stars. It is found that, at most, 7 percent of the gamma-ray fluence incident on the companion star is reprocessed into the blue band; the time scale for this reprocessing is typically 100 s, which is long compared to the duration of the gamma-ray burst itself. Using this result, it is shown that there is marginal agreement between the observed and calculated ratios of gamma-ray fluence to optical fluence at earth. 18 references.

  10. "Short, Hard Gamma-Ray Bursts - Mystery Solved?????"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, A.

    2006-01-01

    After over a decade of speculation about the nature of short-duration hard-spectrum gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), the recent detection of afterglow emission from a small number of short bursts has provided the first physical constraints on possible progenitor models. While the discovery of afterglow emission from long GRBs was a real breakthrough linking their origin to star forming galaxies, and hence the death of massive stars, the progenitors, energetics, and environments for short gamma-ray burst events remain elusive despite a few recent localizations. Thus far, the nature of the host galaxies measured indicates that short GRBs arise from an old (> 1 Gyr) stellar population, strengthening earlier suggestions and providing support for coalescing compact object binaries as the progenitors. On the other hand, some of the short burst afterglow observations cannot be easily explained in the coalescence scenario. These observations raise the possibility that short GRBs may have different or multiple progenitors systems. The study of the short-hard GRB afterglows has been made possible by the Swift Gamma-ray Burst Explorer, launched in November of 2004. Swift is equipped with a coded aperture gamma-ray telescope that can observe up to 2 steradians of the sky and can compute the position of a gamma-ray burst to within 2-3 arcmin in less than 10 seconds. The Swift spacecraft can slew on to this burst position without human intervention, allowing its on-board x ray and optical telescopes to study the afterglow within 2 minutes of the original GRB trigger. More Swift short burst detections and afterglow measurements are needed before we can declare that the mystery of short gamma-ray burst is solved.

  11. PANGU: A high resolution gamma-ray space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xin; Su, Meng; Bravar, Alessandro; Chang, Jin; Fan, Yizhong; Pohl, Martin; Walter, Roland

    2014-07-01

    We describe the instrument concept of a high angular resolution telescope dedicated to the sub-GeV (from >=10 MeV to >=1 GeV) gamma-ray photon detection. This mission, named PANGU (PAir-productioN Gamma-ray Unit), has been suggested as a candidate for the joint small mission between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Chinese Academy of Science (CAS). A wide range of topics of both astronomy and fundamental physics can be attacked with PANGU, covering Galactic and extragalactic cosmic-ray physics, extreme physics of a variety of extended (e.g. supernova remnants, galaxies, galaxy clusters) and compact (e.g. black holes, pulsars, gamma-ray bursts) objects, solar and terrestrial gamma-ray phenomena, and searching for dark matter decay and/or annihilation signature etc. The unprecedented point spread function can be achieved with a pair-production telescope with a large number of thin active tracking layers to precisely reconstruct the pair-produced electron and positron tracks. Scintillating fibers or thin silicon micro-strip detectors are suitable technology for such a tracker. The energy measurement is achieved by measuring the momentum of the electrons and positrons through a magnetic field. The innovated spectrometer approach provides superior photon pointing resolution, and is particular suitable in the sub-GeV range. The level of tracking precision makes it possible to measure the polarization of gamma rays, which would open up a new frontier in gamma-ray astronomy. The frequent full-sky survey at sub-GeV with PANGU's large field of view and significantly improved point spread function would provide crucial information to GeV-TeV astrophysics for current/future missions including Fermi, DAMPE, HERD, and CTA, and other multi-wavelength telescopes.

  12. An imaging neutron/gamma-ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madden, Amanda C.; Bloser, Peter F.; Fourguette, Dominique; Larocque, Liane; Legere, Jason S.; Lewis, Matt; McConnell, Mark L.; Rousseau, Marissa; Ryan, James M.

    2013-05-01

    We present the test results of a neutron/gamma-ray imaging spectrometer for the identification and location of radioactive and special nuclear materials. Radioactive materials that could be fashioned into a radiation dispersal device typically emit gamma rays, while fissile materials such as uranium and plutonium emit both neutrons and gamma rays via spontaneous or induced fission. The simultaneous detection of neutrons and gamma rays is a clear indication of the presence of fissile material. The instrument works as a double-scatter telescope, requiring a neutron or gamma ray to undergo an interaction in two detectors to be considered a valid event. While this requirement reduces the detector efficiency, it yields information about the direction and energy of the incident particle, which is then used to reconstruct an image of the emitting source. Because of this imaging capability background events can be rejected, decreasing the number of events required for high confidence detection and thereby greatly improving its sensitivity. The instrument is optimized for the detection of neutrons with energies from 1-20 MeV and gamma rays from 0.4 to 10 MeV. Images and energy spectra for neutron and gamma rays are reported for several sources including depleted uranium and plutonium. In addition, the effect of neutron source shielding is investigated.

  13. Gamma-Ray Burst Physics with GLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Omodei, N.; /INFN, Pisa

    2006-10-06

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) is an international space mission that will study the cosmos in the energy range 10 keV-300 GeV, the upper end of which is one of the last poorly observed region of the celestial electromagnetic spectrum. The ancestor of the GLAST/LAT was the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) detector, which flew onboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO). The amount of information and the step forward that the high energy astrophysics made thanks to its 9 years of observations are impressive. Nevertheless, EGRET uncovered the tip of the iceberg, raising many questions, and it is in the light of EGRET's results that the great potential of the next generation gamma-ray telescope can be appreciated. GLAST will have an imaging gamma-ray telescope, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) vastly more capable than instruments own previously, as well as a secondary instrument, the GLAST Bursts Monitor, or GBM, to augment the study of gamma-ray bursts. Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) science is one of the most exciting challenges for the GLAST mission, exploring the high energy emission of one of the most intense phenomena in the sky, shading light on various problems: from the acceleration of particles to the emission processes, to more exotic physics like Quantum Gravity effect. In this paper we report the work done so far in the simulation development as well as the study of the LAT sensitivity to GRB.

  14. Gamma-Ray Pulsar Studies With GLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.J.; /NASA, Goddard

    2011-11-23

    Some pulsars have their maximum observable energy output in the gamma-ray band, offering the possibility of using these high-energy photons as probes of the particle acceleration and interaction processes in pulsar magnetospheres. After an extended hiatus between satellite missions, the recently-launched AGILE mission and the upcoming Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Large Area Telescope (LAT) will allow gamma-ray tests of the theoretical models developed based on past discoveries. With its greatly improved sensitivity, better angular resolution, and larger energy reach than older instruments, GLAST LAT should detect dozens to hundreds of new gamma-ray pulsars and measure luminosities, light curves, and phase-resolved spectra with unprecedented resolution. It will also have the potential to find radio-quiet pulsars like Geminga, using blind search techniques. Cooperation with radio and X-ray pulsar astronomers is an important aspect of the LAT team's planning for pulsar studies.

  15. Gamma-ray Albedo of the Moon

    SciTech Connect

    Moskalenko, Igor V.; Porter, Troy A.

    2007-06-14

    We use the GEANT4 Monte Carlo framework to calculate the gamma-ray albedo of the Moon due to interactions of cosmic ray (CR) nuclei with moon rock. Our calculation of the albedo spectrum agrees with the EGRET data. We show that the spectrum of gamma-rays from the Moon is very steep with an effective cutoff around 3 GeV (600 MeV for the inner part of the Moon disc). Since it is the only (almost) black spot in the gamma-ray sky, it provides a unique opportunity for calibration of gamma-ray telescopes, such as the forthcoming Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST). The albedo flux depends on the incident CR spectrum which changes over the solar cycle. Therefore, it is possible to monitor the CR spectrum using the albedo gamma-ray flux. Simultaneous measurements of CR proton and helium spectra by the Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA), and observations of the albedo -rays by the GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT), can be used to test the model predictions and will enable the GLAST LAT to monitor the CR spectrum near the Earth beyond the lifetime of PAMELA.

  16. Gamma-Ray Bursts: An Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gerald J.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are now known to originate from cosmological distances and represent the largest known explosions in the Universe. The observed characteristics of bursts in the gamma-ray region, primarily from data obtained with the BATSE experiment on the Compton Observatory, will be described. These include the temporal and spectral characteristic of bursts, and their intensity and sky distribution. A summary of recent discoveries and observations in other wavelength regions will also be presented, along with their implications for models of the burst emission mechanism. Various models for the energy source of gamma-ray bursts will be described.

  17. Detecting axionlike particles with gamma ray telescopes.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Dan; Serpico, Pasquale D

    2007-12-01

    We propose that axionlike particles (ALPs) with a two-photon vertex, consistent with all astrophysical and laboratory bounds, may lead to a detectable signature in the spectra of high-energy gamma-ray sources. This occurs as a result of gamma rays being converted into ALPs in the magnetic fields of efficient astrophysical accelerators according to the "Hillas criterion", such as jets of active galactic nuclei or hot spots of radio galaxies. The discovery of such an effect is possible by GLAST in the 1-100 GeV range and by ground-based gamma-ray telescopes in the TeV range. PMID:18233353

  18. Research in cosmic and gamma ray astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Edward C.; Mewaldt, Richard A.; Prince, Thomas A.

    1992-01-01

    Discussed here is research in cosmic ray and gamma ray astrophysics at the Space Radiation Laboratory (SRL) of the California Institute of Technology. The primary activities discussed involve the development of new instrumentation and techniques for future space flight. In many cases these instrumentation developments were tested in balloon flight instruments designed to conduct new investigations in cosmic ray and gamma ray astrophysics. The results of these investigations are briefly summarized. Specific topics include a quantitative investigation of the solar modulation of cosmic ray protons and helium nuclei, a study of cosmic ray positron and electron spectra in interplanetary and interstellar space, the solar modulation of cosmic rays, an investigation of techniques for the measurement and interpretation of cosmic ray isotopic abundances, and a balloon measurement of the isotopic composition of galactic cosmic ray boron, carbon, and nitrogen.

  19. Possible X-ray counterparts of gamma-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maraschi, L.; Markert, T.; Apparao, K. M. V.; Bradt, H.; Helmken, H.; Wheaton, W.; Baity, W. A.; Peterson, L. E.

    1978-01-01

    The results are presented of a survey regarding the X-ray source positions which fall within the error boxes of 10 unidentified gamma-ray sources observed with the aid of the COS-B satellite. In three cases, including CG 135-1, CG 312-1, and CG 327-0, an X-ray source was found within the gamma-ray error box. However, because of the large uncertainty regarding the gamma-ray source positions, the positional coincidence is not necessarily conclusive. It is, therefore, necessary to take into account additional information on the spectral or temporal characteristics of the X-ray sources. It is found that the X-ray source 4U 02416 plus 1 is a possible candidate as the X-ray-counterpart of CG 135 plus 1 in connection with both spectral hardness characteristics and positional coincidence.

  20. Studies of Cosmic Rays with GeV Gamma Rays

    E-print Network

    Hiroyasu Tajima; Tuneyoshi Kamae; Stefano Finazzi; Johann Cohen-Tanugi; James Chiang

    2007-05-10

    We describe the role of GeV gamma-ray observations with GLAST-LAT (Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope - Large Area Telescope) in identifying interaction sites of cosmic-ray proton (or hadrons) with interstellar medium (ISM). We expect to detect gamma rays from neutral pion decays in high-density ISM regions in the Galaxy, Large Magellanic Cloud, and other satellite galaxies. These gamma-ray sources have been detected already with EGRET (Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope) as extended sources (eg. LMC and Orion clouds) and GLAST-LAT will detect many more with a higher spatial resolution and in a wider spectral range. We have developed a novel image restoration technique based on the Richardson-Lucy algorithm optimized for GLAST-LAT observation of extended sources. Our algorithm calculates PSF (point spread function) for each event. This step is very important for GLAST-LAT and EGRET image analysis since PSF varies more than one order of magnitude from one gamma ray to another depending on its energy as well as its impact point and angle in the instrument. The GLAST-LAT and EGRET image analysis has to cope with Poisson fluctuation due to low number of detected photons for most sources. Our technique incorporates wavelet filtering to minimize effects due to the fluctuation. Preliminary studies on some EGRET sources are presented, which shows potential of this novel image restoration technique for the identification and characterisation of extended gamma-ray sources.

  1. Historical aspects of gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreekantan, B. V.

    2002-03-01

    Over the entire 20th century, Cosmic Rays proved to be the watershed of fundamental knowledge from which poured out several streams that made us familiar with aspects of the universe that could never have been known through optical and radio astronomies alone. Cosmic ray interaction studies opened up the field of elementary particles and high energy physical processes. Gamma-ray astronomy enabled us to study celestial environments characterised by the dominance of high energy particles and their interactions with matter, magnetic and electric fields in the neighbourhood of these special environments. While neutrino astronomy is still in its infancy, it has the potential of becoming the most exciting field of study in the current century. Gamma-ray astronomy has had a chequered career. In the early part of the 20th century, Millikan proposed that cosmic rays are merely gamma rays. This was disproved by Compton, through the establishment of the latitude effect. The soviet astrophysicist Shklovskii pointed out at the III International conference on cosmic rays held at Guanjuato, Mexico, the possibility of supernova remants like the Crab Nebula being sources of TeV gamma rays. This was based on his realisation that the high degree of polarized light from the Crab could be due to Synchrotron emission by TeV energy electrons spiralling round the filamentary magnetic fields of the nebula. He argued that the same mechanism that accelerated electrons could also accelerate the protons which through their interaction with the surrounding matter generate pi-zero measons that would immediately decay into gamma rays. However, the efforts by the soviet experimentalists, who used the night air cerenkov technique for detection of the TeV gamma rays, proved negative; only upper limits could be set on the fluxew of TeV gamma rays from several of the SN-remnants; the negative results were first reported at the 7th ICRC held at Jaipur, India in 1963. High energy gamma ray astronomy had a remarkable revival with the discovery of Pulsars in 1967 and their identification with Neutron stars. The field has thrived since then has been extended even to the PeV range. Beginning with 1965, gamma ray astronomy in the energy range MeV to tens of GeV has also been successfully pursued with ballons, and satellites. The most perplexing in this energy range has been the discovery of the Gamma ray bursts. In the keynote address the historical aspects of this field will be covered with some references to the work in India.

  2. Using gamma-rays to probe the clumped structure of stellar winds

    E-print Network

    G. E. Romero; S. P. Owocki; A. T. Araudo; R. Townsend; P. Benaglia

    2007-08-10

    Gamma-rays can be produced by the interaction of a relativistic jet and the matter of the stellar wind in the subclass of massive X-ray binaries known as "microquasars". The relativistic jet is ejected from the surroundings of the compact object and interacts with cold protons from the stellar wind, producing pions that then quickly decay into gamma-rays. Since the resulting gamma-ray emissivity depends on the target density, the detection of rapid variability in microquasars with GLAST and the new generation of Cherenkov imaging arrays could be used to probe the clumped structure of the stellar wind. In particular, we show here that the relative fluctuation in gamma rays may scale with the square root of the ratio of porosity length to binary separation, \\sqrt{h/a}, implying for example a ca. 10 % variation in gamma ray emission for a quite moderate porosity, h/a ~ 0.01.

  3. Gamma Ray Astronomy with Magnetized Zevatrons

    E-print Network

    Eric Armengaud; Guenter Sigl; Francesco Miniati

    2005-11-09

    Nearby sources of cosmic rays up to a ZeV(=10^21 eV) could be observed with a multi-messenger approach including secondary gamma-rays and neutrinos. If cosmic rays above ~10^18 eV are produced in magnetized environments such as galaxy clusters, the flux of secondary gamma-rays below ~1 TeV can be enhanced up to several orders of magnitudes compared to unmagnetized sources. A particular source of enhancement are synchrotron and cascade photons from e^+e^- pairs produced by protons from sources with relatively steep injection spectra proportional to E^-2.6. Such sources should be visible at the same time in ultra-high energy cosmic ray experiments and gamma-ray telescopes.

  4. GRI: the gamma-ray imager mission

    E-print Network

    Jürgen Knödlseder

    2006-08-07

    Observations of the gamma-ray sky reveal the most powerful sources and the most violent events in the Universe. While at lower wavebands the observed emission is generally dominated by thermal processes, the gamma-ray sky provides us with a view on the non-thermal Universe. Here particles are accelerated to extreme relativistic energies by mechanisms which are still poorly understood, and nuclear reactions are synthesizing the basic constituents of our world. Cosmic accelerators and cosmic explosions are the major science themes that are addressed in the gamma-ray regime. With the INTEGRAL observatory, ESA has provided a unique tool to the astronomical community revealing hundreds of sources, new classes of objects, extraordinary views of antimatter annihilation in our Galaxy, and fingerprints of recent nucleosynthesis processes. While INTEGRAL provides the global overview over the soft gamma-ray sky, there is a growing need to perform deeper, more focused investigations of gamma-ray sources. In soft X-rays a comparable step was taken going from the Einstein and the EXOSAT satellites to the Chandra and XMM/Newton observatories. Technological advances in the past years in the domain of gamma-ray focusing using Laue diffraction and multilayer-coated mirror techniques have paved the way towards a gamma-ray mission, providing major improvements compared to past missions regarding sensitivity and angular resolution. Such a future Gamma-Ray Imager will allow to study particle acceleration processes and explosion physics in unprecedented detail, providing essential clues on the innermost nature of the most violent and most energetic processes in the Universe.

  5. Diffuse continuum gamma rays from the Galaxy

    E-print Network

    A. W. Strong; I. V. Moskalenko; O. Reimer

    2000-02-24

    A new study of the diffuse Galactic gamma-ray continuum radiation is presented, using a cosmic-ray propagation model which includes nucleons, antiprotons, electrons, positrons, and synchrotron radiation. Our treatment of the inverse Compton (IC) scattering includes the effect of anisotropic scattering in the Galactic interstellar radiation field (ISRF) and a new evaluation of the ISRF itself. Models based on locally measured electron and nucleon spectra and synchrotron constraints are consistent with gamma-ray measurements in the 30-500 MeV range, but outside this range excesses are apparent. A harder nucleon spectrum is considered but fitting to gamma rays causes it to violate limits from positrons and antiprotons. A harder interstellar electron spectrum allows the gamma-ray spectrum to be fitted above 1 GeV as well, and this can be further improved when combined with a modified nucleon spectrum which still respects the limits imposed by antiprotons and positrons. A large electron/IC halo is proposed which reproduces well the high-latitude variation of gamma-ray emission. The halo contribution of Galactic emission to the high-latitude gamma-ray intensity is large, with implications for the study of the diffuse extragalactic component and signatures of dark matter. The constraints provided by the radio synchrotron spectral index do not allow all of the <30 MeV gamma-ray emission to be explained in terms of a steep electron spectrum unless this takes the form of a sharp upturn below 200 MeV. This leads us to prefer a source population as the origin of the excess low-energy gamma rays.

  6. Neutrinos and Gamma Rays from Galaxy Clusters

    E-print Network

    Brandon Wolfe; Fulvio Melia; Roland M. Crocker; Raymond R. Volkas

    2008-07-04

    The next generation of neutrino and gamma-ray detectors should provide new insights into the creation and propagation of high-energy protons within galaxy clusters, probing both the particle physics of cosmic rays interacting with the background medium and the mechanisms for high-energy particle production within the cluster. In this paper we examine the possible detection of gamma-rays (via the GLAST satellite) and neutrinos (via the ICECUBE and Auger experiments) from the Coma cluster of galaxies, as well as for the gamma-ray bright clusters Abell 85, 1758, and 1914. These three were selected from their possible association with unidentified EGRET sources, so it is not yet entirely certain that their gamma-rays are indeed produced diffusively within the intracluster medium, as opposed to AGNs. It is not obvious why these inconspicuous Abell-clusters should be the first to be seen in gamma-rays, but a possible reason is that all of them show direct evidence of recent or ongoing mergers. Their identification with the EGRET gamma-ray sources is also supported by the close correlation between their radio and (purported) gamma-ray fluxes. Under favorable conditions (including a proton spectral index of 2.5 in the case of Abell 85, and sim 2.3 for Coma, and Abell 1758 and 1914), we expect ICECUBE to make as many as 0.3 neutrino detections per year from the Coma cluster of galaxies, and as many as a few per year from the Abell clusters 85, 1758, and 1914. Also, Auger may detect as many as 2 events per decade at ~ EeV energies from these gamma-ray bright clusters.

  7. Observations of short gamma-ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Fox, Derek B; Roming, Peter W A

    2007-05-15

    We review recent observations of short-hard gamma-ray bursts and their afterglows. The launch and successful ongoing operations of the Swift satellite, along with several localizations from the High-Energy Transient Explorer mission, have provoked a revolution in short-burst studies: first, by quickly providing high-quality positions to observers; and second, via rapid and sustained observations from the Swift satellite itself. We make a complete accounting of Swift-era short-burst localizations and proposed host galaxies, and discuss the implications of these observations for the distances, energetics and environments of short bursts, and the nature of their progenitors. We then review the physical modelling of short-burst afterglows: while the simplest afterglow models are inadequate to explain the observations, there have been several notable successes. Finally, we address the case of an unusual burst that threatens to upset the simple picture in which long bursts are due to the deaths of massive stars, and short bursts to compact-object merger events. PMID:17293336

  8. POPULATION SYNTHESIS AND GAMMA RAY BURST PROGENITORS

    SciTech Connect

    C. L. FREYER

    2000-12-11

    Population synthesis studies of binaries are always limited by a myriad of uncertainties from the poorly understood effects of binary mass transfer and common envelope evolution to the many uncertainties that still remain in stellar evolution. But the importance of these uncertainties depends both upon the objects being studied and the questions asked about these objects. Here I review the most critical uncertainties in the population synthesis of gamma-ray burst progenitors. With a better understanding of these uncertainties, binary population synthesis can become a powerful tool in understanding, and constraining, gamma-ray burst models. In turn, as gamma-ray bursts become more important as cosmological probes, binary population synthesis of gamma-ray burst progenitors becomes an important tool in cosmology.

  9. Gamma-ray bursts: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lestrade, John Patrick

    1990-01-01

    Gamma Ray Bursts were discovered by researchers studying data from gamma ray detectors aboard the Vela satellites. Since the original discovery, over 500 bursts have been observed by more than a dozen experiments on planetary spacecraft, earth orbiters, balloon flights, and even ground based instruments. Unfortunately, a description of the nature of these transient phenomena is no closer today than two decades ago. Part of the problem lies in the large variability in their physical characteristics. This variability has spawned more than 40 gamma ray burst models. Each model claims some subset of the 500 observed bursts that conclusively proves its validity. A very brief overview is presented of the gamma ray burst phenomenon.

  10. Gravitational waves and gamma-ray bursts

    E-print Network

    Alessandra Corsi; for the LIGO Scientific Collaboration; for the Virgo Collaboration

    2012-05-11

    Gamma-Ray Bursts are likely associated with a catastrophic energy release in stellar mass objects. Electromagnetic observations provide important, but indirect information on the progenitor. On the other hand, gravitational waves emitted from the central source, carry direct information on its nature. In this context, I give an overview of the multi-messenger study of gamma-ray bursts that can be carried out by using electromagnetic and gravitational wave observations. I also underline the importance of joint electromagnetic and gravitational wave searches, in the absence of a gamma-ray trigger. Finally, I discuss how multi-messenger observations may probe alternative gamma-ray burst progenitor models, such as the magnetar scenario.

  11. Study of gamma-ray strength functions

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, D.G.; Gardner, M.A.; Dietrich, F.S.

    1980-08-07

    The use of gamma-ray strength function systematics to calculate neutron capture cross sections and capture gamma-ray spectra is discussed. The ratio of the average capture width, GAMMA/sub ..gamma../-bar, to the average level spacing, D/sub obs/, both at the neutron separation energy, can be derived from such systematics with much less uncertainty than from separate systematics for values of GAMMA/sub ..gamma../-bar and D/sub obs/. In particular, the E1 gamma-ray strength function is defined in terms of the giant dipole resonance (GDR). The GDR line shape is modeled with the usual Lorentzian function and also with a new energy-dependent, Breit-Wigner (EDBW) function. This latter form is further parameterized in terms of two overlapping resonances, even for nuclei where photonuclear measurements do not resolve two peaks. In the mass ranges studied, such modeling is successful for all nuclei away from the N = 50 closed neutron shell. Near the N = 50 shell, a one-peak EDBW appears to be more appropriate. Examples of calculated neutron capture excitation functions and capture gamma-ray spectra using the EDBW form are given for target nuclei in the mass-90 region and also in the Ta-Au mass region. 20 figures.

  12. Unsteady outflow models for cosmological gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rees, M. J.; Meszaros, P.

    1994-01-01

    The 'event' that triggers a gamma-ray burst cannot last for more than a few seconds. This is, however, long compared with the dynamical timescale of a compact stellar-mass object (approximately 10 (exp-3) s). Energy is assumed to be released as an outflow with high mean Lorentz factor Gamma. But a compact stellar-mass collapse or merger is, realistically, likely to generate a mass (or energy) flux that is unsteady on some timescales in the range 10(exp -3) - 10 s. If Gamma fluctuates by a factor of approximately 2 around its mean value, relative motions within the outflowing material will themselves (in the comoving frame) be relativistic, and can give rise to internal shocks. For Gamma approximately 10(exp 2), the resultant dissipation occurs outside the 'photosphere' and can convert a substantial fraction of the overall outflow energy into nonthermal radiation. This suggests a mechanism for cosmological bursts that demands less extreme assumptions (in respect of Gamma-values, freedom from baryonic contamination, etc.) than earlier proposals.

  13. Solar Two High Energy Gamma Ray Observatory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. O. Tumer; D. Bhattacharya; M. Chantell; Z. Conner; P. Coppi; C. E. Covault; M. Dragovan; D. T. Gregorich; D. S. Hanna; U. Mohideen; R. A. Ong; S. Oser; K. Ragan; H. Tom; D. A. Williams

    1997-01-01

    The Solar Two Gamma-Ray Telescope is planned as an extension to the STACEE Sandia experiment that is being developed for ground-based gamma-ray astronomy using the atmospheric Cherenkov detection technique in the energy range of 20 to 250 GeV. Because of its large effective light collection area, the STACEE and Solar Two Observatory will be able to reach low energy thresholds

  14. THE X-RAY EVOLUTION OF HICKSON COMPACT GROUPS

    SciTech Connect

    Fuse, C.; Broming, E., E-mail: cfuse@rollins.edu, E-mail: ebroming@rollins.edu [Department of Physics, Rollins College, Winter Park, FL 32789 (United States)

    2013-02-20

    The Hickson compact groups, displaying regions of high galaxy densities, should provide environments where galaxy evolution occurs rapidly. The repeated galaxy interactions and mergers present in compact groups increase the rate of star formation and increase the number of X-ray binaries. A fraction of the H I gas will also become heated via stirring and shocks, which yields extended diffuse, hot gas halos that can encompass all members of a compact group. Using a sample of 16 Hickson compact groups from the Chandra X-Ray Observatory archives, we report on a correlation between the diffuse X-ray gas and the total X-ray point source population luminosities. The correlation of the X-ray gas and point source luminosities is further examined to establish a general evolutionary trend.

  15. On Gamma-Ray Bursts

    E-print Network

    Remo Ruffini; Maria Grazia Bernardini; Carlo Luciano Bianco; Letizia Caito; Pascal Chardonnet; Christian Cherubini; Maria Giovanna Dainotti; Federico Fraschetti; Andrea Geralico; Roberto Guida; Barbara Patricelli; Michael Rotondo; Jorge Armando Rueda Hernandez; Gregory Vereshchagin; She-Sheng Xue

    2008-04-17

    (Shortened) We show by example how the uncoding of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) offers unprecedented possibilities to foster new knowledge in fundamental physics and in astrophysics. After recalling some of the classic work on vacuum polarization in uniform electric fields by Klein, Sauter, Heisenberg, Euler and Schwinger, we summarize some of the efforts to observe these effects in heavy ions and high energy ion collisions. We then turn to the theory of vacuum polarization around a Kerr-Newman black hole, leading to the extraction of the blackholic energy, to the concept of dyadosphere and dyadotorus, and to the creation of an electron-positron-photon plasma. We then present a new theoretical approach encompassing the physics of neutron stars and heavy nuclei. It is shown that configurations of nuclear matter in bulk with global charge neutrality can exist on macroscopic scales and with electric fields close to the critical value near their surfaces. These configurations may represent an initial condition for the process of gravitational collapse, leading to the creation of an electron-positron-photon plasma: the basic self-accelerating system explaining both the energetics and the high energy Lorentz factor observed in GRBs. We then turn to recall the two basic interpretational paradigms of our GRB model. [...] We then turn to the special role of the baryon loading in discriminating between "genuine" short and long or "fake" short GRBs [...] We finally turn to the GRB-Supernova Time Sequence (GSTS) paradigm: the concept of induced gravitational collapse. [...] We then present some general conclusions.

  16. High-energy gamma-ray absorption in relativistic magnetospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riffert, H.; Meszaros, P.; Bagoly, Z.

    1989-01-01

    Calculations are made of the propagation of gamma-rays around neutron stars with a dipole magnetic field, including the effects of general relativity and the absorption by the one-photon magnetic pair production process, as a model for the high-energy transport in gamma-ray burst sources and pulsars. The paper discusses the escaping photon beam characteristics as seen by distant observers at different angles with respect to the magnetic axis, for radiation arising from the polar caps of neutron stars of varying degrees of compactness and surface field strengths. The observed beaming depends strongly on the surface field only up to B of about 0.05 times the critical field value, being essentially constant above the value 0.1. The gravitational light bending contributes significantly to broaden the beam profiles especially at low energies above threshold, being sensitive to the stellar radius to mass ratio.

  17. High-energy gamma-ray absorption in relativistic magnetospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Riffert, H.; Meszaros, P.; Bagoly, Z.

    1989-05-01

    Calculations are made of the propagation of gamma-rays around neutron stars with a dipole magnetic field, including the effects of general relativity and the absorption by the one-photon magnetic pair production process, as a model for the high-energy transport in gamma-ray burst sources and pulsars. The paper discusses the escaping photon beam characteristics as seen by distant observers at different angles with respect to the magnetic axis, for radiation arising from the polar caps of neutron stars of varying degrees of compactness and surface field strengths. The observed beaming depends strongly on the surface field only up to B of about 0.05 times the critical field value, being essentially constant above the value 0.1. The gravitational light bending contributes significantly to broaden the beam profiles especially at low energies above threshold, being sensitive to the stellar radius to mass ratio. 18 refs.

  18. Radiation detection system for portable gamma-ray spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA); Howard, Douglas E. (Livermore, CA); Wong, James L. (Dublin, CA); Jessup, James L. (Tracy, CA); Bianchini, Greg M. (Livermore, CA); Miller, Wayne O. (Livermore, CA)

    2006-06-20

    A portable gamma ray detection apparatus having a gamma ray detector encapsulated by a compact isolation structure having at least two volumetrically-nested enclosures where at least one is a thermal shield. The enclosures are suspension-mounted to each other to successively encapsulate the detector without structural penetrations through the thermal shields. A low power cooler is also provided capable of cooling the detector to cryogenic temperatures without consuming cryogens, due to the heat load reduction by the isolation structure and the reduction in the power requirements of the cooler. The apparatus also includes a lightweight portable power source for supplying power to the apparatus, including to the cooler and the processing means, and reducing the weight of the apparatus to enable handheld operation or toting on a user's person.

  19. Mercuric iodine room temperature gamma-ray detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patt, Bradley E.; Markakis, Jeffrey M.; Gerrish, Vernon M.; Haymes, Robert C.; Trombka, Jacob I.

    1990-01-01

    high resolution mercuric iodide room temperature gamma-ray detectors have excellent potential as an essential component of space instruments to be used for high energy astrophysics. Mercuric iodide detectors are being developed both as photodetectors used in combination with scintillation crystals to detect gamma-rays, and as direct gamma-ray detectors. These detectors are highly radiation damage resistant. The list of applications includes gamma-ray burst detection, gamma-ray line astronomy, solar flare studies, and elemental analysis.

  20. Prompt gamma rays from thermal-neutron capture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Lone; R. A. Leavitt; D. A. Harrison

    1981-01-01

    A catalog of ..gamma..-rays emitted following thermal-neutron capture in natural elements is presented. In Table I, ..gamma..-rays are arranged in order of increasing energy. Each line contains the ..gamma..-ray energy, intensity, element identification, thermal-neutron radiative-capture cross section, and the energies and intensities of two of the more abundant ..gamma..-rays associated with that element. In Table II, ..gamma..-rays are arranged by

  1. Gamma ray production in interstellar space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Stephens, S. A.

    1978-01-01

    A simple representation of the observed invariant cross section for the production of neutral pions in pp collisions has been obtained. This representation is used to calculate the differential and integral production spectra of gamma rays in galactic space from the interactions of cosmic-ray nuclei with interstellar gas. These spectra are compared with those from existing calculations.

  2. Gamma Ray Bursts in the HAWC Era

    E-print Network

    Mészáros, Peter; Murase, Kohta; Fox, Derek; Gao, He; Senno, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-Ray Bursts are the most energetic explosions in the Universe, and are among the most promising for detecting multiple non-electromagnetic signals, including cosmic rays, high energy neutrinos and gravitational waves. The multi-GeV to TeV gamma-ray range of GRB could have significant contributions from hadronic interactions, mixed with more conventional leptonic contributions. This energy range is important for probing the source physics, including overall energetics, the shock parameters and the Lorentz factor. We discuss some of the latest observational and theoretical developments in the field.

  3. Ground-Based Gamma Ray Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holder, Jamie

    2014-10-01

    This paper is the write-up of a rapporteur talk given by the author at the 33rd International Cosmic Ray Conference in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2013. It attempts to summarize results and developments in ground-based gamma-ray observations and instrumentation from among the ˜300 submissions to the gamma-ray sessions of the meeting. Satellite observations and theoretical developments were covered by a companion rapporteur (Stawarz, L., 33rd ICRC, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Rapporteur talk: Space-based Gamma-Ray Astronomy, 2013). Any review of this nature is unavoidably subjective and incomplete. Nevertheless, the article should provide a useful status report for those seeking an overview of this exciting and fast-moving field.

  4. PANGU: A High Resolution Gamma-Ray Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Meng

    2014-08-01

    We propose a high angular resolution telescope dedicated to the sub-GeV gamma-ray astronomy as a candidate for the CAS-ESA joint small mission. This mission, called PANGU (PAir-productioN Gamma-ray Unit), will open up a unique window of electromagnetic spectrum that has never been explored with great precision. A wide range of topics of both astronomy and fundamental physics can be attacked with a telescope that has an angular resolution about one order of magnitude better than the currently operating Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) in the sub-GeV range, covering galactic and extragalactic cosmic-ray physics, extreme physics of a variety of extended (e.g. supernova remnants, galaxies, galaxy clusters) and compact (e.g. black holes, pulsars, gamma-ray bursts) objects, solar and terrestrial gamma-ray phenomena, and searching for Dark Matter (DM) decay and/or annihilation signature etc. The unprecedented resolution can be achieved with a pair-production telescope that, instead of the high-Z converter commonly used, relies on a large number of thin active tracking layers to increase the photon conversion probability, and to precisely reconstruct the pair-produced electron and positron tracks. Scintillating fibers or thin silicon micro-strip detectors are suitable technology for such a tracker. The energy measurement is achieved by measuring the momentum of the electrons and positrons through a magnetic field. The innovated spectrometer approach provides superior photon conversion identification and photon pointing resolution, and is particular suitable in the sub-GeV range, where the opening angle between the electron and positron is relatively large. The level of tracking precision makes it possible to measure the polarization of gamma rays, which would open up a new frontier in gamma-ray astronomy. The sub-GeV full sky survey by PANGU would provides crucial link with GeV to TeV maps from current/future missions including Fermi, DAMPE, HERD, and CTA.

  5. Gamma-rays, cosmic rays, and galactic structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1976-01-01

    The relation of SAS-2 observations of galactic gamma-rays to the large scale distribution of cosmic rays and interstellar gas in the galaxy is reviewed. Starting with a discussion of production rates, the case for pion decay being the predominant production mechanism in the galactic disk above 100 MeV is reestablished, and it is also pointed out that Compton gamma-rays can be a significant source near l = 0. The concepts of four distinct galactic regions are defined, viz. the nebulodisk, ectodisk, radiodisk and exodisk. Bremsstrahlung and pion decay gamma-rays are associated with the first two (primarily the first) regions, and Compton gamma-rays and synchrotron radiation are associated with the latter two regions. On a large scale, the cosmic rays, interstellar gas (primarily H2 clouds in the inner galaxy) and gamma-ray emissivity all peak between 5 and 6 kpc from the galactic center. This correlation is related to correlation with other population I phenomena and is discussed in terms of the density wave concept of galactic structure.

  6. Observing Gamma-ray Bursts with GLAST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McEnery, Julie

    2008-01-01

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Telescope (GLAST) is a satellite-based observatory to study the high-energy gamma-ray sky. The Large Area Telescope, the main instrument, is a pair-conversion telescope which will survey the sky in the energy range 20 MeV to greater than 300 GeV. The LAT's wide field of view (greater than 2 sr), large effective area and low deadtime combine to provide excellent high-energy gamma-ray observations of GRB. To tie these frontier high-energy observations to the better-known properties at lower energies, a second instrument, the GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) will provide important spectra and timing in the 8 keV to 30 MeV range. Upon detection of a GRB by the LAT or the GBM, the spacecraft can autonomously repoint to keep the GRB location within the LAT field of view, allowing high-energy afterglow observations. We describe how the instruments, spacecraft, and ground system work together to provide observations of gamma-ray bursts from 8 keV to over 300 GeV and provide rapid notification of these observations to the wider gamma-ray burst community. Analysis and simulation tools dedicated to the GRB science have been developed. In this contribution we show the expected LAT sensitivity obtained with such simulations, and illustrate the results we expect from GLAST observations with spectral and temporal analysis of simulated GRB.

  7. Gamma-ray Emission from Nova Outbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernanz, M.

    2014-12-01

    Classical novae produce radioactive nuclei which are emitters of gamma-rays in the MeV range. Some examples are the lines at 478 and 1275 keV (from 7Be and 22Na) and the positron-electron annihilation emission, with the 511 keV line and a continuum. Gamma-ray spectra and light curves are potential unique tools to trace the corresponding isotopes and to give insights on the properties of the expanding envelope. Another possible origin of gamma-rays is the acceleration of particles up to very high energies, so that either neutral pions or inverse Compton processes produce gamma-rays of energies larger than 100 MeV. MeV photons during nova explosions have not been detected yet, although several attempts have been made in the last decades; on the other hand, GeV photons from novae have been detected with the Fermi satellite in V407 Cyg, a nova in a symbiotic binary, where the companion is a red giant with a wind, instead of a main sequence star as in the cataclysmic variables hosting classical novae. Two more novae have been detected recently (summer 2012) by Fermi, apparently in non symbiotic binaries, thus challenging our understanding of the emission mechanism. Both scenarios (radioactivities and acceleration) of gamma-ray production in novae are discussed.

  8. Gamma-ray emitting radio galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckmann, Volker; Soldi, Simona; De Jong, Sandra

    A number of radio galaxies has been detected by Fermi/LAT in the gamma-ray domain. The question remains why these objects, where the relativistic jet is not pointed at the observer, are observable gamma-ray emitters in the first place, and what distinguishes them from the vast majority of gamma-ray silent radio galaxies. In some cases, like Cen A and M 87, these objects have been seen even in the TeV range by Cherenkov telescopes. Whereas the gamma-ray emission is likely to be connected with the non-thermal jet emission, dominating also the radio band, the situation is less clear at hard X-rays. While the smoothly curved continuum emission and the overall spectral energy distribution indicate non-thermal emission, other features such as the iron line emission and the low variability appear to be rather of Seyfert type, i.e. created in the accretion disk and corona around the central black hole. We analysed the case of the 15 gamma-ray detected radio galaxies known so far. Using X-ray data from the soft X-ray band (e.g. Chandra, XMM-Newton, Suzaku/XIS) to the hard X-ray band (e.g. Suzaku/PIN, INTEGRAL, Swift) we determine the emission processes dominant between 0.5 keV and several 100 keV. In the case of M87 we report, for the first time, a detection in the 10-50 keV band. In most cases, the X-ray band of gamma-ray detected radio galaxies is produced in the inverse Compton branch, which can be seen in the fact that most have X-ray spectrum with a photon index <2.0 (i.e. a rising spectral energy distribution). Three different origins of the X-ray flux can be identified. The emission can be purely non-thermal and caused by the jet, as in the case of M 87, or thermal inverse Compton emission from the Seyfert type core (Cen A), or appears to be a superposition of non-thermal and thermal inverse Compton emission, as we observe in 3C 111. The iron fluorescence line Fe Kalpha is visible in the X-ray spectra of some, but not all radio galaxies. In three cases (OH-342, M87, and 3C 78) the X-ray emission is dominated by synchrotron processes, as indicated by X-ray photon indices >2.0. Gamma-ray bright radio galaxies host all kinds of AGN cores, Seyfert 1 and 2, BL Lacs, and also LINER, and can appear as FR-I and FR-II types. But the overall emission as seen in the spectral energy distribution can be modeled by a simple synchrotron self Compton model as typical for BL Lac objects, i.e. no additional strong photon field giving rise to an external Compton component is required. This indicates that the site of the gamma-ray emission is not exposed to a luminous broad line region or other dense photon field, as observed for example in FSRQ. Based on the number counts, it appears that within the Fermi/LAT data there are a dozen gamma-ray bright radio galaxies already detected but not yet identified as radio galaxies.

  9. Gamma-ray burst: probe of a black hole

    E-print Network

    W. Wang; Y. Zhao

    2001-11-03

    There is strong evidence for the existence of black holes(BHs) in some X-ray binaries and most galatic nuclei, based on different measuremental approaches, but black holes aren't finally identified for the lack of very firm observational evidence up to now. Because the direct evidence for BHs should come from determination of strong gravitational redshift, we hope an object can fall into the region near the BH horizon where radiation can be detected. Therefore the object must be compact stars as neutron stars(NSs), then the intense astrophysical processes will release very high energy radiation which is transient, fast-variant. These phenomena may point to gamma-ray bursts(GRBs) observed. And recent observations of iron lines suggest that afterglows of GRBs show the similar property in active galatic nuclei(AGNs), implying GRBs may originate from intense events related to black holes. In this letter, a model for GRBs and afterglows is proposed to obtain the range of gravitational redshifts($z_g$) of GRBs with known cosmological redshifts. Hence, we provide a new method that with a search for high-energy emission lines(X- or $\\gamma$-rays) in GRBs, one can determine the gravitational redshift. We expect $z_g>0.5$ or even larger, so that we can rule out the possibility of other compact objects such as NSs, suggesting that the central progenitors of GRBs should be black holes.

  10. Gamma-ray astronomy and the origin of cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1978-01-01

    New surveys of galactic gamma ray emission together with millimeter wave radio surveys indicated that cosmic rays were produced as the result of supernova explosions in our galaxy with the most intense production occurring in a Great Galactic Ring about 35,000 light years in diameter where supernova remnants and pulsars were concentrated.

  11. Gamma rays from pulsar wind shock acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.

    1990-01-01

    A shock forming in the wind of relativistic electron-positron pairs from a pulsar, as a result of confinement by surrounding material, could convert part of the pulsar spin-down luminosity to high energy particles through first order Fermi acceleration. High energy protons could be produced by this mechanism both in supernova remnants and in binary systems containing pulsars. The pion-decay gamma-rays resulting from interaction of accelerated protons with surrounding target material in such sources might be observable above 70 MeV with EGRET (Energetic Gamma-Ray Experimental Telescope) and above 100 GeV with ground-based detectors. Acceleration of protons and expected gamma-ray fluxes from SN1987A, Cyg X-3 type sources and binary pulsars are discussed.

  12. Gamma-Ray Imaging for Explosives Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deNolfo, G. A.; Hunter, S. D.; Barbier, L. M.; Link, J. T.; Son, S.; Floyd, S. R.; Guardala, N.; Skopec, M.; Stark, B.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a gamma-ray imaging camera (GIC) for active interrogation of explosives being developed by NASA/GSFC and NSWCICarderock. The GIC is based on the Three-dimensional Track Imager (3-DTI) technology developed at GSFC for gamma-ray astrophysics. The 3-DTI, a large volume time-projection chamber, provides accurate, approx.0.4 mm resolution, 3-D tracking of charged particles. The incident direction of gamma rays, E, > 6 MeV, are reconstructed from the momenta and energies of the electron-positron pair resulting from interactions in the 3-DTI volume. The optimization of the 3-DTI technology for this specific application and the performance of the GIC from laboratory tests is presented.

  13. Solar gamma rays and neutron observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chupp, E. L.; Forrest, D. J.; Suri, A. N.

    1972-01-01

    The present status of knowledge concerning the impulsive and the continuous emission of solar gamma rays and neutrons is reviewed in the light of the recent solar activity in early August 1972. The gamma ray spectrometer on OSO-7 has observed the sun continuously for most of the activity period except for occultation by the earth. In association with the 2B flare on 4 August 1972 and the 3B flare on 7 August 1972, the monitor provides evidence for solar gamma ray line emission in the energy range from 300 keV to 10 MeV. A summary of all the results available from preliminary analysis of the data will be given. Significant improvements in future experiments can be made with more sensitive instruments and more extensive time coverage of the sun.

  14. Mars Neutron/Gamma-ray Data Clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Carl

    2010-02-01

    Neutron detectors on spacecraft at Mars and the Moon were designed to look for signs of water; at Mars a gamma-ray spectrometer was used to measure elemental abundances but no such instrument was added to the current lunar probe. The goal of this research is to determine if there are correlations between neutron and gamma-ray data at Mars so as to be able to measure elemental abundances at the Moon. To achieve this goal I am using a clustering algorithm to group similar data between neutron and gamma-ray sets. So far for N clusters, usually chosen here to be between five and eight, the results have excellent repeatability between runs and shapes recognizable with the mars albedo map. )

  15. Gamma-ray events thunderclouds

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    balloon and aircraft observations have measured x-rays from thunderclouds (e.g. Eack et al. 1996; Eack et radiation is also produced by natural lightning during the stepped leader phase. ˇ Dwyer et al. 2003, 2004 found that x-rays are also produced by triggered lightning dart leaders. ˇ At present, the only viable

  16. Evidence for a Galactic gamma ray halo

    E-print Network

    D. D. Dixon; D. H. Hartmann; E. D. Kolaczyk; J. Samimi; R. Diehl; G. Kanbach; H. Mayer-Hasselwander; A. W. Strong

    1998-08-19

    We present quantitative statistical evidence for a $\\gamma$-ray emission halo surrounding the Galaxy. Maps of the emission are derived. EGRET data were analyzed in a wavelet-based non-parametric hypothesis testing framework, using a model of expected diffuse (Galactic + isotropic) emission as a null hypothesis. The results show a statistically significant large scale halo surrounding the center of the Milky Way as seen from Earth. The halo flux at high latitudes is somewhat smaller than the isotropic gamma-ray flux at the same energy, though of the same order (O(10^(-7)--10^(-6)) ph/cm^2/s/sr above 1 GeV).

  17. Gamma ray spectrometer for Lunar Scout 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, C. E.; Burt, W. W.; Edwards, B. C.; Martin, R. A.; Nakano, George H.; Reedy, R. C.

    1993-01-01

    We review the current status of the Los Alamos program to develop a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer for the Lunar Scout-II mission, which is the second of two Space Exploration Initiative robotic precursor missions to study the Moon. This instrument will measure gamma rays in the energy range of approximately 0.1 - 10 MeV to determine the composition of the lunar surface. The instrument is a high-purity germanium crystal surrounded by an CsI anticoincidence shield and cooled by a split Stirling cycle cryocooler. It will provide the abundance of many elements over the entire lunar surface.

  18. Gamma-Ray Burst observations with Fermi

    E-print Network

    Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Omodei, Nicola; Vianello, Giacomo; von Kienlin, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    After seven years of science operation, the Fermi mission has brought great advances in the study of Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs). Over 1600 GRBs have been detected by the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor, and more than 100 of these are also detected by the Large Area Telescope above 30 MeV. We will give an overview of these observations, presenting the common properties in the GRB temporal and spectral behavior at high energies. We will also highlight the unique characteristics of some individual bursts. The main physical implications of these results will be discussed, along with open questions regarding GRB modeling in their prompt and temporally-extended emission phases.

  19. Status of the Milagro Gamma Ray Observatory

    E-print Network

    R. Atkins; W. Benbow; D. Berley; M. -L. Chen; D. G. Coyne; R. S. Delay; B. L. Dingus; D. E. Dorfan; R. W. Ellsworth; D. Evans; A. Falcone; L. Fleysher; R. Fleysher; G. Gisler; J. A. Goodman; T. J. Haines; C. M. Hoffman; S. Hugenberger; L. A. Kelley; I. Leonor; J. Macri; M. McConnell; J. F. McCullough; J. E. McEnery; R. S. Miller; A. I. Mincer; M. F. Morales; P. Nemethy; J. M. Ryan; M. Schneider; B. Shen; A. Shoup; G. Sinnis; A. J. Smith; G. W. Sullivan; T. N. Thompson; O. T. Tumer; K. Wang; M. O. Wascko; S. Westerhoff; D. A. Williams; T. Yang; G. B. Yodh

    1999-06-24

    The Milagro Gamma Ray Observatory is the world's first large-area water Cherenkov detector capable of continuously monitoring the sky at TeV energies. Located in northern New Mexico, Milagro will perform an all sky survey of the Northern Hemisphere at energies between ~250 GeV and 50 TeV. With a high duty cycle, large detector area (~5000 square meters), and a wide field-of-view (~1 sr), Milagro is uniquely capable of searching for transient and DC sources of high-energy gamma-ray emission. Milagro has been operating since February, 1999. The current status of the Milagro Observatory and initial results will be discussed.

  20. Statistics of cosmological gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dermer, Charles D.

    1992-01-01

    A phenomenological model of gamma-ray burst spectra is used to calculate the statistics of gamma-ray bursts originating at cosmological distances. A model of bursters with no source evolution in a q sub 0 = 1/2 Friedmann cosmology is in accord with recent observations of the differential V/Vmax distribution. The data are best fit with an average peak-burst luminosity of (4 +/- 2) x 10 exp 51 ergs/s and a present-day source emissivity of 940 +/- 440 bursts/(10 exp 10 yr) cu Mpc. A spectral test of the cosmological hypothesis is proposed.

  1. Gamma-ray Burst Skymap Website

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-12-06

    The Gamma-ray Burst Skymap website automatically updates for each gamma-ray burst as it occurs, whether detected by Swift or other orbiting satellites. For each burst, the location on the sky, star map, constellation and detecting mission are generated automatically. It is then quickly updated by hand to include a written description of the burst properties and scientific significance, as observations continue. Note: In order to view the content of the website, users need to download and install Silverlight on their computers.

  2. Development of Compton gamma-ray sources at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, F.; Anderson, S. G.; Ebbers, C. A.; Gibson, D. J.; Hartemann, F. V.; Marsh, R. A.; Messerly, M. J.; Prantil, M. A.; Wu, S.; Barty, C. P. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, NIF and Photon Science, 7000 East avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2012-12-21

    Compact Compton scattering gamma-ray sources offer the potential of studying nuclear photonics with new tools. The optimization of such sources depends on the final application, but generally requires maximizing the spectral density (photons/eV) of the gamma-ray beam while simultaneously reducing the overall bandwidth on target to minimize noise. We have developed an advanced design for one such system, comprising the RF drive, photoinjector, accelerator, and electron-generating and electron-scattering laser systems. This system uses a 120 Hz, 250 pC, 2 ps, 0.35 mm mrad electron beam with 250 MeV maximum energy in an X-band accelerator scattering off a 150 mJ, 10 ps, 532 nm laser to generate 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} photons/eV/s/Sr at 0.5 MeV with an overall bandwidth of less than 1%. The source will be able to produce photons up to energies of 2.5 MeV. We also discuss Compton scattering gamma-ray source predictions given by numerical codes.

  3. Stirling Colgate and Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Donald

    2014-10-01

    Even before the discovery of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), Stirling Colgate proposed that bursts of x rays and gamma rays might be produced by a relativistic shock created in the supernova explosion of a massive star. We trace the scientific story of GRBs from their detection to the present, highlighting along the way Stirling's interest in them and his efforts to understand them. We summarize our current understanding that short, soft, repeating bursts are produced by magnetic neutron stars; short, hard bursts are produced by the mergers of neutron star-neutron star binaries; and long, hard bursts are produced by the core collapse of massive stars that have lost their hydrogen and helium envelopes. We then discuss some important open questions about GRBs and how they might be answered. We conclude by describing the recent serendipitous discovery of an x-ray burst of exactly the kind he proposed, and the insights into core collapse supernovae and GRBs that it provided.

  4. Ground-Based Gamma-Ray Astronomy

    E-print Network

    Michael Catanese

    1999-11-09

    Ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has become an active astrophysical discipline with four confirmed sources of TeV gamma rays, two plerionic supernova remnants (SNRs) and two BL Lac objects (BL Lacs). An additional nine objects (one plerion, three shell-type SNRs, one X-ray binary, and four BL Lacs) have been detected but have not been confirmed by independent detections. None of the galactic sources require the presence of hadronic cosmic rays, so definitive evidence of their origin remains elusive. Mrk 421 and Mrk 501 are weak EGRET sources but they exhibit extremely variable TeV emission with spectra that extend beyond 10 TeV. They also exhibit correlations with lower energy photons during multi-wavelength campaigns, providing tests of emission models. Next generation telescopes like VERITAS hold the promise of moving this field dramatically forward.

  5. EGRET Gamma-Ray Blazars: Luminosity Function and Contribution to the Extragalactic Gamma-Ray Background

    E-print Network

    R. Mukherjee; J. Chiang

    1999-01-30

    We describe the properties of the blazars detected by EGRET and summarize the results on the calculations of the evolution and luminosity function of these sources. Of the large number of possible origins of extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray emission, it has been postulated that active galaxies might be one of the most likely candidates. However, some of our recent analyses indicate that only 25 percent of the diffuse extragalactic emission measured by SAS-2 and EGRET can be attributed to unresolved gamma-ray blazars. Therefore, other sources of diffuse extragalactic gamma-ray emission must exist. We present a summary of these results in this article.

  6. Cosmic Ray and Tev Gamma Ray Generation by Quasar Remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boldt, Elihu; Loewenstein, Michael; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Results from new broadband (radio to X-ray) high-resolution imaging studies of the dormant quasar remnant cores of nearby giant elliptical galaxies are now shown to permit the harboring of compact dynamos capable of generating the highest energy cosmic ray particles and associated curvature radiation of TeV photons. Confirmation would imply a global inflow of interstellar gas all the way to the accretion powered supermassive black hole at the center of the host galaxy.

  7. Multichannel CdZnTe gamma ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doty, F. P.; Lingren, C. L.; Apotovsky, B. A.; Brunsch, J.; Butler, J. F.; Collins, T.; Conwell, R. L.; Friesenhahn, S.; Gormley, J.; Pi, B.; Zhao, S.; Augustine, F. L.; Bennett, B. A.; Cross, E.; James, R. B.

    1999-02-01

    A 3 cm 3 multichannel gamma spectrometer for DOE applications is under development by Digirad Corporation. The device is based on a position sensitive detector packaged in a compact multi-chip module (MCM) with integrated readout circuitry. The modular, multichannel design will enable identification and quantitative analysis of radionuclides in extended sources, or sources containing low levels of activity. The MCM approach has the advantages that the modules are designed for imaging applications, and the sensitivity can be arbitrarily increased by increasing the number of pixels, i.e. adding modules to the instrument. For a high sensitivity probe, the outputs for each pixel can be corrected for gain and offset variations, and summed digitally. Single pixel results obtained with discrete low noise readout indicate energy resolution of 3 keV can be approached with currently available CdZnTe. The energy resolution demonstrated to date with MCMs for 511 keV gamma rays is 10 keV.

  8. Prospects for Nuclear-gamma-ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, D. D.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis was made of prospects for gamma rays coming from two sources outside the solar system: (1) radioactive decay of fresh nuclear products to explosive nucleosynthesis, and (2) scattering of low energy cosmic rays. The former should be detectable and will provide a factual base for many suppositions about the site and history of nucleosynthesis. The latter may be detectable and, if so, will probably provide factual information about high-flux regions of cosmic radiation.

  9. Propagation of Cosmic Rays and Diffuse Galactic Gamma Rays

    E-print Network

    I. V. Moskalenko

    2004-10-08

    This paper presents an introduction to the astrophysics of cosmic rays and diffuse gamma rays and discusses some of the puzzles that have emerged recently due to more precise data and improved propagation models: the excesses in Galactic diffuse gamma-ray emission, secondary antiprotons and positrons, and the flatter than expected gradient of cosmic rays in the Galaxy. These also involve the dark matter, a challenge to modern physics, through its indirect searches in cosmic rays. Though the final solutions are yet to be found, I discuss some ideas and results obtained mostly with the numerical propagation model GALPROP. A fleet of spacecraft and balloon experiments targeting these specific issues is set to lift off in a few years, imparting a feeling of optimism that a new era of exciting discoveries is just around the corner. A complete and comprehensive discussion of all the recent results is not attempted here due to the space limitations.

  10. X-ray spectral properties of {gamma}-ray bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Strohmayer, T.E. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center; Fenimore, E.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Murakami, Toshio [ISAS, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Yoshida, Atsumasa [RIKEN, Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    The authors summarize the spectral characteristics of a sample of 22 bright gamma-ray bursts detected with the gamma-ray burst sensors aboard the satellite Ginga. This instrument employed a proportional and scintillation counter to provide sensitivity to photons in the 2--400 keV range, providing a unique opportunity to characterize the largely unexplored X-ray properties of gamma-ray bursts. The photon spectra of the Ginga bursts are well described by a low energy slope, a bend energy, and a high energy slope. In the energy range where they can be compared, this result is consistent with burst spectral analyses obtained from the BATSE experiment aboard the Compton Observatory. However, below 20 keV they find evidence for a positive spectral number index in approximately 40% of their burst sample, with some evidence for a strong rolloff at lower energies in a few events. They find that the distribution of spectral bend energies extends below 10 keV. The observed ratio of energy emitted in the X-rays relative to the gamma-rays can be much larger than a few percent and, in fact, is sometimes larger than unity. The average for their sample is 24%.

  11. Fission-fragment gamma-ray multiplicities

    SciTech Connect

    Hook, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    The gamma ray multiplicity (M{gamma}) of fission fragments is a valuable experimental clue to the physics of the fission process in particular and the dynamics of heavy-ion collisions in general. Apparatus for measuring M{gamma} as a function of mass asymmetry was constructed and commissioned. The apparatus consisted of a time-of-flight telescope with a time resolution for fission fragments of {approx}1.5 ns and a solid angle of some 0.04 strad. The telescope was constructed using a micro-channel plate start detector and a parallel plate avalanche counter as a stop detector. Gamma rays from the fragments were detected in an array of three 5{double prime} {times} 6{double prime} NaI(Tl) detectors placed approximately 55 cm from the target. When used in beam this apparatus provided sufficient mass resolution for the detected fission fragments and allowed excellent separation of the {gamma}-rays and neutrons from the reaction on the basis of their time-of-flight.

  12. Gamma-ray Output Spectra from 239Pu Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullmann, John

    2015-05-01

    Gamma-ray multiplicities, individual gamma-ray energy spectra, and total gamma energy spectra following neutron-induced fission of 239Pu were measured using the DANCE detector at Los Alamos. Corrections for detector response were made using a forward-modeling technique based on propagating sets of gamma rays generated from a paramaterized model through a GEANT model of the DANCE array and adjusting the parameters for best fit to the measured spectra. The results for the gamma-ray spectrum and multiplicity are in general agreement with previous results, but the measured total gamma-ray energy is about 10% higher. A dependence of the gamma-ray spectrum on the gamma-ray multplicity was also observed. Global model calculations of the multiplicity and gamma energy distributions are in good agreement with the data, but predict a slightly softer total-energy distribution.

  13. Diffusion of Cosmic-Rays and Gamma-Ray Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Cea del Pozo, E.; Torres, D. F.; Marrero, A. Y. Rodríguez

    It is commonly accepted that supernova remnants (SNR) are one of the most probable scenarios of leptonic and hadronic cosmic-ray (CR) acceleration. Such energetic CR can interact with interstellar gas to produce high-energy gamma rays, which can be detected through ground-based air Cherenkov detectors and space telescopes. Here we present a theoretical model that explains the high energy phenomenology of the neighborhood SNR IC 443, as observed with the Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov (MAGIC) telescope and the Energetic Gamma-ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET). We interpret MAGIC J0616 + 225 as delayed TeV emission of CR diffusing from IC 443, what naturally explains the displacement between EGRET and MAGIC sources.

  14. Gamma Ray Burst Detectives (Elementary School)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-04-28

    This interactive resource invites students to join NASA to find the source of gamma ray bursts, the single biggest explosions in the Universe since the Big Bang. The web site features an animation, information on three possible star sources, and a check yes or no for each star with feedback.

  15. Gamma Ray Burst Detectives (High School)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-04-26

    >This WPSU interactive resource invites students to join NASA to find the source of gamma ray bursts, the single biggest explosions in the Universe since the Big Bang by exploring three aspects of the death of stars: energy, duration, and variability.

  16. Observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meegan, C. A.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Observations of Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) remain one of the most baffling phenomena in astrophysics. This talk will summarize the observations of GRBs with particular emphasis on those that present the greatest difficulty for theoretical interpretation. These include the short and highly variable temporal structure, the hard non-thermal spectra, and the enormous total energy output.

  17. Gamma-Ray Bursts: progress, problems & prospects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bing Zhang; Peter Mészáros

    2004-01-01

    The cosmological gamma-ray burst (GRB) phenomenon is reviewed. The broad observational facts and empirical phenomenological relations of the GRB prompt emission and afterglow are outlined. A well-tested, successful fireball shock model is introduced in a pedagogical manner. Several important uncertainties in the current understanding of the phenomenon are reviewed, and prospects of how future experiments and extensive observational and theoretical

  18. Physics issues of gamma ray burst emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Edison

    1987-01-01

    The critical physics issues in the interpretation of gamma-ray-burst spectra are reviewed. An attempt is made to define the emission-region parameter space satisfying the maximum number of observational and theoretical constraints. Also discussed are the physical mechanisms responsible for the bursts that are most consistent with the above parameter space.

  19. Fitting and Updating Gamma-Ray Energies

    SciTech Connect

    Guimaraes-Filho, Zwinglio O.; Helene, Octaviano; Vanin, Vito R.; Maidana, Nora L. [Laboratorio do Acelerador Linear, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Travessa R 187, Cidade Universitaria, CEP: 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2005-05-24

    The procedure for obtaining the updated version of the recommended gamma-ray transition energies for detector calibration is described. The energies were recalculated to account for the 2002 CODATA Recommended Values of Fundamental Physical Constants. The re-evaluation methodology considered the statistical correlations and used the appropriate covariance matrices in all steps.

  20. Fitting and Updating Gamma-Ray Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimarăes-Filho, Zwinglio O.; Helene, Octaviano; Vanin, Vito R.; Maidana, Nora L.

    2005-05-01

    The procedure for obtaining the updated version of the recommended gamma-ray transition energies for detector calibration is described. The energies were recalculated to account for the 2002 CODATA Recommended Values of Fundamental Physical Constants. The re-evaluation methodology considered the statistical correlations and used the appropriate covariance matrices in all steps.

  1. GAMMA RAY IMAGING FOR ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research is a three year development program to apply high resolution gamma-ray imaging technologies to environmental remediation of radioactive hazards. High resolution, position-sensitive germanium detectors are being developed at the Naval Research Laboratory for space app...

  2. Cascade model of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturrock, P. A.; Harding, A. K.; Daugherty, J. K.

    1989-01-01

    If, in a neutron star magnetosphere, an electron is accelerated to an energy of 10 to the 11th or 12th power eV by an electric field parallel to the magnetic field, motion of the electron along the curved field line leads to a cascade of gamma rays and electron-positron pairs. This process is believed to occur in radio pulsars and gamma ray burst sources. Results are presented from numerical simulations of the radiation and photon annihilation pair production processes, using a computer code previously developed for the study of radio pulsars. A range of values of initial energy of a primary electron was considered along with initial injection position, and magnetic dipole moment of the neutron star. The resulting spectra was found to exhibit complex forms that are typically power law over a substantial range of photon energy, and typically include a dip in the spectrum near the electron gyro-frequency at the injection point. The results of a number of models are compared with data for the 5 Mar., 1979 gamma ray burst. A good fit was found to the gamma ray part of the spectrum, including the equivalent width of the annihilation line.

  3. The Supernova Gamma-Ray Burst Connection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stan Woosley; A. Heger

    2006-01-01

    The chief distinction between ordinary supernovae and long-soft gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is the degree of differential rotation in the inner several solar masses when a massive star dies, and GRBs are rare mainly because of the difficulty achieving the necessary high rotation rate. Models that do provide the necessary angular momentum are discussed, with emphasis on a new single star

  4. Neutron production in terrestrial gamma ray flashes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. E. Carlson; N. G. Lehtinen

    2010-01-01

    Terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) are brief bursts of photons with energies up to 20 MeV typically observed in association with lightning. Such energetic photons may undergo photonuclear reactions with nontrivial cross section in the vicinity of the giant dipole resonance. Pulses of neutrons have been observed experimentally in coincidence with lightning, suggesting such reactions are observable. We present simulations

  5. Cascade model of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturrock, P. A.; Harding, A. K.; Daugherty, J. K.

    1989-11-01

    If, in a neutron star magnetosphere, an electron is accelerated to an energy of 10 to the 11th or 12th power eV by an electric field parallel to the magnetic field, motion of the electron along the curved field line leads to a cascade of gamma rays and electron-positron pairs. This process is believed to occur in radio pulsars and gamma ray burst sources. Results are presented from numerical simulations of the radiation and photon annihilation pair production processes, using a computer code previously developed for the study of radio pulsars. A range of values of initial energy of a primary electron was considered along with initial injection position, and magnetic dipole moment of the neutron star. The resulting spectra was found to exhibit complex forms that are typically power law over a substantial range of photon energy, and typically include a dip in the spectrum near the electron gyro-frequency at the injection point. The results of a number of models are compared with data for the 5 Mar., 1979 gamma ray burst. A good fit was found to the gamma ray part of the spectrum, including the equivalent width of the annihilation line.

  6. Gamma-Ray Telescope and Uncertainty Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shivalingaswamy, T.; Kagali, B. A.

    2012-01-01

    Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle is one of the important basic principles of quantum mechanics. In most of the books on quantum mechanics, this uncertainty principle is generally illustrated with the help of a gamma ray microscope, wherein neither the image formation criterion nor the lens properties are taken into account. Thus a better…

  7. Nuclear isomer suitable for gamma ray laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jha, S.

    1979-01-01

    The operation of gamma ray lasers (gasers) are studied. It is assumed that the nuclear isomers mentioned in previously published papers have inherent limitations. It is further assumed that the judicious use of Bormann effect or the application of the total external reflection of low energy gamma radiation at grazing angle of incidence may permit the use of a gaser crystal sufficiently long to achieve observable stimulated emission. It is suggested that a long lived 0(+) isomer decaying by low energy gamma ray emission to a short lived 2(+) excited nuclear state would be an attractive gaser candidate. It is also suggested that the nuclear isomer be incorporated in a matrix of refractory material having an electrostatic field gradient whose principal axis lies along the length of the medium. This results in the preferential transmission of electric quadrupole radiation along the length of the medium.

  8. SUB-LUMINOUS {gamma}-RAY PULSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Romani, R. W.; Kerr, M.; Craig, H. A. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Johnston, S. [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Cognard, I. [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie de l'Environnement, LPCE UMR 6115 CNRS, 45071 Orleans Cedex 02 (France); Smith, D. A., E-mail: rwr@astro.stanford.edu [Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Universite Bordeaux 1, CNRS/IN2p3, 33175 Gradignan (France)

    2011-09-01

    Most pulsars observed by the Fermi Large Area Telescope have {gamma}-ray luminosities scaling with spin-down power E-dot as L{sub {gamma}}{approx}(E-dot x 10{sup 33} erg s{sup -1}){sup 1/2}. However, there exist one detection and several upper limits an order of magnitude or more fainter than this trend. We describe these 'sub-luminous' {gamma}-ray pulsars and discuss the case for this being an orientation effect. Of the 12 known young radio pulsars with E-dot >10{sup 34} erg s{sup -1} and d {<=} 2 kpc several are substantially sub-luminous. The limited available geometrical constraints favor aligned geometries for these pulsars, although no one case for alignment is compelling. In this scenario GeV emission detected from such sub-luminous pulsars can be due to a lower altitude, lower-power accelerator gap.

  9. Gamma Ray Telescope Senses High-Energy Radiation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WNET

    2011-11-02

    This video from NASA describes the GLAST satellite, which is equipped with a gamma-ray telescope, and shares some background about the kinds of extreme universal phenomena indicated by the presence of gamma rays.

  10. Compact survey of X-ray astronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Gursky, H.

    1983-01-01

    The development of X-ray astronomy began in 1962. At that time the sun was known to be a strong and variable X-ray source and the general features of the radio sky were known. The first significant cosmic X-ray results were obtained from an Aerobee sounding rocket flown on June 12, 1962. The first small satellite dedicated to X-ray astronomy was SAS-1, renamed Uhuru. The results from this satellite firmly established X-ray astronomy as a substantial discipline. A number of strong galactic sources were found to be pulsing in X-rays with short periods. A number of other small satellites, American and European, were launched in the years following the launch of Uhuru. The latest stage of X-ray astronomy began with HEAO-B, renamed The Einstein Observatory after its launch. An X-ray focussing optics was used to produce genuine images of fields in the sky. Attention is given to the characteristics of neutron stars, common stars, clusters of galaxies, the diffuse X-ray background, and future prospects. 14 references.

  11. Gamma-ray-burst beaming and gravitational-wave observations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsin-Yu; Holz, Daniel E

    2013-11-01

    Using the observed rate of short-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) it is possible to make predictions for the detectable rate of compact binary coalescences in gravitational-wave detectors. We show that the nondetection of mergers in the existing LIGO/Virgo data constrains the beaming angles and progenitor masses of gamma-ray bursts, although these limits are fully consistent with existing expectations. We make predictions for the rate of events in future networks of gravitational-wave observatories, finding that the first detection of a neutron-star-neutron-star binary coalescence associated with the progenitors of short GRBs is likely to happen within the first 16 months of observation, even in the case of only two observatories (e.g., LIGO-Hanford and LIGO-Livingston) operating at intermediate sensitivities (e.g., advanced LIGO design sensitivity, but without signal recycling mirrors), and assuming a conservative distribution of beaming angles (e.g., all GRBs beamed within ?(j) = 30°). Less conservative assumptions reduce the waiting time until first detection to a period of weeks to months, with an event detection rate of >/~10/yr. Alternatively, the compact binary coalescence model of short GRBs can be ruled out if a binary is not seen within the first two years of operation of a LIGO-Hanford, LIGO-Livingston, and Virgo network at advanced design sensitivity. We also demonstrate that the gravitational wave detection rate of GRB triggered sources (i.e., those seen first in gamma rays) is lower than the rate of untriggered events (i.e., those seen only in gravitational waves) if ?(j)?30°, independent of the noise curve, network configuration, and observed GRB rate. The first detection in gravitational waves of a binary GRB progenitor is therefore unlikely to be associated with the observation of a GRB. PMID:24237502

  12. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of Gamma-Ray Bursts with the Transient Gamma-Ray Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurczynski, P.; Palmer, D.; Seifert, H.; Teegarden, B. J.; Gehrels, N.; Cline, T. L.; Ramaty, R.; Hurley, K.; Madden, N. W.; Pehl, R. H.

    2000-11-01

    A search for spectral lines in gamma-ray bursts detected with the Transient Gamma-Ray Spectrometer has been unable to confirm their existence. The spectrometer, aboard the Wind spacecraft, has detected gamma-ray bursts and other transients since 1995. We have performed a systematic search for narrow spectral lines in gamma-ray bursts detected with this instrument that augments and extends the results of a similar search of bursts detected with BATSE. This search procedure tests for statistically significant lines at all possible times and durations during a burst using the method of maximum likelihood and C-statistic. Simulations demonstrated the effectiveness of this procedure, particularly on Poisson distributed data, for distinguishing real features from statistical fluctuations. The most promising line candidates were consistent with chance fluctuations, given the large number of spectra searched.

  13. Gamma ray lines from the Galactic Center and gamma ray transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.; Leiter, D.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The observations and interpretations of cosmic (nonsolar) gamma ray lines are discussed. The most prominent of these lines is the e(+)e(-) annihilation line which was observed from the Galactic Center and from several gamma ray transients. At the Galactic Center the e(+)e(-) pairs are probably produced by an accreting massive black hole (solar mass of approximately one million) and annihilate within the central light year to produce a line at almost exactly 0.511 MeV. In gamma ray transients the annihilation line is redshifted by factors consistent with neutron star surface redshifts. Other observed transient gamma ray lines appear to be due to cyclotron absorption in the strong magnetic fields of neutron stars, and nuclear deexcitations and neutron capture, which could also occur on or around these objects.

  14. Conservative constraints on dark matter annihilation into gamma rays

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, Gregory D.; Yueksel, Hasan [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Jacques, Thomas D.; Bell, Nicole F. [School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Beacom, John F. [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2008-09-15

    Using gamma-ray data from observations of the Milky Way, Andromeda (M31), and the cosmic background, we calculate conservative upper limits on the dark matter self-annihilation cross section to monoenergetic gamma rays, <{sigma}{sub A}v>{sub {gamma}}{sub {gamma}}, over a wide range of dark matter masses. (In fact, over most of this range, our results are unchanged if one considers just the branching ratio to gamma rays with energies within a factor of a few of the endpoint at the dark matter mass.) If the final-state branching ratio to gamma rays, Br({gamma}{gamma}), were known, then <{sigma}{sub A}v>{sub {gamma}}{sub {gamma}}/Br({gamma}{gamma}) would define an upper limit on the total cross section; we conservatively assume Br({gamma}{gamma}) > or approx. 10{sup -4}. An upper limit on the total cross section can also be derived by considering the appearance rates of any standard model particles; in practice, this limit is defined by neutrinos, which are the least detectable. For intermediate dark matter masses, gamma-ray-based and neutrino-based upper limits on the total cross section are comparable, while the gamma-ray limit is stronger for small masses and the neutrino limit is stronger for large masses. We comment on how these results depend on the assumptions about astrophysical inputs and annihilation final states, and how GLAST and other gamma-ray experiments can improve upon them.

  15. Conservative Constraints on Dark Matter Annihilation into Gamma Rays

    E-print Network

    Gregory D. Mack; Thomas D. Jacques; John F. Beacom; Nicole F. Bell; Hasan Yuksel

    2008-09-06

    Using gamma-ray data from observations of the Milky Way, Andromeda (M31), and the cosmic background, we calculate conservative upper limits on the dark matter self-annihilation cross section to monoenergetic gamma rays, _{gamma gamma}, over a wide range of dark matter masses. (In fact, over most of this range, our results are unchanged if one considers just the branching ratio to gamma rays with energies within a factor of a few of the endpoint at the dark matter mass.) If the final-state branching ratio to gamma rays, Br(gamma gamma), were known, then _{gamma gamma} / Br(gamma gamma) would define an upper limit on the total cross section; we conservatively assume Br(gamma gamma) > 10^{-4}. An upper limit on the total cross section can also be derived by considering the appearance rates of any Standard Model particles; in practice, this limit is defined by neutrinos, which are the least detectable. For intermediate dark matter masses, gamma-ray-based and neutrino-based upper limits on the total cross section are comparable, while the gamma-ray limit is stronger for small masses and the neutrino limit is stronger for large masses. We comment on how these results depend on the assumptions about astrophysical inputs and annihilation final states, and how GLAST and other gamma-ray experiments can improve upon them.

  16. Miniaturization in x ray and gamma ray spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Wang, Yuzhong J.; Bradley, James G.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents advances in two new sensor technologies and a miniaturized associated electronics technology which, when combined, can allow for very significant miniaturization and for the reduction of weight and power consumption in x-ray and gamma-ray spectroscopy systems: (1) Mercuric iodide (HgI2) x-ray technology, which allows for the first time the construction of truly portable, high-energy resolution, non-cryogenic x-ray fluorescence (XRF) elemental analyzer systems, with parameters approaching those of laboratory quality cryogenic instruments; (2) the silicon avalanche photodiode (APD), which is a solid-state light sensitive device with internal amplification, capable of uniquely replacing the vacuum photomultiplier tube in scintillation gamma-ray spectrometer applications, and offering substantial improvements in size, ruggedness, low power operation and energy resolution; and (3) miniaturized (hybridized) low noise, low power amplification and processing electronics, which take full advantage of the favorable properties of these new sensors and allow for the design and fabrication of advanced, highly miniaturized x-ray and gamma-ray spectroscopy systems. The paper also presents experimental results and examples of spectrometric systems currently under construction. The directions for future developments are discussed.

  17. Fermi Gamma-Ray Imaging of a Radio Galaxy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Abdo; M. Ackermann; M. Ajello; W. B. Atwood; L. Baldini; J. Ballet; G. Barbiellini; D. Bastieri; B. M. Baughman; K. Bechtol; R. Bellazzini; B. Berenji; R. D. Blandford; E. D. Bloom; E. Bonamente; A. W. Borgland; J. Bregeon; A. Brez; M. Brigida; P. Bruel; T. H. Burnett; S. Buson; G. A. Caliandro; R. A. Cameron; P. A. Caraveo; J. M. Casandjian; E. Cavazzuti; C. Cecchi; Ö. Çelik; A. Chekhtman; C. C. Cheung; J. Chiang; S. Ciprini; R. Claus; J. Cohen-Tanugi; S. Colafrancesco; L. R. Cominsky; J. Conrad; L. Costamante; S. Cutini; D. S. Davis; C. D. Dermer; A. de Angelis; F. de Palma; S. W. Digel; E. do Couto e Silva; P. S. Drell; R. Dubois; D. Dumora; C. Farnier; C. Favuzzi; S. J. Fegan; J. Finke; W. B. Focke; P. Fortin; Y. Fukazawa; S. Funk; P. Fusco; F. Gargano; D. Gasparrini; N. Gehrels; M. Georganopoulos; S. Germani; B. Giebels; N. Giglietto; F. Giordano; M. Giroletti; T. Glanzman; G. Godfrey; I. A. Grenier; J. E. Grove; L. Guillemot; S. Guiriec; Y. Hanabata; A. K. Harding; M. Hayashida; E. Hays; R. E. Hughes; M. S. Jackson; Jóhannesson G; S. Johnson; T. J. Johnson; W. N. Johnson; T. Kamae; H. Katagiri; J. Kataoka; N. Kawai; M. Kerr; J. Knödlseder; M. L. Kocian; M. Kuss; J. Lande; L. Latronico; M. Lemoine-Goumard; F. Loparco; B. Lott; M. N. Lovellette; P. Lubrano; G. M. Madejski; A. Makeev; M. N. Mazziotta; W. McConville; J. E. McEnery; C. Meurer; P. F. Michelson; W. Mitthumsiri; T. Mizuno; A. A. Moiseev; C. Monte; M. E. Monzani; A. Morselli; I. V. Moskalenko; S. Murgia; P. L. Nolan; J. P. Norris; E. Nuss; T. Ohsugi; N. Omodei; E. Orlando; J. F. Ormes; D. Paneque; D. Parent; V. Pelassa; M. Pesce-Rollins; F. Piron; T. A. Porter; S. Rainň; R. Rando; M. Razzano; S. Razzaque; A. Reimer; O. Reimer; T. Reposeur; S. Ritz; L. S. Rochester; A. Y. Rodriguez; R. W. Romani; M. Roth; F. Ryde; H. F.-W. Sadrozinski; R. Sambruna; D. Sanchez; A. Sander; P. M. Saz Parkinson; J. D. Scargle; C. Sgrň; J. Siskind; D. A. Smith; P. D. Smith; G. Spandre; P. Spinelli; J.-L. Starck; L. Stawarz; M. S. Strickman; D. J. Suson; H. Takahashi; T. Takahashi; T. Tanaka; J. B. Thayer; J. G. Thayer; D. J. Thompson; L. Tibaldo; D. F. Torres; G. Tosti; A. Tramacere; Y. Usher Uchiyama T. L; V. Vasileiou; N. Vilchez; V. Vitale; A. P. Waite; E. Wallace; P. Wang; B. L. Winer; K. S. Wood; T. Ylinen; M. Ziegler; M. J. Hardcastle; D. Kazanas

    2010-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has detected the gamma-ray glow emanating from the giant radio lobes of the radio galaxy Centaurus A. The resolved gamma-ray image shows the lobes clearly separated from the central active source. In contrast to all other active galaxies detected so far in high-energy gamma-rays, the lobe flux constitutes a considerable portion (greater than one-half) of

  18. Simultaneous optical/gamma-ray observations of GRBs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greiner, J.; Wenzel, W.; Hudec, R.; Moskalenko, E. I.; Metlov, V.; Chernych, N. S.; Getman, V. S.; Ziener, Rainer; Birkle, K.; Bade, N.

    1994-01-01

    Details on the project to search for serendipitous time correlated optical photographic observations of Gamma Ray Bursters (GRB's) are presented. The ongoing photographic observations at nine observatories are used to look for plates which were exposed simultaneously with a gamma ray burst detected by the gamma ray instrument team (BATSE) and contain the burst position. The results for the first two years of the gamma ray instrument team operation are presented.

  19. Gamma ray constraints on the Galactic supernova rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, D.; The, L.-S.; Clayton, Donald D.; Leising, M.; Mathews, G.; Woosley, S. E.

    1991-01-01

    We perform Monte Carlo simulations of the expected gamma ray signatures of Galactic supernovae of all types to estimate the significance of the lack of a gamma ray signal due to supernovae occurring during the last millenium. Using recent estimates of the nuclear yields, we determine mean Galactic supernova rates consistent with the historic supernova record and the gamma ray limits. Another objective of these calculations of Galactic supernova histories is their application to surveys of diffuse Galactic gamma ray line emission.

  20. Gamma ray bursts of black hole universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, T. X.

    2015-07-01

    Slightly modifying the standard big bang theory, Zhang recently developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe, which has only a single postulate but is consistent with Mach's principle, governed by Einstein's general theory of relativity, and able to explain existing observations of the universe. In the previous studies, we have explained the origin, structure, evolution, expansion, cosmic microwave background radiation, quasar, and acceleration of black hole universe, which grew from a star-like black hole with several solar masses through a supermassive black hole with billions of solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillions of solar masses by accreting ambient matter and merging with other black holes. This study investigates gamma ray bursts of black hole universe and provides an alternative explanation for the energy and spectrum measurements of gamma ray bursts according to the black hole universe model. The results indicate that gamma ray bursts can be understood as emissions of dynamic star-like black holes. A black hole, when it accretes its star or merges with another black hole, becomes dynamic. A dynamic black hole has a broken event horizon and thus cannot hold the inside hot (or high-frequency) blackbody radiation, which flows or leaks out and produces a GRB. A star when it collapses into its core black hole produces a long GRB and releases the gravitational potential energy of the star as gamma rays. A black hole that merges with another black hole produces a short GRB and releases a part of their blackbody radiation as gamma rays. The amount of energy obtained from the emissions of dynamic star-like black holes are consistent with the measurements of energy from GRBs. The GRB energy spectra derived from this new emission mechanism are also consistent with the measurements.

  1. Research on CdZnTe and Other Novel Room Temperature Gamma Ray Spectrometer Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold Burger; Michael gGoza; Yunlong Cui; Utpal N. Roy; M. Guo

    2007-05-05

    Room temperature gamma-ray spectrometers are being developed for a number of years for national security applications where high sensitivity, low operating power and compactness are indispensable. The technology has matured now to the point where large volume (several cubic centimeters) and high energy resolution (approximately 1% at 660 eV) of gamma photons, are becoming available for their incorporation into portable systems for remote sensing of signatures from nuclear materials.

  2. Physical constraints on models of gamma-ray bursters

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, R.I.

    1985-01-01

    This report deals with the constraints that can be placed on models of gamma-ray burst sources based on only the well-established observational facts and physical principles. The premise is developed that the very hard x-ray and gamma-ray continua spectra are well-established aspects of gamma-ray bursts. Recent theoretical work on gamma-ray bursts are summarized with emphasis on the geometrical properties of the models. Constraints on the source models which are implied by the x-ray and gamma-ray spectra are described. The allowed ranges for the luminosity and characteristic dimension for gamma-ray burst sources are shown. Some of the deductions and inferences about the nature of the gamma-ray burst sources are summarized. 67 refs., 3 figs.

  3. HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA-RAY AFTERGLOWS FROM LOW-LUMINOSITY GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    He Haoning; Wang Xiangyu; Yu Yunwei [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Meszaros, Peter [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2009-12-01

    The observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) such as 980425, 031203 and 060218, with luminosities much lower than those of other classic bursts, lead to the definition of a new class of GRBs-LL-GRBs. The nature of the outflow responsible for them is not yet clear. Two scenarios have been suggested: one is the conventional relativistic outflow with initial Lorentz factor of order of GAMMA{sub 0} approx> 10 and the other is a trans-relativistic outflow with GAMMA{sub 0} approx = 1-2. Here, we compare the high-energy gamma-ray afterglow emission from these two different models, taking into account both synchrotron self-inverse Compton (SSC) scattering and the external inverse Compton scattering due to photons from the cooling supernova or hypernova envelope (SNIC). We find that the conventional relativistic outflow model predicts a relatively high gamma-ray flux from SSC at early times (<10{sup 4} s for typical parameters) with a rapidly decaying light curve, while in the trans-relativistic outflow model, one would expect a much flatter light curve of high-energy gamma-ray emission at early times, which could be dominated by both the SSC emission and the SNIC emission, depending on the properties of the underlying supernova and the shock parameter epsilon{sub e} and epsilon{sub B}. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope should be able to distinguish between the two models in the future.

  4. The future of high energy gamma ray astronomy and its potential astrophysical implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C. E.

    1982-01-01

    Future satellites should carry instruments having over an order of magnitude greater sensitivity than those flown thus far as well as improved energy and angular resolution. The information to be obtained from these experiments should greatly enhance knowledge of: the very energetic and nuclear processes associated with compact objects; the structure of our galaxy; the origin and dynamic pressure effects of the cosmic rays; the high energy particles and energetic processes in other galaxies; and the degree of matter-antimatter symmetry of the universe. The relevant aspects of extragalactic gamma ray phenomena are emphasized along with the instruments planned. The high energy gamma ray results of forthcoming programs such as GAMMA-1 and the Gamma Ray Observatory should justify even more sophisticated telescopes. These advanced instruments might be placed on the space station currently being considered by NASA.

  5. Diagnosing ICF gamma-ray physics

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, Hans W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kim, Y H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Evoy, A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Young, C S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mack, J M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hoffman, N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wilson, D C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Langenbrunner, J R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Evans, S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sedillo, T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batha, S H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dauffy, L [LLNL; Stoeffl, W [LLNL; Malone, R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kaufman, M I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cox, B C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tunnel, T W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Miller, E K [NSTEC/SB; Ali, Z A [NSREC/LIVERMORE; Horsfield, C J [AWE; Rubery, M [AWE

    2010-01-01

    Gamma rays produced in an ICF environment open up a host of physics opportunities we are just beginning to explore. A branch of the DT fusion reaction, with a branching ratio on the order of 2e-5 {gamma}/n, produces 16.7 MeV {gamma}-rays. These {gamma}-rays provide a direct measure of fusion reaction rate (unlike x-rays) without being compromised by Doppler spreading (unlike neutrons). Reaction-rate history measurements, such as nuclear bang time and burn width, are fundamental quantities that will be used to optimize ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Gas Cherenkov Detectors (GCD) that convert fusion {gamma}-rays to UV/visible Cherenkov photons for collection by fast optical recording systems established their usefulness in illuminating ICF physics in several experimental campaigns at OMEGA. Demonstrated absolute timing calibrations allow bang time measurements with accuracy better than 30 ps. System impulse response better than 95 ps fwhm have been made possible by the combination of low temporal dispersion GCDs, ultra-fast microchannel-plate photomultiplier tubes (PMT), and high-bandwidth Mach Zehnder fiber optic data links and digitizers, resulting in burn width measurement accuracy better than 10ps. Inherent variable energy-thresholding capability allows use of GCDs as {gamma}-ray spectrometers to explore other interesting nuclear processes. Recent measurements of the 4.44 MeV {sup 12}C(n,n{prime}) {gamma}-rays produced as 14.1 MeV DT fusion neutrons pass through plastic capsules is paving the way for a new CH ablator areal density measurement. Insertion of various neutron target materials near target chamber center (TCC) producing secondary, neutron-induced {gamma}y-rays are being used to study other nuclear interactions and as in-situ sources to calibrate detector response and DT branching ratio. NIF Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostics, based on the GCD concept, are now being developed based on optimization of sensitivity, bandwidth, dynamic range, cost, and NIF-specific logistics, requirements and extreme radiation environment. Implementation will occur in two phases: (1) four PMT-based channels mounted to the outside of the target chamber at {approx}6m from TCC (GRH-6m) for the 3e13-3e16 DT neutron yield range expected during the early ignition-tuning campaigns; and (2) several channels located just inside the target bay shield wall at 15 m from TCC (GRH-15m) with optical paths leading through the cement shield wall to well-shielded streak cameras and PMTs for the 1e16-1e20 yield range expected during the DT ignition campaign. Multiple channels at each phase will allow for increased redundancy, reliability, accuracy and flexibility. This suite of diagnostics will make possible exploration of interesting {gamma}-ray physics well beyond the ignition campaign.

  6. Very High Energy Gamma Ray Astronomy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Jordan

    2008-04-01

    In the last decade the number of detected TeV gamma ray sources has gone up by more than an order of magnitude. This is due to the increased sensitivity of the current generation of telescopes. Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes such as HESS, Magic and VERITAS have exploited their high sensitivity and excellent angular resolution to discovered and map new classes of galactic gamma ray sources while continuing to discover and monitor extra-galactic AGN. In addition, Milagro, using water Cherenkov technology, has used its large field of view and continuous exposure to observe large scale diffuse emission from the Galactic plane and extended sources. In addition it has detected galactic sources with flat spectra extending beyond 100 TeV. The combination of these techniques are giving us a new view of the TeV sky and providing tantalizing evidence of the sources of Galactic cosmic rays. This talk will review recent results and discuss prospects for future detectors.

  7. SuperAGILE and Gamma Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Pacciani, Luigi; Costa, Enrico; Del Monte, Ettore; Donnarumma, Immacolata; Evangelista, Yuri; Feroci, Marco; Frutti, Massimo; Lazzarotto, Francesco; Lapshov, Igor; Rubini, Alda; Soffitta, Paolo; Tavani, Marco [IASF-INAF Rome (Italy); Barbiellini, Guido [INFN Trieste (Italy); Mastropietro, Marcello [CNR Montelibretti (Italy); Morelli, Ennio [IASF-INAF-Bologna (Italy); Rapisarda, Massimo [ENEA Frascati (Italy)

    2006-05-19

    The solid-state hard X-ray imager of AGILE gamma-ray mission -- SuperAGILE -- has a six arcmin on-axis angular resolution in the 15-45 keV range, a field of view in excess of 1 steradian. The instrument is very light: 5 kg only. It is equipped with an on-board self triggering logic, image deconvolution, and it is able to transmit the coordinates of a GRB to the ground in real-time through the ORBCOMM constellation of satellites. Photon by photon Scientific Data are sent to the Malindi ground station at every contact. In this paper we review the performance of the SuperAGILE experiment (scheduled for a launch in the middle of 2006), after its first onground calibrations, and show the perspectives for Gamma Ray Bursts.

  8. The Nature of Plerions Surrounding Soft Gamma-Ray Repeaters

    E-print Network

    Alice K. Harding

    1995-06-28

    Compact steady sources of X-ray emission have been detected at the positions of at least two soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs). These sources have been interpreted as synchrotron nebulae powered by the neutron star that is causing the bursts. We explore a plerion model for the sources surrounding SGRs where the steady observed emission is powered by the SGR bursts rather than by the spin-down of a pulsar. In this case there is no limit on the neutron star magnetic field. We find that the synchrotron lifetime of the particles injected into the plerion around SGR1806-20 is long enough to smear out nebular emission from individual bursts. Transient nebular emission would therefore not be detected following an SGR burst. The combined radio emission from multiple burst injections is expected to have a steeper spectrum than that of a typical plerion.

  9. Gamma Rays to Blame for Mass Extinction Brandon Lohman

    E-print Network

    Wysin, Gary

    Abstract: Gamma Rays to Blame for Mass Extinction Brandon Lohman Abstract: A new hypothesis triggered by cosmic events. A high intensity gamma ray burst directed toward Earth may have irradiated our, evolutionary patterns, and geological evidence tend to support a hypothesis that a gamma-ray burst may have

  10. Gamma-ray Sky Observed with Fermi Large Area Telescope

    E-print Network

    Yamamoto, Hirosuke

    Gamma-ray Sky Observed with Fermi Large Area Telescope RESCEU Symposium on Astroparticle Physics) Measure the photon direction Identification of the gamma-ray shower 36 planes of Si strip detectors (228 m) Calorimeter(CAL) Measure the photon energy Image the gamma-ray shower CsI(Tl) crystals in 8 layers. Anticoinc

  11. Results from the Milagro Gamma-Ray Observatory

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Results from the Milagro Gamma-Ray Observatory E. Blaufuss for the Milagro Collaboration a,1 , aUniversity of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA Abstract The Milagro Gamma-Ray Observatory, located at an altitude The Milagro Detector The Milagro Gamma-Ray Observatory is located in the Jemez Mountains just outside of Los

  12. Fiber fed x-ray/gamma ray imaging apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hailey, C.J.; Ziock, K.P.

    1992-06-02

    X-ray/gamma ray imaging apparatus is disclosed for detecting the position, energy, and intensity of x-ray/gamma ray radiation comprising scintillation means disposed in the path of such radiation and capable of generating photons in response to such radiation; first photodetection means optically bonded to the scintillation means and capable of generating an electrical signal indicative of the intensity, and energy of the radiation detected by the scintillation means; second photodetection means capable of generating an electrical signal indicative of the position of the radiation in the radiation pattern; and means for optically coupling the scintillation means to the second photodetection means. The photodetection means are electrically connected to control and storage means which may also be used to screen out noise by rejecting a signal from one photodetection means not synchronized to a signal from the other photodetection means; and also to screen out signals from scattered radiation. 6 figs.

  13. Gamma-Ray Spectra due to Cosmic-Ray Interactions with Dense Gas Clouds 1

    E-print Network

    Mori, Masaki

    Gamma-Ray Spectra due to Cosmic-Ray Interactions with Dense Gas Clouds 1 Michiko Ohishi, Masaki Telescope National Facility, CSIRO, Australia Abstract. Gamma-ray spectra from cosmic-ray proton, and the resulting gamma-ray spectra are computed as a function of cloud column-density. These calculations are used

  14. RADIO/GAMMA-RAY TIME DELAY IN THE PARSEC-SCALE CORES OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Pushkarev, A. B.; Kovalev, Y. Y. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Lister, M. L., E-mail: apushkar@mpifr.d, E-mail: yyk@asc.rssi.r, E-mail: mlister@purdue.ed [Department of Physics, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2010-10-10

    We report the detection of a non-zero time delay between radio emission measured by the VLBA at 15.4 GHz and {gamma}-ray radiation ({gamma}-ray leads radio) registered by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope for a sample of 183 radio and {gamma}-ray bright active galactic nuclei. For the correlation analysis, we used 0.1-100 GeV {gamma}-ray photon fluxes, taken from monthly binned measurements from the first Fermi LAT catalog, and 15.4 GHz radio flux densities from the MOJAVE VLBA program. The correlation is most pronounced if the core flux density is used, strongly indicating that the {gamma}-ray emission is generated within the compact region of the 15 GHz VLBA core. Determining the Pearson's r and Kendall's {tau} correlation coefficients for different time lags, we find that for the majority of sources the radio/{gamma}-ray delay ranges from 1 to 8 months in the observer's frame and peaks at approximately 1.2 months in the source's frame. We interpret the primary source of the time delay to be synchrotron opacity in the nuclear region.

  15. A model of the diffuse galactic gamma ray emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sreekumar, Parameswaran

    1990-01-01

    The galaxy was observed to be a source of high energy gamma rays as shown by the two successful satellite experiments, SAS-2 and COS-B. It is generally understood that these diffuse gamma rays result from interactions between energetic cosmic rays and interstellar gas. This work makes use of the most recent data on the distribution of atomic and molecular hydrogen in the galaxy along with new estimates of gamma ray production functions to model the diffuse galactic gamma ray emission. The model allows various spatial distributions for cosmic rays in the Galaxy including non-axisymmetric ones. In the light of the expected data from EGRET (Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope), an improved model of cosmic ray-matter-gamma ray interaction will provide new insights into the distribution of cosmic rays and the strength of its coupling to matter.

  16. Theoretical studies of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perna, Rosalba

    1999-12-01

    Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) have challenged astrophysicists ever since their discovery almost thirty years ago. With an energy release of 1051-53 ergs, GRBs are the most electromagnetically luminous objects in the universe. One of the many unanswered questions about GRBs is the nature of the source that powers them. This thesis studies the interactions of GRBs and their afterglows with their surrounding environment, and shows how the signatures left by this interaction can yield valuable information on the properties of the GRB sources. We show that the passage of the afterglow through its surrounding medium produces time-dependent lines in its absorption spectrum, whose identification could serve to precisely determine the GRB redshift and tightly constrain the density of the GRB environment. The ionized medium eventually cools and recombines. We study the spectral features expected from a cooling GRB remnant and identify signatures in the line diagnostics which are peculiar to GRB remnants. Identification of such remnants in nearby galaxies will allow direct observations of GRB sites and degree of beaming. Besides photoionizing the medium, GRB explosions also have dynamical effects: they result in expanding blast waves, some of which should still be visible in our galaxy and nearby ones. We suggest that they might have already been observed under the form of expanding HI supershells. GRB energetics and rates are crucially dependent on the beaming fraction. We use the data from radio surveys to place the constraint q>~6 ° on the beaming angle. Since GRBs are cosmological sources at high redshift, they can be used as tools to explore the universe. We study the observable signatures that result when a GRB afterglow is microlensed by an intervening star. We show how a microlensing event could be used to study size and superluminal expansion rate of the source, and the structure of the magnetic field on the afterglow photosphere. At the same time, the fraction of microlensed afterglows can be used to calibrate the density parameter of compact objects in the universe.

  17. Exploring the Gamma Ray Horizon with the next generation of Gamma Ray Telescopes. Part 1: Theoretical predictions

    E-print Network

    O. Blanch; M. Martinez

    2004-06-17

    The physics potential of the next generation of Gamma Ray Telescopes in exploring the Gamma Ray Horizon is discussed. It is shown that the reduction in the Gamma Ray detection threshold might open the window to use precise determinations of the Gamma Ray Horizon as a function of the redshift to either put strong constraints on the Extragalactic Background Light modeling or to obtain relevant independent constraints in some fundamental cosmological parameters.

  18. GAMMA RAYS FROM MAJOR ELEMENTS BY THERMAL NEUTRON CAPTURE REACTIONS: EXPERIMENT AND SIMULATION FOR PLANETARY GAMMA-RAY SPECTROSCOPY.

    E-print Network

    Berezhnoi, Aleksei A.

    GAMMA RAYS FROM MAJOR ELEMENTS BY THERMAL NEUTRON CAPTURE REACTIONS: EXPERIMENT AND SIMULATION FOR PLANETARY GAMMA-RAY SPECTROSCOPY. N. Yamashita1 , N. Hasebe1 , M. -N. Kobayashi1 , T. Miyachi1 , O. Okudaira of planetary surface can be determined by remotely measuring the energies and intensities of gamma rays

  19. THE FERMI GAMMA-RAY BURST MONITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Meegan, Charles [Universities Space Research Association, NSSTC, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Lichti, Giselher; Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Diehl, Roland; Greiner, Jochen; Von Kienlin, Andreas; Steinle, Helmut [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstrasse Postfach 1312, Garching 85748 (Germany); Bhat, P. N.; Briggs, Michael S.; Connaughton, Valerie; Paciesas, W. S.; Preece, Robert; Wilson, Robert B. [University of Alabama in Huntsville, NSSTC, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Fishman, Gerald; Kouveliotou, Chryssa [Space Science Office, VP62, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Hoover, Andrew S.; Kippen, R. Marc; Wallace, Mark S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Van der Horst, Alexander J. [NSSTC, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); McBreen, Sheila [University College, Dublin, Belfield, Stillorgan Road, Dublin 4 (Ireland)] (and others)

    2009-09-01

    The Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) will significantly augment the science return from the Fermi Observatory in the study of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The primary objective of GBM is to extend the energy range over which bursts are observed downward from the energy range of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on Fermi into the hard X-ray range where extensive previous data sets exist. A secondary objective is to compute burst locations onboard to allow re-orienting the spacecraft so that the LAT can observe delayed emission from bright bursts. GBM uses an array of 12 sodium iodide scintillators and two bismuth germanate scintillators to detect gamma rays from {approx}8 keV to {approx}40 MeV over the full unocculted sky. The onboard trigger threshold is {approx}0.7 photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} (50-300 keV, 1 s peak). GBM generates onboard triggers for {approx}250 GRBs per year.

  20. The Extrgalactic Gamma-Ray Background

    E-print Network

    F. W. Stecker; M. H. Salamon

    2001-04-23

    The COMPTEL and EGRET detectors aboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory measured an extragalactic gamma-ray background extending from MeV energies up to about 100 GeV. Calculations performed making reasonable assumptions indicate that blazars can account for the background between about 10 MeV and at least 10 GeV. Below 30 MeV, the background flux and spectrum are not very well determined and a dedicated satellite detector will be required to remedy this situation. Below 10 MeV, supernovae and possibly AGN may contribute to the extragalactic background flux. Above 10 GeV, the role of blazars in contributing to the background is unclear because we do not have data on their spectra at these energies and because theoretical models predict that many of them will have spectra which should cut off in this energy range. At these higher energies, a new component, perhaps from topological defects, may contribute to the background, as well as X-ray selected BL Lac objects. The future GLAST detector should provide important data on the emission of extragalactic sources above 10 GeV and help resolve this issue. GLAST may also be able to detect the signature of intergalactic absorption by pair production interactions of background gamma-rays of energy above 20 GeV with starlight photons, this signature being a steepening of the background spectrum.

  1. The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope and Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McEnery, Julie; Ritz, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Telescope (GLAST) is a satellite-based observatory to study the high energy gamma-ray sky. The main instrument on GLAST, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) is a pair-conversion telescope that will survey the sky from 20 MeV to greater than 300 GeV. With the GLAST launch in 2007, the LAT will open a new and important window on a wide variety of high energy phenomena, including supermassive black holes and active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursts, supernova remnants and cosmic ray acceleration and dark matter. A second instrument, the GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM), greatly enhances GLAST s capability to study GRB by providing important spectral and timing information in the 10 keV to 30 MeV range. We describe how the instruments, spacecraft and ground system work together to provide observations of gamma-ray bursts from 8 keV - 300 GeV and to provide rapid notification of bursts to the wider gamma-ray burst community.

  2. The GAMCIT gamma ray burst detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccall, Benjamin J.; Grunsfeld, John M.; Sobajic, Srdjan D.; Chang, Chinley Leonard; Krum, David M.; Ratner, Albert; Trittschuh, Jennifer E.

    1993-01-01

    The GAMCIT payload is a Get-Away-Special payload designed to search for high-energy gamma-ray bursts and any associated optical transients. This paper presents details on the design of the GAMCIT payload, in the areas of battery selection, power processing, electronics design, gamma-ray detection systems, and the optical imaging of the transients. The paper discusses the progress of the construction, testing, and specific design details of the payload. In addition, this paper discusses the unique challenges involved in bringing this payload to completion, as the project has been designed, constructed, and managed entirely by undergraduate students. Our experience will certainly be valuable to other student groups interested in taking on a challenging project such as a Get-Away-Special payload.

  3. Gamma Ray Signatures from Ordinary Cosmic Strings

    E-print Network

    Jane H. MacGibbon; Robert H. Brandenberger

    1992-06-19

    We calculate the flux of ultra high energy photons from individual ordinary (i.e. non-superconducting) cosmic strings and compare the results with the sensitivity of current and proposed TeV and EeV telescopes. Our calculations give only upper limits for the gamma ray flux, since the source of the photons, jets from particle production at cusps, may be weakened by back reaction effects. For the usual cosmic distribution of strings, the predicted bursts from strings with the value of mass per unit length associated with galaxy formation or light strings may just be detectable. A diffuse gamma ray background from light strings may also be seen by the Fly's Eye detector at above $7 \\times 10^{10}$ GeV.

  4. Gamma Ray Imaging for Environmental Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W. Neil; Luke, Paul N.; Kurfess, J.D.; Phlips, Bernard F.; Kroeger, R.A.; Phillips, G.W.

    1999-06-01

    The goal of this project is the development of field portable gamma-ray detectors that can both image gamma rays from radioactive emission and determine the isotopic composition by the emitted spectrum. Most instruments to date have had either very good imaging with no spectroscopy, or very good spectroscopy with no imaging. The only instruments with both imaging and spectroscopy have had rather poor quality imaging and spectroscopy (e.g. NaI Anger Cameras). The technology would have widespread applications, from laboratory nuclear physics, to breast cancer imaging, to astronomical research. For this project, we focus on the applications in the field of fissile materials, spent nuclear fuels and decontamination and decommissioning.

  5. Gamma Ray Bursts: a 1983 Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, T. L.

    1983-01-01

    Gamma ray burst observations are reviewed with mention of new gamma-ray and optical transient measurements and with discussions of the controversial, contradictory and unresolved issues that have recently emerged: burst spectra appear to fluctuate in time as rapidly as they are measured, implying that any one spectrum may be incorrect; energy spectra can be obligingly fitted to practically any desired shape, implying, in effect, that no objective spectral resolution exists at all; burst fluxes and temporal quantities, including the total event energy, are characterized very differently with differing instruments, implying that even elementary knowledge of their properties is instrumentally subjective; finally, the log N-log S determinations are deficient in the weak bursts, while there is no detection of a source direction anisotropy, implying that Ptolemy was right or that burst source distance estimates are basically guesswork. These issues may remain unsolved until vastly improved instruments are flown.

  6. Gamma ray bursts: a 1983 overview

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, T.L.

    1983-10-01

    Gamma ray burst observations are reviewed with mention of new gamma-ray and optical transient measurements and with discussions of the controversial, contradictory and unresolved issues that have recently emerged: burst spectra appear to fluctuate in time as rapidly as they are measured, implying that any one spectrum may be incorrect. Energy spectra can be obligingly fitted to practically any desired shape, implying, in effect, that no objective spectral resolution exists at all. Burst fluxes and temporal quantities, including the total event energy, are characterized very differently with differing instruments, implying that even elementary knowledge of their properties is instrumentally subjective. Finally, the log N-log S determinations are deficient in the weak bursts, while there is no detection of a source direction anisotropy, implying that Ptolemy was right or that burst source distance estimates are basically guesswork. These issues may remain unsolved until vastly improved instruments are flown.

  7. Fissile interrogation using gamma rays from oxygen

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Donald; Micklich, Bradley J.; Fessler, Andreas

    2004-04-20

    The subject apparatus provides a means to identify the presence of fissionable material or other nuclear material contained within an item to be tested. The system employs a portable accelerator to accelerate and direct protons to a fluorine-compound target. The interaction of the protons with the fluorine-compound target produces gamma rays which are directed at the item to be tested. If the item to be tested contains either a fissionable material or other nuclear material the interaction of the gamma rays with the material contained within the test item with result in the production of neutrons. A system of neutron detectors is positioned to intercept any neutrons generated by the test item. The results from the neutron detectors are analyzed to determine the presence of a fissionable material or other nuclear material.

  8. Real time gamma-ray signature identifier

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, Mark (Alamo, CA); Gosnell, Tom B. (Moraga, CA); Ham, Cheryl (Livermore, CA); Perkins, Dwight (Livermore, CA); Wong, James (Dublin, CA)

    2012-05-15

    A real time gamma-ray signature/source identification method and system using principal components analysis (PCA) for transforming and substantially reducing one or more comprehensive spectral libraries of nuclear materials types and configurations into a corresponding concise representation/signature(s) representing and indexing each individual predetermined spectrum in principal component (PC) space, wherein an unknown gamma-ray signature may be compared against the representative signature to find a match or at least characterize the unknown signature from among all the entries in the library with a single regression or simple projection into the PC space, so as to substantially reduce processing time and computing resources and enable real-time characterization and/or identification.

  9. Lorentz violation from gamma-ray bursts

    E-print Network

    Shu Zhang; Bo-Qiang Ma

    2014-06-18

    The constancy of light speed is a basic assumption in Einstein's special relativity, and consequently the Lorentz invariance is a fundamental symmetry of space-time in modern physics. However, it is speculated that the speed of light becomes energy-dependent due to the Lorentz invariance violation~(LV) in various new physics theories. We analyse the data of the energetic photons from the gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope, and find more events to support the energy dependence in the light speed with both linear and quadratic form corrections. We provide two scenarios to understand all the new-released Pass~8 data of bright GRBs by the Fermi-LAT Collaboration, with predictions from such scenarios being testable by future detected GRBs.

  10. Are gamma-ray bursts cosmological?

    E-print Network

    Horvath, I

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-ray burst sources are distributed with a high level of isotropy, which is compatible with either a cosmological origin or an extended Galactic halo origin. The brightness distribution is another indicator used to characterize the spatial distribution in distance. In this paper the author discusses detailed fits of the BATSE gamma-ray burst peak-flux distributions with Friedmann models taking into account possible density evolution and standard candle luminosity functions. A chi-square analysis is used to estimate the goodness of the fits and the author derives the significance level of limits on the density evolution and luminosity function parameters. Cosmological models provide a good fit over a range of parameter space which is physically reasonable

  11. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory: mission status.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, N.; Chipman, E.; Kniffen, D. A.

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (Compton) is the second in NASA's series of Great Observatories. Compton has now been operating for over two and a half years, and has given a dramatic increase in capability over previous gamma-ray missions. The spacecraft and scientific instruments are all in good health, and many significant discoveries have already been made and continue to be made. The authors describe the capabilities of the four scientific instruments and the observing programs for the first three years of the mission. During Phases 2 and 3 of the mission a Guest Investigator program has been in progress with the Guest Observers' time share increasing from 30% to over 50% for the later mission phases.

  12. Highlights of GeV Gamma-Ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Because high-energy gamma rays are primarily produced by high-energy particle interactions, the gamma-ray survey of the sky by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope offers a view of sites of cosmic ray production and interactions. Gamma-ray bursts, pulsars, pulsar wind nebulae, binary sources, and Active Galactic Nuclei are all phenomena that reveal particle acceleration through their gamma-ray emission. Diffuse Galactic gamma radiation, Solar System gamma-ray sources, and energetic radiation from supernova remnants are likely tracers of high-energy particle interactions with matter and photon fields. This paper will present a broad overview of the constantly changing sky seen with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi spacecraft.

  13. Gamma Ray Bursts: back to the blackboard

    E-print Network

    Lyutikov, Maxim

    2009-01-01

    Exceptional observational breakthroughs in the field of Gamma Ray Burst research are not paralleled by theoretical advances. In this review, based on the introductory talk given at the "The Shocking Universe" meeting, I argue that any present day model of GRBs, especially of Short type, is grossly incomplete. I will highlight various contradictions with observations that many models face and briefly mention a number of ideas that might or might not work. In particular, I will discuss (i) a possibility that early X-ray afterglows are coming from internal dissipation, and not from the forwards shock; (ii) that prompt radiation is beamed in the outflow frame.

  14. Swift: A Gamma Ray Bursts Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2003-01-01

    Swift is a NASA gamma-ray burst MIDEX mission that is in development for launch in December 2003. It is a multiwavelength transient observatory for GRB astronomy. The goals of the mission are to determine the origin of GRBs and their afterglows and use bursts to probe the early Universe. It will also.perform a survey of the hard X-ray sky to a sensitivity level of -1 mCrab. A wide-field camera will detect more than a hundred GRBs per year to 5 times fainter than BATSE. Sensitive narrow-field X-ray and UV/optical telescopes will be pointed at the burst location in 20 to 70 sec by an autonomously controlled 'swift' spacecraft. For each burst, arcsec positions will be determined and optical/UV/X-ray/gamma-ray spectrophotometry performed. Measurements of redshift will be made for many of the bursts. The instrumentation is a combination of superb existing flight-spare hardware and design from XMM and Spectrum-X/JET-X contributed by collaborators in the UK and Italy and development of a coded-aperture camera with a large-area (approximately 0.5 square meter) CdZnTe detector array. The hardware is currently in final stages of fabrication and initial stages of integration and test. Key components of the mission are vigorous follow-up and outreach programs to engage the astronomical community and public in Swift.

  15. The Tools of Gamma Ray Astronomy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NASA scientist, Neil Gehrels, serves as your guide to this online lesson on gamma ray tools, which focuses on advances in detector technologies since the 1980s that have enabled us to capture and image high-energy phenomena. Dr. Gehrels explains different methods for detecting and imaging high-energy particles, how they work, and the advantages and disadvantages of each, using examples and imagery from NASA missions.

  16. Gamma Ray Observatory over Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    In this view of the Gamma Ray Observatory over Baja California, Mexico (31.5N, 113.0W), the Salton Sea and Imperial Valley region of California where the mouth of the Colorado River empties into the Sea of Cortez is clearly visible. The Los Angeles basin is partially visible below the GRO's left solar panel. Looking due east, across Mexico and south Texas, toward the Earth limb, the Texas Gulf coast is faintly visible.

  17. Gamma rays from extragalactic radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dermer, Charles D.; Schlickeiser, Reinhard; Mastichiadis, Apostolos

    1992-01-01

    It is proposed that the important connection between 3C 273 and 3C 279, the first two extragalactic sources detected at greater than 100 MeV energies, is their superluminal nature. In support of this conjecture, we propose a radiation mechanism that focuses gamma rays in the superluminal direction, due to Compton scattering of accretion-disk photons by relativistic nonthermal electrons in the jet.

  18. Gamma-ray Bursts in Wavelet Space

    E-print Network

    Z. Bagoly; I. Horvath; A. Meszaros; L. G. Balazs

    2005-08-31

    The gamma-ray burst's lightcurves have been analyzed using a special wavelet transformation. The applied wavelet base is based on a typical Fast Rise-Exponential Decay (FRED) pulse. The shape of the wavelet coefficients' total distribution is determined on the observational frequency grid. Our analysis indicates that the pulses in the long bursts' high energy channel lightcurves are more FRED-like than the lower ones, independently from the actual physical time-scale.

  19. Gamma-Ray Line Observations with RHESSI

    E-print Network

    David M. Smith

    2004-04-30

    The Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) has been observing gamma-ray lines from the Sun and the Galaxy since its launch in February 2002. Here I summarize the status of RHESSI observations of solar lines (nuclear de-excitation, neutron capture, and positron annihilation), the lines of $^{26}$Al and $^{60}$Fe from the inner Galaxy, and the search for positron annihilation in novae.

  20. Observational Review of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    1999-01-01

    The observed gamma-ray temporal, spectral, intensity and spatial distribution characteristics of GRBs, primarily from data obtained from the Compton Observatory, will be described. The talk will concentrate on recent studies of burst properties, correlations of GRB parameters and other statistical studies that have only recently come to light with the unprecedented sample of over two thousand GRBs, along with some mention of studies in progress by members of the BATSE team.

  1. Cosmological Time Dilation in Gamma Ray Bursts?

    E-print Network

    David Band

    1994-07-01

    Norris et al. (1994) report that the temporal structure of faint gamma ray bursts is longer than that of bright bursts, as expected for time dilation in the cosmological models of burst origin. I show that the observed trends can easily be produced by a burst luminosity function and thus may not result from cosmological effects. A cosmological signature may be present, but the tests Norris et al. present are not powerful enough to detect these signatures.

  2. Supernovae and Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Massimo Della Valle

    2006-01-01

    I review the observational status of the Supernova\\/Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) connection. Available data suggest that Supernovae (SNe) associated with GRBs form an heterogeneous class of objects including bright and faint hypernovae (Hyp) and perhaps also `standard' Ib\\/c events. Current estimates of SN and GRB rates and beaming angles yield ratios GRB\\/SNe-Ibc ?2% and GRB\\/Hyp ?25%. In the few SN\\/GRB associations

  3. Cosmological parametrization of gamma ray burst models

    E-print Network

    Eric V. Linder

    1996-07-02

    Using three parametrizations of the gamma ray burst count data comparison is made to cosmological source models. While simple models can fit and faint end slope constraints, the addition of a logarithmic count range variable describing the curvature of the counts shows that models with no evolution or evolution power law in redshift with index less than 10 fail to satisfy simultaneously all three descriptors of the burst data. The cosmological source density that would be required for a fit is illustrated.

  4. Gamma rays from active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, Demosthenes

    1990-01-01

    The general properties of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and quasars are reviewed with emphasis on their continuum spectral emission. Two general classes of models for the continuum are outlined and critically reviewed in view of the impending GRO (Gamma Ray Observatory) launch and observations. The importance of GRO in distinguishing between these models and in general in furthering the understanding of AGN is discussed. The very broad terms the status of the current understanding of AGN are discussed.

  5. Gamma Ray Astronomy with Underground Detectors

    E-print Network

    F. Halzen; T. Stanev

    1995-07-20

    Underground detectors measure the directions of up-coming muons of neutrino origin. They can also observe down-going muons made by gamma rays in the Earth's atmosphere. Although gamma ray showers are muon-poor, they produce a sufficient number of muons to detect the sources observed by GeV and TeV telescopes. With a threshold higher by one hundred and a probability of muon production of about $1\\%$ for the shallower AMANDA and Lake Baikal detectors, these instruments can, for a typical GRO source, match the detection efficiency of a GeV satellite detector since their effective area is larger by a factor $10^4$. The muons must have enough energy for accurate reconstruction of their direction. Very energetic muons on the other hand are rare because they are only produced by higher energy gamma rays whose flux is suppressed by the decreasing flux at the source and by absorption on interstellar light. We show that there is a window of opportunity for muon astronomy in the 100~GeV energy region which nicely matches the threshold energies of the AMANDA and Lake Baikal detectors.

  6. Radio Flares from Gamma-ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopa?, D.; Mundell, C. G.; Kobayashi, S.; Virgili, F. J.; Harrison, R.; Japelj, J.; Guidorzi, C.; Melandri, A.; Gomboc, A.

    2015-06-01

    We present predictions of centimeter and millimeter radio emission from reverse shocks (RSs) in the early afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with the goal of determining their detectability with current and future radio facilities. Using a range of GRB properties, such as peak optical brightness and time, isotropic equivalent gamma-ray energy, and redshift, we simulate radio light curves in a framework generalized for any circumburst medium structure and including a parameterization of the shell thickness regime that is more realistic than the simple assumption of thick- or thin-shell approximations. Building on earlier work by Mundell et al. and Melandri et al. in which the typical frequency of the RS was suggested to lie at radio rather than optical wavelengths at early times, we show that the brightest and most distinct RS radio signatures are detectable up to 0.1–1 day after the burst, emphasizing the need for rapid radio follow-up. Detection is easier for bursts with later optical peaks, high isotropic energies, lower circumburst medium densities, and at observing frequencies that are less prone to synchrotron self-absorption effects—typically above a few GHz. Given recent detections of polarized prompt gamma-ray and optical RS emission, we suggest that detection of polarized radio/millimeter emission will unambiguously confirm the presence of low-frequency RSs at early time.

  7. Neutrino bursts from gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paczynski, Bohdan; Xu, Guohong

    1994-01-01

    If gamma-ray bursts originate at cosmological distances, as strongly indicated by the results from Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO), then ultrarelativistic ejecta are the likely consequence of the highly super-Eddington luminosity of the sources. If the energy injection rate varies with time, then the Lorentz factor of the wind also varies, and the shells of ejected matter collide with each other. The collisions between baryons produce pions which decay into high-energy photons, electrons, electron positron pairs, and neutrino pairs. The bulk Lorentz factor of approximately 300 is required if our model is to be compatible with the observed millisecond variability. The strongest gamma-ray bursts are observed to deliver approximately 10(exp -4) ergs/sq cm in 100-200 keV photons. In our scenario more energy may be delivered in a neutrino burst. Typical neutrinos may be approximately 30 GeV if the protons have a Maxwellian energy distribution, and up to approximately TeV if the protons have a power-law distribution. Such neutrino bursts are close to the detection limit of the DUMAND II experiment.

  8. Numerical simulations of planetary gamma-ray spectra induced by galactic cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Masarik, J.; Reedy, R.C.

    1994-07-01

    The fluxes of cosmic-ray-produced gamma rays escaping from Mars were calculated using the LAHET Code System and basic nuclear data for {gamma}-ray production. Both surface water content and atmospheric thickness strongly affect the fluxes of {gamma}-ray lines escaping from Mars.

  9. Photon-Photon Absorption of Very High Energy Gamma-Rays from Microquasars: Application to LS 5039

    E-print Network

    M. Boettcher; C. D. Dermer

    2005-10-07

    Very high energy (VHE) gamma-rays have recently been detected from the Galactic black-hole candidate and microquasar LS 5039. A plausible site for the production of these VHE gamma-rays is the region close to the mildly relativistic outflow. However, at distances comparable to the binary separation, the intense photon field of the stellar companion will lead to substantial gamma-gamma absorption of VHE gamma-rays. If the system is viewed at a substantial inclination (i > 0), this absorption feature will be modulated on the orbital period of the binary as a result of a phase-dependent stellar-radiation intensity and pair-production threshold. We apply our results to LS 5039 and find that (1) gamma-gamma absorption effects will be substantial if the photon production site is located at a distance from the central compact object of the order of the binary separation (~ 2.5e12 cm) or less; (2) the gamma-gamma absorption depth will be largest at a few hundred GeV, leading to a characteristic absorption trough; (3) the gamma-gamma absorption feature will be strongly modulated on the orbital period of the binary, characterized by a spectral hardening accompanying periodic dips of the VHE gamma-ray flux; and (4) gamma rays can escape virtually unabsorbed, even from within ~ 10^{12} cm, when the star is located behind the production site as seen by the observer.

  10. The gamma ray content of ultrahigh energy cosmic radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kolodziejczak, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    Data from the Utah-Michigan (UM) extensive air shower (EAS) array at Dugway, Utah are examined for evidence of a gamma ray component in the UHE cosmic rays. The UM array consist of a 3 {times} 10{sup 4} sq m surface array with 40 sq m of charged particle detectors, and a 1200 sq m buried array for detecting muons. Data from the large muon array are used to search for a gamma ray signature, since gamma rays are expected to produce far fewer muons in EAS than hadronic cosmic ray primaries. When no evidence for gamma rays is found, limits are set based on expected gamma ray behavior. For a photon energy threshold of 200 TeV, results include: a limit on the omnidirectional gamma ray fraction of cosmic rays at 0.2 pct; a limit on the galactic gamma ray fraction of cosmic rays at 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}; no strong evidence for enduring gamma ray point sources at fluxes approx. = 4 {times} 10{sup {minus}14}/sq cm/s; and no strong evidence for bursts on a one day time scale at a flux sensitivity {approx} 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}12}/sq cm/s. These limits and measurements are based on muon poor data. While no strong signal of UHE gamma rays is found, future application to the large Chicago Air Shower Array-Michigan Array (CASA-MIA) is possible.

  11. Geolocation of Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flashes in Gamma Rays Using the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, J. Eric; Schaal, Meagan M.; Chekhtman, Alexandre; Briggs, Michael S.; Connaughton, Valerie; Holzworth, Robert H.; Heckman, Stan; Cummer, Steven A.

    2015-04-01

    We derive geolocations of bright Terrestrial Gamma ray Flashes (TGFs) directly in gamma rays using the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) and compare with geolocations given by LF and VLF radio networks intended to study lightning discharges. We show that the Fermi LAT, which was designed to perform an imaging survey of the high-energy gamma ray sky, can geolocate bright TGFs in favorable geometries with accuracies <100 km, a factor of a few larger than radio geolocation accuracies. A large fraction of TGFs appear to be temporally coincident with radio pulses detected by lightning geolocation network. Recent work by Cummer et al. (2011), Connaughton et al. (2013), and Dwyer and Cummer (2013) strongly suggests that the pulse of relativistic electrons that generates the gamma rays via bremsstrahlung also generates the radio signal via its secondary ionization electrons. Our analysis confirms this picture by establishing that the radio and gamma ray signals are indeed temporally and spatially coincident. Portions of this work were performed at NRL under sponsorship of NASA.

  12. A Link between Prompt Optical and Prompt Gamma-Ray Emission in Gamma-Ray Bursts

    E-print Network

    Vestrand, W T; Wren, J A; Fenimore, E E; Sakamoto, T; White, R R; Casperson, D; Davis, H; Evans, S; Galassi, M; McGowan, K E; Schier, J A; Asa, J W; Barthelmy, S D; Cummings, J R; Gehrels, N; Hullinger, D; Krimm, H A; Markwardt, C B; McLean, K; Palmer, D; Tüller, J

    2005-01-01

    The prompt optical emission that arrives with gamma-rays from a cosmic gamma-ray burst (GRB) is a signature of the engine powering the burst, the properties of the ultra-relativistic ejecta of the explosion, and the ejecta's interactions with the surroundings. Until now, only GRB 990123 had been detected at optical wavelengths during the burst phase. Its prompt optical emission was variable and uncorrelated with the prompt gamma-ray emission, suggesting that the optical emission was generated by a reverse shock arising from the ejecta's collision with the surrounding material. Here we report prompt optical emission from GRB 041219a. It is variable and correlated with the prompt gamma-rays, indicating a common origin for the optical light and the gamma-rays. Within the context of the standard fireball model of GRBs, we attribute this new optical component to internal shocks driven into the burst ejecta by variations of the inner engine. The correlated optical emission is a direct probe of the jet isolated from...

  13. A Link between Prompt Optical and Prompt Gamma-Ray Emission in Gamma-Ray Bursts

    E-print Network

    W. T. Vestrand; P. R. Wozniak; J. A. Wren; E. E. Fenimore; T. Sakamoto; R. R. White; D. Casperson; H. Davis; S. Evans; M. Galassi; K. E. McGowan; J. A. Schier; J. W. Asa; S. D. Barthelmy; J. R. Cummings; N. Gehrels; D. Hullinger; H. A. Krimm; C. B. Markwardt; K. McLean; D. Palmer; A. Parsons; J. Tueller

    2005-04-05

    The prompt optical emission that arrives with gamma-rays from a cosmic gamma-ray burst (GRB) is a signature of the engine powering the burst, the properties of the ultra-relativistic ejecta of the explosion, and the ejecta's interactions with the surroundings. Until now, only GRB 990123 had been detected at optical wavelengths during the burst phase. Its prompt optical emission was variable and uncorrelated with the prompt gamma-ray emission, suggesting that the optical emission was generated by a reverse shock arising from the ejecta's collision with the surrounding material. Here we report prompt optical emission from GRB 041219a. It is variable and correlated with the prompt gamma-rays, indicating a common origin for the optical light and the gamma-rays. Within the context of the standard fireball model of GRBs, we attribute this new optical component to internal shocks driven into the burst ejecta by variations of the inner engine. The correlated optical emission is a direct probe of the jet isolated from the medium. The timing of the uncorrelated optical emission is strongly dependent on the nature of the medium.

  14. Gamma-ray astronomy and cosmic ray origin problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezhko, E.

    The purpose of this talk is to review some recent work on the model for the origin of the bulk of Galactic cosmic rays (CRs), namely that they are produced by diffusive shock acceleration in shock waves associated with supernova remnants (SNRs). This is currently the modern theory for the origin of Galactic CRs. Selfconsistent nonlinear theory of CR acceleration in SNRs developed during the last decade explains the main characteristics of the observed CR spectrum at least up to the knee energy. Direct information about CR population in young Galactic SNRs obtained from the properties of the nonthermal radiation is analysed. Electron CR component is visible ia a wide range of radiation, which they produce in SNRs, from radio to gamma-ray emission, whereas in the case of nuclear CR component gamma-rays detection is the only possibility to see it. If this nuclear component is strongly enhanced inside SNRs then through inelastic nuclear collisions, leading to pion production and subsequent decay, gamma-rays will be produced at the detectable level. It is argued that the existing data confirm very efficient acceleration of nuclear CRs in SNRs with the efficiency consistent with the requirements for the Galactic CR energy budget and that the theory is not only able to describe the CR dynamics and acceleration in SNRs, but that it constitutes in addition a reliable method to quantitatively determine the effective (strongly amplified) SNR magnetic field strength which is produced in the acceleration process.

  15. COMPACT CdZnTe-BASED GAMMA CAMERA FOR PROSTATE CANCER IMAGING

    SciTech Connect

    CUI, Y.; LALL, T.; TSUI, B.; YU, J.; MAHLER, G.; BOLOTNIKOV, A.; VASKA, P.; DeGERONIMO, G.; O'CONNOR, P.; MEINKEN, G.; JOYAL, J.; BARRETT, J.; CAMARDA, G.; HOSSAIN, A.; KIM, K.H.; YANG, G.; POMPER, M.; CHO, S.; WEISMAN, K.; SEO, Y.; BABICH, J.; LaFRANCE, N.; AND JAMES, R.B.

    2011-10-23

    In this paper, we discuss the design of a compact gamma camera for high-resolution prostate cancer imaging using Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CdZnTe or CZT) radiation detectors. Prostate cancer is a common disease in men. Nowadays, a blood test measuring the level of prostate specific antigen (PSA) is widely used for screening for the disease in males over 50, followed by (ultrasound) imaging-guided biopsy. However, PSA tests have a high false-positive rate and ultrasound-guided biopsy has a high likelihood of missing small cancerous tissues. Commercial methods of nuclear medical imaging, e.g. PET and SPECT, can functionally image the organs, and potentially find cancer tissues at early stages, but their applications in diagnosing prostate cancer has been limited by the smallness of the prostate gland and the long working distance between the organ and the detectors comprising these imaging systems. CZT is a semiconductor material with wide band-gap and relatively high electron mobility, and thus can operate at room temperature without additional cooling. CZT detectors are photon-electron direct-conversion devices, thus offering high energy-resolution in detecting gamma rays, enabling energy-resolved imaging, and reducing the background of Compton-scattering events. In addition, CZT material has high stopping power for gamma rays; for medical imaging, a few-mm-thick CZT material provides adequate detection efficiency for many SPECT radiotracers. Because of these advantages, CZT detectors are becoming popular for several SPECT medical-imaging applications. Most recently, we designed a compact gamma camera using CZT detectors coupled to an application-specific-integrated-circuit (ASIC). This camera functions as a trans-rectal probe to image the prostate gland from a distance of only 1-5 cm, thus offering higher detection efficiency and higher spatial resolution. Hence, it potentially can detect prostate cancers at their early stages. The performance tests of this camera have been completed. The results show better than 6-mm resolution at a distance of 1 cm. Details of the test results are discussed in this paper.

  16. GAMMA RAYS FROM STAR FORMATION IN CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Storm, Emma M.; Jeltema, Tesla E.; Profumo, Stefano [Department of Physics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2012-08-20

    Star formation in galaxies is observed to be associated with gamma-ray emission, presumably from non-thermal processes connected to the acceleration of cosmic-ray nuclei and electrons. The detection of gamma rays from starburst galaxies by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has allowed the determination of a functional relationship between star formation rate and gamma-ray luminosity. Since star formation is known to scale with total infrared (8-1000 {mu}m) and radio (1.4 GHz) luminosity, the observed infrared and radio emission from a star-forming galaxy can be used to quantitatively infer the galaxy's gamma-ray luminosity. Similarly, star-forming galaxies within galaxy clusters allow us to derive lower limits on the gamma-ray emission from clusters, which have not yet been conclusively detected in gamma rays. In this study, we apply the functional relationships between gamma-ray luminosity and radio and IR luminosities of galaxies derived by the Fermi Collaboration to a sample of the best candidate galaxy clusters for detection in gamma rays in order to place lower limits on the gamma-ray emission associated with star formation in galaxy clusters. We find that several clusters have predicted gamma-ray emission from star formation that are within an order of magnitude of the upper limits derived in Ackermann et al. based on non-detection by Fermi-LAT. Given the current gamma-ray limits, star formation likely plays a significant role in the gamma-ray emission in some clusters, especially those with cool cores. We predict that both Fermi-LAT over the course of its lifetime and the future Cerenkov Telescope Array will be able to detect gamma-ray emission from star-forming galaxies in clusters.

  17. AN EM APPROACH TO MINERAL ANALYSIS USING NATURAL GAMMA RAYS

    E-print Network

    Huynh, Du

    ). The lead serves to shield the detector from terrestrial and cosmic gamma radiation, which would Figure 1 spectra collected with a BGO (Bismuth Germanate) gamma ray detector. This detector collects gamma ray on these data, and using a Poisson model for the data generation, a statistical model is proposed

  18. Iron K Lines from Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kallman, T. R.; Meszaros, P.; Rees, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    We present models for reprocessing of an intense flux of X-rays and gamma rays expected in the vicinity of gamma ray burst sources. We consider the transfer and reprocessing of the energetic photons into observable features in the X-ray band, notably the K lines of iron. Our models are based on the assumption that the gas is sufficiently dense to allow the microphysical processes to be in a steady state, thus allowing efficient line emission with modest reprocessing mass and elemental abundances ranging from solar to moderately enriched. We show that the reprocessing is enhanced by down-Comptonization of photons whose energy would otherwise be too high to absorb on iron, and that pair production can have an effect on enhancing the line production. Both "distant" reprocessors such as supernova or wind remnants and "nearby" reprocessors such as outer stellar envelopes can reproduce the observed line fluxes with Fe abundances 30-100 times above solar, depending on the incidence angle. The high incidence angles required arise naturally only in nearby models, which for plausible values can reach Fe line to continuum ratios close to the reported values.

  19. Compact flash X-ray sources and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouvesle, J. M.; Cachoncinlle, C.; Viladrosa, R.; Robert, E.; Khacef, A.

    1996-06-01

    Compact flash X-ray machines are opening up extended fields of applications. X-ray diodes driven by repetitive small size pulsers have been shown able to deliver high dose rates of X-rays in pulses of nanosecond to microsecond duration. Improvements have been carried out on the lifetime of the diodes and reliability of the systems to allow operation at constant emitted dose over long periods of time. After a brief review of recent developments, described here, in more details, is the progress obtained at the GREMI laboratory in the development of true table-top flash X-ray sources producing strong X-ray doses in nanosecond pulses at a high repetition rate (50 Hz). Doses up to 2 R (5.2 × 10 -4 C/kg), measured at the output window, of X-rays between 5 and 200 keV can be generated from either a linear source (up to 10 cm long) or from a focal spot of less than 300 ?m in diameter depending on the electrode configuration. Of the numerous applications of compact flash X-ray sources, an example is given of the use of these devices for the excitation of high pressure gas samples, realized at GREMI. Such an energetic excitation leads to important populations of highly excited ionic species.

  20. The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope Discovers the Pulsar in the Young Galactic Supernova Remnant CTA 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Abdo; M. Ackermann; W. B. Atwood; L. Baldini; J. Ballet; G. Barbiellini; M. G. Baring; D. Bastieri; B. M. Baughman; K. Bechtol; R. Bellazzini; B. Berenji; R. D. Blandford; E. D. Bloom; G. Bogaert; E. Bonamente; A. W. Borgland; J. Bregeon; A. Brez; M. Brigida; P. Bruel; T. H. Burnett; G. A. Caliandro; R. A. Cameron; P. A. Caraveo; P. Carlson; J. M. Casandjian; C. Cecchi; E. Charles; A. Chekhtman; C. C. Cheung; J. Chiang; S. Ciprini; R. Claus; J. Cohen-Tanugi; L. R. Cominsky; J. Conrad; S. Cutini; D. S. Davis; C. D. Dermer; A. de Angelis; F. de Palma; S. W. Digel; M. Dormody; E. do Couto e Silva; P. S. Drell; R. Dubois; D. Dumora; Y. Edmonds; C. Farnier; W. B. Focke; Y. Fukazawa; S. Funk; P. Fusco; F. Gargano; D. Gasparrini; N. Gehrels; S. Germani; B. Giebels; N. Giglietto; F. Giordano; T. Glanzman; G. Godfrey; I. A. Grenier; M.-H. Grondin; J. E. Grove; L. Guillemot; S. Guiriec; A. K. Harding; R. C. Hartman; E. Hays; R. E. Hughes; G. Jóhannesson; A. S. Johnson; R. P. Johnson; T. J. Johnson; W. N. Johnson; T. Kamae; Y. Kanai; G. Kanbach; H. Katagiri; N. Kawai; M. Kerr; T. Kishishita; B. Kiziltan; J. Knödlseder; M. L. Kocian; N. Komin; F. Kuehn; M. Kuss; L. Latronico; M. Lemoine-Goumard; F. Longo; V. Lonjou; F. Loparco; B. Lott; M. N. Lovellette; P. Lubrano; A. Makeev; M. N. Mazziotta; J. E. McEnery; S. McGlynn; C. Meurer; P. F. Michelson; T. Mineo; W. Mitthumsiri; T. Mizuno; A. A. Moiseev; C. Monte; M. E. Monzani; A. Morselli; I. V. Moskalenko; S. Murgia; T. Nakamori; P. L. Nolan; E. Nuss; M. Ohno; T. Ohsugi; A. Okumura; N. Omodei; E. Orlando; J. F. Ormes; M. Ozaki; D. Paneque; J. H. Panetta; D. Parent; V. Pelassa; M. Pesce-Rollins; G. Piano; L. Pieri; F. Piron; T. A. Porter; S. Rainň; R. Rando; P. S. Ray; M. Razzano; A. Reimer; O. Reimer; T. Reposeur; S. Ritz; L. S. Rochester; A. Y. Rodriguez; R. W. Romani; M. Roth; F. Ryde; H. F.-W. Sadrozinski; D. Sanchez; A. Sander; P. M. Saz Parkinson; T. L. Schalk; A. Sellerholm; C. Sgrň; E. J. Siskind; D. A. Smith; P. D. Smith; G. Spandre; P. Spinelli; J.-L. Starck; M. S. Strickman; D. J. Suson; H. Takahashi; T. Takahashi; T. Tanaka; J. B. Thayer; J. G. Thayer; D. J. Thompson; S. E. Thorsett; L. Tibaldo; D. F. Torres; G. Tosti; A. Tramacere; T. L. Usher; A. Van Etten; N. Vilchez; V. Vitale; P. Wang; K. Watters; B. L. Winer; K. S. Wood; H. Yasuda; T. Ylinen; M. Ziegler

    2008-01-01

    Energetic young pulsars and expanding blast waves [supernova remnants (SNRs)] are the most visible remains after massive stars, ending their lives, explode in core-collapse supernovae. The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has unveiled a radio quiet pulsar located near the center of the compact synchrotron nebula inside the supernova remnant CTA 1. The pulsar, discovered through its gamma-ray pulsations, has a

  1. A transportable high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer and analysis system applicable to mobile, autonomous or unattended applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. M. Buckley; K. W. Neufeld

    1995-01-01

    The Safeguards Technology Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is developing systems based on a compact electro-mechanically cooled high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. This detector system broadens the practicality of performing high- resolution gamma-ray spectrometry in the field. Utilizing portable computers, multi-channel analyzers and software these systems greatly improve the ease of performing mobile high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Using industrial computers,

  2. EGRET - The high energy gamma ray telescope for NASA's Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C. E.; Bertsch, D. L.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.; Thompson, D. J.; Hofstadter, R.; Hughes, E. B.; Campbell-Finman, L. E.; Pinkau, K.; Mayer-Hasselwander, H.

    1983-01-01

    The EGRET high energy gamma-ray telescope under development for NASA's Gamma Ray Observatory will have an energy range of approximately 12 to 30,000 MeV, energy resolution of about 15 percent FWHM over most of that range, an effective area of about 2000 sq cm at high energies, and single photon angular accuracy of approximately 2 deg at 100 MeV, less than 0.1 deg above 5 GeV. This instrument can locate strong sources to an accuracy of about 5 arc min. The instrument utilizes a set of digital spark chambers interleaved with tantalum foils for detection and identification of gamma-ray events, and a large NaI(Tl) scintillator for energy determination. The system is triggered by a coincidence matrix using two arrays of plastic scintillation counters and a large plastic scintillator anticoincidence dome that rejects incident charged particles.

  3. Gamma-ray burst theory after Swift.

    PubMed

    Piran, Tsvi; Fan, Yi-Zhong

    2007-05-15

    Afterglow observations in the pre-Swift era confirmed to a large extend the relativistic blast wave model for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Together with the observations of properties of host galaxies and the association with (type Ic) SNe, this has led to the generally accepted collapsar origin of long GRBs. However, most of the afterglow data was collected hours after the burst. The X-ray telescope and the UV/optical telescope onboard Swift are able to slew to the direction of a burst in real time and record the early broadband afterglow light curves. These observations, and in particular the X-ray observations, resulted in many surprises. While we have anticipated a smooth transition from the prompt emission to the afterglow, many observed that early light curves are drastically different. We review here how these observations are changing our understanding of GRBs. PMID:17293324

  4. Gamma ray astronomy beyond 2001: What instruments for the newt challenges?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedrenne, G.

    2001-03-01

    In spite of the recent successes of SIGMA, RXTE and Compton GRO, and the launch of INTEGRAL in 2001, a lot of questions will stay opened for the next decades in gamma-ray astronomy. In this context we have to think about future instrument concepts which will allow a new step in the understanding of high-energy phenomena at work in many exciting objects: binary systems with compact objects, active galactic nuclei, supernovae and novae, gamma ray bursters... A short overview of these new types of instruments will be given.

  5. SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS AND DARK MATTER SEEDING IN NEUTRON STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Garcia, M. Angeles [Department of Fundamental Physics and IUFFyM, University of Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced s/n, E-37008 Salamanca (Spain); Daigne, F.; Silk, J., E-mail: mperezga@usal.es, E-mail: daigne@iap.fr, E-mail: j.silk1@physics.ox.ac.uk [UPMC-CNRS, UMR7095, Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2013-05-10

    We present a mechanism based on internal self-annihilation of dark matter accreted from the galactic halo in the inner regions of neutron stars that may trigger full or partial conversion into a quark star. We explain how this effect may induce a gamma-ray burst (GRB) that could be classified as short, according to the usual definition based on time duration of the prompt gamma-ray emission. This mechanism differs in many aspects from the most discussed scenario associating short GRBs with compact object binary mergers. We list possible observational signatures that should help distinguish between these two possible classes of progenitors.

  6. COMBINED GAMMA-RAY AND NEUTRON DETECTOR FOR MEASURING THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF AIRLESS PLANETARY BODIES.

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, David J. (David Jeffery),; Barraclough, B. L. (Bruce L.); Feldman, W. C. (William C.); Prettyman, T. H. (Thomas H.); Wiens, R. C. (Roger C.)

    2001-01-01

    Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) constant1,y itnpinge all planetary bodies and produce characteristic gamma-ray lines and leakage neutrons as reaction products. Together with gamma-ray lines produced by radioactive decay, these nuclear emissions provide a powerful technique for remotely measuring the chemical composition of airless planetary surfaces. While lunar gamma-ray spectroscopy was first demonstrated with Apollo Gamma-Ray measurements, the full value of combined gamma-ray and neutron spectroscopy was shown for the first time with the Lunar Prospector Gamma-Ray (LP-GRS) and Neutron Spectrometers (LP-NS). Any new planetary mission will likely have the requirement that instrument mass and power be kept to a minimum. To satisfy such requirements, we have been designing a GR/NS instrument which combines all the functionality of the LP-GRS and LP-NS for a fraction of the mass and power. Specifically, our design uses a BGO scintillator crystal to measure gamma-rays from 0.5-10 MeV. A borated plastic scintillator and a lithium gliiss scintillator are used to separately measure thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons as well as serve as an anticoincidence shield for the BGO. All three scintillators are packaged together in a compact phoswich design. Modifications to this design could include a CdZnTe gamma-ray detector for enhanced energy resolution at low energies (0.5-3 MeV). While care needs to be taken to ensure that an adequate count rate is achieved for specific mission designs, previous mission successes demonstrate that a cornbined GR/NS provides essential information about planetary surfaces.

  7. The Universe Viewed in Gamma-Rays 1 Study of the TeV gamma-ray emission mechanism of

    E-print Network

    Enomoto, Ryoji

    The Universe Viewed in Gamma-Rays 1 Study of the TeV gamma-ray emission mechanism of PSR 1706 spectrum of gamma rays between 0.5 to 4 TeV is obtained and is found to be consistent with previous results. In addition, we analyzed Chandra archive data, to derive the X-ray spectra of both the pulsar and the nebula

  8. Modeling of a slanted-hole collimator in a compact endo-cavity gamma camera.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamuda, Mark; Cui, Yonggang; Lall, Terry; Ionson, Jim; Camarda, Giuseppe S.; Hossain, Anwar; Yang, Ge; Roy, Utpal N.; James, Ralph B.

    2013-09-01

    Having the ability to take an accurate 3D image of a tumor greatly helps doctors diagnose it and then create a treatment plan for a patient. One way to accomplish molecular imaging is to inject a radioactive tracer into a patient and then measure the gamma rays emitted from regions with high-uptake of the tracer, viz., the cancerous tissues. In large, expensive PET- or SPECT-imaging systems, the 3D imaging easily is accomplished by rotating the gamma-ray detectors and then employing software to reconstruct the 3D images from the multiple 2D projections at different angles of view. However, this method is impractical in a very compact imaging system due to anatomical considerations, e.g., the transrectal gamma camera under development at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for detection of intra-prostatic tumors. The camera uses pixilated cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe or CZT) detectors with matched parallel-hole collimator. Our research investigated the possibility of using a collimator with slanted holes to create 3D pictures of a radioactive source. The underlying concept is to take 2D projection images at different angles of view by adjusting the slant angle of the collimator, then using the 2D projection images to reconstruct the 3D image. To do this, we first simulated the response of a pixilated CZT detector to radiation sources placed in the field of view of the camera. Then, we formulated an algorithm to use the simulation results as prior knowledge and estimate the distribution of a shaped source from its 2D projection images. From the results of the simulation, we measured the spatial resolution of the camera as ~7-mm at a depth of 13.85-mm when using a detector with 2.46-mm pixel pitch and a collimator with 60° slant angle.

  9. X-ray Binaries in Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brorby, Matthew; Kaaret, Philip; Prestwich, Andrea H.

    2014-08-01

    X-rays from binaries in small, metal-deficient galaxies may have contributed significantly to the heating and reionization of the early Universe, depending on their population and spectral shape. We investigate both properties by studying blue compact dwarfs (BCDs) as local analogs to these early galaxies. We constrain the relation of the X-ray luminosity function (XLF) to the star-formation rate (SFR) using a Bayesian approach applied to a sample of 25 BCDs. Our results suggest a significant enhancement in the population of high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) in BCDs compared to near-solar metallicity galaxies. We show that X-ray binaries in the extremely metal-poor galaxies I Zw 18 and VII Zw 403 undergo spectral state transitions. The HMXB spectral shape affects how the emitted X-rays heat the intergalactic medium, thus affecting the 21-cm signal from the epoch of reionization.

  10. New developments in studies of compact X-ray binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindlay, Jonathan E.

    1987-01-01

    Several recent developments, both observational and theoretical, on the study of X-ray binaries and the compact objects they contain are discussed. The recent discovery of the first binary periods for the globular cluster X-ray sources has stimulated a new model for their origin. As a variant of the 'standard' tidal capture origin model, this predicts an enhanced number of neutron stars in globular clusters. Long term timing studies of X-ray binaries may be consistent with many of these systems, primarily X-ray burst sources, being in fact hierarchical triple systems. Finally, the radio studies of Cyg X-3 and other X-ray binaries suggest that nonthermal processes are as important, energetically, as accretion processes in these systems.

  11. Short gamma-ray bursts near and far.

    PubMed

    Levan, Andrew J

    2007-05-15

    Progress in understanding the nature of short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) has been rapid since the discovery of the first afterglows in mid-2005. The emerging picture appears to be of short GRBs, which originate at moderate redshift (a few tenths) and appear in galaxies of all ages. This discovery has been used to argue for their origin in compact binary mergers. However, this population does not describe all short bursts. Here, I will present results of observations of several short GRBs, which challenge the conclusions drawn from the early observations. The observations show that some short GRBs originate in the very low redshift Universe (below 100Mpc), while some may also lie at redshifts comparable with the long GRBs (i.e. z>2). I will discuss the properties of these bursts and the implications they have for the progenitors of short GRBs. PMID:17293330

  12. Gamma-ray computed tomography to characterize soil surface sealing.

    PubMed

    Pires, Luiz F; de Macedo, Jose R; de Souza, Manoel D; Bacchi, Osny O S; Reichardt, Klaus

    2002-09-01

    The application of sewage sludge as a fertilizer on soils may cause compacted surface layers (surface sealing), which can promote changes on soil physical properties. The objective of this work was to study the use of gamma-ray computed tomography, as a diagnostic tool for the evaluation of this sealing process through the measurement of soil bulk density distribution of the soil surface layer of samples subjected to sewage sludge application. Tomographic images were taken with a first generation tomograph with a resolution of 1 mm. The image analysis opened the possibility to obtain soil bulk density profiles and average soil bulk densities of the surface layer and to detect the presence of soil surface sealing. The sealing crust thickness was estimated to be in the range of 2-4 mm. PMID:12201145

  13. Gamma rays from ultracompact primordial dark matter minihalos.

    PubMed

    Scott, Pat; Sivertsson, Sofia

    2009-11-20

    Ultracompact minihalos have been proposed as a new class of dark matter structure. They would be produced by phase transitions in the early Universe or features in the inflaton potential, and constitute nonbaryonic massive compact halo objects today. We examine the prospects of detecting these minihalos in gamma rays if dark matter can self-annihilate. We compute present-day fluxes from minihalos produced in the e{+}e{-} annihilation epoch and the QCD and electroweak phase transitions. Even at a distance of 4 kpc, minihalos from the e{+}e{-} epoch would be eminently detectable today by the Fermi satellite or air Cerenkov telescopes, or even in archival EGRET data. Within 2 kpc, they would appear as extended sources to Fermi. At 4 kpc, minihalos from the QCD transition have similar predicted fluxes to dwarf spheroidal galaxies, so might also be detectable by present or upcoming experiments. PMID:20366026

  14. Application of HEALpix Pixelization to Gamma-ray Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, T. H.; Lesnick, B.; Roth, M.

    2007-07-01

    The HEALpix scheme for tessellating the sky is a natural way to represent all-sky data that is naturally binned in sky coordinates. Gamma-ray data are collected and saved as individual photons, and usually analyzed as such. We present a summary data representation that is compact, saves energy information, and is consistent with the energy-dependent resolution. We take advantage of the equal-area, hierarchical characteristics of the HEALpix representation by relating pixel size to energy. The data set is a sparse list of variable-size pixels, arranged to group regions of the sky. Thus numerous low-energy photons share pixels, while rare high-energy photons often are represented by single pixels. Of course, time variation is lost. We will show how this is used for generating sky pictures, efficiently finding and localizing point sources, and even construction WMAP-like angular power spectra.

  15. Gamma Ray Astronomy with ARGO-YBJ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dattoli, M.; ARGO-YBJ Collaboration

    The ARGO-YBJ experiment (YangBaJing, Tibet, P.R. China) is an extensive air shower detector made of a single layer of Resistive Plate Counters (RPCs) covering a surface of about 6700 m2, consisting of a continuous central carpet 74×78 m2 wide and an external guard ring with coarse coverage. The full coverage approach (93% of active area in the central carpet) and the high altitude location (4300 m a.s.l.) allow ARGO-YBJ to work with an energy threshold as low as a few hundred GeV. ARGO-YBJ can detect showers within a primary energy range partially overlapping that of ?erenkov Telescopes, with the advantages of a larger field of view and a duty cycle close to 100 %. These features make ARGO-YBJ suitable for monitoring the gamma -ray sky, detecting unexpected events such as flaring episodes in Active Galactic Nuclei and very high energy emission from Gamma Ray Bursts. In this paper we report some ARGO-YBJ results in gamma astronomy, in particular the observations of the Crab Nebula and of the flaring activity of Markarian 421.

  16. UNCOVERING THE INTRINSIC VARIABILITY OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golkhou, V. Zach; Butler, Nathaniel R

    2014-08-01

    We develop a robust technique to determine the minimum variability timescale for gamma-ray burst (GRB) light curves, utilizing Haar wavelets. Our approach averages over the data for a given GRB, providing an aggregate measure of signal variation while also retaining sensitivity to narrow pulses within complicated time series. In contrast to previous studies using wavelets, which simply define the minimum timescale in reference to the measurement noise floor, our approach identifies the signature of temporally smooth features in the wavelet scaleogram and then additionally identifies a break in the scaleogram on longer timescales as a signature of a true, temporally unsmooth light curve feature or features. We apply our technique to the large sample of Swift GRB gamma-ray light curves and for the first time—due to the presence of a large number of GRBs with measured redshift—determine the distribution of minimum variability timescales in the source frame. We find a median minimum timescale for long-duration GRBs in the source frame of ?tmin = 0.5 s, with the shortest timescale found being on the order of 10 ms. This short timescale suggests a compact central engine (3000 km). We discuss further implications for the GRB fireball model and present a tantalizing correlation between the minimum timescale and redshift, which may in part be due to cosmological time dilation.

  17. X-RAYS FROM BLUE COMPACT DWARF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaret, Philip; Schmitt, Joseph; Gorski, Mark [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

    2011-11-01

    We measured the X-ray fluxes from an optically selected sample of blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs) with metallicities <0.07 and solar distances less than 15 Mpc. Four X-ray point sources were observed in three galaxies, with five galaxies having no detectable X-ray emission. Comparing X-ray luminosity and star formation rate (SFR), we find that the total X-ray luminosity of the sample is more than 10 times greater than expected if X-ray luminosity scales with SFR according to the relation found for normal-metallicity star-forming galaxies. However, due to the low number of sources detected, one can exclude the hypothesis that the relation of the X-ray binaries to SFR in low-metallicity BCDs is identical to that in normal galaxies only at the 96.6% confidence level. It has recently been proposed that X-ray binaries were an important source of heating and reionization of the intergalactic medium at the epoch of reionization. If BCDs are analogs to unevolved galaxies in the early universe, then enhanced X-ray binary production in BCDs would suggest an enhanced impact of X-ray binaries on the early thermal history of the universe.

  18. TeV Gamma Rays from BL Lac Objects due to Synchrotron Radiation of Extremely High Energy Protons

    E-print Network

    F. A. Aharonian

    2000-11-18

    One of remarkable features of the gamma ray blazar Markarian 501 is the reported shape of the TeV spectrum, which during strong flares of the source remains essentially stable despite dramatic variations of the absolute gamma-ray flux. I argue that this (to a large extent unexpected) behavior of the source could be explained assuming that the TeV gamma-ray emission is a result of synchrotron radiation of extremely high energy protons in highly magnetized compact regions of the jet.

  19. Science with the new generation high energy gamma- ray experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Alvarez; D. D'Armiento; G. Agnetta; A. Alberdi; A. Antonelli; A. Argan; P. Assis; E. A. Baltz; C. Bambi; G. Barbiellini; H. Bartko; M. Basset; D. Bastieri; P. Belli; G. Benford; L. Bergstrom; R. Bernabei; G. Bertone; A. Biland; B. Biondo; F. Bocchino; E. Branchini; M. Brigida; T. Bringmann; P. Brogueira; A. Bulgarelli; J. A. Caballero; G. A. Caliandro; P. Camarri; F. Cappella; P. Caraveo; R. Carbone; M. Carvajal; S. Casanova; A. J. Castro-Tirado; O. Catalano; R. Catena; F. Celi; A. Celotti; R. Cerulli; A. Chen; R. Clay; V. Cocco; J. Conrad; E. Costa; A. Cuoco; G. Cusumano; C. J. Dai; B. Dawson; B. De Lotto; G. De Paris; A. de Ugarte Postigo; E. Del Monte; C. Delgado; A. Di Ciaccio; G. Di Cocco; S. Di Falco; G. Di Persio; B. L. Dingus; A. Dominguez; F. Donato; I. Donnarumma; M. Doro; J. Edsjo; J. M. Espino Navas; M. C. Espirito Santo; Y. Evangelista; C. Evoli; D. Fargion; C. Favuzzi; M. Feroci; M. Fiorini; L. Foggetta; N. Fornengo; T. Froysland; M. Frutti; F. Fuschino; J. L. Gomez; M. Gomez; D. Gaggero; N. Galante; M. I. Gallardo; M. Galli; J. E. Garcia; M. Garczarczyk; F. Gargano; M. Gaug; F. Gianotti; S. Giarrusso; B. Giebels; N. Giglietto; P. Giommi; F. Giordano; A. Giuliani; J. Glicenstein; P. Goncalves; D. Grasso; M. Guerriero; H. L. He; A. Incicchitti; J. Kirk; H. H. Kuang; A. La Barbera; G. La Rosa; C. Labanti; G. Lamanna; I. Lapshov; F. Lazzarotto; S. Liberati; F. Liello; P. Lipari; F. Longo; F. Loparco; M. Lozano; P. G. Lucentini De Sanctis; J. M. Ma; M. C. Maccarone; L. Maccione; V. Malvezzi; A. Mangano; M. Mariotti; M. Marisaldi; I. Martel; A. Masiero; E. Massaro; M. Mastropietro; E. Mattaini; F. Mauri; M. N. Mazziotta; S. Mereghetti; T. Mineo; S. Mizobuchi; A. Moiseev; M. Moles; C. Monte; F. Montecchia; E. Morelli; A. Morselli; I. Moskalenko; F. Nozzoli; J. F. Ormes; M. A. Peres-Torres; L. Pacciani; A. Pellizzoni; F. Perez-Bernal; F. Perotti; P. Picozza; L. Pieri; M. Pietroni; M. Pimenta; A. Pina; C. Pittori; C. Pontoni; G. Porrovecchio; F. Prada; M. Prest; D. Prosperi; R. Protheroe; G. Pucella; J. M. Quesada; J. M. Quintana; J. R. Quintero; S. Raino; M. Rapisarda; M. Rissi; J. Rodriguez; E. Rossi; G. Rowell; A. Rubini; F. Russo; M. Sanchez-Conde; B. Sacco; V. Scapin; M. Schelke; A. Segreto; A. Sellerholm; X. D. Sheng; A. Smith; P. Soffitta; R. Sparvoli; P. Spinelli; V. Stamatescu; L. S. Stark; M. Tavani; G. Thornton; L. G. Titarchuk; B. Tome; A. Traci; M. Trifoglio; A. Trois; P. Vallania; E. Vallazza; S. Vercellone; S. Vernetto; V. Vitale; N. Wild; Z. P. Ye; A. Zambra; F. Zandanel; D. Zanello

    2007-01-01

    This Conference is the fifth of a series of Workshops on High Energy Gamma- ray Experiments, following the Conferences held in Perugia 2003, Bari 2004, Cividale del Friuli 2005, Elba Island 2006. This year the focus was on the use of gamma-ray to study the Dark Matter component of the Universe, the origin and propagation of Cosmic Rays, Extra Large

  20. Gamma-Ray Bursts and Cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Jay P.

    2003-01-01

    The unrivalled, extreme luminosities of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) make them the favored beacons for sampling the high redshift Universe. To employ GRBs to study the cosmic terrain -- e.g., star and galaxy formation history -- GRB luminosities must be calibrated, and the luminosity function versus redshift must be measured or inferred. Several nascent relationships between gamma-ray temporal or spectral indicators and luminosity or total energy have been reported. These measures promise to further our understanding of GRBs once the connections between the luminosity indicators and GRB jets and emission mechanisms are better elucidated. The current distribution of 33 redshifts determined from host galaxies and afterglows peaks near z $\\sim$ 1, whereas for the full BATSE sample of long bursts, the lag-luminosity relation predicts a broad peak z $\\sim$ 1--4 with a tail to z $\\sim$ 20, in rough agreement with theoretical models based on star formation considerations. For some GRB subclasses and apparently related phenomena -- short bursts, long-lag bursts, and X-ray flashes -- the present information on their redshift distributions is sparse or entirely lacking, and progress is expected in Swift era when prompt alerts become numerous.

  1. Very high energy gamma ray astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, R.C.; Lewis, D.A.

    1992-02-01

    The second reflector (project GRANITE) is on schedule. At present (January 1992) it and the 10 m reflector are obtaining stereoscopic views of gamma-ray air showers from the Crab Nebula which verify the expected performance of the twin reflector telescopes. With the additional improvements of the upgrade (a pending DOE proposal) the twin reflectors should reach a limiting intensity of 1% that of the Crab. The astonishing early results from the EGRET detector aboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory indicate that distant quasars (powered by supermassive black holes) are active at GeV energies. The Whipple instruments are poised to see if such behavior continues above 100 GeV, as well as perform sensitive observations of previously reported GeV (Geminga) and TeV (Hercules X-1, etc.) sources. In addition to observing sources and identifying their location in the sky to one arcminute, experiments are planned to search for WIMPS in the mass range 0.1 to 1 TeV, and to determine the abundance of anti-protons in the cosmic rays. The successful performance of the stereoscopic reflectors demonstrates the feasibility of the concept of arrays of Cherenkov receivers. Design studies for a much larger array (CASITA) are just beginning.

  2. The X-ray afterglows of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, D.

    2014-07-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are renowned for being the brightest explosions since the Big Bang. They are extremely useful probes with which to study the cosmos, primarily because of their bright afterglows. While the afterglow is panchromatic, the X-ray afterglow has proved extremely useful: the first localisations of both short and long-duration GRBs were made via their X-ray afterglows, an X-ray afterglow is associated with almost every burst, and spectroscopy of the X-ray afterglow informs us of the material close to the GRB as well as providing an unobscured measurement of the afterglow flux for virtually every GRB. We now have an incredibly rich database of ten years worth of GRBs and their afterglows from the Swift satellite, where its rapid autonomous repointing has allowed its X-Ray Telescope to be on target only minutes after the GRB. Here I will review what we have learnt from the X-ray afterglows of GRBs and describe some exciting recent results.

  3. Fermi gamma-ray imaging of a radio galaxy.

    PubMed

    Abdo, A A; Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Atwood, W B; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Baughman, B M; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, T H; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cavazzuti, E; Cecchi, C; Celik, O; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Colafrancesco, S; Cominsky, L R; Conrad, J; Costamante, L; Cutini, S; Davis, D S; Dermer, C D; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; do Couto e Silva, E; Drell, P S; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Farnier, C; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Finke, J; Focke, W B; Fortin, P; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Georganopoulos, M; Germani, S; Giebels, B; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grove, J E; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Hughes, R E; Jackson, M S; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, T J; Johnson, W N; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kawai, N; Kerr, M; Knödlseder, J; Kocian, M L; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Makeev, A; Mazziotta, M N; McConville, W; McEnery, J E; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Porter, T A; Rainň, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Razzaque, S; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, T; Ritz, S; Rochester, L S; Rodriguez, A Y; Romani, R W; Roth, M; Ryde, F; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Sambruna, R; Sanchez, D; Sander, A; Saz Parkinson, P M; Scargle, J D; Sgrň, C; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Smith, P D; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Starck, J-L; Stawarz, ?; Strickman, M S; Suson, D J; Tajima, H; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J B; Thayer, J G; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Uchiyama, Y; Usher, T L; Vasileiou, V; Vilchez, N; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Wallace, E; Wang, P; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Ylinen, T; Ziegler, M; Hardcastle, M J; Kazanas, D

    2010-05-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has detected the gamma-ray glow emanating from the giant radio lobes of the radio galaxy Centaurus A. The resolved gamma-ray image shows the lobes clearly separated from the central active source. In contrast to all other active galaxies detected so far in high-energy gamma-rays, the lobe flux constitutes a considerable portion (greater than one-half) of the total source emission. The gamma-ray emission from the lobes is interpreted as inverse Compton-scattered relic radiation from the cosmic microwave background, with additional contribution at higher energies from the infrared-to-optical extragalactic background light. These measurements provide gamma-ray constraints on the magnetic field and particle energy content in radio galaxy lobes, as well as a promising method to probe the cosmic relic photon fields. PMID:20360067

  4. A separation of electrons and protons in the GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope

    E-print Network

    Leonov, A A; Bonvicini, V; Topchiev, N P; Adriani, O; Aptekar, R L; Arkhangelskaja, I V; Arkhangelskiy, A I; Bergstrom, L; Berti, E; Bigongiari, G; Bobkov, S G; Boezio, M; Bogomolov, E A; Bonechi, S; Bongi, M; Bottai, S; Castellini, G; Cattaneo, P W; Cumani, P; Dedenko, G L; De Donato, C; Dogiel, V A; Gorbunov, M S; Gusakov, Yu V; Hnatyk, B I; Kadilin, V V; Kaplin, V A; Kaplun, A A; Kheymits, M D; Korepanov, V E; Larsson, J; Loginov, V A; Longo, F; Maestro, P; Marrocchesi, P S; Mikhailov, V V; Mocchiutti, E; Moiseev, A A; Mori, N; Moskalenko, I V; Naumov, P Yu; Papini, P; Pearce, M; Picozza, P; Popov, A V; Rappoldi, A; Ricciarini, S; Runtso, M F; Ryde, F; Serdin, O V; Sparvoli, R; Spillantini, P; Suchkov, S I; Tavani, M; Taraskin, A A; Tiberio, A; Tyurin, E M; Ulanov, M V; Vacchi, A; Vannuccini, E; Vasilyev, G I; Yurkin, Yu T; Zampa, N; Zirakashvili, V N; Zverev, V G

    2015-01-01

    The GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope is intended to measure the fluxes of gamma rays and cosmic-ray electrons and positrons in the energy range from 100 MeV to several TeV. Such measurements concern with the following scientific goals: search for signatures of dark matter, investigation of gamma-ray point and extended sources, studies of the energy spectra of Galactic and extragalactic diffuse emission, studies of gamma-ray bursts and gamma-ray emission from the active Sun, as well as high-precision measurements of spectra of high-energy electrons and positrons, protons, and nuclei up to the knee. The main components of cosmic rays are protons and helium nuclei, whereas the part of lepton component in the total flux is ~10E-3 for high energies. In present paper, the capability of the GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope to distinguish electrons and positrons from protons in cosmic rays is investigated. The individual contribution to the proton rejection is studied for each detector system of the GAMMA-400 gamma-ray tel...

  5. DETECTION OF VHE {gamma}-RAYS FROM HESS J0632+057 DURING THE 2011 FEBRUARY X-RAY OUTBURST WITH THE MAGIC TELESCOPES

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksic, J.; Blanch, O. [IFAE, Edifici Cn., Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Alvarez, E. A.; Asensio, M.; Barrio, J. A. [Grupo de Fisica Altas Energias, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Antonelli, L. A.; Bonnoli, G. [INAF National Institute for Astrophysics, I-00136 Rome (Italy); Antoranz, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Siena and INFN Pisa, I-53100 Siena (Italy); Backes, M. [Technische Universitaet Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund (Germany); Barres de Almeida, U.; Bock, R. K.; Borla Tridon, D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, D-80805 Muenchen (Germany); Bastieri, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova and INFN, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Becerra Gonzalez, J.; Berger, K. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Bednarek, W. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Lodz, PL-90236 Lodz (Poland); Bernardini, E. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Biland, A.; Boller, A. [ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Bosch-Ramon, V., E-mail: jogler@slac.stanford.edu, E-mail: pmunar@am.ub.es [Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Barcelona (ICC/IEEC), E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); and others

    2012-07-20

    The very high energy (VHE) {gamma}-ray source HESS J0632+057 has recently been confirmed to be a {gamma}-ray binary. The optical counterpart is the Be star MWC 148, and a compact object of unknown nature orbits it every {approx}321 days with a high eccentricity of {approx}0.8. We monitored HESS J0632+057 with the stereoscopic MAGIC telescopes from 2010 October to 2011 March and detected significant VHE {gamma}-ray emission during 2011 February, when the system exhibited an X-ray outburst. We find no {gamma}-ray signal in the other observation periods when the system did not show increased X-ray flux. Thus, HESS J0632+057 exhibits {gamma}-ray variability on timescales of the order of one to two months possibly linked to the X-ray outburst that takes place about 100 days after the periastron passage. Furthermore, our measurements provide for the first time the {gamma}-ray spectrum down to about 140 GeV and indicate no turnover of the spectrum at low energies. We compare the properties of HESS J0632+057 with the similar {gamma}-ray binary LS I +61 Degree-Sign 303 and discuss the possible origin of the multi-wavelength emission of the source.

  6. Pair cascades in extragalactic jets. 1: Gamma rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blandford, R. D.; Levinson, A.

    1995-01-01

    A model of the approximately 0.1-10 GeV gamma-ray jets observed by the EGRET instrument on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) is developed. It is shown that the soft X-ray background in an active galactic nuclei (AGN) contributes an opacity to pair production and that a gamma-ray photosphere or 'gamma-sphere' can be defined whose radius increases with gamma-ray energy E(sub gamma). It is proposed that the observed gamma-ray emission is due to inverse Compton scattering of the ambient soft X-rays by relativistic pairs accelerated in situ by shock fronts in a relativistic jet. For a wide range of assumed physical conditions, the emission at a given E(sub gamma) originates from near the associated gamma-spheres; emission from below the gamma-sphere initiates a cascade down to the energy where the gamma-rays can escape freely. In this model, the slope of the emergent gamma-ray spectrum is determined by the scattered, soft X-ray spectrum and the variation of the particle acceleration rate with jet radius. In general it is expected that the variation in the gamma-ray flux will be either slower or later at higher energy. It is also shown that the efficiency of conversion of energy from injected high-energy pairs to 0.1-10 GeV gamma-rays is typically high so that the models are radiatively efficient. It is argued that the observed gamma-ray jets are likely to be particle-dominated, though magnetically confined. The gamma-ray spectrum should continue down to an energy approximately 5 MeV emitted from an annihilation radius within which the pair content of the jet is limited by annihilation. This is probably the site of the beamed hard X-ray emission. It is speculated that the relativistic jets associated with radio-loud AGNs are powered electromagnetically by a spinning black hole and that they are collimated by an encircling MHD wind leaving the accretion disk at a slower speed. Powerful FR2 radio sources are formed when the hole spins rapidly and the relativistic core accelerates the MHD sheath; low-power FR1 sources ensue when the opposite occurs. Finally, it is suggested that the key factor which determines whether or not a given active nucleus can form a jet and a radio to gamma-ray nonthermal continuum is the central density of mass-losing stars which, when large, precludes the formation of a super-Alfvenic, collimating wind.

  7. Optimization of compact synchrotron optics for x-ray lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, G.A.; Craft, B.C.

    1987-03-01

    The production of integrated circuits having sub-micron component dimensions has motivated the development of compact electron storage rings to provide synchrotron x-ray radiation. This paper presents considerations for optimizing the optics for small radius rings using superconducting dipole magnets. The key parameters are the sizes and angular divergences of the source points illuminating the different ports. Two ring designs are compared in terms of theoretical beam parameters achievable using idealized optics.

  8. High Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts - Before GLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Yi-Zhong; Piran, Tsvi

    2011-11-29

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are short and intense emission of soft {gamma}-rays, which have fascinated astronomers and astrophysicists since their unexpected discovery in 1960s. The X-ray/optical/radio afterglow observations confirm the cosmological origin of GRBs, support the fireball model, and imply a long-activity of the central engine. The high-energy {gamma}-ray emission (> 20 MeV) from GRBs is particularly important because they shed some lights on the radiation mechanisms and can help us to constrain the physical processes giving rise to the early afterglows. In this work, we review observational and theoretical studies of the high-energy emission from GRBs. Special attention is given to the expected high-energy emission signatures accompanying the canonical early-time X-ray afterglow that was observed by the Swift X-ray Telescope. We also discuss the detection prospect of the upcoming GLAST satellite and the current ground-based Cerenkov detectors.

  9. Classification of Fermi Gamma-RAY Bursts

    E-print Network

    Horvath, I; Hakkila, J; Bagoly, Z; Preece, R D

    2015-01-01

    The Fermi GBM Catalog has been recently published. Previous classification analyses of the BATSE, RHESSI, BeppoSAX, and Swift databases found three types of gamma-ray bursts. Now we analyzed the GBM catalog to classify the GRBs. PCA and Multiclustering analysis revealed three groups. Validation of these groups, in terms of the observed variables, shows that one of the groups coincides with the short GRBs. The other two groups split the long class into a bright and dim part, as defined by the peak flux. Additional analysis is needed to determine whether this splitting is only a mathematical byproduct of the analysis or has some real physical meaning.

  10. Directions in gamma-ray spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil; Candey, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    Current and future instrumentation for gamma-ray spectroscopy in the spectral range from 10 keV to 10 MeV is described. New technologies for Germanium (Ge) spectrometers and emerging detector technologies are highlighted. Scientific objectives are considered, with emphasis on capabilities beyond those of the Nuclear Astrophysics Explorer (NAE). A list of instrument requirements is given. Technologies under development for an NAE-era spectrometer are presented. Spectrometers beyond NAE and other types of future technologies are discussed, and a partial list of current and future spectrometers is provided.

  11. Observational Review of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    1999-01-01

    The observed gamma-ray temporal, spectral, intensity and spatial distribution characteristics of GRBs, primarily from data obtained from the Compton Observatory, will be described. The talk will concentrate on recent studies of burst properties, correlations of GRB parameters and other statistical studies that have only recently come to light with the unprecedented sample of over two thousand GRBs, along with some mention of studies in progress by members of the BATSE team. Recent studies of possible observational biases, un-triggered GRBs and threshold calculations for BATSE will also be described.

  12. Gamma Ray Bursts: Explaining the Universe's Biggest Bangs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This radio broadcast discusses research into gamma ray bursts, the largest explosions in the universe. Topics include the SWIFT satellite mission and discoveries; the immense energy output of a gamma ray burst, and the causes of long and short gamma ray bursts (long bursts caused by core collapse into a black hole, and the short bursts from binary stellar system mergers, such as a neutron star colliding with a black hole). The broadcast is 28 minutes and 50 seconds in length.

  13. Factors influencing in situ gamma-ray measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. H. Loonstra; F. M. van Egmond

    2009-01-01

    Introduction In situ passive gamma-ray sensors are very well suitable for mapping physical soil properties. In order to make a qualitative sound soil map, high quality input parameters for calibration are required. This paper will focus on the factors that affect the output of in situ passive gamma-ray sensors, the primary source, soil, not taken into account. Factors The gamma-ray

  14. The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Mission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven M. Ritz; P. F. Michelson; C. Meegan; J. Grindlay

    2007-01-01

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope, GLAST, is a mission to measure the cosmic gamma-ray flux in the energy range 20 MeV to >300; GeV, with supporting measurements for gamma-ray bursts from 8 keV to 30 MeV. The very large field of view will make it possible to observe 20% of the sky at any instant, and the entire sky

  15. The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Mission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ritz; J. Grindlay; C. Meegan; P. F. Michelson

    2005-01-01

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope, GLAST, is a mission under construction to measure the cosmic gamma-ray flux in the energy range 20 MeV to >300 GeV, with supporting measurements for gamma-ray bursts from 10 keV to 25 MeV. With its launch in 2007, GLAST will open a new and important window on a wide variety of high-energy phenomena, including

  16. The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Mission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven M. Ritz; P. F. Michelson; C. Meegan; J. E. Grindlay

    2006-01-01

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope, GLAST, is a mission to measure the cosmic gamma-ray flux in the energy range 20 MeV to >300 GeV, with supporting measurements for gamma-ray bursts from 10 keV to 25 MeV. With its launch in 2007, GLAST will open a new and important window on a wide variety of phenomena, including black holes and

  17. The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Mission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ritz; P. F. Michelson; C. Meegan; J. Grindlay

    2004-01-01

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope, GLAST, is a mission under construction to measure the cosmic gamma-ray flux in the energy range 20 MeV to >300 GeV, with supporting measurements for gamma-ray bursts from 10 keV to 25 MeV. With its launch in 2007, GLAST will open a new and important window on a wide variety of high-energy phenomena, including

  18. Fermi Discovery of Gamma-ray Emission from NGC 1275

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aous A. Abdo; M. Ackermann; M. Ajello; K. Asano; L. Baldini; J. Ballet; Guido Barbiellini; Denis Bastieri; B. M. Baughman; K. Bechtol; R. Bellazzini; R. D. Blandford; Elliott D. Bloom; E. Bonamente; A. W. Borgland; J. Bregeon; A. Brez; M. Brigida; P. Bruel; Thompson H. Burnett; G. A. Caliandro; R. A. Cameron; P. A. Caraveo; J. M. Casandjian; E. Cavazzuti; C. Cecchi; A. Celotti; A. Chekhtman; C. C. Cheung; J. Chiang; S. Ciprini; R. Claus; J. Cohen-Tanugi; S. Colafrancesco; L. R. Cominsky; J. Conrad; L. Costamante; C. D. Dermer; A. de Angelis; F. de Palma; S. W. Digel; D. Donato; E. do Couto e Silva; P. S. Drell; R. Dubois; D. Dumora; C. Farnier; C. Favuzzi; J. Finke; W. B. Focke; M. Frailis; Y. Fukazawa; S. Funk; P. Fusco; F. Gargano; M. Georganopoulos; S. Germani; B. Giebels; N. Giglietto; F. Giordano; T. Glanzman; I. A. Grenier; M.-H. Grondin; J. E. Grove; L. Guillemot; S. Guiriec; Y. Hanabata; A. K. Harding; R. C. Hartman; M. Hayashida; E. Hays; R. E. Hughes; G. Jóhannesson; A. S. Johnson; R. P. Johnson; W. N. Johnson; M. Kadler; T. Kamae; Y. Kanai; H. Katagiri; J. Kataoka; N. Kawai; M. Kerr; J. Knödlseder; F. Kuehn; M. Kuss; L. Latronico; M. Lemoine-Goumard; F. Longo; F. Loparco; B. Lott; M. N. Lovellette; P. Lubrano; G. M. Madejski; A. Makeev; M. N. Mazziotta; J. E. McEnery; C. Meurer; P. F. Michelson; W. Mitthumsiri; T. Mizuno; A. A. Moiseev; C. Monte; M. E. Monzani; A. Morselli; I. V. Moskalenko; S. Murgia; T. Nakamori; P. L. Nolan; J. P. Norris; E. Nuss; T. Ohsugi; N. Omodei; E. Orlando; J. F. Ormes; D. Paneque; J. H. Panetta; D. Parent; M. Pepe; M. Pesce-Rollins; F. Piron; T. A. Porter; S. Rainň; M. Razzano; A. Reimer; O. Reimer; T. Reposeur; S. Ritz; A. Y. Rodriguez; R. W. Romani; F. Ryde; H. F.-W. Sadrozinski; R. Sambruna; D. Sanchez; A. Sander; R. Sato; P. M. Saz Parkinson; C. Sgrň; D. A. Smith; P. D. Smith; G. Spandre; P. Spinelli; J.-L. Starck; M. S. Strickman; A. W. Strong; D. J. Suson; H. Tajima; H. Takahashi; T. Takahashi; T. Tanaka; G. B. Taylor; J. G. Thayer; D. J. Thompson; D. F. Torres; G. Tosti; Y. Uchiyama; T. L. Usher; N. Vilchez; V. Vitale; A. P. Waite; K. S. Wood; T. Ylinen; M. Ziegler; H. D. Aller; M. F. Aller; K. I. Kellermann; Y. Y. Kovalev; Yu. A. Kovalev; M. L. Lister; A. B. Pushkarev

    2009-01-01

    We report the discovery of high-energy (E > 100 MeV) gamma-ray emission from NGC 1275, a giant elliptical galaxy lying at the center of the Perseus cluster of galaxies, based on observations made with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The positional center of the gamma-ray source is only ≈3' away from the NGC 1275

  19. History and Observation of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    1999-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are now generally believed to originate from cosmological distances and represent the largest known explosions in the Universe. This talk will describe the temporal and spectral characteristic of gamma-ray bursts, their intensity and sky distribution, and other observed characteristics in the gamma-ray region, primarily from data obtained with the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) experiment on the Compton Observatory.

  20. Did A Galactic Gamma-Ray Burst Kill the Dinosaurs?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Brecher

    1997-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts now appear to be primarily of extragalactic origin. Statistically, assuming isotropic emission, the observed event rates and fluxes imply that one event occurs per 10(4) \\\\ - 10(6) \\\\ years per galaxy, with about 10(51) \\\\ - 10(53) \\\\ ergs in gamma-rays emitted per event. Unless the Milky Way is unusual, a gamma-ray burst should occur within 10(2)

  1. Report of the x ray and gamma ray sensors panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szymkowiak, Andrew; Collins, S.; Kurfess, J.; Mahoney, W.; Mccammon, D.; Pehl, R.; Ricker, G.

    1991-01-01

    Overall five major areas of technology are recommended for development in order to meet the science requirements of the Astrotech 21 mission set. These are: detectors for high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy, cryogenic detectors for improved x ray spectral and spatial resolution, advanced x ray charge coupled devices (CCDs) for higher energy resolution and larger format, extension to higher energies, liquid and solid position sensitive detectors for improving stopping power in the energy range 5 to 500 keV and 0.2 to 2 MeV. Development plans designed to achieve the desired capabilities on the time scales required by the technology freeze dates have been recommended in each of these areas.

  2. Report of the X ray and gamma ray sensors panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymkowiak, Andrew; Collins, S.; Kurfess, J.; Mahoney, W.; McCammon, D.; Pehl, R.; Ricker, G.

    1991-08-01

    Overall five major areas of technology are recommended for development in order to meet the science requirements of the Astrotech 21 mission set. These are: detectors for high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy, cryogenic detectors for improved x ray spectral and spatial resolution, advanced x ray charge coupled devices (CCDs) for higher energy resolution and larger format, extension to higher energies, liquid and solid position sensitive detectors for improving stopping power in the energy range 5 to 500 keV and 0.2 to 2 MeV. Development plans designed to achieve the desired capabilities on the time scales required by the technology freeze dates have been recommended in each of these areas.

  3. Gamma-ray bursts during neutron star formation. Gamma-ray bursts and transient X-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, J. M.; Desai, U. D.; Holt, S. S.

    1973-01-01

    Discussions are presented of the associations between cosmic gamma ray bursts and transient X-ray sources, and the release of gravitational binding energy during the formation of neutron stars. The model for studying the associations is described along with the release of neutrinos during the collapse of white dwarfs.

  4. Gamma-ray luminosity function of Gamma-ray bright AGNs

    E-print Network

    D. Bhattacharya; P. Sreekumar; R. Mukherjee

    2009-12-17

    Detection of Gamma-ray emission from a class of active galactic nuclei (viz blazars), has been one of the important findings from the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO). However, their Gamma-ray luminosity function has not been well determined. Few attempts have been made in earlier works, where BL Lacs and Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars (FSRQs) have been considered as a single source class. In this paper we investigated the evolution and Gamma-ray luminosity function of FSRQs and BL Lacs separately. Our investigation indicates no evolution for BL Lacs, however FSRQs show significant evolution. Pure luminosity evolution is assumed for FSRQs and exponential and power law evolution models are examined. Due to the small number of sources, the low luminosity end index of the luminosity function for FSRQs is constrained with upper limit. BL Lac luminosity function shows no signature of break. As a consistency check, the model source distributions deriving from these luminosity functions show no significant departure from the observed source distributions.

  5. POPULATION III GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Meszaros, P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Department of Physics and Center for Particle Astrophysics, 525 Davey Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Rees, M. J. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-01

    We discuss a model of Poynting-dominated gamma-ray bursts from the collapse of very massive first generation (Pop. III) stars. From redshifts of order 20, the resulting relativistic jets would radiate in the hard X-ray range around 50 keV and above, followed after roughly a day by an external shock component peaking around a few keV. On the same timescales an inverse Compton component around 75 GeV may be expected, as well as a possible infrared flash. The fluences of these components would be above the threshold for detectors such as Swift and Fermi, providing potentially valuable information on the formation and properties of what may be the first luminous objects and their black holes in the high redshift universe.

  6. The Swift Gamma Ray Burst Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, N.; Chincarini, G.; Giommi, P.; Mason, K. O.; Nousek, J. A.; Wells, A. A.; White, N. E.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Burrows, D. N.; Cominsky, L. R.

    2004-01-01

    The Swift mission: scheduled for launch in early 2004: is a multiwavelength observatory for gamma-ray burst (GRB) astronomy. It is the first-of-its-kind autonomous rapid-slewing satellite for transient astronomy and pioneers the way for future rapid-reaction and multiwavelength missions. It will be far more powerful than any previous GRB mission, observing more than 100 bursts per year and performing detailed X-ray and UV/optical afterglow observations spanning timescales from 1 minute to several days after the burst. The objectives are to: 1) determine the origin of GFU3s; 2) classify GRBs and search for new types; 3) study the interaction of the ultra-relativistic outflows of GRBs with their surrounding medium; and 4) use GRBs to study the early universe out to z greater than 10. The mission is being developed by a NASA-led international collaboration. It will carry three instruments: a new-generation wide-field gamma-ray (15-150 keV) detector that will detect bursts, calculate 1-4 arcmin positions: and trigger autonomous spacecraft slews; a narrow-field X-ray telescope that will give 5 arcsec positions and perform spectroscopy in the 0.2 to 10 keV band; and a narrow-field UV/optical telescope that will operate in the 170-600 nm band and provide 0.3 arcsec positions and optical finding charts. Redshift determinations will be made for most bursts. In addition to the primary GRB science, the mission will perform a hard X-ray survey to a sensitivity of approx. 1 mCrab (approx. 2 x l0(exp -11) erg/sq cm s in the 15-150 keV band), more than an order of magnitude better than HEAO A-4. A flexible data and operations system will allow rapid follow-up observations of all types of high-energy transients. with rapid data downlink and uplink available through the NASA TDRSS system. Swift transient data will be rapidly distributed to the astronomical community and all interested observers are encouraged to participate in follow-up measurements. A Guest Investigator program for the mission will provide funding for community involvement. Innovations from the Swift program applicable to the future include: 1) a large-area gamma-ray detector us- ing the new CdZnTe detectors; 2) an autonomous rapid slewing spacecraft; 3) a multiwavelength payload combining optical, X-ray, and gamma-ray instruments; 4) an observing program coordinated with other ground-based and space-based observatories; and 5) immediate multiwavelength data flow to the community. The mission is currently funded for 2 years of operations and the spacecraft will have a lifetime to orbital decay of approx. 8 years.

  7. Future Facilities for Gamma-Ray Pulsar Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. J.

    2003-01-01

    Pulsars seen at gamma-ray energies offer insight into particle acceleration to very high energies, along with information about the geometry and interaction processes in the magnetospheres of these rotating neutron stars. During the next decade, a number of new gamma-ray facilities will become available for pulsar studies. This brief review describes the motivation for gamma-ray pulsar studies, the opportunities for such studies, and some specific discussion of the capabilities of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Large Area Telescope (LAT) for pulsar measurements.

  8. The Goddard program of gamma ray transient astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, T. L.; Desai, U. D.; Teegarden, B. J.

    1980-01-01

    Gamma ray burst studies are reviewed. The past results, present status and future expectations are outlined regarding endeavors using experiments on balloons, IMP-6 and -7, OGO-3, ISEE-1 and -3, Helios-2, Solar Maximum Mission, the Einstein Observatory, Solar Polar and the Gamma Ray Observatory, and with the interplanetary gamma ray burst networks, to which some of these spacecraft sensors contribute. Additional emphasis is given to the recent discovery of a new type of gamma ray transient, detected on 1979 March 5.

  9. Gamma ray constraints on the galactic supernova rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, D.; The, L.-S.; Clayton, D. D.; Leising, M.; Mathews, G.; Woosley, S. E.

    1992-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of the expected gamma-ray signatures of galactic supernovae of all types are performed in order to estimate the significance of the lack of a gamma-ray signal due to supernovae occurring during the last millenium. Using recent estimates of nuclear yields, we determine galactic supernova rates consistent with the historic supernova record and the gamma-ray limits. Another objective of these calculations of galactic supernova histories is their application to surveys of diffuse galactic gamma-ray line emission.

  10. Inelastic cross sections from gamma-ray measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Ronald Owen [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-06

    Measurements of gamma rays following neutron induced reactions have been studied with the Germanium Array for Neutron-induced Excitations (GEANIE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) for many years. Gamma-ray excitation functions and coincidence studies provide insight into nuclear reaction mechanisms as well as expanding our knowledge of energy levels and gamma-rays. Samples studied with Ge detectors at LANSCE range from Be to Pu. Fe, Cr and Ti have been considered for use as reference cross sections. An overview of the measurements and efforts to create a reliable neutron-induced gamma-ray reference cross section will be presented.

  11. The gamma ray spectrometer for the Solar Maximum Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forrest, D. J.; Chupp, E. L.; Ryan, J. M.; Cherry, M. L.; Gleske, I. U.; Reppin, C.; Pinkau, K.; Rieger, E.; Kanbach, G.; Kinzer, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    The paper describes an actively shielded, multicrystal scintillation spectrometer for measurement of the solar gamma ray flux used by the Solar Maximum Mission Gamma Ray Experiment. The instrument provides a 476-channel pulse height spectrum every 16.38 s over the 0.3-9 MeV energy range; the gamma ray spectral analysis can be extended to at least 15 MeV on command. The instrument is designed to measure the intensity, energy, and Doppler shift of narrow gamma ray lines, the intensity of extremely broadened lines, and the photon continuum.

  12. Gamma rays and positrons from a decaying hidden gauge boson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chuan-Ren; Takahashi, Fuminobu; Yanagida, T. T.

    2009-01-01

    We study a scenario that a hidden gauge boson constitutes the dominant component of dark matter and decays into the standard model particles through a gauge kinetic mixing. Interestingly, gamma rays and positrons produced from the decay of hidden gauge boson can explain both the EGRET excess of diffuse gamma rays and the HEAT anomaly in the positron fraction. The spectra of the gamma rays and the positrons have distinctive features; the absence of line emission of the gamma ray and a sharp peak in the positron fraction. Such features may be observed by the FGST and PAMELA satellites.

  13. Gamma rays and cosmic rays at Venus: The Pioneer Venus gamma ray detector and considerations for future measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.; Lawrence, David J.

    2015-05-01

    We draw attention to, and present a summary archive of the data from, the Pioneer Venus Orbiter Gamma-ray Burst Detector (OGBD), an instrument not originally conceived with Venus science in mind. We consider the possibility of gamma-ray flashes generated by lightning and model the propagation of gamma rays in the Venusian atmosphere, finding that if gamma rays originate at the upper range of reported cloud top altitudes (75 km altitude), they may be attenuated by factors of only a few, whereas from 60 km altitude they are attenuated by over two orders of magnitude. The present archive is too heavily averaged to reliably detect such a source (and we appeal to investigators who may have retained a higher-resolution archive), but the data do provide a useful and unique record of the cosmic ray flux at Venus 1978-1993. We consider other applications of future orbital gamma ray data, such as atmospheric occultations and the detection of volcanic materials injected high in the atmosphere.

  14. Gamma-ray bursts from synchrotron self-Compton emission

    E-print Network

    Boris E. Stern; Juri Poutanen

    2004-06-30

    The emission mechanism of the gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is still a matter of debates. The standard synchrotron energy spectrum of cooling electrons F_E ~ E^{-1/2} is much too soft to account for the majority of the observed spectral slopes. An alternative in the form of quasi-thermal Comptonization in a high compactness source has difficulties in reproducing the peak of the observed photon distribution below a few hundred keV. We show here that for typical parameters expected in the GRB ejecta the observed spectra in the 20-1000 keV BATSE energy range can be produced by inverse Compton scattering of the synchrotron radiation in a partially self-absorbed regime. If the particles are continuously accelerated/heated over the life-time of a source rather than being instantly injected, a prominent peak develops in their distribution at a Lorentz factor gamma ~ 30-100, where synchrotron and inverse-Compton losses are balanced by acceleration and heating due to synchrotron self-absorption. The synchrotron peak should be observed at 10-100 eV, while the self-absorbed low-energy tail with F_E ~ E^2 can produce the prompt optical emission (like in the case of GRB 990123). The first Compton scattering radiation by nearly monoenergetic electrons can then be as hard as F_E ~ E^1 reproducing the hardness of most of the observed GRB spectra. The second Compton peak should be observed in the high energy gamma-ray band, possibly being responsible for the emission detected by EGRET in GRB 941017. A significant electron-positron pair production reduces the available energy per particle, moving the spectral peaks to lower energies as the burst progresses. The regime is very robust, operates in a broad range of parameter space and can explain most of the observed GRB spectra and their temporal evolution.

  15. A redshifted Kalpha line from the peculiar gamma-ray source PMN J1603-4904

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, C.; Krauß, F.; Kreikenbohm, A.; Kadler, M.; Ojha, R.; Wilms, J.; Markowitz, A.; Pottschmidt, K.; Stawarz, L.; Taylor, G.

    2015-07-01

    We present the latest results on the bright hard-spectrum gamma-ray source PMN J1603-4904, observed in the framework of the multiwavelength monitoring program TANAMI. High-resolution radio observations reveal a symmetric brightness distribution with the brightest, most compact component at the center of the emission region. Its broadband spectral energy distribution and other multiwavelength properties point to a very atypical blazar. Here, we focus on recent XMM-Newton and Suzaku observations. We detect a narrow iron line which allows for a first measurement of the redshift of the system (z˜ 0.18) and further challenges the earlier blazar classification. This result suggests that the source is observed at a larger angle to the line of sight than expected for blazars, and thus the source would add to the elusive class of gamma-ray loud misaligned-jet objects, possibly a gamma-ray bright young radio galaxy.

  16. STUDY OF THE SPECTRAL AND TEMPORAL CHARACTERISTICS OF X-RAY EMISSION OF THE GAMMA-RAY BINARY LS 5039 WITH SUZAKU

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Tadayuki; Kishishita, Tetsuichi [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science/JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan); Uchiyama, Yasunobu; Tanaka, Takaaki [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road M/S 29, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Yamaoka, Kazutaka [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Aoyama Gakuin University, 5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8558 (Japan); Khangulyan, Dmitry; Aharonian, Felix A.; Bosch-Ramon, Valenti [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, Heidelberg 69117 (Germany); Hinton, Jim A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT, Leeds (United Kingdom)], E-mail: takahasi@astro.isas.jaxa.jp

    2009-05-20

    We report on the results from Suzaku broadband X-ray observations of the galactic binary source LS 5039. The Suzaku data, which have continuous coverage of more than one orbital period, show strong modulation of the X-ray emission at the orbital period of this TeV gamma-ray emitting system. The X-ray emission shows a minimum at orbital phase {approx}0.1, close to the so-called superior conjunction of the compact object, and a maximum at phase {approx}0.7, very close to the inferior conjunction of the compact object. The X-ray spectral data up to 70 keV are described by a hard power law with a phase-dependent photon index which varies within {gamma} {approx_equal} 1.45- 1.61. The amplitude of the flux variation is a factor of 2.5, but is significantly less than that of the factor {approx}8 variation in the TeV flux. Otherwise the two light curves are similar, but not identical. Although periodic X-ray emission has been found from many galactic binary systems, the Suzaku result implies a phenomenon different from the 'standard' origin of X-rays related to the emission of the hot accretion plasma formed around the compact companion object. The X-ray radiation of LS 5039 is likely to be linked to very high energy electrons which are also responsible for the TeV gamma-ray emission. While the gamma rays are the result of inverse Compton (IC) scattering by electrons on optical stellar photons, X-rays are produced via synchrotron radiation. Yet, while the modulation of the TeV gamma-ray signal can be naturally explained by the photon-photon pair production and anisotropic IC scattering, the observed modulation of synchrotron X-rays requires an additional process, the most natural one being adiabatic expansion in the radiation production region.

  17. Discovery of the short gamma-ray burst GRB 050709

    E-print Network

    J. S. Villasenor; D. Q. Lamb; G. R. Ricker; J. -L. Atteia; N. Kawai; N. Butler; Y. Nakagawa; J. G. Jernigan; M. Boer; G. B. Crew; T. Q. Donaghy; J. Doty; E. E. Fenimore; M. Galassi; C. Graziani; K. Hurley; A. Levine; F. Martel; M. Matsuoka; J. -F. Olive; G. Prigozhin; T. Sakamoto; Y. Shirasaki; M. Suzuki; T. Tamagawa; R. Vanderspek; S. E. Woosley; A. Yoshida; J. Braga; R. Manchanda; G. Pizzichini; K. Takagishi; M. Yamauchi

    2005-10-06

    Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) fall into two classes: short-hard and long-soft bursts. The latter are now known to have X-ray and optical afterglows, to occur at cosmological distances in star-forming galaxies, and to be associated with the explosion of massive stars. In contrast, the distance scale, the energy scale, and the progenitors of short bursts have remained a mystery. Here we report the discovery of a short-hard burst whose accurate localization has led to follow-up observations that have identified the X-ray afterglow and (for the first time) the optical afterglow of a short-hard burst. These, in turn, have led to identification of the host galaxy of the burst as a late-type galaxy at z=0.16 showing that at least some short-hard bursts occur at cosmological distances in the outskirts of galaxies, and are likely to be due to the merging of compact binaries.

  18. Redshifts of the Long Gamma-Ray Bursts

    E-print Network

    Z. Bagoly; I. Csabai; A. Meszaros; P. Meszaros; I. Horvath; L. G. Balazs; R. Vavrek

    2007-04-06

    The low energy spectra of some gamma-ray bursts' show excess components beside the power-law dependence. The consequences of such a feature allows to estimate the gamma photometric redshift of the long gamma-ray bursts in the BATSE Catalog. There is good correlation between the measured optical and the estimated gamma photometric redshifts. The estimated redshift values for the long bright gamma-ray bursts are up to z=4, while for the the faint long bursts - which should be up to z=20 - the redshifts cannot be determined unambiguously with this method. The redshift distribution of all the gamma-ray bursts with known optical redshift agrees quite well with the BATSE based gamma photometric redshift distribution.

  19. Development of gamma ray imaging cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Wehe, D.K.; Knoll, G.F.

    1992-05-28

    In January 1990, the Department of Energy initiated this project with the objective to develop the technology for general purpose, portable gamma ray imaging cameras useful to the nuclear industry. The ultimate goal of this R D initiative is to develop the analog to the color television camera where the camera would respond to gamma rays instead of visible photons. The two-dimensional real-time image would be displayed would indicate the geometric location of the radiation relative to the camera's orientation, while the brightness and color'' would indicate the intensity and energy of the radiation (and hence identify the emitting isotope). There is a strong motivation for developing such a device for applications within the nuclear industry, for both high- and low-level waste repositories, for environmental restoration problems, and for space and fusion applications. At present, there are no general purpose radiation cameras capable of producing spectral images for such practical applications. At the time of this writing, work on this project has been underway for almost 18 months. Substantial progress has been made in the project's two primary areas: mechanically-collimated (MCC) and electronically-collimated camera (ECC) designs. We present developments covering the mechanically-collimated design, and then discuss the efforts on the electronically-collimated camera. The renewal proposal addresses the continuing R D efforts for the third year effort. 8 refs.

  20. Gamma-Ray Bursts: The Underlying Model

    E-print Network

    E. Waxman

    2003-03-23

    A pedagogical derivation is presented of the ``fireball'' model of gamma-ray bursts, according to which the observable effects are due to the dissipation of the kinetic energy of a relativistically expanding wind, a ``fireball.'' The main open questions are emphasized, and key afterglow observations, that provide support for this model, are briefly discussed. The relativistic outflow is, most likely, driven by the accretion of a fraction of a solar mass onto a newly born (few) solar mass black hole. The observed radiation is produced once the plasma has expanded to a scale much larger than that of the underlying ``engine,'' and is therefore largely independent of the details of the progenitor, whose gravitational collapse leads to fireball formation. Several progenitor scenarios, and the prospects for discrimination among them using future observations, are discussed. The production in gamma- ray burst fireballs of high energy protons and neutrinos, and the implications of burst neutrino detection by kilometer-scale telescopes under construction, are briefly discussed.

  1. Gamma ray tests of Minimal Dark Matter

    E-print Network

    Cirelli, Marco; Panci, Paolo; Sala, Filippo; Taoso, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We reconsider the model of Minimal Dark Matter (a fermionic, hypercharge-less quintuplet of the EW interactions) and compute its gamma ray signatures. We compare them with a number of gamma ray probes: the galactic halo diffuse measurements, the galactic center line searches and recent dwarf galaxies observations. We find that the original minimal model, whose mass is fixed at 9.4 TeV by the relic abundance requirement, is constrained by the line searches from the Galactic Center: it is ruled out if the Milky Way possesses a cuspy profile such as NFW but it is still allowed if it has a cored one. Observations of dwarf spheroidal galaxies are also relevant (in particular searches for lines), and ongoing astrophysical progresses on these systems have the potential to eventually rule out the model. We also explore a wider mass range, which applies to the case in which the relic abundance requirement is relaxed. Most of our results can be safely extended to the larger class of multi-TeV WIMP DM annihilating into ...

  2. Gamma-ray transfer and energy deposition in supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartz, Douglas A.; Sutherland, Peter G.; Harkness, Robert P.

    1995-01-01

    Solutions to the energy-independent (gray) radiative transfer equations are compared to results of Monte Carlo simulations of the Ni-56 and Co-56 decay gamma-ray energy deposition in supernovae. The comparison shows that an effective, purely absorptive, gray opacity, kappa(sub gamma) approximately (0. 06 +/- 0.01)Y(sub e) sq cm/g, where Y is the total number of electrons per baryon, accurately describes the interaction of gamma-rays with the cool supernova gas and the local gamma-ray energy deposition within the gas. The nature of the gamma-ray interaction process (dominated by Compton scattering in the relativistic regime) creates a weak dependence of kappa(sub gamma) on the optical thickness of the (spherically symmetric) supernova atmosphere: The maximum value of kappa(sub gamma) applies during optically thick conditions when individual gamma-rays undergo multiple scattering encounters and the lower bound is reached at the phase characterized by a total Thomson optical depth to the center of the atmosphere tau(sub e) approximately less than 1. Gamma-ray deposition for Type Ia supernova models to within 10% for the epoch from maximum light to t = 1200 days. Our results quantitatively confirm that the quick and efficient solution to the gray transfer problem provides an accurate representation of gamma-ray energy deposition for a broad range of supernova conditions.

  3. The First Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flash (TGF) Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Michael; Connaughton, Valerie; Stanbro, Matthew; Zhang, Binbin; Bhat, Narayana; Fishman, Gerald; Roberts, Oliver; Fitzpatrick, Gerard; McBreen, Shelia; Grove, Eric; Chekhtman, Alexandre

    2015-04-01

    We present summary results from the first catalog of Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) detected with the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on the Fermi Space Telescope. The catalog reports parameters for over 2700 TGFs. Since the launch of Fermi in 2008 the TGF detection sensitivity of GBM has been improved several times, both in the flight software and in ground analysis. Starting in 2010 July individual photons were downloaded for portions of the orbits, enabling an off-line search that found weaker and shorter TGFs. Since 2012 November 26 this telemetry mode has been extended to continuous coverage. The TGF sample is reliable, with cosmic rays rejected using data both from Fermi GBM and from the Large Area Telescope on Fermi. The online catalog include times (UTC and solar), spacecraft geographic positions, durations, count intensities and Bayesian Block durations. The catalog includes separate tables for bright TGFs detected by the flight software and for Terrestrial Electron Beams (TEBs).

  4. Significance of medium energy gamma ray astronomy in the study of cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D. A.; Thompson, D. J.; Bignami, G. F.; Cheung, C. Y.

    1975-01-01

    Medium energy (about 10 to 30 MeV) gamma ray astronomy provides information on the product of the galactic electron cosmic ray intensity and the galactic matter to which the electrons are dynamically coupled by the magnetic field. Because high energy (greater than 100 MeV) gamma ray astronomy provides analogous information for the nucleonic cosmic rays and the relevant matter, a comparison between high energy and medium energy gamma ray intensities provides a direct ratio of the cosmic ray electrons and nucleons throughout the galaxy. A calculation of gamma ray production by electron bremsstrahlung shows that: bremsstrahlung energy loss is probably not negligible over the lifetime of the electrons in the galaxy; and the approximate bremsstrahlung calculation often used previously overestimates the gamma ray intensity by about a factor of two. As a specific example, expected medium energy gamma ray intensities are calculated for the speral arm model.

  5. X-ray Properties of the GigaHertz-Peaked and Compact Steep Spectrum Sources

    E-print Network

    Siemiginowska, Aneta; Aldcroft, Thomas L; Bechtold, Jill; Elvis, Martin

    2008-01-01

    We present {\\it Chandra} X-ray Observatory observations of Giga-Hertz Peaked Spectrum (GPS) and Compact Steep Spectrum (CSS) radio sources. The {\\it Chandra} sample contains 13 quasars and 3 galaxies with measured 2-10 keV X-ray luminosity within $10^{42} - 10^{46}$ erg s$^{-1}$. We detect all of the sources, five of which are observed in X-ray for the first time. We study the X-ray spectral properties of the sample. The measured absorption columns in the quasars are different than those in the galaxies in the sense that the quasars show no absorption (with limits $\\sim 10^{21} \\rm cm^{-2}$) while the galaxies have large absorption columns ($> 10^{22} \\rm cm^{-2}$) consistent with previous findings. The median photon index of the sources with high S/N is $\\Gamma=1.84 \\pm0.24$ and it is larger than the typical index of radio loud quasars. The arcsec resolution of {\\it Chandra} telescope allows us to investigate X-ray extended emission, and look for diffuse components and X-ray jets. We found X-ray jets in two ...

  6. Research in particle and gamma-ray astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, E. C.; Davis, L., Jr.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Prince, T. A.

    1988-01-01

    Research activities in cosmic rays, gamma rays, and astrophysical plasmas are covered. Each activity is described, followed by a bibliography. The research program is directed toward the investigation of the astrophysical aspects of cosmic rays and gamma rays and of the radiation and electromagnetic field environment of the earth and other planets. These investigations were performed by means of energetic particle and photon detector systems flown on spacecraft and balloons.

  7. Discoveries by the Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Fermi is a large space gamma-ray mission developed by NASA and the DOE with major contributions from France, Germany, Italy, Japan and Sweden. It was launched in June 2008 and has been performing flawlessly since then. The main instrument is the Large Area Telescope (LAT) operating in the 20 MeV to 300 GeV range and a smaller monitor instrument is the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) operating in the 8 keV to 40 MeV range. New findings are occurring every week. Some of the key discoveries are: 1) Discovery of many new gamma-ray pulsars, including gamma-ray only and millisecond pulsars. 2) Detection of high energy gamma-ray emission from globular clusters, most likely due to summed emission from msec pulsars. 3) Discovery of delayed and extended high energy gamma-ray emission from short and long gamma-ray busts. 4) Detection of approximately 250 gamma-ray bursts per year with the GBM instrument. 5) Most accurate measurement of the cosmic ray electron spectrum between 30 GeV and 1 TeV, showing some excess above the conventional diffusion model. The talk will present the new discoveries and their implications.

  8. Multichannel CdZnTe Gamma Ray Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    F. P. Doty; C. L. Lingren; B. A. Apotovsky; J. Brunsch; J. F. Butler; T. Collins; R. L. Conwell; S. Friesenhahn; J. Gormley; B. Pi; S. Zhao (Digirad Corp., San Diego, CA); F. L. Augustine, Augustine Engineering, Encinitas, CA; B. A. Bennet; E. Cross; R. B. James (Sandia Nat'l. Labs.)

    1998-07-22

    A 3 cm{sup 3} multichannel gamma spectrometer for DOE applications is under development by Digirad Corporation. The device is based on a position sensitive detector packaged in a compact multi-chip module (MCM) with integrated readout circuitry. The modular, multichannel design will enable identification and quantitative analysis of radionuclides in extended sources, or sources containing low levels of activity. The MCM approach has the advantages that the modules are designed for imaging applications, and the sensitivity can be arbitrarily increased by increasing the number of pixels, i.e. adding modules to the instrument. For a high sensitivity probe, the outputs for each pixel can be corrected for gain and offset variations, and summed digitally. Single pixel results obtained with discrete low noise readout indicate energy resolution of 3 keV can be approached with currently available CdZnTe. The energy resolution demonstrated to date with MCMs for 511 keV gamma rays is 10 keV.

  9. Contraband detection using high-energy gamma rays from {sup 16}O*

    SciTech Connect

    Micklich, B.J.; Fink, C.L.; Sagalovsky, L.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Technology Development Div.

    1996-12-01

    High-energy monoenergetic gamma rays (6.13 and 7.12 MeV) from the decay of excited states of the {sup 16}O* nucleus are highly penetrating and thus offer potential for non-intrusive inspection of loaded containers for narcotics, explosives, and other contraband items. These excited states can be produced by irradiation of water with 14-MeV neutrons from a DT neutron generator or through the {sup 19}F(p,{alpha}){sup 16}O* reaction. Resonances in {sup 19}F(p,{alpha}){sup 16}O* at proton energies between 340 keV and 2 MeV allow use of a low-energy accelerator to provide a compact, portable gamma source of reasonable intensity. The present work provides estimates of gamma source parameters and suggests how various types of contraband could be detected. Gamma rays can be used to perform transmission or emission radiography of containers or other objects. Through the use of ({gamma}, n) and ({gamma}, fission) reactions, this technique is also capable of detecting special nuclear materials such as deuterium, lithium, beryllium, uranium, and plutonium. Analytic and Monte Carlo techniques are used to model empty and loaded container inspection for accelerator-produced gamma, radioisotope, and x-ray sources.

  10. Contraband detection using high-energy gamma rays from 16O*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micklich, Bradley J.; Fink, Charles L.; Sagalovsky, Leonid; Smith, Donald L.

    1997-02-01

    High-energy monoenergetic gamma rays (6.13 and 7.12 MeV) from the decay of excited states of the 16O* nucleus are highly penetrating and thus offer potential for non- intrusive inspection of loaded containers for narcotics, explosives, and other contraband items. These excited states can be produced by irradiation of water with 14-MeV neutrons from a DT neutron generator or through the 19F(p,alpha)16O* reaction. Resonances in 19F(p,alpha)16O* at proton energies between 340 keV and 2 MeV allow use of a low-energy accelerator to provide a compact, portable gamma source of reasonable intensity. The present work provides estimates of gamma source parameters and suggests how various types of contraband could be detected. Gamma rays can be used to perform transmission or emission radiography of containers or other objects. Through the use of (gamma,n) and (gamma,fission) reactions, this technique is also capable of detecting special nuclear materials such as deuterium, lithium, beryllium, uranium, and plutonium. Analytic and Monte Carlo techniques are used to model empty and loaded container inspection for accelerator-produced gamma, radioisotope, and x-ray sources.

  11. Heterogeneity in Short Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Jay P.; Gehrels Neil; Scargle, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the Swift/BAT sample of short gamma-ray bursts, using an objective Bayesian Block procedure to extract temporal descriptors of the bursts' initial pulse complexes (IPCs). The sample comprises 12 and 41 bursts with and without extended emission (EE) components, respectively. IPCs of non-EE bursts are dominated by single pulse structures, while EE bursts tend to have two or more pulse structures. The medians of characteristic timescales - durations, pulse structure widths, and peak intervals - for EE bursts are factors of approx 2-3 longer than for non-EE bursts. A trend previously reported by Hakkila and colleagues unifying long and short bursts - the anti-correlation of pulse intensity and width - continues in the two short burst groups, with non-EE bursts extending to more intense, narrower pulses. In addition we find that preceding and succeeding pulse intensities are anti-correlated with pulse interval. We also examine the short burst X-ray afterglows as observed by the Swift/XRT. The median flux of the initial XRT detections for EE bursts (approx 6 X 10(exp -10) erg / sq cm/ s) is approx > 20 x brighter than for non-EE bursts, and the median X-ray afterglow duration for EE bursts (approx 60,000 s) is approx 30 x longer than for non-EE bursts. The tendency for EE bursts toward longer prompt-emission timescales and higher initial X-ray afterglow fluxes implies larger energy injections powering the afterglows. The longer-lasting X-ray afterglows of EE bursts may suggest that a significant fraction explode into more dense environments than non-EE bursts, or that the sometimes-dominant EE component efficiently p()wers the afterglow. Combined, these results favor different progenitors for EE and non-EE short bursts.

  12. 3.9 day orbital modulation in the TeV gamma-ray flux and spectrum from the X-ray binary LS 5039

    E-print Network

    The H. E. S. S. Collaboration; :; F. A. Aharonian

    2006-11-03

    New observations of LS 5039, a High Mass X-ray Binary comprising a massive star and compact object, were carried out with the High Energy Stereoscopic System of Cherenkov Telescopes (H.E.S.S.) in 2005 at very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray energies. These observations reveal that its flux and energy spectrum are modulated with the 3.9 day orbital period of the binary system. This is the first time in gamma-ray astronomy that orbital modulation has been observed, and periodicity clearly established using ground-based gamma-ray detectors. The VHE gamma-ray emission is largely confined to half of the orbit, peaking around the inferior conjunction epoch of the compact object. For this epoch, there is also a hardening of the energy spectrum in the energy range between 0.2 TeV and a few TeV. The flux vs. orbital phase profile provides the first clear indication of gamma-ray absorption via pair production within an astrophysical source, a process which is expected to occur if the gamma-ray production site is situated within ~1 AU of the compact object. Moreover the production region size must be not significantly greater than the binary separation (~0.15 AU). Notably, these constraints are also considerably smaller than the collimated outflows or jets (extending out to ~1000 AU) observed in LS 5039. The spectral hardening could arise from variations with phase in the maximum electron energies, and/or the dominant VHE gamma-ray production mechanism.

  13. Gamma rays from grazing incidence cosmic rays in the earth's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulmer, Andrew

    1994-01-01

    Interactions of grazing incidence, ultra high-energy cosmic rays with the earth's atmosphere may provide a new method of studying energetic cosmic rays with gamma-ray satellites. It is found that these cosmic ray interactions may produce gamma-rays on millisecond timescales which may be detectable by satellites. An extremely low gamma-ray background for transient gamma-ray events and a large area of interaction, the earth's surface, make the scheme plausible. The effective cross section of detection of interactions for cosmic rays above 10(exp 20) eV is found to be more than two orders of magnitude higher than Earth-based detection techniques. This method may eventually offer an efficient way of probing this region of the cosmic-ray energy spectrum where events are scarce. In this paper, a conceptual model is presented for the production of short bursts of gamma-rays based on these grazing incidence encounters with the Earth's atmosphere.

  14. Swift observations of gamma-ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Gehrels, Neil

    2007-05-15

    Since its launch on 20 November 2004, the Swift mission has been detecting approximately 100 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) each year, and immediately (within approx. 90s) starting simultaneous X-ray and UV/optical observations of the afterglow. It has already collected an impressive database, including prompt emission to higher sensitivities than BATSE, uniform monitoring of afterglows and a rapid follow-up by other observatories notified through the GCN. Advances in our understanding of short GRBs have been spectacular. The detection of X-ray afterglows has led to accurate localizations and the conclusion that short GRBs can occur in non-star-forming galaxies or regions, whereas long GRBs are strongly concentrated within the star-forming regions. This is consistent with the NS merger model. Swift has greatly increased the redshift range of GRB detection. The highest redshift GRBs, at z approximately 5-6, are approaching the era of reionization. Ground-based deep optical spectroscopy of high redshift bursts is giving metallicity measurements and other information on the source environment to a much greater distance than other techniques. The localization of GRB 060218 to a nearby galaxy, and the association with SN 2006aj, added a valuable member to the class of GRBs with detected supernova. PMID:17293335

  15. GROSS- GAMMA RAY OBSERVATORY ATTITUDE DYNAMICS SIMULATOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrick, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) spacecraft will constitute a major advance in gamma ray astronomy by offering the first opportunity for comprehensive observations in the range of 0.1 to 30,000 megaelectronvolts (MeV). The Gamma Ray Observatory Attitude Dynamics Simulator, GROSS, is designed to simulate this mission. The GRO Dynamics Simulator consists of three separate programs: the Standalone Profile Program; the Simulator Program, which contains the Simulation Control Input/Output (SCIO) Subsystem, the Truth Model (TM) Subsystem, and the Onboard Computer (OBC) Subsystem; and the Postprocessor Program. The Standalone Profile Program models the environment of the spacecraft and generates a profile data set for use by the simulator. This data set contains items such as individual external torques; GRO spacecraft, Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS), and solar and lunar ephemerides; and star data. The Standalone Profile Program is run before a simulation. The SCIO subsystem is the executive driver for the simulator. It accepts user input, initializes parameters, controls simulation, and generates output data files and simulation status display. The TM subsystem models the spacecraft dynamics, sensors, and actuators. It accepts ephemerides, star data, and environmental torques from the Standalone Profile Program. With these and actuator commands from the OBC subsystem, the TM subsystem propagates the current state of the spacecraft and generates sensor data for use by the OBC and SCIO subsystems. The OBC subsystem uses sensor data from the TM subsystem, a Kalman filter (for attitude determination), and control laws to compute actuator commands to the TM subsystem. The OBC subsystem also provides output data to the SCIO subsystem for output to the analysts. The Postprocessor Program is run after simulation is completed. It generates printer and CRT plots and tabular reports of the simulated data at the direction of the user. GROSS is written in FORTRAN 77 and ASSEMBLER and has been implemented on a VAX 11/780 under VMS 4.5. It has a virtual memory requirement of 255k. GROSS was developed in 1986.

  16. GRO: Black hole models for gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruderman, Malvin

    1995-01-01

    The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on board the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) has established that the distribution of gamma-ray bursts (GRB's) is isotropic but is bound radially. This finding suggests that the bursts are either cosmological or they originate from an extended Galactic halo. The implied luminosities and the observed variability of the GRB's on time scales as short as one millisecond suggest that they originate from compact objects. We are presently studying black hole models for GRB's. Any such model must produce a non-thermal photon spectrum to agree with the observed properties. For a wide range of burst parameters the assumed bursting source consists of a non-thermal electron-positron-photon plasma of very high density. It seems possible to produce such a plasma in accretion onto black holes. In our on-going work, we are developing the kinetic theory for a non-equilibrium pair plasma. The main new features of our work are as follows: (1) We do not assume the presence of a thermal electron bath. (2) Non-thermal, high-energy pairs are allowed to have an arbitrary concentration and energy distribution. (3) There is no soft photon source in our model; initially all the photons in the plasma are either energetic X-rays or gamma-rays. (4) The initial energy distribution of the pairs as well as photons is arbitrary. (5) We collect the analytical expressions for the kinetic kernels for all relevant processes. And (6) we present a different approach to finding the time-evolution of pair and photon spectra, which is a combination of the kinetic-theory and the non-linear Monte-Carlo schemes. We have developed many Monte-Carlo programs to model various process, to take into account the time evolution, and to incorporate various physical effects which are unique to non-thermal plasmas. The hydrodynamics of fireballs in GRB's was studied before. Applying results from kinetic theory will improve our understanding of these systems.

  17. Solving the Mystery of Short Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2006-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are among the most fascinating occurrences in the cosmos. Until this year, the origin of short gamma-ray bursts was a complete mystery. A new NASA satellite named Swift has now captured the first images of these events and found that they are caused by tremendous explosions in the distant universe.

  18. Properties of the intermediate type of gamma-ray bursts

    E-print Network

    I. Horvath; F. Ryde; L. G. Balazs; Z. Bagoly; A. Meszaros

    2007-01-16

    Gamma-ray bursts can be divided into three groups ("short", "intermediate", "long") with respect to their durations. The third type of gamma-ray bursts - as known - has the intermediate duration. We show that the intermediate group is the softest one. An anticorrelation between the hardness and the duration is found for this subclass in contrast to the short and long groups.

  19. Very High Energy Gamma Ray Extension of GRO Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weekes, Trevor C.

    1994-01-01

    The membership, progress, and invited talks, publications, and proceedings made by the Whipple Gamma Ray Collaboration is reported for june 1990 through May 1994. Progress was made in the following areas: the May 1994 Markarian Flare at Whipple and EGRET (Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope) energies; AGN's (Active Galactic Nuclei); bursts; supernova remnants; and simulations and energy spectra.

  20. Discovery of Intense Gamma-Ray Flashes of Atmospheric Origin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. Fishman; P. N. Bhat; R. Mallozzi; J. M. Horack; T. Koshut; C. Kouveliotou; G. N. Pendleton; C. A. Meegan; R. B. Wilson; W. S. Paciesas; S. J. Goodman; H. J. Christian

    1994-01-01

    Detectors aboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory have observed an unexplained terrestrial phenomenon: brief, intense flashes of gamma rays. These flashes must originate in the atmosphere at altitudes above at least 30 kilometers in order to escape atmospheric absorption and reach the orbiting detectors. At least a dozen such events have been detected over the past 2 years. The photon

  1. Analysis methods for results in gamma-ray astronomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T.-P. Li; Y.-Q. Ma

    1983-01-01

    The procedures in current use for analyzing the results of gamma-ray astronomy experiments are assessed. Two formulas are proposed for estimating the significance of positive observations in searching gamma-ray sources or lines. The correctness of the formulas is tested with the aid of Monte Carlo simulations. One formula is derived by immediately estimating the standard deviation of the observed signal

  2. GRAYSKY-A new gamma-ray skyshine code

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Witts; T. Twardowski; M. H. Watmough

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a new prototype gamma-ray skyshine code GRAYSKY (Gamma-RAY SKYshine) that has been developed at BNFL, as part of an industrially based master of science course, to overcome the problems encountered with SKYSHINEII and RANKERN. GRAYSKY is a point kernel code based on the use of a skyshine response function. The scattering within source or shield materials is

  3. FPGA Based Data Acquisition and Processing for Gamma Ray Tomography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Inaki Schlaberg; Donghui Li; Yingxiang Wu; Mi Wang

    2007-01-01

    Data acquisition and processing for gamma ray tomography has traditionally been performed with analogue electronic circuitry. Detectors convert the received photons into electrical signals which are then shaped and conditioned for the next counting stage. An approach of using a FPGA (Field programmable gate array) based data acquisition and processing system for gamma ray tomography is presented in this paper.

  4. QUALITY CONTROL FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MEASUREMENTS USING GAMMA-RAY SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the quality control procedures, calibration, collection, analysis, and interpretation of data in measuring the activity of gamma ray-emitting radionuclides in environmental samples. Included in the appendices are basic data for selected gamma ray-emitting ra...

  5. CONSTRAINTS ON THE EMISSION GEOMETRIES AND SPIN EVOLUTION OF GAMMA-RAY MILLISECOND PULSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, T. J. [National Research Council Research Associate, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC 20001 (United States); Venter, C. [Centre for Space Research, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, Private Bag X6001, 2520 Potchefstroom (South Africa); Harding, A. K.; Çelik, Ö.; Ferrara, E. C. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Guillemot, L. [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie de l'Environnement, LPCE UMR 6115 CNRS, F-45071 Orléans Cedex 02 (France); Smith, D. A.; Hou, X. [Centre d'Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, IN2P3/CNRS, Université Bordeaux 1, BP120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Kramer, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Den Hartog, P. R. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Lande, J. [Twitter Inc., 1355 Market Street 900, San Francisco, CA 94103 (United States); Ray, P. S., E-mail: tyrel.j.johnson@gmail.com, E-mail: Christo.Venter@nwu.ac.za, E-mail: ahardingx@yahoo.com [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are a growing class of gamma-ray emitters. Pulsed gamma-ray signals have been detected from more than 40 MSPs with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). The wider radio beams and more compact magnetospheres of MSPs enable studies of emission geometries over a broader range of phase space than non-recycled radio-loud gamma-ray pulsars. We have modeled the gamma-ray light curves of 40 LAT-detected MSPs using geometric emission models assuming a vacuum retarded-dipole magnetic field. We modeled the radio profiles using a single-altitude hollow-cone beam, with a core component when indicated by polarimetry; however, for MSPs with gamma-ray and radio light curve peaks occurring at nearly the same rotational phase, we assume that the radio emission is co-located with the gamma rays and caustic in nature. The best-fit parameters and confidence intervals are determined using a maximum likelihood technique. We divide the light curves into three model classes, with gamma-ray peaks trailing (Class I), aligned (Class II), or leading (Class III) the radio peaks. Outer gap and slot gap (two-pole caustic) models best fit roughly equal numbers of Class I and II, while Class III are exclusively fit with pair-starved polar cap models. Distinguishing between the model classes based on typical derived parameters is difficult. We explore the evolution of the magnetic inclination angle with period and spin-down power, finding possible correlations. While the presence of significant off-peak emission can often be used as a discriminator between outer gap and slot gap models, a hybrid model may be needed.

  6. Constraints On the Emission Geometries and Spin Evolution Of Gamma-Ray Millisecond Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, T. J.; Venter, C.; Harding, A. K.; Guillemot, L.; Smith, D. A.; Kramer, M.; Celik, O.; den Hartog, P. R.; Ferrara, E. C.; Hou, X.; Lande, J.; Ray, P. S.

    2014-01-01

    Millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are a growing class of gamma-ray emitters. Pulsed gamma-ray signals have been detected from more than 40 MSPs with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). The wider radio beams and more compact magnetospheres of MSPs enable studies of emission geometries over a broader range of phase space than non-recycled radio-loud gamma-ray pulsars. We have modeled the gamma-ray light curves of 40 LAT-detected MSPs using geometric emission models assuming a vacuum retarded-dipole magnetic field. We modeled the radio profiles using a single-altitude hollow-cone beam, with a core component when indicated by polarimetry; however, for MSPs with gamma-ray and radio light curve peaks occurring at nearly the same rotational phase, we assume that the radio emission is co-located with the gamma rays and caustic in nature. The best-fit parameters and confidence intervals are determined using amaximum likelihood technique.We divide the light curves into three model classes, with gamma-ray peaks trailing (Class I), aligned (Class II), or leading (Class III) the radio peaks. Outer gap and slot gap (two-pole caustic) models best fit roughly equal numbers of Class I and II, while Class III are exclusively fit with pair-starved polar cap models. Distinguishing between the model classes based on typical derived parameters is difficult. We explore the evolution of the magnetic inclination angle with period and spin-down power, finding possible correlations. While the presence of significant off-peak emission can often be used as a discriminator between outer gap and slot gap models, a hybrid model may be needed.

  7. The control of drift in an analytical gamma ray spectrometer 

    E-print Network

    Fite, Lloyd Emery

    1961-01-01

    THE CONTROL OF DRIFT ZN AN ANALYTICAL GAMMA RAY SPECTROMETER A Thesis By Lloyd Emery Fits Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of the Activation Analysis Research Laboratory Gamma Rey Spectrometer 5 3 Simplified Block Diagram of a Drift Control System as Described by de Waard 6 Block Diagram of a Drift Control System as Described by Scherbatskoy 7 5 Typical Gamma Ray Spectrum 6 Block...

  8. The Gamma-Ray Astronomy Team Home Page

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mallozzi, Robert S.

    The members of the Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Team of the National Space Science and Technology Center "are actively involved in several projects which are designed to investigate the high energy regime of our Solar System and Universe." The site provides extensive information on the scientific goals, features, and technical equipment of the Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) scheduled to launch in 2006. Although NASA terminated observations of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment in June 2000, scientists can learn how the project is still providing benefits to the high-energy astrophysics community. Researchers can read publications on the subjects of Gamma-Ray Bursts, Discrete Sources, and Pulsars. Students can find materials on many gamma-ray phenomena such as black holes, pulsars, and gamma-ray bursts.

  9. The supernova-gamma-ray burst-jet connection.

    PubMed

    Hjorth, Jens

    2013-06-13

    The observed association between supernovae and gamma-ray bursts represents a cornerstone in our understanding of the nature of gamma-ray bursts. The collapsar model provides a theoretical framework for this connection. A key element is the launch of a bipolar jet (seen as a gamma-ray burst). The resulting hot cocoon disrupts the star, whereas the (56)Ni produced gives rise to radioactive heating of the ejecta, seen as a supernova. In this discussion paper, I summarize the observational status of the supernova-gamma-ray burst connection in the context of the 'engine' picture of jet-driven supernovae and highlight SN 2012bz/GRB 120422A--with its luminous supernova but intermediate high-energy luminosity--as a possible transition object between low-luminosity and jet gamma-ray bursts. The jet channel for supernova explosions may provide new insights into supernova explosions in general. PMID:23630379

  10. Gamma ray irradiation for sludge solubilization and biological nitrogen removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tak-Hyun; Lee, Myunjoo; Park, Chulhwan

    2011-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of gamma ray irradiation on the solubilization of waste sewage sludge. The recovery of an organic carbon source from sewage sludge by gamma ray irradiation was also studied. The gamma ray irradiation showed effective sludge solubilization efficiencies. Both soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 5) increased by gamma ray irradiation. The feasibility of the solubilized sludge carbon source for a biological nitrogen removal was also investigated. A modified continuous bioreactor (MLE process) for a denitrification was operated for 20 days by using synthetic wastewater. It can be concluded that the gamma ray irradiation was useful for the solubilization of sludge and the recovery of carbon source from the waste sewage sludge for biological nitrogen removal.

  11. Gamma-ray Pulsars in a Modified Polar Cap Scenario

    E-print Network

    B. Rudak; J. Dyks

    1997-10-22

    We present a polar-cap model which incorporates a likely acceleration of Sturrock pairs with their subsequent contribution to gamma-ray luminosity L_gamma. This model reproduces L_gamma for seven pulsars detected with Compton Gamma Ray Observatory experiments, avoiding at the same time the problem of the empirical gamma-ray death line of Arons (1996). Also, we estimate the efficiency of reversing newly created positrons by residual longitudinal electric field. Over the wide range of spin-down luminosity values the predicted polar-cap X-ray luminosity L_X(pc) goes as L_sd^{0.6}. Model calculations for B0823+26, B0950+08, B1929+10, and J0437-4715 are compared with existing observational constraints on thermal X-ray components.

  12. Development of the instruments for the Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, J. J.; Kniffen, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) is to be launched in 1988 by the STS. The GRO will feature four very large instruments: the Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (OSSE), the Imaging Compton Telescope (COMPTEL), the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) and the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE). The instruments weigh from 900-1200 kg each, and required the development of specialized lifting and dolly devices to permit their assembly, manipulation and testing. The GRO is intended a{s a tool for studying discrete celestial objects such as black holes, neutron stars and other gamma-ray emitting objects, scanning for nucleosynthesis processes, mapping the Galaxy and other, high energy galaxies in terms of gamma rays, searching for cosmological effects and observing gamma ray bursts. The instruments will be sensitive from the upper end mof X-rya wavelengths to the highest energies possible. Details of the hardware and performance specifications of each of the instruments are discussed.

  13. Evaluation of Potash Grade with Gamma-ray Logs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Philip H.

    2007-01-01

    Potassium is an emitter of gamma-ray radiation, consequently deposits of potash can be detected and evaluated using gamma-ray logs. A method originally designed to evaluate uranium deposits in boreholes can also be applied to potash deposits. The method equates the depth-integral of a gamma-ray log to the grade-thickness product of a potash-bearing bed or series of beds. The average grade of a bed is then determined by dividing by the overall bed thickness, which can also be obtained from the gamma-ray log. The method was tested using gamma-ray logs and potash assays from boreholes near Carlsbad, New Mexico.

  14. Gamma-ray bursts and cosmology.

    PubMed

    Lamb, D Q

    2007-05-15

    I review the current status of the use of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) as probes of the early Universe and cosmology. I describe the promise of long GRBs as probes of the high redshift (z>4) and very high redshift (z>5) Universe, and several key scientific results that have come from observations made possible by accurate, rapid localizations of these bursts by Swift. I then estimate the fraction of long GRBs that lie at very high redshifts and discuss ways in which it may be possible to rapidly identify-and therefore study-a larger number of these bursts. Finally, I discuss the ways in which both long and short GRBs can be made 'standard candles' and used to constrain the properties of dark energy. PMID:17301023

  15. The Chase to Capture Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are the most powerful explosions in the universe, thought to be the birth cries of black holes. It has taken 40 years of international cooperation and competition to begin to unravel the mystery of their origin. The most recent chapter in this field is being written by the SWIFT mission, a fast-response satellite with 3 power telescopes. An international team from countries all over the world participates in the chase to capture the fading light of bursts detected by SWIFT. This talk will discuss the challenges and excitement of building this space observatory. New results will be presented on our growing understanding of exploding stars and fiery mergers of orbiting stars.

  16. Millisecond Proto-Magnetars & Gamma Ray Bursts

    E-print Network

    Todd A. Thompson

    2005-04-27

    In the seconds after core collapse and explosion, a thermal neutrino-driven wind emerges from the cooling, deleptonizing newly-born neutron star. If the neutron star has a large-scale magnetar-strength surface magnetic field and millisecond rotation period, then the wind is driven primarily by magneto-centrifugal slinging, and only secondarily by neutrino interactions. The strong magnetic field forces the wind to corotate with the stellar surface and the neutron star's rotational energy is efficiently extracted. As the neutron star cools, and the wind becomes increasingly magnetically-dominated, the outflow becomes relativistic. Here I review the millisecond magnetar model for long-duration gamma ray bursts and explore some of the basic physics of neutrino-magnetocentrifugal winds. I further speculate on some issues of collimation and geometry in the millisecond magnetar model.

  17. Emission model of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, E. P.

    1983-01-01

    The emission mechanisms of cosmic gamma-ray bursts are reviewed. In particular, the thermal synchrotron model is discussed as the most viable mechanism for the majority of the continuum emission. Within this framework various information about the source region can be extracted. The picture that emerges is that of a hot (kT = .2 - 1.0 sq mc), thin sheet of dense pair-dominated plasma emitting via cyclo-synchrotron radiation in a strong magnetic field (B approximately one-hundred billion to one trillion gauss). Speculations on the origin and structure of this sheet are attempted. The problem of high-energy photons above pair production threshold escaping from the source is also considered.

  18. Results from the Milagro Gamma-Ray Observatory E. Blaufuss a

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    V emission from the galactic plane, and a search for transient emission above 100 GeV from gamma ray bursts- clei (AGN), supernova remnants and gamma-ray bursts (GRB). Gamma rays are also produced when high

  19. Gamma-Ray Bursts: Pulses and Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loredo, Thomas J.; Hakkila, J. E.; Broadbent, M.; Wasserman, I. M.; Wolpert, R. L.

    2013-04-01

    We describe ongoing work on two projects that are enabling more thorough and accurate use of archival BATSE data for elucidating the nature of GRB sources; the methods and tools we are developing will also be valuable for analyzing data from other missions. The first project addresses modeling the spectro-temporal behavior of prompt gamma ray emission from GRBs by modeling gamma ray count and event data with a population of pulses, with the population drawn from one or more families of single-pulse kernels. Our approach is built on a multilevel nonparametric probabilistic framework we have dubbed "Bayesian droplets," and offers several important advances over previous pulse decomposition approaches: (1) It works in the pulse-confusion regime, quantifying uncertainty in the number, locations, and shapes of pulses, even when there is strong overlap. (2) It can self-consistently model pulse behavior across multiple spectral bands. (3) It readily handles a variety of spatio-temporal kernel shapes. (4) It reifies the idea of a burst as a population of pulses, enabling explicit modeling and estimation of the pulse population distribution. We describe the framework and present analyses of prototypical simple and complex GRB light curves. The second project aims to enable accurate demographic modeling of GRBs using the BATSE catalog. We present new calculations of the BATSE sky exposure, encompassing the full duration of the BATSE catalog for the first time, with many improvements over the currently available exposure map. A similar calculation of the detection efficiency is in progress. We also describe public Python software enabling access and accurate modeling of BATSE GRB data. The software enables demographic studies (e.g., modeling log N - log S distributions) with accurate accounting of both selection effects and measurement errors. It also enables spectro-temporal modeling of detailed data from individual GRBs. These projects are supported by NASA through the AISR and ADAP programs.

  20. LONG GAMMA-RAY TRANSIENTS FROM COLLAPSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Woosley, S. E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Heger, Alexander, E-mail: woosley@ucolick.org, E-mail: alex@physics.umn.edu [Minnesota Institute of Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2012-06-10

    In the collapsar model for common gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), the formation of a centrifugally supported disk occurs during the first {approx}10 s following the collapse of the iron core in a massive star. This only occurs in a small fraction of massive stellar deaths, however, and requires unusual conditions. A much more frequent occurrence could be the death of a star that makes a black hole and a weak or absent outgoing shock, but in a progenitor that only has enough angular momentum in its outermost layers to make a disk. We consider several cases where this is likely to occur-blue supergiants with low mass-loss rates, tidally interacting binaries involving either helium stars or giant stars, and the collapse to a black hole of very massive pair-instability supernovae. These events have in common the accretion of a solar mass or so of material through a disk over a period much longer than the duration of a common GRB. A broad range of powers is possible, 10{sup 47}-10{sup 50} erg s{sup -1}, and this brightness could be enhanced by beaming. Such events were probably more frequent in the early universe where mass-loss rates were lower. Indeed, this could be one of the most common forms of gamma-ray transients in the universe and could be used to study first generation stars. Several events could be active in the sky at any one time. Recent examples of this sort of event may have been the Swift transients Sw-1644+57, Sw-2058+0516, and GRB 101225A.

  1. Thermonuclear model for. gamma. -ray bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Woosley, S.E.

    1981-08-26

    The evolution of magnetized neutron stars with field strengths of approx. 10/sup 12/ gauss that are accreting mass onto kilometer-sized polar regions at a rate of approx. /sup 13/ M/sub 0/yr/sup -1/ is examined. Based on the results of one-dimensional calculations, one finds that stable hydrogen burning, mediated by the hot CNO-cycle, will lead to a critical helium mass in the range 10/sup 20/ to 10/sup 22/ g km/sup -2/. Owing to the extreme degeneracy of the electron gas providing pressure support, helium burning occurs as a violent thermonuclear runaway which may propagate either as a convective deflagration (Type I burst) or as a detonation wave (Type II burst). Complete combustion of helium into /sup 56/Ni releases from 10/sup 38/ to 10/sup 40/ erg km/sup -2/ and pushes hot plasma with ..beta.. > 1 above the surface of the neutron star. Rapid expansion of the plasma channels a substantial fraction of the explosion energy into magnetic field stress. Spectral properties are expected to be complex with emission from both thermal and non-thermal processes. The hard ..gamma..-outburst of several seconds softens as the event proceeds and is followed by a period, typically of several minutes duration, of softer x-ray emission as the subsurface ashes of the thermonuclear explosion cool. In this model, most ..gamma..-ray bursts currently being observed are located at a distance of several hundred parsecs and should recur on a timescale of months to centuries with convective deflagrations (Type I bursts) being the more common variety. An explanation for Jacobson-like transients is also offered.

  2. What Turns off Gamma-Ray Bursts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchekhovskoy, Alexander

    2014-10-01

    Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are thought to come from the core-collapse of Wolf-Rayet stars. Whereas their stellar masses have a rather narrow distribution, the population of GRBs is very diverse, with gamma-ray luminosities spanning several orders of magnitude. This suggests the existence of a "hidden" stellar variable whose burst-to-burst variation leads to a spread in their luminosity. Whatever this hidden variable is, its variation should not noticeably affect the shape of GRB lightcurves, which display a constant luminosity (in a time-average sense) followed by a sharp drop at the end of the burst seen with Swift/XRT. We argue that such a hidden variable is progenitor star's large-scale magnetic flux. Shortly after the core collapse, most of stellar magnetic flux accumulates near the black hole (BH) and remains there. The flux extracts BH rotational energy and powers jets of roughly a constant luminosity, L. However, once BH mass accretion rate Mdot falls below ~ L/c2, the flux becomes dynamically important and diffuses outwards, with the jet luminosity set by the rapidly declining mass accretion rate, L ~ Mdot c2. This provides a potential explanation for the sharp end of GRBs and the universal shape of their lightcurves. During the GRB, gas infall translates spatial variation of stellar magnetic flux into temporal variation of L. We make use of the deviations from constancy in L to perform stellar magnetic flux "tomography". Using this method, we infer the presence of magnetized tori in the outer layers of progenitor stars for GRB 920513 and GRB 940210.

  3. Absorbed Gamma-Ray Doses due to Natural Radionuclides in Building Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Aguiar, Vitor A. P.; Medina, Nilberto H. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Moreira, Ramon H.; Silveira, Marcilei A. G. [Departamento de Fisica, Centro Universitario da FEI, Sao Bernardo do Campo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-05-21

    This work is devoted to the application of high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry in the study of the effective dose coming from naturally occurring radionuclides, namely {sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U, present in building materials such as sand, cement, and granitic gravel. Four models were applied to estimate the effective dose and the hazard indices. The maximum estimated effective dose coming from the three reference rooms considered is 0.90(45) mSv/yr, and maximum internal hazard index is 0.77(24), both for the compact clay brick reference room. The principal gamma radiation sources are cement, sand and bricks.

  4. On The Prompt Signals of Gamma Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Pisin

    2001-09-18

    We introduce a new model of gamma ray burst (GRB) that explains its observed prompt signals, namely, its primary thermal spectrum and high energy tail. This mechanism can be applied to either assumption of GRB progenitor: coalescence of compact objects or hypernova explosion. The key ingredients of our model are: (1) The initial stage of a GRB is in the form of a relativistic quark-gluon plasma ''lava''; (2) The expansion and cooling of this lava results in a QCD phase transition that induces a sudden gravitational stoppage of the condensed non-relativistic baryons and form a hadrosphere; (3) Acoustic shocks and Alfven waves (magnetoquakes) that erupt in episodes from the epicenter efficiently transport the thermal energy to the hadrospheric surface and induce a rapid detachment of leptons and photons from the hadrons; (4) The detached e{sup +}e{sup -} and {gamma} form an opaque, relativistically hot leptosphere, which expands and cools to T {approx} mc{sup 2}, or 0.5 MeV, where e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} 2{gamma} and its reverse process becomes unbalanced, and the GRB photons are finally released; (5) The ''mode-conversion'' of Alfven waves into electromagnetic waves in the leptosphere provides a ''snowplow'' acceleration that gives rise to the high energy spectrum of GRB. According to this model, the observed GRB photons should have a red-shifted peak frequency at E{sub p} {approx} {Lambda}(1 + {beta}/2)mc{sup 2}/(1 + z), where {Lambda} {approx} {Omicron}(1) is the Lorentz factor of the bulk flow of the lava, which may be determined from the existing GRB data.

  5. Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope: High-Energy Results from the First Year

    E-print Network

    Peter F. Michelson; William B. Atwood; Steven Ritz

    2010-11-02

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) was launched on June 11, 2008 and began its first year sky survey on August 11, 2008. The Large Area Telescope (LAT), a wide field-of-view pair-conversion telescope covering the energy range from 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV, is the primary instrument on Fermi. While this review focuses on results obtained with the LAT, the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) complements the LAT in its observations of transient sources and is sensitive to X-rays and gamma-rays with energies between 8 keV and 40 MeV. During the first year in orbit, the Fermi LAT has observed a large number of sources that include active galaxies, pulsars, compact binaries, globular clusters, supernova remnants, as well as the Sun, the Moon and the Earth. The GBM and LAT together have uncovered surprising characteristics in the high-energy emission of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) that have been used to set significant new limits on violations of Lorentz invariance. The Fermi LAT has also made important new measurements of the Galactic diffuse radiation and has made precise measurements of the spectrum of cosmic-ray electrons and positrons from 20 GeV to 1 TeV.

  6. X-ray Properties of the GigaHertz-Peaked and Compact Steep Spectrum Sources

    E-print Network

    Aneta Siemiginowska; Stephanie LaMassa; Thomas L. Aldcroft; Jill Bechtold; Martin Elvis

    2008-04-09

    We present {\\it Chandra} X-ray Observatory observations of Giga-Hertz Peaked Spectrum (GPS) and Compact Steep Spectrum (CSS) radio sources. The {\\it Chandra} sample contains 13 quasars and 3 galaxies with measured 2-10 keV X-ray luminosity within $10^{42} - 10^{46}$ erg s$^{-1}$. We detect all of the sources, five of which are observed in X-ray for the first time. We study the X-ray spectral properties of the sample. The measured absorption columns in the quasars are different than those in the galaxies in the sense that the quasars show no absorption (with limits $\\sim 10^{21} \\rm cm^{-2}$) while the galaxies have large absorption columns ($> 10^{22} \\rm cm^{-2}$) consistent with previous findings. The median photon index of the sources with high S/N is $\\Gamma=1.84 \\pm0.24$ and it is larger than the typical index of radio loud quasars. The arcsec resolution of {\\it Chandra} telescope allows us to investigate X-ray extended emission, and look for diffuse components and X-ray jets. We found X-ray jets in two quasars (PKS 1127-145, B2 0738+32), an X-ray cluster surrounding a CSS quasar (z=1.1, 3C 186), detected a possible binary structure in 0941-080 galaxy and an extended diffuse emission in galaxy PKS B2 1345+12. We discuss our results in the context of X-ray emission processes and radio source evolution. We conclude that the X-ray emission in these sources is most likely unrelated to a relativistic jet, while the sources' radio-loudness may suggest a high radiative efficiency of the jet power in these sources.

  7. Gamma-Ray Bursts from Decompressing Neutron Star Material()

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathews, G. J.; Aufderheide, M. B.; Ressell, M. T.; Rogers, R. D.; Meyer, B. S.; Schramm, D. N.

    1992-12-01

    We explore the possibility that decompressing neutron star material may be a source for the isotropic gamma-ray bursts observed by the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. Such material might be ejected during the collision or tidal disruption of a neutron star in a binary sytem or as a result of neutron star seismic activity. Without gravitational confinement, this extremely neutron-rich material will decompress and heat up through a series of fissions, beta (-) decays, and photodissociations. It will then recombine in an r-process like environment. As the density drops and the material becomes optically thin, short-lived nuclei decay back to stability emitting a burst of gamma rays on a time scale of msec to sec. The resulting gamma-ray spectrum will be directly observable if the burst luminosity is low enough that a pair-dominated photosphere which would reprocess the gamma-ray spectrum is not formed. We report on efforts to model the resulting gamma-ray spectrum, which requires estimates of beta (-) decay, gamma emission, beta -delayed neutron emission, and photodissociation rates for many neutron rich nuclei. This work will eventually be coupled to hydrodynamic and radiation transport codes, in an effort to explain some of the observed gamma-ray bursts. () Work at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DoE under contract No. W-7405-ENG-48 and DOE Nuclear Theory Grant SF-ENG-48.

  8. Results from Gamma-Ray Optical Counterpart Search Experiment: A Real Time Search for Gamma-Ray Burst Optical Counterparts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Lee; Carl Akerlof; David Band; Scott Barthelmy; Paul Butterworth; Thomas Cline; Donald Ferguson; Neil Gehrels; Kevin Hurley

    1997-01-01

    The Gamma-Ray Optical Counterpart Search Experiment (GROCSE) has searched for contemporaneous optical counterparts to gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) using an automated rapidly slewing wide field of view optical telescope at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The telescope was triggered in real time by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) data telemetry stream as processed and distributed by the BATSE COordinates DIstribution

  9. Instrument description and performance of the Imaging Gamma-Ray Telescope COMPTEL aboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Schoenfelder; H. Aarts; K. Bennett; H. de Boer; J. Clear; W. Collmar; A. Connors; A. J. M. Deerenberg; R. Diehl; A. von Dordrecht; J. W. den Herder; W. Hermsen; M. Kippen; L. Kuiper; G. Lichti; J. Lockwood; J. Macri; M. McConnell; D. Morris; R. Much; J. Ryan; G. Simpson; M. Snelling; G. Stacy; H. Steinle; A. W. Strong; B. N. Swanenburg; B. G. Taylor; C. de Vries; C. Winkler

    1993-01-01

    The COMPTEL instrument aboard the COMPTEL Gamma-Ray Observatory and its performance capabilities are described. Calibration data are used to determine the angular and energy response, and the effective detection area. The imaging properties of COMPTEL are demonstrated, and the sensitivity of Comptel to celestial gamma-ray sources are estimated from flight data.

  10. Characteristics of the Telescope for High Energy Gamma-ray Astronomy Selected for Definition Studies on the Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, E. B.; Hofstadter, R.; Johansson, A.; Rolfe, J.; Bertsch, D. L.; Cruickshank, W. J.; Ehrmann, C. H.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    The high energy gamma-ray selected for definition studies on the Gamma Ray Observatory provides a substantial improvement in observational capability over earlier instruments. It will have about 20 times more sensitivity, cover a much broader energy range, have considerably better energy resolution and provide a significantly improved angular resolution. The design and performance are described.

  11. Characteristics of the telescope for high energy gamma-ray astronomy selected for definition studies on the Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, E. B.; Hofstadter, R.; Rolfe, J.; Johansson, A.; Bertsch, D. L.; Cruickshank, W. J.; Ehrmann, C. H.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    The high energy gamma-ray telescope selected for definition studies on the Gamma Ray Observatory provides a substantial improvement in observational capability over earlier instruments. It will have about 20 times more sensitivity, cover a much broader energy range, have considerably better energy resolution and provide a significantly improved angular resolution. The design and performance are described.

  12. The Milky Way in Very High Energy Gamma-Ray Light

    E-print Network

    Adelaide, University of

    The Milky Way in Very High Energy Gamma-Ray Light 2511 Gamma-Ray Light: What is it? Detecting Very High Energy Gamma-Rays with the H.E.S.S. Gamma-Ray Telescopes The Milky Way in Very High Energy Gamma-Ray Light Weaver etal 1977 (also Swift src 5) 2 prob. 7.0x10-1 Note size of car! Very High Energy Gamma-Rays

  13. Constraints on Very High Energy gamma-ray emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts

    E-print Network

    R. Atkins; W. Benbow; D. Berley; E. Blaufuss; D. G. Coyne; T. DeYoung; B. L. Dingus; D. E. Dorfan; R. W. Ellsworth; L. Fleysher; R. Fleysher; M. M. Gonzalez; J. A. Goodman; E. Hays; C. M. Hoffman; L. A. Kelley; C. P. Lansdell; J. T. Linnemann; J. E. McEnery; A. I. Mincer; M. F. Morales; P. Nemethy; D. Noyes; J. M. Ryan; F. W. Samuelson; P. M. Saz Parkinson; A. Shoup; G. Sinnis; A. J. Smith; G. W. Sullivan; D. A. Williams; M. E. Wilson; X. W. Xu; G. B. Yodh

    2005-03-11

    The Milagro gamma-ray observatory employs a water Cherenkov detector to observe extensive air showers produced by high energy particles interacting in the Earth's atmosphere. Milagro has a wide field of view and high duty cycle, monitoring the northern sky almost continuously in the 100 GeV to 100 TeV energy range. Milagro is, thus, uniquely capable of searching for very high-energy emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) during the prompt emission phase. Detection of >100 GeV counterparts would place powerful constraints on GRB mechanisms. Twenty-five satellite-triggered GRBs occurred within the field of view of Milagro between January 2000 and December 2001. We have searched for counterparts to these GRBs and found no significant emission from any of the burst positions. Due to the absorption of high-energy gamma rays by the extragalactic background light, detections are only expected to be possible for redshifts less than ~0.5. Three of the GRBs studied have measured redshifts. GRB 010921 has a redshift low enough (0.45) to allow an upper limit on the fluence to place an observational constraint on potential GRB models.

  14. Transient Gamma-Ray Spectrometer Observation of the Bright Gamma-Ray Burst GRB 950822

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, H.; Teegarden, B. J.; Cline, T. L.; Gehrels, N.; Zand, J. J. M. in't.; Palmer, D. M.; Ramaty, R.; Hurley, K.; Madden, N. W.; Pehl, R.

    1997-12-01

    The Transient Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (TGRS) on the Wind satellite is designed to perform spectroscopy of bright gamma-ray bursts in the ~20-8000 keV energy range, having a resolution 5-30 times better than that of earlier generation detectors. GRB 950822 was the brightest burst observed by TGRS in its first year of operation, with a peak flux (1024 ms) of ~78.3 photons cm-2 s-1 and a fluence (50-300 keV) of ~1.4 × 10-4 ergs cm-2 therefore, the GRB data in this paper represent the first high-resolution spectroscopy ever performed on a burst of this brightness. The continuum spectrum of GRB 950822 has the classical gamma-ray burst shape and exhibits typical evolution from hard to soft over the course of the burst. We found no evidence of line features or any other spectral fine structure with significance greater than 3.5 ? in our data.

  15. Gamma-ray Astrophysics: a New Look at the Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trombka, J. I.; Fichtel, C. E.; Grindlay, J.; Hofstadter, R.

    1978-01-01

    Gamma-ray astronomy which includes the spectral region from above approximately 100 keV to greater than or equal to 1000 GeV permits investigation of the most energetic photons originating in our galaxy and beyond and provides the most direct means of studying the largest transfers of energy occurring in astrophysical processes. Of all the electromagnetic spectrum, high-energy gamma-ray astronomy measures most directly the presence and dynamic effects of the energetic charged cosmic ray particles, element synthesis, and particle acceleration. Further, gamma rays suffer negligible absorption or scatterings as they travel in straight paths; hence, they may survive billions of years and still reveal their source. The high energy processes in stellar objects (including our Sun), the dynamics of the cosmic-ray gas, the formation of clouds and nebulae, galactic evolution and even certain aspects of cosmology and the origin of the universe may be explored by gamma-ray observations.

  16. Hadronic Production of Gamma Rays and Starburst Galaxies

    E-print Network

    Niklas Karlsson

    2008-10-01

    The Milky Way has been estabished to emit gamma rays. These gamma rays are presumably dominated by decays of neutral pions, although inverse Compton scatterings and bremsstrahlung also contribute. It is plausible that other galaxies can be diffuse sources of gamma rays in a similar manner. Starburst galaxies are particularly interesting to study as they are expected to have much higher cosmic-ray fluxes and interstellar matter densities. The neutral pions are created in cosmic-ray interactions with interstellar matter. Presented here is an overview of the recent work by Karlsson and co-workers on proton-proton interactions and the resulting secondary particle inclusive cross sections and angular distributions. This model can be used to calculated the $\\pi^{0}$ component of the gamma-ray yield and spectrum from a starburst galaxy. The yield is expected to increase significantly (30% to 50%) and the spectrum to be harder than the incident proton spectrum.

  17. Hadronic Production of Gamma Rays and Starburst Galaxies

    E-print Network

    Karlsson, Niklas

    2008-01-01

    The Milky Way has been estabished to emit gamma rays. These gamma rays are presumably dominated by decays of neutral pions, although inverse Compton scatterings and bremsstrahlung also contribute. It is plausible that other galaxies can be diffuse sources of gamma rays in a similar manner. Starburst galaxies are particularly interesting to study as they are expected to have much higher cosmic-ray fluxes and interstellar matter densities. The neutral pions are created in cosmic-ray interactions with interstellar matter. Presented here is an overview of the recent work by Karlsson and co-workers on proton-proton interactions and the resulting secondary particle inclusive cross sections and angular distributions. This model can be used to calculated the $\\pi^{0}$ component of the gamma-ray yield and spectrum from a starburst galaxy. The yield is expected to increase significantly (30% to 50%) and the spectrum to be harder than the incident proton spectrum.

  18. Gamma-ray astronomy: From Fermi up to the HAWC high-energy {gamma}-ray observatory in Sierra Negra

    SciTech Connect

    Carraminana, Alberto [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica Luis Enrique Erro 1, Tonantzintla, Puebla 72840 (Mexico); Collaboration: HAWC Collaboration

    2013-06-12

    Gamma-rays represent the most energetic electromagnetic window for the study of the Universe. They are studied both from space at MeV and GeV energies, with instruments like the Fermi{gamma}-ray Space Telescope, and at TeV energies with ground based instruments profiting of particle cascades in the atmosphere and of the Cerenkov radiation of charged particles in the air or in water. The Milagro gamma-ray observatory represented the first instrument to successfully implement the water Cerenkov technique for {gamma}-ray astronomy, opening the ground for the more sensitive HAWC {gamma}-ray observatory, currently under development in the Sierra Negra site and already providing early science results.

  19. Jets in Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sari, R.; Piran, T.; Halpern, Jules P.; Oliversen, Ronald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In the afterglows of several gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), rapid temporal decay, which is inconsistent with spherical (isotropic) blast-wave models, is observed. In particular, GRB 980519 had the most rapidly fading of the well-documented GRB afterglows, with t(sup -2.05 +/- 0.04) in optical as well as in X-rays. We show that such temporal decay is more consistent with the evolution of a jet after it slows down and spreads laterally, for which t(sup -P) decay is expected (where p is the index of the electron energy distribution). Such a beaming model would relax the energy requirements on some of the more extreme GRBs by a factor of several hundred. It is likely that a large fraction of the weak- (or no-) afterglow observations are also due to the common occurrence of beaming in GRBs and that their jets have already transitioned. to the spreading phase before the first afterglow observations were made. With this interpretation, a universal value of p approx. = 2.4 is consistent with all data.

  20. Science with the new generation high energy gamma- ray experiments

    E-print Network

    M. Alvarez; D. D'Armiento; G. Agnetta; A. Alberdi; A. Antonelli; A. Argan; P. Assis; E. A. Baltz; C. Bambi; G. Barbiellini; H. Bartko; M. Basset; D. Bastieri; P. Belli; G. Benford; L. Bergstrom; R. Bernabei; G. Bertone; A. Biland; B. Biondo; F. Bocchino; E. Branchini; M. Brigida; T. Bringmann; P. Brogueira; A. Bulgarelli; J. A. Caballero; G. A. Caliandro; P. Camarri; F. Cappella; P. Caraveo; R. Carbone; M. Carvajal; S. Casanova; A. J. Castro-Tirado; O. Catalano; R. Catena; F. Celi; A. Celotti; R. Cerulli; A. Chen; R. Clay; V. Cocco; J. Conrad; E. Costa; A. Cuoco; G. Cusumano; C. J. Dai; B. Dawson; B. De Lotto; G. De Paris; A. de Ugarte Postigo; E. Del Monte; C. Delgado; A. Di Ciaccio; G. Di Cocco; S. Di Falco; G. Di Persio; B. L. Dingus; A. Dominguez; F. Donato; I. Donnarumma; M. Doro; J. Edsjo; J. M. Espino Navas; M. C. Espirito Santo; Y. Evangelista; C. Evoli; D. Fargion; C. Favuzzi; M. Feroci; M. Fiorini; L. Foggetta; N. Fornengo; T. Froysland; M. Frutti; F. Fuschino; J. L. Gomez; M. Gomez; D. Gaggero; N. Galante; M. I. Gallardo; M. Galli; J. E. Garcia; M. Garczarczyk; F. Gargano; M. Gaug; F. Gianotti; S. Giarrusso; B. Giebels; N. Giglietto; P. Giommi; F. Giordano; A. Giuliani; J. Glicenstein; P. Goncalves; D. Grasso; M. Guerriero; H. L. He; A. Incicchitti; J. Kirk; H. H. Kuang; A. La Barbera; G. La Rosa; C. Labanti; G. Lamanna; I. Lapshov; F. Lazzarotto; S. Liberati; F. Liello; P. Lipari; F. Longo; F. Loparco; M. Lozano; P. G. Lucentini De Sanctis; J. M. Ma; M. C. Maccarone; L. Maccione; V. Malvezzi; A. Mangano; M. Mariotti; M. Marisaldi; I. Martel; A. Masiero; E. Massaro; M. Mastropietro; E. Mattaini; F. Mauri; M. N. Mazziotta; S. Mereghetti; T. Mineo; S. Mizobuchi; A. Moiseev; M. Moles; C. Monte; F. Montecchia; E. Morelli; A. Morselli; I. Moskalenko; F. Nozzoli; J. F. Ormes; M. A. Peres-Torres; L. Pacciani; A. Pellizzoni; F. Perez-Bernal; F. Perotti; P. Picozza; L. Pieri; M. Pietroni; M. Pimenta; A. Pina; C. Pittori; C. Pontoni; G. Porrovecchio; F. Prada; M. Prest; D. Prosperi; R. Protheroe; G. Pucella; J. M. Quesada; J. M. Quintana; J. R. Quintero; S. Raino; M. Rapisarda; M. Rissi; J. Rodriguez; E. Rossi; G. Rowell; A. Rubini; F. Russo; M. Sanchez-Conde; B. Sacco; V. Scapin; M. Schelke; A. Segreto; A. Sellerholm; X. D. Sheng; A. Smith; P. Soffitta; R. Sparvoli; P. Spinelli; V. Stamatescu; L. S. Stark; M. Tavani; G. Thornton; L. G. Titarchuk; B. Tome; A. Traci; M. Trifoglio; A. Trois; P. Vallania; E. Vallazza; S. Vercellone; S. Vernetto; V. Vitale; N. Wild; Z. P. Ye; A. Zambra; F. Zandanel; D. Zanello

    2007-12-04

    This Conference is the fifth of a series of Workshops on High Energy Gamma- ray Experiments, following the Conferences held in Perugia 2003, Bari 2004, Cividale del Friuli 2005, Elba Island 2006. This year the focus was on the use of gamma-ray to study the Dark Matter component of the Universe, the origin and propagation of Cosmic Rays, Extra Large Spatial Dimensions and Tests of Lorentz Invariance.

  1. Science with the new generation high energy gamma- ray experiments

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, M; Agnetta, G; Alberdi, A; Antonelli, A; Argan, A; Assis, P; Baltz, E A; Bambi, C; Barbiellini, G; Bartko, H; Basset, M; Bastieri, D; Belli, P; Benford, G; Bergström, L; Bernabei, R; Bertone, G; Biland, A; Biondo, B; Bocchino, F; Branchini, E; Brigida, M; Bringmann, T; Brogueira, P; Bulgarelli, A; Caballero, J A; Caliandro, G A; Camarri, P; Cappella, F; Caraveo, P; Carbone, R; Carvajal, M; Casanova, S; Castro-Tirado, A J; Catalano, O; Catena, R; Celi, F; Celotti, A; Cerulli, R; Chen, A; Clay, R; Cocco, V; Conrad, J; Costa, E; Cuoco, A; Cusumano, G; Dai, C J; Dawson, B; De Lotto, B; De Paris, G; Postigo, A de Ugarte; Del Monte, E; Delgado, C; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Cocco, G; Di Falco, S; Di Persio, G; Dingus, B L; Dominguez, A; Donato, F; Donnarumma, I; Doro, M; Edsjö, J; Navas, J M Espino; Santo, M C Espirito; Evangelista, Y; Evoli, C; Fargion, D; Favuzzi, C; Feroci, M; Fiorini, M; Foggetta, L; Fornengo, N; Froysland, T; Frutti, M; Fuschino, F; Gómez, J L; Gómez, M; Gaggero, D; Galante, N; Gallardo, M I; Galli, M; García, J E; Garczarczyk, M; Gargano, F; Gaug, M; Gianotti, F; Giarrusso, S; Giebels, B; Giglietto, N; Giommi, P; Giordano, F; Giuliani, A; Glicenstein, J; Gonçalves, P; Grasso, D; Guerriero, M; He, H L; Incicchitti, A; Kirk, J; Kuang, H H; La Barbera, A; La Rosa, G; Labanti, C; Lamanna, G; Lapshov, I; Lazzarotto, F; Liberati, S; Liello, F; Lipari, P; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lozano, M; De Sanctis, P G Lucentini; Ma, J M; Maccarone, M C; Maccione, L; Malvezzi, V; Mangano, A; Mariotti, M; Marisaldi, M; Martel, I; Masiero, A; Massaro, E; Mastropietro, M; Mattaini, E; Mauri, F; Mazziotta, M N; Mereghetti, S; Mineo, T; Mizobuchi, S; Moiseev, A; Moles, M; Monte, C; Montecchia, F; Morelli, E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I; Nozzoli, F; Ormes, J F; Peres-Torres, M A; Pacciani, L; Pellizzoni, A; Pérez-Bernal, F; Perotti, F; Picozza, P; Pieri, L; Pietroni, M; Pimenta, M; Pina, A; Pittori, C; Pontoni, C; Porrovecchio, G; Prada, F; Prest, M; Prosperi, D; Protheroe, R; Pucella, G; Quesada, J M; Quintana, J M; Quintero, J R; Rainó, S; Rapisarda, M; Rissi, M; Rodríguez, J; Rossi, E; Rowell, G; Rubini, A; Russo, F; Sanchez-Conde, M; Sacco, B; Scapin, V; Schelke, M; Segreto, A; Sellerholm, A; Sheng, X D; Smith, A; Soffitta, P; Sparvoli, R; Spinelli, P; Stamatescu, V; Stark, L S; Tavani, M; Thornton, G; Titarchuk, L G; Tomé, B; Traci, A; Trifoglio, M; Trois, A; Vallania, P; Vallazza, E; Vercellone, S; Vernetto, S; Vitale, V; Wild, N; Ye, Z P; Zambra, A; Zandanel, F; Zanello, D

    2007-01-01

    This Conference is the fifth of a series of Workshops on High Energy Gamma- ray Experiments, following the Conferences held in Perugia 2003, Bari 2004, Cividale del Friuli 2005, Elba Island 2006. This year the focus was on the use of gamma-ray to study the Dark Matter component of the Universe, the origin and propagation of Cosmic Rays, Extra Large Spatial Dimensions and Tests of Lorentz Invariance.

  2. Development of {gamma}-ray detectors for {sup 16}O(p,p'{gamma}) experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, T.; Izumi, T.; Ou, I.; Yano, T.; Sakuda, M.; Tamii, A.; Suzuki, T.; Yosoi, M. [Department of physiscs, Okayama University, Okaymaa 700-8530 (Japan); Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2012-11-12

    The {gamma} ray production in neutral-current (NC) neutrino-oxygen interaction is very important to the detection of neutrinos from supernova explosion in a neutrino experiment, since those {gamma} rays can become extra signals or unexpected background in the energy region from 5 MeV to 30 MeV. We propose the experiment to measure {gamma} rays in {sup 16}O(p,p') reaction at Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP, Osaka) to provide good information on the {gamma}-ray emission spectra in neutrino-oxygen reactions. We present the design of {gamma}-ray detectors (NaI, CsI, HPGe), which will be used in proposed experiment.

  3. Gamma-Ray Pulsars with the GLAST Large Area Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D. A. [CENBG, Universite Bordeaux 1-CNRS-IN2P3, Chemin du Solarium, 33175 Gradignan (France)

    2008-02-27

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) will see first light in mid-2008, and is expected to discover scores of pulsars in GeV {gamma}-rays. For most, days to weeks will separate recorded gamma events. Rotation parameters provided by radio or X-ray instruments permit pulsation searches with greater sensitivity than what the LAT can achieve alone. But the gamma pulsar candidates tend to be the young ones with large timing noise, meaning that the ephemerides need to be updated relatively frequently over the years of the GLAST mission. We describe the criteria used to identify gamma pulsar candidates, and the observation campaign underway to provide ephemerides useful for the pulsed gamma searches, with some illustrations of the LAT's capabilities.

  4. A New View of the High Energy Gamma-Ray Sky with the Ferrni Gamma-Ray Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McEnery, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Following its launch in June 2008, high energy gamma-ray observations by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have opened a new and important window on a wide variety of phenomena, including pulsars, black holes and active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursts, supernova remnants and the origin of cosmic rays, and searches for hypothetical new phenomena such as super symmetric dark matter annihilations. In this talk I will describe the current status of the Fermi observatory and review the science highlights from the first year of observations.

  5. Gamma-ray observations with the Transient Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (TGRS).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, H.; Teegarden, B. J.; Cline, T. L.; Gehrels, N.; Hurley, K. H.; Madden, N.; Owens, A.; Palmer, D. M.; Pehl, R.; Ramaty, R.

    1996-12-01

    The Transient Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (TGRS), a high-resolution germanium detector, was launched aboard the WIND satellite on November 1, 1994. After ~2 years and several deep space orbits the spacecraft will eventually be injected into a halo orbit around the Sun-Earth L_1_ point. Although TGRS is primarily designed to perform high resolution spectroscopy of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and solar flares, it equally well lends itself to the study of transient X-ray sources and, using an on-board passive occulter, the long-term monitoring of steady sources such as the Crab and the Galactic Center. Since launch, TGRS has been working exceedingly well and has proven to be very stable in its performance. TGRS has been detecting on the average ~5 GRBs per month and to date has observed three solar flares. Preliminary analysis of our data also indicates that TGRS is indeed sensitive to sources such as the X-ray transient GRO J1655-40, the Crab, and the Galactic Center.

  6. GeV-TeV Gamma-ray Astronomy Masaki Mori

    E-print Network

    Enomoto, Ryoji

    GeV-TeV Gamma-ray Astronomy Masaki Mori Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo of gamma-rays from the Universe are briefly reviewed. Topics include observational technique, diffuse gamma-rays, pulsars, unidentified sources, plerions, supernova remnants and AGNs. KEYWORDS: gamma-rays, pulsars

  7. SCATTERING OF GAMMA-RAYS. I. SCATTERED GAMMA-RAYS IN THE LABYRINTH OF SHIELDED Co⁜° IRRADIATION FACILITIES. II. RADIOGRAPHY USING THE SCATTERED $gamma$-RAYS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaminishi

    1961-01-01

    The intensities and energy spectra of scattered gamma rays in the ; labyrinth of a 3000-C Co⁜° irradiation facilities were measured by means of ; chamber-type detectors and a scintillation spectrometer. Problems concerning the ; radiation differences between the 2 labyrinth sections, the contribution of the ; scattered-rays to the special dosage rate, and the estimation of the dosage rate

  8. Fermi Discovers a New Population of Gamma-ray Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Chi C.; Shore, S. N.; Jean, P.; Fermi-LAT Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Classical novae were not widely expected to be high-energy (>100 MeV) gamma-ray sources prior to the launch of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. In March 2010, the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) made the first gamma-ray detection of a nova, in the symbiotic binary V407 Cygni. The LAT observations uniquely revealed high-energy particle acceleration in the circumstellar environment of the V407 Cyg recurrent binary system consisting of a white dwarf and Mira variable companion. Subsequently three classical novae have been detected by the LAT, Nova Sco 2012, V959 Monocerotis 2012, and V339 Delphini 2013, thus heralding novae as a new gamma-ray source class. For V959 Mon 2012, the gamma-ray transient source was discovered before the optical confirmation of the nova. This showcases the all-sky monitoring capability of the LAT, and how novae can be found independently from traditional optical searches. The most recent LAT detection of V339 Del 2013 was made possible through a Fermi Target of Opportunity observation triggered on the bright optical nova discovery. We discuss the LAT detected gamma-ray novae together with observational limits on other recent Galactic novae and discuss their possible high-energy gamma-ray production mechanisms in light of the new detections.

  9. High Energy Gamma-Ray Emission From Blazars: EGRET Observations

    E-print Network

    R. Mukherjee

    1999-01-17

    We will present a summary of the observations of blazars by the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO). EGRET has detected high energy gamma-ray emission at energies greater than 100 MeV from more that 50 blazars. These sources show inferred isotropic luminosities as large as $3\\times 10^{49}$ ergs s$^{-1}$. One of the most remarkable characteristics of the EGRET observations is that the gamma-ray luminosity often dominates the bolometric power of the blazar. A few of the blazars are seen to exhibit variability on very short time-scales of one day or less. The combination of high luminosities and time variations seen in the gamma-ray data indicate that gamma-rays are an important component of the relativistic jet thought to characterize blazars. Currently most models for blazars involve a beaming scenario. In leptonic models, where electrons are the primary accelerated particles, gamma-ray emission is believed to be due to inverse Compton scattering of low energy photons, although opinions differ as to the source of the soft photons. Hardronic models involve secondary production or photomeson production followed by pair cascades, and predict associated neutrino production.

  10. Detection of gamma rays from a starburst galaxy.

    PubMed

    Acero, F; Aharonian, F; Akhperjanian, A G; Anton, G; Barres de Almeida, U; Bazer-Bachi, A R; Becherini, Y; Behera, B; Bernlöhr, K; Bochow, A; Boisson, C; Bolmont, J; Borrel, V; Brucker, J; Brun, F; Brun, P; Bühler, R; Bulik, T; Büsching, I; Boutelier, T; Chadwick, P M; Charbonnier, A; Chaves, R C G; Cheesebrough, A; Chounet, L-M; Clapson, A C; Coignet, G; Dalton, M; Daniel, M K; Davids, I D; Degrange, B; Deil, C; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Ataď, A; Domainko, W; Drury, L O'C; Dubois, F; Dubus, G; Dyks, J; Dyrda, M; Egberts, K; Emmanoulopoulos, D; Espigat, P; Farnier, C; Fegan, S; Feinstein, F; Fiasson, A; Förster, A; Fontaine, G; Füssling, M; Gabici, S; Gallant, Y A; Gérard, L; Gerbig, D; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Glück, B; Goret, P; Göring, D; Hauser, D; Hauser, M; Heinz, S; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hinton, J A; Hoffmann, A; Hofmann, W; Hofverberg, P; Hoppe, S; Horns, D; Jacholkowska, A; de Jager, O C; Jahn, C; Jung, I; Katarzy?ski, K; Katz, U; Kaufmann, S; Kerschhaggl, M; Khangulyan, D; Khélifi, B; Keogh, D; Klochkov, D; Klu?niak, W; Kneiske, T; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Kossakowski, R; Lamanna, G; Lenain, J-P; Lohse, T; Marandon, V; Martineau-Huynh, O; Marcowith, A; Masbou, J; Maurin, D; McComb, T J L; Medina, M C; Méhault, J; Moderski, R; Moulin, E; Naumann-Godo, M; de Naurois, M; Nedbal, D; Nekrassov, D; Nicholas, B; Niemiec, J; Nolan, S J; Ohm, S; Olive, J-F; de Ońa Wilhelmi, E; Orford, K J; Ostrowski, M; Panter, M; Paz Arribas, M; Pedaletti, G; Pelletier, G; Petrucci, P-O; Pita, S; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, A; Raubenheimer, B C; Raue, M; Rayner, S M; Reimer, O; Renaud, M; Rieger, F; Ripken, J; Rob, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Rulten, C B; Ruppel, J; Sahakian, V; Santangelo, A; Schlickeiser, R; Schöck, F M; Schwanke, U; Schwarzburg, S; Schwemmer, S; Shalchi, A; Sikora, M; Skilton, J L; Sol, H; Stawarz, ?; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Stinzing, F; Superina, G; Szostek, A; Tam, P H; Tavernet, J-P; Terrier, R; Tibolla, O; Tluczykont, M; van Eldik, C; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Venter, L; Vialle, J P; Vincent, P; Vivier, M; Völk, H J; Volpe, F; Wagner, S J; Ward, M; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A

    2009-11-20

    Starburst galaxies exhibit in their central regions a highly increased rate of supernovae, the remnants of which are thought to accelerate energetic cosmic rays up to energies of approximately 10(15) electron volts. We report the detection of gamma rays--tracers of such cosmic rays--from the starburst galaxy NGC 253 using the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) array of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. The gamma-ray flux above 220 billion electron volts is F = (5.5 +/- 1.0(stat) +/- 2.8(sys)) x 10(-13) cm(-2) s(-1), implying a cosmic-ray density about three orders of magnitude larger than that in the center of the Milky Way. The fraction of cosmic-ray energy channeled into gamma rays in this starburst environment is five times as large as that in our Galaxy. PMID:19779150

  11. Dark Gamma-Ray Bursts in the Swift Era

    SciTech Connect

    Horst, A. J. van der [NASA Postdoctoral Program Fellow, NSSTC, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Kouveliotou, C. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, NSSTC, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 38505 (United States); Gehrels, N. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Rol, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Wijers, R. A. M. J. [Astronomical Institute, University of Amsterdam, Kruislaan 403, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Cannizzo, J. K. [CRESST/Joint Center for Astrophysics, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD, 21250 (United States); Racusin, J.; Burrows, D. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA 16802 (United States)

    2009-05-25

    We propose a new method for the classification of optically dark gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), based on the X-ray and optical-to-X-ray spectral indices of GRB afterglows, and utilizing the spectral capabilities of Swift. This method depends less on model assumptions than previous methods, and can be used as a quick diagnostic tool to identify optically sub-luminous bursts. With this method we can also find GRBs that are extremely bright at optical wavelengths. We show that the previously suggested correlation between the optical darkness and the X-ray/gamma-ray brightness is merely an observational selection effect.

  12. PKS 2123-463: A Confirmed Gamma-ray Blazar at High Redshift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Ammando, F.; Rau, A.; Schady, P.; Finke, J.; Orienti, M.; Greiner, J.; Kann, D. A.; Ojha, R.; Foley, A. R.; Stevens, J.; Blanchard, J. M.; Edwards, P. G.; Kadler, M.; Lovell, J. E.

    2013-01-01

    The flat spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ) PKS 2123-463 was associated in the first Fermi- Large Area Telescope (LAT) source catalogue with the gamma-ray source 1FGL J2126.1-4603, but when considering the full first two years of Fermi observations, no gamma-ray source at a position consistent with this FSRQ was detected, and thus PKS 2123-463 was not reported in the second Fermi-LAT source catalogue. On 2011 December 14 a gamma-ray source positionally consistent with PKS 2123-463 was detected in flaring activity by Fermi-LAT. This activity triggered radio-to-X-ray observations by the Swift,Gamma-ray Optical/Near-Infrared Detector (GROND), Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA), Ceduna and Seven Dishes Karoo Array Telescope (KAT-7) observatories. Results of the localization of the gamma-ray source over 41 months of Fermi-LAT operation are reported here in conjunction with the results of the analysis of radio, optical, ultraviolet (UV) and X-ray data collected soon after the gamma-ray flare. The strict spatial association with the lower energy counterpart together with a simultaneous increase of the activity in optical, UV, X-ray and gamma-ray bands led to a firm identification of the gamma-ray source with PKS 2123-463. A new photometric redshift has been estimated as z = 1.46 plus or minus 0.05 using GROND and Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope (UVOT) observations, in rough agreement with the disputed spectroscopic redshift of z = 1.67.We fit the broad-band spectral energy distribution with a synchrotron/external Compton model. We find that a thermal disc component is necessary to explain the optical/UV emission detected by Swift/UVOT. This disc has a luminosity of approximately 1.8 x 10(exp 46) erg s(exp -1), and a fit to the disc emission assuming a Schwarzschild (i.e. non-rotating) black hole gives a mass of approximately 2 x 10(exp 9) solar mass. This is the first black hole mass estimate for this source.

  13. NDA via gamma-ray active and passive computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Decman, D.J.; Martz, H.E.; Roberson, G.P.; Johansson, E.

    1996-10-01

    Gamma-ray-based computed tomography (CT) requires that two different measurements be made on a closed waste container. [MAR92 and ROB94] When the results from these two measurements are combined, it becomes possible to identify and quantify all detectable gamma-ray emitting radioisotopes within a container. All measurements are made in a tomographic manner, i.e., the container is moved sequentially through well- known and accurately reproducible translation, rotation, and elevation positions in order to obtain gamma-ray data that is reconstructed by computer into images that represent waste contents. [ROB94] The two measurements modes are called active (A) and passive (P) CT. In the ACT mode, a collimated gamma-ray source external to the waste container emits multiple, mono-energetic gamma rays that pass through the container and are detected on the opposite side. The attenuated gamma-rays transmitted are measured as a function of both energy and position of the container. Thus, container contents are `mapped` via the measured amount of attenuation suffered at each gamma-ray energy. In effect, a three dimensional (3D) image of gamma- ray attenuation versus waste content is obtained. In the PCT measurement mode, the external radioactive source is shuttered turned- off, and the waste container, is moved through similar positions used for the ACT measurements. However, this time the radiation detectors record any gamma-rays emitted by radioactive sources on the inside of the waste container. Thus, internal radioactive content is mapped or 3D-imaged in the same tomographic manner as the attenuating matrix materials were in the ACT measurement mode.

  14. First Results from the Swift Gamma Ray Burst Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehreis, Neil

    2005-01-01

    Swift is now in orbit after a beautiful launch on November 20, 2004. It is a multiwavelength observatory designed specifically to study the fascinating gamma-ray bursts. The goals are to determine the origin of bursts and use them to probe the early Universe. A new-technology wide-field gamma-ray camera detects more than a hundred bursts per year. Sensitive narrow-field X-ray and UV/optical telescopes are pointed at the burst location in 20 to 70 sec by an autonomously controlled "swift" spacecraft. For each burst, arcsec positions are determined and optical/UV/X-ray/gamma-ray spectrophotometry performed. Information is also rapidly sent to the ground to a team of more than 50 observers at telescopes around the world. First results from the mission will be presented, including observations of bright GRBs, faint GRBs, short GRBs and a super-giant flare from the soft gamma repeater SGRl806-20.

  15. Feasibility study of gamma-ray medical radiography.

    PubMed

    Alyassin, Abdalmajeid M; Maqsoud, Hamza A; Mashat, Ahmad M; Al-Mohr, Al-Sayed; Abdulwajid, Subhan

    2013-02-01

    This research explores the feasibility of using gamma-ray radiography in medical imaging. We will show that gamma-ray medical radiography has the potential to provide alternative diagnostic medical information to X-ray radiography. Approximately one Ci Am-241 radioactive source which emits mono-energetic 59.5 keV gamma rays was used. Several factors that influence the feasibility of this study were tested. They were the radiation source uniformity, image uniformity, and image quality parameters such as contrast, noise, and spatial resolution. In addition, several gamma-ray and X-ray images were acquired using humanoid phantoms. These images were recorded on computed radiography image receptors and displayed on a standard monitor. Visual assessments of these images were then conducted. The Am-241 radioactive source provided relatively uniform radiation exposure and images. Image noise and image contrast were mainly dependent on the exposure time and source size, whereas spatial resolution was dependent on source size and magnification factor. The gamma-ray humanoid phantom images were of lower quality than the X-ray images mainly due to the low radioactivity used and not enough exposure time. Nevertheless, the gamma-ray images displayed most of the main structures contained in the humanoid phantoms. Higher exposure rates and thus lower exposure times were estimated for different pure Am-241 source sizes that are hypothesized to provide high quality images similar to X-ray images. For instance, a 10mm source size of pure Am-241 with 7s exposure time should produce images similar in contrast and noise to X-ray images. This research paves the way for the production and usage of a highly radioactive Am-241 source with the potential to lead to the feasibility of acceptable quality medical gamma-ray radiography. PMID:23208227

  16. A Search for Gamma-Ray Bursts and Pulsars, and the Application of Kalman Filters to Gamma-Ray Reconstruction

    E-print Network

    B. B. Jones

    2002-02-04

    Part I describes the analysis of periodic and transient signals in EGRET data. A method to search for the transient flux from gamma-ray bursts independent of triggers from other gamma-ray instruments is developed. Several known gamma-ray bursts were independently detected, and there is evidence for a previously unknown gamma-ray burst candidate. Statistical methods using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference are developed and implemented to extract periodic signals from gamma-ray sources in the presence of significant astrophysical background radiation. The analysis was performed on six pulsars and three pulsar candidates. The three brightest pulsars, Crab, Vela, and Geminga, were readily identified, and would have been detected independently in the EGRET data without knowledge of the pulse period. No significant pulsation was detected in the three pulsar candidates. Eighteen X-ray binaries were examined. None showed any evidence of periodicity. In addition, methods for calculating the detection threshold of periodic flux modulation were developed. The future hopes of gamma-ray astronomy lie in the development of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope, or GLAST. Part II describes the development and results of the particle track reconstruction software for a GLAST science prototype instrument beam test. The Kalman filtering method of track reconstruction is introduced and implemented. Monte Carlo simulations, very similar to those used for the full GLAST instrument, were performed to predict the instrumental response of the prototype. The prototype was tested in a gamma-ray beam at SLAC. The reconstruction software was used to determine the incident gamma-ray direction. It was found that the simulations did an excellent job of representing the actual instrument response.

  17. Dawn's Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prettyman, Thomas H.; Feldman, William C.; McSween, Harry Y.; Dingler, Robert D.; Enemark, Donald C.; Patrick, Douglas E.; Storms, Steven A.; Hendricks, John S.; Morgenthaler, Jeffery P.; Pitman, Karly M.; Reedy, Robert C.

    2011-12-01

    The NASA Dawn Mission will determine the surface composition of 4 Vesta and 1 Ceres, providing constraints on their formation and thermal evolution. The payload includes a Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND), which will map the surface elemental composition at regional spatial scales. Target elements include the constituents of silicate and oxide minerals, ices, and the products of volcanic exhalation and aqueous alteration. At Vesta, GRaND will map the mixing ratio of end-members of the howardite, diogenite, and eucrite (HED) meteorites, determine relative proportions of plagioclase and mafic minerals, and search for compositions not well sampled by the meteorite collection. The large south polar impact basin may provide an opportunity to determine the composition of Vesta’s mantle and lower crust. At Ceres, GRaND will provide chemical information needed to test different models of Ceres’ origin and thermal and aqueous evolution. GRaND is also sensitive to hydrogen layering and can determine the equivalent H2O/OH content of near-surface hydrous minerals as well as the depth and water abundance of an ice table, which may provide information about the state of water in the interior of Ceres. Here, we document the design and performance of GRaND with sufficient detail to interpret flight data archived in the Planetary Data System, including two new sensor designs: an array of CdZnTe semiconductors for gamma ray spectroscopy, and a loaded-plastic phosphor sandwich for neutron spectroscopy. An overview of operations and a description of data acquired from launch up to Vesta approach is provided, including annealing of the CdZnTe sensors to remove radiation damage accrued during cruise. The instrument is calibrated using data acquired on the ground and in flight during a close flyby of Mars. Results of Mars flyby show that GRaND has ample sensitivity to meet science objectives at Vesta and Ceres. Strategies for data analysis are described and prospective results for Vesta are presented for different operational scenarios and compositional models.

  18. Gamma Ray Burst Distribution on the Sky: The Plots Thicken

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    In this activity, students look at the distribution of aluminum foil balls arranged in a circle on the floor, and compare them to the distribution of gamma-ray bursts on the sky. This activity uses Gamma-ray Bursts as an engagement tool to teach selected topics in physical science and mathematics. In addition to the activities, it features background information, assessment information, student worksheets, extension and transfer activities, and detailed information about the physical science and mathematics content standards for grades 9-12. This is Activity 3 of 4 in the guide which accompanies the educational wall sheet titled Angling for Gamma-ray Bursts

  19. Gamma Ray Burst Constraints on Ultraviolet Lorentz Invariance Violation

    E-print Network

    Tina Kahniashvili; Grigol Gogoberidze; Bharat Ratra

    2006-10-20

    We present a unified general formalism for ultraviolet Lorentz invariance violation (LV) testing through electromagnetic wave propagation, based on both dispersion and rotation measure data. This allows for a direct comparison of the efficacy of different data to constrain LV. As an example we study the signature of LV on the rotation of the polarization plane of $\\gamma$-rays from gamma ray bursts in a LV model. Here $\\gamma$-ray polarization data can provide a strong constraint on LV, 13 orders of magnitude more restrictive than a potential constraint from the rotation of the cosmic microwave background polarization proposed by Gamboa, L\\'{o}pez-Sarri\\'{o}n, and Polychronakos (2006).

  20. Simulation of Gamma Rays from Proton Interaction in Local Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Karlsson, Niklas; /SLAC /Stockholm U.; Cohen-Tanugi, Johann; Kamae, Tuneyoshi; Tajima, Hiroyasu; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2007-06-06

    The GLAST Large Area Telescope will provide unprecedented opportunities to detect cosmic GeV gamma rays, thanks to its large effective area, field of view and angular resolution compared with earlier telescopes. We present here the possibility of detecting GeV gamma rays produced by interactions of accelerated protons (or hadrons) with surrounding ambient material. Sources where such detection could be made include local galaxies, such as the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), molecular clouds and other extended sources. We have calculated the expected gamma-ray spectrum for an isotropic distribution of protons in the LMC and simulated a one-year GLAST-LAT observation.

  1. The STACEE-32 Ground Based Gamma-ray Detector

    E-print Network

    STACEE Collaboration; D. S. Hanna; D. Bhattacharya; L. M. Boone; M. C. Chantell; Z. Conner; C. E. Covault; M. Dragovan; P. Fortin; D. T. Gregorich; J. A. Hinton; R. Mukherjee; R. A. Ong; S. Oser; K. Ragan; R. A. Scalzo; D. R. Schuette; C. G. Theoret; T. O. Tumer; D. A. Williams; J. A. Zweerink

    2002-05-29

    We describe the design and performance of the Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment detector in its initial configuration (STACEE-32). STACEE is a new ground-based gamma ray detector using the atmospheric Cherenkov technique. In STACEE, the heliostats of a solar energy research array are used to collect and focus the Cherenkov photons produced in gamma-ray induced air showers. The large Cherenkov photon collection area of STACEE results in a gamma-ray energy threshold below that of previous detectors.

  2. The STACEE Ground-Based Gamma-Ray Detector

    E-print Network

    STACEE Collaboration; D. M. Gingrich; L. M. Boone; D. Bramel; J. Carson; C. E. Covault; P. Fortin; D. S. Hanna; J. A. Hinton; A. Jarvis; J. Kildea; T. Lindner; C. Mueller; R. Mukherjee; R. A. Ong; K. Ragan; R. A. Scalzo; C. G. Theoret; D. A. Williams; J. A. Zweerink

    2005-06-24

    We describe the design and performance of the Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) in its complete configuration. STACEE uses the heliostats of a solar energy research facility to collect and focus the Cherenkov photons produced in gamma-ray induced air showers. The light is concentrated onto an array of photomultiplier tubes located near the top of a tower. The large Cherenkov photon collection area of STACEE results in a gamma-ray energy threshold below that of previous ground-based detectors. STACEE is being used to observe pulsars, supernova remnants, active galactic nuclei, and gamma-ray bursts.

  3. Janus probe, a detection system for high energy reactor gamma-ray spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Gold; B. J. Kaiser

    1980-01-01

    In reactor environments, gamma-ray spectra are continuous and the absolute magnitude as well as the general shape of the gamma continuum are of paramount importance. Consequently, conventional methods of gamma-ray detection are not suitable for in-core gamma-ray spectrometry. To meet these specific needs, a method of continuous gamma-ray spectrometry, namely Compton Recoil Gamma-Ray Spectrometry, was developed for in-situ observations of

  4. Precision X-Band Linac Technologies for Nuclear Photonics Gamma-Ray Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Hartemann, F V; Albert, F; Anderson, S G; Bayramian, A J; Cross, R R; Ebbers, C A; Gibson, D J; Houck, T L; Marsh, R A; Messerly, M J; Siders, C W; McNabb, D P; Barty, C J; Adolphsen, C E; Chu, T S; Jongewaard, E N; Tantawi, S G; Vlieks, A E; Wang, F; Wang, J W; Raubenheimer, T O; Ighigeanu, D; Toma, M; Cutoiu, D

    2011-08-31

    Nuclear photonics is an emerging field of research requiring new tools, including high spectral brightness, tunable gamma-ray sources; high photon energy, ultrahigh-resolution crystal spectrometers; and novel detectors. This presentation focuses on the precision linac technology required for Compton scattering gamma-ray light sources, and on the optimization of the laser and electron beam pulse format to achieve unprecedented spectral brightness. Within this context, high-gradient X-band technology will be shown to offer optimal performance in a compact package, when used in conjunction with the appropriate pulse format, and photocathode illumination and interaction laser technologies. The nascent field of nuclear photonics is enabled by the recent maturation of new technologies, including high-gradient X-band electron acceleration, robust fiber laser systems, and hyper-dispersion CPA. Recent work has been performed at LLNL to demonstrate isotope-specific detection of shielded materials via NRF using a tunable, quasi-monochromatic Compton scattering gamma-ray source operating between 0.2 MeV and 0.9 MeV photon energy. This technique is called Fluorescence Imaging in the Nuclear Domain with Energetic Radiation (or FINDER). This work has, among other things, demonstrated the detection of {sup 7}Li shielded by Pb, utilizing gamma rays generated by a linac-driven, laser-based Compton scattering gamma-ray source developed at LLNL. Within this context, a new facility is currently under construction at LLNL, with the goal of generating tunable {gamma}-rays in the 0.5-2.5 MeV photon energy range, at a repetition rate of 120 Hz, and with a peak brightness in the 10{sup 20} photons/(s x mm{sup 2} x mrad{sup 2} x 0.1% bw).

  5. Laser synchrotron radiation as a compact source of tunable, short pulse hard X-rays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Esarey; P. Sprangle; A. Ting; S. K. Ride

    1993-01-01

    A compact laser synchrotron source (LSS) is proposed as a means of generating tunable, narrow bandwidth, ultrashort pulses of hard X-rays. The LSS is based on the Thomson backscattering of intense laser radiation from a counterstreaming electron beam. Advances in both compact ultraintense solid-state lasers and high brightness rf linac beams make the LSS an attractive compact source of high

  6. CdTe and CdZnTe gamma ray detectors for medical and industrial imaging systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Eisen; A. Shor; I. Mardor

    1999-01-01

    CdTe and CdZnTe X-ray and gamma ray detectors in the form of single elements or as segmented monolithic detectors have been shown to be useful in medical and industrial imaging systems. These detectors possess inherently better energy resolution than scintillators coupled to either photodiodes or photomultipliers, and together with application specific integrated circuits they lead to compact imaging systems of

  7. Physics of Gamma Ray Emitting AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojha, Roopesh; Edwards, Philip; Kadler, Matthias; Carpenter, Bryce; TANAMI Team

    2014-10-01

    We propose continuation of the TANAMI VLBI monitoring program which is not only meeting its critical original goals but enhancing the scientific return from observations by targeting new opportunites in multi-messenger astronomy particularly recent PeV neutrino events detected by the IceCube project. As the only program targeting a large sample of extragalactic jets in the southern third of the sky, TANAMI provides unique information and anchors arguably the most comprehensive broadband monitoring program targeting AGN detected in gamma-rays by the Fermi satellite. Multi-epoch VLBI is the only window to parsec scale kinematics and morphology of AGN. TANAMI measures jet parameters, tracks parsec- scale structural changes and follows VLBI component motion in AGN (including members of rare classes) that are unreachable by any other array. TANAMI data are indispensable to this golden period in AGN research when it is possible to make broadband, quasi-simultaneous, multi-epoch observations that hold the key to the many open questions of AGN physics.

  8. The electromagnetic model of Gamma Ray Bursts

    E-print Network

    Maxim Lyutikov

    2005-12-13

    I describe electromagnetic model of gamma ray bursts and contrast its main properties and predictions with hydrodynamic fireball model and its magnetohydrodynamical extension. The electromagnetic model assumes that rotational energy of a relativistic, stellar-mass central source (black-hole--accretion disk system or fast rotating neutron star) is converted into magnetic energy through unipolar dynamo mechanism, propagated to large distances in a form of relativistic, subsonic, Poynting flux-dominated wind and is dissipated directly into emitting particles through current-driven instabilities. Thus, there is no conversion back and forth between internal and bulk energies as in the case of fireball model. Collimating effects of magnetic hoop stresses lead to strongly non-spherical expansion and formation of jets. Long and short GRBs may develop in a qualitatively similar way, except that in case of long bursts ejecta expansion has a relatively short, non-relativistic, strongly dissipative stage inside the star. Electromagnetic and fireball models (as well as strongly and weakly magnetized fireballs) lead to different early afterglow dynamics, before deceleration time. Finally, I discuss the models in view of latest observational data in the Swift era.

  9. Gamma ray spectroscopy in 103Pd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, K. C.; Datta, S. S.; Avasthi, D. K.; Govil, I. M.; Mittal, V. K.

    1987-02-01

    Level structure of 103Pd has been studied through the 103Rh(p,n?) reaction at incident proton energies ranging from 2.8 to 4.6 MeV. Yield curves for various gamma rays were drawn to check their origin. Lifetimes of various levels were measured at 4.0 and 4.6 MeV incident energy using the Doppler shift attenuation technique. Angular distribution data were analyzed at 4.0 and 4.6 MeV using the Hauser-Feshbach theory of the compound nucleus to extract spin values. Lifetimes of 11 levels at 1273, 1277, 1396, 1581, 1592, 1604, 1679, 1775, 1953, 1964, and 2233 keV were found to be 75+15-10, 65+15-16, 35+10-5, 60+15-10, 280+90-60, 80+20-10, 20+6-4, 140+25-15, 70+15-10, 105+25-20, and 30+7-6 fs, respectively. Spin assignments for levels at 1277 ((5/2)+), 1581 ((7/2)+), 1679 ((7/2)+), 1953 ((3/2)+,(5/2)+), 1964 ((7/2)+), and 2233 ((5/2)+) were made for the first time. Mixing ratios for many transitions were also calculated.

  10. Three types of gamma-ray bursts

    E-print Network

    Soma Mukherjee; Eric D. Feigelson; Gutti Jogesh Babu; Fionn Murtagh; Chris Fraley; Adrian Raftery

    1998-02-07

    A multivariate analysis of gamma-ray burst (GRB) bulk properties is presented to discriminate between distinct classes of GRBs. Several variables representing burst duration, fluence and spectral hardness are considered. Two multivariate clustering procedures are used on a sample of 797 bursts from the Third BATSE Catalog: a nonparametric average linkage hierarchical agglomerative clustering procedure validated with Wilks' $\\Lambda^*$ and other MANOVA tests; and a parametric maximum likelihood model-based clustering procedure assuming multinormal populations calculated with the EM Algorithm and validated with the Bayesian Information Criterion. The two methods yield very similar results. The BATSE GRB population consists of three classes with the following Duration/Fluence/Spectrum bulk properties: Class I with long/bright/intermediate bursts, Class II with short/hard/faint bursts, and Class III with intermediate/intermediate/soft bursts. One outlier with poor data is also present. Classes I and II correspond to those reported by Kouveliotou et al. (1993), but Class III is clearly defined here for the first time.

  11. Gamma-ray Spectroscopy of Isobaric Multiplets

    SciTech Connect

    Bentley, M. A. [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York, YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2006-04-26

    The approximate charge symmetry and charge independence of the nuclear force results in striking symmetries in nuclear behavior between isobaric analogue states (IAS) -- states of the same isospin quantum number in a set of nuclei of the same total number of nucleons (an isobaric multiplet). The Coulomb force breaks this symmetry and is the dominating factor in producing the large shifts in absolute binding energy between IAS. The recent development of large gamma-ray spectrometers has resulted in a wealth of information on IAS at high excitation energy and high angular momentum. The very small differences in excitation energy between the IAS can be interpreted, principally, in terms of Coulomb effects. The analysis of these Coulomb differences has been shown to be a remarkably sensitive probe of nuclear structure effects as well as providing stringent tests of state-of-the-art shell-model calculations. Some specific structural phenomena examined through the study of such energy differences are presented in this review, and include the evolution of nuclear radius/deformation as a function of spin and the electromagnetic spin-orbit effect.

  12. Gamma Ray Bursts as Possible High Energy Sources

    E-print Network

    Charles D. Dermer

    2005-12-06

    Gamma-ray bursts are known to be sources of high-energy gamma rays, and are likely to be sources of high-energy cosmic rays and neutrinos. Following a short review of observations of GRBs at multi-MeV energies and above, the physics of leptonic and hadronic models of GRBs is summarized. Evidence for two components in BATSE and EGRET/TASC data suggest that GRBs are sources of high-energy cosmic rays. GLAST observations will reveal the high-energy gamma-ray power and energy releases from GRBs, and will provide detailed knowledge of anomalous high-energy emission components, but confirmation of cosmic ray acceleration must await 100 TeV -- PeV neutrino detection from GRBs.

  13. Gamma-ray observations of BL Lac objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanlon, L.; McBreen, B.; OFlaherty, K.; Metcalfe, L.; Hunter, S.; Tashiro, M.; Wagner, S.; Bouchet, P.; Nicolson, G. D.; Smith, N. J.

    1997-01-01

    The results from observations of a sample of BL Lac objects by the Compton telescope (COMPTEL) and energetic gamma ray experiment telescope (EGRET) onboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) are presented. The main targets in the sample were selected on the basis of their X-ray brightness and apparent spectral hardening at hard X-ray energies. One of the targets, PKS 0521-365 was detected by EGRET, and these data are presented together with contemporaneous ground-based radio data. Subsequent X-ray observations of this source with the Advanced Satellite for Cosomology and Astrophysics (ASCA) demonstrated that, although originally classified as a BL Lac object, it is better described as a flat spectrum radio quasar. Upper limits on the gamma ray flux from all the non-detected BL lacs are presented.

  14. Thunderstorm ground enhancements: Gamma ray differential energy spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilingarian, A.; Hovsepyan, G.; Kozliner, L.

    2013-10-01

    The shape and evolution of the energy spectra of the thunderstorm ground enhancement (TGE) electrons and gamma rays shed light on the origin of TGEs, on the relationship of modification of the energy spectra (MOS) and relativistic runaway electron avalanche processes, on the nature of the seed particles, and on the strength and elongation of an atmospheric electric field. However, till now the measurements of energy spectra of TGE electrons and gamma rays have been rather scarce. For the first time, we present differential energy spectra of gamma rays in the wide energy range 4-100 MeV for five TGE events detected in 2012-2013 at Aragats. We use the special technique of electron/gamma ray fraction determination to select TGE events with very small contamination of electrons. The network of large NaI spectrometers located 3200 m above sea level measured energy spectra of gamma rays. The power law indices of “small” TGEs are rather close to the background cosmic gamma ray spectrum (?˜-2); thus, we may deduce that these small events are due to MOS of cosmic ray electrons in the electric field of a thundercloud. Larger TGEs measured by the NaI network and the two largest TGE events earlier recovered from energy releases in a 60-cm-thick scintillator have much steeper energy spectra typical for the avalanche process in atmosphere. The classification of TGEs according to intensity and gamma ray spectral index pointed toward two main mechanisms of the TGE gamma ray origin: the runaway process and modification of electron energy spectra in the thunderstorm atmospheres.

  15. Multiwavelength observations of unidentified high energy gamma ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Jules P.

    1993-01-01

    As was the case for COS B, the majority of high-energy (greater than 100 MeV) gamma-ray sources detected by the EGRET instrument on GRO are not immediately identifiable with cataloged objects at other wavelengths. These persistent gamma-ray sources are, next to the gamma-ray bursts, the least understood objects in the universe. Even a rudimentary understanding of their nature awaits identifications and follow-up work at other wavelengths to tell us what they are. The as yet unidentified sources are potentially the most interesting, since they may represent unrecognized new classes of astronomical objects, such as radio-quiet pulsars or new types of active galactic nuclei (AGN's). This two-year investigation is intended to support the analysis, correlation, and theoretical interpretation of data that we are obtaining at x ray, optical, and radio wavelengths in order to render the gamma-ray data interpretable. According to plan, in the first year concentration was on the identification and study of Geminga. The second year will be devoted to studies of similar unidentified gamma-ray sources which will become available in the first EGRET catalogs. The results obtained so far are presented in the two papers which are reproduced in the Appendix. In these papers, we discuss the pulse profiles of Geminga, the geometry and efficiency of the magnetospheric accelerator, the distance to Geminga, the implications for theories of polar cap heating, the effect of the magnetic field on the surface emission and environment of the neutron star, and possible interpretations of a radio-quiet Geminga. The implications of the other gamma-ray pulsars which were discovered to have high gamma-ray efficiency are also discussed, and the remaining unidentified COS B sources are attributed to a population of efficient gamma-ray sources, some of which may be radio quiet.

  16. Hard Gamma Ray Emission from the Starburst Galaxy NGC 253

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, James M.; Marscher, Alan M.

    1996-01-01

    We have completed the study to search for hard gamma ray emission from the starburst galaxy NGC 253. Since supernovae are thought to provide the hard gamma ray emission from the Milky Way, starburst galaxies, with their extraordinarily high supernova rates, are prime targets to search for hard gamma ray emission. We conducted a careful search for hard gamma ray emission from NGC 253 using the archival data from the EGRET experiment aboard the CGRO. Because this starburst galaxy happens to lie near the South Galactic Pole, the Galactic gamma ray background is minimal. We found no significant hard gamma ray signal toward NGC 253, although a marginal signal of about 1.5 sigma was found. Because of the low Galactic background, we obtained a very sensitive upper limit to the emission of greater than 100 MeV gamma-rays of 8 x 10(exp -8) photons/sq cm s. Since we expected to detect hard gamma ray emission, we investigated the theory of gamma ray production in a dense molecular medium. We used a leaky-box model to simulate diffusive transport in a starburst region. Since starburst galaxies have high infrared radiation fields, we included the effects of self-Compton scattering, which are usually ignored. By modelling the expected gamma-ray and synchrotron spectra from NGC 253, we find that roughly 5 - 15% of the energy from supernovae is transferred to cosmic rays in the starburst. This result is consistent with supernova acceleration models, and is somewhat larger than the value derived for the Galaxy (3 - 10%). Our calculations match the EGRET and radio data very well with a supernova rate of 0.08/ yr, a magnetic field B approx. greater than 5 x 10(exp -5) G, a density n approx. less than 100/sq cm, a photon density U(sub ph) approx. 200 eV/sq cm, and an escape time scale tau(sub 0) approx. less than 10 Myr. The models also suggest that NGC 253 should be detectable with only a factor of 2 - 3 improvement in sensitivity. Our results are consistent with the standard picture of gamma-ray acceleration by supernovae.

  17. Fermi: The Gamma-Ray Large Area Telescope Mission Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McEnery, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Following its launch in June 2008, high-energy gamma-ray observations by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have unveiled over 1000 new sources and opened an important and previously unexplored window on a wide variety of phenomena. These have included the discovery of an population of pulsars pulsing only in gamma rays; the detection of photons up to 10s of GeV from gamma-ray bursts, enhancing our understanding of the astrophysics of these powerful explosions; the detection of hundreds of active galaxies; a measurement of the high energy cosmic-ray electron spectrum which may imply the presence of nearby astrophysical particle accelerators; the determination of the diffuse gamma-ray emission with unprecedented accuracy and the constraints on phenomena such as supersymmetric dark-matter annihilations and exotic relics from the Big Bang. Continuous monitoring of the high-energy gamma-ray sky has uncovered numerous outbursts from active galaxies and the discovery of transient sources in our galaxy. In this talk I will describe the current status of the Fermi observatory and review the science highlights from Fermi.

  18. Fermi Large Area Telescope Measurements of the Diffuse Gamma-Ray Emission at Intermediate Galactic Latitudes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Abdo; M. Ackermann; M. Ajello; B. Anderson; W. B. Atwood; M. Axelsson; L. Baldini; J. Ballet; G. Barbiellini; D. Bastieri; B. M. Baughman; K. Bechtol; R. Bellazzini; B. Berenji; R. D. Blandford; E. D. Bloom; E. Bonamente; A. W. Borgland; J. Bregeon; A. Brez; M. Brigida; P. Bruel; T. H. Burnett; G. A. Caliandro; R. A. Cameron; P. A. Caraveo; J. M. Casandjian; C. Cecchi; E. Charles; A. Chekhtman; C. C. Cheung; J. Chiang; S. Ciprini; R. Claus; J. Cohen-Tanugi; J. Conrad; H. Dereli; C. D. Dermer; A. de Angelis; F. de Palma; S. W. Digel; G. di Bernardo; M. Dormody; E. Do Couto E Silva; P. S. Drell; R. Dubois; D. Dumora; Y. Edmonds; C. Farnier; C. Favuzzi; S. J. Fegan; W. B. Focke; M. Frailis; Y. Fukazawa; S. Funk; P. Fusco; D. Gaggero; F. Gargano; N. Gehrels; S. Germani; B. Giebels; N. Giglietto; F. Giordano; T. Glanzman; G. Godfrey; I. A. Grenier; M.-H. Grondin; J. E. Grove; L. Guillemot; S. Guiriec; Y. Hanabata; A. K. Harding; M. Hayashida; E. Hays; R. E. Hughes; G. Jóhannesson; A. S. Johnson; R. P. Johnson; T. J. Johnson; W. N. Johnson; T. Kamae; H. Katagiri; J. Kataoka; N. Kawai; M. Kerr; J. Knödlseder; M. L. Kocian; F. Kuehn; M. Kuss; J. Lande; L. Latronico; F. Longo; F. Loparco; B. Lott; M. N. Lovellette; P. Lubrano; G. M. Madejski; A. Makeev; M. N. Mazziotta; W. McConville; J. E. McEnery; C. Meurer; P. F. Michelson; W. Mitthumsiri; T. Mizuno; A. A. Moiseev; C. Monte; M. E. Monzani; A. Morselli; I. V. Moskalenko; S. Murgia; P. L. Nolan; E. Nuss; T. Ohsugi; A. Okumura; N. Omodei; E. Orlando; J. F. Ormes; D. Paneque; J. H. Panetta; D. Parent; V. Pelassa; M. Pepe; M. Pesce-Rollins; F. Piron; T. A. Porter; S. Rainň; R. Rando; M. Razzano; A. Reimer; O. Reimer; T. Reposeur; S. Ritz; A. Y. Rodriguez; M. Roth; F. Ryde; H. F.-W. Sadrozinski; D. Sanchez; A. Sander; P. M. Saz Parkinson; J. D. Scargle; A. Sellerholm; C. Sgrň; D. A. Smith; P. D. Smith; G. Spandre; P. Spinelli; J.-L. Starck; F. W. Stecker; E. Striani; M. S. Strickman; A. W. Strong; D. J. Suson; H. Tajima; H. Takahashi; T. Tanaka; J. B. Thayer; J. G. Thayer; D. J. Thompson; L. Tibaldo; D. F. Torres; G. Tosti; A. Tramacere; Y. Uchiyama; T. L. Usher; V. Vasileiou; N. Vilchez; V. Vitale; A. P. Waite; P. Wang; B. L. Winer; K. S. Wood; T. Ylinen; M. Ziegler

    2009-01-01

    The diffuse galactic gamma-ray emission is produced by cosmic rays (CRs) interacting with the interstellar gas and radiation field. Measurements by the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) instrument on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory indicated excess gamma-ray emission ≳1GeV relative to diffuse galactic gamma-ray emission models consistent with directly measured CR spectra (the so-called ``EGRET GeV excess''). The Large Area Telescope

  19. Evaluation of a CdTe semiconductor based compact gamma camera for sentinel lymph node imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, Paolo; Curion, Assunta S.; Mettivier, Giovanni; Esposito, Michela; Aurilio, Michela; Caraco, Corradina; Aloj, Luigi; Lastoria, Secondo [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli Federico II, I-80126 Napoli (Italy) and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Medicina Nucleare, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Fondazione G. Pascale, I-80131 Napoli (Italy)

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: The authors assembled a prototype compact gamma-ray imaging probe (MediPROBE) for sentinel lymph node (SLN) localization. This probe is based on a semiconductor pixel detector. Its basic performance was assessed in the laboratory and clinically in comparison with a conventional gamma camera. Methods: The room-temperature CdTe pixel detector (1 mm thick) has 256x256 square pixels arranged with a 55 {mu}m pitch (sensitive area 14.08x14.08 mm{sup 2}), coupled pixel-by-pixel via bump-bonding to the Medipix2 photon-counting readout CMOS integrated circuit. The imaging probe is equipped with a set of three interchangeable knife-edge pinhole collimators (0.94, 1.2, or 2.1 mm effective diameter at 140 keV) and its focal distance can be regulated in order to set a given field of view (FOV). A typical FOV of 70 mm at 50 mm skin-to-collimator distance corresponds to a minification factor 1:5. The detector is operated at a single low-energy threshold of about 20 keV. Results: For {sup 99m}Tc, at 50 mm distance, a background-subtracted sensitivity of 6.5x10{sup -3} cps/kBq and a system spatial resolution of 5.5 mm FWHM were obtained for the 0.94 mm pinhole; corresponding values for the 2.1 mm pinhole were 3.3x10{sup -2} cps/kBq and 12.6 mm. The dark count rate was 0.71 cps. Clinical images in three patients with melanoma indicate detection of the SLNs with acquisition times between 60 and 410 s with an injected activity of 26 MBq {sup 99m}Tc and prior localization with standard gamma camera lymphoscintigraphy. Conclusions: The laboratory performance of this imaging probe is limited by the pinhole collimator performance and the necessity of working in minification due to the limited detector size. However, in clinical operative conditions, the CdTe imaging probe was effective in detecting SLNs with adequate resolution and an acceptable sensitivity. Sensitivity is expected to improve with the future availability of a larger CdTe detector permitting operation at shorter distances from the patient skin.

  20. Nucleosynthesis of elements in gamma-ray burst engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janiuk, Agnieszka

    2014-08-01

    Aims: We consider the gamma-ray burst (GRB) central engine that is powered by the collapse of a massive rotating star or compact binary merger. The engine is a hot and dense accretion disk, which is composed of free nucleons, electron-positron pairs, and helium, and cooled by neutrino emission. A significant number density of neutrons in the inner disk body provide conditions for neutron rich plasma in the GRB outflows or jets. helium is synthesized in the inner disk if the accretion rate is large, and heavy nuclei are also formed in the outer disk at distances above 150-250rg from the black hole. We study the process of nucleosynthesis in the GRB engine, depending on its physical properties. Methods: The GRB central engine is hydrodynamically modelled in the frame of a dense and hot disk, which accretes with a high rate (up to 1 Solar mass per second) onto a maximally spinning, stellar mass black hole. The synthesis of heavy nuclei up to germanium and gallium is then followed by the nuclear reaction network. Results: The accretion at high rate onto a Kerr black hole feeds the engine activity and establishes conditions for efficient synthesis of heavy nuclei in the disk. These processes may have important observational implications for the jet deceleration process and heavy elements observed in the spectra of GRB afterglows.

  1. Germanium orthogonal strip detector system for gamma-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, Ethan L.; Burks, Morgan; Cork, Chris P.; Craig, William W.; Eckels, Del; Fabris, Lorenzo; Lavietes, Anthony D.; Luke, Paul N.; Madden, Norman W.; Pehl, Richard H.; Ziock, Klaus

    2001-12-01

    A germanium-detector based, gamma-ray imaging system has been designed, fabricated, and tested. The detector, cryostat, electronics, readout, and imaging software are discussed. An 11 millimeter thick, 2 millimeter pitch 19x19 orthogonal strip planar germanium detector is used in front of a coaxial detector to provide broad energy coverage. The planar detector was fabricated using amorphous germanium contacts. Each channel is read out with a compact, low noise external FET preamplifier specially designed for this detector. A bank of shaping amplifiers, fast amplifiers, and fast leading edge discriminators were designed and fabricated to process the signals from preamplifiers. The readout system coordinates time coincident x-y strip addresses with an x-strip spectroscopy signal and a spectroscopy signal from the coaxial detector. This information is sent to a computer where an image is formed. Preliminary shadow and pinhole images demonstrate the viability of a germanium based imaging system. The excellent energy resolution of the germanium detector system provides isotopic imaging.

  2. Gamma Ray Burst Discoveries with the Swift Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil; Tueller, Jack

    2007-01-01

    There is a great synergy between the Swift and INTEGRAL missions. Swift provides wide-field hard x-ray monitoring and sensitive x-ray and UV/optical observations. INTEGRAL provides optical through gamma-ray coverage with emphasis on hard xray imaging and gamma-ray spectroscopy. For hard x-ray survey studies, the BAT and IBIS instruments are complementary with BAT covering the full sky every day and IBIS scanning the galactic plane. For GRBs, Swift follows up bursts detected by INTEGRAL. X-ray and optical observations give arcsecond positions and afterglow lightcurves. For IGR sources, X-ray observations identify counterparts. The joint BAT and IBIS survey data are giving the most complete picture of the hard x-ray sky ever obtained. This talk will review Swift capabilities and discuss joint observations that are taking place and planned

  3. External Resource: Anglin for Gamma-Ray Bursts: Gama Ray Burst Educational Unit

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    This Gamma Ray Burst educator's guide contains science and mathematics activities that address the following topics: electromagnetic spectrum, low-energy radio waves, microwaves, infrared light, visible light, ultraviolet light, X-rays, and extremely high

  4. Overview Animation of Gamma-ray Burst - Duration: 56 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Gamma-ray bursts are the most luminous explosions in the cosmos. Astronomers think most occur when the core of a massive star runs out of nuclear fuel, collapses under its own weight, and forms a b...

  5. Jet Shockwaves Produce Gamma Rays - Duration: 20 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Theorists believe that GRB jets produce gamma rays by two processes involving shock waves. Shells of material within the jet move at different speeds and collide, generating internal shock waves th...

  6. Gamma-ray dosimetry measurements of the Little Boy replica

    SciTech Connect

    Plassmann, E.A.; Pederson, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    We present the current status of our gamma-ray dosimetry results for the Little Boy replica. Both Geiger-Mueller and thermoluminescent detectors were used in the measurements. Future work is needed to test assumptions made in data analysis.

  7. Gamma-Ray Flares from the Crab Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Cannon, A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Çelik, Ö.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Costamante, L.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; Dermer, C. D.; de Angelis, A.; de Luca, A.; de Palma, F.; Digel, S. W.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Fortin, P.; Frailis, M.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grove, J. E.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashi, K.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Horan, D.; Itoh, R.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, T. J.; Khangulyan, D.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Latronico, L.; Lee, S.-H.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Makeev, A.; Marelli, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paneque, D.; Parent, D.; Pelassa, V.; Pepe, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Rainň, S.; Rando, R.; Ray, P. S.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reposeur, T.; Ritz, S.; Romani, R. W.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sanchez, D.; Parkinson, P. M. Saz; Scargle, J. D.; Schalk, T. L.; Sgrň, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Strickman, M. S.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Wang, P.; Wood, K. S.; Yang, Z.; Ziegler, M.

    2011-02-01

    A young and energetic pulsar powers the well-known Crab Nebula. Here, we describe two separate gamma-ray (photon energy greater than 100 mega-electron volts) flares from this source detected by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The first flare occurred in February 2009 and lasted approximately 16 days. The second flare was detected in September 2010 and lasted approximately 4 days. During these outbursts, the gamma-ray flux from the nebula increased by factors of four and six, respectively. The brevity of the flares implies that the gamma rays were emitted via synchrotron radiation from peta-electron-volt (1015 electron volts) electrons in a region smaller than 1.4 × 10-2 parsecs. These are the highest-energy particles that can be associated with a discrete astronomical source, and they pose challenges to particle acceleration theory.

  8. Gamma-ray flares from the Crab Nebula.

    PubMed

    Abdo, A A; Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Allafort, A; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bouvier, A; Brandt, T J; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Buehler, R; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Cannon, A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Çelik, Ö; Charles, E; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Costamante, L; Cutini, S; D'Ammando, F; Dermer, C D; de Angelis, A; de Luca, A; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; do Couto e Silva, E; Drell, P S; Drlica-Wagner, A; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Ferrara, E C; Focke, W B; Fortin, P; Frailis, M; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M-H; Grove, J E; Guiriec, S; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashi, K; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Horan, D; Itoh, R; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, T J; Khangulyan, D; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kerr, M; Knödlseder, J; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Lee, S-H; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Makeev, A; Marelli, M; Mazziotta, M N; McEnery, J E; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nakamori, T; Naumann-Godo, M; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Okumura, A; Omodei, N; Ormes, J F; Ozaki, M; Paneque, D; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Pierbattista, M; Piron, F; Porter, T A; Rainň, S; Rando, R; Ray, P S; Razzano, M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, T; Ritz, S; Romani, R W; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Sanchez, D; Saz Parkinson, P M; Scargle, J D; Schalk, T L; Sgrň, C; Siskind, E J; Smith, P D; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Strickman, M S; Suson, D J; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J B; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Troja, E; Uchiyama, Y; Vandenbroucke, J; Vasileiou, V; Vianello, G; Vitale, V; Wang, P; Wood, K S; Yang, Z; Ziegler, M

    2011-02-11

    A young and energetic pulsar powers the well-known Crab Nebula. Here, we describe two separate gamma-ray (photon energy greater than 100 mega-electron volts) flares from this source detected by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The first flare occurred in February 2009 and lasted approximately 16 days. The second flare was detected in September 2010 and lasted approximately 4 days. During these outbursts, the gamma-ray flux from the nebula increased by factors of four and six, respectively. The brevity of the flares implies that the gamma rays were emitted via synchrotron radiation from peta-electron-volt (10(15) electron volts) electrons in a region smaller than 1.4 × 10(-2) parsecs. These are the highest-energy particles that can be associated with a discrete astronomical source, and they pose challenges to particle acceleration theory. PMID:21212321

  9. Early Time Optical Emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopac, D.; Gomboc, A.; Japelj, J.

    We present the study of a sample of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) with contemporaneous early time optical and gamma-ray detections. By performing detailed temporal and spectral analysis of 18 GRBs which show optical peaks during prompt gamma-ray emission, we find that in most cases early time optical emission shows sharp and steep behavior, with a rich diversity of GRBs' broadband spectral properties. These observational results, supported by a simple internal shock dissipation model, show that the standard external shock interpretation for early time optical emission is disfavored in most cases where early time optical peaks are sharp (Delta t/t < 1$) and have steep rise/decay indices. Although the sample of GRBs with contemporaneous optical and gamma-ray detections has become sufficiently larger after the launch of the Swift satellite, this field of research is still poorly developed, mainly due to inadequate optical time resolution and often too long response time of robotic optical telescopes.

  10. Bursts of gamma rays from Compton scattering at cosmological distances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Svensson, Roland; Paczynski, Bohdan

    1991-01-01

    Compton scattering of the microwave background photons by beams of ultrarelativistic electrons at large redshifts, z much greater than 1, is proposed as a source of some gamma-ray bursts. Such beams may be produced by cusps on superconducting cosmic strings. In the present model, a very narrow beam of ultrarelativistic electron-positron pairs scatters the microwave background photons into a very narrow beam of gamma rays. While the pairs lose energy, the beam of gamma rays opens up and sweeps the observer. The expected time variability and spectra of the resulting gamma-ray burst are calculated. The bursts have a rapid rise time, followed by a more gradual decline. The spectra are initially very hard and become softer during the decline.

  11. Prompt gamma-ray coincidences from U-235 induced fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewell, J. Keith; Cole, Jerald; Drigert, Mark; Reber, Edward; Aryaeinejad, Rahmat

    1999-10-01

    An experiment to measure gamma-ray emission from the prompt fission fragments of U-235 was recently performed at the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source facility at Argonne National Laboratory. Ten HPGE detectors were used to observe coincident gamma-rays from the fission fragments. Unlike previous fission studies which focused on the fission fragments populated by beta decay, we have measured the prompt fission yields by inducing fission in the U-235 target. Coincidence information between light and heavy fission fragments permits the assignment of observed gamma-rays to a particular isotope. Preliminary analysis indicates new spectroscopic information for dozens of nuclei, as well as the observation of isotopes for which gamma-ray decays were previously unreported. We will report on the prompt fission yields of the major fission fragments, as well as the new spectroscopic information for select nuclei.

  12. Gravitational waves from gamma-ray pulsar glitches

    SciTech Connect

    Stopnitzky, Elan [Department of Physics, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2505 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Profumo, Stefano [Department of Physics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    We use data from pulsar gamma-ray glitches recorded by the Fermi Large Area Telescope as input to theoretical models of gravitational wave signals the glitches might generate. We find that the typical peak amplitude of the gravity wave signal from gamma-ray pulsar glitches lies between 10{sup –23} and 10{sup –35} in dimensionless units, with peak frequencies in the range of 1 to 1000 Hz, depending on the model. We estimate the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) for all gamma-ray glitches, and discuss detectability with current gravity wave detectors. Our results indicate that the strongest predicted signals are potentially within reach of current detectors, and that pulsar gamma-ray glitches are promising targets for gravity wave searches by current and next-generation detectors.

  13. INTERPLANETARY NETWORK LOCALIZATIONS OF KONUS SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    E-print Network

    Vanderspek, Roland K.

    Between the launch of the Global Geospace Science Wind spacecraft in 1994 November and the end of 2010, the Konus-Wind experiment detected 296 short-duration gamma-ray bursts (including 23 bursts which can be classified ...

  14. THE MILAGRO GAMMA RAY OBSERVATORY: Gaurang B. Yodh

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    from AGN's such as MRK 421. Milagro will be the first VHE detector capable of recording Gamma Ray Bursts at energies above 250 GeV. This paper describes the construction and operation of the first phase

  15. Antimatter in the Universe: constraints from gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Ballmoos, Peter

    2014-02-01

    We review gamma-ray observations that constrain antimatter - both baryonic and leptonic - in the Universe. Antimatter is probed through ordinary matter, with the resulting annihilation gamma-rays providing indirect evidence for its presence. Although it is generally accepted that equal amounts of matter and antimatter have been produced in the Big Bang, gamma-rays have so far failed to detect substantial amounts of baryonic antimatter in the Universe. Conversely, positrons are abundantly observed through their annihilation in the central regions of our Galaxy and, although a wealth of astrophysical sources are plausible, their very origin is still unknown. As both antimatter questions - the source of the Galactic positrons and the baryon asymmetry in the Universe - can be investigated through the low energy gamma-ray channel, the mission concept of a dedicated space telescope is sketched out.

  16. AI Gamma-Ray Burst Classification: Methodology/Preliminary Results

    E-print Network

    Jon Hakkila; David J. Haglin; Richard J. Roiger; Robert S. Mallozzi; Geoffrey N. Pendleton; Charles A. Meegan

    1997-12-04

    Artificial intelligence (AI) classifiers can be used to classify unknowns, refine existing classification parameters, and identify/screen out ineffectual parameters. We present an AI methodology for classifying new gamma-ray bursts, along with some preliminary results.

  17. Gamma-ray burst theory: Back to the drawing board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.

    1994-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts have always been intriguing sources to study in terms of particle acceleration, but not since their discovery two decades ago has the theory of these objects been in such turmoil. Prior to the launch of Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory and observations by Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), there was strong evidence pointing to magnetized Galactic neutron stars as the sources of gamma-ray bursts. However, since BATSE the observational picture has changed dramatically, requiring much more distant and possibly cosmological sources. I review the history of gamma-ray burst theory from the era of growing consensus for nearby neutron stars to the recent explosion of halo and cosmological models and the impact of the present confusion on the particle acceleration problem.

  18. Upgrade of the JET Gamma-Ray Cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Soare, S.; Curuia, M.; Anghel, M.; Constantin, M.; David, E. [Association EURATOM-MEdC, National Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies, Rm. Valcea (Romania); Zoita, V.; Craciunescu, T.; Falie, D.; Pantea, A.; Tiseanu, I. [Association EURATOM-MEdC, National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Bucharest (Romania); Kiptily, V.; Prior, P.; Edlington, T.; Griph, S.; Krivchenkov, Y.; Loughlin, M.; Popovichev, S.; Riccardo, V.; Syme, B.; Thompson, V. [Association EURATOM-UKAEA/JOC, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom)] (and others)

    2008-03-12

    The JET gamma-ray camera diagnostics have already provided valuable information on the gamma-ray imaging of fast ion in JET plasmas /1,2/. The applicability of gamma-ray imaging to high performance deuterium and deuterium-tritium JET discharges is strongly dependent on the fulfilment of rather strict requirements for the characterisation of the neutron and gamma-ray radiation fields. These requirements have to be satisfied within very stringent boundary conditions for the design, such as the requirement of minimum impact on the co-existing neutron camera diagnostics. The JET Gamma-Ray Cameras (GRC) upgrade project deals with these issues with particular emphasis on the design of appropriate neutron/gamma-ray filters ('neutron attenuators'). Several design versions have been developed and evaluated for the JET GRC neutron attenuators at the conceptual design level. The main design parameter was the neutron attenuation factor. The two design solutions, that have been finally chosen and developed at the level of scheme design, consist of: a) one quasi-crescent shaped neutron attenuator (for the horizontal camera) and b) two quasi-trapezoid shaped neutron attenuators (for the vertical one). The second design solution has different attenuation lengths: a short version, to be used together with the horizontal attenuator for deuterium discharges, and a long version to be used for high performance deuterium and DT discharges. Various neutron-attenuating materials have been considered (lithium hydride with natural isotopic composition and {sup 6}Li enriched, light and heavy water, polyethylene). Pure light water was finally chosen as the attenuating material for the JET gamma-ray cameras. The neutron attenuators will be steered in and out of the detector line-of-sight by means of an electro-pneumatic steering and control system. The MCNP code was used for neutron and gamma ray transport in order to evaluate the effect of the neutron attenuators on the neutron field of the JET GRC. The modelling was dedicated to the estimation of neutron and (plasma-emitted) gamma-ray attenuation, neutron-induced gamma-ray background and the neutron in-scattering impact on the neutron detectors due to the attenuator in the parking location. A numerical study of the gamma-ray detector (CsI(Tl)) was done by means of the IST Monte Carlo code. It provided preliminary results on the detector efficiency and response function.

  19. The Biggest Bangs The Mystery of Gamma-Ray Bursts,

    E-print Network

    Katz, Jonathan I.

    lens feeds light to a CCD (charge-coupled device, an integrated circuit which converts a visible image%. If gamma-ray bursts were found in binary stars, one of the most popular early theoretical ideas, gamma by a good naked eye in a dark sky, and is extremely bright by the standards of professional (or even serious

  20. Current Trends in Gamma Ray Detection for Radiological Emergency Response

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, S., Guss, P., Maurer, R.

    2011-08-18

    Passive and active detection of gamma rays from shielded radioactive materials, including special nuclear materials, is an important task for any radiological emergency response organization. This article reports on the current trends and status of gamma radiation detection objectives and measurement techniques as applied to nonproliferation and radiological emergencies.

  1. Soft gamma-ray galactic ridge emission as unveiled by SPI aboard INTEGRAL

    SciTech Connect

    Knoedlseder, J.; Weidenspointner, G.; Jean, P. [CESR - UPS/CNRS, 9, avenue du Colonel Roche, BP 44346, 31028 Toulouse Cedex 5 (France); Lonjou, V. [CENBG, Universite Bordeaux 1 (CNRS/IN2P3), Chemin du Solarium, BP 120, 33175 Gradignan (France); Strong, A.; Diehl, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1603, 85740 Garching (Germany); Cordier, B.; Schanne, S. [CEA Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA/Service d'Astrophysique, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Winkler, C. [ESA/ESTEC, Science Operations and Data Systems Division (SCI-SD), 2201 AZ Noordwijk (Netherlands)

    2007-07-12

    The origin of the soft gamma-ray (200 keV - 1 MeV) galactic ridge emission is one of the long-standing mysteries in the field of high-energy astrophysics. Population studies at lower energies have shown that emission from accreting compact objects gradually recedes in this domain, leaving place to another source of gamma-ray emission that is characterised by a hard power-law spectrum extending from 100 keV up to 100 MeV The nature of this hard component has remained so far elusive, partly due to the lack of sufficiently sensitive imaging telescopes that would be able to unveil the spatial distribution of the emission. The SPI telescope aboard INTEGRAL allows now for the first time the simultaneous imaging of diffuse and point-like emission in the soft gamma-ray regime. We present here all-sky images of the soft gamma-ray continuum emission that clearly reveal the morphology of the different emission components. We discuss the implications of our results on the nature of underlying emission processes and we put our results in perspective of GLAST studies of diffuse galactic continuum emission.

  2. Gamma-ray background at the Budapest PGAA facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Belgya; Zs. Révay; G. L. Molnár

    2005-01-01

    Summary  The gamma-ray background components of the Budapest PGAA-NIPS facilities have been extensively studied. Sources and production processes for the background gamma-rays have been identified and collected in tables. The data obtained here may help to identify background components at other PGAA or slow neutron capture facilities, and can be useful at any facility where neutrons are present and produce background

  3. Outcrop gamma-ray logging applied to subsurface petroleum geology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Slatt; J. M. Borer; B. W. Horn

    1995-01-01

    Developing a gamma-ray log profile of an outcrop with a hand-held scintillometer has many applications to subsurface petroleum geology. The outcrop gamma-ray log provides a readily understandable bridge between what is observed in outcrop and what is to be interpreted on well logs and seismic records. Several examples are presented in this paper that demonstrate major applications. An outcrop from

  4. Analysis of gamma ray spectra measured by Mars Odyssey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry G. Evans; Robert C. Reedy; Richard D. Starr; Kristopher E. Kerry; William V. Boynton

    2006-01-01

    Gamma ray spectra measured by the Mars Odyssey gamma ray spectrometer while in orbit around Mars were analyzed to identify the sources of 334 observed peaks and features. Most peaks were of a standard Gaussian shape with a low-energy tail. However, Doppler-broadened and sawtooth-shaped peaks were also observed in the spectra. The sources of most peaks were identified. Many peaks

  5. Gamma Ray Astronomy at TeV Energies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trevor C. Weekes

    1994-01-01

    Cosmic sources of gamma-rays of energy in excess of 0.25 TeV are now well-established using the ground-based atmospheric Cherenkov technique. Recently high resolution cameras (arrays of phototubes) on large optical reflectors have achieved significant improvements in flux sensitivity. Observations with the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory have shown that many sources have significant fluxes at the highest useful energy of EGRET

  6. Gamma ray satellite to be launched from Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allaway, H. G.; Senstad, K.

    1972-01-01

    The announcement is presented of the launch of NASA's Small Astronomy Satellite B (SAS-B) on 2 Nov. 1972, to study gamma rays. The launch is to be from the Italian-operated San Marco Equatorial Range in the Indian Ocean for ease in acquiring an equatorial orbit. The spacecraft systems described include: stabilization and control, communication, and spark chamber gamma ray telescope. The results of Uhuru (Explorer 42) are also presented.

  7. Gamma-Rays and Neutrinos from Dark Matter

    E-print Network

    F. W. Stecker

    1996-07-05

    High energy gamma-rays and neutrinos can be produced both by the annihilation and by the possible slow decay of dark matter particles. We discuss the fluxes and spectra of such secondaries produced by dark matter particles in the universe and their observability in competition with other astrophysical gamma-ray signals and with atmospheric neutrinos. To do this, we work within the assumption that the dark matter particles are neutralinos which are the lightest supersymmetric particles (LSPs) predicted by supersymmetry theory.

  8. Population Studies of Radio and Gamma-Ray Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K; Gonthier, Peter; Coltisor, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    Rotation-powered pulsars are one of the most promising candidates for at least some of the 40-50 EGRET unidentified gamma-ray sources that lie near the Galactic plane. Since the end of the EGRO mission, the more sensitive Parkes Multibeam radio survey has detected mere than two dozen new radio pulsars in or near unidentified EGRET sources, many of which are young and energetic. These results raise an important question about the nature of radio quiescence in gamma-ray pulsars: is the non-detection of radio emission a matter of beaming or of sensitivity? The answer is very dependent on the geometry of the radio and gamma-ray beams. We present results of a population synthesis of pulsars in the Galaxy, including for the first time the full geometry of the radio and gamma-ray beams. We use a recent empirically derived model of the radio emission and luminosity, and a gamma-ray emission geometry and luminosity derived theoretically from pair cascades in the polar slot gap. The simulation includes characteristics of eight radio surveys of the Princeton catalog plus the Parkes MB survey. Our results indicate that EGRET was capable of detecting several dozen pulsars as point sources, with the ratio of radio-loud to radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsars increasing significantly to about ten to one when the Parkes Survey is included. Polar cap models thus predict that many of the unidentified EGRET sources could be radio-loud gamma- ray pulsars, previously undetected as radio pulsars due to distance, large dispersion and lack of sensitivity. If true, this would make gamma-ray telescopes a potentially more sensitive tool for detecting distant young neutron stars in the Galactic plane.

  9. Detection of a fast, intense and unusual gamma ray transient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, T. L.; Desai, U. D.; Pizzichini, G.; Teegarden, B. J.; Evans, W. D.; Klebesadel, R. W.; Laros, J. G.; Hurley, K.; Niel, M.; Vedrenne, G.

    1979-01-01

    An unusual transient pulse of approximately 50 keV was detected by the gamma-ray burst sensor network using nine space probes and satellites. Its characteristics are unlike those of the known variety of gamma-ray bursts and therefore suggest that it was formed either by a completely different origin species or in a very different manner. It is identified with the LMC supernova remnant N49.

  10. Performance of the EGRET astronomical gamma ray telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, P.L.; Hofstadter, R.; Hughes, E.B.; Lin, Y.C.; Michelson, P.F. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States)); Bertsch, D.L.; Fichtel, C.E.; Hartman, R.C.; Hunter, S.D.; Mattox, J.R.; Sreekumar, P.; Thompson, D.J. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center)

    1992-08-01

    On April 5, 1991, the Space Shuttle Atlantis carried the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) into orbit, deploying the satellite on April 7. This paper reports on the EGRET instrument which was activated on April 15, and the first month of operations was devoted to verification of the instrument performance. Measurements made during that month and in the subsequent sky survey phase have verified that the instrument time resolution, angular resolution, and gamma ray detection efficiency are all within nominal limits.

  11. Gamma-Ray Flares from the Crab Nebula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Abdo; M. Ackermann; M. Ajello; A. Allafort; L. Baldini; J. Ballet; G. Barbiellini; D. Bastieri; K. Bechtol; R. Bellazzini; B. Berenji; R. D. Blandford; E. D. Bloom; E. Bonamente; A. W. Borgland; A. Bouvier; T. J. Brandt; J. Bregeon; A. Brez; M. Brigida; P. Bruel; R. Buehler; S. Buson; G. A. Caliandro; R. A. Cameron; A. Cannon; P. A. Caraveo; J. M. Casandjian; Ö. Çelik; E. Charles; A. Chekhtman; C. C. Cheung; J. Chiang; S. Ciprini; R. Claus; J. Cohen-Tanugi; L. Costamante; S. Cutini; F. D'Ammando; C. D. Dermer; A. de Angelis; A. de Luca; F. de Palma; S. W. Digel; E. do Couto e Silva; P. S. Drell; A. Drlica-Wagner; R. Dubois; D. Dumora; C. Favuzzi; S. J. Fegan; E. C. Ferrara; W. B. Focke; P. Fortin; M. Frailis; Y. Fukazawa; S. Funk; P. Fusco; F. Gargano; D. Gasparrini; N. Gehrels; S. Germani; N. Giglietto; F. Giordano; M. Giroletti; T. Glanzman; G. Godfrey; I. A. Grenier; M.-H. Grondin; J. E. Grove; S. Guiriec; D. Hadasch; Y. Hanabata; A. K. Harding; K. Hayashi; M. Hayashida; E. Hays; D. Horan; R. Itoh; G. Jóhannesson; A. S. Johnson; T. J. Johnson; D. Khangulyan; T. Kamae; H. Katagiri; J. Kataoka; M. Kerr; J. Knödlseder; M. Kuss; J. Lande; L. Latronico; S.-H. Lee; M. Lemoine-Goumard; F. Longo; F. Loparco; P. Lubrano; G. M. Madejski; A. Makeev; M. Marelli; M. N. Mazziotta; J. E. McEnery; P. F. Michelson; W. Mitthumsiri; T. Mizuno; A. A. Moiseev; C. Monte; M. E. Monzani; A. Morselli; I. V. Moskalenko; S. Murgia; T. Nakamori; M. Naumann-Godo; P. L. Nolan; J. P. Norris; E. Nuss; T. Ohsugi; A. Okumura; N. Omodei; J. F. Ormes; M. Ozaki; D. Paneque; D. Parent; V. Pelassa; M. Pepe; M. Pesce-Rollins; M. Pierbattista; F. Piron; T. A. Porter; S. Rainň; R. Rando; P. S. Ray; M. Razzano; A. Reimer; O. Reimer; T. Reposeur; S. Ritz; R. W. Romani; H. F.-W. Sadrozinski; D. Sanchez; P. M. Saz Parkinson; J. D. Scargle; T. L. Schalk; C. Sgrň; E. J. Siskind; P. D. Smith; G. Spandre; P. Spinelli; M. S. Strickman; D. J. Suson; H. Takahashi; T. Takahashi; T. Tanaka; J. B. Thayer; D. J. Thompson; L. Tibaldo; D. F. Torres; G. Tosti; A. Tramacere; E. Troja; Y. Uchiyama; J. Vandenbroucke; V. Vasileiou; G. Vianello; V. Vitale; P. Wang; K. S. Wood; Z. Yang; M. Ziegler

    2011-01-01

    A young and energetic pulsar powers the well-known Crab Nebula. Here, we describe two separate gamma-ray (photon energy greater than 100 mega-electron volts) flares from this source detected by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The first flare occurred in February 2009 and lasted approximately 16 days. The second flare was detected in September 2010

  12. Particle Swarm Imaging (PSIM) - Innovative Gamma-Ray Assay - 13497

    SciTech Connect

    Parvin, Daniel; Clarke, Sean; Humes, Sarah J. [Babcock International Group, Sellafield, Cumbria (United Kingdom)] [Babcock International Group, Sellafield, Cumbria (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    Particle Swarm Imaging is an innovative technique used to perform quantitative gamma-ray assay. The innovation overcomes some of the difficulties associated with the accurate measurement and declaration of measurement uncertainties of radionuclide inventories within waste items when the distribution of activity is unknown. Implementation requires minimal equipment, with field measurements and results obtained using only a single electrically cooled HRGS gamma-ray detector. Examples of its application in the field are given in this paper. (authors)

  13. Gamma-ray tracking method for pet systems

    DOEpatents

    Mihailescu, Lucian; Vetter, Kai M.

    2010-06-08

    Gamma-ray tracking methods for use with granular, position sensitive detectors identify the sequence of the interactions taking place in the detector and, hence, the position of the first interaction. The improved position resolution in finding the first interaction in the detection system determines a better definition of the direction of the gamma-ray photon, and hence, a superior source image resolution. A PET system using such a method will have increased efficiency and position resolution.

  14. Resonant Compton scattering and gamma-ray burst continuum spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baring, M. G.

    1995-01-01

    The Thomson limit of resonant inverse Compton scattering in the strong magnetic fields of neutron stars is considered as a mechanism for producing gamma-ray burst continuum spectra. Photon production spectra and electron cooling rates are presented using the full magnetic Thomson cross-section. Model emission spectra are obtained as self-consistent solutions of a set of photon and electron kinetic equations, displaying spectral breaks and other structure at gamma-ray energies.

  15. Advances in continuous gamma-ray spectrometry and applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Gold; J. P. McNeece; B. J. Kaiser

    1984-01-01

    Recent advances and applications in continuous Compton recoil gamma-ray spectrometry are described. Applications of continuous gamma-ray spectrometry are presented for: (1) Characterization of light water reactor (LWR) pressures vessel (PV) environments. (2) Assessment of fuel distributions for Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor recovery. (3) Measurement of LWR-PV-neutron exposure. The latest improvements attained with the Janus probe, a special

  16. Statistical evaluation of gamma-ray line observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, M. L.; Chupp, E. L.; Dunphy, P. P.; Forrest, D. J.; Ryan, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    The statistical reliability of reported positive observations of solar and cosmic gamma-ray lines has been evaluated. The relative probability that each measurement is due to a real source rather than to an accidental fluctuation in the background has been determined, and it is found that the results are statistically compelling in only a small fraction of the reported observations. At present, extreme caution must be exercised in drawing astrophysical conclusions from reports of the detection of cosmic gamma-ray lines.

  17. Light Transmission From Extended Air Showers Produced By Cosmic-Rays and Gamma-Rays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. F. Taylor; T. Abu-Zayyad; K. Belov; Z. Cao; G. Chen; C. C. H. Jui; D. B. Kieda; J. N. Matthews; M. Salamon; P. V. Sokolsky; J. D. Smith; P. Sommers; R. W. Springer; B. T. Stokes; S. B. Thomas; L. R. Wiencke; J. A. J. Matthews; R. W. Clay; B. R. Dawson; K. Simpson; J. Bells; J. Boyer; B. Knapp; B. H. Song; X. Z. Zhang

    1999-01-01

    Cosmic-ray and gamma-ray experiments that use the atmosphere as a calorimeter, such as the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) and the Telescope Array (TA), require understanding the transmission of the light from the air shower of particles produced by the cosmic-ray or gamma-ray striking the atmosphere. To better understand the scattering and transmission of light to the detectors, HiRes measures

  18. Initial breakdown pulses in intracloud lightning flashes and their relation to terrestrial gamma ray flashes

    E-print Network

    Cummer, Steven A.

    breakdown stage of 10 intracloud lightning flashes that may have produced terrestrial gamma ray flashes to terrestrial gamma ray flashes, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118, 10,907­10,925, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50866. 1. Introduction [2] A terrestrial gamma ray flash (TGF) is a burst of gamma rays, typically lasting

  19. Measurements and implications of the relationship between lightning and terrestrial gamma ray flashes

    E-print Network

    Cummer, Steven A.

    Measurements and implications of the relationship between lightning and terrestrial gamma ray associated with 26 terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) recorded by the RHESSI satellite over the Caribbean the discovery of short bursts of gamma rays originating from Earth, called terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs

  20. A New View of the High Energy Gamma-Ray Sky with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEnery, Julie E.

    2011-01-01

    Following its launch in June 2008, high-energy gamma-ray observations by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have unveiled over 1000 new sources and opened an important and previously unexplored window on a wide variety of phenomena. These have included the discovery of an population of pulsars pulsing only in gamma rays; the detection of photons up to 10s of GeV from gamma-ray bursts, enhancing our understanding of the astrophysics of these powerful explosions; the detection of hundreds of active galaxies; a measurement of the high energy cosmic-ray electron spectrum which may imply the presence of nearby astrophysical particle accelerators; the determination of the diffuse gamma-ray emission with unprecedented accuracy and the constraints on phenomena such as supersymmetric dark-matter annihilations and exotic relics from the Big Bang. Continuous monitoring of the high-energy gamma-ray sky has uncovered numerous outbursts from active galaxies and the discovery of transient sources in our galaxy. In this talk I will describe the current status of the Fermi observatory and review the science highlights from Fermi.

  1. H{alpha} EMISSION VARIABILITY IN THE {gamma}-RAY BINARY LS I +61 303

    SciTech Connect

    McSwain, M. Virginia [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, 16 Memorial Drive E, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States); Grundstrom, Erika D. [Physics and Astronomy Department, Vanderbilt University, 6301 Stevens Center, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Gies, Douglas R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303-4106 (United States); Ray, Paul S., E-mail: mcswain@lehigh.ed, E-mail: erika.grundstrom@vanderbilt.ed, E-mail: gies@chara.gsu.ed, E-mail: paul.ray@nrl.navy.mi [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7655, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2010-11-20

    LS I +61 303 is an exceptionally rare example of a high-mass X-ray binary that also exhibits MeV-TeV emission, making it one of only a handful of '{gamma}-ray binaries'. Here we present H{alpha} spectra that show strong variability during the 26.5 day orbital period and over decadal timescales. We detect evidence of a spiral density wave in the Be circumstellar disk over part of the orbit. The H{alpha} line profile also exhibits a dramatic emission burst shortly before apastron, observed as a redshifted shoulder in the line profile, as the compact source moves almost directly away from the observer. We investigate several possible origins for this red shoulder, including an accretion disk, mass-transfer stream, and a compact pulsar wind nebula that forms via a shock between the Be star's wind and the relativistic pulsar wind.

  2. Solar Submillimeter and Gamma-Ray Burst Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, P.; Raulin, J.-P.; Melo, A. M.; Correia, E.; Costa, J. E. R.; de Castro, C. G. Giménez; Silva, A. V. R.; Yoshimori, M.; Hudson, H. S.; Gan, W. Q.; Gary, D. E.; Gallagher, P. T.; Levato, H.; Marun, A.; Rovira, M.

    2002-08-01

    Solar flare emission was measured at 212 GHz in the submillimeter range by the Submillimeter Solar Telescope in the 1.2-18 GHz microwave range by the Owens Valley Solar Array and in the gamma-ray energy range (continuum) by experiments on board the Yohkoh (>1.2 MeV) and Shenzhou 2 (>0.2 MeV) satellites. At the burst onset, the submillimeter and microwave time profiles were well correlated with gamma rays to the limit of the temporal resolution (<=10 s). At 212 GHz, fast pulses (<1 s), defined as time structures in excess of the bulk emission, were identified as the flux increased. Their spatial positions were scattered by tens of arcseconds with respect to the main burst emission position. Correlation of submillimeter emission with gamma-ray fast time structures shorter than 500 ms is suggested at the gamma-ray maximum. The time variation of the rate of occurrence of the submillimeter rapid pulses was remarkably well correlated with gamma-ray intensities in the energy range (>1.2 MeV), attaining nearly 50 pulses per minute at the maximum. These results suggest that gamma rays might be the response to multiple rapid pulses at 212 GHz and might be produced at different sites within the flaring region.

  3. RADIO AND GAMMA-RAY PULSED EMISSION FROM MILLISECOND PULSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Y. J.; Chen, D. [National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.1 Nanertiao, Zhongguancun, Haidian District, Beijing 100190 (China)] [National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.1 Nanertiao, Zhongguancun, Haidian District, Beijing 100190 (China); Qiao, G. J., E-mail: duyj@nssc.ac.cn [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2013-01-20

    Pulsed {gamma}-ray emission from millisecond pulsars (MSPs) has been detected by the sensitive Fermi space telescope, which sheds light on studies of the emission region and its mechanism. In particular, the specific patterns of radio and {gamma}-ray emission from PSR J0101-6422 challenge the popular pulsar models, e.g., outer gap and two-pole caustic models. Using the three-dimensional annular gap model, we have jointly simulated radio and {gamma}-ray light curves for three representative MSPs (PSR J0034-0534, PSR J0101-6422, and PSR J0437-4715) with distinct radio phase lags, and present the best simulated results for these MSPs, particularly for PSR J0101-6422 with complex radio and {gamma}-ray pulse profiles, and for PSR J0437-4715 with a radio interpulse. We have found that both the {gamma}-ray and radio emission originate from the annular gap region located in only one magnetic pole, and the radio emission region is not primarily lower than the {gamma}-ray region in most cases. In addition, the annular gap model with a small magnetic inclination angle instead of an 'orthogonal rotator' can account for the MSPs' radio interpulse with a large phase separation from the main pulse. The annular gap model is a self-consistent model not only for young pulsars but also MSPs, and multi-wavelength light curves can be fundamentally explained using this model.

  4. Time-of-flight discrimination between gamma-rays and neutrons by neural networks

    E-print Network

    Serkan Akkoyun

    2012-08-13

    In gamma-ray spectroscopy, a number of neutrons are emitted from the nuclei together with the gamma-rays and these neutrons influence gamma-ray spectra. An obvious method of separating between neutrons and gamma-rays is based on the time-of-flight (tof) technique. This work aims obtaining tof distributions of gamma-rays and neutrons by using feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN). It was shown that, ANN can correctly classify gamma-ray and neutron events. Testing of trained networks on experimental data clearly shows up tof discrimination of gamma-rays and neutrons.

  5. THERMAL X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE SHOCKED STELLAR WIND OF PULSAR GAMMA-RAY BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Zabalza, V.; Paredes, J. M. [Departament d'Astronomia i Meteorologia, Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Marti i Franques 1, E08028 Barcelona (Spain); Bosch-Ramon, V., E-mail: vzabalza@am.ub.es [Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2011-12-10

    Gamma-ray-loud X-ray binaries are binary systems that show non-thermal broadband emission from radio to gamma rays. If the system comprises a massive star and a young non-accreting pulsar, their winds will collide producing broadband non-thermal emission, most likely originated in the shocked pulsar wind. Thermal X-ray emission is expected from the shocked stellar wind, but until now it has neither been detected nor studied in the context of gamma-ray binaries. We present a semi-analytic model of the thermal X-ray emission from the shocked stellar wind in pulsar gamma-ray binaries, and find that the thermal X-ray emission increases monotonically with the pulsar spin-down luminosity, reaching luminosities of the order of 10{sup 33} erg s{sup -1}. The lack of thermal features in the X-ray spectrum of gamma-ray binaries can then be used to constrain the properties of the pulsar and stellar winds. By fitting the observed X-ray spectra of gamma-ray binaries with a source model composed of an absorbed non-thermal power law and the computed thermal X-ray emission, we are able to derive upper limits on the spin-down luminosity of the putative pulsar. We applied this method to LS 5039, the only gamma-ray binary with a radial, powerful wind, and obtain an upper limit on the pulsar spin-down luminosity of {approx}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 36} erg s{sup -1}. Given the energetic constraints from its high-energy gamma-ray emission, a non-thermal to spin-down luminosity ratio very close to unity may be required.

  6. Gamma-ray astronomy with H.E.S.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Förster, A.

    2014-12-01

    H.E.S.S. is an array of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes for ground based gamma-ray astronomy. Consisting of four telescopes with 107 m2 mirror area each, operational since 10 years, and a new 600 m2 telescope in the center of the array, it uses Cherenkov light emitted by gamma-ray induced particle showers in the atmosphere to investigate high-energy phenomena in the universe. H.E.S.S. has discovered of the order of 60% of all very-high energy gamma-ray sources. Recent results cover physics topics like the acceleration of cosmic rays in supernova remnants, the interaction of cosmic rays with molecular clouds, or the acceleration and the emission processes in binary systems. Other topics covered are the physics of relativistic flows in pulsar wind nebulae and extra-galactic objects like AGN or radio galaxies as well as exotic physics like the search for axions.

  7. Future directions in experimental gamma ray astronomy. [technology assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haymes, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    Better vehicles and instruments are needed if gamma ray spectroscopy in astrophysics and cosmology is to advance. A gamma ray observatory will (1) permit long-term observations of selected sources to measure their variability and to achieve high sensitivity; (2) measure periods in days or weeks; and (3) assess the entire sky to observe various predicted sources, to measure the energy spectrum, and to map the isotropy of the cosmic ray background over larger collecting areas (of the order of a square meter). Conventional and unconventional instruments must cover the energy range from 0.1 MeV to 20 MeV with improved sensitivity. Angular resolution must be improved one degree or more to study discrete X-ray sources in the galactic center. Actively collimated detectors, improved double Compton instruments, and gamma ray correlators to actively synthesize the absolute energy spectrum of the sky protons are discussed as well as the need for scientific balloons.

  8. Localization of Gamma-Ray Bursts using the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor

    E-print Network

    Connaughton, V; Goldstein, A; Meegan, C A; Paciesas, W S; Preece, R D; Wilson-Hodge, C A; Gibby, M H; Greiner, J; Gruber, D; Jenke, P; Kippen, R M; Pelassa, V; Xiong, S; Yu, H -F; Bhat, P N; Burgess, J M; Byrne, D; Fitzpatrick, G; Foley, S; Giles, M M; Guiriec, S; van der Horst, A J; von Kienlin, A; McBreen, S; McGlynn, S; Tierney, D; Zhang, B -B

    2014-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) has detected over 1400 Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) since it began science operations in July, 2008. We use a subset of over 300 GRBs localized by instruments such as Swift, the Fermi Large Area Telescope, INTEGRAL, and MAXI, or through triangulations from the InterPlanetary Network (IPN), to analyze the accuracy of GBM GRB localizations. We find that the reported statistical uncertainties on GBM localizations, which can be as small as 1 degree, underestimate the distance of the GBM positions to the true GRB locations and we attribute this to systematic uncertainties. The distribution of systematic uncertainties is well represented (68% confidence level) by a 3.7 degree Gaussian with a non-Gaussian tail that contains about 10% of GBM-detected GRBs and extends to approximately 14 degrees. A more complex model suggests that there is a dependence of the systematic uncertainty on the position of the GRB in spacecraft coordinates, with GRBs in the quadrants on the Y-axis better l...

  9. Analysis of Data from the Energetic Gamma-ray Experiment on the Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kniffen, Donald A.

    1996-01-01

    The work under the Grant has involved participation with the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) Team in the analysis of data obtained during instrument operations and the preparation of scientific papers and proposals for future observations. The Principal Investigator (PI) has been a co-author on a total of 90 papers published in refereed professional journals since the beginning of 1991, plus many other non-refereed publications, and contributed and invited papers at professional meetings and IAU telegrams. On seven of these papers he was the lead author. The EGRET team continues to submit IAU Astronomical telegrams and present many papers at scientific meetings. The effort by the PI has involved working remotely by internet connection on the Goddard Space Flight Center Computers where the EGRET data are archived. Students have monitored instrument performance, performed Viewing Period Analyses and analyzed data remotely. The PI has completed the detailed analysis of over 20 viewing periods to search for point sources and this work has been used in developing the first and second EGRET catalog of sources, published in Supplements to the Astrophysical Journal.

  10. Gamma-ray line investigations with the Durham gamma-ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayre, C. A.; Owens, A.; Summers, W. M.; Thompson, M. G.; Bhat, P. N.

    1981-06-01

    A description is presented of a program undertaken to investigate gamma-ray lines with the aid of an actively shielded high purity Ge detector cooled by liquid nitrogen. The active NaI(Tl) shielding elements limit the opening angle of the telescope to 5.2 deg. The basic crystal has a gamma-ray detection efficiency of 23% relative to a standard 3 in. x 3 in. NaI(Tl) detector at 1.33 MeV and an energy resolution of 2.5 keV at the same energy. The first flight of the apparatus was in August 1979 at Palestine, Texas and it lasted about 6 1/2 hours. Attention is given to the variation of counting rate of the Ge detector in the energy range from 0.09 to 8.8 MeV, the atmospheric background spectra from the Ge(HP) detector, and the minimum sensitivity of the spectrometer.

  11. A New View of the High Energy Gamma-ray Sky with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McEnery, Julie

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the findings that have been made possible by the use of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. It describes the current status of the Fermi Telescope and reviews some of the science highlights.

  12. Gamma-ray luminosity and photon index evolution of FSRQ blazars and contribution to the gamma-ray background

    SciTech Connect

    Singal, J. [Physics Department, University of Richmond, 28 Westhampton Way, Richmond, VA 23173 (United States); Ko, A. [Department of Physics, Masacusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States); Petrosian, V., E-mail: jsingal@richmond.edu [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Departments of Physics and Applied Physics, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States)

    2014-05-10

    We present the redshift evolutions and distributions of the gamma-ray luminosity and photon spectral index of flat spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ) type blazars, using non-parametric methods to obtain the evolutions and distributions directly from the data. The sample we use for analysis consists of almost all FSRQs observed with a greater than approximately 7? detection threshold in the first-year catalog of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope's Large Area Telescope, with redshifts as determined from optical spectroscopy by Shaw et al. We find that FSQRs undergo rapid gamma-ray luminosity evolution, but negligible photon index evolution, with redshift. With these evolutions accounted for we determine the density evolution and luminosity function of FSRQs and calculate their total contribution to the extragalactic gamma-ray background radiation, resolved and unresolved, which is found to be 16(+10/–4)%, in agreement with previous studies.

  13. GAMMA-RAY LUMINOSITY AND PHOTON INDEX EVOLUTION OF FSRQ BLAZARS AND CONTRIBUTION TO THE GAMMA-RAY BACKGROUND

    E-print Network

    Singal, J.

    We present the redshift evolutions and distributions of the gamma-ray luminosity and photon spectral index of flat spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ) type blazars, using non-parametric methods to obtain the evolutions and ...

  14. CORRELATION OF SUPERNOVA REMNANT MASERS AND GAMMA-RAY SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Hewitt, John W. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Stop 662.0, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Yusef-Zadeh, Farhad [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Wardle, Mark [Department of Physics and Engineering, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2009-12-01

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) interacting with molecular clouds are potentially exciting systems in which to detect evidence of cosmic ray acceleration. Prominent gamma-ray emission is produced via the decay of neutral pions when cosmic rays encounter nearby dense clouds. In many of the SNRs coincident with gamma-ray sources, the presence of OH (1720 MHz) masers is used to identify interaction with dense gas and to provide a kinematic distance to the system. In this Letter we use statistical tests to demonstrate that there is a correlation between these masers and a class of GeV- to TeV-energy gamma-ray sources coincident with interacting remnants. For pion decay the gamma-ray luminosity provides a direct estimate of the local cosmic ray density. We find the cosmic ray density is enhanced by one to two orders of magnitude over the local solar value, comparable to X-ray-induced ionization in these remnants. The inferred ionization rates are sufficient to explain non-equilibrium chemistry in the post-shock gas, where high columns of hydroxyl are observed.

  15. Time-of-flight discrimination between gamma-rays and neutrons by using artificial neural networks

    E-print Network

    Akkoyun, Serkan

    2012-01-01

    The gamma-ray tracking detector arrays, such as advanced gamma ray tracking array (AGATA), are quite powerful detection systems in nuclear structure physic studies. In these arrays, the sequences of the gamma-ray interaction points in the detectors can correctly be identified in order to obtain true gamma-ray energies emitted from the nuclei of interest. Together with the gamma-rays, a number of neutrons are also emitted from the nuclei and these neutrons influence gamma-ray spectra. An obvious method of separating between neutrons and gamma-rays is based on the time-of-flight (tof) technique. This work aims obtaining tof distributions of gamma-rays and neutrons by using feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN). It was shown that, ANN can correctly classify gamma-ray and neutron events. Testing of trained networks on experimental data clearly shows up tof discrimination of gamma-rays and neutrons.

  16. Molecular hydrogen in the Galaxy and galactic gamma rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.; Solomon, P. M.; Scoville, N. Z.; Ryter, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    Recent surveys of 2.6-cm CO emission and 100-MeV gamma-radiation in the galactic plane reveal a striking correlation suggesting that both emissions may be primarily proportional to the line-of-sight column density of H2 in the inner Galaxy. Both the gamma-ray and CO data suggest a prominent ring or arm consisting of cool clouds of H2 at a galactocentric distance of about 5 kpc with a mean total hydrogen density equivalent to approximately 5 atoms per cu cm. Estimates are made of column densities of H2 at 0 deg galactic longitude and are compared with estimates from infrared and X-ray absorption measurements. These estimates are all consistent, indicating that H2 is far more abundant than H I in the inner Galaxy and is the key to a more satisfactory explanation of the gamma-ray observations than previous suggestions. The importance of H2 in understanding galactic gamma-ray observations is also reflected in the correlation of galactic-latitude distribution of gamma-rays and dense dust clouds. The deduced cosmic-ray distribution inferred from the calculations is similar to that of galactic supernova remnants, suggesting a galactic origin for most cosmic rays.

  17. Gamma-Ray Astrophysics: New Insight Into the Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, Carl E.; Trombka, Jacob I.

    1997-01-01

    During the 15 years that have passed since the first edition of this book was published, there has been a major increase in our knowledge of gamma-ray astronomy. Much of this advance arises from the extensive results that have been forthcoming from the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory. There has been the discovery of a new class of gamma-ray objects, namely high-energy gamma- ray-emitting blazars, a special class of Active Galactic Nuclei, whose basic high-energy properties now seem to be understood. A much improved picture of our galaxy now exists in the frequency range of gamma rays. The question of whether cosmic rays are galactic or metagalactic now seems settled with certainty. Significant new information exists on the gamma-ray properties of neutron star pulsars, Seyfert galaxies, and gamma-ray bursts. Substantial new insight has been obtained on solar phenomena through gamma-ray observations. Hence, this seemed to be an appropriate time to write a new edition of this book to add the important scientific implications of these many new findings. The special importance of gamma-ray astrophysics had long been recognized by many physicists and astronomers, and theorists had pursued many aspects of the subject well before the experimental results began to become available. The slower development of the experimental side was not because of a lack of incentive, but due to the substantial experimental difficulties that had to be overcome. Thus, as the gamma-ray results became available in much greater number and detail, it was possible to build upon the theoretical work that already existed and to make substantial progress in the study of many of the phenomena involved. Consequently, a much better understanding of many of the astrophysical phenomena mentioned here and others is now possible. Our principal aims in writing this book are the same as they were for the first edition: to provide a text which describes the significance of gamma-ray astrophysics and to assemble in one place a treatment of gamma rays emitted from bodies in the solar i system, from objects in our galaxy, as well as from interactions between cosmic rays and the interstellar medium, and from beyond our galaxy. Thus, this book is intended for those in astrophysics who wish to have the opportunity to learn more about the evolving field of gamma-ray astronomy and its relationship to the high-energy, evolutionary processes occurring in the universe. The last three chapters of the book provide a general discussion of the experimental aspects of the field that seemed best treated together, separately from the astrophysical aspects of gamma-ray astronomy that are discussed in the first ten chapters.

  18. The BATSE experiment on the Gamma Ray Observatory: Solar flare hard x ray and gamma-ray capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, G. J.; Meegan, C. A.; Wilson, R. B.; Parnell, T. A.; Paciesas, W. S.; Pendleton, G. N.; Hudson, H. S.; Matteson, J. L.; Peterson, L. E.; Cline, T. L.

    1989-01-01

    The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) for the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) consists of eight detector modules that provide full-sky coverage for gamma-ray bursts and other transient phenomena such as solar flares. Each detector module has a thin, large-area scintillation detector (2025 sq cm) for high time-resolution studies, and a thicker spectroscopy detector (125 sq cm) to extend the energy range and provide better spectral resolution. The total energy range of the system is 15 keV to 100 MeV. These 16 detectors and the associated onboard data system should provide unprecedented capabilities for observing rapid spectral changes and gamma-ray lines from solar flares. The presence of a solar flare can be detected in real-time by BATSE; a trigger signal is sent to two other experiments on the GRO. The launch of the GRO is scheduled for June 1990, so that BATSE can be an important component of the Max '91 campaign.

  19. Short versus long gamma-ray bursts: a comprehensive study of energetics and prompt gamma-ray correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahmoradi, Amir; Nemiroff, Robert J.

    2015-07-01

    We present the results of a comprehensive study of the luminosity function, energetics, prompt gamma-ray correlations, and classification methodology of short-hard and long-soft gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), based on observational data in the largest catalogue of GRBs available to this date: BATSE catalogue of 2702 GRBs. We find that (1) the least-biased classification method of GRBs into short and long, solely based on prompt-emission properties, appears to be the ratio of the observed spectral peak energy to the observed duration (R = Ep/T90) with the dividing line at R ? 50[keV s-1]; (2) once data is carefully corrected for the effects of the detection threshold of gamma-ray instruments, the population distribution of short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) and long gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) can be individually well described as multivariate lognormal distribution in the four-dimensional space of the isotropic peak gamma-ray luminosity, total isotropic gamma-ray emission, the intrinsic spectral peak energy, and the intrinsic duration; (3) relatively large fractions of SGRBs and LGRBs with moderate-to-low spectral peak energies have been missed by BATSE detectors; (4) relatively strong and highly significant intrinsic hardness-brightness and duration-brightness correlations likely exist in both populations of SGRBs and LGRBs, once data is corrected for selection effects. The strengths of these correlations are very similar in both populations, implying similar mechanisms at work in both GRB classes, leading to the emergence of these prompt gamma-ray correlations.

  20. Gamma-ray measurements with the segmented gamma scan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. R. Martin; D. F. Jones; J. L. Parker

    1977-01-01

    A revised and updated operation and maintenance manual for the segmented gamma-scan instrument is presented, which describes routine assay techniques as well as the theory of operation in sufficient depth that an experienced assayist can make nonroutine assays on a wide variety of materials and samples. In addition, complete electronic and electrical schematics of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory designed