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1

Gamma rays from compact binary system  

E-print Network

Some of the very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray sources detected with the modern generation of Cherenkov telescopes have been identified with previously known X-ray binary systems. These detections demonstrate the richness of non-thermal phenomena in compact galactic objects containing relativistic outflows or winds produced near black holes and neutron stars. Recently, the well-known microquasar Cygnus X-3 seems to be associated with a gamma-ray source detected with AGILE. Here I summarise the main observational results on gamma-ray emission from X-ray binaries, as well as some of the proposed scenarios to explain the production of VHE gamma-rays.

Josep M. Paredes

2008-10-24

2

COMPACT, TUNABLE COMPTON SCATTERING GAMMA-RAY SOURCES  

SciTech Connect

Recent progress in accelerator physics and laser technology have enabled the development of a new class of gamma-ray light sources based on Compton scattering between a high-brightness, relativistic electron beam and a high intensity laser pulse produced via chirped-pulse amplification (CPA). A precision, tunable gamma-ray source driven by a compact, high-gradient X-band linac is currently under development at LLNL. High-brightness, relativistic electron bunches produced by the linac interact with a Joule-class, 10 ps laser pulse to generate tunable {gamma}-rays in the 0.5-2.5 MeV photon energy range via Compton scattering. The source will be used to excite nuclear resonance fluorescence lines in various isotopes; applications include homeland security, stockpile science and surveillance, nuclear fuel assay, and waste imaging and assay. The source design, key parameters, and current status are presented.

Hartemann, F V; Albert, F; Anderson, G G; Anderson, S G; Bayramian, A J; Betts, S M; Chu, T S; Cross, R R; Ebbers, C A; Fisher, S E; Gibson, D J; Ladran, A S; Marsh, R A; Messerly, M J; O'Neill, K L; Semenov, V A; Shverdin, M Y; Siders, C W; McNabb, D P; Barty, C J; Vlieks, A E; Jongewaard, E N; Tantawi, S G; Raubenheimer, T O

2009-08-20

3

Compact Gamma-ray Source Technology Development Study  

SciTech Connect

This study focuses on the applicability of current accelerator and laser technologies to the construction of compact, narrow bandwidth, gamma-ray sources for DHS missions in illicit materials detection. It also identifies research and development areas in which advancement will directly benefit these light sources. In particular, we review the physics of Compton scattering based light sources and emphasize the source properties most important to Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) applications of interest. The influences of laser and electron beam properties on the light source are examined in order to evaluate the utility of different technologies for this application. Applicable bulk and fiber-based laser systems and laser recirculation technologies are discussed and Radio Frequency (RF) Linear Accelerator (linac) technologies are examined to determine the optimal frequency and pulse formats achievable.

Anderson, S G; Gibson, D J; Rusnak, B

2009-09-25

4

Compact Binary Progenitors of Short Gamma-Ray Bursts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In recent years, detailed observations and accurate numerical simulations have provided support to the idea that mergers of compact binaries containing either two neutron stars (NSs) or an NS and a black hole (BH) may constitute the central engine of short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs). The merger of such compact binaries is expected to lead to the production of a spinning BH surrounded by an accreting torus. Several mechanisms can extract energy from this system and power the SGRBs. Here we connect observations and numerical simulations of compact binary mergers, and use the current sample of SGRBs with measured energies to constrain the mass of their powering tori. By comparing the masses of the tori with the results of fully general-relativistic simulations, we are able to infer the properties of the binary progenitors that yield SGRBs. By assuming a constant efficiency in converting torus mass into jet energy epsilon(sub jet) = 10%, we find that most of the tori have masses smaller than 0.01 Solar M, favoring "high-mass" binary NSs mergers, i.e., binaries with total masses approx >1.5 the maximum mass of an isolated NS. This has important consequences for the gravitational wave signals that may be detected in association with SGRBs, since "high-mass" systems do not form a long-lived hypermassive NS after the merger. While NS-BH systems cannot be excluded to be the engine of at least some of the SGRBs, the BH would need to have an initial spin of approx. 0.9 or higher.

Giacomazzo, Bruno; Perna, Rosalba; Rezzolla, Luciano; Troja, Eleonora; Lazzati, Davide

2013-01-01

5

COMPACT BINARY PROGENITORS OF SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, detailed observations and accurate numerical simulations have provided support to the idea that mergers of compact binaries containing either two neutron stars (NSs) or an NS and a black hole (BH) may constitute the central engine of short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs). The merger of such compact binaries is expected to lead to the production of a spinning BH surrounded by an accreting torus. Several mechanisms can extract energy from this system and power the SGRBs. Here we connect observations and numerical simulations of compact binary mergers, and use the current sample of SGRBs with measured energies to constrain the mass of their powering tori. By comparing the masses of the tori with the results of fully general-relativistic simulations, we are able to infer the properties of the binary progenitors that yield SGRBs. By assuming a constant efficiency in converting torus mass into jet energy, {epsilon}{sub jet} = 10%, we find that most of the tori have masses smaller than 0.01 M{sub Sun }, favoring 'high-mass' binary NSs mergers, i.e., binaries with total masses {approx}> 1.5 the maximum mass of an isolated NS. This has important consequences for the gravitational wave signals that may be detected in association with SGRBs, since 'high-mass' systems do not form a long-lived hypermassive NS after the merger. While NS-BH systems cannot be excluded to be the engine of at least some of the SGRBs, the BH would need to have an initial spin of {approx}0.9 or higher.

Giacomazzo, Bruno [JILA, University of Colorado and National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Perna, Rosalba [JILA and Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Rezzolla, Luciano [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Potsdam D-14476 (Germany); Troja, Eleonora [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Lazzati, Davide [Department of Physics, NC State University, 2401 Stinson Drive, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States)

2013-01-10

6

Science of Compact X- and Gamma-ray Sources: MAXI and GLAST  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MAXI and GLAST will be surveying the sky simultaneously. Compact objects that may show variability will be excellent targets for coordinated multiwavelength studies. Gamma-ray bursts (and afterglows), pulsars, high-mass X-ray binaries, microquasars, and active galactic nuclei are all objects whose X- and gamma-ray relationship can be explored by such observations. Of particular interest will be variable unidentified gamma-ray sources, whose contemporaneous observations by MAXI may prove decisive in identifying the source of the high-energy emission.

Thompson, Dave

2008-01-01

7

Compact high-resolution gamma-ray computed tomography system for multiphase flow studies  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, a compact high-resolution gamma-ray Computed Tomography (CompaCT) measurement system for multiphase flow studies and tomographic imaging of technical objects is presented. Its compact and robust design makes it particularly suitable for studies on industrial facilities and outdoor applications. Special care has been given to thermal ruggedness, shock resistance, and radiation protection. Main components of the system are a collimated {sup 137}Cs isotopic source, a thermally stabilised modular high-resolution gamma-ray detector arc with 112 scintillation detector elements, and a transportable rotary unit. The CompaCT allows full CT scans of objects with a diameter of up to 130 mm and can be operated with any tilting angle from 0 Degree-Sign (horizontal) to 90 Degree-Sign (vertical).

Bieberle, A.; Nehring, H.; Berger, R.; Arlit, M.; Haerting, H.-U.; Schubert, M. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Fluid Dynamics, Bautzner Landstrasse 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Hampel, U. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Fluid Dynamics, Bautzner Landstrasse 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden, AREVA Endowed Chair of Imaging Techniques in Energy and Process Engineering, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

2013-03-15

8

Searching gamma-ray bursts for gravitational lensing echoes - Implications for compact dark matter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first available 44 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment on board the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory have been inspected for echo signals following shortly after the main signal. No significant echoes have been found. Echoes would have been expected were the GRBs distant enough and the universe populated with a sufficient density of compact objects composing the dark matter. Constraints on dark matter abundance and GRB redshifts from the present data are presented and discussed. Based on these preliminary results, a universe filled to critical density of compact objects between 10 exp 6.5 and 10 exp 8.1 solar masses are now marginally excluded, or the most likely cosmological distance paradigm for GRBs is not correct. We expect future constraints to be able either to test currently popular cosmological dark matter paradigms or to indicate that GRBs do not lie at cosmological distances.

Nemiroff, R. J.; Norris, J. P.; Wickramasinghe, W. A. D. T.; Horack, J. M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Fishman, G. J.; Meegan, C. A.; Wilson, R. B.; Paciesas, W. S.

1993-01-01

9

DEVELOPMENT OF A PRECISION TUNABLE GAMMA-RAY SOURCE DRIVEN BY A COMPACT X-BAND LINAC  

SciTech Connect

A precision, tunable gamma-ray source driven by a compact, high-gradient X-band linac is currently under development at LLNL. High-brightness, relativistic electron bunches produced by the linac interact with a Joule-class, 10 ps laser pulse to generate tunable {gamma}-rays in the 0.5-2.5 MeV photon energy range via Compton scattering. The source will be used to excite nuclear resonance fluorescence lines in various isotopes; applications include homeland security, stockpile science and surveillance, nuclear fuel assay, and waste imaging and assay. The source design, key parameters, and current status are presented.

Hartemann, F V; Albert, F; Anderson, G G; Anderson, S G; Bayramian, A J; Betts, S M; Chu, T S; Cross, R R; Ebbers, C A; Fisher, S E; Gibson, D J; Ladran, A S; Messerly, M J; Semenov, V A; Shverdin, M Y; Siders, C W; McNabb, D P; Barty, C J; Vlieks, A E; Jongewaard, E N; Tantawi, S G

2009-04-30

10

THE LOCATIONS OF SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS AS EVIDENCE FOR COMPACT OBJECT BINARY PROGENITORS  

SciTech Connect

We present a detailed investigation of Hubble Space Telescope rest-frame UV/optical observations of 22 short gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies and sub-galactic environments. Utilizing the high angular resolution and depth of HST we characterize the host galaxy morphologies, measure precise projected physical and host-normalized offsets between the bursts and host centers, and calculate the locations of the bursts with respect to their host light distributions (rest-frame UV and optical). We calculate a median short GRB projected physical offset of 4.5 kpc, about 3.5 times larger than that for long GRBs, and find that ?25% of short GRBs have offsets of ?> 10 kpc. When compared to their host sizes, the median offset is 1.5 half-light radii (r{sub e} ), about 1.5 times larger than the values for long GRBs, core-collapse supernovae, and Type Ia supernovae. In addition, ?20% of short GRBs having offsets of ?> 5r{sub e} , and only ?25% are located within 1r{sub e} . We further find that short GRBs severely under-represent their hosts' rest-frame optical and UV light, with ?30%-45% of the bursts located in regions of their host galaxies that have no detectable stellar light, and ?55% in the regions with no UV light. Therefore, short GRBs do not occur in regions of star formation or even stellar mass. This demonstrates that the progenitor systems of short GRBs must migrate from their birth sites to their eventual explosion sites, a signature of kicks in compact object binary systems. Utilizing the full sample of offsets, we estimate natal kick velocities of ?20-140 km s{sup –1}. These independent lines of evidence provide the strongest support to date that short GRBs result from the merger of compact object binaries (NS-NS/NS-BH)

Fong, W.; Berger, E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2013-10-10

11

COMPACT OBJECT COALESCENCE RATE ESTIMATION FROM SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURST OBSERVATIONS  

SciTech Connect

Recent observational and theoretical results suggest that short-duration gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) originate from the merger of compact binary systems of two neutron stars or a neutron star and a black hole. The observation of SGRBs with known redshifts allows astronomers to infer the merger rate of these systems in the local universe. We use data from the SWIFT satellite to estimate this rate to be in the range {approx}500-1500 Gpc{sup -3} yr{sup -1}. This result is consistent with earlier published results which were obtained through alternative approaches. We estimate the number of coincident observations of gravitational-wave signals with SGRBs in the advanced gravitational-wave detector era. By assuming that all SGRBs are created by neutron star-neutron star (neutron star-black hole) mergers, we estimate the expected rate of coincident observations to be in the range {approx_equal} 0.2-1 ({approx_equal} 1-3) yr{sup -1}.

Petrillo, Carlo Enrico [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ''Federico II'', Compl. Univ. Monte S. Angelo, Ed. N, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Dietz, Alexander; Cavaglia, Marco [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Mississippi University, MS 38677-1848 (United States)

2013-04-20

12

Experimental investigation of silicon photomultipliers as compact light readout systems for gamma-ray spectroscopy applications in fusion plasmas.  

PubMed

A matrix of Silicon Photo Multipliers has been developed for light readout from a large area 1 in. × 1 in. LaBr3 crystal. The system has been characterized in the laboratory and its performance compared to that of a conventional photo multiplier tube. A pulse duration of 100 ns was achieved, which opens up to spectroscopy applications at high counting rates. The energy resolution measured using radioactive sources extrapolates to 3%-4% in the energy range E? = 3-5 MeV, enabling gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements at good energy resolution. The results reported here are of relevance in view of the development of compact gamma-ray detectors with spectroscopy capabilities, such as an enhanced gamma-ray camera for high power fusion plasmas, where the use of photomultiplier is impeded by space limitation and sensitivity to magnetic fields. PMID:25430287

Nocente, M; Fazzi, A; Tardocchi, M; Cazzaniga, C; Lorenzoli, M; Pirovano, C; Rebai, M; Uboldi, C; Varoli, V; Gorini, G

2014-11-01

13

Topics in gamma ray astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations of gamma rays from solar flares, gamma ray bursts, the Galactic center, galactic nucleosynthesis, SS433, and Cygnus X-3, and their effects on astrophysical problems are discussed. It is observed that gamma ray spectra from solar flares are applicable to the study of particle acceleration and confinement and the determination of chemical abundances in the solar atmosphere. The gamma ray lines from the compact galactic object SS433 are utilized to examine the acceleration of jets, and analysis of the gamma ray lines of Cygnus X-3 reveal that particles can be accelerated in compact sources to ultrahigh energies.

Ramaty, R.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

1986-01-01

14

Observing Compact Galactic Sources in X- and gamma-rays with AGILE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The AGILE mission is in its nominal operation phase since ? 1.5 years and it is monitoring the Sky in gamma and X-rays with its two imaging instruments, GRID (30 MeV - 50 GeV, about 2.5 sr FoV) and SuperAGILE (18 - 60 keV, about 1 sr FoV). A significa nt amount of time during the first year of operation

E. Del Monte; Y. Evangelista; M. Feroci; A. Pellizzoni; E. Costa; A. Bulgarelli; A. Chen; F. Longo; A. Giulianie; S. Vercellone; M. Tavani; C. Pittori; F. Verrecchia

2008-01-01

15

Galactic Compact Objects Section of the White Paper on the Status and Future of Ground-based TeV Gamma-ray Astronomy  

E-print Network

This is a report on the findings of the Galactic compact objects working group for the white paper on the status and future of TeV gamma-ray astronomy. The white paper is an APS commissioned document, and the full version has also been released and can be found on astro-ph. This section of the white paper discusses the potential of future ground-based gamma-ray experiments to advance our understanding of the physics of Galactic compact objects including pulsars, pulsar wind nebulae, and X-ray binaries.

Kaaret, Philip; Arons, J; Baring, M; Cui, W; Dingus, B; Finley, J; Funk, S; Heinz, S; Gaensler, B; Harding, A; Hays, E; Holder, J; Kieda, D; Konopelko, A; Le Bohec, S; Levinson, A; Moskalenko, I; Mukherjee, R; Ong, R; Pohl, M; Ragan, K; Slane, P; Smith, A; Torres, D

2008-01-01

16

Galactic Compact Objects Section of the White Paper on the Status and Future of Ground-based TeV Gamma-ray Astronomy  

E-print Network

This is a report on the findings of the Galactic compact objects working group for the white paper on the status and future of TeV gamma-ray astronomy. The white paper is an APS commissioned document, and the full version has also been released and can be found on astro-ph. This section of the white paper discusses the potential of future ground-based gamma-ray experiments to advance our understanding of the physics of Galactic compact objects including pulsars, pulsar wind nebulae, and X-ray binaries.

P. Kaaret; A. A. Abdo; J. Arons; M. Baring; W. Cui; B. Dingus; J. Finley; S. Funk; S. Heinz; B. Gaensler; A. Harding; E. Hays; J. Holder; D. Kieda; A. Konopelko; S. LeBohec; A. Levinson; I. Moskalenko; R. Mukherjee; R. Ong; M. Pohl; K. Ragan; P. Slane; A. Smith; D. Torres

2008-10-03

17

A Compact Monitoring System for Recording X-Rays, Gamma Rays and Neutrons Generated By Atmospheric Lightning Discharges and Other Natural Phenomena  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generation of X-rays, gamma-rays and neutrons by atmospheric lightning discharges has been predicted by different researchers several decades ago. But only within the last 25 years the first experimental evidences of events relating the generation of these radiations with lightning have been made; since then there is a continuing effort to collect more information about this type of phenomenon. In this study we describe a compact monitoring system to detect simultaneously X-rays, gamma-rays and neutrons using rather inexpensive off-the-shelf commercial detectors (Micro Roengten Radiation Monitor, 8-inch gamma tube coupled to a 3x3 inch sodium iodide [Nai(Tl)] crystal, Ludlum He-3 neutron detector) and accompanying computer interfaces. The system is extremely portable and can be powered with small automotive batteries, if necessary. Measurements are performed at ground-level. Preliminary measurements have already yielded positive results, e.g., changes in the neutron flux related to a lightning discharge and varying weather conditions have been observed in the city of Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil (23° 11? 11?S, 45° 52? 43? W, 600 m above sea level). This a pilot study, in the near future a larger number of these compact monitoring system will be installed in different location in order to increase the area coverage. Although the main objective of the study is to detect high-energy events produced by lightning discharges, the monitoring system will also be able to detect changes in the radiation background produced by other natural phenomena.

Martin, I. M.; Alves, M. A.

2009-12-01

18

Performance characteristics of a prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA) system equipped with a new compact D-D neutron generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA) system equipped with a compact deuterium-deuterium (D-D) neutron generator has been developed for fast detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents. The PGAA system was built based on a fully high-voltage-shielded, axial D-D neutron generator with a radio frequency (RF)-driven ion source. The ionic current of the compact neutron generator was determined as a function of the acceleration voltage at various RF powers. Monoenergetic neutrons (2.45 MeV) with a neutron yield of >1×107 n/s were obtained at a deuterium pressure of 8.0 mTorr, an acceleration voltage of 80 kV, and an RF power of 1.1 kW. The performance of the PGAA system was examined by studying the dependence of a prompt gamma-ray count rate on crucial operating parameters.

Park, Yong Joon; Song, Byung Chul; Im, Hee-Jung; Kim, Jong-Yun

2009-07-01

19

Gamma ray generator  

DOEpatents

An embodiment of a gamma ray generator includes a neutron generator and a moderator. The moderator is coupled to the neutron generator. The moderator includes a neutron capture material. In operation, the neutron generator produces neutrons and the neutron capture material captures at least some of the neutrons to produces gamma rays. An application of the gamma ray generator is as a source of gamma rays for calibration of gamma ray detectors.

Firestone, Richard B; Reijonen, Jani

2014-05-27

20

Relativistic outflows from remnants of compact object mergers and their viability for short gamma-ray bursts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first general relativistic hydrodynamic models of the launch and evolution of relativistic jets and winds, driven by thermal energy deposition, possibly due to neutrino-antineutrino annihilation, in the close vicinity of black hole-accretion torus systems. The latter are considered to be the remnants of compact object mergers. Our two-dimensional simulations establish the link between models of such mergers and future observations of short gamma-ray bursts by the SWIFT satellite. They show that ultrarelativistic outflow with maximum terminal Lorentz factors around 1000 develops for polar energy deposition rates above some 1048 erg s-1 per steradian, provided the merger environment has a sufficiently low baryon density. By the interaction with the dense accretion torus the ultrarelativistic outflow with Lorentz factors ? above 100 is collimated into a sharp-edged cone that is embedded laterally by a wind with steeply declining Lorentz factor. The typical semi-opening angles of the ? > 100 cone are 5°-10°, corresponding to about 0.4-1.5% of the hemisphere and apparent isotropized energies (kinetic plus internal) up to ?1051 erg although at most 10-30% of the deposited energy is transferred to the outflow with ? > 100. The viability of post-merger black hole-torus systems as engines of short, hard gamma-ray bursts is therefore confirmed. The annihilation of neutrino-antineutrino pairs radiated from the hot accretion torus appears as a suitable energy source for powerful axial outflow even if only ?1049 erg are deposited within a cone of 45° half-opening angle around the system axis. Although the torus lifetimes are expected to be only between some 0.01 s and several 0.1 s, our models can explain the durations of all observed short gamma-ray bursts, because different propagation velocities of the front and rear ends will lead to a radial stretching of the ultrarelativistic fireball before transparency is reached. The ultrarelativistic flow reveals a highly non-uniform structure caused by the action of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities that originate at the fireball-torus interface. Large radial variations of the baryon density (up to several orders of magnitude) are uncorrelated with moderate variations of the Lorentz factor (factors of a few) and fluctuations of the gently declining radiation-dominated pressure. In the angular direction the Lorentz factor reveals a nearly flat plateau-like maximum with values of several hundreds, that can be located up to 7° off the symmetry axis, and a steep decrease to less than 10 for polar angles larger than 15°-20°. Lateral expansion of the ultrarelativistic core of the flow is prevented by a subsonic velocity component of about 0.05c towards the symmetry axis, whereas the moderately relativistic wings show a subsonic sideways inflation with less than 0.07c (measured in the frame comoving with the radial flow).

Aloy, M. A.; Janka, H.-T.; Müller, E.

2005-06-01

21

Soft X-ray Extended Emissions of Short Gamma-Ray Bursts as Electromagnetic Counterparts of Compact Binary Mergers; Possible Origin and Detectability  

E-print Network

We investigate the possible origin of extended emissions (EEs) of short gamma-ray bursts with an isotropic energy of ~ 10^(50-51) erg and a duration of a few 10 s to ~ 100 s, based on a compact binary (neutron star (NS)-NS or NS-black hole (BH)) merger scenario. We analyze the evolution of magnetized neutrino-dominated accretion disks of mass ~ 0.1 M_sun around BHs formed after the mergers, and estimate the power of relativistic outflows via the Blandford-Znajek (BZ) process. We show that a rotation energy of the BH up to > 10^52 erg can be extracted with an observed time scale of > 30 (1+z) s with a relatively small disk viscosity parameter of alpha fireball. We show that the dissipative photospheric emissions from such fireballs are likely in the soft X-ray band (1-10 keV) for M ~ 10^-2 M_sun possibly in NS-NS mergers, and in the BAT band (15-150 keV) for M ~ 10^-4 M_sun possibly in NS-BH mergers. In the former case, such soft EEs can provide a good chance of ~ 6 yr^-1 for simultaneous detections of the gravitational waves with a ~ 0.1 deg angular resolution by soft X-ray survey facilities like Wide-Field MAXI.

Takashi Nakamura; Kazumi Kashiyama; Daisuke Nakauchi; Yudai Suwa; Takanori Sakamoto; Nobuyuki Kawai

2014-10-20

22

Soft X-Ray Extended Emissions of Short Gamma-Ray Bursts as Electromagnetic Counterparts of Compact Binary Mergers: Possible Origin and Detectability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the possible origin of extended emissions (EEs) of short gamma-ray bursts with an isotropic energy of ~1050-51 erg and a duration of a few 10 s to ~100 s, based on a compact binary (neutron star (NS)-NS or NS-black hole (BH)) merger scenario. We analyze the evolution of magnetized neutrino-dominated accretion disks of mass ~0.1 M ? around BHs formed after the mergers and estimate the power of relativistic outflows via the Blandford-Znajek (BZ) process. We show that a rotation energy of the BH up to >~ 1052 erg can be extracted with an observed timescale of >~ 30(1 + z) s with a relatively small disk viscosity parameter of ? < 0.01. Such a BZ power dissipates by clashing with non-relativistic pre-ejected matter of mass M ~ 10-(2-4) M ?, and forms a mildly relativistic fireball. We show that the dissipative photospheric emissions from such fireballs are likely in the soft X-ray band (1-10 keV) for M ~ 10-2 M ?, possibly in NS-NS mergers, and in the BAT band (15-150 keV) for M ~ 10-4 M ?, possibly in NS-BH mergers. In the former case, such soft EEs can provide a good chance of ˜ 6 yr-1 (? ? softEE/4?) (R}GW/40 yr-1) for simultaneous detections of the gravitational waves with a ~0.°1 angular resolution by soft X-ray survey facilities like the Wide-Field MAXI. Here, ??softEE is the beaming factor of the soft EEs and R}GW is the NS-NS merger rate detectable by the advanced LIGO, the advanced Virgo, and KAGRA.

Nakamura, Takashi; Kashiyama, Kazumi; Nakauchi, Daisuke; Suwa, Yudai; Sakamoto, Takanori; Kawai, Nobuyuki

2014-11-01

23

Gamma ray transients  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The discovery of cosmic gamma ray bursts was made with systems designed at Los Alamos Laboratory for the detection of nuclear explosions beyond the atmosphere. HELIOS-2 was the first gamma ray burst instrument launched; its initial results in 1976, seemed to deepen the mystery around gamma ray transients. Interplanetary spacecraft data were reviewed in terms of explaining the behavior and source of the transients.

Cline, Thomas L.

1987-01-01

24

Gamma-ray Astronomy  

E-print Network

The relevance of gamma-ray astronomy to the search for the origin of the galactic and, to a lesser extent, the ultra-high-energy cosmic rays has long been recognised. The current renaissance in the TeV gamma-ray field has resulted in a wealth of new data on galactic and extragalactic particle accelerators, and almost all the new results in this field were presented at the recent International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC). Here I summarise the 175 papers submitted on the topic of gamma-ray astronomy to the 30th ICRC in Merida, Mexico in July 2007.

Jim Hinton

2007-12-20

25

Gamma-ray Bursts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prologue C. Kouveliotou, R. A . M. J. Wijers and S. E. Woosley; 1. The discovery of the gamma-ray burst phenomenon R. W. Klebesadel; 2. Instrumental principles E. E. Fenimore; 3. The BATSE era G. J. Fishman and C. A. Meegan; 4. The cosmological era L. Piro and K. Hurley; 5. The Swift era N. Gehrels and D. N. Burrows; 6. Discoveries enabled by multi-wavelength afterglow observations of gamma-ray bursts J. Greiner; 7. Prompt emission from gamma-ray bursts T. Piran, R. Sari and R. Mochkovitch; 8. Basic gamma-ray burst afterglows P. Mészáros and R. A. M. J. Wijers; 9. The GRB-supernova connection J. Hjorth and J. S. Bloom; 10. Models for gamma-ray burst progenitors and central engines S. E. Woosley; 11. Jets and gamma-ray burst unification schemes J. Granot and E. Ramirez-Ruiz; 12. High-energy cosmic rays and neutrinos E. Waxman; 13. Long gamma-ray burst host galaxies and their environments J. P. U. Fynbo, D. Malesani and P. Jakobsson; 14. Gamma-ray burst cosmology V. Bromm and A. Loeb; 15. Epilogue R. D. Blandford; Index.

Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Wijers, Ralph A. M. J.; Woosley, Stan

2012-11-01

26

Gamma-ray astrophysics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conference papers on gamma ray astrophysics are summarized. Data cover the energy region from about 0.3 MeV to a few hundred GeV and theoretical models of production mechanisms that give rise to both galactic and extragalactic gamma rays.

Stecker, F. W. (editor); Trombka, J. I. (editor)

1973-01-01

27

Last moments in the life of a compact binary system: gravitational waves, gamma-ray bursts and magnetar formation  

E-print Network

The first detections of afterglows from short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have confirmed the previous suspicion that they are triggered by a different central engine than long bursts. In particular, the recent detections of short GRBs in galaxies without star formation lends support to the idea that an old stellar population is involved. Most prominent are mergers of either double neutron stars or of a neutron star with a stellar-mass black hole companion. Since the final identification of the central engine will only come from an integral view of several properties, we review the observable signatures that can be expected from both double neutron stars and neutron star black hole systems. We discuss the gravitational wave emission, the structure of the neutrino-cooled accretion disks, the resulting neutrino signal and possible mechanisms to launch a GRB. In addition, we address the speculative idea that in some cases a magnetar-like object may be the final outcome of a double neutron star merger. We also discuss possibilities to explain the late-time X-ray activity that has been observed in several bursts.

S. Rosswog

2006-12-20

28

Cosmic Rays: What Gamma Rays Can Say  

E-print Network

We will review the main channels of gamma ray emission due to the acceleration and propagation of cosmic rays, discussing the cases of both galactic and extra-galactic cosmic rays and their connection with gamma rays observations.

Aloisio, Roberto

2014-01-01

29

Cosmological gamma-ray bursts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The distribution in angle and flux of gamma-ray bursts indicates that the majority of gamma-ray bursters are at cosmological distances, i.e., at z of about 1. The rate is then about 10 exp -8/yr in a galaxy like the Milky Way, i.e., orders of magnitude lower than the estimated rate for collisions between neutron stars in close binary systems. The energy per burst is about 10 exp 51 ergs, assuming isotropic emission. The events appear to be less energetic and more frequent if their emission is strongly beamed. Some tests for the distance scale are discussed: a correlation between the burst's strength and its spectrum; the absorption by the Galactic gas below about 2 keV; the X-ray tails caused by forward scattering by the Galactic dust; about 1 month recurrence of some bursts caused by gravitational lensing by foreground galaxies; and a search for gamma-ray bursts in M31. The bursts appear to be a manifestation of something exotic, but conventional compact objects can provide an explanation. The best possibility is offered by a decay of a bindary composed of a spinning-stellar-mass black-hole primary and a neutron or a strange-quark star secondary. In the final phase the secondary is tidally disrupted, forms an accretion disk, and up to 10 exp 54 ergs are released. A very small fraction of this energy powers the gamma-ray burst.

Paczynski, Bohdan

1991-01-01

30

Cosmic gamma-ray bursts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of the cosmic gamma-ray burst phenomenon is presented. Both the light curves and the energy spectra of these short transient events display a great diversity. However, rapid rise times and periodicities sometimes observed in the light curves suggest a compact object origin. Similarly, absorption and emission features in the energy spectra argue strongly in favor of this interpretation. Counterparts to gamma-bursters in other energy ranges, such as optical and sort x-ray, have still not been identified, however, leading to a large uncertainty in the distances to bursters. Although gamma-ray burst sources have not yet been observed to repeat, numerous bursts from three objects which may be related to the gamma-bursters, called Soft Gamma Repeaters, have been recorded; there is weak evidence that they may be relatively distant on a galactic scale. Future missions, particularly those emphasizing high energy, time, and/or spatial resolution, as well as a multiwavelength approach, are likely to advance our understanding of this enigmatic phenomenon.

Hurley, K.

1991-01-01

31

High Energy Gamma Rays  

E-print Network

This article reviews the present status of high energy gamma-ray astronomy at energies above 30 MeV. Observations in the past decade using both space- and ground-based experiments have been primarily responsible for giving a tremendous boost to our knowledge of the high energy Universe. High energy gamma-rays have been detected from a wide range of Galactic and extragalactic astrophysical sources, such as gamma-ray bursters, pulsars, and active galaxies. These observations have established high energy gamma-ray astronomy as a vital and exciting field, that has a bright future. This review summarizes the experimental techniques, observations and results obtained with recent experiments, and concludes with a short description of future prospects.

R. Mukherjee

2000-09-22

32

Cosmic gamma-ray lines - Theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The various processes that lead to gamma-ray line emission and the possible astrophysical sources of such emission are reviewed. The processes of nuclear excitation, radiative capture, positron annihilation, and cyclotron radiation, which may produce gamma-ray line emission from such diverse sources as the interstellar medium, novas, supernovas, pulsars, accreting compact objects, the galactic nucleus and the nuclei of active galaxies are considered. The significance of the relative intensities, widths, and frequency shifts of the lines are also discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on understanding those gamma-ray lines that have already been observed from astrophysical sources.

Lingenfelter, R. E.; Ramaty, R.

1980-01-01

33

Gamma Ray Astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The project has progressed successfully during this period of performance. The highlights of the Gamma Ray Astronomy teams efforts are: (1) Support daily BATSE data operations, including receipt, archival and dissemination of data, quick-look science analysis, rapid gamma-ray burst and transient monitoring and response efforts, instrument state-of-health monitoring, and instrument commanding and configuration; (2) On-going scientific analysis, including production and maintenance of gamma-ray burst, pulsed source and occultation source catalogs, gamma-ray burst spectroscopy, studies of the properties of pulsars and black holes, and long-term monitoring of hard x-ray sources; (3) Maintenance and continuous improvement of BATSE instrument response and calibration data bases; (4) Investigation of the use of solid state detectors for eventual application and instrument to perform all sky monitoring of X-Ray and Gamma sources with high sensitivity; and (5) Support of BATSE outreach activities, including seminars, colloquia and World Wide Web pages. The highlights of this efforts can be summarized in the publications and presentation list.

Wu, S. T.

2000-01-01

34

Gamma ray camera  

DOEpatents

A gamma ray camera for detecting rays emanating from a radiation source such as an isotope. The gamma ray camera includes a sensor array formed of a visible light crystal for converting incident gamma rays to a plurality of corresponding visible light photons, and a photosensor array responsive to the visible light photons in order to form an electronic image of the radiation therefrom. The photosensor array is adapted to record an integrated amount of charge proportional to the incident gamma rays closest to it, and includes a transparent metallic layer, photodiode consisting of a p-i-n structure formed on one side of the transparent metallic layer, and comprising an upper p-type layer, an intermediate layer and a lower n-type layer. In the preferred mode, the scintillator crystal is composed essentially of a cesium iodide (CsI) crystal preferably doped with a predetermined amount impurity, and the p-type upper intermediate layers and said n-type layer are essentially composed of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). The gamma ray camera further includes a collimator interposed between the radiation source and the sensor array, and a readout circuit formed on one side of the photosensor array.

Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA)

1997-01-01

35

Hypernuclear gamma rays  

SciTech Connect

The observation of hypernuclear ..gamma.. rays pprovides a method of determining the spin dependence of the ..lambda..-nucleon interaction with a sensitivity not approachable by other means in the forseeable future. The transitions of primary interest are those between states that differ only in the orientation of the spin of the ..lambda.. particle with respect to the angular momentum of the nuclear core. The effective ..lambda..-nucleon interaction can be specified by a small number of ..gamma..-ray measurements. A program of experiments directed at this goal is in progress at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This paper reviews the status of the subject with emphasis on the recent experiment to measure ground state doublet splittings using germanium ..gamma..-ray detectors.

May, M.

1985-01-01

36

Celestial gamma ray study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents the research activities performed by Stanford University investigators as part of the data reduction effort and overall support of the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Observatory. This report is arranged chronologically, with each subsection detailing activities during roughly a one year period of time, beginning in June 1991.

Michelson, Peter F.

1995-01-01

37

Gamma rays from Galactic pulsars  

E-print Network

Gamma rays from young pulsars and milli-second pulsars are expected to contribute to the diffuse gamma-ray emission measured by the {\\it Fermi} Large Area Telescope (LAT) at high latitudes. We derive the contribution of the pulsars undetected counterpart by using information from radio to gamma rays and we show that they explain only a small fraction of the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background.

Calore, Francesca; Donato, Fiorenza

2014-01-01

38

ACCELERATING COMPACT OBJECT MERGERS IN TRIPLE SYSTEMS WITH THE KOZAI RESONANCE: A MECHANISM FOR 'PROMPT' TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE, GAMMA-RAY BURSTS, AND OTHER EXOTICA  

SciTech Connect

White dwarf-white dwarf (WD-WD) and neutron star-neutron star (NS-NS) mergers may produce Type Ia supernovae and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), respectively. A general problem is how to produce binaries with semi-major axes small enough to merge in significantly less than the Hubble time (t{sub H}), and thus accommodate the observation that these events closely follow episodes of star formation. I explore the possibility that such systems are not binaries at all, but actually coeval, or dynamical formed, triple systems. The tertiary induces Kozai oscillations in the inner binary, driving it to high eccentricity, and reducing its gravitational wave (GW) merger timescale. This effect significantly increases the allowed range of binary period P such that the merger time is t{sub merge} < t{sub H}. In principle, Chandrasekhar-mass binaries with P {approx} 300 days can merge in {approx}< t{sub H} if they contain a prograde solar-mass tertiary at high enough inclination. For retrograde tertiaries, the maximum P such that t{sub merge} {approx}< t{sub H} is yet larger. In contrast, P {approx}< 0.3 days is required in the absence of a tertiary. I discuss implications of these findings for the production of transients formed via compact object binary mergers. Based on the statistics of solar-type binaries, I argue that many such binaries should be in triple systems affected by the Kozai resonance. If true, expectations for the mHz GW signal from individual sources, the diffuse background, and the foreground for GW experiments like LISA are modified. This work motivates future studies of triples systems of A, B, and O stars, and new types of searches for WD-WD binaries in triple systems.

Thompson, Todd A., E-mail: thompson@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Department of Astronomy and Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

2011-11-10

39

A compact neutron-gamma spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A compact neutron/gamma detector has been developed using a liquid scintillator cell coupled to a Flat Panel PMT; performances have been compared with a second cell coupled to a traditional linearly-focused 12 dynodes PMT. Energy resolution and pulse shape discrimination (PSD) measured by using a fast digitizer are very similar for the two detectors with the time resolution of the Flat Panel PMT slightly worse. The new detector results to be weakly affected by the influence of a moderate magnetic field while the traditional PMT exhibits strong pulse reduction. The compact size and the low power consumption obtained by using the Flat Panel PMT are very useful in portable neutron/gamma spectrometers.

Cester, D.; Nebbia, G.; Stevanato, L.; Pino, F.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Viesti, G.

2013-08-01

40

Gamma Ray Astrophysics: New insight into the universe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma ray observations of the solar system, the galaxy and extragalactic radiation are reported. Topics include: planets, comets, and asteroids; solar observations; interstellar medium and galactic structure; compact objects; cosmology; and diffuse radiation. The instrumentation used in gamma ray astronomy in covered along with techniques for the analysis of observational spectra.

Fichtel, C. E.; Trombka, J. I.

1981-01-01

41

Gamma-Ray Localization of Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes  

SciTech Connect

Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) are very short bursts of high-energy photons and electrons originating in Earth's atmosphere. We present here a localization study of TGFs carried out at gamma-ray energies above 20 MeV based on an innovative event selection method. We use the AGILE satellite Silicon Tracker data that for the first time have been correlated with TGFs detected by the AGILE Mini-Calorimeter. We detect 8 TGFs with gamma-ray photons of energies above 20 MeV localized by the AGILE gamma-ray imager with an accuracy of {approx}5-10 deg. at 50 MeV. Remarkably, all TGF-associated gamma rays are compatible with a terrestrial production site closer to the subsatellite point than 400 km. Considering that our gamma rays reach the AGILE satellite at 540 km altitude with limited scattering or attenuation, our measurements provide the first precise direct localization of TGFs from space.

Marisaldi, M.; Labanti, C.; Fuschino, F.; Bulgarelli, A.; Trifoglio, M.; Di Cocco, G.; Gianotti, F. [INAF-IASF Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Argan, A.; De Paris, G. [INAF, Viale del Parco Mellini 84, Roma (Italy); Trois, A.; Del Monte, E.; Costa, E.; Di Persio, G.; Donnarumma, I.; Evangelista, Y.; Feroci, M.; Lazzarotto, F.; Pacciani, L.; Rubini, A.; Sabatini, S. [INAF-IASF Roma, via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy)

2010-09-17

42

Gamma ray astrophysics to the year 2000. Report of the NASA Gamma Ray Program Working Group  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Important developments in gamma-ray astrophysics up to energies of 100 GeV during the last decade are reviewed. Also, the report seeks to define the major current scientific goals of the field and proposes a vigorous program to pursue them, extending to the year 2000. The goals of gamma-ray astronomy include the study of gamma rays which provide the most direct means of studying many important problems in high energy astrophysics including explosive nucleosynthesis, accelerated particle interactions and sources, and high-energy processes around compact objects. The current research program in gamma-ray astronomy in the U.S. including the space program, balloon program and foreign programs in gamma-ray astronomy is described. The high priority recommendations for future study include an Explorer-class high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy mission and a Get Away Special cannister (GAS-can) or Scout class multiwavelength experiment for the study of gamma-ray bursts. Continuing programs include an extended Gamma Ray Observatory mission, continuation of the vigorous program of balloon observations of the nearby Supernova 1987A, augmentation of the balloon program to provide for new instruments and rapid scientific results, and continuation of support for theoretical research. Long term recommendations include new space missions using advanced detectors to better study gamma-ray sources, the development of these detectors, continued study for the assembly of large detectors in space, collaboration with the gamma-ray astronomy missions initiated by other countries, and consideration of the Space Station attached payloads for gamma-ray experiments.

1988-01-01

43

Gamma ray astrophysics to the year 2000. Report of the NASA Gamma Ray Program Working Group  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Important developments in gamma-ray astrophysics up to energies of 100 GeV during the last decade are reviewed. Also, the report seeks to define the major current scientific goals of the field and proposes a vigorous program to pursue them, extending to the year 2000. The goals of gamma-ray astronomy include the study of gamma rays which provide the most direct means of studying many important problems in high energy astrophysics including explosive nucleosynthesis, accelerated particle interactions and sources, and high-energy processes around compact objects. The current research program in gamma-ray astronomy in the U.S. including the space program, balloon program and foreign programs in gamma-ray astronomy is described. The high priority recommendations for future study include an Explorer-class high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy mission and a Get Away Special cannister (GAS-can) or Scout class multiwavelength experiment for the study of gamma-ray bursts. Continuing programs include an extended Gamma Ray Observatory mission, continuation of the vigorous program of balloon observations of the nearby Supernova 1987A, augmentation of the balloon program to provide for new instruments and rapid scientific results, and continuation of support for theoretical research. Long term recommendations include new space missions using advanced detectors to better study gamma-ray sources, the development of these detectors, continued study for the assembly of large detectors in space, collaboration with the gamma-ray astronomy missions initiated by other countries, and consideration of the Space Station attached payloads for gamma-ray experiments.

1988-10-01

44

Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory  

SciTech Connect

The symposium represents the topics on varied aspects ofgamma-ray astronomy. The Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory representsa dramatic increase in capability over previous gamma-ray missions.A large number of reports were presented on the topic of gamma-raybursts. A total of two hundred and ten papers were presented at thesymposium, out of which twenty four have been abstracted for thedatabase. (AIP)

Friedlander, M. (ed.) (Washington University, St. Louis,Missouri (United States)); Gehrels, N.; Macomb, D.J. (eds.) (Laboratory forHigh Energy Astrophysics, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center,Greenbelt, Maryland (United States))

1993-01-01

45

Observing terrestrial gamma ray flashes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flash Workshop; Huntsville, Alabama, 13-14 July 2011 Terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) were the focus of a workshop held at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), with observation and theory well represented by the 38 attendees. Discovered in 1991 as brief (submillisecond), bright flashes of gamma rays detected over regions of thunderstorm activity by the spaceborne Burst And Transient Source Experiment, TGFs may be entering an observational golden era. Three space-based gamma ray telescopes currently make TGFs a scientific priority.

Connaughton, Valerie; Briggs, Michael S.

2011-12-01

46

Digital Pulse Processing and Gamma Ray Tracking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Two of the big changes in new generations of Nuclear Physics instrumentation will be the incorporation of digital processing and the use of gamma ray tracking. The Nuclear Physics Group at Daresbury has set up a project to investigate digital pulse processing for gamma ray detectors and how best to implement gamma ray tracking in large Germanium gamma ray detectors. Topics on this site include but are not limited to: gamma ray tracking, overview of the Gamma Ray Tracking Project, pictures of one of the tracking gamma ray detectors (TIGRE), pictures of test experiment, gamma ray tracking project publications, and links to other gamma ray tracking pages.

2010-09-21

47

Mirrors for gamma ray astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The atmosperic Cherenkov technique is widely used for the detection of high energy gamma rays (Egamma > 1011 eV) from space [L.K. Resvanis et al., Astrophys. J. Lett. 328 (1988) L9]. Most current detectors use large arrays of optical mirrors to collect and focus the Cherenkov light from gamma ray induced showers onto photomultipliers. We describe herein a simple and

F. J. Loeffler

1993-01-01

48

Gamma Ray Bursts and CETI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamma ray burst sources are isotropically distributed. They could be located at distances 1000 AU. (Katz (4)) GRB signals have many narrow peaks that are unresolved at the millisecond time resolution of existing observations. (1) CETI could use stars as gravitational lenses for interstellar gamma ray laser beam communication. Much better time resolution of GRB signals could rule out (or

49

High energy gamma ray astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High energy gamma ray astronomy has evolved with the space age. Nonexistent twenty-five years ago, there is now a general sketch of the gamma ray sky which should develop into a detailed picture with the results expected to be forthcoming over the next decade. The galactic plane is the dominant feature of the gamma ray sky, the longitude and latitude distribution being generally correlated with galactic structural features including the spiral arms. Two molecular clouds were already seen. Two of the three strongest gamma ray sources are pulsars. The highly variable X-ray source Cygnus X-3 was seen at one time, but not another in the 100 MeV region, and it was also observed at very high energies. Beyond the Milky Way Galaxy, there is seen a diffuse radiation, whose origin remains uncertain, as well as at least one quasar, 3C 273. Looking to the future, the satellite opportunities for high energy gamma ray astronomy in the near term are the GAMMA-I planned to be launched in late 1987 and the Gamma Ray Observatory, scheduled for launch in 1990. The Gamma Ray Observatory will carry a total of four instruments covering the entire energy range from 30,000 eV to 3 x 10 to the 10th eV with over an order of magnitude increase in sensitivity relative to previous satellite instruments.

Fichtel, Carl E.

1987-01-01

50

The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Compton) is the second in NASA's series of great Observatories. Launched on 1991 April 5, Compton represents a dramatic increase in capability over previous gamma-ray missions. The spacecraft and scientific instruments are all in good health, and many significant discoveries have already been made. We describe the capabilities of the four scientific instruments,

N. Gehrels; E. Chipman; D. Kniffen

1994-01-01

51

The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Compton) is the second in NASA's series of great Observatories. Launched on 1991 April 5, Compton represents a dramatic increase in capability over previous gamma-ray missions. The spacecraft and scientific instruments are all in good health, and many significant discoveries have already been made. We describe the capabilities of the four scientific instruments, and the observing program of the first 2 years of the mission. Examples of early discoveries by Compton are enumerated, including the discovery that gamma-ray bursts are isotropic but spatially inhomogeneous in their distribution; the discovery of a new class of high-energy extragalacatic gamma-ray sources, the gamma-ray AGNs; the discovery of emission from SN 1987A in the nuclear line of Co-57; and the mapping of emission from Al-26 in the interstellar medium (ISM) near the Galactic center. Future observations will include deep surveys of selected regions of the sky, long-tem studies of individual objects, correlative studies of objects at gamma-ray and other energies, a Galactic plane survey at intermediate gamma-ray energies, and improved statistics on gamma-ray bursts to search for small anisotropies. After completion of the all-sky survey, a Guest Investigator program is in progress with guest observers' time share increasing from 30% upward for the late mission phases.

Gehrels, N.; Chipman, E.; Kniffen, D.

1994-01-01

52

The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Compton) is the second in NASA's series of great Observatories. Launched on 1991 April 5, Compton represents a dramatic increase in capability over previous gamma-ray missions. The spacecraft and scientific instruments are all in good health, and many significant discoveries have already been made. We describe the capabilities of the four scientific instruments, and the observing program of the first 2 years of the mission. Examples of early discoveries by Compton are enumerated, including the discovery that gamma-ray bursts are isotropic but spatially inhomogeneous in their distribution; the discovery of a new class of high-energy extragalacatic gamma-ray sources, the gamma-ray AGNs; the discovery of emission from SN 1987A in the nuclear line of Co-57; and the mapping of emission from Al-26 in the interstellar medium (ISM) near the Galactic center. Future observations will include deep surveys of selected regions of the sky, long-tem studies of individual objects, correlative studies of objects at gamma-ray and other energies, a Galactic plane survey at intermediate gamma-ray energies, and improved statistics on gamma-ray bursts to search for small anisotropies. After completion of the all-sky survey, a Guest Investigator program is in progress with guest observers' time share increasing from 30% upward for the late mission phases.

Gehrels, N.; Chipman, E.; Kniffen, D.

1994-06-01

53

Gamma Ray Bursts - Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We are in an exciting period of discovery for gamma-ray bursts. The Swift observatory is detecting 100 bursts per year, providing arcsecond localizations and sensitive observations of the prompt and afterglow emission. The Fermi observatory is observing 250 bursts per year with its medium-energy GRB instrument and about 10 bursts per year with its high-energy LAT instrument. In addition, rapid-response telescopes on the ground are providing new capabilities to study optical emission during the prompt phase and spectral signatures of the host galaxies. The combined data set is enabling great advances in our understanding of GRBs including afterglow physics, short burst origin, and high energy emission.

Gehrels, N.; Cannizzo, J. K.

2010-01-01

54

Gamma-Ray Pulsar Revolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isolated neutron stars (INSs) were the first sources identified in the field of high-energy gamma-ray astronomy. In the 1970s, only two sources had been identified, the Crab and Vela pulsars. However, although few in number, these objects were crucial in establishing the very concept of a gamma-ray source. Moreover, they opened up significant discovery space in both the theoretical and phenomenological fronts. The need to explain the copious gamma-ray emission of these pulsars led to breakthrough developments in understanding the structure and physics of neutron star (NS) magnetospheres. In parallel, the 20-year-long chase to understand the nature of Geminga unveiled the existence of a radio-quiet, gamma-ray-emitting INS, adding a new dimension to the INS family. We are living through an extraordinary time of discovery. The current generation of gamma-ray detectors has vastly increased the population of known gamma-ray-emitting NSs. The 100 mark was crossed in 2011, and we are now over 150. The gamma-ray-emitting NS population exhibits roughly equal numbers of radio-loud and radio-quiet young INSs, plus an astonishing, and unexpected, group of isolated and binary millisecond pulsars (MSPs). The number of MSPs is growing so rapidly that they are on their way to becoming the most numerous members of the family of gamma-ray-emitting NSs. Even as these findings have set the stage for a revolution in our understanding of gamma-ray-emitting NSs, long-term monitoring of the gamma-ray sky has revealed evidence of flux variability in the Crab Nebula as well as in the pulsed emission from PSR J2021+4026, challenging a four-decades-old, constant-emission paradigm. Now we know that both pulsars and their nebulae can, indeed, display variable emission.

Caraveo, Patrizia A.

2014-08-01

55

Compact x-ray source and panel  

DOEpatents

A compact, self-contained x-ray source, and a compact x-ray source panel having a plurality of such x-ray sources arranged in a preferably broad-area pixelized array. Each x-ray source includes an electron source for producing an electron beam, an x-ray conversion target, and a multilayer insulator separating the electron source and the x-ray conversion target from each other. The multi-layer insulator preferably has a cylindrical configuration with a plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers surrounding an acceleration channel leading from the electron source to the x-ray conversion target. A power source is connected to each x-ray source of the array to produce an accelerating gradient between the electron source and x-ray conversion target in any one or more of the x-ray sources independent of other x-ray sources in the array, so as to accelerate an electron beam towards the x-ray conversion target. The multilayer insulator enables relatively short separation distances between the electron source and the x-ray conversion target so that a thin panel is possible for compactness. This is due to the ability of the plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers of the multilayer insulators to resist surface flashover when sufficiently high acceleration energies necessary for x-ray generation are supplied by the power source to the x-ray sources.

Sampayon, Stephen E. (Manteca, CA)

2008-02-12

56

Gamma rays from molecular clouds  

E-print Network

It is believed that the observed diffuse gamma ray emission from the galactic plane is the result of interactions between cosmic rays and the interstellar gas. Such emission can be amplified if cosmic rays penetrate into dense molecular clouds. The propagation of cosmic rays inside a molecular cloud has been studied assuming an arbitrary energy and space dependent diffusion coefficient. If the diffusion coefficient inside the cloud is significantly smaller compared to the average one derived for the galactic disk, the observed gamma ray spectrum appears harder than the cosmic ray spectrum, mainly due to the slower penetration of the low energy particles towards the core of the cloud. This may produce a great variety of gamma ray spectra.

Stefano Gabici; Felix Aharonian; Pasquale Blasi

2006-10-02

57

Gamma-ray Astrophysics with AGILE  

SciTech Connect

AGILE will explore the gamma-ray Universe with a very innovative instrument combining for the first time a gamma-ray imager and a hard X-ray imager. AGILE will be operational in spring 2007 and it will provide crucial data for the study of Active Galactic Nuclei, Gamma-Ray Bursts, unidentified gamma-ray sources. Galactic compact objects, supernova remnants, TeV sources, and fundamental physics by microsecond timing. The AGILE instrument is designed to simultaneously detect and image photons in the 30 MeV - 50 GeV and 15 - 45 keV energy bands with excellent imaging and timing capabilities, and a large field of view covering {approx} 1/5 of the entire sky at energies above 30 MeV. A CsI calorimeter is capable of GRB triggering in the energy band 0.3-50 MeV AGILE is now (March 2007) undergoing launcher integration and testing. The PLSV launch is planned in spring 2007. AGILE is then foreseen to be fully operational during the summer of 2007.

Longo, Francesco [Department of Physics, University of Trieste (Italy)]|[INFN, Section of Trieste (Italy); Tavani, M.; Barbiellini, G.; Argan, A.; Basset, M.; Boffelli, F.; Bulgarelli, A.; Caraveo, P.; Cattaneo, P.; Chen, A.; Costa, E.; Del Monte, E.; Di Cocco, G.; Di Persio, G.; Donnarumma, I.; Feroci, M.; Fiorini, M.; Foggetta, L.; Froysland, T.; Frutti, M. (and others)

2007-07-12

58

Gamma-Ray Localization of Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) are very short bursts of high-energy photons and electrons originating in Earth's atmosphere. We present here a localization study of TGFs carried out at gamma-ray energies above 20 MeV based on an innovative event selection method. We use the AGILE satellite Silicon Tracker data that for the first time have been correlated with TGFs detected by

M. Marisaldi; A. Argan; A. Trois; A. Giuliani; M. Tavani; C. Labanti; F. Fuschino; A. Bulgarelli; F. Longo; G. Barbiellini; E. Del Monte; E. Moretti; M. Trifoglio; E. Costa; P. Caraveo; P. W. Cattaneo; A. Chen; F. D'Ammando; G. de Paris; G. Di Cocco; G. di Persio; I. Donnarumma; Y. Evangelista; M. Feroci; A. Ferrari; M. Fiorini; T. Froysland; M. Galli; F. Gianotti; I. Lapshov; F. Lazzarotto; P. Lipari; S. Mereghetti; A. Morselli; L. Pacciani; A. Pellizzoni; F. Perotti; P. Picozza; G. Piano; M. Pilia; M. Prest; G. Pucella; M. Rapisarda; A. Rappoldi; A. Rubini; S. Sabatini; P. Soffitta; E. Striani; E. Vallazza; S. Vercellone; V. Vittorini; A. Zambra; D. Zanello; L. A. Antonelli; S. Colafrancesco; S. Cutini; P. Giommi; F. Lucarelli; C. Pittori; P. Santolamazza; F. Verrecchia; L. Salotti

2010-01-01

59

Cloaked Gamma Ray Bursts  

E-print Network

It is suggested that many $\\gamma$-ray bursts (GRBs) are cloaked by an ultra-relativistic baryonic shell that has high optical depth when the photons are manufactured. Such a shell would not fully block photons reflected or emitted from its inner surface, because the radial velocity of the photons can be less than that of the shell. This avoids the standard problem associated with GRBs that the thermal component should be produced where the flow is still obscured by high optical depth. The radiation that escapes high optical depth obeys the Amati relation. Observational implications may include a) anomalously high ratios of afterglow to prompt emission, such as may have been the case in the recently discovered PTF 11agg, and b) ultrahigh-energy neutrino pulses that are non-coincident with detectable GRB. It is suggested that GRB 090510, a short, very hard GRB with very little afterglow, was an {\\it exposed} GRB, in contrast to those cloaked by baryonic shells. \\end{abstract}

Eichler, David

2014-01-01

60

Gamma-Ray Burst Lines  

E-print Network

The evidence for spectral features in gamma-ray bursts is summarized. As a guide for evaluating the evidence, the properties of gamma-ray detectors and the methods of analyzing gamma-ray spectra are reviewed. In the 1980's, observations indicated that absorption features below 100 keV were present in a large fraction of bright gamma-ray bursts. There were also reports of emission features around 400 keV. During the 1990's the situation has become much less clear. A small fraction of bursts observed with BATSE have statistically significant low-energy features, but the reality of the features is suspect because in several cases the data of the BATSE detectors appear to be inconsistent. Furthermore, most of the possible features appear in emission rather than the expected absorption. Analysis of data from other instruments has either not been finalized or has not detected lines.

Michael S. Briggs

1999-10-20

61

Compact flash X-ray units  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flash X-ray units are used to diagnose pulsed power driven experiments on the Pegasus machine at Los Alamos. Several unique designs of Marx powered flash X-ray units have been developed to meet the requirements of the Pegasus experiments. All of these units are compact, battery powered, fiber optically controlled, and EMP shielded. Some of these units are operated with a

D. Platts; M. P. Hockaday; D. Beck; W. Coulter; R. C. Smith

1995-01-01

62

Multiwavelength Astronomy: Gamma Ray Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dieter Hartmann, a high-energy physicist, presents a story-based lesson on the science of Gamma-Ray astronomy. The lesson focuses on gamma-ray bursts; examining their sources, types, and links to the origin and evolution of the Universe. The story-based format of the lesson also provides insights into the nature of science. Students answer questions based on the reading guide. A list of supplemental websites is also included.

63

Gamma-ray Pulsar Revolution  

E-print Network

Isolated Neutron Stars (INSs) were the first sources identified in the field of high-energy gamma-ray astronomy. At first, in the 70s, there were only two identified sources, the Crab and Vela pulsars. However, although few in number, these objects were crucial in establishing the very concept of a gamma-ray source. Moreover, they opened up significant discovery space both in the theoretical and phenomenological fronts. The need to explain the copious gamma-ray emission of these pulsars led to breakthrough developments in understanding the structure and physics of neutron star magnetospheres. In parallel, the 20-year-long chase to understand the nature of Geminga unveiled the existence of a radio-quiet, gamma-ray-emitting, INS, adding a new dimension to the INS family. Today we are living through an extraordinary time of discovery. The current generation of gamma-ray detectors has vastly increased the population of known of gamma-ray-emitting neutron stars. The 100 mark was crossed in 2011 and we are now appr...

Caraveo, Patrizia A

2013-01-01

64

Ultra-high energy gamma rays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The production of ultrahigh energy gamma rays by proton interactions with relicit radiation, propagation of gamma rays through the universe, and proton cascading in the presence and absence of galactic magnetic fields is discussed. Detailed data are given on proton spectrum link, gamma ray intensity, and energy spectra of gamma rays on production.

Strong, A. W.; Wdowczyk, J.; Wolfendale, A. W.

1973-01-01

65

Cosmography by gamma ray bursts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: Relations connecting gamma ray burst quantities can be used to constrain cosmographic parameters of the Hubble law at medium-high redshifts. Methods: We consider a sample of 27 gamma ray bursts to construct the luminosity distance to redshift relation and derive the values of the parameters q_0, j_0, and s_0. The analysis is compared with other methods in the literature. Results: Gamma gay bursts, if calibrated by SNeIa, seem reliable as distance indicators and give cosmographic parameters in agreement with the ?CDM model.

Capozziello, S.; Izzo, L.

2008-10-01

66

Physics of Gamma Ray Burst Sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During this grant period, the physics of gamma-ray bursts was investigated. A number of new results have emerged. The importance of pair formation in high compactness burst spectra may help explain x-ray flashes; a universal jet shape is a likely explanation for the distribution of jet break times; gravitational waves may be copiously produced both in short bursts from compact mergers and in long bursts arising from collapsars; x-ray iron lines are likely to be due to interaction with the stellar atmosphere of the progenitor; prompt optical flashes from reverse shocks will give diagnostics on the Lorentz factor and the environment; GeV and TeV emission from bursts may be expected in the external shock; etc. The group working with the PI included postdocs Dr. Bing Zhang (now assistant professor at University of Nevada); Dr. Shiho Kobayashi; graduate student Lijun Gou; collaborators Drs. Tim Kallman and Martin Rees. Meszaros shared with Rees and Dr. Bohan Paczynsky the AAS Rossi Prize in 2000 for their work on the theory of gamma ray bursts. The refereed publications and conference proceedings resulting from this research are summarized below. The PI gave a number of invited talks at major conferences, also listed.

Meszaros, Peter

2004-01-01

67

Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photograph shows the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory being released from the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-35 mission in April 1991. The GRO reentered the Earth's atmosphere and ended its successful mission in June 2000. For nearly 9 years, GRO's Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), designed and built by the Marshall Space Flight Center, kept an unblinking watch on the universe to alert scientist to the invisible, mysterious gamma-ray bursts that had puzzled them for decades. By studying gamma-rays from objects like black holes, pulsars, quasars, neutron stars, and other exotic objects, scientists could discover clues to the birth, evolution, and death of star, galaxies, and the universe. The gamma-ray instrument was one of four major science instruments aboard the Compton. It consisted of eight detectors, or modules, located at each corner of the rectangular satellite to simultaneously scan the entire universe for bursts of gamma-rays ranging in duration from fractions of a second to minutes. In January 1999, the instrument, via the Internet, cued a computer-controlled telescope at Las Alamos National Laboratory in Los Alamos, New Mexico, within 20 seconds of registering a burst. With this capability, the gamma-ray experiment came to serve as a gamma-ray burst alert for the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and major gound-based observatories around the world. Thirty-seven universities, observatories, and NASA centers in 19 states, and 11 more institutions in Europe and Russia, participated in BATSE's science program.

1991-01-01

68

Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photograph shows the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (GRO) being deployed by the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-37 mission in April 1991. The GRO reentered Earth atmosphere and ended its successful mission in June 2000. For nearly 9 years, the GRO Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), designed and built by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), kept an unblinking watch on the universe to alert scientists to the invisible, mysterious gamma-ray bursts that had puzzled them for decades. By studying gamma-rays from objects like black holes, pulsars, quasars, neutron stars, and other exotic objects, scientists could discover clues to the birth, evolution, and death of stars, galaxies, and the universe. The gamma-ray instrument was one of four major science instruments aboard the Compton. It consisted of eight detectors, or modules, located at each corner of the rectangular satellite to simultaneously scan the entire universe for bursts of gamma-rays ranging in duration from fractions of a second to minutes. In January 1999, the instrument, via the Internet, cued a computer-controlled telescope at Las Alamos National Laboratory in Los Alamos, New Mexico, within 20 seconds of registering a burst. With this capability, the gamma-ray experiment came to serve as a gamma-ray burst alert for the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and major gound-based observatories around the world. Thirty-seven universities, observatories, and NASA centers in 19 states, and 11 more institutions in Europe and Russia, participated in the BATSE science program.

1991-01-01

69

The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (Compton) was launched by the Space Shuttle Atlantis on 5 April 1991. The spacecraft and instruments are in good health and returning exciting results. The mission provides nearly six orders of magnitude in spectral coverage, from 30 keV to 30 GeV, with sensitivity over the entire range an order of magnitude better than that of previous observations. The 16,000 kilogram observatory contains four instruments on a stabilized platform. The mission began normal operations on 16 May 1991 and is now over half-way through a full-sky survey. The mission duration is expected to be from six to ten years. A Science Support Center has been established at Goddard Space Flight Center for the purpose of supporting a vigorous Guest Investigator Program. New scientific results to date include: (1) the establishment of the isotropy, combined with spatial inhomogeneity, of the distribution of gamma-ray bursts in the sky; (2) the discovery of intense high energy (100 MeV) gamma-ray emission from 3C 279 and other quasars and BL Lac objects, making these the most distant and luminous gamma-ray sources ever detected; (3) one of the first images of a gamma-ray burst; (4) the observation of intense nuclear and position-annihilation gamma-ray lines and neutrons from several large solar flares; and (5) the detection of a third gamma-ray pulsar, plus several other transient and pulsing hard X-ray sources.

Gehrels, N.; Chipman, E.; Kniffen, D. A.

1993-01-01

70

Gamma-ray observations of x-ray binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection of GeV/TeV emission from X-ray binaries (XRBs) has established a new class of high-energy (HE, >0.1 GeV) and very-high-energy (VHE, >100 GeV) gamma-ray emitters. XRBs are formed by a compact object, either a neutron star or a black hole, and by an optical companion star. Some XRBs are known to possess collimated relativistic jets, and are called microquasars. VERITAS has conducted observations of the high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) 1A 0535+262 and of the microquasar Cygnus X-3. Many theoretical models predict VHE emission when these sources manifest persistent relativistic jets or transient ejections. In light of these considerations, VERITAS has been employed to study the two XRBs for possible TeV emission. With the aid of VERITAS, it can be possible to cast light on the particular conditions which could trigger VHE emission. This can help us understand the mechanisms that may trigger VHE gamma-ray emission, thus improving our knowledge of particle acceleration and radiative processes in the jets. The implications have far reaching consequences on the understanding of other XRBs and microquasars and also of active galactic nuclei, which are in many ways similar to microquasars and are prominent VHE gamma-ray sources themselves.

Varlotta, Angelo

71

The Animated Gamma-ray Sky Revealed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope  

ScienceCinema

The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been observing the sky in gamma-rays since August 2008.  In addition to breakthrough capabilities in energy coverage (20 MeV-300 GeV) and angular resolution, the wide field of view of the Large Area Telescope enables observations of 20% of the sky at any instant, and of the whole sky every three hours. It has revealed a very animated sky with bright gamma-ray bursts flashing and vanishing in minutes, powerful active galactic nuclei flaring over hours and days, many pulsars twinkling in the Milky Way, and X-ray binaries shimmering along their orbit. Most of these variable sources had not been seen by the Fermi predecessor, EGRET, and the wealth of new data already brings important clues to the origin of the high-energy emission and particles powered by the compact objects. The telescope also brings crisp images of the bright gamma-ray emission produced by cosmic-ray interactions in the interstellar medium, thus allowing to measure the cosmic nuclei and electron spectra across the Galaxy, to weigh interstellar clouds, in particular in the dark-gas phase. The telescope sensitivity at high energy will soon provide useful constraints on dark-matter annihilations in a variety of environments. I will review the current results and future prospects of the Fermi mission.

Isabelle Grenier

2010-01-08

72

The Gamma-ray Sky with Fermi  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma rays reveal extreme, nonthermal conditions in the Universe. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been exploring the gamma-ray sky for more than four years, enabling a search for powerful transients like gamma-ray bursts, novae, solar flares, and flaring active galactic nuclei, as well as long-term studies including pulsars, binary systems, supernova remnants, and searches for predicted sources of gamma rays such as dark matter annihilation. Some results include a stringent limit on Lorentz invariance derived from a gamma-ray burst, unexpected gamma-ray variability from the Crab Nebula, a huge gamma-ray structure associated with the center of our galaxy, surprising behavior from some gamma-ray binary systems, and a possible constraint on some WIMP models for dark matter.

Thompson, David

2012-01-01

73

A compact neutron beam generator system designed for prompt gamma nuclear activation analysis.  

PubMed

In this work a compact system was designed for bulk sample analysis using the technique of PGNAA. The system consists of (252)Cf fission neutron source, a moderator/reflector/filter assembly, and a suitable enclosure to delimit the resulting neutron beam. The moderator/reflector/filter arrangement has been optimised to maximise the thermal neutron component useful for samples analysis with a suitably low level of beam contamination. The neutron beam delivered by this compact system is used to irradiate the sample and the prompt gamma rays produced by neutron reactions within the sample elements are detected by appropriate gamma rays detector. Neutron and gamma rays transport calculations have been performed using the Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code (MCNP5). PMID:21129990

Ghassoun, J; Mostacci, D

2011-08-01

74

Cosmic Ray Compaction of Porous Interstellar Ices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the compaction of microporous vapor-deposited ice films under irradiation with different ions in the 80-400 keV energy range. We found that porosity decreases exponentially with irradiation fluence, with a mean compaction area per ion that scales linearly with the stopping power of the projectile S above a threshold St=4 eV Å-1. The experiments roughly follow a universal dependence of ion-induced compaction with restricted dose (eV molecule-1). This behavior can be used to extrapolate our results to conditions of the interstellar medium. Relating our results to ionization rates of interstellar H2, we estimate that porous ice mantles on grains in dense molecular clouds are compacted by cosmic rays in ~10-50 million years.

Raut, U.; Famá, M.; Loeffler, M. J.; Baragiola, R. A.

2008-11-01

75

Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lightning and thunderstorm systems in general have been recently recognized as powerful particle accelerators, capable of producing electrons, positrons, gamma-rays and neutrons with energies as high as several tens of MeV. In fact, these natural systems turn out to be the highest energy and most efficient natural particle accelerators on Earth. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are millisecond long, very intense bursts of gamma-rays and are one of the most intriguing manifestation of these natural accelerators. Only three currently operative missions are capable of detecting TGFs from space: the RHESSI, Fermi and AGILE satellites. In this paper we review the characteristics of TGFs, including energy spectrum, timing structure, beam geometry and correlation with lightning, and the basic principles of the associated production models. Then we focus on the recent AGILE discoveries concerning the high energy extension of the TGF spectrum up to 100 MeV, which is difficult to reconcile with current theoretical models.

Marisaldi, Martino; Fuschino, Fabio; Labanti, Claudio; Tavani, Marco; Argan, Andrea; Del Monte, Ettore; Longo, Francesco; Barbiellini, Guido; Giuliani, Andrea; Trois, Alessio; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Gianotti, Fulvio; Trifoglio, Massimo

2013-08-01

76

Gamma-Ray Bursts: A Mystery Story  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the success of the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer currently in orbit, this is quite an exciting time in the history of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). The study of GRBs is a modern astronomical mystery story that began over 30 years ago with the serendipitous discovery of these astronomical events by military satellites in the late 1960's. Until the launch of BATSE on the Compton Gamma-ray Observatory, astronomers had no clue whether GRBs originated at the edge of our solar system, in our own Milky Way Galaxy or incredibly far away near the edge of the observable Universe. Data from BATSE proved that GRBs are distributed isotropically on the sky and thus could not be the related to objects in the disk of our Galaxy. Given the intensity of the gamma-ray emission, an extragalactic origin would require an astounding amount of energy. Without sufficient data to decide the issue, a great debate continued about whether GRBs were located in the halo of our own galaxy or were at extragalactic - even cosmological distances. This debate continued until 1997 when the BeppoSAX mission discovered a fading X-ray afterglow signal in the same location as a GRB. This discovery enabled other telescopes, to observe afterglow emission at optical and radio wavelengths and prove that GRBs were at cosmological distances by measuring large redshifts in the optical spectra. Like BeppoSAX Swift, slews to new GRB locations to measure afterglow emission. In addition to improved GRB sensitivity, a significant advantage of Swift over BeppoSAX and other missions is its ability to slew very quickly, allowing x-ray and optical follow-up measurements to be made as early as a minute after the gamma-ray burst trigger rather than the previous 6-8 hour delay. Swift afterglow measurements along with follow-up ground-based observations, and theoretical work have allowed astronomers to identify two plausible scenarios for the creation of a GRB: either through core collapse of super massive stars or colliding compact objects in distant galaxies. The pieces of the puzzle are beginning to fall into place and yet the story isn't quite finished. I will frame the history of gamma-ray bursts as a mystery story and will end with a description of what we still don't know and what we'll have to do to get the next clues.

Parsons, Ann

2007-01-01

77

Gamma ray spectroscopy in astrophysics. [conferences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental and theoretical aspects of gamma ray spectroscopy in high energy astrophysics are discussed. Line spectra from solar, stellar, planetary, and cosmic gamma rays are examined as well as HEAO investigations, the prospects of a gamma ray observatory, and follow-on X-ray experiments in space.

Cline, T. L. (editor); Ramaty, R. (editor)

1978-01-01

78

Towed seabed gamma ray spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

For more than 50 years, the measurement of radioactivity has been used for onshore geological surveys and in laboratories. The British Geological Survey (BGS) has extended the use of this type of equipment to the marine environment with the development of seabed gamma ray spectrometer systems. The present seabed gamma ray spectrometer, known as the Eel, has been successfully used for sediment and solid rock mapping, mineral exploration, and radioactive pollution studies. The range of applications for the system continues to expand. This paper examines the technological aspects of the Eel and some of the applications for which it has been used.

Jones, D.G. (British Geological Survey, Nottingham (United Kingdom))

1994-08-01

79

The Universe Viewed in Gamma-Rays 1 Concept of new gamma ray detector  

E-print Network

The Universe Viewed in Gamma-Rays 1 Concept of new gamma ray detector Satoko Osone Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-Ha, Kashiwa City,Chiba 277-8582, Japan Abstract We present a concept of a new gamma ray detector in order to observe undetected TeV gamma ray

Enomoto, Ryoji

80

Cosmological gamma-ray bursts  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Gamma-ray bursts are brief events that dominate the emission from all other gamma-ray objects in the sky, flicker for tens of seconds, and then turn off. Their nature remains uncertain despite years of efforts to understand them. One hypothesis is that the bursts arise within our galaxy albeit in an extended halo of neutron stars. Another hypothesis uses the isotropic distribution of gamma-ray bursts to argue that they come from nearly the edge of the universe. If gamma-ray bursts originate from cosmological distances, then the expansion of the universe should cause the dimmer (and presumably further) bursts to last longer. The authors have developed methods for measuring this time stretching, related the time stretching to the distance to the bursts, determined how the detailed physics causes temporal variations, and found the amount of total energy and peak luminosity that the events must be producing.

Fenimore, E.; Epstein, R.; Ho, C.; Intzand, J.

1996-04-01

81

Gamma-ray camera flyby  

SciTech Connect

Animation based on an actual classroom demonstration of the prototype CCI-2 gamma-ray camera's ability to image a hidden radioactive source, a cesium-137 line source, in three dimensions. For more information see http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2010/06/02/applied-nuclear-physics/.

None

2010-01-01

82

Swift: Gamma-Ray Bursts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment adapted from Penn State Public Broadcasting's Swift: Eyes Through Time, learn about the Swift satellite — a NASA mission with international participation — and how it is collecting data about gamma-ray bursts that may yield important discoveries about the Universe.

2005-12-17

83

The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (Compton) was launched by the Space Shuttle Atlantis on 5 April 1991. The spacecraft and instruments are in good health and returning exciting results. The mission provides nearly six orders of magnitude in spectral coverage, from 30 keV to 30 GeV, with sensitivity over the entire range an order of magnitude better than

N. Gehrels; E. Chipman; D. A. Kniffen

1993-01-01

84

Cosmic Gamma-ray Background Radiation  

E-print Network

The cosmic gamma-ray background radiation is one of the most fundamental observables in the gamma-ray band. Although the origin of the cosmic gamma-ray background radiation has been a mystery for a long time, the Fermi gamma-ray space telescope has recently measured it at 0.1-820 GeV and revealed that the cosmic GeV gamma-ray background is composed of blazars, radio galaxies, and star-forming galaxies. However, Fermi still leaves the following questions. Those are dark matter contribution, origins of the cosmic MeV gamma-ray background, and the connection to the IceCube TeV-PeV neutrino events. In this proceeding, I will review the current understandings of the cosmic gamma-ray background and discuss future prospects of cosmic gamma-ray background radiation studies. I also briefly review the current status of cosmic infrared/optical background radiation studies.

Inoue, Yoshiyuki

2014-01-01

85

Portable compton gamma-ray detection system  

DOEpatents

A Compton scattered gamma-ray detector system. The system comprises a gamma-ray spectrometer and an annular array of individual scintillators. The scintillators are positioned so that they are arrayed around the gamma-ray spectrometer. The annular array of individual scintillators includes a first scintillator. A radiation shield is positioned around the first scintillator. A multi-channel analyzer is operatively connected to the gamma-ray spectrometer and the annular array of individual scintillators.

Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA); Oldaker, Mark E. (Pleasanton, CA)

2008-03-04

86

Fireballs and Gamma-Ray Bursts  

E-print Network

The sudden release of copious $\\g$-ray photons into a compact region creates an opaque photon--lepton fireball due to the prolific production of electron--positron pairs. The photons that we observe in the bursts emerge only at the end of the fireball phase after it expanded sufficiently to become optically thin or after it converted its energy to the kinetic energy of relativistic baryons which convert it, in turn, to electromagnetic pulse via the interaction with interstellar matter. It is essential, therefore, to analyze the evolution of a fireball in order to comprehend the observed features of $\\gamma$-ray bursts. We discuss various aspects of fireball hydrodynamics and the resulting emitted spectra.

Tsvi Piran

1994-01-17

87

Multifrequency Observations of Gamma-Ray Burst  

E-print Network

Neither a flaring nor a quiescent counterpart to a gamma-ray burst has yet been convincingly identified at any wavelength region. The present status of the search for counterparts of classical gamma-ray bursts is given. Particular emphasis is put on the search for flaring counterparts, i.e. emission during or shortly after the gamma-ray emission.

J. Greiner

1995-10-04

88

Gamma ray astrophysics. [emphasizing processes and absorption  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma ray production processes are reviewed, including Compton scattering, synchrotron radiation, bremsstrahlung interactions, meson decay, nucleon-antinucleon annihilations, and pion production. Gamma ray absorption mechanisms through interactions with radiation and with matter are discussed, along with redshifts and gamma ray fluxes.

Stecker, F. W.

1974-01-01

89

Nuclear gamma rays from energetic particle interactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma ray line emission from nuclear deexcitation following energetic particle reactions is evaluated. The compiled nuclear data and the calculated gamma ray spectra and intensities can be used for the study of astrophysical sites which contain large fluxes of energetic protons and nuclei. A detailed evaluation of gamma ray line production in the interstellar medium is made.

Ramaty, R.; Kozlovsky, B.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

1978-01-01

90

ROSAT: X ray survey of compact groups  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the final technical report on grant NAG5-1954, which was awarded under the NASA ROSAT Guest Investigator Program to Columbia University. This grant was awarded for a number of projects on two rather different topics: (1) an x-ray survey of compact groups of galaxies; and (2) the fate of gas in merging galaxies. Progress made in these projects is presented.

Vangorkom, Jacqueline

1993-01-01

91

High-energy gamma rays from the intense 1993 January 31 gamma-ray burst  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intense gamma-ray burst of 1993 January 31 was detected by the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Observatory. Sixteen gamma rays above 30 MeV were imaged in the telescope when only 0.04 gamma rays were expected by chance. Two of these gamma rays have energies of approximately 1 GeV, and the five bin spectrum of the

M. Sommer; D. L. Bertsch; B. L. Dingus; C. E. Fichtel; G. J. Fishman; A. K. Harding; R. C. Hartman; S. D. Hunter; K. Hurley; G. Kanbach; D. A. Kniffen; C. Kouveliotou; Y. C. Lin; J. R. Mattox; H. A. Mayer-Hasselwander; P. F. Michelson; C. von Montigny; P. L. Nolan; E. Schneid; P. Sreekumar; D. J. Thompson

1994-01-01

92

Gamma-Ray Emission from Be/X-ray Binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Be/X-ray binaries are systems formed by a massive Be star and a magnetized neutron star, usually in an eccentric orbit. The Be star has strong equatorial winds occasionally forming a circumstellar disk. When the neutron star intersects the disk the accretion rate dramatically increases and a transient accretion disk can be formed around the compact object. This disk can last longer than a single orbit in the case of major outbursts. If the disk rotates faster than the neutron star, the Cheng-Ruderman mechanism can produce a current of relativistic protons that would impact onto the disk surface, producing gamma-rays from neutral pion decays and initiating electromagnetic cascades inside the disk. In this paper we present calculations of the evolution of the disk parameters during both major and minor X-ray events, and we discuss the generation of gamma-ray emission at different energies within a variety of models that include both screened and unscreened disks.

Orellana, M.; Romero, G. E.

2005-06-01

93

Gamma-Ray Emission from Be/X-Ray Binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Be/X-ray binaries are systems formed by a massive Be star and a magnetized neutron star, usually in an eccentric orbit. The Be star has strong equatorial winds occasionally forming a circumstellar disk. When the neutron star intersects the disk the accretion rate dramatically increases and a transient accretion disk can be formed around the compact object. This disk can last longer than a single orbit in the case of major outbursts. If the disk rotates faster than the neutron star, the Cheng-Ruderman mechanism can produce a current of relativistic protons that would impact onto the disk surface, producing gamma-rays from neutral pion decays and initiating electromagnetic cascades inside the disk. In this paper we present calculations of the evolution of the disk parameters during both major and minor X-ray events, and we discuss the generation of gamma-ray emission at different energies within a variety of models that include both screened and unscreened disks.

Orellana, M.; Romero, G. E.

94

Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes (TGFs)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the observation of Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flashes (TGFs) by Gamma-Ray Telescopes. These were: (1) BATSE /Compton Observatory, (2) Solar Spectroscopic Imager, (3) AGILE Gamma-ray Telescope, and (4) Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. It contains charts which display the counts over time, a map or the TGFs observed by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). and a map showing the latitude and longitude of 85 of the TGFs observed by the Fermi GBM.

Fishman, Gerald J.

2010-01-01

95

Solar gamma-ray lines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The gamma-ray spectrometer on the Solar Maximum Mission satellite has observed emissions produced by nuclear reactions in over 20 separate solar flares. The observed intensity from different flares ranges over a factor of 100, and the time scale for their production ranges from 10-s pulses to complete events lasting over 1000 s. The emissions include narrow and broadened prompt gamma-ray lines from numerous isotopes from Li-7 to Fe-56 and cover the energy range from 0.431 MeV (Be-7) to 7.12 MeV (O-16). The instrument has also observed emissions at energies greater than 10 MeV from the decay of pi0 mesons, from electron bremsstrahlung, and from the direct observation of greater-than-100-MeV solar neutrons. The intensity, temporal and spectral properties of these emissions are reviewed from the point of view that solar flares represent an astrophysical particle-acceleration site.

Forrest, D. J.

1983-01-01

96

Gamma-Ray Pulsar Studies with GLAST  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the prospects of extending the understanding of gamma ray pulsars, and answering the open questions left from the limited observations that are available from current observatories. There are 2 new gamma ray observatories that are either on orbit or will be shortly launched: (1) Astro-rivelatore Gamma a Immagini LEggero (AGILE), and Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST). On board GLAST there will be two instruments Large Area Telescope (LAT), and GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM).

Thompson, David J.

2007-01-01

97

A model of unpulsed very high energy gamma rays from the Crab Nebula and pulsar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The angular resolution of gamma-ray detectors does not allow one to separate the nebula from the pulsar in the Crab. It is generally assumed that the steady emission of gamma rays comes from the nebula. Using the 'outer magnetospheric gap' model, an alternative mechanism in which the steady emission of gamma rays could come from a compact region, a couple of light cylinder radii beyond the pulsar.

Kwok, P. W.; Cheng, K. S.; Lau, M. M.

1991-01-01

98

Gamma-Ray Astronomy Technology Needs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In recent decades gamma-ray observations have become a valuable tool for studying the universe. Progress made in diverse 8re1lS such as gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), nucleosynthesis, and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) has complimented and enriched our astrophysical understanding in many ways. We present an overview of current and future planned space y-ray missions and discussion technology needs for- the next generation of space gamma-ray instruments.

Gehrels, N.; Cannizzo, J. K.

2012-01-01

99

EXPLORING SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS AS GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE STANDARD SIRENS  

E-print Network

Recent observations support the hypothesis that a large fraction of "short-hard" gamma-ray bursts (SHBs) are associated with the inspiral and merger of compact binaries. Since gravitational-wave (GW) measurements of ...

Hughes, Scott A

100

High-entropy fireballs and jets in gamma-ray burst sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two mechanisms whereby compact coalescing binaries can produce relatively 'clean' fireballs via neutrino-antineutrino annihilation are proposed. Preejected mass due to tidal heating will collimate the fireball into jets. The resulting anisotropic gamma-ray emission can be efficient and intense enough to provide an acceptable model for gamma-ray bursts, if these originate at cosmological distances.

Meszaros, P.; Rees, M. J.

1992-01-01

101

The Universe Viewed in Gamma-Rays 1 Galactic Diffuse Gamma-ray Spectrum from Cosmic-ray In-  

E-print Network

The Universe Viewed in Gamma-Rays 1 Galactic Diffuse Gamma-ray Spectrum from Cosmic-ray In- teractions with Gas Clouds Michiko OHISHI and Masaki MORI Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University, Australia Abstract Gamma-ray spectra from cosmic-ray proton and electron interactions with gas clouds have

Mori, Masaki

102

The very-high-energy gamma-ray sky.  

PubMed

Over the past few years, very-high-energy gamma-ray astronomy has emerged as a truly observational discipline, with many detected sources representing different galactic and extragalactic source populations-supernova remnants, pulsar wind nebulae, giant molecular clouds, star formation regions, compact binary systems, and active galactic nuclei. It is expected that observations with the next generation of stereoscopic arrays of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes over a very broad energy range from 10(10) to 10(15) electron volts will dramatically increase the number of very-high-energy gamma-ray sources, thus having a huge impact on the development of astrophysics, cosmology, and particle astrophysics. PMID:17204642

Aharonian, Felix

2007-01-01

103

A compact gamma camera for biological imaging  

SciTech Connect

A compact detector, sized particularly for imaging a mouse, is described. The active area of the detector is approximately 46 mm; spl times/ 96 mm. Two flat-panel Hamamatsu H8500 position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMTs) are coupled to a pixellated NaI(Tl) scintillator which views the animal through a copper-beryllium (CuBe) parallel-hole collimator specially designed for {sup 125}I. Although the PSPMTs have insensitive areas at their edges and there is a physical gap, corrections for scintillation light collection at the junction between the two tubes results in a uniform response across the entire rectangular area of the detector. The system described has been developed to optimize both sensitivity and resolution for in-vivo imaging of small animals injected with iodinated compounds. We demonstrate an in-vivo application of this detector, particularly to SPECT, by imaging mice injected with approximately 10-15; spl mu/Ci of {sup 125}I.

Bradley, E.L.; Cella, J.; Majewski, S.; Popov, V.; Jianguo Qian; Saha, M.S.; Smith, M.F.; Weisenberger, A.G.; Welsh, R.E.

2006-02-01

104

Very High Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a review of the current status of very high energy gamma-ray astronomy. The development of the atmospheric Cerenkov imaging technique for ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has led to a rapid growth in the number of observatories. The detection of TeV gamma-rays from active galactic nuclei was unexpected and is providing new insights into the emission mechanisms in the jets.

Michael Catanese; Trevor C. Weekes

1999-01-01

105

A Model of Gamma-Ray Bursts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a model that reproduces the basic spectral properties of classical gammaray bursts with essentially no free parameters. It is an elaboration of the scenario for cosmological gamma-ray bursts outlined by Duncan & Thompson. The starting point is a Poynting-flux-dominated, relativistic, MHD wind of extremely high luminosity, L 1050 erg s- . The compactness parameter measured at the base of the wind exceeds that of the Crab pulsar, or that of a luminous AGN, by a factor of 1012. The wind emanates from a rapidly rotating neutron star, or neutron disc, in which a poloidal field > 1014 G has been generated by a helical dynamo. Scenarios that could produce such an object include a failed Type Ib supernova, accretion-induced collapse of a white dwarf, or perhaps a binary neutron star merger. The wind is safely in the MHD limit as the result of neutrino-driven and centrifugally driven mass loss. Mildly relativistic Alfven turbulence is excited in the wind by reconnection, or by hydrodynamical instabilities triggered by magnetic tension. Gamma-rays are generated via Comptonization at moderate to high scattering depth. The amplitude of the turbulence is itself limited by Compton drag, and the y-parameter of the Alfven motions is regulated to a value near 114, with a weak dependence on parameters such as radius, luminosity and the amount of baryon loading. The resulting spectrum is a power law with spectral index close to = -2 (VFv = constant), extending from an energy Ebreak - 1 (Ly/1050 erg S - 1)1/4 MeV (close to the spectral peak of a thermal fireball carrying the same flux) up to an energy as high as - 10 meG2. This power law steepens when the amplitude of the turbulence declines, or when the turbulence is generated outside the scattering photosphere. The spectrum below energy Ebreak is also a power law, with index a = - 1, which is cut off from below by stimulated scattering terms. Heavy baryon loading causes much less adiabatic softening of the spectrum than in thermal fireballs, so long as the Alfve'n turbulence is generated out to the scattering photo sphere. We show explicitly that the broken power law spectrum is an attractor, and that neither power law is altered by relativistic corrections to the Kompane'ets equation (except near the high-energy cut-off). The emergent gamma-ray spectrum is generated at a distance as small as - 1 0 cm from the source, without the need for any interaction with an external medium. Key words: MHD - radiation mechanisms: non-thermal - radiative transfer - turbulence - stars: neutron - gamma-rays: bursts.

Thompson, C.

1994-10-01

106

Gamma rays from star-forming regions  

E-print Network

Star-forming regions have been tentatively associated with gamma-ray sources since the early days of the COS B satellite. After the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory, the statistical evidence for such an association has became overwhelming. Recent results from Cherenkov telescopes indicate that some high-energy sources are produced in regions of active star formation like Cygnus OB2 and Westerlund 2. In this paper I will briefly review what kind of stellar objects can produce gamma-ray emission in star-forming regions and I will suggest that the formation process of massive stars could in principle result in the production of observable gamma rays.

Gustavo E. Romero

2008-10-15

107

Sneaky Gamma-Rays: Using Gravitational Lensing to Avoid Gamma-Gamma-Absorption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has recently been suggested that gravitational lensing studies of gamma-ray blazars might be a promising avenue to probe the location of the gamma-ray emitting region in blazars. Motivated by these prospects, we have investigated potential gamma-gamma absorption signatures of intervening lenses in the very-high-energy gamma-ray emission from lensedblazars. We considered intervening galaxies and individual stars within these galaxies. We find that the collective radiation field of galaxies acting as sources of macrolensing are not expected to lead to significant gamma-gamma absorption. Individual stars within intervening galaxies could, in principle, cause a significant opacity to gamma-gamma absorption for VHE gamma-rays if the impact parameter (the distance of closest approach of the gamma-ray to the center of the star) is small enough. However, we find that the curvature of the photon path due to gravitational lensing will cause gamma-ray photons to maintain a sufficiently large distance from such stars to avoid significant gamma-gamma absorption. This re-inforces the prospect of gravitational-lensing studies of gamma-ray blazars without interference due to gamma-gamma absorption due to the lensing objects.

Boettcher, Markus; Barnacka, Anna

2014-08-01

108

X-ray and gamma ray astronomy detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-ray and gamma ray astronomy was made possible by the advent of space flight. Discovery and early observations of celestial x-rays and gamma rays, dating back almost 40 years, were first done with high altitude rockets, followed by Earth-orbiting satellites> once it became possible to carry detectors above the Earth's atmosphere, a new view of the universe in the high-energy part of the electromagnetic spectrum evolved. Many of the detector concepts used for x-ray and gamma ray astronomy were derived from radiation measuring instruments used in atomic physics, nuclear physics, and other fields. However, these instruments, when used in x-ray and gamma ray astronomy, have to meet unique and demanding requirements related to their operation in space and the need to detect and measure extremely weak radiation fluxes from celestial x-ray and gamma ray sources. Their design for x-ray and gamma ray astronomy has, therefore, become a rather specialized and rapidly advancing field in which improved sensitivity, higher energy and spatial resolution, wider spectral coverage, and enhanced imaging capabilities are all sought. This text is intended as an introduction to x-ray and gamma ray astronomy instruments. It provides an overview of detector design and technology and is aimed at scientists, engineers, and technical personnel and managers associated with this field. The discussion is limited to basic principles and design concepts and provides examples of applications in past, present, and future space flight missions.

Decher, Rudolf; Ramsey, Brian D.; Austin, Robert

1994-01-01

109

Gravitational Waves versus X and Gamma Ray Emission in a Short Gamma-Ray Burst  

E-print Network

The recent progress in the understanding the physical nature of neutron star equilibrium configurations and the first observational evidence of a genuinely short gamma-ray burst, GRB 090227B, allows to give an estimate of the gravitational waves versus the X and Gamma-ray emission in a short gamma-ray burst.

F. G. Oliveira; Jorge A. Rueda; Remo Ruffini

2012-05-31

110

117Fermi Detects Gamma-Rays from Messier 82 The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space  

E-print Network

117Fermi Detects Gamma-Rays from Messier 82 The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has recently to the left shows the gamma-ray energy spectrum measured by Fermi. The data points are presented as crosses telescope is red; Hubble space telescope observations of hydrogen line emission is orange, and the bluest

111

The Universe Viewed in Gamma-Rays 1 Gamma-ray Signatures of Dark Matter Particles  

E-print Network

The Universe Viewed in Gamma-Rays 1 Gamma-ray Signatures of Dark Matter Particles Lars Bergstr@physto.se Abstract Indirect detection methods of dark matter particles are discussed. In particular, detection of supersymmetric dark matter through annihilation into gamma-rays is described. Aspects of the density structure

Enomoto, Ryoji

112

NEAR Gamma Ray Spectrometer Characterization and Repair  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report covers the work completed in the third year of the contract. The principle activities during this period were (1) the characterization of the NEAR 2 Gamma Ray Spectrometer using a neutron generator to generate complex gamma ray spectra and a large Ge Detecter to identify all the major peaks in the spectra; (2) the evaluation and repair of the Engineering Model Unit of the Gamma Ray Spectrometer for the NEAR mission; (3) the investigation of polycapillary x-ray optics for x-ray detection; and (4) technology transfer from NASA to forensic science.

Groves, Joel Lee; Vajda, Stefan

1998-01-01

113

The Supernovae Associated with Gamma-Ray Bursts  

E-print Network

Supernovae (SNe) were long suspected as possible progenitors of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The arguments relied on circumstantial evidence. Several recent GRBs, notably GRB 030329, have provided direct, spectroscopic evidence that SNe and GRBs are related. The SNe associated with GRBs are all of Type Ic, implying a compact progenitor, which has implications for GRB models. Other peculiar Type Ic SNe may help to expand understanding of the mechanisms involved.

Thomas Matheson

2004-10-27

114

The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory: mission status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (Compton) is the second in NASA's series of Great Observatories. Compton has now been operating for over two and a half years, and has given a dramatic increase in capability over previous gamma-ray missions. The spacecraft and scientific instruments are all in good health, and many significant discoveries have already been made and

N. Gehrels; E. Chipman; D. A. Kniffen

1994-01-01

115

Gamma ray lines from dark matter annihilation  

SciTech Connect

If direct annihilation of dark matter particles into a pair of photons occurs in the galactic halo, a narrow {gamma}-ray line can be discovered at future {gamma}-ray detectors sensitive to the GeV region. The signals predicted by different dark matter candidates are analyzed. 16 refs., 3 figs.

Giudice, G.F.

1989-08-01

116

Concept of new gamma ray detector  

E-print Network

We present a concept of a new gamma ray detector in order to observe undetected TeV gamma ray background. We measure a track of an electron-positron pair made by a pair creation in a magnet. By using Si as a tracker in a magnetic field 3 T, an energy range is up to 10 TeV.

S. Osone

2002-11-29

117

Synchrotron-Self Compton XRay and gamma Ray Variability in Relativistic Jets  

Microsoft Academic Search

All of the extragalactic objects so far detected in high energy gamma -rays (>50 MeV) by the EGRET instrument aboard CGRO are highly variable radio loud sources having compact core emission. These properties are thought to result from nonthermal radiation in a compact relativistic jet which is occassionally enhanced by propagating shock waves. At some level, the electrons which produce

John P. Travis; Alan P. Marscher

1993-01-01

118

Atmospheric gamma-ray and neutron flashes  

SciTech Connect

Gamma-ray pulses are calculated from 2D numerical simulations of an upward atmospheric discharge in a self-consistent electric field using the multigroup approach to the kinetics of relativistic runaway electrons (REs). Computed {gamma}-ray numbers and spectra are consistent with those of terrestrial {gamma}-ray flashes (TGFs) observed aboard spacecrafts. The RE flux is concentrated mainly within the domain of the Blue Jet fluorescence. This confirms that exactly the domain adjacent to a thundercloud is the source of the observed {gamma}-ray flashes. The yield of photonuclear neutrons is calculated. One {gamma}-ray pulse generates {approx}10{sup 14}-10{sup 15} neutrons. The possibility of the direct deposition of REs to the detector readings and the origin of the lightning-advanced TGFs are discussed.

Babich, L. P., E-mail: babich@elph.vniief.ru; Kudryavtsev, A. Yu., E-mail: kay@sar.ru; Kudryavtseva, M. L., E-mail: kay@sar.ru; Kutsyk, I. M. [All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF), Russian Federal Nuclear Center (Russian Federation)

2008-01-15

119

Gamma-Ray Bursts: An Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A history and overview of the observed properties of gamma-ray bursts are presented. The phenomenon of gamma-ray bursts is without precedent in astronomy, having no observed property that would be a direct indicator of their distance and no counterpart object in another wavelength region. Their brief, random appearance only in the gamma-ray region has made their study difficult. The observed time profiles, spectral properties, and durations of gamma-ray bursts cover a wide range. All proposed models for their origin must be considered speculative. It is humbling to think that even after 25 years since their discovery, the distance scale of gamma-ray bursts is still very much debatable.

Fishman, Gerald J.

1995-01-01

120

Gamma-ray Astronomy and GLAST  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The high energy gamma-ray (30 MeV to 100 GeV) sky has been relatively poorly studied. Most of our current knowledge comes from observations made by the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) detector on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), which revealed that the GeV gamma-ray sky is rich and vibrant. Studies of astrophysical objects at GeV energies are interesting for several reasons: The high energy gamma-rays are often produced by a different physical process than the better studied X-ray and optical emission, thus providing a unique information for understanding these sources. Production of such high-energy photons requires that charged particles are accelerated to equally high energies, or much greater. Thus gamma-ray astronomy is the study of extreme environments, with natural and fundamental connections to cosmic-ray and neutrino astrophysics. The launch of GLAST in 2008 will herald a watershed in our understanding of the high energy gamma-ray sky, providing dramatic improvements in sensitivity, angular resolution and energy range. GLAST will open a new avenue to study our Universe as well as to answer scientific questions EGRET observations have raised. In this talk, I will describe the GLAST instruments and capabilities and highlight some of the science we expect to address.

McEnery, Julie

2007-01-01

121

Gamma rays from giant molecular clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs) are massive, bounded, cool, dense regions containing mostly H2, but also H I, CO, and other molecules. These clouds occupy less than 1 percent of the galactic volume, but are a substantial part of the interstellar mass. They are irradiated by the high energy cosmic rays which are possibly modulated by the matter and magnetic fields within the clouds. The product of cosmic-ray flux and matter density is traced by the emission of high energy gamma-rays. A spherical cloud model is considered and the gamma ray flux from several GMCs within 1 kpc of the sun which should be detectable by the EGRET (Energetic Gamma-Ray Experimental Telescope) instrument on GRO (Gamma Ray Observatory).

Hunter, Stanley D.; Kanbach, Gottfried

1990-01-01

122

The EGRET high energy gamma ray telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) is sensitive in the energy range from about 20 MeV to about 30,000 MeV. Electron-positron pair production by incident gamma photons is utilized as the detection mechanism. The pair production occurs in tantalum foils interleaved with the layers of a digital spark chamber system; the spark chamber records the tracks of the electron and positron, allowing the reconstruction of the arrival direction of the gamma ray. If there is no signal from the charged particle anticoincidence detector which surrounds the upper part of the detector, the spark chamber array is triggered by two hodoscopes of plastic scintillators. A time of flight requirement is included to reject events moving backward through the telescope. The energy of the gamma ray is primarily determined by absorption of the energies of the electron and positron in a 20 cm deep NaI(Tl) scintillator.

Hartman, R. C.; Bertsch, D. L.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hunter, S. D.; Kanbach, G.; Kniffen, D. A.; Kwok, P. W.; Lin, Y. C.; Mattox, J. R.; Mayer-Hasselwander, H. A.

1992-01-01

123

Thermal neutron capture gamma-rays  

SciTech Connect

The energy and intensity of gamma rays as seen in thermal neutron capture are presented. Only those (n,..cap alpha..), E = thermal, reactions for which the residual nucleus mass number is greater than or equal to 45 are included. These correspond to evaluations published in Nuclear Data Sheets. The publication source data are contained in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF). The data presented here do not involve any additional evaluation. Appendix I lists all the residual nuclides for which the data are included here. Appendix II gives a cumulated index to A-chain evaluations including the year of publication. The capture gamma ray data are given in two tables - the Table 1 is the list of all gamma rays seen in (n,..gamma..) reaction given in the order of increasing energy; the Table II lists the gamma rays according to the nuclide.

Tuli, J.K.

1983-01-01

124

PANGU: A high resolution gamma-ray space telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the instrument concept of a high angular resolution telescope dedicated to the sub-GeV (from >=10 MeV to >=1 GeV) gamma-ray photon detection. This mission, named PANGU (PAir-productioN Gamma-ray Unit), has been suggested as a candidate for the joint small mission between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Chinese Academy of Science (CAS). A wide range of topics of both astronomy and fundamental physics can be attacked with PANGU, covering Galactic and extragalactic cosmic-ray physics, extreme physics of a variety of extended (e.g. supernova remnants, galaxies, galaxy clusters) and compact (e.g. black holes, pulsars, gamma-ray bursts) objects, solar and terrestrial gamma-ray phenomena, and searching for dark matter decay and/or annihilation signature etc. The unprecedented point spread function can be achieved with a pair-production telescope with a large number of thin active tracking layers to precisely reconstruct the pair-produced electron and positron tracks. Scintillating fibers or thin silicon micro-strip detectors are suitable technology for such a tracker. The energy measurement is achieved by measuring the momentum of the electrons and positrons through a magnetic field. The innovated spectrometer approach provides superior photon pointing resolution, and is particular suitable in the sub-GeV range. The level of tracking precision makes it possible to measure the polarization of gamma rays, which would open up a new frontier in gamma-ray astronomy. The frequent full-sky survey at sub-GeV with PANGU's large field of view and significantly improved point spread function would provide crucial information to GeV-TeV astrophysics for current/future missions including Fermi, DAMPE, HERD, and CTA, and other multi-wavelength telescopes.

Wu, Xin; Su, Meng; Bravar, Alessandro; Chang, Jin; Fan, Yizhong; Pohl, Martin; Walter, Roland

2014-07-01

125

Performance of a Compact Gamma Tube Interrogation Source  

SciTech Connect

Active interrogation with high-energy monoenergetic gammas can induce photofission signals in fissile materials while minimizing absorbed radiation dose and background from surrounding materials. A first-generation axial-type gamma generator has been developed that utilizes the {sup 11}B(p,{gamma}){sup 12}C nuclear reaction at a 163 keV resonance to produce monoenergetic 12-MeV gamma-rays. The gamma tube employs a water-cooled cylindrical radio frequency (if) induction ion source capable of producing a proton current density of up to 100 mA/cm{sup 2}. The extracted proton beam bombards a lanthanum hexaboride (LaB{sub 6}) target at energies up to 200 keV. The 12-MeV gamma intensity was measured as a function of proton energy, beam current, and angle. Photofission-induced neutrons from depleted uranium (DU) were measured and compared to MCNPX calculations. After extended operation, the high power density of the proton beam was observed to cause damage to the LaB{sub 6} target and the gamma tube improvements currently being made to mitigate this damage are discussed.

King, Michael J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States); Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Antolak, Arlyn J.; Morse, Dan H.; Raber, Thomas N. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States); Leung, Ka-Ngo [Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Doyle, Barney L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

2009-03-10

126

An imaging neutron/gamma-ray spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the test results of a neutron/gamma-ray imaging spectrometer for the identification and location of radioactive and special nuclear materials. Radioactive materials that could be fashioned into a radiation dispersal device typically emit gamma rays, while fissile materials such as uranium and plutonium emit both neutrons and gamma rays via spontaneous or induced fission. The simultaneous detection of neutrons and gamma rays is a clear indication of the presence of fissile material. The instrument works as a double-scatter telescope, requiring a neutron or gamma ray to undergo an interaction in two detectors to be considered a valid event. While this requirement reduces the detector efficiency, it yields information about the direction and energy of the incident particle, which is then used to reconstruct an image of the emitting source. Because of this imaging capability background events can be rejected, decreasing the number of events required for high confidence detection and thereby greatly improving its sensitivity. The instrument is optimized for the detection of neutrons with energies from 1-20 MeV and gamma rays from 0.4 to 10 MeV. Images and energy spectra for neutron and gamma rays are reported for several sources including depleted uranium and plutonium. In addition, the effect of neutron source shielding is investigated.

Madden, Amanda C.; Bloser, Peter F.; Fourguette, Dominique; Larocque, Liane; Legere, Jason S.; Lewis, Matt; McConnell, Mark L.; Rousseau, Marissa; Ryan, James M.

2013-05-01

127

Observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some basic observed properties of gamma-ray bursts are reviewed. Although some properties were known 25 years ago, new and more detailed observations have been made by the Compton Observatory in the past three years. The new observation with the greatest impact has been the observed isotropic distribution of bursts along with a deficiency of weak bursts which would be expected from a homogeneous burst distribution. This is not compatible with any known Galactic population of objects. Gamma-ray bursts show an enormous variety of burst morphologies and a wide spread in burst durations. The spectra of gamma-ray bursts are characterized by rapid variations and peak power which is almost entirely in the gamma-ray energy range. Delayed gamma-ray burst photons extending to GeV energies have been detected for the first time. A time dilation effect has also been reported to be observed in gamma-ray, bursts. The observation of a gamma-ray burst counterpart in another wavelength region has yet to be made.

Fishman, G. J.

1995-01-01

128

The HAWC Gamma-Ray Observatory: Sensitivity to Steady and Transient Sources of Gamma Rays  

E-print Network

The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Gamma-Ray Observatory is designed to record air showers produced by cosmic rays and gamma rays between 100 GeV and 100 TeV. Because of its large field of view and high livetime, HAWC is well-suited to measure gamma rays from extended sources, diffuse emission, and transient sources. We describe the sensitivity of HAWC to emission from the extended Cygnus region as well as other types of galactic diffuse emission; searches for flares from gamma-ray bursts and active galactic nuclei; and the first measurement of the Crab Nebula with HAWC-30.

Abeysekara, A U; Alvarez, C; Álvarez, J D; Arceo, R; Arteaga-Velázquez, J C; Solares, H A Ayala; Barber, A S; Baughman, B M; Bautista-Elivar, N; Belmont, E; BenZvi, S Y; Berley, D; Rosales, M Bonilla; Braun, J; Caballero-Lopez, R A; Caballero-Mora, K S; Carramiñana, A; Castillo, M; Cotti, U; Cotzomi, J; de la Fuente, E; De León, C; DeYoung, T; Hernandez, R Diaz; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dingus, B L; DuVernois, M A; Ellsworth, R W; Fernandez, A; Fiorino, D W; Fraija, N; Galindo, A; Garfias, F; González, L X; González, M M; Goodman, J A; Grabski, V; Gussert, M; Hampel-Arias, Z; Hui, C M; Hüntemeyer, P; Imran, A; Iriarte, A; Karn, P; Kieda, D; Kunde, G J; Lara, A; Lauer, R J; Lee, W H; Lennarz, D; Vargas, H León; Linares, E C; Linnemann, J T; Longo, M; Luna-GarcIa, R; Marinelli, A; Martinez, H; Martinez, O; Martínez-Castro, J; Matthews, J A J; Miranda-Romagnoli, P; Moreno, E; Mostafá, M; Nava, J; Nellen, L; Newbold, M; Noriega-Papaqui, R; Oceguera-Becerra, T; Patricelli, B; Pelayo, R; Pérez-Pérez, E G; Pretz, J; Rivière, C; Rosa-González, D; Salazar, H; Salesa, F; Sanchez, F E; Sandoval, A; Santos, E; Schneider, M; Silich, S; Sinnis, G; Smith, A J; Sparks, K; Springer, R W; Taboada, I; Toale, P A; Tollefson, K; Torres, I; Ukwatta, T N; Villaseñor, L; Weisgarber, T; Westerhoff, S; Wisher, I G; Wood, J; Yodh, G B; Younk, P W; Zaborov, D; Zepeda, A; Zhou, H

2013-01-01

129

Gamma-ray Albedo of the Moon  

SciTech Connect

We use the GEANT4 Monte Carlo framework to calculate the gamma-ray albedo of the Moon due to interactions of cosmic ray (CR) nuclei with moon rock. Our calculation of the albedo spectrum agrees with the EGRET data. We show that the spectrum of gamma-rays from the Moon is very steep with an effective cutoff around 3 GeV (600 MeV for the inner part of the Moon disc). Since it is the only (almost) black spot in the gamma-ray sky, it provides a unique opportunity for calibration of gamma-ray telescopes, such as the forthcoming Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST). The albedo flux depends on the incident CR spectrum which changes over the solar cycle. Therefore, it is possible to monitor the CR spectrum using the albedo gamma-ray flux. Simultaneous measurements of CR proton and helium spectra by the Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA), and observations of the albedo -rays by the GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT), can be used to test the model predictions and will enable the GLAST LAT to monitor the CR spectrum near the Earth beyond the lifetime of PAMELA.

Moskalenko, Igor V.; Porter, Troy A.

2007-06-14

130

Gamma-ray spectroscopy: An historical perspective  

SciTech Connect

The possibility of MeV-range gamma-rays from extraterrestrial sources had been speculated on by cosmic-ray physicists since the late 1940's. The first definitive detection occurred with balloon-borne cosmic-ray instrumentation during a class 2 solar flare in March 1958, apparently associated with the acceleration of a nonthermal particle population. Following this detection, physicists were motivated to develop instrumentation specific for observation of astronomical gamma-ray sources. Gamma-ray lines were also first observed during the flares of August 1972, apparently associated with accelerated particles undergoing nuclear interactions in the solar atmosphere. The development of low background, high resolution Ge counters has permitted construction of gamma-ray telescopes with unprecedented resolution and sensitivity. Even modest versions of these devices have measured discrete gamma-ray lines from sources as diverse as cosmic gamma-ray bursts, the galactic center and the galactic plane. Many other predictions are within the range of modern detectors.

Peterson, L.E.

1988-09-25

131

Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, launched in June 2008, is an observatory designed to survey the high-energy gamma-ray sky. The primary instrument, the Large Area Telescope (LAT), provides observations from 20 MeV to greater than 300 GeV. A second instrument, the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), provides observations of transients from less than 10 keV to 40 MeV. We describe the design and performance of the instruments and their subsystems, the spacecraft and the ground system.

McEnery, Julie E.; Michelson, Peter F.; Paclesas, William S.; Ritz, Steven

2012-01-01

132

Detecting axionlike particles with gamma ray telescopes.  

PubMed

We propose that axionlike particles (ALPs) with a two-photon vertex, consistent with all astrophysical and laboratory bounds, may lead to a detectable signature in the spectra of high-energy gamma-ray sources. This occurs as a result of gamma rays being converted into ALPs in the magnetic fields of efficient astrophysical accelerators according to the "Hillas criterion", such as jets of active galactic nuclei or hot spots of radio galaxies. The discovery of such an effect is possible by GLAST in the 1-100 GeV range and by ground-based gamma-ray telescopes in the TeV range. PMID:18233353

Hooper, Dan; Serpico, Pasquale D

2007-12-01

133

Cosmic ray albedo gamma rays from the quiet sun  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We estimate the flux of gamma-rays that result from collisions of high energy galactic cosmic rays with the solar atmosphere. An important aspect of our model is the propagation of cosmic rays through the magnetic fields of the inner solar systems. We use diffusion to model propagation down to the bottom of the corona. Below the corona we trace particle orbits through the photospheric fields to determine the location of cosmic ray interactions in the solar atmosphere and evolve the resultant cascades. For our nominal choice of parameters, we predict an integrated flux of gamma rays (at 1 AU) of F(E(sub gamma) greater than 100 MeV) approximately = 5 x 10(exp -8)/sq cm sec. This can be an order of magnitude above the galactic background and should be observable by the Energetic Gamma Ray experiment telescope (EGRET).

Seckel, D.; Stanev, T.; Gaisser, T. K.

1992-01-01

134

Studies of Cosmic Rays with GeV Gamma Rays  

E-print Network

We describe the role of GeV gamma-ray observations with GLAST-LAT (Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope - Large Area Telescope) in identifying interaction sites of cosmic-ray proton (or hadrons) with interstellar medium (ISM). We expect to detect gamma rays from neutral pion decays in high-density ISM regions in the Galaxy, Large Magellanic Cloud, and other satellite galaxies. These gamma-ray sources have been detected already with EGRET (Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope) as extended sources (eg. LMC and Orion clouds) and GLAST-LAT will detect many more with a higher spatial resolution and in a wider spectral range. We have developed a novel image restoration technique based on the Richardson-Lucy algorithm optimized for GLAST-LAT observation of extended sources. Our algorithm calculates PSF (point spread function) for each event. This step is very important for GLAST-LAT and EGRET image analysis since PSF varies more than one order of magnitude from one gamma ray to another depending on its energy as well as its impact point and angle in the instrument. The GLAST-LAT and EGRET image analysis has to cope with Poisson fluctuation due to low number of detected photons for most sources. Our technique incorporates wavelet filtering to minimize effects due to the fluctuation. Preliminary studies on some EGRET sources are presented, which shows potential of this novel image restoration technique for the identification and characterisation of extended gamma-ray sources.

Hiroyasu Tajima; Tuneyoshi Kamae; Stefano Finazzi; Johann Cohen-Tanugi; James Chiang

2007-05-10

135

Neutrinos and Gamma Rays from Galaxy Clusters  

E-print Network

The next generation of neutrino and gamma-ray detectors should provide new insights into the creation and propagation of high-energy protons within galaxy clusters, probing both the particle physics of cosmic rays interacting with the background medium and the mechanisms for high-energy particle production within the cluster. In this paper we examine the possible detection of gamma-rays (via the GLAST satellite) and neutrinos (via the ICECUBE and Auger experiments) from the Coma cluster of galaxies, as well as for the gamma-ray bright clusters Abell 85, 1758, and 1914. These three were selected from their possible association with unidentified EGRET sources, so it is not yet entirely certain that their gamma-rays are indeed produced diffusively within the intracluster medium, as opposed to AGNs. It is not obvious why these inconspicuous Abell-clusters should be the first to be seen in gamma-rays, but a possible reason is that all of them show direct evidence of recent or ongoing mergers. Their identification with the EGRET gamma-ray sources is also supported by the close correlation between their radio and (purported) gamma-ray fluxes. Under favorable conditions (including a proton spectral index of 2.5 in the case of Abell 85, and sim 2.3 for Coma, and Abell 1758 and 1914), we expect ICECUBE to make as many as 0.3 neutrino detections per year from the Coma cluster of galaxies, and as many as a few per year from the Abell clusters 85, 1758, and 1914. Also, Auger may detect as many as 2 events per decade at ~ EeV energies from these gamma-ray bright clusters.

Brandon Wolfe; Fulvio Melia; Roland M. Crocker; Raymond R. Volkas

2008-07-04

136

Gamma-ray albedo of the moon  

E-print Network

We use the GEANT4 Monte Carlo framework to calculate the gamma-ray albedo of the Moon due to interactions of cosmic ray (CR) nuclei with moon rock. Our calculation of the albedo spectrum agrees with the EGRET data. We show that the spectrum of gamma rays from the Moon is very steep with an effective cutoff around 4 GeV (600 MeV for the inner part of the Moon disc). Apart from other astrophysical sources, the albedo spectrum of the Moon is well understood, including its absolute normalisation; this makes it a useful "standard candle" for gamma-ray telescopes, such as the forthcoming Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST). The albedo flux depends on the incident CR spectrum which changes over the solar cycle. Therefore, it is possible to monitor the CR spectrum using the albedo gamma-ray flux. Simultaneous measurements of CR proton and helium spectra by the Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA), and observations of the albedo gamma rays by the GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT), can be used to test the model predictions and will enable the GLAST LAT to monitor the CR spectrum near the Earth beyond the lifetime of PAMELA.

Igor V. Moskalenko; Troy A. Porter

2007-08-15

137

High-energy gamma rays from the intense 1993 January 31 gamma-ray burst  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The intense gamma-ray burst of 1993 January 31 was detected by the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Observatory. Sixteen gamma rays above 30 MeV were imaged in the telescope when only 0.04 gamma rays were expected by chance. Two of these gamma rays have energies of approximately 1 GeV, and the five bin spectrum of the 16 events is fitted by a power law of photon spectral index -2.0 +/- 0.4. The high-energy emission extends for at least 25 s. The most probable direction for this burst is determined from the directions of the 16 gamma rays observed by Egret and also by requiring the position to lie on annulus derived by the Interplanetary Network.

Sommer, M.; Bertsch, D. L.; Dingus, B. L.; Fichtel, C. E.; Fishman, G. J.; Harding, A. K.; Hartman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Hurley, K.; Kanbach, G.

1994-01-01

138

Fireball/Blastwave Model and Soft Gamma-ray Repeaters  

E-print Network

Soft gamma-ray repeaters are at determined distances and their positions are known accurately. If observed, afterglows from their soft gamma-ray bursts will provide important clues to the study of the so called "classical gamma-ray bursts". On applying the popular fireball/blastwave model of classical gamma-ray bursts to soft gamma-ray repeaters, it is found that their X-ray and optical afterglows are detectable. Monitoring of the three repeaters is solicited.

Y. F. Huang; Z. G. Dai; T. Lu

2005-02-24

139

The AGILE Mission and Gamma-Ray Bursts  

SciTech Connect

The AGILE Mission will explore the gamma-ray Universe with a very innovative instrument combining for the first time a gamma-ray imager and a hard X-ray imager. AGILE will be operational at the beginning of 2007 and it will provide crucial data for the study of Active Galactic Nuclei, Gamma-Ray Bursts, unidentified gamma-ray sources, Galactic compact objects, supernova remnants, TeV sources, and fundamental physics by microsecond timing. The AGILE instrument is designed to simultaneously detect and image photons in the 30 MeV - 50 GeV and 15 - 45 keV energy bands with excellent imaging and timing capabilities, and a large field of view covering {approx} 1/5 of the entire sky at energies above 30 MeV. A CsI calorimeter is capable of GRB triggering in the energy band 0.3-50 MeV. The broadband detection of GRBs and the study of implications for particle acceleration and high energy emission are primary goals of the mission. AGILE can image GRBs with 2-3 arcminute error boxes in the hard X-ray range, and provide broadband photon-by photon detection in the 15-45 keV, 03-50 MeV, and 30 MeV-30 GeV energy ranges. Microsecond on-board photon tagging and a {approx} 100 microsecond gamma-ray detection deadtime will be crucial for fast GRB timing. On-board calculated GRB coordinates and energy fluxes will be quickly transmitted to the ground by an ORBCOMM transceiver. AGILE is now (January 2007) undergoing final satellite integration and testing. The PLS V launch is planned in spring 2007. AGILE is then foreseen to be fully operational during the summer of 2007.

Longo, Francesco [Department of Physics, University of Trieste (Italy); INFN, section of Trieste (Italy); Tavani, M.; Barbiellini, G.; Argan, A.; Basset, M.; Boffelli, F.; Bulgarelli, A.; Caraveo, P.; Cattaneo, P.; Chen, A.; Costa, E.; Del Monte, E.; Di Cocco, G.; Di Persio, G.; Donnarumma, I.; Feroci, M.; Fiorini, M.; Foggetta, L.; Froysland, T.; Frutti, M. (and others)

2007-05-01

140

Gamma Rays in a Spectrum from the Mars Odyssey Gamma-Ray Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The gamma-ray spectrum from a long sum over the middle latitudes of Mars measured by the Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer was analyzed. About 250 peaks and features were observed, including many seen during the cruise to Mars. The sources of about 85% of these gamma rays were identified. Most were background lines from the Ge detector or from Ti, Mg, and Zn near the detector.

Reedy, R. C.; Evans, L. G.; Brueckner, J.; Kim, K. J.; Boynton, W. V.

2003-01-01

141

Study of gamma-ray strength functions  

SciTech Connect

The use of gamma-ray strength function systematics to calculate neutron capture cross sections and capture gamma-ray spectra is discussed. The ratio of the average capture width, GAMMA/sub ..gamma../-bar, to the average level spacing, D/sub obs/, both at the neutron separation energy, can be derived from such systematics with much less uncertainty than from separate systematics for values of GAMMA/sub ..gamma../-bar and D/sub obs/. In particular, the E1 gamma-ray strength function is defined in terms of the giant dipole resonance (GDR). The GDR line shape is modeled with the usual Lorentzian function and also with a new energy-dependent, Breit-Wigner (EDBW) function. This latter form is further parameterized in terms of two overlapping resonances, even for nuclei where photonuclear measurements do not resolve two peaks. In the mass ranges studied, such modeling is successful for all nuclei away from the N = 50 closed neutron shell. Near the N = 50 shell, a one-peak EDBW appears to be more appropriate. Examples of calculated neutron capture excitation functions and capture gamma-ray spectra using the EDBW form are given for target nuclei in the mass-90 region and also in the Ta-Au mass region. 20 figures.

Gardner, D.G.; Gardner, M.A.; Dietrich, F.S.

1980-08-07

142

VHE Gamma-ray Supernova Remnants  

SciTech Connect

Increasing observational evidence gathered especially in X-rays and {gamma}-rays during the course of the last few years support the notion that Supernova remnants (SNRs) are Galactic particle accelerators up to energies close to the ''knee'' in the energy spectrum of Cosmic rays. This review summarizes the current status of {gamma}-ray observations of SNRs. Shell-type as well as plerionic type SNRs are addressed and prospect for observations of these two source classes with the upcoming GLAST satellite in the energy regime above 100 MeV are given.

Funk, Stefan; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

2007-01-22

143

GRI: The Gamma-Ray Imager mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of the gamma-ray sky reveal the most powerful sources and the most violent events in the Universe While at lower wavebands the observed emission is generally dominated by thermal processes the gamma-ray sky provides us with a view on the non-thermal Universe Here particles are accelerated to extreme relativistic energies by mechanisms which are still poorly understood and nuclear

Jürgen Knödlseder

2006-01-01

144

The Gamma-Ray Imager GRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of the gamma-ray sky reveal the most powerful sources and the most violent events in the Universe. While at lower wavebands the observed emission is generally dominated by thermal processes, the gamma-ray sky provides us with a view on the non-thermal Universe. Here particles are accelerated to extreme relativistic energies by mechanisms which are still poorly understood, and nuclear

Cornelia B. Wunderer

2006-01-01

145

Gamma-ray constraints on supernova nucleosynthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma-ray spectroscopy holds great promise for probing nucleosynthesis in individual supernova explosions via short-lived radioactivity, and for measuring current global Galactic supernova nucleosynthesis with longer-lived radioactivity. It was somewhat surprising that the former case was realized first for a Type II supernova, when both Co-56 and Co-57 were detected in SN 1987A. These provide unprecedented constraints on models of Type II explosions and nucleosynthesis. Live Al-26 in the Galaxy might come from Type II supernovae, and if it is eventually shown to be so, can constrain massive star evolution, supernova nucleosynthesis, and the Galactic Type II supernova rate. Type Ia supernovae, thought to be thermonuclear explosions, have not yet been detected in gamma-rays. This is somewhat surprising given current models and recent Co-56 detection attempts. Ultimately, gamma-ray measurements can confirm their thermonuclear nature, probe the nuclear burning conditions, and help evaluate their contributions to Galactic nucleosynthesis. Type Ib/c supernovae are poorly understood. Whether they are core collapse or thermonuclear events might be ultimately settled by gamma-ray observations. Depending on details of the nuclear processing, any of these supernova types might contribute to a detectable diffuse glow of Fe-60 gamma-ray lines. Previous attempts at detection have come very close to expected emission levels. Remnants of any type of age less that a few centuries might be detectable as individual spots of Ti-44 gamma-ray line emission. It is in fact quite surprising that previous surveys have not discovered such spots, and the constraints on the combination of nucleosynthesis yields and supernova rates are very interesting. All of these interesting limits and possibilities mean that the next mission, International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL), if it has sufficient sensitivity, is very likely to lead to the realization of much of the great potential of gamma-ray spectroscopy for understanding supernovae.

Leising, Mark D.

1994-01-01

146

Simulating The Gamma-Ray Observatory Spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma-Ray Observatory (GRO) spacecraft constitutes major advance in gamma-ray astronomy by offering first opportunity for comprehensive observations in range of 0.1 to 30,000 MeV. GRO Attitude Dynamics Simulator (GROSS) computer program designed to simulate mission. Consists of three separate programs: stand-alone profile program; simulator program, containing simulation control input/output (SCIO) subsystem, truth model (TM) subsystem, and on-board computer (OBC) subsystem; and postprocessor program. Written in FORTRAN 77.

Garrick, J.

1989-01-01

147

High altitude balloons and gamma ray astronomy  

SciTech Connect

The author's experience with scientific high altitude ballooning will be presented. Usefulness of satellite versus balloon platforms will be contrasted in the context of gamma ray astronomy. General principles of gamma ray astronomy instrumentation will be discussed and illustrated in terms of our current instrument, GRIS. Some words about the supernova phenomenon and its necessity for the existence of life in the universe will be followed by a brief glimpse of our preliminary data from Supernova 1987a.

MacCallum, C.J.

1988-01-01

148

POLAR: a new polarimeter for X and gamma rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a novel compact polarimeter instrument POLAR for polarization measurements in the energy range from hard X-rays to soft gamma rays It uses an array of fast low density scintillators and properties of the gamma-electron Compton scattering to determine polarization of the incoming photons The design consists of 2304 plastic scintillator bars with dimension of 6x6x200 mm 3 The instrument has a wide viewing angle third of the sky cover and is sensitive in the range from about ten to few hundred keV Its analyzing power and efficiency were optimized and modeled with Monte Carlo simulations Large active area and high efficiency for Compton scattering detection result in a particularly big figure of merit that combines analyzing power and the effective area of the detector Moreover such high values are kept also for gammas coming off the detector axis what makes POLAR especially attractive as a large field of view device that can be easily used for measurements from random sources like Gamma Ray Bursts Currently the laboratory tests are performed using smaller version of the instrument and polarized photon sources at different energies In the next step the detector prototype will be intensively calibrated with the polarized light from the PSI synchrotron source First verification in space will be performed using a balloon flight for background studies and observations of bright X-ray sources like CRAB

Suarez-Garcia, E.; Polar Team

149

Active galaxies and the diffuse gamma-ray background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Active galaxies are shown to account for the observed gamma ray background radiation if a steepening of the spectra above about 100 keV is present. An analytical model is discussed in which protons undergo Fermi acceleration at a shock in a spherical accretion flow onto a massive black hole. Relativistic protons with power law spectra, nuclear interactions producing gamma rays from neutal pion decay and electrons from pion-mu meson-electron decay, with a power law spectrum above several hundred MeV, synchrotron and inverse Compton losses steepening the electron spectrum, a photon spectrum close to the pion gamma spectrum and a high-energy gamma ray spectrum steepened by photon-photon pair production interactions with X rays are covered in the model. Comparisons are made with HEAO 2 data on active galaxies, which have estimated luminosities and radii consistent with the compactness necessary for producing the steepening predicted by the model. The active galaxies spectra would be described by a spherical accretion-shock model.

Kazanas, D.; Protheroe, R. J.

1983-01-01

150

Gamma Ray Astronomy and the Origin of Galactic Cosmic Rays  

E-print Network

Diffusive shock acceleration operating at expanding supernova remnant shells is by far the most popular model for the origin of galactic cosmic rays. Despite the general consensus received by this model, an unambiguous and conclusive proof of the supernova remnant hypothesis is still missing. In this context, the recent developments in gamma ray astronomy provide us with precious insights into the problem of the origin of galactic cosmic rays, since production of gamma rays is expected both during the acceleration of cosmic rays at supernova remnant shocks and during their subsequent propagation in the interstellar medium. In particular, the recent detection of a number of supernova remnants at TeV energies nicely fits with the model, but it still does not constitute a conclusive proof of it, mainly due to the difficulty of disentangling the hadronic and leptonic contributions to the observed gamma ray emission. In this paper, the most relevant cosmic-ray-related results of gamma ray astronomy are briefly summarized, and the foreseeable contribution of future gamma ray observations to the final solution of the problem of cosmic ray origin is discussed.

Stefano Gabici

2008-11-05

151

The blazar gamma-ray luminosity function and the diffuse extragalactic gamma-ray background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have used the data from the new EGRET catalog on 'grazars' (blazers which are observed to be high-energy gamma-ray sources), together with radio data, to construct a new relation between radio and gamma-ray luminosity for these sources. Using this relation to construct a grazar gamma-ray luminosity function, we then calculate the contribution of unresolved grazars to the cosmic gamma-ray background radiation. We derive the energy spectrum of this background component above 100 MeV and the angular fluctuations in this background implied by our model.

Salamon, M. H.; Stecker, F. W.

1994-01-01

152

Gamma ray spectrometer for ITER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma diagnostics is considered to be primary for the confined ?-particles and runaway electrons measurements on ITER. The gamma spectrometer will be embedded into a neutron dump of the ITER Neutral Particle Analyzer diagnostic complex. It will supplement NPA measurements on the fuel isotope ratio and confined alphas/fast ions. In this paper an update on ITER gamma spectrometer developments is given. A new geometry of the system is described and detailed analysis of expected signals for the spectrometer is presented.

Gin, D.; Chugunov, I.; Shevelev, A.; Khilkevitch, E.; Doinikov, D.; Naidenov, V.; Pasternak, A.; Polunovsky, I.; Kiptily, V.

2014-08-01

153

Radiation detection system for portable gamma-ray spectroscopy  

DOEpatents

A portable gamma ray detection apparatus having a gamma ray detector encapsulated by a compact isolation structure having at least two volumetrically-nested enclosures where at least one is a thermal shield. The enclosures are suspension-mounted to each other to successively encapsulate the detector without structural penetrations through the thermal shields. A low power cooler is also provided capable of cooling the detector to cryogenic temperatures without consuming cryogens, due to the heat load reduction by the isolation structure and the reduction in the power requirements of the cooler. The apparatus also includes a lightweight portable power source for supplying power to the apparatus, including to the cooler and the processing means, and reducing the weight of the apparatus to enable handheld operation or toting on a user's person.

Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA); Howard, Douglas E. (Livermore, CA); Wong, James L. (Dublin, CA); Jessup, James L. (Tracy, CA); Bianchini, Greg M. (Livermore, CA); Miller, Wayne O. (Livermore, CA)

2006-06-20

154

Evolution of close binaries and gamma-ray bursts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the late stages of evolution of massive ( M 0 ? 8 M ?) close binaries, from the point of view of possible mechanisms for the generation of gamma-ray bursts. It is assumed that a gamma-ray burst requires the formation of a massive (˜1 M ?), compact ( R ? 10 km) accretion disk around a Kerr black hole or neutron star. Such Kerr black holes are produced by core collapses of Wolf-Rayet stars in very close binaries, as well as by mergers of neutron stars and black holes or two neutron stars in binaries. The required accretion disks can also form around neutron stars that were formed via the collapse of ONeMg white dwarfs. We estimate the Galactic rate of events resulting in the formation of rapidly rotating relativistic objects. The computations were carried out using the “Scenario Machine.”

Bogomazov, A. I.; Lipunov, V. M.; Tutukov, A. V.

2007-04-01

155

High energy cosmic rays, gamma rays and neutrinos from AGN  

E-print Network

The author reviews a model for the emission of high energy cosmic rays, gamma-rays and neutrinos from AGN (Active Galactic Nuclei) that he has proposed since 1985. Further discussion of the knee energy phenomenon of the cosmic ray energy spectrum requires the existence of a heavy particle with mass in the knee energy range. A possible method of detecting such a particle in the Pierre Auger Project is suggested. Also presented is a relation between the spectra of neutrinos and gamma-rays emitted from AGN. This relation can be tested by high energy neutrino detectors such as ICECUBE, the Mediterranean Sea Detector and possibly by the Pierre Auger Project.

Yukio Tomozawa

2008-02-03

156

Nucleosynthesis in gamma-ray bursts outflows  

E-print Network

It is shown that fusion of neutrons and protons to He-4 nuclei occurs in gamma-ray burst outflows in a process similar to big-bang nucleosynthesis in the early Universe. Only the surviving free neutrons can then decouple kinematically from the charged fluid so that the multi-GeV neutrino signal predicted from inelastic nuclear n-p collisions is significantly reduced. It is also argued that a sizeable fraction of ultra-high energy cosmic rays accelerated in gamma-ray bursts should be He-4 nuclei.

M. Lemoine

2002-05-07

157

Technology Needs for Gamma Ray Astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma ray astronomy is currently in an exciting period of multiple missions and a wealth of data. Results from INTEGRAL, Fermi, AGILE, Suzaku and Swift are making large contributions to our knowledge of high energy processes in the universe. The advances are due to new detector and imaging technologies. The steps to date have been from scintillators to solid state detectors for sensors and from light buckets to coded aperture masks and pair telescopes for imagers. A key direction for the future is toward focusing telescopes pushing into the hard X-ray regime and Compton telescopes and pair telescopes with fine spatial resolution for medium and high energy gamma rays. These technologies will provide finer imaging of gamma-ray sources. Importantly, they will also enable large steps forward in sensitivity by reducing background.

Gehrels, Neil

2011-01-01

158

The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) will significantly augment the science return from the Fermi Observatory in the study of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The primary objective of GBM is to extend the energy range over which bursts are observed downward from the energy range of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on Fermi into the hard X-ray range where extensive previous data sets exist. A secondary objective is to compute burst locations onboard to allow re-orienting the spacecraft so that the LAT can observe delayed emission from bright bursts. GBM uses an array of 12 sodium iodide scintillators and two bismuth germanate scintillators to detect gamma rays from ~8 keV to ~40 MeV over the full unocculted sky. The onboard trigger threshold is ~0.7 photons cm-2 s-1 (50-300 keV, 1 s peak). GBM generates onboard triggers for ~250 GRBs per year.

Meegan, Charles; Lichti, Giselher; Bhat, P. N.; Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Briggs, Michael S.; Connaughton, Valerie; Diehl, Roland; Fishman, Gerald; Greiner, Jochen; Hoover, Andrew S.; van der Horst, Alexander J.; von Kienlin, Andreas; Kippen, R. Marc; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; McBreen, Sheila; Paciesas, W. S.; Preece, Robert; Steinle, Helmut; Wallace, Mark S.; Wilson, Robert B.; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen

2009-09-01

159

Observations of GRB 990123 by the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory  

Microsoft Academic Search

GRB 990123 was the first burst from which simultaneous optical, X-ray, and gamma-ray emission was detected; its afterglow has been followed by an extensive set of radio, optical, and X-ray observations. We have studied the gamma-ray burst itself as observed by the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory detectors. We find that gamma-ray fluxes are not correlated with the simultaneous optical observations

M. S. Briggs; D. L. Band; R. M. Kippen; R. D. Preece; C. Kouveliotou; J. van Paradijs; G. H. Share; R. J. Murphy; S. M. Matz; A. Connors; C. Winkler; M. L. McConnell; J. M. Ryan; O. R. Williams; C. A. Young; B. Dingus; J. R. Catelli; R. A. M. J. Wijers

1999-01-01

160

Cosmic Rays from Gamma Ray Bursts in the Galaxy  

E-print Network

The rate of terrestrial irradiation events by galactic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is estimated using recent standard-energy results. We assume that GRBs accelerate high-energy cosmic rays, and present results of three-dimensional simulations of cosmic rays moving in the Galactic magnetic field and diffusing through pitch-angle scattering. An on-axis GRB extinction event begins with a powerful prompt gamma-ray and neutron pulse, followed by a longer-lived phase from cosmic-ray protons and neutron-decay protons that diffuse towards Earth. Our results force a reinterpretation of reported ~ 10^{18} eV cosmic-ray anisotropies and offer a rigorous test of the model where high-energy cosmic rays originate from GRBs, which will soon be tested with the Auger Observatory.

Charles D. Dermer; Jeremy M. Holmes

2005-06-16

161

Neutron induced gamma-ray emission tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radioactivity induced in a neutron irradiated material may be considered as a distributed radioactive source suitable for imaging using computerized gamma-ray emission tomography. The resulting image reveals the distribution of an element of interest in a given plane of the imaged object. Therefore the technique, neutron induced gamma-ray emission tomography, provides information about the elemental composition and distribution. This is demonstrated by imaging the distribution of sodium in a pellet of freeze-dried sea water and a section of human bone using the gamma-ray emitted by Na-24 produced in the presence of a number of other gamma-ray emitting nuclides. Application of a dual energy scattering correction algorithm developed for this purpose resulted in a 44% increase in contrast for the lower energy gamma-rays (1.36 MeV), where the effect of scattering was pronounced and only 14% for the higher energy line (2.75 MeV) emitted by the same nuclide.

Balogun, F. A.; Spyrou, N. M.; Adesanmi, C. A.

1996-07-01

162

Gamma-ray Emission from Nova Outbursts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Classical novae produce radioactive nuclei which are emitters of gamma-rays in the MeV range. Some examples are the lines at 478 and 1275 keV (from 7Be and 22Na) and the positron-electron annihilation emission, with the 511 keV line and a continuum. Gamma-ray spectra and light curves are potential unique tools to trace the corresponding isotopes and to give insights on the properties of the expanding envelope. Another possible origin of gamma-rays is the acceleration of particles up to very high energies, so that either neutral pions or inverse Compton processes produce gamma-rays of energies larger than 100 MeV. MeV photons during nova explosions have not been detected yet, although several attempts have been made in the last decades; on the other hand, GeV photons from novae have been detected with the Fermi satellite in V407 Cyg, a nova in a symbiotic binary, where the companion is a red giant with a wind, instead of a main sequence star as in the cataclysmic variables hosting classical novae. Two more novae have been detected recently (summer 2012) by Fermi, apparently in non symbiotic binaries, thus challenging our understanding of the emission mechanism. Both scenarios (radioactivities and acceleration) of gamma-ray production in novae are discussed.

Hernanz, M.

2014-12-01

163

Inverse compton scattering gamma ray source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) (e.g. U-235, Pu-239) can be detected by active interrogation with gamma rays (>6 MeV) through photofission. For long-range detection (˜1 km), an intense beam of gamma rays (˜10 14 per second) is required in order to produce measurable number of neutrons. The production of such fluxes of gamma rays, and in the pulse formats useful for detection, presents many technical challenges, and requires novel approaches to the accelerator and laser technology. RadiaBeam is currently designing a gamma ray source based on Inverse Compton Scattering (ICS) from a high-energy electron beam. To achieve this, improvements in photoinjector, linac, final focus, and laser system are planned. These enhanced sub-systems build on parallel work being performed at RadiaBeam, UCLA, and elsewhere. A high-repetition rate photoinjector, a high-gradient S-band linac, and a laser pulse recirculator will be used. The proposed system will be a transportable source of high-flux, high-energy quasi-monochromatic gamma rays for active interrogation of special nuclear materials.

Boucher, S.; Frigola, P.; Murokh, A.; Ruelas, M.; Jovanovic, I.; Rosenzweig, J. B.; Travish, G.

2009-09-01

164

Stellar Photon Archaeology with Gamma-Rays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ongoing deep surveys of galaxy luminosity distribution functions, spectral energy distributions and backwards evolution models of star formation rates can be used to calculate the past history of intergalactic photon densities and, from them, the present and past optical depth of the Universe to gamma-rays from pair production interactions with these photons. The energy-redshift dependence of the optical depth of the Universe to gamma-rays has become known as the Fazio-Stecker relation (Fazio & Stecker 1970). Stecker, Malkan & Scully have calculated the densities of intergalactic background light (IBL) photons of energies from 0.03 eV to the Lyman limit at 13.6 eV and for 0$ < z < $6, using deep survey galaxy observations from Spitzer, Hubble and GALEX and have consequently predicted spectral absorption features for extragalactic gamma-ray sources. This procedure can also be reversed. Determining the cutoff energies of gamma-ray sources with known redshifts using the recently launched Fermi gamma-ray space telescope may enable a more precise determination of the IBL photon densities in the past, i.e., the "archaeo-IBL.", and therefore allow a better measure of the past history of the total star formation rate, including that from galaxies too faint to be observed.

Stecker, Floyd W.

2009-01-01

165

Radio and Gamma-ray emission in nearby BL Lacs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advent of Fermi is changing our understanding on the radio and ?-ray emission in active galactic nuclei. Unlike pre-Fermi ideas, BL Lac objects are found to be the most abundant emitters in the ?-ray band. However, since they are relatively weak radio sources, most of their parsec-scale structure and their multifrequency properties are poorly understood and/or have not been investigated in a systematic fashion. Here we are analyzing the radio and ?-ray emission properties of a sample of 42 BL Lacs selected with no constraint on their radio and ?-ray emission. Thanks to new Very Long Baseline Array observations at 8 and 15 GHz for the whole sample, we discuss their parsec-scale structure. Parsec-scale radio emission is observed in the majority of the sources at both frequencies. The comparison between our results in radio and gamma-ray bands points out the presence of a large number of faint BL Lacs showing ``non-classical'' properties such as low source compactness, low core dominance, no gamma-ray emission.

Giovannini, G.; Liuzzo, E.; Boccardi, B.; Giroletti, M.

2014-07-01

166

Internal Energy Dissipation of Gamma-Ray Bursts Observed with Swift: Precursors, Prompt Gamma-rays, Extended emission and Late X-ray Flares  

E-print Network

We jointly analyze the gamma-ray burst (GRB) data observed with BAT and XRT on board the Swift mission to present a global view on the internal energy dissipation processes in GRBs, including precursors, prompt gamma-ray emission, extended soft gamma-ray emission, and late X-ray flares. The Bayesian block method is utilized to analyze the BAT lightcurves to identify various emission episodes. Our results suggest that these emission components likely share a same physical origin, which is repeated activation of the GRB central engine. What we observe in the gamma-ray band may be the tip-of-iceberg of more extended underlying activities. The precursor emission, which is detected in about 10% of {\\em Swift} GRBs, is preferably detected in those GRBs that have a massive star core-collapse origin. The soft extended emission (EE) tail, on the other hand, is preferably detected in those GRBs that have a compact star merger origin. Bright X-ray emission is detected during the BAT quiescent phases prior to subsequent ...

Hu, You-Dong; Xi, Shao-Qiang; Peng, Fang-Kun; Lu, Rui-Jing; LV, Lian-Zhong; Zhang, Bing

2014-01-01

167

OVERVIEW OF MONO-ENERGETIC GAMMA-RAY SOURCES & APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

Recent progress in accelerator physics and laser technology have enabled the development of a new class of tunable gamma-ray light sources based on Compton scattering between a high-brightness, relativistic electron beam and a high intensity laser pulse produced via chirped-pulse amplification (CPA). A precision, tunable Mono-Energetic Gamma-ray (MEGa-ray) source driven by a compact, high-gradient X-band linac is currently under development and construction at LLNL. High-brightness, relativistic electron bunches produced by an X-band linac designed in collaboration with SLAC NAL will interact with a Joule-class, 10 ps, diode-pumped CPA laser pulse to generate tunable {gamma}-rays in the 0.5-2.5 MeV photon energy range via Compton scattering. This MEGa-ray source will be used to excite nuclear resonance fluorescence in various isotopes. Applications include homeland security, stockpile science and surveillance, nuclear fuel assay, and waste imaging and assay. The source design, key parameters, and current status are presented, along with important applications, including nuclear resonance fluorescence. In conclusion, we have optimized the design of a high brightness Compton scattering gamma-ray source, specifically designed for NRF applications. Two different parameters sets have been considered: one where the number of photons scattered in a single shot reaches approximately 7.5 x 10{sup 8}, with a focal spot size around 8 {micro}m; in the second set, the spectral brightness is optimized by using a 20 {micro}m spot size, with 0.2% relative bandwidth.

Hartemann, F V; Albert, F; Anderson, G G; Anderson, S G; Bayramian, A J; Betts, S M; Chu, T S; Cross, R R; Ebbers, C A; Fisher, S E; Gibson, D J; Ladran, A S; Marsh, R A; Messerly, M J; O'Neill, K L; Semenov, V A; Shverdin, M Y; Siders, C W; McNabb, D P; Barty, C P; Vlieks, A E; Jongewaard, E N; Tantawi, S G; Raubenheimer, T O

2010-05-18

168

The Microchannel X-ray Telescope for the Gamma-Ray Burst mission SVOM  

E-print Network

We present the Microchannel X-ray Telescope, a new light and compact focussing telescope that will be flying on the Sino-French SVOM mission dedicated to Gamma-Ray Burst science. The MXT design is based on the coupling of square pore micro-channel plates with a low noise pnCCD. MXT will provide an effective area of about 50 cmsq, and its point spread function is expected to be better than 3.7 arc min (FWHM) on axis. The estimated sensitivity is adequate to detect all the afterglows of the SVOM GRBs, and to localize them to better then 60 arc sec after five minutes of observation.

Gotz, D; Cordier, B; Paul, J; Evans, P; Beardmore, A; Martindale, A; Willingale, R; O'Brien, P; Basa, S; Rossin, C; Godet, O; Webb, N; Greiner, J; Nandra, K; Meidinger, N; Perinati, E; Santangelo, A; Mercier, K; Gonzalez, F

2014-01-01

169

Angular Correlation of Gamma Rays from Fe56  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gamma rays emitted in the decay of Co56 were studied by gamma-gamma angular correlation measurements. The results of these experiments permitted the discussion of the energy levels of the daughter nucleus, Fe56. The gamma-gamma coincidence experiment showed the presence of 2.03-Mev. gamma ray decaying to the second excited level. One part of the decay scheme was confirmed by positron-gamma

Mitsuo Sakai

1955-01-01

170

New observations with the gamma ray imager SIGMA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results from the use of the gamma ray telescope SIGMA are given. An identification and an extensive study was done of sources contributing to the emission of the Galactic center region above 30 keV. A strong line was observed at 480 keV from Nova Muscae, which may be interpreted as an annihilation line with a redshift due to the presence of a compact object. The soft x-ray tails observed by SIGMA in some transient sources already identified as soft x-ray transients might be a common characteristic of these objects and has to be explained. The unusual spectrum of NGC4151 with a break around 50 keV can characterize a particular state of this kind of object. If it is the case, it has interesting implications for the origin of the Cosmic Diffuse Background.

Roques, J. P.; Vedrenne, G.

1992-01-01

171

Solar gamma rays and neutron observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present status of knowledge concerning the impulsive and the continuous emission of solar gamma rays and neutrons is reviewed in the light of the recent solar activity in early August 1972. The gamma ray spectrometer on OSO-7 has observed the sun continuously for most of the activity period except for occultation by the earth. In association with the 2B flare on 4 August 1972 and the 3B flare on 7 August 1972, the monitor provides evidence for solar gamma ray line emission in the energy range from 300 keV to 10 MeV. A summary of all the results available from preliminary analysis of the data will be given. Significant improvements in future experiments can be made with more sensitive instruments and more extensive time coverage of the sun.

Chupp, E. L.; Forrest, D. J.; Suri, A. N.

1972-01-01

172

Gamma-Ray Imaging for Explosives Detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe a gamma-ray imaging camera (GIC) for active interrogation of explosives being developed by NASA/GSFC and NSWCICarderock. The GIC is based on the Three-dimensional Track Imager (3-DTI) technology developed at GSFC for gamma-ray astrophysics. The 3-DTI, a large volume time-projection chamber, provides accurate, approx.0.4 mm resolution, 3-D tracking of charged particles. The incident direction of gamma rays, E, > 6 MeV, are reconstructed from the momenta and energies of the electron-positron pair resulting from interactions in the 3-DTI volume. The optimization of the 3-DTI technology for this specific application and the performance of the GIC from laboratory tests is presented.

deNolfo, G. A.; Hunter, S. D.; Barbier, L. M.; Link, J. T.; Son, S.; Floyd, S. R.; Guardala, N.; Skopec, M.; Stark, B.

2008-01-01

173

Gamma-ray bursters at cosmological distances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is proposed that some, perhaps most, gamma-ray bursters are at cosmological distances, like quasars, with a redshift of about 1 or 2. This proposition requires a release of supernova-like energy of about 10 to the 51st ergs within less than 1 s, making gamma-ray bursters the brightest objects known in the universe, many orders of magnitude brighter than any quasars. This power must drive a highly relativistic outflow of electron-positron plasma and radiation from the source. It is proposed that three gamma-ray bursts, all with identical spectra, detected from B1900 + 14 by Mazets, Golenetskii, and Gur'yan and reported in 1979, were all due to a single event multiply imaged by a gravitational lens. The time intervals between the successive bursts, 10 hr to 3 days, were due to differences in the light travel time for different images.

Paczynski, B.

1986-09-01

174

Gamma-ray spectroscopy - Status and prospects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contemporary gamma-ray spectroscopy instruments and their results are reviewed. Sensitivities of 10 to the -4th to 10 to the -3rd ph/sq cm-sec have been achieved for steady sources and 10 to the -2nd to 1 ph/sq cm-sec for transient sources. This has led to the detection of gamma-ray lines from more than 40 objects representing 6 classes of astrophysical phenomena. The lines carry model-independent information and are of fundamental importance to theoretical modeling and our understanding of the objects. The objectives and anticipated results of future instruments are discussed. Several instruments in development will have a factor of 10 sensitivity improvement to certain phenomena over contemporary instruments. A factor of 100 improvement in sensitivity will allow the full potential of gamma-ray spectroscopy to be realized. Instrument concepts which would achieve this with both present and advanced techniques are discussed.

Matteson, J. L.

175

Gamma rays from pulsar wind shock acceleration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A shock forming in the wind of relativistic electron-positron pairs from a pulsar, as a result of confinement by surrounding material, could convert part of the pulsar spin-down luminosity to high energy particles through first order Fermi acceleration. High energy protons could be produced by this mechanism both in supernova remnants and in binary systems containing pulsars. The pion-decay gamma-rays resulting from interaction of accelerated protons with surrounding target material in such sources might be observable above 70 MeV with EGRET (Energetic Gamma-Ray Experimental Telescope) and above 100 GeV with ground-based detectors. Acceleration of protons and expected gamma-ray fluxes from SN1987A, Cyg X-3 type sources and binary pulsars are discussed.

Harding, Alice K.

1990-01-01

176

The Apollo gamma-ray spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gamma-ray spectrometer has been flown on the Apollo 15 and 16 spacecraft to determine the lunar-surface composition and measure the cosmic gamma-ray flux. The instrument included a NaI(Tl) scintillation crystal coupled to a 7.6-cm photomultiplier tube, a plastic mantle for anti-coincidence rejection of charged particles, and 511 channels of analysis. Boom-mounted operation permitted a significant reduction in the background. The data were transmitted on an event-by-event basis. About 22% of the lunar surface was mapped and spectra of the cosmic gamma-ray flux over an energy range of 0.065-27.5 MeV have been obtained.

Harrington, T. M.; Marshall, J. H.; Arnold, J. R.; Peterson, L. E.; Trombka, J. I.; Metzger, A. E.

1974-01-01

177

The HAWC Gamma-Ray Observatory: Observations of Cosmic Rays  

E-print Network

We describe measurements of GeV and TeV cosmic rays with the High-Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma-Ray Observatory, or HAWC. The measurements include the observation of the shadow of the moon; the observation of small-scale and large-scale angular clustering of the TeV cosmic rays; the prospects for measurement of transient solar events with HAWC; and the observation of Forbush decreases with the HAWC engineering array and HAWC-30.

Abeysekara, A U; Alvarez, C; Álvarez, J D; Arceo, R; Arteaga-Velázquez, J C; Solares, H A Ayala; Barber, A S; Baughman, B M; Bautista-Elivar, N; Belmont, E; BenZvi, S Y; Berley, D; Rosales, M Bonilla; Braun, J; Caballero-Lopez, R A; Caballero-Mora, K S; Carramiñana, A; Castillo, M; Cotti, U; Cotzomi, J; de la Fuente, E; De León, C; DeYoung, T; Hernandez, R Diaz; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dingus, B L; DuVernois, M A; Ellsworth, R W; Fernandez, A; Fiorino, D W; Fraija, N; Galindo, A; Garfias, F; González, L X; González, M M; Goodman, J A; Grabski, V; Gussert, M; Hampel-Arias, Z; Hui, C M; Hüntemeyer, P; Imran, A; Iriarte, A; Karn, P; Kieda, D; Kunde, G J; Lara, A; Lauer, R J; Lee, W H; Lennarz, D; Vargas, H León; Linares, E C; Linnemann, J T; Longo, M; Luna-GarcIa, R; Marinelli, A; Martinez, H; Martinez, O; Martínez-Castro, J; Matthews, J A J; Miranda-Romagnoli, P; Moreno, E; Mostafá, M; Nava, J; Nellen, L; Newbold, M; Noriega-Papaqui, R; Oceguera-Becerra, T; Patricelli, B; Pelayo, R; Pérez-Pérez, E G; Pretz, J; Rivière, C; Rosa-González, D; Salazar, H; Salesa, F; Sanchez, F E; Sandoval, A; Santos, E; Schneider, M; Silich, S; Sinnis, G; Smith, A J; Sparks, K; Springer, R W; Taboada, I; Toale, P A; Tollefson, K; Torres, I; Ukwatta, T N; Villaseñor, L; Weisgarber, T; Westerhoff, S; Wisher, I G; Wood, J; Yodh, G B; Younk, P W; Zaborov, D; Zepeda, A; Zhou, H

2013-01-01

178

Gamma Ray Astronomy With IceCube  

E-print Network

We demonstrate that the South Pole kilometer-scale neutrino observatory IceCube can detect multi-TeV gamma rays continuously over a large fraction of the southern sky. While not as sensitive as pointing atmospheric Cerenkov telescopes, IceCube can roughly match the sensitivity of Milagro. Also, IceCube is complementary to Milagro because it will observe, without interruption, a relatively poorly studied fraction of the southern sky. The information which IceCube must record to function as a gamma ray observatory is only the directions and possibly energies of down-going muons.

Francis Halzen; Dan Hooper

2003-05-13

179

Radioactivities and gamma-rays from supernovae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An account is given of the implications of several calculations relevant to the estimation of gamma-ray signals from various explosive astronomical phenomena. After discussing efforts to constrain the amounts of Ni-57 and Ti-44 produced in SN 1987A, attention is given to the production of Al-27 in massive stars and SNs. A 'delayed detonation' model of type Ia SNs is proposed, and the gamma-ray signal which may be expected when a bare white dwarf collapses directly into a neutron star is discussed.

Woosley, S. E.

1991-01-01

180

Gamma ray line observations with OSSE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations from the oriented scintillation spectrometer experiment of the gamma ray lines originating from a variety of Galactic center sources are reviewed. Extensive observations were acquired of the Galactic center region, including the 0.511 MeV positron annihilation line and associated positronium continuum and Al-26 emission. The results reviewed include: Co-57 from SN 1987A; limits on Co-56 from SN 1991T; gamma ray lines from solar flares; searches for Ti-44 emission from Cas A, and searches for C-12 and O-16 lines from the Orion region.

Kurfess, J. D.; Grove, J. E.; Johnson, W. N.; Murphy, R. J.; Share, G. H.; Purcell, W. R.; Leising, M. D.; Harris, M. J.

1997-01-01

181

Gamma-ray Burst Skymap Website  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Gamma-ray Burst Skymap website automatically updates for each gamma-ray burst as it occurs, whether detected by Swift or other orbiting satellites. For each burst, the location on the sky, star map, constellation and detecting mission are generated automatically. It is then quickly updated by hand to include a written description of the burst properties and scientific significance, as observations continue. Note: In order to view the content of the website, users need to download and install Silverlight on their computers.

182

A transportable source of gamma rays with discrete energies and wide range for calibration and on-site testing of gamma-ray detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a compact and transportable wide energy range, gamma-ray station for the calibration of gamma-ray sensitive devices. The station was specifically designed for the on-site testing and calibration of gamma-ray sensitive spacecraft payloads, intended for space flight on the BepiColombo and SoIar Orbiter missions of the European Space Agency. The source is intended to serve as a calibrated reference for post test center qualification of integrated payload instruments and for preflight evaluation of scientific radiation sensors. Discrete gamma rays in the energy range 100 keV-9 MeV are produced in the station with reasonable intensity using a radionuclide neutron source and 100 l of distilled water with 22 kg salt dissolved. The gamma-rays generated contain many discrete lines conveniently evenly distributed over the entire energy range. The neutron and gamma-ray fields have been simulated by Monte Carlo calculations. Results of the numerical calculations are given in the form of neutron and gamma-ray spectra as well as dose equivalent rate. The dose rate was also determined directly by dedicated dosemetric measurements. The gamma-ray field produced in the station was characterized using a conventional HPGe detector. The application of the station is demonstrated by measurements taken with a flight-qualified LaBr3:Ce scintillation detector. Gamma-ray spectra acquired by both detectors are presented. The minimum measuring times for calibration of the flight-version detector, was between 2 and 10 min (up to 6.2 MeV) and 20-30 min (up to 8 MeV), when the detector was placed at a distance 2-5 m from the station.

Granja, Carlos; Slavicek, Tomas; Kroupa, Martin; Owens, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Janout, Zdenek; Kralik, Miloslav; Solc, Jaroslav; Valach, Ondrej

2015-01-01

183

Cosmic Ray and Tev Gamma Ray Generation by Quasar Remnants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results from new broadband (radio to X-ray) high-resolution imaging studies of the dormant quasar remnant cores of nearby giant elliptical galaxies are now shown to permit the harboring of compact dynamos capable of generating the highest energy cosmic ray particles and associated curvature radiation of TeV photons. Confirmation would imply a global inflow of interstellar gas all the way to the accretion powered supermassive black hole at the center of the host galaxy.

Boldt, Elihu; Loewenstein, Michael; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

184

Development of Compton gamma-ray sources at LLNL  

SciTech Connect

Compact Compton scattering gamma-ray sources offer the potential of studying nuclear photonics with new tools. The optimization of such sources depends on the final application, but generally requires maximizing the spectral density (photons/eV) of the gamma-ray beam while simultaneously reducing the overall bandwidth on target to minimize noise. We have developed an advanced design for one such system, comprising the RF drive, photoinjector, accelerator, and electron-generating and electron-scattering laser systems. This system uses a 120 Hz, 250 pC, 2 ps, 0.35 mm mrad electron beam with 250 MeV maximum energy in an X-band accelerator scattering off a 150 mJ, 10 ps, 532 nm laser to generate 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} photons/eV/s/Sr at 0.5 MeV with an overall bandwidth of less than 1%. The source will be able to produce photons up to energies of 2.5 MeV. We also discuss Compton scattering gamma-ray source predictions given by numerical codes.

Albert, F.; Anderson, S. G.; Ebbers, C. A.; Gibson, D. J.; Hartemann, F. V.; Marsh, R. A.; Messerly, M. J.; Prantil, M. A.; Wu, S.; Barty, C. P. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, NIF and Photon Science, 7000 East avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

2012-12-21

185

Ground-Based Gamma-Ray Astronomy  

E-print Network

Ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has become an active astrophysical discipline with four confirmed sources of TeV gamma rays, two plerionic supernova remnants (SNRs) and two BL Lac objects (BL Lacs). An additional nine objects (one plerion, three shell-type SNRs, one X-ray binary, and four BL Lacs) have been detected but have not been confirmed by independent detections. None of the galactic sources require the presence of hadronic cosmic rays, so definitive evidence of their origin remains elusive. Mrk 421 and Mrk 501 are weak EGRET sources but they exhibit extremely variable TeV emission with spectra that extend beyond 10 TeV. They also exhibit correlations with lower energy photons during multi-wavelength campaigns, providing tests of emission models. Next generation telescopes like VERITAS hold the promise of moving this field dramatically forward.

Michael Catanese

1999-11-09

186

Gamma rays and interstellar gas in the Cepheus region - A new gamma-ray source?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent CO survey of the Cep Flare region has allowed a detailed study of the diffuse gamma-ray emission and the gas content. The comparison of the H I and CO observations with the COS-B gamma-ray data yields estimates of the N(H2)/WCO ratio in this molecular complex and of the emissivity spectrum of the gas between 70 MeV and 5 GeV. A significant (3.9sigma) pointlike excess above the diffuse emission has been found and can be interpreted as a new gamma-ray source.

Grenier, I. A.; Lebrun, F.

187

Prospects for Nuclear-gamma-ray Astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis was made of prospects for gamma rays coming from two sources outside the solar system: (1) radioactive decay of fresh nuclear products to explosive nucleosynthesis, and (2) scattering of low energy cosmic rays. The former should be detectable and will provide a factual base for many suppositions about the site and history of nucleosynthesis. The latter may be detectable and, if so, will probably provide factual information about high-flux regions of cosmic radiation.

Clayton, D. D.

1973-01-01

188

Propagation of Cosmic Rays and Diffuse Galactic Gamma Rays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents an introduction to the astrophysics of cosmic rays and diffuse gamma-rays and discusses some of the puzzles that have emerged recently due to more precise data and improved propagation models: the excesses in Galactic diffuse gamma-ray emission, secondary antiprotons and positrons, and the flatter than expected gradient of cosmic rays in the Galaxy. These also involve the dark matter, a challenge to modern physics, through its indirect searches in cosmic rays. Though the final solutions are yet to be found, I discuss some ideas and results obtained mostly with the numerical propagation model GALPROP. A fleet of spacecraft and balloon experiments targeting these specific issues is set to lift off in a few years, imparting a feeling of optimism that a new era of exciting discoveries is just around the corner. A complete and comprehensive discussion of all the recent results is not attempted here due to the space limitations.

Moskalenko, Igor V.

2004-01-01

189

Nuclear isomer suitable for gamma ray laser  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The operation of gamma ray lasers (gasers) are studied. It is assumed that the nuclear isomers mentioned in previously published papers have inherent limitations. It is further assumed that the judicious use of Bormann effect or the application of the total external reflection of low energy gamma radiation at grazing angle of incidence may permit the use of a gaser crystal sufficiently long to achieve observable stimulated emission. It is suggested that a long lived 0(+) isomer decaying by low energy gamma ray emission to a short lived 2(+) excited nuclear state would be an attractive gaser candidate. It is also suggested that the nuclear isomer be incorporated in a matrix of refractory material having an electrostatic field gradient whose principal axis lies along the length of the medium. This results in the preferential transmission of electric quadrupole radiation along the length of the medium.

Jha, S.

1979-01-01

190

Phenomenology of Gamma-Ray Jets  

E-print Network

We discuss some phenomenological aspects of $\\gamma$-ray emitting jets. In particular, we present calculations of the $\\gamma$-sphere and $\\pi$-sphere for various target photon fields, and employ them to demonstrate how $\\gamma$-ray observations at very high energies can be used to constraint the Doppler factor of the emitting plasma and the production of VHE neutrinos. We also consider the implications of the rapid TeV variability observed in M87 and the TeV blazars, and propose a model for the very rapid TeV flares observed with HESS and MAGIC in some blazars,that accommodates the relatively small Doppler factors inferred from radio observations. Finally, we briefly discuss the prospects for detecting VHE neutrinos from relativistic jets.

Amir Levinson

2007-09-10

191

Gamma-ray Pulsars: Models and Predictions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pulsed emission from gamma-ray pulsars originates inside the magnetosphere, from radiation by charged particles accelerated near the magnetic poles or in the outer gaps. In polar cap models, the high energy spectrum is cut off by magnetic pair production above an energy that is, dependent on the local magnetic field strength. While most young pulsars with surface fields in the range B = 10(exp 12) - 10(exp 13) G are expected to have high energy cutoffs around several GeV, the gamma-ray spectra of old pulsars having lower surface fields may extend to 50 GeV. Although the gamma-ray emission of older pulsars is weaker, detecting pulsed emission at high energies from nearby sources would be an important confirmation of polar cap models. Outer gap models predict more gradual high-energy turnovers of the primary curvature emission around 10 GeV, but also predict an inverse Compton component extending to TeV energies. Detection of pulsed TeV emission, which would not survive attenuation at the polar caps, is thus an important test of outer gap models. Next-generation gamma-ray telescopes sensitive to GeV-TeV emission will provide critical tests of pulsar acceleration and emission mechanisms.

Harding Alice K.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

192

New shield for gamma-ray spectrometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma-ray shield that can be evacuated, refilled with a clean gas, and pressurized for exclusion of airborne radioactive contaminants effectively lowers background noise. Under working conditions, repeated evacuation and filling procedures have not adversely affected the sensitivity and resolution of the crystal detector.

Brar, S. S.; Gustafson, P. F.; Nelson, D. M.

1969-01-01

193

Gamma-ray Burst Science with GLAST  

SciTech Connect

The recent observations of Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with Swift have provided unprecedented information about nature of GRBs. The launch of GLAST in late 2007 will unveil the final spectral regime of GRB prompt emission and afterglows. Here we briefly review various theoretical suggestions of producing high energy photons from GRB fireballs, and discuss what observatons are expected from the GLAST observatory.

Zhang Bing [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States)

2007-07-12

194

Gamma-ray bursts: Restarting the Engine  

E-print Network

Recent gamma-ray burst observations have revealed late-time, highly energetic events which deviate from the simplest expectations of the standard fireball picture. Instead they may indicate that the central engine is active or restarted at late times. We suggest that fragmentation and subsequent accretion during the collapse of a rapidly rotating stellar core offers a natural mechanism for this.

Andrew King; Paul T. O'Brien; Michael R. Goad; Julian Osborne; Emma Olsson; Kim Page

2005-08-04

195

GAMMA RAY IMAGING FOR ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The research is a three year development program to apply high resolution gamma-ray imaging technologies to environmental remediation of radioactive hazards. High resolution, position-sensitive germanium detectors are being developed at the Naval Research Laboratory for space app...

196

The Supernova Gamma-Ray Burst Connection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chief distinction between ordinary supernovae and long-soft gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is the degree of differential rotation in the inner several solar masses when a massive star dies, and GRBs are rare mainly because of the difficulty achieving the necessary high rotation rate. Models that do provide the necessary angular momentum are discussed, with emphasis on a new single star

Stan Woosley; A. Heger

2006-01-01

197

Gamma Ray Burst Detectives (Elementary School)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive resource invites students to join NASA to find the source of gamma ray bursts, the single biggest explosions in the Universe since the Big Bang. The web site features an animation, information on three possible star sources, and a check yes or no for each star with feedback.

WPSU

2010-04-29

198

Compact large FoV gamma camera for breast molecular imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The very low sensitivity of scintimammography for tumours under 1 cm in diameter, with current nuclear medicine cameras, is the major limitation in recommending this test modality for screening purposes. To improve this diagnostic technique,a new concept of scintillation gamma camera, which fits the best requirements for functional breast imaging has been developed under "Integrated Mammographic Imaging" (IMI) project. This camera consists of a large detection head (6?×7?),very compact sized and with light weight to be easily positioned in the same X-ray geometry. The detection head consists of matrix of 42 photodetector Hamamatsu 1 in 2 square H8520-C12 PSPMTs, which are closely packed and coupled to a NaI(Tl) scintillating array, with individual crystal pixel 2×2×6 mm 3 size. Large FoV camera shows a very good pixel identification in the detection dead zones between tubes allowing an accurate LUT correction of the final image reconstruction. Electronic read-out was especially designed to optimize the intrinsic spatial resolution and camera compactness. With respect to Anger camera, the overall spatial resolution is improved up to 40% while the overall energy resolution values is ˜16% at 140 keV. Large FoV dedicated camera was characterized and tested by phantom studies; and clinical trials are currently performed. For all patients, compression views have been acquiring for both breasts in craniocaudal projections, and are compared with standard gamma camera images.

Pani, R.; Cinti, M. N.; Pellegrini, R.; Betti, M.; Devincentis, G.; Bennati, P.; Ridolfi, S.; Iurlaro, G.; Montani, L.; Scafè, R.; Marini, M.; Porfiri, L. M.; Giachetti, G.; Baglini, F.; Salvadori, G.; Madesani, M.; Pieracci, M.; Catarsi, F.; Bigongiari, A.

2006-12-01

199

Gamma-Ray-Burst Beaming and Gravitational-Wave Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the observed rate of short-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) it is possible to make predictions for the detectable rate of compact binary coalescences in gravitational-wave detectors. We show that the nondetection of mergers in the existing LIGO/Virgo data constrains the beaming angles and progenitor masses of gamma-ray bursts, although these limits are fully consistent with existing expectations. We make predictions for the rate of events in future networks of gravitational-wave observatories, finding that the first detection of a neutron-star-neutron-star binary coalescence associated with the progenitors of short GRBs is likely to happen within the first 16 months of observation, even in the case of only two observatories (e.g., LIGO-Hanford and LIGO-Livingston) operating at intermediate sensitivities (e.g., advanced LIGO design sensitivity, but without signal recycling mirrors), and assuming a conservative distribution of beaming angles (e.g., all GRBs beamed within ?j=30°). Less conservative assumptions reduce the waiting time until first detection to a period of weeks to months, with an event detection rate of ?10/yr. Alternatively, the compact binary coalescence model of short GRBs can be ruled out if a binary is not seen within the first two years of operation of a LIGO-Hanford, LIGO-Livingston, and Virgo network at advanced design sensitivity. We also demonstrate that the gravitational wave detection rate of GRB triggered sources (i.e., those seen first in gamma rays) is lower than the rate of untriggered events (i.e., those seen only in gravitational waves) if ?j?30°, independent of the noise curve, network configuration, and observed GRB rate. The first detection in gravitational waves of a binary GRB progenitor is therefore unlikely to be associated with the observation of a GRB.

Chen, Hsin-Yu; Holz, Daniel E.

2013-11-01

200

Gamma Ray Telescope Senses High-Energy Radiation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video from NASA describes the GLAST satellite, which is equipped with a gamma-ray telescope, and shares some background about the kinds of extreme universal phenomena indicated by the presence of gamma rays.

WNET

2011-11-02

201

Investigation of gamma rays from the galactic center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data from Argentine balloon flights made to investigate gamma ray emission from the galactic center are summarized. Data are also summarized from a Palestine, Texas balloon flight to measure gamma rays from NP 0532 and Crab Nebulae.

Helmken, H. F.

1973-01-01

202

Swift's 500th Gamma Ray Burst - Duration: 1:04.  

NASA Video Gallery

On April 13, 2010, NASA's Swift Gamma-ray Burst Explorer satellite discovered its 500th burst. Swift's main job is to quickly localize each gamma-ray burst (GRB), report its position so that others...

203

Studying the High Energy Gamma Ray Sky with Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Building on the success of the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, the Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) will make a major step in the study of such subjects as blazars, gamma Ray bursts, the search for dark matter, supernova remnants, pulsars, diffuse radiation, and unidentified high energy sources. The instrument will be built on new and mature detector technologies such as silicon strip detectors, low-power low-noise LSI, and a multilevel data acquisition system. GLAST is in the research and development phase, and one full tower (of 25 total) is now being built in collaborating institutes. The prototype tower will be tested thoroughly at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in the fall of 1999.

Kamae, T.; Ohsugi, T.; Thompson, D. J.; Watanabe, K.

1998-01-01

204

Miniaturization in x ray and gamma ray spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents advances in two new sensor technologies and a miniaturized associated electronics technology which, when combined, can allow for very significant miniaturization and for the reduction of weight and power consumption in x-ray and gamma-ray spectroscopy systems: (1) Mercuric iodide (HgI2) x-ray technology, which allows for the first time the construction of truly portable, high-energy resolution, non-cryogenic x-ray fluorescence (XRF) elemental analyzer systems, with parameters approaching those of laboratory quality cryogenic instruments; (2) the silicon avalanche photodiode (APD), which is a solid-state light sensitive device with internal amplification, capable of uniquely replacing the vacuum photomultiplier tube in scintillation gamma-ray spectrometer applications, and offering substantial improvements in size, ruggedness, low power operation and energy resolution; and (3) miniaturized (hybridized) low noise, low power amplification and processing electronics, which take full advantage of the favorable properties of these new sensors and allow for the design and fabrication of advanced, highly miniaturized x-ray and gamma-ray spectroscopy systems. The paper also presents experimental results and examples of spectrometric systems currently under construction. The directions for future developments are discussed.

Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Wang, Yuzhong J.; Bradley, James G.

1993-01-01

205

Research on CdZnTe and Other Novel Room Temperature Gamma Ray Spectrometer Materials  

SciTech Connect

Room temperature gamma-ray spectrometers are being developed for a number of years for national security applications where high sensitivity, low operating power and compactness are indispensable. The technology has matured now to the point where large volume (several cubic centimeters) and high energy resolution (approximately 1% at 660 eV) of gamma photons, are becoming available for their incorporation into portable systems for remote sensing of signatures from nuclear materials.

Arnold Burger; Michael gGoza; Yunlong Cui; Utpal N. Roy; M. Guo

2007-05-05

206

Cosmogenic gamma rays and the composition of cosmic rays  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the prospects of detecting the sources of ultrahigh energy (UHE) cosmic ray (CR) nuclei via their emission of cosmogenic {gamma} rays in the GeV to TeV energy range. These {gamma} rays result from electromagnetic cascades initiated by high energy photons, electrons, and positrons that are emitted by CRs during their propagation in the cosmic radiation background and are independent of the simultaneous emission of {gamma} rays in the vicinity of the source. The corresponding production power by UHE CR nuclei (with mass number A and charge Z) is dominated by pion photo production ({proportional_to}A) and Bethe-Heitler pair production ({proportional_to}Z{sup 2}). We show that the cosmogenic {gamma}-ray signal from a single steady UHE CR source is typically more robust with respect to variations of the source composition and injection spectrum than the accompanying signal of cosmogenic neutrinos. We study the diffuse emission from the sum of extragalactic CR sources as well as the point-source emission of the closest sources.

Ahlers, Markus [C. N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, SUNY at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794-3840 (United States); Salvado, Jordi [Departament d'Estructura i Constituents de la Materia and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, 647 Diagonal, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

2011-10-15

207

Relativistic fireballs and their impact on external matter - Models for cosmological gamma-ray bursts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the production of cosmological gamma-ray bursts intense enough to be detected at cosmological distances. Events such as the coalescence of compact binaries can create sufficient energy on time scales much less than 1 s. A short 'primary' burst is expected when the resultant fireball becomes optically thin, but this may be weak because the bulk of the radiative

P. Meszaros; M. J. Rees

1993-01-01

208

Baltic Astronomy, vol.12, XXXXXX, 2003. Are Gamma Ray Burst Driven by Gravitational Waves?  

E-print Network

Baltic Astronomy, vol.12, XXX­XXX, 2003. Are Gamma Ray Burst Driven by Gravitational Waves? Loukas sheets (magnetic nulls). We demonstrate that the passage of strong pulses of Gravitational Waves through and become the driver for many types of astrophysical bursts. Key words: gravitational waves­compact objects

Vlahos, Loukas

209

Short gamma-ray bursts from binary neutron star mergers in globular clusters  

E-print Network

ARTICLES Short gamma-ray bursts from binary neutron star mergers in globular clusters JONATHAN produced in globular clusters, in which extreme densities of very old stars can create and exchange compact) mission located short GRBs in (or near) elliptical galaxies, that are no longer active in star formation

Loss, Daniel

210

Cygnus X-3 and EGRET Gamma-Ray Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

0!rQ1The Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) aboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory observed the Cygnus region in 14 different viewing periods during 1991 May to 1994 July. We present here our results on unpulsed and pulsed emissions of gamma rays at E > 50 MeV from Cyg X-3. While we detect a gamma-ray source consistent with the position of

M. Mori; D. L. Bertsch; B. L. Dingus; J. A. Esposito; C. E. Fichtel; S. D. Hunter; G. Kanbach; D. A. Kniffen; Y. C. Lin; J. R. Mattox; H. A. Mayer-Hasselwander; P. F. Michelson; C. von Montigny; R. Mukherjee; P. L. Nolan; P. V. Ramanamurthy; E. Schneid; P. Sreekumar; D. J. Thompson

1997-01-01

211

Simultaneous optical/gamma-ray observations of GRBs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Details on the project to search for serendipitous time correlated optical photographic observations of Gamma Ray Bursters (GRB's) are presented. The ongoing photographic observations at nine observatories are used to look for plates which were exposed simultaneously with a gamma ray burst detected by the gamma ray instrument team (BATSE) and contain the burst position. The results for the first two years of the gamma ray instrument team operation are presented.

Greiner, J.; Wenzel, W.; Hudec, R.; Moskalenko, E. I.; Metlov, V.; Chernych, N. S.; Getman, V. S.; Ziener, Rainer; Birkle, K.; Bade, N.

1994-01-01

212

The diffuse galactic gamma ray emission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The EGRET (Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope) detector will provide a much more detailed view of the diffuse galactic gamma ray intensity in terms of higher resolution, greater statistical significance, and broader energy range than earlier missions. These observations will furnish insight into a number of very important questions related to the dynamics and structure of the Galaxy. A diffuse emission model is being developed that incorporates the latest information on matter distribution and source functions. In addition, it is tailored to the EGRET instrument response functions. The analysis code of the model maintains flexibility to accommodate the quality of the data that is anticipated. The discussion here focuses on the issues of the distributions of matter, cosmic rays, and radiation fields, and on the important source functions that enter into the model calculation of diffuse emission.

Bertsch, David L.

1990-01-01

213

Spectral evolution in gamma-ray bursts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hard X-ray Burst Spectrometer (HXRBS) and the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) on NASA's Solar Maximum Mission satellite have independently monitored cosmic gamma-ray bursts since launch in February 1980. Several bursts with relatively simple pulse structure and sufficient intensity have been analyzed for evidence of spectral variability on time scales shorter than the pulse durations. In many of these bursts pulse structures are found, ranging in duration from 1 to 10 seconds, which exhibit a trend of hard-to-soft spectral evolution. No significant evidence for soft-to-hard evolution has been found. The HXRBS data above 100 keV and the GRS data above 1 MeV indicate that the spectral evolution generally is not due to time-varying absorption features at energies below 100 keV.

Norris, J. P.; Share, G. H.; Messina, D. C.; Matz, M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Dennis, B. R.; Desai, U. D.; Cline, T. L.

1986-01-01

214

SuperAGILE and Gamma Ray Bursts  

SciTech Connect

The solid-state hard X-ray imager of AGILE gamma-ray mission -- SuperAGILE -- has a six arcmin on-axis angular resolution in the 15-45 keV range, a field of view in excess of 1 steradian. The instrument is very light: 5 kg only. It is equipped with an on-board self triggering logic, image deconvolution, and it is able to transmit the coordinates of a GRB to the ground in real-time through the ORBCOMM constellation of satellites. Photon by photon Scientific Data are sent to the Malindi ground station at every contact. In this paper we review the performance of the SuperAGILE experiment (scheduled for a launch in the middle of 2006), after its first onground calibrations, and show the perspectives for Gamma Ray Bursts.

Pacciani, Luigi; Costa, Enrico; Del Monte, Ettore; Donnarumma, Immacolata; Evangelista, Yuri; Feroci, Marco; Frutti, Massimo; Lazzarotto, Francesco; Lapshov, Igor; Rubini, Alda; Soffitta, Paolo; Tavani, Marco [IASF-INAF Rome (Italy); Barbiellini, Guido [INFN Trieste (Italy); Mastropietro, Marcello [CNR Montelibretti (Italy); Morelli, Ennio [IASF-INAF-Bologna (Italy); Rapisarda, Massimo [ENEA Frascati (Italy)

2006-05-19

215

Intergalactic thermonuclear gamma-ray line  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possibility of thermonculear reactions occurring in dilute space is briefly considered. X-ray emission from clusters of galaxies demonstrates that perhaps as much as 10 to the 14th solar masses of hot gas (T of about 100 million K) may often surround galaxies in clusters with a density of perhaps 0.004/cu cm. If the ion temperature is 100 million K, the thermonuclear reaction p + d to He-3 + gamma ray should emit gamma rays at a rate of roughly 4 x 10 to the 41st/sec with energy 5.516 + or -0.016 MeV. Such a source in teh virgo cluster at 15.7 Mpc would present a line flux of 1 x 10 to the -11th/sq cm/sec.

Clayton, D. D.

1985-01-01

216

Gamma-ray imaging probes  

SciTech Connect

External nuclear medicine diagnostic imaging of early primary and metastatic lung cancer tumors is difficult due to the poor sensitivity and resolution of existing gamma cameras. Nonimaging counting detectors used for internal tumor detection give ambiguous results because distant background variations are difficult to discriminate from neighboring tumor sites. This suggests that an internal imaging nuclear medicine probe, particularly an esophageal probe, may be advantageously used to detect small tumors because of the ability to discriminate against background variations and the capability to get close to sites neighboring the esophagus. The design, theory of operation, preliminary bench tests, characterization of noise behavior and optimization of such an imaging probe is the central theme of this work.

Wild, W.J.

1988-01-01

217

On gamma-ray astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Photons in the visible range form the basis of astronomy. They move in straight lines, which preserves source information,\\u000a but they arise only very indirectly from nuclear or high-energy processes. Cosmic-ray particles, on the other hand, arise\\u000a directly from high-energy processes in astronomical objects of various classes, but carry no information about source direction.\\u000a Radio emissions are still more complex

P. Morrison

1958-01-01

218

The future of high energy gamma ray astronomy and its potential astrophysical implications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future satellites should carry instruments having over an order of magnitude greater sensitivity than those flown thus far as well as improved energy and angular resolution. The information to be obtained from these experiments should greatly enhance knowledge of: the very energetic and nuclear processes associated with compact objects; the structure of our galaxy; the origin and dynamic pressure effects of the cosmic rays; the high energy particles and energetic processes in other galaxies; and the degree of matter-antimatter symmetry of the universe. The relevant aspects of extragalactic gamma ray phenomena are emphasized along with the instruments planned. The high energy gamma ray results of forthcoming programs such as GAMMA-1 and the Gamma Ray Observatory should justify even more sophisticated telescopes. These advanced instruments might be placed on the space station currently being considered by NASA.

Fichtel, C. E.

1982-01-01

219

Gamma-ray Localization of Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes by AGILE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the first direct localization of Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) in space by the AGILE gamma-ray imager above 20 MeV. AGILE is one of the three currently active space missions detecting TGFs. AGILE is detecting about 10 TGFs/month by the mini-calorimeter (MCAL) instrument sensitive in the energy range 0.35-100 MeV and was the first to clearly show the extension of the TGFs energy spectrum up to at least 40 MeV. Motivated by this initial discovery, we searched for detections in the AGILE Gamma-Ray Imaging Detector (GRID) data correlated with TGFs detected in MCAL. Among the 119 TGFs detected by MCAL at MeV energies during the period June, 2008 - December, 2009, we detect 8 TGFs with gamma-ray photons of energies above 20 MeV localized by the AGILE gamma-ray imager with a relatively good accuracy of 5-10 deg at 50 MeV. Remarkably, all TGF-associated gamma-rays are compatible with a terrestrial production site closer to the sub-satellite point than 400km, independently confirming the results obtained by combining space and ground measurements (sferics). Considering that our photons reach the AGILE satellite at 540 km altitude with limited scattering or attenuation, these results have deep implications for the study of TGFs.

Marisaldi, M.; Tavani, M.; Argan, A.; Trois, A.; Giuliani, A.; Labanti, C.; Fuschino, F.; Bulgarelli, A.; Longo, F.; Barbiellini, G.

2010-12-01

220

Gamma-Ray Telescopes: 400 Years of Astronomical Telescopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The last half-century has seen dramatic developments in gamma-ray telescopes, from their initial conception and development through to their blossoming into full maturity as a potent research tool in astronomy. Gamma-ray telescopes are leading research in diverse areas such as gamma-ray bursts, blazars, Galactic transients, and the Galactic distribution of Al-26.

Gehrels, Neil; Cannizzo, John K.

2010-01-01

221

Very High-Energy Gamma-Ray Sources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses topics related to high-energy, gamma-ray astronomy (including cosmic radiation, gamma-ray detectors, high-energy gamma-ray sources, and others). Also considers motivation for the development of this field, the principal results to date, and future prospects. (JN)

Weekes, Trevor C.

1986-01-01

222

Theoretical studies of gamma-ray bursts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) have challenged astrophysicists ever since their discovery almost thirty years ago. With an energy release of 1051-53 ergs, GRBs are the most electromagnetically luminous objects in the universe. One of the many unanswered questions about GRBs is the nature of the source that powers them. This thesis studies the interactions of GRBs and their afterglows with their surrounding environment, and shows how the signatures left by this interaction can yield valuable information on the properties of the GRB sources. We show that the passage of the afterglow through its surrounding medium produces time-dependent lines in its absorption spectrum, whose identification could serve to precisely determine the GRB redshift and tightly constrain the density of the GRB environment. The ionized medium eventually cools and recombines. We study the spectral features expected from a cooling GRB remnant and identify signatures in the line diagnostics which are peculiar to GRB remnants. Identification of such remnants in nearby galaxies will allow direct observations of GRB sites and degree of beaming. Besides photoionizing the medium, GRB explosions also have dynamical effects: they result in expanding blast waves, some of which should still be visible in our galaxy and nearby ones. We suggest that they might have already been observed under the form of expanding HI supershells. GRB energetics and rates are crucially dependent on the beaming fraction. We use the data from radio surveys to place the constraint q>~6 ° on the beaming angle. Since GRBs are cosmological sources at high redshift, they can be used as tools to explore the universe. We study the observable signatures that result when a GRB afterglow is microlensed by an intervening star. We show how a microlensing event could be used to study size and superluminal expansion rate of the source, and the structure of the magnetic field on the afterglow photosphere. At the same time, the fraction of microlensed afterglows can be used to calibrate the density parameter of compact objects in the universe.

Perna, Rosalba

1999-12-01

223

THE FERMI GAMMA-RAY BURST MONITOR  

SciTech Connect

The Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) will significantly augment the science return from the Fermi Observatory in the study of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The primary objective of GBM is to extend the energy range over which bursts are observed downward from the energy range of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on Fermi into the hard X-ray range where extensive previous data sets exist. A secondary objective is to compute burst locations onboard to allow re-orienting the spacecraft so that the LAT can observe delayed emission from bright bursts. GBM uses an array of 12 sodium iodide scintillators and two bismuth germanate scintillators to detect gamma rays from {approx}8 keV to {approx}40 MeV over the full unocculted sky. The onboard trigger threshold is {approx}0.7 photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} (50-300 keV, 1 s peak). GBM generates onboard triggers for {approx}250 GRBs per year.

Meegan, Charles [Universities Space Research Association, NSSTC, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Lichti, Giselher; Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Diehl, Roland; Greiner, Jochen; Von Kienlin, Andreas; Steinle, Helmut [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstrasse Postfach 1312, Garching 85748 (Germany); Bhat, P. N.; Briggs, Michael S.; Connaughton, Valerie; Paciesas, W. S.; Preece, Robert; Wilson, Robert B. [University of Alabama in Huntsville, NSSTC, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Fishman, Gerald; Kouveliotou, Chryssa [Space Science Office, VP62, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Hoover, Andrew S.; Kippen, R. Marc; Wallace, Mark S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Van der Horst, Alexander J. [NSSTC, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); McBreen, Sheila [University College, Dublin, Belfield, Stillorgan Road, Dublin 4 (Ireland)] (and others)

2009-09-01

224

Observations of Compact X-Ray Binaries with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Chandra X-Ray Observatory Launched on July 23, 1999. The first X-ray photons were detected on August 12 of that same year. Subsequently observations with the Observatory, which features sub-arcsecond angular resolution, have revolutionized our understanding of the X-ray emitting sky providing hosts of spectacular energy-resolved images and high-resolution spectra. Here we present a brief overview of Chandra X-Ray Observatory observations of compact X-ray binaries.

Weisskopf, Martin C.

2006-01-01

225

The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope and Gamma-Ray Bursts  

SciTech Connect

The Gamma-ray Large Area Telescope (GLAST) is a satellite-based observatory to study the high energy gamma-ray sky. The main instrument on GLAST, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) is a pair-conversion telescope that will survey the sky from 20 MeV to greater than 300 GeV With the GLAST launch in 2007, the LAT will open a new and important window on a wide variety of high energy phenomena, including supermassive black holes and active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursts, supernova remnants and cosmic ray acceleration and dark matter. A second instrument, the GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM), greatly enhances GLAST's capability to study GRB by providing important spectral and timing information in the 10 keV to 30 MeV range. We describe how the instruments, spacecraft and ground system work together to provide observations of gamma-ray bursts from 8 keV - 300 GeV and to provide rapid notification of bursts to the wider gamma-ray burst community.

McEnery, Julie; Ritz, Steve [NASA/GSFC, Lab for Astroparticle Physics, MailCode 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2006-05-19

226

Gamma-ray imaging with germanium detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Externally segmented germanium detectors promise a breakthrough in gamma-ray imaging capabilities while retaining the superb energy resolution of germanium spectrometers. By combining existing position-sensitive detectors with an appropriate code aperture, two-dimensional imaging with 0.2-deg angular resolution becomes practical for a typical balloon experiment. Much finer resolutions are possible with larger separations between detectors and the coded aperture as would be applicable for space-based or lunar-based observatories. Two coaxial germanium detectors divided into five external segments have been fabricated and have undergone extensive performance evaluation and imaging testing in our laboratory. These tests together with detailed Monte Carlo modeling calculations have demonstrated the great promise of this sensor technology for future gamma-ray missions.

Mahoney, W. A.; Callas, J. L.; Ling, J. C.; Radocinski, R. G.; Skelton, R. T.; Varnell, L. S.; Wheaton, W. A.

1993-01-01

227

Gamma ray bursts: a 1983 overview  

SciTech Connect

Gamma ray burst observations are reviewed with mention of new gamma-ray and optical transient measurements and with discussions of the controversial, contradictory and unresolved issues that have recently emerged: burst spectra appear to fluctuate in time as rapidly as they are measured, implying that any one spectrum may be incorrect. Energy spectra can be obligingly fitted to practically any desired shape, implying, in effect, that no objective spectral resolution exists at all. Burst fluxes and temporal quantities, including the total event energy, are characterized very differently with differing instruments, implying that even elementary knowledge of their properties is instrumentally subjective. Finally, the log N-log S determinations are deficient in the weak bursts, while there is no detection of a source direction anisotropy, implying that Ptolemy was right or that burst source distance estimates are basically guesswork. These issues may remain unsolved until vastly improved instruments are flown.

Cline, T.L.

1983-10-01

228

Gamma Ray Bursts: a 1983 Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma ray burst observations are reviewed with mention of new gamma-ray and optical transient measurements and with discussions of the controversial, contradictory and unresolved issues that have recently emerged: burst spectra appear to fluctuate in time as rapidly as they are measured, implying that any one spectrum may be incorrect; energy spectra can be obligingly fitted to practically any desired shape, implying, in effect, that no objective spectral resolution exists at all; burst fluxes and temporal quantities, including the total event energy, are characterized very differently with differing instruments, implying that even elementary knowledge of their properties is instrumentally subjective; finally, the log N-log S determinations are deficient in the weak bursts, while there is no detection of a source direction anisotropy, implying that Ptolemy was right or that burst source distance estimates are basically guesswork. These issues may remain unsolved until vastly improved instruments are flown.

Cline, T. L.

1983-01-01

229

Nucleosynthesis and astrophysical gamma ray spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The HEAO-3 gamma ray spectrometer has provided evidence in the quest for the understanding of complex element formation in the universe with the discovery of Al-26 in the interstellar medium. It has demonstrated that the synthesis of intermediate mass nuclei is currently going on in the galaxy. This discovery was confirmed by the Solar Maximum Mission. The flux is peaked near the galactic center and indicates about 3 solar masses of Al-26 in the interstellar medium, with an implied ratio of Al-26/Al-27 = .00001. Several possible distributions were studied but the data gathered thus far do not allow discrimination between them. It is felt that only the spaceflight of a high resolution gamma ray spectrometer with adequate sensitivity will ultimately resolve the issue of the source of this material.

Jacobson, Allan S.

1987-01-01

230

Lorentz violation from gamma-ray bursts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The constancy of light speed is a basic assumption in Einstein’s special relativity, and consequently the Lorentz invariance is a fundamental symmetry of space-time in modern physics. However, it is speculated that the speed of light becomes energy-dependent due to the Lorentz invariance violation (LV) in various new physics theories. We analyse the data of the energetic photons from the gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope, and find more events to support the energy dependence in the light speed with both linear and quadratic form corrections. We provide two scenarios to understand all the new-released Pass 8 data of bright GRBs by the Fermi-LAT Collaboration, with predictions from such scenarios being testable by future detected GRBs.

Zhang, Shu; Ma, Bo-Qiang

2015-02-01

231

Neutron-driven gamma-ray laser  

DOEpatents

A lasing cylinder emits laser radiation at a gamma-ray wavelength of 0.87 .ANG. when subjected to an intense neutron flux of about 400 eV neutrons. A 250 .ANG. thick layer of Be is provided between two layers of 100 .ANG. thick layer of .sup.57 Co and these layers are supported on a foil substrate. The coated foil is coiled to form the lasing cylinder. Under the neutron flux .sup.57 Co becomes .sup.58 Co by neutron absorption. The .sup.58 Co then decays to .sup.57 Fe by 1.6 MeV proton emission. .sup.57 Fe then transitions by mesne decay to a population inversion for lasing action at 14.4 keV. Recoil from the proton emission separates the .sup.57 Fe from the .sup.57 Co and into the Be, where Mossbauer emission occurs at a gamma-ray wavelength.

Bowman, Charles D. (Los Alamos, NM)

1990-01-01

232

The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory: mission status.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (Compton) is the second in NASA's series of Great Observatories. Compton has now been operating for over two and a half years, and has given a dramatic increase in capability over previous gamma-ray missions. The spacecraft and scientific instruments are all in good health, and many significant discoveries have already been made and continue to be made. The authors describe the capabilities of the four scientific instruments and the observing programs for the first three years of the mission. During Phases 2 and 3 of the mission a Guest Investigator program has been in progress with the Guest Observers' time share increasing from 30% to over 50% for the later mission phases.

Gehrels, N.; Chipman, E.; Kniffen, D. A.

233

Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO): Emergency support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) is an Earth orbiting satellite that studies sources of localized, galactic, and extragalactic gamma rays. It will be carried into a near-circular orbit by the Space Shuttle, following which it will be placed in its operational orbit by its on-board hydrazine propulsion system. Formal orbit parameters are 350 km x 450 km x 28.5 degrees with a period of 93 minutes. Deep Space Network coverage will be provided during emergencies that would prevent communications via the normal Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS)-White Sands data link. Emergency support will be provided by the DSN's 26-meter antenna subnetwork. Information is given in tabular form for DSN support, frequency assignments, telemetry, and command.

Schauer, K.; Madden, J.

1991-01-01

234

Gamma-ray bursts with ROSAT  

E-print Network

I review the use of ROSAT over the last years for the investigation of well localized gamma-ray burst (GRB) error boxes. In particular, I cover (i) the systematic study of several dozens of IPN locations using the ROSAT All-Sky-Survey data, (ii) results of deep ROSAT pointings of selected small GRB error boxes, (iii) the attempts for and results of quick follow-up observations after GRB events including the three GRBs localized with BeppoSAX, (iv) the correlation of GRB locations with serendipitous ROSAT pointings and (v) the search for X-ray flashes in the database of pointed ROSAT observations.

J. Greiner

1997-04-01

235

Gamma Ray Bursts: an Enigma Being Unraveled  

SciTech Connect

The best astrophysical accelerators are quasars and the 'progenitors' of GRBs which, after decades of observations and scores of theories, we still do not understand. But, I shall argue, we now know quite well where GRBs come from, and we understand how their 'beams' behave, as they make short pulses of gamma rays and long-duration X-ray, optical and radio 'afterglows'. I shall argue that our understanding of these phenomena, based on the 'Cannonball Model', is unusually simple, precise and successful. The 'sociology' of GRBs is interesting per se and, in this sense, the avatars of the Cannonball Model in confronting the generally accepted 'fireball models' are also quite revealing.

De Rujula, Alvaro (Boston University and CERN) [Boston University and CERN

2003-05-14

236

Comptonization of gamma rays by cold electrons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytic method is developed for calculating the emergent spectrum of gamma-rays and X-rays scattered in a homogeneous medium with low-temperature electrons. The Klein-Nishina corrections of the scattering cross section and absorption processes are taken in account. The wavelength relaxation and the spatial diffusion problems are solved separately, and the emergent spectrum is calculated by convolving the evolution function of the spectrum in an infinite medium with the photon luminosity resulting from the spatial diffusion in a finite sphere. The analytic results are compared with that of Monte Carlo calculations and it is concluded that the analytic result is quite accurate.

Xu, Yueming; Ross, Randy R.; Mccray, Richard

1991-01-01

237

Status of the Milagro Gamma Ray Observatory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Milagro Gamma Ray Observatory is the world's first large-area water Cherenkov detector capable of continuously monitoring the sky at TeV energies. Located in the mountains of northern New Mexico, Milagro will perform an all sky survey of the Northern Hemisphere at energies between 250 GeV and 50 TeV. With ± a high duty-cycle, large detector area, and wide field-of-view

Joseph McCullough; W. Benbow; D. Berley; M.-L. Chen; D. G. Coyne; R. S. Delay; B. L. Dingus; D. E. Dorfan; R. W. Ellsworth; D. Evans; A. Falcone; L. Fleysher; R. Fleysher; G. Gisler; J. A. Goodman; T. J. Haines; C. M. Hoffman; S. Hugenberger; L. A. Kelley; I. Leonor; J. Macri; M. McConnell; J. E. McEnery; R. S. Miller; A. I. Mincer; M. F. Morales; P. Nemethy; J. M. Ryan; M. Schneider; B. Shen; A. Shoup; G. Sinnis; A. J. Smith; G. W. Sullivan; T. N. Thompson; O. T. Tumer; K. Wang; M. O. Wascko; S. Westerhoff; D. A. Williams; T. Yang; G. B. Yodh

1999-01-01

238

Common Gamma-ray Glows above Thunderclouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma-ray glows are continuous, long duration gamma- and x-ray emission seen coming from thunderclouds. The Airborne for Energetic Lightning Emissions (ADELE) observed 12 gamma-ray glows during its summer 2009 flight campaign over the areas of Colorado and Florida in the United States. For these glows we shall present their spectra, relationship to lightning activity and how their duration and size changes as a function of distance. Gamma-ray glows follow the relativistic runaway electron avalanche (RREA) spectrum and have been previously measured from the ground and inside the cloud. ADELE measured most glows as it flew above the screening layer of the cloud. During the brightest glow on August 21, 2009, we can show that we are flying directly into a downward facing relativistic runaway avalanche, indicative of flying between the upper positive and negative screening layer of the cloud. In order to explain the brightness of this glow, RREA with an electric field approaching the limit for relativistic feedback must be occurring. Using all 12 glows, we show that lightning activity diminishes during the onset of the glow. Using this along with the fact that glows occur as the field approaches the level necessary for feedback, we attempt to distinguish between two possibilities: that glows are evidence that RREA with feedback, rather than lightning, is sometimes the primary channel for discharging the cloud, or else that the overall discharging is still controlled by lightning, with glows simply appearing during times when a subsidence of lightning allows the field to rise above the threshold for RREA.

Kelley, Nicole; Smith, David; Dwyer, Joseph; Hazelton, Bryna; Grefenstette, Brian; Lowell, Alex; Splitt, Michael; Lazarus, Steven; Rassoul, Hamid

2013-04-01

239

Supernovae and Gamma-Ray Bursts  

Microsoft Academic Search

I review the observational status of the Supernova\\/Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) connection. Available data suggest that Supernovae (SNe) associated with GRBs form an heterogeneous class of objects including bright and faint hypernovae (Hyp) and perhaps also `standard' Ib\\/c events. Current estimates of SN and GRB rates and beaming angles yield ratios GRB\\/SNe-Ibc ?2% and GRB\\/Hyp ?25%. In the few SN\\/GRB associations

Massimo Della Valle

2006-01-01

240

Gamma-Ray Line Observations with RHESSI  

E-print Network

The Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) has been observing gamma-ray lines from the Sun and the Galaxy since its launch in February 2002. Here I summarize the status of RHESSI observations of solar lines (nuclear de-excitation, neutron capture, and positron annihilation), the lines of $^{26}$Al and $^{60}$Fe from the inner Galaxy, and the search for positron annihilation in novae.

David M. Smith

2004-04-30

241

Are Gamma-Ray Bursts Standard Candles?  

E-print Network

By dividing a sample of 48 long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) into four groups with redshift from low to high and fitting each group with the Amati relation log Eiso = a + b log Epeak, I find that parameters a and b vary with the mean redshift of the GRBs in each group systematically and significantly. The results suggest that GRBs evolve strongly with the cosmic redshift and hence are not standard candles.

Li-Xin Li

2007-05-30

242

Compact CdZnTe-based gamma camera for prostate cancer imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we discuss the design of a compact gamma camera for high-resolution prostate cancer imaging using Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CdZnTe or CZT) radiation detectors. Prostate cancer is a common disease in men. Nowadays, a blood test measuring the level of prostate specific antigen (PSA) is widely used for screening for the disease in males over 50, followed by (ultrasound) imaging-guided biopsy. However, PSA tests have a high falsepositive rate and ultrasound-guided biopsy has a high likelihood of missing small cancerous tissues. Commercial methods of nuclear medical imaging, e.g. PET and SPECT, can functionally image the organs, and potentially find cancer tissues at early stages, but their applications in diagnosing prostate cancer has been limited by the smallness of the prostate gland and the long working distance between the organ and the detectors comprising these imaging systems. CZT is a semiconductor material with wide band-gap and relatively high electron mobility, and thus can operate at room temperature without additional cooling. CZT detectors are photon-electron direct-conversion devices, thus offering high energy-resolution in detecting gamma rays, enabling energy-resolved imaging, and reducing the background of Compton-scattering events. In addition, CZT material has high stopping power for gamma rays; for medical imaging, a few-mm-thick CZT material provides adequate detection efficiency for many SPECT radiotracers. Because of these advantages, CZT detectors are becoming popular for several SPECT medical-imaging applications. Most recently, we designed a compact gamma camera using CZT detectors coupled to an application-specific-integratedcircuit (ASIC). This camera functions as a trans-rectal probe to image the prostate gland from a distance of only 1-5 cm, thus offering higher detection efficiency and higher spatial resolution. Hence, it potentially can detect prostate cancers at their early stages. The performance tests of this camera have been completed. The results show better than 6-mm resolution at a distance of 1 cm. Details of the test results are discussed in this paper.

Cui, Yonggang; Lall, Terry; Tsui, Benjamin; Yu, Jianhua; Mahler, George; Bolotnikov, Aleksey; Vaska, Paul; De Geronimo, Gianluigi; O'Connor, Paul; Meinken, George; Joyal, John; Barrett, John; Camarda, Giuseppe; Hossain, Anwar; Kim, Ki Hyun; Yang, Ge; Pomper, Marty; Cho, Steve; Weisman, Ken; Seo, Youngho; Babich, John; LaFrance, Norman; James, Ralph B.

2011-06-01

243

Highlights of GeV Gamma-Ray Astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because high-energy gamma rays are primarily produced by high-energy particle interactions, the gamma-ray survey of the sky by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope offers a view of sites of cosmic ray production and interactions. Gamma-ray bursts, pulsars, pulsar wind nebulae, binary sources, and Active Galactic Nuclei are all phenomena that reveal particle acceleration through their gamma-ray emission. Diffuse Galactic gamma radiation, Solar System gamma-ray sources, and energetic radiation from supernova remnants are likely tracers of high-energy particle interactions with matter and photon fields. This paper will present a broad overview of the constantly changing sky seen with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi spacecraft.

Thompson, David J.

2010-01-01

244

Gravitational Waves and gamma-ray Bursts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

If the gamma-ray burst sources detected by GRO are coalescing binaries at cosmological distances there should be a coincident gravitational radiation signal. Using the GRBs rate we predict the gravitational radiation detection rate as a function of the gravitational wave strain at Earth. This method of predicting the rate avoids the large statistical uncertainties in the current estimates that are based on the three neutron star binaries containing pulsars found, so far, in the Galaxy. The brightest gamma-ray bursts should be accompanied by a gravitational pulse detectable by LIGO or VIRGO, and by using the bursts as triggers for LIGO/VIRGO their sensitivity can be improved by 50% and the detection rate increases by a factor of 3. LIGO/VIRGO must reach a strain sensitivity of 10(sup-20.7)h(sub 0) to detect one burst per decade, and a failure to find coincidences at a rate of one per year with a strain sensitivity of 10(sup -20.6)h(sub 0) will rule out the binary hypothesis. If they are detected as gravitational wave sources, the time delay between the gamma-rays and the gravitational waves will help to determine the burst mechanism, and the polarization of the gravitational waves will help to determine the burst geometry.

Kochanek, Christopher S.; Piran, Tsvi

1993-01-01

245

Positron annihilation in gamma-ray bursts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emission features appear at energies of 350 to 450 keV in the spectra of a number of gamma ray burst sources. These features were interpreted as electron-positron annihilation lines, redshifted by the gravitational field near the surface of a neutron star. Evidence that gamma ray bursts originate at neutron stars with magnetic field strengths of approx. 10(exp 12) Gauss came from recent observations of cyclotron scattering harmonics in the spectra of two bursts. Positrons could be produced in gamma ray burst sources either by photon-photon pair production or by one-photon pair production in a strong magnetic field. The annihilation of positrons is affected by the presence of a strong neutron star magnetic field in several ways. The relaxation of transverse momentum conservation causes an intrinsic broadening of the two-photon annihilation line and there is a decrease in the annihilation cross section below the free-space value. An additional channel for one-photon annihilation also becomes possible in high magnetic fields. The physics of pair production and annihilation near strongly magnetized neutron stars will be reviewed. Results from a self-consistent model for non-thermal synchrotron radiation and pair annihilation are beginning to identify the conditions required to produce observable annihilation features from strongly magnetized plasmas.

Harding, Alice K.

1990-01-01

246

Neutrino bursts from gamma-ray bursts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

If gamma-ray bursts originate at cosmological distances, as strongly indicated by the results from Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO), then ultrarelativistic ejecta are the likely consequence of the highly super-Eddington luminosity of the sources. If the energy injection rate varies with time, then the Lorentz factor of the wind also varies, and the shells of ejected matter collide with each other. The collisions between baryons produce pions which decay into high-energy photons, electrons, electron positron pairs, and neutrino pairs. The bulk Lorentz factor of approximately 300 is required if our model is to be compatible with the observed millisecond variability. The strongest gamma-ray bursts are observed to deliver approximately 10(exp -4) ergs/sq cm in 100-200 keV photons. In our scenario more energy may be delivered in a neutrino burst. Typical neutrinos may be approximately 30 GeV if the protons have a Maxwellian energy distribution, and up to approximately TeV if the protons have a power-law distribution. Such neutrino bursts are close to the detection limit of the DUMAND II experiment.

Paczynski, Bohdan; Xu, Guohong

1994-01-01

247

The solar gamma ray and neutron capabilities of COMPTEL on the Gamma Ray Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The imaging Compton telescope COMPTEL on the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) has unusual spectroscopic capabilities for measuring solar gamma-ray and neutron emission. The launch of the GRO is scheduled for June 1990 near the peak of the sunspot cycle. With a 30 to 40 percent probability for the Sun being in the COMPTEL field-of-view during the sunlit part of an orbit, a large number of flares will be observed above the 800 keV gamma-ray threshold of the telescope. The telescope energy range extends to 30 MeV with high time resolution burst spectra available from 0.1 to 10 MeV. Strong Compton tail suppression of instrumental gamma-ray interactions will facilitate improved spectral analysis of solar flare emissions. In addition, the high signal to noise ratio for neutron detection and measurement will provide new neutron spectroscopic capabilities. Specifically, a flare similar to that of 3 June 1982 will provide spectroscopic data on greater than 1500 individual neutrons, enough to construct an unambiguous spectrum in the energy range of 20 to 200 MeV. Details of the instrument and its response to solar gamma-rays and neutrons will be presented.

Ryan, James M.; Lockwood, John A.

1989-01-01

248

Modeling of a slanted-hole collimator in a compact endo-cavity gamma camera.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Having the ability to take an accurate 3D image of a tumor greatly helps doctors diagnose it and then create a treatment plan for a patient. One way to accomplish molecular imaging is to inject a radioactive tracer into a patient and then measure the gamma rays emitted from regions with high-uptake of the tracer, viz., the cancerous tissues. In large, expensive PET- or SPECT-imaging systems, the 3D imaging easily is accomplished by rotating the gamma-ray detectors and then employing software to reconstruct the 3D images from the multiple 2D projections at different angles of view. However, this method is impractical in a very compact imaging system due to anatomical considerations, e.g., the transrectal gamma camera under development at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for detection of intra-prostatic tumors. The camera uses pixilated cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe or CZT) detectors with matched parallel-hole collimator. Our research investigated the possibility of using a collimator with slanted holes to create 3D pictures of a radioactive source. The underlying concept is to take 2D projection images at different angles of view by adjusting the slant angle of the collimator, then using the 2D projection images to reconstruct the 3D image. To do this, we first simulated the response of a pixilated CZT detector to radiation sources placed in the field of view of the camera. Then, we formulated an algorithm to use the simulation results as prior knowledge and estimate the distribution of a shaped source from its 2D projection images. From the results of the simulation, we measured the spatial resolution of the camera as ~7-mm at a depth of 13.85-mm when using a detector with 2.46-mm pixel pitch and a collimator with 60° slant angle.

Kamuda, Mark; Cui, Yonggang; Lall, Terry; Ionson, Jim; Camarda, Giuseppe S.; Hossain, Anwar; Yang, Ge; Roy, Utpal N.; James, Ralph B.

2013-09-01

249

EGRET Observations of the Extragalactic Gamma-Ray Emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The all-sky survey in high-energy gamma rays (E > 30 MeV) carried out by EGRET aboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory provides a unique opportunity to examine in detail the diffuse gamma-ray emission. The observed diffuse emission has a Galactic component arising from cosmic-ray interactions with the local interstellar gas and radiation, as well as an almost uniformly distributed component

P. Sreekumar; D. L. Bertsch; B. L. Dingus; J. A. Esposito; C. E. Fichtel; R. C. Hartman; S. D. Hunter; G. Kanbach; D. A. Kniffen; Y. C. Lin; H. A. Mayer-Hasselwander; P. F. Michelson; C. von Montigny; A. Muecke; R. Mukherjee; P. L. Nolan; M. Pohl; O. Reimer; E. Schneid; J. G. Stacy; F. W. Stecker; D. J. Thompson; T. D. Willis

1998-01-01

250

Iron K Lines from Gamma Ray Bursts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present models for reprocessing of an intense flux of X-rays and gamma rays expected in the vicinity of gamma ray burst sources. We consider the transfer and reprocessing of the energetic photons into observable features in the X-ray band, notably the K lines of iron. Our models are based on the assumption that the gas is sufficiently dense to allow the microphysical processes to be in a steady state, thus allowing efficient line emission with modest reprocessing mass and elemental abundances ranging from solar to moderately enriched. We show that the reprocessing is enhanced by down-Comptonization of photons whose energy would otherwise be too high to absorb on iron, and that pair production can have an effect on enhancing the line production. Both "distant" reprocessors such as supernova or wind remnants and "nearby" reprocessors such as outer stellar envelopes can reproduce the observed line fluxes with Fe abundances 30-100 times above solar, depending on the incidence angle. The high incidence angles required arise naturally only in nearby models, which for plausible values can reach Fe line to continuum ratios close to the reported values.

Kallman, T. R.; Meszaros, P.; Rees, M. J.

2003-01-01

251

GAMMA RAYS FROM STAR FORMATION IN CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

Star formation in galaxies is observed to be associated with gamma-ray emission, presumably from non-thermal processes connected to the acceleration of cosmic-ray nuclei and electrons. The detection of gamma rays from starburst galaxies by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has allowed the determination of a functional relationship between star formation rate and gamma-ray luminosity. Since star formation is known to scale with total infrared (8-1000 {mu}m) and radio (1.4 GHz) luminosity, the observed infrared and radio emission from a star-forming galaxy can be used to quantitatively infer the galaxy's gamma-ray luminosity. Similarly, star-forming galaxies within galaxy clusters allow us to derive lower limits on the gamma-ray emission from clusters, which have not yet been conclusively detected in gamma rays. In this study, we apply the functional relationships between gamma-ray luminosity and radio and IR luminosities of galaxies derived by the Fermi Collaboration to a sample of the best candidate galaxy clusters for detection in gamma rays in order to place lower limits on the gamma-ray emission associated with star formation in galaxy clusters. We find that several clusters have predicted gamma-ray emission from star formation that are within an order of magnitude of the upper limits derived in Ackermann et al. based on non-detection by Fermi-LAT. Given the current gamma-ray limits, star formation likely plays a significant role in the gamma-ray emission in some clusters, especially those with cool cores. We predict that both Fermi-LAT over the course of its lifetime and the future Cerenkov Telescope Array will be able to detect gamma-ray emission from star-forming galaxies in clusters.

Storm, Emma M.; Jeltema, Tesla E.; Profumo, Stefano [Department of Physics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

2012-08-20

252

Solar gamma ray and neutron observations. [analysis of gamma ray spectrometer data obtained on OSO-7  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present status of knowledge concerning the impulsive and the continuous emission of solar gamma rays and neutrons is reviewed in the light of the recent solar activity in early August 1972. The gamma ray spectrometer on Orbiting Solar Observatory-7 (OSO-7) has observed the sun continuously for most of the activity period except for occultation by the earth. In association with the 2B flare on August 4, 1972, and the 3B flare on August 7, 1972, the monitor provides evidence for solar gamma ray line emission in the energy range from 300 keV to 10 MeV. A summary of all the results available from preliminary analysis of the data will be given.

Chupp, E. L.; Forrest, D. J.; Suri, A. N.

1973-01-01

253

Very high energy gamma ray astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent results in ground based very high energy gamma ray astronomy are reviewed. The various modes of the atmospheric Cerenkov technique are described, and the importance of cosmic ray rejection methods is stressed. The positive detections of the Crab pulsar that suggest a very flat spectrum and time-variable pulse phase are discussed. Observations of other pulsars (particularly Vela) suggest these features may be general. Evidence that a 4.8 hr modulated effect was detected from Cyg X-3 is strengthened in that the exact period originally proposed agrees well with a recent determination of the X-ray period. The southern sky observations are reviewed, and the significance of the detection of an active galaxy (NGC 5128) is considered for source models and future observations.

Grindlay, J. E.

1976-01-01

254

Compact superconducting SR ring for X-ray lithography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compact synchrotron radiation ring based on a new injection method has been designed as a light source for X-ray lithography, and is now being constructed. This machine consisting of a superconducting weak-focusing single-body magnet is 3 m in outer diameter and 2.2 m in height. The injection method uses half-integer resonance to inject the high-energy and high-intensity electron beams

Noriyuki Takahashi

1987-01-01

255

Gamma-to-electron magnetic spectrometer (GEMS): An energy-resolved {gamma}-ray diagnostic for the National Ignition Facility  

SciTech Connect

The gamma-to-electron magnetic spectrometer, having better than 5% energy resolution, is proposed to resolve {gamma}-rays in the range of E{sub o}{+-} 20% in single shot, where E{sub o} is the central energy and is tunable from 2 to 25 MeV. Gamma-rays from inertial confinement fusion implosions interact with a thin Compton converter (e.g., beryllium) located at approximately 300 cm from the target chamber center (TCC). Scattered electrons out of the Compton converter enter an electromagnet placed outside the NIF chamber (approximately 600 cm from TCC) where energy selection takes place. The electromagnet provides tunable E{sub o} over a broad range in a compact manner. Energy resolved electrons are measured by an array of quartz Cherenkov converters coupled to photomultipliers. Given 100 detectable electrons in the energy bins of interest, 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} minimum deuterium/tritium (DT) neutrons will be required to measure the 4.44 MeV {sup 12}C {gamma}-rays assuming 200 mg/cm{sup 2} plastic ablator areal density and 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} minimum DT neutrons to measure the 16.75 MeV DT {gamma}-ray line.

Kim, Y.; Herrmann, H. W.; Mack, J. M.; Young, C. S.; Barlow, D. B.; Schillig, J. B.; Sims, J. R. Jr.; Lopez, F. E.; Mares, D.; Oertel, J. A.; Hayes-Sterbenz, A. C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Hilsabeck, T. J.; Wu, W. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186 (United States); Moy, K. [National Security Technologies, Special Technologies Laboratory, Santa Barbara, California 93111 (United States); Stoeffl, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

2012-10-15

256

Gamma ray astronomy beyond 2001: What instruments for the newt challenges?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In spite of the recent successes of SIGMA, RXTE and Compton GRO, and the launch of INTEGRAL in 2001, a lot of questions will stay opened for the next decades in gamma-ray astronomy. In this context we have to think about future instrument concepts which will allow a new step in the understanding of high-energy phenomena at work in many exciting objects: binary systems with compact objects, active galactic nuclei, supernovae and novae, gamma ray bursters... A short overview of these new types of instruments will be given.

Vedrenne, G.

2001-03-01

257

SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS AND DARK MATTER SEEDING IN NEUTRON STARS  

SciTech Connect

We present a mechanism based on internal self-annihilation of dark matter accreted from the galactic halo in the inner regions of neutron stars that may trigger full or partial conversion into a quark star. We explain how this effect may induce a gamma-ray burst (GRB) that could be classified as short, according to the usual definition based on time duration of the prompt gamma-ray emission. This mechanism differs in many aspects from the most discussed scenario associating short GRBs with compact object binary mergers. We list possible observational signatures that should help distinguish between these two possible classes of progenitors.

Perez-Garcia, M. Angeles [Department of Fundamental Physics and IUFFyM, University of Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced s/n, E-37008 Salamanca (Spain); Daigne, F.; Silk, J., E-mail: mperezga@usal.es, E-mail: daigne@iap.fr, E-mail: j.silk1@physics.ox.ac.uk [UPMC-CNRS, UMR7095, Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris (France)

2013-05-10

258

High-energy spectral breaks in gamma-ray bursts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Model fits are presented for 18 gamma-ray burst spectra from 100 keV to 27 MeV made with the BATSE spectroscopy detectors on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. Most of the bursts are well fitted as power laws with spectral indices between -1.36 and -2.29; however, five bursts show definite departures from a simple power-law fit at high energies. Three of these bursts are well fitted with broken power-law spectra and break energies of from 400 to 690 keV, such as might arise from photon-photon interactions. If so, then the source compactness and hence distance will be sharply constrained. Two of the bursts have spectra with sharply confined slope changes and are well fitted with broken power-law spectra with break energies of 1.2 and 1.6 MeV at peak, such as might arise from photon-magnetic field interactions. If so, then these spectral breaks provide strong evidence for the existence of high magnetic fields in the burst emission region.

Schaefer, Bradley E.; Teegarden, Bonnard J.; Cline, Thomas L.; Fishman, Gerald J.; Meegan, Charles A.; Wilson, Robert B.; Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Matteson, James L.; Band, David L.

1992-01-01

259

UNCOVERING THE INTRINSIC VARIABILITY OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a robust technique to determine the minimum variability timescale for gamma-ray burst (GRB) light curves, utilizing Haar wavelets. Our approach averages over the data for a given GRB, providing an aggregate measure of signal variation while also retaining sensitivity to narrow pulses within complicated time series. In contrast to previous studies using wavelets, which simply define the minimum timescale in reference to the measurement noise floor, our approach identifies the signature of temporally smooth features in the wavelet scaleogram and then additionally identifies a break in the scaleogram on longer timescales as a signature of a true, temporally unsmooth light curve feature or features. We apply our technique to the large sample of Swift GRB gamma-ray light curves and for the first time—due to the presence of a large number of GRBs with measured redshift—determine the distribution of minimum variability timescales in the source frame. We find a median minimum timescale for long-duration GRBs in the source frame of ?tmin = 0.5 s, with the shortest timescale found being on the order of 10 ms. This short timescale suggests a compact central engine (3000 km). We discuss further implications for the GRB fireball model and present a tantalizing correlation between the minimum timescale and redshift, which may in part be due to cosmological time dilation.

Golkhou, V. Zach; Butler, Nathaniel R

2014-08-01

260

Uncovering the Intrinsic Variability of Gamma-Ray Bursts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a robust technique to determine the minimum variability timescale for gamma-ray burst (GRB) light curves, utilizing Haar wavelets. Our approach averages over the data for a given GRB, providing an aggregate measure of signal variation while also retaining sensitivity to narrow pulses within complicated time series. In contrast to previous studies using wavelets, which simply define the minimum timescale in reference to the measurement noise floor, our approach identifies the signature of temporally smooth features in the wavelet scaleogram and then additionally identifies a break in the scaleogram on longer timescales as a signature of a true, temporally unsmooth light curve feature or features. We apply our technique to the large sample of Swift GRB gamma-ray light curves and for the first time—due to the presence of a large number of GRBs with measured redshift—determine the distribution of minimum variability timescales in the source frame. We find a median minimum timescale for long-duration GRBs in the source frame of ?t min = 0.5 s, with the shortest timescale found being on the order of 10 ms. This short timescale suggests a compact central engine (3 × 103 km). We discuss further implications for the GRB fireball model and present a tantalizing correlation between the minimum timescale and redshift, which may in part be due to cosmological time dilation.

Golkhou, Vahid Z.; Butler, Nathaniel R.

2014-05-01

261

COMBINED GAMMA-RAY AND NEUTRON DETECTOR FOR MEASURING THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF AIRLESS PLANETARY BODIES.  

SciTech Connect

Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) constant1,y itnpinge all planetary bodies and produce characteristic gamma-ray lines and leakage neutrons as reaction products. Together with gamma-ray lines produced by radioactive decay, these nuclear emissions provide a powerful technique for remotely measuring the chemical composition of airless planetary surfaces. While lunar gamma-ray spectroscopy was first demonstrated with Apollo Gamma-Ray measurements, the full value of combined gamma-ray and neutron spectroscopy was shown for the first time with the Lunar Prospector Gamma-Ray (LP-GRS) and Neutron Spectrometers (LP-NS). Any new planetary mission will likely have the requirement that instrument mass and power be kept to a minimum. To satisfy such requirements, we have been designing a GR/NS instrument which combines all the functionality of the LP-GRS and LP-NS for a fraction of the mass and power. Specifically, our design uses a BGO scintillator crystal to measure gamma-rays from 0.5-10 MeV. A borated plastic scintillator and a lithium gliiss scintillator are used to separately measure thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons as well as serve as an anticoincidence shield for the BGO. All three scintillators are packaged together in a compact phoswich design. Modifications to this design could include a CdZnTe gamma-ray detector for enhanced energy resolution at low energies (0.5-3 MeV). While care needs to be taken to ensure that an adequate count rate is achieved for specific mission designs, previous mission successes demonstrate that a cornbined GR/NS provides essential information about planetary surfaces.

Lawrence, David J. (David Jeffery),; Barraclough, B. L. (Bruce L.); Feldman, W. C. (William C.); Prettyman, T. H. (Thomas H.); Wiens, R. C. (Roger C.)

2001-01-01

262

The Universe Viewed in Gamma-Rays 1 Study of the TeV gamma-ray emission mechanism of  

E-print Network

The Universe Viewed in Gamma-Rays 1 Study of the TeV gamma-ray emission mechanism of PSR 1706 spectrum of gamma rays between 0.5 to 4 TeV is obtained and is found to be consistent with previous results. In addition, we analyzed Chandra archive data, to derive the X-ray spectra of both the pulsar and the nebula

Enomoto, Ryoji

263

Science with the new generation high energy gamma- ray experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Conference is the fifth of a series of Workshops on High Energy Gamma- ray Experiments, following the Conferences held in Perugia 2003, Bari 2004, Cividale del Friuli 2005, Elba Island 2006. This year the focus was on the use of gamma-ray to study the Dark Matter component of the Universe, the origin and propagation of Cosmic Rays, Extra Large

M. Alvarez; D. D'Armiento; G. Agnetta; A. Alberdi; A. Antonelli; A. Argan; P. Assis; E. A. Baltz; C. Bambi; G. Barbiellini; H. Bartko; M. Basset; D. Bastieri; P. Belli; G. Benford; L. Bergstrom; R. Bernabei; G. Bertone; A. Biland; B. Biondo; F. Bocchino; E. Branchini; M. Brigida; T. Bringmann; P. Brogueira; A. Bulgarelli; J. A. Caballero; G. A. Caliandro; P. Camarri; F. Cappella; P. Caraveo; R. Carbone; M. Carvajal; S. Casanova; A. J. Castro-Tirado; O. Catalano; R. Catena; F. Celi; A. Celotti; R. Cerulli; A. Chen; R. Clay; V. Cocco; J. Conrad; E. Costa; A. Cuoco; G. Cusumano; C. J. Dai; B. Dawson; B. De Lotto; G. De Paris; A. de Ugarte Postigo; E. Del Monte; C. Delgado; A. Di Ciaccio; G. Di Cocco; S. Di Falco; G. Di Persio; B. L. Dingus; A. Dominguez; F. Donato; I. Donnarumma; M. Doro; J. Edsjo; J. M. Espino Navas; M. C. Espirito Santo; Y. Evangelista; C. Evoli; D. Fargion; C. Favuzzi; M. Feroci; M. Fiorini; L. Foggetta; N. Fornengo; T. Froysland; M. Frutti; F. Fuschino; J. L. Gomez; M. Gomez; D. Gaggero; N. Galante; M. I. Gallardo; M. Galli; J. E. Garcia; M. Garczarczyk; F. Gargano; M. Gaug; F. Gianotti; S. Giarrusso; B. Giebels; N. Giglietto; P. Giommi; F. Giordano; A. Giuliani; J. Glicenstein; P. Goncalves; D. Grasso; M. Guerriero; H. L. He; A. Incicchitti; J. Kirk; H. H. Kuang; A. La Barbera; G. La Rosa; C. Labanti; G. Lamanna; I. Lapshov; F. Lazzarotto; S. Liberati; F. Liello; P. Lipari; F. Longo; F. Loparco; M. Lozano; P. G. Lucentini De Sanctis; J. M. Ma; M. C. Maccarone; L. Maccione; V. Malvezzi; A. Mangano; M. Mariotti; M. Marisaldi; I. Martel; A. Masiero; E. Massaro; M. Mastropietro; E. Mattaini; F. Mauri; M. N. Mazziotta; S. Mereghetti; T. Mineo; S. Mizobuchi; A. Moiseev; M. Moles; C. Monte; F. Montecchia; E. Morelli; A. Morselli; I. Moskalenko; F. Nozzoli; J. F. Ormes; M. A. Peres-Torres; L. Pacciani; A. Pellizzoni; F. Perez-Bernal; F. Perotti; P. Picozza; L. Pieri; M. Pietroni; M. Pimenta; A. Pina; C. Pittori; C. Pontoni; G. Porrovecchio; F. Prada; M. Prest; D. Prosperi; R. Protheroe; G. Pucella; J. M. Quesada; J. M. Quintana; J. R. Quintero; S. Raino; M. Rapisarda; M. Rissi; J. Rodriguez; E. Rossi; G. Rowell; A. Rubini; F. Russo; M. Sanchez-Conde; B. Sacco; V. Scapin; M. Schelke; A. Segreto; A. Sellerholm; X. D. Sheng; A. Smith; P. Soffitta; R. Sparvoli; P. Spinelli; V. Stamatescu; L. S. Stark; M. Tavani; G. Thornton; L. G. Titarchuk; B. Tome; A. Traci; M. Trifoglio; A. Trois; P. Vallania; E. Vallazza; S. Vercellone; S. Vernetto; V. Vitale; N. Wild; Z. P. Ye; A. Zambra; F. Zandanel; D. Zanello

2007-01-01

264

The measurement of gamma ray induced heating in a mixed neutron and gamma ray environment  

SciTech Connect

The problem of measuring the gamma heating in a mixed DT neutron and gamma ray environment was explored. A new detector technique was developed to make this measurement. Gamma heating measurements were made in a low-Z assembly irradiated with 14-Mev neutrons and (n, n{prime}) gammas produced by a Texas Nuclear Model 9400 neutron generator. Heating measurements were made in the mid-line of the lattice using a proportional counter operating in the Continuously-varied Bias-voltage Acquisition mode. The neutron-induced signal was separated from the gamma-induced signal by exploiting the signal rise-time differences inherent to radiations of different linear energy transfer coefficient, which are observable in a proportional counter. The operating limits of this measurement technique were explored by varying the counter position in the low-Z lattice, hence changing the irradiation spectrum observed. The experiment was modelled numerically to help interpret the measured results. The transport of neutrons and gamma rays in the assembly was modelled using the one- dimensional radiation transport code ANISN/PC. The cross-section set used for these calculations was derived from the ENDF/B-V library using the code MC{sup 2}-2 for the case of DT neutrons slowing down in a low-Z material. The calculated neutron and gamma spectra in the slab and the relevant mass-stopping powers were used to construct weighting factors which relate the energy deposition in the counter fill-gas to that in the counter wall and in the surrounding material. The gamma energy deposition at various positions in the lattice is estimated by applying these weighting factors to the measured gamma energy deposition in the counter at those locations.

Chiu, H.K.

1991-10-01

265

Time correlation of cosmic-ray-induced neutrons and gamma rays at sea level  

E-print Network

Time correlation of cosmic-ray-induced neutrons and gamma rays at sea level G. Miloshevsky n , A November 2013 Keywords: Cosmic rays Multiplicity Coincidence Correlation Poisson distribution Feynman-Y statistic a b s t r a c t The neutrons and gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions in spallation

Harilal, S. S.

266

The gamma-ray light curves of SN 1987A  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations of the SN 1987A ejecta in four Co-56-decay gamma-ray lines, obtained using the SMM gamma-ray spectrometer between February 1987 and May 1989, are reported and analyzed. The instrument characteristics and data-reduction procedures are described, and the results are presented in extensive tables and graphs and discussed with reference to theoretical models. Gamma-ray fluxes significantly above possible instrumental levels (as determined from analysis of pre-1987 data) were detected in the second half of 1987 and the first half of 1988. The data are found to favor a model with some Co-56 in regions of low gamma-ray optical depth by 200 d after the SN outburst over models with all Co-56 at one depth within a uniform expanding envelope. Also investigated are the gamma-ray contribution to the total bolometric luminosity and the escape (and potential observability) of Co-57 gamma rays.

Leising, Mark D.; Share, Gerald H.

1990-01-01

267

Theoretical fluxes of gamma rays from the Martian surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical fluxes of gamma rays escaping the surface of Mars were calculated. These and other calculated fluxes are needed to model the counting rates in the Mars Odyssey gamma ray spectrometer that are used to determine elemental compositions and other results using these measurements. Cross sections for the formation of gamma rays by both thermal and fast neutrons were compiled and evaluated. These evaluated cross sections were used with neutron fluxes calculated with the Monte Carlo N Particle Extended (MCNPX) code to get gamma ray production rates as a function of depth in the Martian surface. The fluxes of these gamma rays as a function of angle at the Martian surface were then calculated using gamma ray attenuation coefficients.

Kim, Kyeong J.; Drake, Darrell M.; Reedy, Robert C.; Williams, Remo M. S.; Boynton, William V.

2006-12-01

268

Fermi gamma-ray imaging of a radio galaxy.  

PubMed

The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has detected the gamma-ray glow emanating from the giant radio lobes of the radio galaxy Centaurus A. The resolved gamma-ray image shows the lobes clearly separated from the central active source. In contrast to all other active galaxies detected so far in high-energy gamma-rays, the lobe flux constitutes a considerable portion (greater than one-half) of the total source emission. The gamma-ray emission from the lobes is interpreted as inverse Compton-scattered relic radiation from the cosmic microwave background, with additional contribution at higher energies from the infrared-to-optical extragalactic background light. These measurements provide gamma-ray constraints on the magnetic field and particle energy content in radio galaxy lobes, as well as a promising method to probe the cosmic relic photon fields. PMID:20360067

Abdo, A A; Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Atwood, W B; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Baughman, B M; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, T H; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cavazzuti, E; Cecchi, C; Celik, O; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Colafrancesco, S; Cominsky, L R; Conrad, J; Costamante, L; Cutini, S; Davis, D S; Dermer, C D; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; do Couto e Silva, E; Drell, P S; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Farnier, C; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Finke, J; Focke, W B; Fortin, P; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Georganopoulos, M; Germani, S; Giebels, B; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grove, J E; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Hughes, R E; Jackson, M S; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, T J; Johnson, W N; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kawai, N; Kerr, M; Knödlseder, J; Kocian, M L; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Makeev, A; Mazziotta, M N; McConville, W; McEnery, J E; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Porter, T A; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Razzaque, S; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, T; Ritz, S; Rochester, L S; Rodriguez, A Y; Romani, R W; Roth, M; Ryde, F; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Sambruna, R; Sanchez, D; Sander, A; Saz Parkinson, P M; Scargle, J D; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Smith, P D; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Starck, J-L; Stawarz, ?; Strickman, M S; Suson, D J; Tajima, H; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J B; Thayer, J G; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Uchiyama, Y; Usher, T L; Vasileiou, V; Vilchez, N; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Wallace, E; Wang, P; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Ylinen, T; Ziegler, M; Hardcastle, M J; Kazanas, D

2010-05-01

269

Gamma ray bursts from extragalactic sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The properties of gamma ray bursts of classical type are found to be explicable in terms of high speed collisions between stars. A model is proposed in which the frequency of such collisions can be calculated. The model is then applied to the nuclei of galaxies in general on the basis that galaxies, or at least some fraction of them, originate in the expulsion of stars from creation centers. Evidence that low level activity of this kind is also taking place at the center of our own Galaxy is discussed. The implications for galactic evolution are discussed and a negative view of black holes is taken.

Hoyle, Fred; Burbidge, Geoffrey

1992-01-01

270

Gamma-Ray Bursts observed by INTEGRAL  

E-print Network

During the first six months of operations, six Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) have been detected in the field of view of the INTEGRAL instruments and localized by the INTEGRAL Burst Alert System (IBAS): a software for the automatic search of GRBs and the rapid distribution of their coordinates. I describe the current performances of IBAS and review the main results obtained so far. The coordinates of the latest burst localized by IBAS, GRB 031203, have been distributed within 20 s from the burst onset and with an uncertainty radius of only 2.7 arcmin.

S. Mereghetti

2003-12-12

271

Gamma-ray burster counterparts - Radio  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many observers and theorists have suggested that gamma-ray bursters (GRBs) are related to highly magnetized rotating, neutron stars, in which case an analogy with pulsars implies that GRBs would be prodigious emitters of polarized radio emission during quiescence. The paper reports on a survey conducted with the Very Large Array radio telescope of 10 small GRB error regions for quiescent radio emission at wavelengths of 2, 6, and 20 cm. The sensitivity of the survey varied from 0.1 to 0.8 mJy. The observations did indeed reveal four radio sources inside the GRB error regions.

Schaefer, Bradley E.; Cline, Thomas L.; Desai, U. D.; Teegarden, B. J.; Atteia, J.-L.; Barat, C.; Estulin, I. V.; Evans, W. D.; Fenimore, E. E.; Hurley, K.

1989-01-01

272

The microchannel x-ray telescope for the gamma-ray burst mission SVOM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the Microchannel X-ray Telescope, a new light and compact focussing telescope that will be ying on the Sino-French SVOM mission dedicated to Gamma-Ray Burst science. The MXT design is based on the coupling of square pore micro-channel plates with a low noise pnCCD. MXT will provide an effective area of about 50 cm2, and its point spread function is expected to be better than 3.7 arc min (FWHM) on axis. The estimated sensitivity is adequate to detect all the afterglows of the SVOM GRBs, and to localize them to better then 60 arc sec after five minutes of observation.

Götz, D.; Osborne, J.; Cordier, B.; Paul, J.; Evans, P.; Beardmore, A.; Martindale, A.; Willingale, R.; O'Brien, P.; Basa, S.; Rossin, C.; Godet, O.; Webb, N.; Greiner, J.; Nandra, K.; Meidinger, N.; Perinati, E.; Santangelo, A.; Mercier, K.; Gonzalez, F.

2014-07-01

273

High Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts - Before GLAST  

SciTech Connect

Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are short and intense emission of soft {gamma}-rays, which have fascinated astronomers and astrophysicists since their unexpected discovery in 1960s. The X-ray/optical/radio afterglow observations confirm the cosmological origin of GRBs, support the fireball model, and imply a long-activity of the central engine. The high-energy {gamma}-ray emission (> 20 MeV) from GRBs is particularly important because they shed some lights on the radiation mechanisms and can help us to constrain the physical processes giving rise to the early afterglows. In this work, we review observational and theoretical studies of the high-energy emission from GRBs. Special attention is given to the expected high-energy emission signatures accompanying the canonical early-time X-ray afterglow that was observed by the Swift X-ray Telescope. We also discuss the detection prospect of the upcoming GLAST satellite and the current ground-based Cerenkov detectors.

Fan, Yi-Zhong; Piran, Tsvi

2011-11-29

274

DETECTION OF VHE {gamma}-RAYS FROM HESS J0632+057 DURING THE 2011 FEBRUARY X-RAY OUTBURST WITH THE MAGIC TELESCOPES  

SciTech Connect

The very high energy (VHE) {gamma}-ray source HESS J0632+057 has recently been confirmed to be a {gamma}-ray binary. The optical counterpart is the Be star MWC 148, and a compact object of unknown nature orbits it every {approx}321 days with a high eccentricity of {approx}0.8. We monitored HESS J0632+057 with the stereoscopic MAGIC telescopes from 2010 October to 2011 March and detected significant VHE {gamma}-ray emission during 2011 February, when the system exhibited an X-ray outburst. We find no {gamma}-ray signal in the other observation periods when the system did not show increased X-ray flux. Thus, HESS J0632+057 exhibits {gamma}-ray variability on timescales of the order of one to two months possibly linked to the X-ray outburst that takes place about 100 days after the periastron passage. Furthermore, our measurements provide for the first time the {gamma}-ray spectrum down to about 140 GeV and indicate no turnover of the spectrum at low energies. We compare the properties of HESS J0632+057 with the similar {gamma}-ray binary LS I +61 Degree-Sign 303 and discuss the possible origin of the multi-wavelength emission of the source.

Aleksic, J.; Blanch, O. [IFAE, Edifici Cn., Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Alvarez, E. A.; Asensio, M.; Barrio, J. A. [Grupo de Fisica Altas Energias, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Antonelli, L. A.; Bonnoli, G. [INAF National Institute for Astrophysics, I-00136 Rome (Italy); Antoranz, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Siena and INFN Pisa, I-53100 Siena (Italy); Backes, M. [Technische Universitaet Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund (Germany); Barres de Almeida, U.; Bock, R. K.; Borla Tridon, D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, D-80805 Muenchen (Germany); Bastieri, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova and INFN, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Becerra Gonzalez, J.; Berger, K. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Bednarek, W. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Lodz, PL-90236 Lodz (Poland); Bernardini, E. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Biland, A.; Boller, A. [ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Bosch-Ramon, V., E-mail: jogler@slac.stanford.edu, E-mail: pmunar@am.ub.es [Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Barcelona (ICC/IEEC), E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); and others

2012-07-20

275

Pre-flight performance of a micro-satellite TSUBAME for X-ray polarimetry of gamma-ray bursts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To measure the polarization of gamma-ray bursts in X-ray energy band, we have developed a 50 kg micro-satellite named "SUBAME". The satellite has a compact and high-sensitive hard X-ray polarimeter employing newly-developed shock resistant multi-anode photomultipliers and Si avalanche photodiodes. Thanks to the ultra low-noise detectors and signal processors, the polarimeter can cover a wide energy range of 30􀀀200 keV even at 25°C with a high modulation factor of 62 %. TSUBAME is in the phase of final functional tests waiting for shipping to Baikonur and will be launched into a sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 700 km in late 2014. In this paper, the pre-ight performance of the gamma-ray detector system and the satellite bus system are presented.

Yatsu, Yoichi; Ito, Kei; Kurita, Shin; Arimoto, Makoto; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Matsushita, Masanori; Kawajiri, Shota; Kitamura, Shogo; Matunaga, Saburo; Kimura, Shin'ichi; Kataoka, Jun; Nakamori, Takeshi; Kubo, Sin

2014-07-01

276

Report of the x ray and gamma ray sensors panel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Overall five major areas of technology are recommended for development in order to meet the science requirements of the Astrotech 21 mission set. These are: detectors for high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy, cryogenic detectors for improved x ray spectral and spatial resolution, advanced x ray charge coupled devices (CCDs) for higher energy resolution and larger format, extension to higher energies, liquid and solid position sensitive detectors for improving stopping power in the energy range 5 to 500 keV and 0.2 to 2 MeV. Development plans designed to achieve the desired capabilities on the time scales required by the technology freeze dates have been recommended in each of these areas.

Szymkowiak, Andrew; Collins, S.; Kurfess, J.; Mahoney, W.; Mccammon, D.; Pehl, R.; Ricker, G.

1991-01-01

277

Global Characteristics of Gamma-Ray Bursts Observed with INTEGRAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gamma-ray instruments on board INTEGRAL have detected and localized 62 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) to date. The peak flux distribution of these bursts shows that INTEGRAL detects proportionally more weak GRBs than Swift because of its higher sensitivity in a smaller field of view. Spectral lags, i.e., the time delay in the arrival of low-energy gamma rays with respect to

S. Foley; S. McGlynn; L. Hanlon; S. McBreen; A. Martin-Carrillo; B. McBreen; M. Topinka; S. Meehan

2009-01-01

278

Gamma Ray Bursts: Explaining the Universe's Biggest Bangs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This radio broadcast discusses research into gamma ray bursts, the largest explosions in the universe. Topics include the SWIFT satellite mission and discoveries; the immense energy output of a gamma ray burst, and the causes of long and short gamma ray bursts (long bursts caused by core collapse into a black hole, and the short bursts from binary stellar system mergers, such as a neutron star colliding with a black hole). The broadcast is 28 minutes and 50 seconds in length.

279

Gamma Ray/neutron Spectrometers for Planetary Elemental Mapping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Los Alamos has designed gamma ray and neutron spectrometers for Lunar Scout, two robotic missions to map the Moon from 100 km polar orbits. Knowledge of the elemental composition is desirable in identifying resources and for geochemical studies and can be obtained using gamma ray and neutron spectrometers. Measurements with gamma ray and neutron spectrometers complement each other in determining elemental abundances in a planet's surface. Various aspects of the instruments are discussed.

Reedy, R. C.; Auchampaugh, G. F.; Barraclough, B. L.; Burt, W. W.; Byrd, R. C.; Drake, D. M.; Edwards, B. C.; Feldman, W. C.; Martin, R. A.; Moss, C. E.

1993-01-01

280

Gamma-ray measurements for simultaneous calorimetric assay  

SciTech Connect

Gamma-ray measurements obtained in the course of developing a simultaneous calorimetric assay system are described. Gamma-ray measurements of the isotopic composition of six, well-characterized plutonium oxide samples were obtained while the samples were in the calorimeter. These samples represent a range of plutonium masses from 19 to 231 g and two isotopic compositions. The values of effective specific power determined from the gamma-ray measurements agree with the values determined from destructive assay.

Rakel, D.A.

1982-03-02

281

Fermi GBM Observations of Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation explores the relationship between Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes (TGF) and lightning. Using data from the World-Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN), and the gamma ray observations from Fermi's Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), the study reviews any causal relationship between TGFs and lightning. The conclusion of the study is that the TGF and lightning are simultaneous with out a causal relationship.

Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V.; Fishman, G. J.; Bhat, P. N.; Paciesas, W. S.; Preece, R.; Kippen, R. M.; vonKienlin, A.; Dwyer, J. R.; Smith, D. M.; Holzworth, R.

2010-01-01

282

The Gamma-Ray Background from Blazars: A New Look  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of a new model calculation of the gamma-ray background\\u000aproduced by unresolved blazars, using the second EGRET catalogue and taking\\u000aaccount of flaring. These results are compared to the preliminary gamma-ray\\u000abackground spectrum reported recently by the EGRET team. We find that blazars\\u000acan account for the entire extragalactic gamma-ray background observed by\\u000aEGRET. In addition,

F. W. Stecker; M. H. Salamon

1996-01-01

283

The Swift Gamma Ray Burst Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Swift mission: scheduled for launch in early 2004: is a multiwavelength observatory for gamma-ray burst (GRB) astronomy. It is the first-of-its-kind autonomous rapid-slewing satellite for transient astronomy and pioneers the way for future rapid-reaction and multiwavelength missions. It will be far more powerful than any previous GRB mission, observing more than 100 bursts per year and performing detailed X-ray and UV/optical afterglow observations spanning timescales from 1 minute to several days after the burst. The objectives are to: 1) determine the origin of GFU3s; 2) classify GRBs and search for new types; 3) study the interaction of the ultra-relativistic outflows of GRBs with their surrounding medium; and 4) use GRBs to study the early universe out to z greater than 10. The mission is being developed by a NASA-led international collaboration. It will carry three instruments: a new-generation wide-field gamma-ray (15-150 keV) detector that will detect bursts, calculate 1-4 arcmin positions: and trigger autonomous spacecraft slews; a narrow-field X-ray telescope that will give 5 arcsec positions and perform spectroscopy in the 0.2 to 10 keV band; and a narrow-field UV/optical telescope that will operate in the 170-600 nm band and provide 0.3 arcsec positions and optical finding charts. Redshift determinations will be made for most bursts. In addition to the primary GRB science, the mission will perform a hard X-ray survey to a sensitivity of approx. 1 mCrab (approx. 2 x l0(exp -11) erg/sq cm s in the 15-150 keV band), more than an order of magnitude better than HEAO A-4. A flexible data and operations system will allow rapid follow-up observations of all types of high-energy transients. with rapid data downlink and uplink available through the NASA TDRSS system. Swift transient data will be rapidly distributed to the astronomical community and all interested observers are encouraged to participate in follow-up measurements. A Guest Investigator program for the mission will provide funding for community involvement. Innovations from the Swift program applicable to the future include: 1) a large-area gamma-ray detector us- ing the new CdZnTe detectors; 2) an autonomous rapid slewing spacecraft; 3) a multiwavelength payload combining optical, X-ray, and gamma-ray instruments; 4) an observing program coordinated with other ground-based and space-based observatories; and 5) immediate multiwavelength data flow to the community. The mission is currently funded for 2 years of operations and the spacecraft will have a lifetime to orbital decay of approx. 8 years.

Gehrels, N.; Chincarini, G.; Giommi, P.; Mason, K. O.; Nousek, J. A.; Wells, A. A.; White, N. E.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Burrows, D. N.; Cominsky, L. R.

2004-01-01

284

Gamma Ray Burst Discoveries with SWIFT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma-ray bursts are among the most fascinating occurrences in the cosmos. They are thought to be the birth cries of black holes throughout the universe. There has been tremendous recent progress in our understanding of bursts with the new data from the SWIFT mission. SWIFT was launched in November 2004 and is an international multiwavelength observatory designed to determine the origin of bursts and use them to probe the early Universe. Findings from the mission will be presented with emphasis on the relativistic outflows from GRBs. A huge step forward has been made in our understanding of the mysterious short GRBs. High redshift bursts have been detected from enormous explosions early in the universe. GRBs have been found with giant X-ray flares occurring in their afterglow, challenging predictions of the fireball model. These, and other topics, will be discussed.

Gehrels, Neil

2007-01-01

285

Inelastic cross sections from gamma-ray measurements  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of gamma rays following neutron induced reactions have been studied with the Germanium Array for Neutron-induced Excitations (GEANIE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) for many years. Gamma-ray excitation functions and coincidence studies provide insight into nuclear reaction mechanisms as well as expanding our knowledge of energy levels and gamma-rays. Samples studied with Ge detectors at LANSCE range from Be to Pu. Fe, Cr and Ti have been considered for use as reference cross sections. An overview of the measurements and efforts to create a reliable neutron-induced gamma-ray reference cross section will be presented.

Nelson, Ronald Owen [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-06

286

Measurement of Disintegration Rates and Absolute {gamma}-ray Intensities  

SciTech Connect

The majority of practical radioactive materials decay by modes that include {gamma}-ray emission. For questions of 'how much' or 'how pure', one must know the absolute intensities of the major radiations. We are using liquid scintillation counting (LSC) to measurements of disintegration rates, coupled with {gamma}-ray spectroscopy to measure absolute {gamma}-ray emission probabilities. Described is a study of the 227Th chain yielding absolute {gamma}-ray intensities with {approx}0.5% accuracy and information on LSC efficiencies.

DeVries, Daniel J.; Griffin, Henry C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

2006-03-13

287

GAMMA-RAY BURST PREDICTIONS FOR THE FERMI GAMMA RAY SPACE TELESCOPE  

SciTech Connect

Results of a phenomenological model to estimate the gamma-ray burst (GRB) detection rate by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope are reported. This estimate is based on the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) 4B GRB fluence distribution, the mean ratio of fluences measured at 100 MeV-5 GeV with Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) and at 20 keV-2 MeV with BATSE, and the mean EGRET GRB spectrum for the five EGRET spark-chamber GRBs. For a 10% fluence ratio and a number spectral index {alpha}{sub 1} = -2 at 100 MeV- 5 GeV energies, we estimate a rate of {approx}20 and 4 GRBs yr{sup -1} in the Fermi Large Area Telescope field of view (FOV) with at least five photons with energy E>100 MeV and E>1 GeV, respectively. We also estimate {approx}1.5 GRBs yr{sup -1} in the Fermi FOV where at least one photon with energy E>10 GeV is detected. For these parameters, we estimate {approx}1-2 GRBs yr{sup -1} detected with the Fermi telescope with more than 100 {gamma}-rays with E {approx}> 100 MeV. Comparison predictions for {alpha}{sub 1} = -2.2, different fluence ratios, and the AGILE {gamma}-ray satellite are made. Searches for different classes of GRBs using a diagram plotting 100 MeV-10 GeV fluence versus 20 keV- 20 MeV fluence is considered as a way to search for separate classes of GRBs and, specifically, spectral differences between the short-hard and long-duration GRB classes, and for hard components in GRBs.

Le, Truong; Dermer, Charles D. [Space Science Division, Code 7653, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)], E-mail: tle@ssd5.nrl.navy.mil, E-mail: charles.dermer@nrl.navy.mil

2009-08-01

288

ICF gamma-ray reaction history diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reaction history measurements, such as nuclear bang time and burn width, are fundamental components of diagnosing ICF implosions and will be employed to help steer the National Ignition Facility (NIF) towards ignition. Fusion gammas provide a direct measure of nuclear interaction rate (unlike x-rays) without being compromised by Doppler spreading (unlike neutrons). Gas Cherenkov Detectors that convert fusion gamma rays to UV/visible Cherenkov photons for collection by fast optical recording systems have established their usefulness in illuminating ICF physics in several experimental campaigns at OMEGA. In particular, bang time precision better than 25 ps has been demonstrated, well below the 50 ps accuracy requirement defined by the NIF. NIF Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostics are being developed based on optimization of sensitivity, bandwidth, dynamic range, cost, and NIF-specific logistics, requirements and extreme radiation environment. Implementation will occur in two phases. The first phase consists of four channels mounted to the outside of the target chamber at ~6 m from target chamber center (GRH-6m) coupled to ultra-fast photo-multiplier tubes (PMT). This system is intended to operate in the 1013-1017 neutron yield range expected during the early THD campaign. It will have high enough bandwidth to provide accurate bang times and burn widths for the expected THD reaction histories (> 80 ps fwhm). Successful operation of the first GRH-6m channel has been demonstrated at OMEGA, allowing a verification of instrument sensitivity, timing and EMI/background suppression. The second phase will consist of several channels located just inside the target bay shield wall at 15 m from target chamber center (GRH-15m) with optical paths leading through the cement shield wall to well-shielded streak cameras and PMTs. This system is intended to operate in the 1016-1020 yield range expected during the DT ignition campaign, providing higher temporal resolution for the expected burn widths of 10-20 ps associated with ignition. Multiple channels at each phase will allow for increased redundancy, reliability, accuracy and flexibility. In addition, inherent energy thresholding capability combined with this multiplicity will allow exploration of interesting gamma-ray physics well beyond the ignition campaign.

Herrmann, H. W.; Young, C. S.; Mack, J. M.; Kim, Y. H.; McEvoy, A.; Evans, S.; Sedillo, T.; Batha, S.; Schmitt, M.; Wilson, D. C.; Langenbrunner, J. R.; Malone, R.; Kaufman, M. I.; Cox, B. C.; Frogget, B.; Miller, E. K.; Ali, Z. A.; Tunnell, T. W.; Stoeffl, W.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M.

2010-08-01

289

Heterogeneity in Short Gamma-ray Bursts  

E-print Network

We analyze the Swift/BAT sample of short gamma-ray bursts, using an objective Bayesian Block procedure to extract temporal descriptors of the bursts' initial pulse complexes (IPCs). The sample comprises 12 and 41 bursts with and without extended emission (EE) components, respectively. IPCs of non-EE bursts are dominated by single pulse structures, while EE bursts tend to have two or more pulse structures. The medians of characteristic timescales - durations, pulse structure widths, and peak intervals - for EE bursts are factors of ~ 2-3 longer than for non-EE bursts. We also examine the short burst X-ray afterglows as observed by the Swift/XRT. The median flux of the initial XRT detections for EE bursts (~ 6 x 10^-10 erg/cm^2/s) is ~ 20 x brighter than for non-EE bursts, and the median X-ray afterglow duration for EE bursts (~ 60,000 s) is ~ 30 x longer than for non-EE bursts. The tendency for EE bursts toward longer prompt-emission timescales and higher initial X-ray afterglow fluxes implies larger energy in...

Norris, Jay P; Scargle, Jeffrey D

2011-01-01

290

The Transient Gamma-Ray Spectrometer: A New High Resolution Detector for Gamma-Ray Burst Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Transient Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (TGRS) to be flown aboard the WIND spacecraft is primarily designed to perform high resolution spectroscopy of transient gamma-ray events, such as cosmic [gamma]-ray bursts and solar flares, over the energy range 20 keV to 10 MeV with an expected spectroscopic resolution of E\\/[delta]E = 500. The detector itself consists of a 215 cm[sup 3] high

H. Seifert; R. Baker; T. L. Cline; N. Gehrels; J. Jermakian; T. Nolan; R. Ramaty; D. A. Sheppard; G. Smith; D. E. Stilwell; B. J. Teegarden; J. Trombka; A. Owens; C. P. Cork; D. A. Landis; P. N. Luke; N. W. Madden; D. Malone; R. H. Pehl; H. Yaver; K. Hurley; S. Mathias; A. H. Post Jr.

1992-01-01

291

Near-infrared and gamma-ray monitoring of TANAMI gamma-ray bright sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Spectral energy distribution and its variability are basic tools for understanding the physical processes operating in active galactic nuclei (AGN). Aims: In this paper we report the results of a one-year near-infrared (NIR) and optical monitoring of a sample of 22 AGN known to be gamma-ray emitters, aimed at discovering correlations between optical and gamma-ray emission. Methods: We observed our objects with the Rapid Eye Mount (REM) telescope in J,H,K, and R bands nearly twice every month during their visibility window and derived light curves and spectral indexes. We also analyzed the gamma-ray data from the Fermi gamma-ray Space Telescope, making weekly averages. Results: Six sources were never detected during our monitoring, proving to be fainter than their historical Two micron all sky survey (2MASS) level. All of the sixteen detected sources showed marked flux density variability, while the spectral indexes remained unchanged within our sensitivity limits. Steeper sources showed, on average, a larger variability. From the NIR light curves we also computed a variability speed index for each detected source. Only one source (PKS 0208-512) underwent an NIR flare during our monitoring. Half of the sources showed a regular flux density trend on a one-year time scale, but do not show any other peculiar characteristic. The broadband spectral index ?ro appears to be a good proxy of the NIR spectral index only for BL Lac objects. No clear correlation between NIR and gamma-ray data is evident in our data, save for PKS 0537-441, PKS 0521-360, PKS 2155-304, and PKS 1424-418. The gamma-ray/NIR flux ratio showed a large spread, QSO being generally gamma-louder than BL Lac, with a marked correlation with the estimated peak frequency (?peak) of the synchrotron emission. A table of the photometry is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/555/A2

Nesci, R.; Tosti, G.; Pursimo, T.; Ojha, R.; Kadler, M.

2013-07-01

292

Gamma Ray Burst Discoveries with the Swift Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the current understanding of Gamma Ray Bursts. It covers the Long GRBs, our current understanding of Collapsar, Short GRBs, afterglows, and reduced trigger threshold. It also discusses the Hard X-ray Sky Survey.

Gehrels, Neil

2007-01-01

293

Evidence for a spatially extended component of gamma rays from solar flares  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present gamma-ray measurements of a large solar flare that occurred beyond the western solar limb on September 29, 1989. The gamma-ray spectrum shows a neutron capture line which is much stronger than predicted by limb-darkening curves that fit the measurements for flares on the visible hemisphere. We show that this strong neutron capture line can be explained if, in addition to the compact impulsive phase component that normally dominates the total fluence, there is a spatially extended component. For the September 29, 1989 flare we find that such a spatially extended region must subtend more than about 30 deg on the solar surface. We suggest that the extended component could be powered by particles that diffuse from a compact impulsive region or by particles that diffuse into the lower solar atmosphere from a large-scale acceleration site.

Vestrand, W. T.; Forrest, David J.

1993-01-01

294

AGILE and Gamma-Ray Bursts  

SciTech Connect

AGILE is a Scientific Mission dedicated to high-energy astrophysics supported by ASI with scientific participation of INAF and INFN. The AGILE instrument is designed to simultaneously detect and image photons in the 30 MeV - 50 GeV and 15 - 45 keV energy bands with excellent imaging and timing capabilities, and a large field of view covering {approx} 1/5 of the entire sky at energies above 30 MeV. A CsI calorimeter is capable of GRB triggering in the energy band 0.3-50 MeV. The broadband detection of GRBs and the study of implications for particle acceleration and high energy emission are primary goals of th emission. AGILE can image GRBs with 2-3 arcminutes error boxes in the hard X-ray range, and provide broadband photon-by photon detection in the 15-45 keV, 03-50 MeV, and 30 MeV-30 GeV energy ranges. Microsecond on-board photon tagging and a {approx} 100 microsecond gamma-ray detection deadtime will be crucial for fast GRB timing. On-board calculated GRB coordinates and energy fluxes will be quickly transmitted to the ground by an ORBCOMM transceiver. AGILE have recently (December 2005) completed its gamma-ray calibration. It is now (January 2006) undergoing satellite integration and testing. The PLSV launch is planned in early 2006. AGILE is then foreseen to be fully operational during the summer of 2006. It will be the only mission entirely dedicated to high-energy astrophysics above 30 MeV during the period mid-2006/mid-2007.

Longo, Francesco [Department of Physics, University of Trieste (Italy); INFN, section of Trieste (Italy); Tavani, M.; Barbiellini, G.; Argan, A.; Basset, M.; Boffelli, F.; Bulgarelli, A.; Caraveo, P.; Cattaneo, P.; Chen, A.; Costa, E.; Del Monte, E.; Di Cocco, G.; Di Persio, G.; Donnarumma, I.; Feroci, M.; Fiorini, M.; Foggetta, L.; Froysland, T.; Frutti, M. (and others)

2006-05-19

295

Low and medium energy galactic gamma-ray observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observation of 0.2-100 MeV diffuse gamma radiation emitted from the Galaxy can provide information on the intensities of 5-50 MeV/nucleon cosmic-rays and 50 MeV electrons in interstellar space. Recent measurements of gamma-rays emitted from the galactic center region provide evidence for a diffuse continuum between 10 and 100 MeV. The intensities of the recently reported nuclear line gamma rays, also observed in the direction of the galactic center, require the presence of intense fluxes of low-energy cosmic-rays in the inner Galaxy if the gamma-rays are produced on a galactic scale. Current detection techniques for 0.1-100 MeV gamma-ray measurements are summarized and their capabilities for measuring the diffuse galactic emission are evaluated.

Share, G. H.

1976-01-01

296

Low- and medium-energy galactic gamma-ray observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observation of 0.2 to 100 MeV-diffuse gamma-radiation emitted from a galaxy provides information on the intensities of 5 to 50 MeV/nucleon cosmic-rays and approximately less than 50-MeV electrons in interstellar space. Recent measurements of gamma-rays emitted from the galactic center region provide evidence for a diffuse continuum between 10 and 100 MeV, which is dominant over the pi-decay emission generated in high-energy nuclear collisions. The intensities of the recently reported nuclear line gamma-rays, also observed in the direction of the galactic center, require the presence of intense fluxes of low energy cosmic rays in the inner galaxy if the gamma-ray are produced on a galactic scale. Current detection techniques for 0.1 to 100 MeV gamma-ray measurements are summarized, and their capabilities for measuring the diffuse galactic emission are evaluated.

Share, G. H.

1977-01-01

297

Discoveries by the Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fermi is a large space gamma-ray mission developed by NASA and the DOE with major contributions from France, Germany, Italy, Japan and Sweden. It was launched in June 2008 and has been performing flawlessly since then. The main instrument is the Large Area Telescope (LAT) operating in the 20 MeV to 300 GeV range and a smaller monitor instrument is the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) operating in the 8 keV to 40 MeV range. New findings are occurring every week. Some of the key discoveries are: 1) Discovery of many new gamma-ray pulsars, including gamma-ray only and millisecond pulsars. 2) Detection of high energy gamma-ray emission from globular clusters, most likely due to summed emission from msec pulsars. 3) Discovery of delayed and extended high energy gamma-ray emission from short and long gamma-ray busts. 4) Detection of approximately 250 gamma-ray bursts per year with the GBM instrument. 5) Most accurate measurement of the cosmic ray electron spectrum between 30 GeV and 1 TeV, showing some excess above the conventional diffusion model. The talk will present the new discoveries and their implications.

Gehrels, Neil

2011-01-01

298

MAXI observations of gamma-ray bursts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) Gas Slit Camera (GSC) detects gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), including bursts with soft spectra, such as X-ray flashes (XRFs). MAXI/GSC is sensitive to the energy range from 2 to 30 keV. This energy range is lower than other currently operating instruments which are capable of detecting GRBs. Since the beginning of the MAXI operation on 2009 August 15, GSC observed 35 GRBs up to the middle of 2013. One third of them were also observed by other satellites. The rest of them show a trend to have soft spectra and low fluxes. Because of the contribution of those XRFs, the MAXI GRB rate is about three times higher than those expected from the BATSE log N-log P distribution. When we compare it to the observational results of the Wide-field X-ray Monitor on the High Energy Transient Explorer 2, which covers the the same energy range as that of MAXI/GSC, we find the possibility that many of the MAXI bursts are XRFs with Epeak lower than 20 keV. We discuss the source of soft GRBs observed only by MAXI. The MAXI log N-log S distribution suggests that the MAXI XRFs are distributed over a closer distance than hard GRBs. Since the distributions of the hardness of galactic stellar flares and X-ray bursts overlap with those of MAXI GRBs, we discuss the possibility of confusion of such galactic transients with the MAXI GRB samples.

Serino, Motoko; Sakamoto, Takanori; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Yoshida, Atsumasa; Ohno, Masanori; Ogawa, Yuji; Nishimura, Yasunori; Fukushima, Kosuke; Higa, Masaya; Ishikawa, Kazuto; Ishikawa, Masaki; Kawamuro, Taiki; Kimura, Masashi; Matsuoka, Masaru; Mihara, Tatehiro; Morii, Mikio; Nakagawa, Yujin E.; Nakahira, Satoshi; Nakajima, Motoki; Nakano, Yuki; Negoro, Hitoshi; Onodera, Takuya; Sasaki, Masayuki; Shidatsu, Megumi; Sugimoto, Juri; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Suwa, Fumitoshi; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Tachibana, Yutaro; Takagi, Toshihiro; Toizumi, Takahiro; Tomida, Hiroshi; Tsuboi, Yohko; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Ueno, Shiro; Usui, Ryuichi; Yamada, Hisaki; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Yamauchi, Makoto; Yoshidome, Koshiro; Yoshii, Taketoshi

2014-10-01

299

Contraband detection using high-energy gamma rays from 16O*  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-energy monoenergetic gamma rays (6.13 and 7.12 MeV) from the decay of excited states of the 16O* nucleus are highly penetrating and thus offer potential for non- intrusive inspection of loaded containers for narcotics, explosives, and other contraband items. These excited states can be produced by irradiation of water with 14-MeV neutrons from a DT neutron generator or through the 19F(p,alpha)16O* reaction. Resonances in 19F(p,alpha)16O* at proton energies between 340 keV and 2 MeV allow use of a low-energy accelerator to provide a compact, portable gamma source of reasonable intensity. The present work provides estimates of gamma source parameters and suggests how various types of contraband could be detected. Gamma rays can be used to perform transmission or emission radiography of containers or other objects. Through the use of (gamma,n) and (gamma,fission) reactions, this technique is also capable of detecting special nuclear materials such as deuterium, lithium, beryllium, uranium, and plutonium. Analytic and Monte Carlo techniques are used to model empty and loaded container inspection for accelerator-produced gamma, radioisotope, and x-ray sources.

Micklich, Bradley J.; Fink, Charles L.; Sagalovsky, Leonid; Smith, Donald L.

1997-02-01

300

Contraband detection using high-energy gamma rays from {sup 16}O*  

SciTech Connect

High-energy monoenergetic gamma rays (6.13 and 7.12 MeV) from the decay of excited states of the {sup 16}O* nucleus are highly penetrating and thus offer potential for non-intrusive inspection of loaded containers for narcotics, explosives, and other contraband items. These excited states can be produced by irradiation of water with 14-MeV neutrons from a DT neutron generator or through the {sup 19}F(p,{alpha}){sup 16}O* reaction. Resonances in {sup 19}F(p,{alpha}){sup 16}O* at proton energies between 340 keV and 2 MeV allow use of a low-energy accelerator to provide a compact, portable gamma source of reasonable intensity. The present work provides estimates of gamma source parameters and suggests how various types of contraband could be detected. Gamma rays can be used to perform transmission or emission radiography of containers or other objects. Through the use of ({gamma}, n) and ({gamma}, fission) reactions, this technique is also capable of detecting special nuclear materials such as deuterium, lithium, beryllium, uranium, and plutonium. Analytic and Monte Carlo techniques are used to model empty and loaded container inspection for accelerator-produced gamma, radioisotope, and x-ray sources.

Micklich, B.J.; Fink, C.L.; Sagalovsky, L.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Technology Development Div.

1996-12-01

301

Coincidence Techniques in Gamma-ray Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many different gamma-ray detection systems, the events are registered in coincidence, i.e. within short time interval, by two or more detectors. Depending on purpose of an experiment, these events can be rejected (anticoincidence counting) or acquired (coincidence counting). The construction, setup and application of several coincidence systems in Laboratory for nuclear physics of Department of Physics in Novi sad are presented. The anti-Compton shield for HPGe detector based on big annular NaI(Tl) detector and corresponding measurement which proved existing of 283 keV level in Ba-137 populating by beta decay of Cs-137, is described. The application of this system (in addition with NaI(Tl) plug detector) where HPGe detector is actively shielded by NaI(Tl) detector for investigation of double beta decay of positron emitters (Cr-50, Zn-64,) is also shown. The improving of detection limit of HPGe detector by the active shield consisting of five plastic scintillation detectors is presented, as well as the measurements of cross sections for X-ray production, induced by interaction of cosmic-ray muons with massive lead shield. We found that the prompt and delayed coincidence events between plastic veto detector and Ge detector can be sharply divided in two groups. Also, the bremsstrahlung and annihilation events can be time resolved from (n,n') events, although all these events belong to the group of delayed events.

Bikit, Istvan; Mrdja, Dusan; Veskovic, Miroslav; Krmar, Miodrag; Slivka, Jaroslav; Todorovic, Natasa; Bikit, Kristina

302

GROSS- GAMMA RAY OBSERVATORY ATTITUDE DYNAMICS SIMULATOR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) spacecraft will constitute a major advance in gamma ray astronomy by offering the first opportunity for comprehensive observations in the range of 0.1 to 30,000 megaelectronvolts (MeV). The Gamma Ray Observatory Attitude Dynamics Simulator, GROSS, is designed to simulate this mission. The GRO Dynamics Simulator consists of three separate programs: the Standalone Profile Program; the Simulator Program, which contains the Simulation Control Input/Output (SCIO) Subsystem, the Truth Model (TM) Subsystem, and the Onboard Computer (OBC) Subsystem; and the Postprocessor Program. The Standalone Profile Program models the environment of the spacecraft and generates a profile data set for use by the simulator. This data set contains items such as individual external torques; GRO spacecraft, Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS), and solar and lunar ephemerides; and star data. The Standalone Profile Program is run before a simulation. The SCIO subsystem is the executive driver for the simulator. It accepts user input, initializes parameters, controls simulation, and generates output data files and simulation status display. The TM subsystem models the spacecraft dynamics, sensors, and actuators. It accepts ephemerides, star data, and environmental torques from the Standalone Profile Program. With these and actuator commands from the OBC subsystem, the TM subsystem propagates the current state of the spacecraft and generates sensor data for use by the OBC and SCIO subsystems. The OBC subsystem uses sensor data from the TM subsystem, a Kalman filter (for attitude determination), and control laws to compute actuator commands to the TM subsystem. The OBC subsystem also provides output data to the SCIO subsystem for output to the analysts. The Postprocessor Program is run after simulation is completed. It generates printer and CRT plots and tabular reports of the simulated data at the direction of the user. GROSS is written in FORTRAN 77 and ASSEMBLER and has been implemented on a VAX 11/780 under VMS 4.5. It has a virtual memory requirement of 255k. GROSS was developed in 1986.

Garrick, J.

1994-01-01

303

Gamma-Ray Observatory - The next great observatory in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Gamma-Ray Observatory (GRO) which is part of NASA's Great Observatories space program is presented. The GRO is equipped with the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (which detects low-energy gamma-ray photons from 20 keV to 600 keV and locates sources of gamma-ray bursts), the Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (which detects celestial gamma rays from 100 keV to 10 MeV and identifies the elements producing these rays by measuring the ray's spectra and time variability), the Imaging Compton Telescope (which images gamma rays with energies from 1 to 30 MeV created when cosmic rays interact with interstellar matter), and the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (which detects high-energy photons associated with the most energetic processes occurring in nature). After the energies of photons from each source are classified, the gamma-ray mechanisms can be modelled. Nuclei, radioactive isotopes, and nuclear reactions can be identified, and the physical conditions at the radiation's source can also be modelled. From these models, theories can be developed about the creation of elements in the explosion and collapse of giant stars, the acceleration of charged particles to velocities approaching the speed of light, and the destruction of matter and antimatter.

Neal, Valerie; Fishman, Gerald; Kniffen, Donald

1990-01-01

304

Phantom experiments on a PSAPD-based compact gamma camera with submillimeter spatial resolution for small animal SPECT  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate a position sensitive avalanche photodiode (PSAPD) based compact gamma camera for the application of small animal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The silicon PSAPD with a two-dimensional resistive layer and four readout channels is implemented as a gamma ray detector to record the energy and position of radiation events from a radionuclide source. A 2 mm thick monolithic CsI:Tl scintillator is optically coupled to a PSAPD with a 8mm×8mm active area, providing submillimeter intrinsic spatial resolution, high energy resolution (16% full-width half maximum at 140 keV) and high gain. A mouse heart phantom filled with an aqueous solution of 370 MBq 99mTc-pertechnetate (140 keV) was imaged using the PSAPD detector module and a tungsten knife-edge pinhole collimator with a 0.5 mm diameter aperture. The PSAPD detector module was cooled with cold nitrogen gas to suppress dark current shot noise. For each projection image of the mouse heart phantom, a rotated diagonal readout algorithm was used to calculate the position of radiation events and correct for pincushion distortion. The reconstructed image of the mouse heart phantom demonstrated reproducible image quality with submillimeter spatial resolution (0.7 mm), showing the feasibility of using the compact PSAPD-based gamma camera for a small animal SPECT system. PMID:21278833

Kim, Sangtaek; McClish, Mickel; Alhassen, Fares; Seo, Youngho; Shah, Kanai S.; Gould, Robert G.

2010-01-01

305

The Gamma-Ray Background from Star-Forming Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process of massive star formation gives rise supernova explosions, which in turn launch strong shocks, which are the sites of cosmic-ray acceleration. Cosmic-ray interactions with interstellar matter and photons unavoidably give rise to gamma rays. Thus, star-forming galaxies are a guaranteed source of the extragalactic gamma-ray background as observed by Fermi. We present a calculation of the gamma-ray background from normal star-forming galaxies, including hadronic and leptonic emission as well as the effects of core-collapse and Type Ia supernovae. We find that the resulting signal can represent a substantial and perhaps dominant component of the Fermi background. We briefly comment on future tests of this result, and discuss its implications for using gamma rays to probe cosmic rays over cosmological history.

Fields, Brian D.

2012-05-01

306

Diagram of the Apollo 15 & 16 Gamma-ray Detector  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a diagram of the Apollo 15 & 16 Gamma-ray Detector from the NASA website. Primarily intended to study the Moon's radioactivity, it made measurements of the cosmic gamma-ray background during its trip. It shows measurements in millimeters.

307

A high resolution scintillating fiber gamma-ray telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scintillating fibers coupled to position sensitive photomultipliers have good angular precision and good energy resolution in detecting gamma-rays. Scintillating fibers stacked up into scintillating fiber planes U, V and W that are rotated by 60° angle relative to each other and coupled to position sensitive photomultipliers can be used as high resolution imaging gamma-ray detectors. With this arrangement the Compton

M. Atac; D. B. Cline; E. J. Fenyves; R. C. Chaney; H. Hammack

1989-01-01

308

Very High Energy Gamma Ray Extension of GRO Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The membership, progress, and invited talks, publications, and proceedings made by the Whipple Gamma Ray Collaboration is reported for june 1990 through May 1994. Progress was made in the following areas: the May 1994 Markarian Flare at Whipple and EGRET (Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope) energies; AGN's (Active Galactic Nuclei); bursts; supernova remnants; and simulations and energy spectra.

Weekes, Trevor C.

1994-01-01

309

QUALITY CONTROL FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MEASUREMENTS USING GAMMA-RAY SPECTROMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes the quality control procedures, calibration, collection, analysis, and interpretation of data in measuring the activity of gamma ray-emitting radionuclides in environmental samples. Included in the appendices are basic data for selected gamma ray-emitting ra...

310

GAMMA-RAY IMAGING AND POLARIZATION MEASUREMENT USING 3-D  

E-print Network

GAMMA-RAY IMAGING AND POLARIZATION MEASUREMENT USING 3-D POSITION-SENSITIVE CdZnTe DETECTORS by Dan a solid foundation for the gamma-ray Compton imaging using a single 3-D CdZnTe detector. It was her-Ramo Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.2 Single Polarity Charge Sensing

He, Zhong

311

Gamma ray bursts: Current status of observations and theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma ray bursts display a wide range of temporal and spectral characteristics, but typically last several seconds and emit most of their energy in a low energy, gamma ray region. The burst sources appear to be isotropically distributed on the sky. Several lines of evidence suggest magnetic neutron stars as sources for bursts. A variety of energy sources and emission mechanisms are proposed.

Meegan, Charles A.

1990-01-01

312

Images of Simultaneous Gamma-Ray Burst Optical Counterpart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Astronomers have observed a visible light emitted at the same time as a gamma-ray burst for the first time on January 27, 1999. Six images of this gamma-ray burst are provided at the University of Michigan site.

1999-01-01

313

Gamma rays from accretion onto rotating black holes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ionized matter falling onto an isolated rotating black hole will be heated sufficiently that proton-proton collisions will produce mesons, including neutral pions, which decay into gamma rays. For massive (1000-solar mass) black holes, the resulting gamma-ray luminosity may exceed 10 to the 36th erg/s with a spectrum peaked near 20 MeV.

Collins, M. S.

1979-01-01

314

Absorption in Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the X-ray and optical absorption properties of 13 gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows observed by BeppoSAX. We found that X-ray absorption in addition to the Galactic one along the line of sight is highly statistically significant in the two cases with the best statistics (probability >99.9%). In three other cases the presence of X-ray absorption is marginally significant (probability ~97%). Measured rest-frame equivalent column densities of hydrogen, NH, range from 0.1×1022 to 10.0×1022 cm-2 (at 90% confidence level) assuming a solar metal abundance. X-ray absorption may be common, although the quality of present data does not allow us to reach a firm conclusion. We found that the rest-frame column densities derived from XMM and Chandra data as quoted in the literature are in good agreement with the BeppoSAX estimated rest-frame NH range, supporting our result. For the same GRB afterglow sample we evaluated the rest-frame visual extinction AVr. We fitted the optical-NIR afterglow photometry with a power-law model corrected at short wavelengths by four different extinction curves. By comparing X-ray absorptions and optical extinction, we found that if a Galactic-like dust grain size distribution is assumed, a dust-to-gas ratio lower than the one observed in the Galaxy is required by the data. A dust-to-gas ratio ~1/10 that of the Galactic one, as in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) environment, has been tested using the SMC extinction curve, which produces good agreement between the best-fit NH and AVr. We note, however, that the best-fit NH values have been obtained by assuming solar metal abundances, while the metallicity of the SMC ISM is ~1/8 the solar one (Pei 1992). If such low metallicity were assumed, the best-fit NH values would be higher by a factor of ~7, providing a significant increase of the ?2. Alternative scenarios to explain simultaneously the optical and X-ray data involve dust with grain size distributions biased toward large grains. Possible mechanisms that can bring about such a grain size distribution are discussed.

Stratta, G.; Fiore, F.; Antonelli, L. A.; Piro, L.; De Pasquale, M.

2004-06-01

315

Neutrino oscillations and gamma-ray bursts  

E-print Network

If the ordinary neutrinos oscillate into a sterile flavor in a manner consistent with the Super-Kamiokande data on the zenith-angle dependence of atmospheric mu-neutrino flux, an energy sufficient to power a typical cosmic gamma-ray burst (GRB) (about 10^{52} erg) can be carried by sterile neutrinos away from the source and deposited in a region relatively free of baryons. Hence, ultra-relativistic bulk motion (required by the theory of and observations of GRBs and their afterglows) can easily be achieved in the vicinity of plausible sources of GRBs. Oscillations between sterile and ordinary neutrinos would thus provide a solution to the ``baryon-loading problem'' in the theory of GRBs.

W. Kluzniak

1998-07-22

316

Lorentz invariance violation with gamma rays  

E-print Network

The assumption of Lorentz invariance is one of the founding principles of Modern Physics and violation of it would have profound implications to our understanding of the universe. For instance, certain theories attempting a unified theory of quantum gravity predict there could be an effective refractive index of the vacuum; the introduction of an energy dependent dispersion to photons could in turn lead to an observable Lorentz invariance violation signature. Whilst a very small effect on local scales the effect will be cumulative, and so for very high energy particles that travel very large distances the difference in arrival times could become sufficiently large to be detectable. This proceedings will look at testing for such Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) signatures in the astronomical lightcurves of gamma-ray emitting objects, with particular notice being given to the prospects for LIV testing with, the next generation observatory, the Cherenkov Telescope Array.

Daniel, Michael

2015-01-01

317

Gamma Ray Lines from the Orion Complex  

E-print Network

We show that the 4.44 and 6.13 MeV line emission observed with COMPTEL from Orion is consistent with gamma ray spectra consisting of a mixture of narrow and broad lines or spectra containing only broad lines. We employed several accelerated particle compositions and showed that the current COMPTEL data in the 3--7 MeV region alone cannot distinguish between the various possibilities. However, the COMPTEL upper limits in the 1--3 MeV band favor a composition similar to that of the winds of Wolf-Rayet stars of spectral type WC. The power dissipated by the accelerated particles at Orion is about 4 $\\times$ 10$^{38}$ erg s$^{-1}$. These particles are not expected to produce significant amounts of $^{26}$Al.

Reuven Ramaty; Benzion Kozlovsky; Richard E. Lingenfelter

1994-11-10

318

The High Altitude Gamma Ray Observatory, HAWC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Volcano Sierra Negra in Puebla, Mexico was selected to host HAWC (High Altitude Water Cherenkov), a unique obervatory of wide field of view (2? sr) capable of observing the sky continously at energies from 0.5 TeV to 100 TeV. HAWC is an array of 300 large water tanks (7.3 m diameter × 5 m depth) at an altitude of 4100 m. a. s. l. Each tank is instrumented with three upward-looking photomultipliers tubes. The full array will be capable of observing the most energetic gamma rays from the most violent events in the universe. HAWC will be 15 times more sensitive than its predecesor, Milagro. We present HAWC, the scientific case and capabilities.

González, M. M.

2011-10-01

319

Lambda Hypernuclei via gamma-Ray Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High precision gamma-ray spectroscopy of Lambda hypernuclei with a germanium detector array, Hyperball, has revealed fine structure of various p-shell Lambda hypernuclei. From accumulated data the strengths of all the spin-dependent components in the LambdaN interaction have been extracted, which play essential roles to improve baryon-baryon interaction models. The hypernuclear shrinking effect was confirmed from measurement of a B(E2) value in (7_Lambda) Li. In the J-PARC facility, intense kaon beams and a new generation Ge detector array will allow us to investigate baryon properties in nuclei and impurity effects, as well as to further study the hyperon-nucleon interactions.

Tamura, H.

320

The Supernova Gamma-Ray Burst Connection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations show that at least some gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) happen simultaneously with core-collapse supernovae (SNe), thus linking by a common thread nature's two grandest explosions. We review here the growing evidence for and theoretical implications of this association, and conclude that most long-duration soft-spectrum GRBs are accompanied by massive stellar explosions (GRB-SNe). The kinetic energy and luminosity of well-studied GRB-SNe appear to be greater than those of ordinary SNe, but evidence exists, even in a limited sample, for considerable diversity. The existing sample also suggests that most of the energy in the explosion is contained in nonrelativistic ejecta (producing the supernova) rather than in the relativistic jets responsible for making the burst and its afterglow. Neither all SNe, nor even all SNe of Type Ibc produce GRBs. The degree of differential rotation in the collapsing iron core of massive stars when they die may be what makes the difference.

Woosley, S. E.; Bloom, J. S.

2006-09-01

321

The HAWC Gamma-ray Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HAWC, the High Altitude Water Cherenkov gamma-ray observatory, will be a prime instrument for surveying and monitoring the 100 GeV - 100 TeV sky during the next decade. HAWC is conceived as a 150m x 150m water Cherenkov detector divided in 900 optically isolated cells. Its optimized design and 4100m location will allow it to survey two thirds of the sky in the TeV range down to 40 mCrab, with emphasis on extended sources. HAWC will permanently monitor 2sr above its zenith with capability to detect a 5 Crab flare from GRBs and blazars within 10 minutes. HAWC, a major scientific collaboration between Mexico and United Statues, will begin construction in 2008 at its 19º latitude Sierra Negra site, in Central Mexico.

Carraminana, Alberto; Dingus, B.; Goodman, J.; Gonzalez, M.; HAWC Collaboration

2008-03-01

322

The Chase to Capture Gamma Ray Bursts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma-ray bursts are the most powerful explosions in the universe, thought to be the birth cries of black holes. It has taken 40 years of international cooperation and competition to begin to unravel the mystery of their origin. The most recent chapter in this field is being written by the SWIFT mission, a fast-response satellite with 3 power telescopes. An international team from countries all over the world participates in the chase to capture the fading light of bursts detected by SWIFT. This talk will discuss the challenges and excitement of building this space observatory. New results will be presented on our growing understanding of exploding stars and fiery mergers of orbiting stars.

Gehrels, Neil

2008-01-01

323

LONG GAMMA-RAY TRANSIENTS FROM COLLAPSARS  

SciTech Connect

In the collapsar model for common gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), the formation of a centrifugally supported disk occurs during the first {approx}10 s following the collapse of the iron core in a massive star. This only occurs in a small fraction of massive stellar deaths, however, and requires unusual conditions. A much more frequent occurrence could be the death of a star that makes a black hole and a weak or absent outgoing shock, but in a progenitor that only has enough angular momentum in its outermost layers to make a disk. We consider several cases where this is likely to occur-blue supergiants with low mass-loss rates, tidally interacting binaries involving either helium stars or giant stars, and the collapse to a black hole of very massive pair-instability supernovae. These events have in common the accretion of a solar mass or so of material through a disk over a period much longer than the duration of a common GRB. A broad range of powers is possible, 10{sup 47}-10{sup 50} erg s{sup -1}, and this brightness could be enhanced by beaming. Such events were probably more frequent in the early universe where mass-loss rates were lower. Indeed, this could be one of the most common forms of gamma-ray transients in the universe and could be used to study first generation stars. Several events could be active in the sky at any one time. Recent examples of this sort of event may have been the Swift transients Sw-1644+57, Sw-2058+0516, and GRB 101225A.

Woosley, S. E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Heger, Alexander, E-mail: woosley@ucolick.org, E-mail: alex@physics.umn.edu [Minnesota Institute of Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

2012-06-10

324

Thermonuclear model for. gamma. -ray bursts  

SciTech Connect

The evolution of magnetized neutron stars with field strengths of approx. 10/sup 12/ gauss that are accreting mass onto kilometer-sized polar regions at a rate of approx. /sup 13/ M/sub 0/yr/sup -1/ is examined. Based on the results of one-dimensional calculations, one finds that stable hydrogen burning, mediated by the hot CNO-cycle, will lead to a critical helium mass in the range 10/sup 20/ to 10/sup 22/ g km/sup -2/. Owing to the extreme degeneracy of the electron gas providing pressure support, helium burning occurs as a violent thermonuclear runaway which may propagate either as a convective deflagration (Type I burst) or as a detonation wave (Type II burst). Complete combustion of helium into /sup 56/Ni releases from 10/sup 38/ to 10/sup 40/ erg km/sup -2/ and pushes hot plasma with ..beta.. > 1 above the surface of the neutron star. Rapid expansion of the plasma channels a substantial fraction of the explosion energy into magnetic field stress. Spectral properties are expected to be complex with emission from both thermal and non-thermal processes. The hard ..gamma..-outburst of several seconds softens as the event proceeds and is followed by a period, typically of several minutes duration, of softer x-ray emission as the subsurface ashes of the thermonuclear explosion cool. In this model, most ..gamma..-ray bursts currently being observed are located at a distance of several hundred parsecs and should recur on a timescale of months to centuries with convective deflagrations (Type I bursts) being the more common variety. An explanation for Jacobson-like transients is also offered.

Woosley, S.E.

1981-08-26

325

Gamma-ray Pulsars in a Modified Polar Cap Scenario  

E-print Network

We present a polar-cap model which incorporates a likely acceleration of Sturrock pairs with their subsequent contribution to gamma-ray luminosity L_gamma. This model reproduces L_gamma for seven pulsars detected with Compton Gamma Ray Observatory experiments, avoiding at the same time the problem of the empirical gamma-ray death line of Arons (1996). Also, we estimate the efficiency of reversing newly created positrons by residual longitudinal electric field. Over the wide range of spin-down luminosity values the predicted polar-cap X-ray luminosity L_X(pc) goes as L_sd^{0.6}. Model calculations for B0823+26, B0950+08, B1929+10, and J0437-4715 are compared with existing observational constraints on thermal X-ray components.

B. Rudak; J. Dyks

1997-10-22

326

Gamma ray irradiation for sludge solubilization and biological nitrogen removal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of gamma ray irradiation on the solubilization of waste sewage sludge. The recovery of an organic carbon source from sewage sludge by gamma ray irradiation was also studied. The gamma ray irradiation showed effective sludge solubilization efficiencies. Both soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 5) increased by gamma ray irradiation. The feasibility of the solubilized sludge carbon source for a biological nitrogen removal was also investigated. A modified continuous bioreactor (MLE process) for a denitrification was operated for 20 days by using synthetic wastewater. It can be concluded that the gamma ray irradiation was useful for the solubilization of sludge and the recovery of carbon source from the waste sewage sludge for biological nitrogen removal.

Kim, Tak-Hyun; Lee, Myunjoo; Park, Chulhwan

2011-12-01

327

A Plasma Instability Theory of Gamma-Ray Burst Emission  

E-print Network

A new theory for gamma-ray burst radiation is presented. In this theory, magnetic fields and relativistic electrons are created through plasma processes arising as a relativistic shell passes through the interstellar medium. The gamma-rays are produced through synchrotron self-Compton emission. It is found that shocks do not arise in this theory, and that efficient gamma-ray emission only occurs for a high Lorentz factor and a high-density interstellar medium. The former explains the absence of gamma-ray bursts with thermal spectra. The latter provides the Compton attenuation theory with an explanation of why the interstellar medium density is always high. The theory predicts the existence of a class of extragalactic optical transient that emit no gamma-rays.

J. J. Brainerd

1999-04-02

328

Evaluation of Potash Grade with Gamma-ray Logs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Potassium is an emitter of gamma-ray radiation, consequently deposits of potash can be detected and evaluated using gamma-ray logs. A method originally designed to evaluate uranium deposits in boreholes can also be applied to potash deposits. The method equates the depth-integral of a gamma-ray log to the grade-thickness product of a potash-bearing bed or series of beds. The average grade of a bed is then determined by dividing by the overall bed thickness, which can also be obtained from the gamma-ray log. The method was tested using gamma-ray logs and potash assays from boreholes near Carlsbad, New Mexico.

Nelson, Philip H.

2007-01-01

329

The supernova-gamma-ray burst-jet connection.  

PubMed

The observed association between supernovae and gamma-ray bursts represents a cornerstone in our understanding of the nature of gamma-ray bursts. The collapsar model provides a theoretical framework for this connection. A key element is the launch of a bipolar jet (seen as a gamma-ray burst). The resulting hot cocoon disrupts the star, whereas the (56)Ni produced gives rise to radioactive heating of the ejecta, seen as a supernova. In this discussion paper, I summarize the observational status of the supernova-gamma-ray burst connection in the context of the 'engine' picture of jet-driven supernovae and highlight SN 2012bz/GRB 120422A--with its luminous supernova but intermediate high-energy luminosity--as a possible transition object between low-luminosity and jet gamma-ray bursts. The jet channel for supernova explosions may provide new insights into supernova explosions in general. PMID:23630379

Hjorth, Jens

2013-06-13

330

MAGNETIC STRUCTURES IN GAMMA-RAY BURST JETS PROBED BY GAMMA-RAY POLARIZATION  

SciTech Connect

We report polarization measurements in two prompt emissions of gamma-ray bursts, GRB 110301A and GRB 110721A, observed with the gamma-ray burst polarimeter (GAP) on borad the IKAROS solar sail mission. We detected linear polarization signals from each burst with polarization degree of {Pi} = 70 {+-} 22% with statistical significance of 3.7{sigma} for GRB 110301A, and {Pi} = 84{sup +16}{sub -28}% with 3.3{sigma} confidence level for GRB 110721A. We did not detect any significant change of polarization angle. These two events had shorter durations and dimmer brightness compared with GRB 100826A, which showed a significant change of polarization angle, as reported in Yonetoku et al. Synchrotron emission model can be consistent with the data of the three GRBs, while the photospheric quasi-thermal emission model is not favored. We suggest that magnetic field structures in the emission region are globally ordered fields advected from the central engine.

Yonetoku, Daisuke; Murakami, Toshio; Morihara, Yoshiyuki; Takahashi, Takuya; Wakashima, Yudai; Yonemochi, Hajime; Sakashita, Tomonori; Fujimoto, Hirofumi; Kodama, Yoshiki [College of Science and Engineering, School of Mathematics and Physics, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); Gunji, Shuichi; Toukairin, Noriyuki [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Yamagata University, 1-4-12, Koshirakawa, Yamagata, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Mihara, Tatehiro [Cosmic Radiation Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1, Hirosawa, Wako City, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Toma, Kenji, E-mail: yonetoku@astro.s.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka 560-0043 (Japan)

2012-10-10

331

Observation of gamma-ray bursts with the SMM gamma-ray spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The gamma-ray spectrometer on SMM is sensitive to bursts within its field of view with intensities greater than 0.000005 erg/sq cm above 100 keV. It has detected 17 events between February 1980 and March 1981 with the characteristics of cosmic gamma-ray bursts. The most intense burst, on 19 April 1980, had a photon spectrum consistent with a power law with spectral index - 2.5 from 300 keV to approximately 7 MeV. It is not possible at present to exclude the sun as the source of this burst. Spectra of 11 of the bursts have been studied for line features with no clear evidence for line emission greater than 300 keV. The continuum radiation from about half of these events have hard emission extending to approximately equal to or greater than 2 MeV.

Share, G. H.; Strickman, M. S.; Kinzer, R. L.; Chupp, E. L.; Forrest, D. J.; Ryan, J. M.; Rieger, E.; Reppin, C.; Kanbach, G.

1982-01-01

332

Gamma-Ray Bursts as seen by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope  

SciTech Connect

The Large Area Telescope (LAT) instrument on the Fermi mission is revealing the rich spectral and temporal gamma-ray burst phenomena in the >100 MeV band. The synergy with Fermi's GBM detectors links these observations to those in the well-explored 10-1000 keV range; the addition of the >100 MeV band observations brings new hint and new information about burst emission in both the prompt and afterglow phases. In this contribution we describe the prospects for the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) in observing Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs), and some preliminary results. Here we focus our attention on the importance of multi frequencies approach to GRB science during the just began Fermi era.

Omodei, Nicola [INFN Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo, 3 56100 Pisa (Italy)

2009-04-08

333

Compact soft x-ray source using Thomson scattering  

SciTech Connect

A compact soft x-ray source using Thomson scattering, enabled by the combination of a picosecond laser and an electron rf gun, was developed aiming at biological studies such as those using an x-ray microscope. The x-ray source included both a photoinjector system and a picosecond laser system with a tabletop size of 2x2 m{sup 2}. An infrared laser beam ({lambda}{sub 0}=1047 nm) was obtained from an all-solid-state mode-locked Nd:YLF laser system and injected into the photocathode of an accelerator system. A 4.2 MeV electron beam was generated from a laser-driven photocathode rf gun system. The residual laser beam was amplified up to about 4.2 mJ/pulse using a flash-lamp-pumped laser amplifier. Upon collision of the electron beam with the amplified laser beam, 300 eV soft x rays were generated by Thomson backscattering. The stable interaction between the two beams was achieved using the same seed laser pulse for irradiating the photocathode and the scattering process with laser photons.

Kashiwagi, Shigeru; Kuroda, Ryunosuke; Oshima, Takashi; Nagasawa, Fumio; Kobuki, Tomoaki; Ueyama, Daisuke; Hama, Yoshimasa; Washio, Masakazu; Ushida, Kiminori; Hayano, Hitoshi; Urakawa, Junji [Advanced Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 169-8555 (Japan); RIKEN, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); KEK, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

2005-12-15

334

WIDE RADIO BEAMS FROM {gamma}-RAY PULSARS  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the radio and {gamma}-ray beaming properties of normal and millisecond pulsars (MSPs) by selecting two samples from the known populations. The first, Sample G, contains pulsars which are detectable in blind searches of {gamma}-ray data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope. The second, Sample R, contains pulsars detectable in blind radio searches which have spin-down luminosities E>10{sup 34} erg s{sup -1}. We analyze the fraction of the {gamma}-ray-selected Sample G which have detectable radio pulses and the fraction of the radio-selected Sample R which have detectable {gamma}-ray pulses. Twenty of our 35 Sample G pulsars have already observed radio pulses. This rules out low-altitude polar-cap beaming models if, as is currently believed, {gamma}-ray beams are generated in the outer magnetosphere and are very wide. We further find that, for the highest-E pulsars, the radio and {gamma}-ray beams have comparable beaming factors, i.e., the beams cover similar regions of the sky as the star rotates. For lower-E {gamma}-ray emitting pulsars, the radio beams have about half of the {gamma}-ray sky coverage. These results suggest that, for high-E young and MSPs, the radio emission originates in wide beams from regions high in the pulsar magnetosphere, probably close to the null-charge surface and to the {gamma}-ray emitting regions. Furthermore, it suggests that for these high-E pulsars, as in the {gamma}-ray case, features in the radio profile represent caustics in the emission beam pattern.

Ravi, V.; Manchester, R. N.; Hobbs, G. [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia)

2010-06-10

335

Constraints on Very High Energy gamma-ray emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts  

E-print Network

The Milagro gamma-ray observatory employs a water Cherenkov detector to observe extensive air showers produced by high energy particles interacting in the Earth's atmosphere. Milagro has a wide field of view and high duty cycle, monitoring the northern sky almost continuously in the 100 GeV to 100 TeV energy range. Milagro is, thus, uniquely capable of searching for very high-energy emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) during the prompt emission phase. Detection of >100 GeV counterparts would place powerful constraints on GRB mechanisms. Twenty-five satellite-triggered GRBs occurred within the field of view of Milagro between January 2000 and December 2001. We have searched for counterparts to these GRBs and found no significant emission from any of the burst positions. Due to the absorption of high-energy gamma rays by the extragalactic background light, detections are only expected to be possible for redshifts less than ~0.5. Three of the GRBs studied have measured redshifts. GRB 010921 has a redshift low enough (0.45) to allow an upper limit on the fluence to place an observational constraint on potential GRB models.

R. Atkins; W. Benbow; D. Berley; E. Blaufuss; D. G. Coyne; T. DeYoung; B. L. Dingus; D. E. Dorfan; R. W. Ellsworth; L. Fleysher; R. Fleysher; M. M. Gonzalez; J. A. Goodman; E. Hays; C. M. Hoffman; L. A. Kelley; C. P. Lansdell; J. T. Linnemann; J. E. McEnery; A. I. Mincer; M. F. Morales; P. Nemethy; D. Noyes; J. M. Ryan; F. W. Samuelson; P. M. Saz Parkinson; A. Shoup; G. Sinnis; A. J. Smith; G. W. Sullivan; D. A. Williams; M. E. Wilson; X. W. Xu; G. B. Yodh

2005-03-11

336

Design Study for Direction Variable Compton Scattering Gamma Ray  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A monochromatic gamma ray beam is attractive for isotope-specific material/medical imaging or non-destructive inspection. A laser Compton scattering (LCS) gamma ray source which is based on the backward Compton scattering of laser light on high-energy electrons can generate energy variable quasi-monochromatic gamma ray. Due to the principle of the LCS gamma ray, the direction of the gamma beam is limited to the direction of the high-energy electrons. Then the target object is placed on the beam axis, and is usually moved if spatial scanning is required. In this work, we proposed an electron beam transport system consisting of four bending magnets which can stick the collision point and control the electron beam direction, and a laser system consisting of a spheroidal mirror and a parabolic mirror which can also stick the collision point. Then the collision point can be placed on one focus of the spheroid. Thus gamma ray direction and collision angle between the electron beam and the laser beam can be easily controlled. As the results, travelling direction of the LCS gamma ray can be controlled under the limitation of the beam transport system, energy of the gamma ray can be controlled by controlling incident angle of the colliding beams, and energy spread can be controlled by changing the divergence of the laser beam.

Kii, T.; Omer, M.; Negm, H.; Choi, Y. W.; Kinjo, R.; Yoshida, K.; Konstantin, T.; Kimura, N.; Ishida, K.; Imon, H.; Shibata, M.; Shimahashi, K.; Komai, T.; Okumura, K.; Zen, H.; Masuda, K.; Hori, T.; Ohgaki, H.

2013-03-01

337

Gamma-Ray Bursts from Decompressing Neutron Star Material()  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the possibility that decompressing neutron star material may be a source for the isotropic gamma-ray bursts observed by the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. Such material might be ejected during the collision or tidal disruption of a neutron star in a binary sytem or as a result of neutron star seismic activity. Without gravitational confinement, this extremely neutron-rich material will decompress and heat up through a series of fissions, beta (-) decays, and photodissociations. It will then recombine in an r-process like environment. As the density drops and the material becomes optically thin, short-lived nuclei decay back to stability emitting a burst of gamma rays on a time scale of msec to sec. The resulting gamma-ray spectrum will be directly observable if the burst luminosity is low enough that a pair-dominated photosphere which would reprocess the gamma-ray spectrum is not formed. We report on efforts to model the resulting gamma-ray spectrum, which requires estimates of beta (-) decay, gamma emission, beta -delayed neutron emission, and photodissociation rates for many neutron rich nuclei. This work will eventually be coupled to hydrodynamic and radiation transport codes, in an effort to explain some of the observed gamma-ray bursts. () Work at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DoE under contract No. W-7405-ENG-48 and DOE Nuclear Theory Grant SF-ENG-48.

Mathews, G. J.; Aufderheide, M. B.; Ressell, M. T.; Rogers, R. D.; Meyer, B. S.; Schramm, D. N.

1992-12-01

338

Characteristics of the Telescope for High Energy Gamma-ray Astronomy Selected for Definition Studies on the Gamma Ray Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The high energy gamma-ray selected for definition studies on the Gamma Ray Observatory provides a substantial improvement in observational capability over earlier instruments. It will have about 20 times more sensitivity, cover a much broader energy range, have considerably better energy resolution and provide a significantly improved angular resolution. The design and performance are described.

Hughes, E. B.; Hofstadter, R.; Johansson, A.; Rolfe, J.; Bertsch, D. L.; Cruickshank, W. J.; Ehrmann, C. H.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.

1979-01-01

339

Analysis of Data from the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The final report consists of summaries of work proposed, work accomplished, papers and presentations published and continuing work regarding the cooperative agreement. The work under the agreement is based on high energy gamma ray source data analysis collected from the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET).

Kniffen, Donald A.; Elliott, William W.

1999-01-01

340

Developing a method for soft gamma-ray Laue lens assembly and calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laue lenses constitute a promising option for concentrating soft gamma rays with a large collection area and reasonable focal lengths. In astronomy they could lead to increased telescope sensitivity by one to two orders of magnitude, in particular for faint nuclear gamma-ray lines, but also for continua like hard X-ray tails from a variety of compact objects. Other fields like Homeland security and nuclear medicine share the same need for more sensitive gamma-ray detection systems and could find applications for gamma-ray focusing optics. There are two primary challenges for developing Laue lenses: the search for high-reflectivity and reproducible crystals, and the development of a method to accurately orient and fix the thousands of crystals constituting a lens. In this paper we focus on the second topic. We used our dedicated X-ray beamline and Laue lens assembly station to build a breadboard lens made of 15 crystals. This allowed us to test our tools and methods, as well as our simulation code and calibration procedure. Although some critical points were identified, the results are very encouraging, with a crystal orientation distribution lower than 10”, as required to build a Laue lens telescope dedicated to the study of Type Ia supernovae (30-m focal length). This breadboard lens represents an important step towards raising the technology readiness level of Laue lenses.

Barrière, Nicolas M.; Tomsick, John A.; Boggs, Steven E.; Lowell, Alexander; Wade, Colin; Baugh, Max; von Ballmoos, Peter; Abrosimov, Nikolay V.; Hanlon, Lorraine

2014-03-01

341

Balloon-Borne Gamma-Ray Polarimeter (PoGO) to Study Black Holes, Pulsars, and AGN Jets: Design and Calibration(SULI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polarization measurements at X-ray and gamma-ray energies can provide crucial information on the emission region around massive compact objects such as black holes and neutron stars. The Polarized Gamma-ray Observer (PoGO) is a new balloon-borne instrument designed to measure polarization from such astrophysical objects in the 30-100 keV range, under development by an international collaboration with members from United States,

Zachary Apte

2005-01-01

342

Gamma-Ray Bursts and Particle Acceleration  

SciTech Connect

Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are possible sources of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHE-CRs). To test the GRB origin of UHECRs, it is essential to search for characteristic, proton-induced signatures of secondary radiation. In this paper we present our recent results of Monte Carlo simulations that model the broadband prompt emission of GRBs including various processes associated with electrons and protons accelerated to high energies. The most notable effect of accelerated protons on the high-energy spectra is the synchrotron emission from secondary electron-positron pairs injected by photomeson interactions. Secondary photons tend to make the spectra flat, so a spectral flattening in the GeV-TeV bands may serve as a signature of UHECR acceleration. In some cases, the proton-induced photons overwhelm the photon field, resulting in a spectral peak due to inverse Compton emission from secondary pairs located around 10{sup 7} eV. We can expect to detect synchrotron photons from protons or muons. Observations with GLAST or with atmospheric Cerenkov telescopes can provide useful estimates of the bulk Lorents factor and can constrain the proton acceleration efficiency.

Asano, Katsuaki [Interactive Research Center for Science, Graduate School of Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

2008-08-28

343

Gamma-Ray Burst Prompt Emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin of gamma-ray burst (GRB) prompt emission, bursts of ?-rays lasting from shorter than one second to thousands of seconds, remains not fully understood after more than 40 years of observations. The uncertainties lie in several open questions in the GRB physics, including jet composition, energy dissipation mechanism, particle acceleration mechanism and radiation mechanism. Recent broad-band observations of prompt emission with Fermi sharpen the debates in these areas, which stimulated intense theoretical investigations invoking very different ideas. I will review these debates, and argue that the current data suggest the following picture: A quasi-thermal spectral component originating from the photosphere of the relativistic ejecta has been detected in some GRBs. Even though in some cases (e.g. GRB 090902B) this component dominates the spectrum, in most GRBs, this component either forms a sub-dominant "shoulder" spectral component in the low energy spectral regime of the more dominant "Band" component, or is not detectable at all. The main "Band" spectral component likely originates from the optically thin region due to synchrotron radiation. The diverse magnetization in the GRB central engine is likely the origin of the observed diverse prompt emission properties among bursts.

Zhang, Bing

2014-12-01

344

A Multi-Wavelength Study of the Gamma Ray Binary 1FGL J1018.6-5856  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a multi-wavelength study of 1FGL J1018.6-5856, the first Gamma-ray Binary discovered by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). 1FGL J1018.6-5856 consists of a O6 V((f)) star and suspected rapidly spinning pulsar, which is possibly powered by the interaction between the relativistic pulsar wind and the stellar wind of the companion. A microquasar scenario where the compact object is a black hole cannot be ruled out. We investigate long-term changes in the gamma-ray properties of the orbital modulation. Using probability weighted photometry, long-term observations with the LAT give a refined value of the orbital period at 16.549±0.007 days. Folding the gamma-ray light curves reveal a quasi-sinusoidal component as well as the presence of flare-like behavior. We also search for phase-resolved changes in the gamma ray spectral properties of 1FGL J1018.6-5856. We compare the long term variability in gamma-rays with those in the X-ray and radio bands from Swift X-ray Telescope and Australia Telescope Compact Array.

Coley, Joel Barry; Corbet, Robin; Cheung, Chi C.; Coe, Malcolm J.; Edwards, Philip; McBride, Vanessa; McSwain, M. Virginia; Stevens, Jamie

2014-08-01

345

Gamma-ray Astronomy: Implications for Fundamental Physics  

E-print Network

Gamma-ray Astronomy studies cosmic accelerators through their electromagnetic radiation in the energy range between ~100 MeV and ~100 TeV. The present most sensitive observations in this energy band are performed, from space, by the Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi satellite and, from Earth, by the Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescopes MAGIC, H.E.S.S. and VERITAS. These instruments have revolutionized the field of Gamma-ray Astronomy, discovering different populations of gamma-ray emitters and studying in detail the non-thermal astrophysical processes producing this high-energy radiation. The scientific objectives of these observatories include also questions of fundamental physics. With gamma-ray instruments we study the origin of Galactic cosmic rays, testing the hypothesis or whether they are mainly produced in supernova explosions. Also, we obtain the most sensitive measurement of the cosmic electron-positron spectrum between 20 GeV and 5 TeV. By observing the gamma-ray emission from sources at cosmological distances, we learn about the intensity and evolution of the extragalactic background light, and perform tests of Lorentz Invariance. Moreover, we can search for dark matter by looking for gamma-ray signals produced by its annihilation or decay in over-density sites. In this paper, we review the most recent results produced with the current generation of gamma-ray instruments in these fields of research.

Javier Rico

2011-11-28

346

The Gamma-Ray Albedo of the Moon  

SciTech Connect

We use the GEANT4 Monte Carlo framework to calculate the {gamma}-ray albedo of the Moon due to interactions of cosmic ray (CR) nuclei with moon rock. Our calculation of the albedo spectrum agrees with the EGRET data. We show that the spectrum of {gamma}-rays from the Moon is very steep with an effective cutoff around 3-4 GeV (600 MeV for the inner part of the Moon disk) and exhibits a narrow pion-decay line at 67.5 MeV, perhaps unique in astrophysics. Apart from other astrophysical sources, the albedo spectrum of the Moon is well understood, including its absolute normalization; this makes it a useful 'standard candle' for {gamma}-ray telescopes. The steep albedo spectrum also provides a unique opportunity for energy calibration of {gamma}-ray telescopes, such as the forthcoming Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST). Since the albedo flux depends on the incident CR spectrum which changes over the solar cycle, it is possible to monitor the CR spectrum using the albedo {gamma}-ray flux. Simultaneous measurements of CR proton and helium spectra by the Payload for Antimatter-Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA), and observations of the albedo {gamma}-rays by the GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT), can be used to test the model predictions and will enable the LAT to monitor the CR spectrum near the Earth beyond the lifetime of the PAMELA.

Moskalenko, I.V.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Porter, T.A.; /UC, Santa Cruz

2008-03-25

347

The Gamma-ray Albedo of the Moon  

E-print Network

We use the GEANT4 Monte Carlo framework to calculate the gamma-ray albedo of the Moon due to interactions of cosmic ray (CR) nuclei with moon rock. Our calculation of the albedo spectrum agrees with the EGRET data. We show that the spectrum of gamma rays from the Moon is very steep with an effective cutoff around 3-4 GeV (600 MeV for the inner part of the Moon disk) and exhibits a narrow pion-decay line at 67.5 MeV, perhaps unique in astrophysics. Apart from other astrophysical sources, the albedo spectrum of the Moon is well understood, including its absolute normalisation; this makes it a useful "standard candle" for gamma-ray telescopes. The steep albedo spectrum also provides a unique opportunity for energy calibration of gamma-ray telescopes, such as the forthcoming Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST). Since the albedo flux depends on the incident CR spectrum which changes over the solar cycle, it is possible to monitor the CR spectrum using the albedo gamma-ray flux. Simultaneous measurements of CR proton and helium spectra by the Payload for Antimatter-Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA), and observations of the albedo gamma rays by the GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT), can be used to test the model predictions and will enable the LAT to monitor the CR spectrum near the Earth beyond the lifetime of the PAMELA.

Igor V. Moskalenko; Troy A. Porter

2007-08-21

348

The Gamma-ray Albedo of the Moon  

SciTech Connect

We use the GEANT4 Monte Carlo framework to calculate the {gamma}-ray albedo of the Moon due to interactions of cosmic ray (CR) nuclei with moon rock. Our calculation of the albedo spectrum agrees with the EGRET data. We show that the spectrum of {gamma}-rays from the Moon is very steep with an effective cutoff around 3-4 GeV (600 MeV for the inner part of the Moon disk) and exhibits a narrow pion-decay line at 67.5 MeV, perhaps unique in astrophysics. Apart from other astrophysical sources, the albedo spectrum of the Moon is well understood, including its absolute normalization; this makes it a useful 'standard candle' for {gamma}-ray telescopes. The steep albedo spectrum also provides a unique opportunity for energy calibration of {gamma}-ray telescopes, such as the forthcoming Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST). Since the albedo flux depends on the incident CR spectrum which changes over the solar cycle, it is possible to monitor the CR spectrum using the albedo {gamma}-ray flux. Simultaneous measurements of CR proton and helium spectra by the Payload for Antimatter-Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA), and observations of the albedo {gamma}-rays by the GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT), can be used to test the model predictions and will enable the LAT to monitor the CR spectrum near the Earth beyond the lifetime of the PAMELA.

Moskalenko, Igor V.; /Stanford U., HEPL; Porter, Troy A.; /UC, Santa Cruz

2007-09-28

349

Gamma-Ray Bursts 2012 Conference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is a pleasure to announce the next combined Fermi/Swift GRB conference covering recent advances in all aspects of gamma-ray burst observations and theory. This conference will be held in Munich, Germany, on 7-11 May 2012, and follows similar previous combined Fermi/Swift meetings in Huntsville (Oct. 2008) and Annapolis (Nov. 2010). Gamma-ray bursts are the most energetic explosions in the Universe and are thought to be the birth signatures of black holes. This is an exciting time in the GRB field as various missions provide a wealth of new data on this still puzzling phenomenon. The Fermi misson provides unprecedented spectral coverage over 7 decades in energy, and among others discovered new spectral components which challenge our standard picture of the prompt emission. The Swift mission continuous to swiftly monitor and locate GRBs in multiple wavebands, providing the basis for all ground-based follow-up observations towards redshift measurements and afterglow and host property investigations. AGILE, INTEGRAL, Suzaku and Konus continue to provide crucial information on GRB properties, and the MAXI mission provides an all sky X-ray monitoring of transients. There is also growing capability for follow-up observations by ground-based telescopes at basically all wavelengths. Besides the classical optical/infrared/radio observations, searches are underway for TeV emission, neutrinos and gravitational waves. Moreover, new experiments are expected to have returned first data, among others POGO on the prompt polarization properties, UFFO on very early optical emission, or ALMA on sub-millimeter properties. And last but not least, the unexpected is bringing us child-like astonishments at least once per year with a "GRB-trigger" which turns out to be not related to GRBs. Complementing all these new observational results, a huge theoretical effort is underway to understand the GRB phenomenon and keep up with the constant new puzzles coming from the data. This conference will bring together astrophysicists, neutrino physicists and gravitational wave scientists to discuss the latest data and theories, to build synergistic collaborations between the fields and across wavelengths, and beyond better understanding the GRB phenomenon to develop GRBs as a powerful probe of a variety of fundamental questions in present-day research.

350

Gamma-ray astronomy: From Fermi up to the HAWC high-energy {gamma}-ray observatory in Sierra Negra  

SciTech Connect

Gamma-rays represent the most energetic electromagnetic window for the study of the Universe. They are studied both from space at MeV and GeV energies, with instruments like the Fermi{gamma}-ray Space Telescope, and at TeV energies with ground based instruments profiting of particle cascades in the atmosphere and of the Cerenkov radiation of charged particles in the air or in water. The Milagro gamma-ray observatory represented the first instrument to successfully implement the water Cerenkov technique for {gamma}-ray astronomy, opening the ground for the more sensitive HAWC {gamma}-ray observatory, currently under development in the Sierra Negra site and already providing early science results.

Carraminana, Alberto [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica Luis Enrique Erro 1, Tonantzintla, Puebla 72840 (Mexico); Collaboration: HAWC Collaboration

2013-06-12

351

Science with the new generation high energy gamma- ray experiments  

E-print Network

This Conference is the fifth of a series of Workshops on High Energy Gamma- ray Experiments, following the Conferences held in Perugia 2003, Bari 2004, Cividale del Friuli 2005, Elba Island 2006. This year the focus was on the use of gamma-ray to study the Dark Matter component of the Universe, the origin and propagation of Cosmic Rays, Extra Large Spatial Dimensions and Tests of Lorentz Invariance.

M. Alvarez; D. D'Armiento; G. Agnetta; A. Alberdi; A. Antonelli; A. Argan; P. Assis; E. A. Baltz; C. Bambi; G. Barbiellini; H. Bartko; M. Basset; D. Bastieri; P. Belli; G. Benford; L. Bergstrom; R. Bernabei; G. Bertone; A. Biland; B. Biondo; F. Bocchino; E. Branchini; M. Brigida; T. Bringmann; P. Brogueira; A. Bulgarelli; J. A. Caballero; G. A. Caliandro; P. Camarri; F. Cappella; P. Caraveo; R. Carbone; M. Carvajal; S. Casanova; A. J. Castro-Tirado; O. Catalano; R. Catena; F. Celi; A. Celotti; R. Cerulli; A. Chen; R. Clay; V. Cocco; J. Conrad; E. Costa; A. Cuoco; G. Cusumano; C. J. Dai; B. Dawson; B. De Lotto; G. De Paris; A. de Ugarte Postigo; E. Del Monte; C. Delgado; A. Di Ciaccio; G. Di Cocco; S. Di Falco; G. Di Persio; B. L. Dingus; A. Dominguez; F. Donato; I. Donnarumma; M. Doro; J. Edsjo; J. M. Espino Navas; M. C. Espirito Santo; Y. Evangelista; C. Evoli; D. Fargion; C. Favuzzi; M. Feroci; M. Fiorini; L. Foggetta; N. Fornengo; T. Froysland; M. Frutti; F. Fuschino; J. L. Gomez; M. Gomez; D. Gaggero; N. Galante; M. I. Gallardo; M. Galli; J. E. Garcia; M. Garczarczyk; F. Gargano; M. Gaug; F. Gianotti; S. Giarrusso; B. Giebels; N. Giglietto; P. Giommi; F. Giordano; A. Giuliani; J. Glicenstein; P. Goncalves; D. Grasso; M. Guerriero; H. L. He; A. Incicchitti; J. Kirk; H. H. Kuang; A. La Barbera; G. La Rosa; C. Labanti; G. Lamanna; I. Lapshov; F. Lazzarotto; S. Liberati; F. Liello; P. Lipari; F. Longo; F. Loparco; M. Lozano; P. G. Lucentini De Sanctis; J. M. Ma; M. C. Maccarone; L. Maccione; V. Malvezzi; A. Mangano; M. Mariotti; M. Marisaldi; I. Martel; A. Masiero; E. Massaro; M. Mastropietro; E. Mattaini; F. Mauri; M. N. Mazziotta; S. Mereghetti; T. Mineo; S. Mizobuchi; A. Moiseev; M. Moles; C. Monte; F. Montecchia; E. Morelli; A. Morselli; I. Moskalenko; F. Nozzoli; J. F. Ormes; M. A. Peres-Torres; L. Pacciani; A. Pellizzoni; F. Perez-Bernal; F. Perotti; P. Picozza; L. Pieri; M. Pietroni; M. Pimenta; A. Pina; C. Pittori; C. Pontoni; G. Porrovecchio; F. Prada; M. Prest; D. Prosperi; R. Protheroe; G. Pucella; J. M. Quesada; J. M. Quintana; J. R. Quintero; S. Raino; M. Rapisarda; M. Rissi; J. Rodriguez; E. Rossi; G. Rowell; A. Rubini; F. Russo; M. Sanchez-Conde; B. Sacco; V. Scapin; M. Schelke; A. Segreto; A. Sellerholm; X. D. Sheng; A. Smith; P. Soffitta; R. Sparvoli; P. Spinelli; V. Stamatescu; L. S. Stark; M. Tavani; G. Thornton; L. G. Titarchuk; B. Tome; A. Traci; M. Trifoglio; A. Trois; P. Vallania; E. Vallazza; S. Vercellone; S. Vernetto; V. Vitale; N. Wild; Z. P. Ye; A. Zambra; F. Zandanel; D. Zanello

2007-12-04

352

A New View of the High Energy Gamma-Ray Sky with the Ferrni Gamma-Ray Space Telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Following its launch in June 2008, high energy gamma-ray observations by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have opened a new and important window on a wide variety of phenomena, including pulsars, black holes and active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursts, supernova remnants and the origin of cosmic rays, and searches for hypothetical new phenomena such as super symmetric dark matter annihilations. In this talk I will describe the current status of the Fermi observatory and review the science highlights from the first year of observations.

McEnery, Julie

2009-01-01

353

Gamma ray lines from a universal extra dimension  

SciTech Connect

Indirect Dark Matter searches are based on the observation of secondary particles produced by the annihilation or decay of Dark Matter. Among them, gamma-rays are perhaps the most promising messengers, as they do not suffer deflection or absorption on Galactic scales, so their observation would directly reveal the position and the energy spectrum of the emitting source. Here, we study the detailed gamma-ray energy spectrum of Kaluza--Klein Dark Matter in a theory with 5 Universal Extra Dimensions. We focus in particular on the two body annihilation of Dark Matter particles into a photon and another particle, which produces monochromatic photons, resulting in a line in the energy spectrum of gamma rays. Previous calculations in the context of the five dimensional UED model have computed the line signal from annihilations into \\gamma \\gamma, but we extend these results to include \\gamma Z and \\gamma H final states. We find that these spectral lines are subdominant compared to the predicted \\gamma \\gamma signal, but they would be important as follow-up signals in the event of the observation of the \\gamma \\gamma line, in order to distinguish the 5d UED model from other theoretical scenarios.

Bertone, Gianfranco; Jackson, C.B.; Shaughnessy, Gabe; Tait, Tim M.P.; Vallinotto, Alberto

2012-03-01

354

Implication of the striped pulsar wind model for gamma-ray binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma-ray binaries are massive stars with compact object companions that are observed to emit most of their energy in the gamma-ray range. One of these binaries is known to contain a radio pulsar, PSR B1259-63. Synchrotron and inverse-Compton emission from particles accelerated beyond the light cylinder in striped pulsar winds has been proposed to explain the X-ray to high-energy (HE; >100 MeV) gamma-ray emission from isolated pulsars. This pulsar model extends naturally to binary environments, where seed photons for inverse-Compton scattering are provided by the companion star. Here, we investigate the possibility of gamma-ray emission from PSR B1259-63 in the framework of the striped pulsar wind model. The orbital geometry of PSR B1259-63 is well constrained by observations, and the double radio pulse suggests an almost orthogonal rotator so that the solid angle covered by the striped region is close to 4?. We calculate the orbital and rotational phase-resolved spectral variability and light curves to expect. We find that the recent detection by the Fermi/Large Area Telescope of PSR B1259-63 close to periastron can be explained by a striped wind if the emission arises from a large range of radii (?1000rL). We constrain the particle density number at the light cylinder nL? 7 × 1015 m-3. The re-brightening a month after periastron passage could be due to interaction with additional seed photons from the trailing pulsar wind nebula. Striped winds may also be at work in the gamma-ray binaries LS I +61°303 and LS 5039, both of which have HE gamma-ray spectra reminiscent of those of pulsars and fluxes modulated on the orbital period. Gamma-ray pulsations are expected. Some gamma-ray binaries should be faint in HE gamma-rays (HESS J0632+057) because the line of sight does not cross the striped wind region.

Pétri, Jérôme; Dubus, Guillaume

2011-10-01

355

GLAST and Ground-Based Gamma-Ray Astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The launch of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope together with the advent of a new generation of ground-based gamma-ray detectors such as VERITAS, HESS, MAGIC and CANGAROO, will usher in a new era of high-energy gamma-ray astrophysics. GLAST and the ground based gamma-ray observatories will provide highly complementary capabilities for spectral, temporal and spatial studies of high energy gamma-ray sources. Joint observations will cover a huge energy range, from 20 MeV to over 20 TeV. The LAT will survey the entire sky every three hours, allowing it both to perform uniform, long-term monitoring of variable sources and to detect flaring sources promptly. Both functions complement the high-sensitivity pointed observations provided by ground-based detectors. Finally, the large field of view of GLAST will allow a study of gamma-ray emission on large angular scales and identify interesting regions of the sky for deeper studies at higher energies. In this poster, we will discuss the science returns that might result from joint GLAST/ground-based gamma-ray observations and illustrate them with detailed source simulations.

McEnery, Julie

2008-01-01

356

High Energy Gamma-Ray Emission From Blazars: EGRET Observations  

E-print Network

We will present a summary of the observations of blazars by the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO). EGRET has detected high energy gamma-ray emission at energies greater than 100 MeV from more that 50 blazars. These sources show inferred isotropic luminosities as large as $3\\times 10^{49}$ ergs s$^{-1}$. One of the most remarkable characteristics of the EGRET observations is that the gamma-ray luminosity often dominates the bolometric power of the blazar. A few of the blazars are seen to exhibit variability on very short time-scales of one day or less. The combination of high luminosities and time variations seen in the gamma-ray data indicate that gamma-rays are an important component of the relativistic jet thought to characterize blazars. Currently most models for blazars involve a beaming scenario. In leptonic models, where electrons are the primary accelerated particles, gamma-ray emission is believed to be due to inverse Compton scattering of low energy photons, although opinions differ as to the source of the soft photons. Hardronic models involve secondary production or photomeson production followed by pair cascades, and predict associated neutrino production.

R. Mukherjee

1999-01-17

357

A search for high-energy gamma-ray bursts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ground-based extensive air shower array ``Andyrchy'' of the Baksan Neutrino Observatory was used for the search of high-energy gamma-ray bursts as well as the high-energy radiation (E_{gamma} ? 10 GeV) within the gamma-ray bursts, which have been recorded in the low-energy range (E_{gamma} ? 30-50 keV) on the BATSE. The results obtained in 1996-2000 in the sky survey and in coincidence with the BATSE events are presented.

Petkov, V. B.; Alekseenko, V. V.; Volchenko, V. I.; Zaichenko, A. N.; Karpov, S. N.; Poddubny, V. Ya.; Radchenkov, A. V.; Smirnov, D. V.; Khaerdinov, N. S.; Chernyaev, A. B.; Yanin, A. F.

2003-04-01

358

Influence of gamma ray irradiation on metakaolin based sodium geopolymer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effects of gamma irradiation on metakaolin based Na-geopolymer have been investigated by external irradiation. The experiments were carried out in a gamma irradiator with 60Co sources up to 1000 kGy. Various Na-geopolymer with three H2O/Na2O ratios have been studied in terms of hydrogen radiolytic yield. The results show that hydrogen production increases linearly with water content. Gamma irradiation effects on Na-geopolymer microstructure have been investigated with porosity measurements and X-ray pair distribution function analysis. A change of pore size distribution and a structural relaxation have been found after gamma ray irradiation.

Lambertin, D.; Boher, C.; Dannoux-Papin, A.; Galliez, K.; Rooses, A.; Frizon, F.

2013-11-01

359

Detection of gamma rays from a starburst galaxy.  

PubMed

Starburst galaxies exhibit in their central regions a highly increased rate of supernovae, the remnants of which are thought to accelerate energetic cosmic rays up to energies of approximately 10(15) electron volts. We report the detection of gamma rays--tracers of such cosmic rays--from the starburst galaxy NGC 253 using the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) array of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. The gamma-ray flux above 220 billion electron volts is F = (5.5 +/- 1.0(stat) +/- 2.8(sys)) x 10(-13) cm(-2) s(-1), implying a cosmic-ray density about three orders of magnitude larger than that in the center of the Milky Way. The fraction of cosmic-ray energy channeled into gamma rays in this starburst environment is five times as large as that in our Galaxy. PMID:19779150

Acero, F; Aharonian, F; Akhperjanian, A G; Anton, G; Barres de Almeida, U; Bazer-Bachi, A R; Becherini, Y; Behera, B; Bernlöhr, K; Bochow, A; Boisson, C; Bolmont, J; Borrel, V; Brucker, J; Brun, F; Brun, P; Bühler, R; Bulik, T; Büsching, I; Boutelier, T; Chadwick, P M; Charbonnier, A; Chaves, R C G; Cheesebrough, A; Chounet, L-M; Clapson, A C; Coignet, G; Dalton, M; Daniel, M K; Davids, I D; Degrange, B; Deil, C; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Ataï, A; Domainko, W; Drury, L O'C; Dubois, F; Dubus, G; Dyks, J; Dyrda, M; Egberts, K; Emmanoulopoulos, D; Espigat, P; Farnier, C; Fegan, S; Feinstein, F; Fiasson, A; Förster, A; Fontaine, G; Füssling, M; Gabici, S; Gallant, Y A; Gérard, L; Gerbig, D; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Glück, B; Goret, P; Göring, D; Hauser, D; Hauser, M; Heinz, S; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hinton, J A; Hoffmann, A; Hofmann, W; Hofverberg, P; Hoppe, S; Horns, D; Jacholkowska, A; de Jager, O C; Jahn, C; Jung, I; Katarzy?ski, K; Katz, U; Kaufmann, S; Kerschhaggl, M; Khangulyan, D; Khélifi, B; Keogh, D; Klochkov, D; Klu?niak, W; Kneiske, T; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Kossakowski, R; Lamanna, G; Lenain, J-P; Lohse, T; Marandon, V; Martineau-Huynh, O; Marcowith, A; Masbou, J; Maurin, D; McComb, T J L; Medina, M C; Méhault, J; Moderski, R; Moulin, E; Naumann-Godo, M; de Naurois, M; Nedbal, D; Nekrassov, D; Nicholas, B; Niemiec, J; Nolan, S J; Ohm, S; Olive, J-F; de Oña Wilhelmi, E; Orford, K J; Ostrowski, M; Panter, M; Paz Arribas, M; Pedaletti, G; Pelletier, G; Petrucci, P-O; Pita, S; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, A; Raubenheimer, B C; Raue, M; Rayner, S M; Reimer, O; Renaud, M; Rieger, F; Ripken, J; Rob, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Rulten, C B; Ruppel, J; Sahakian, V; Santangelo, A; Schlickeiser, R; Schöck, F M; Schwanke, U; Schwarzburg, S; Schwemmer, S; Shalchi, A; Sikora, M; Skilton, J L; Sol, H; Stawarz, ?; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Stinzing, F; Superina, G; Szostek, A; Tam, P H; Tavernet, J-P; Terrier, R; Tibolla, O; Tluczykont, M; van Eldik, C; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Venter, L; Vialle, J P; Vincent, P; Vivier, M; Völk, H J; Volpe, F; Wagner, S J; Ward, M; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A

2009-11-20

360

Detection of Gamma Rays from a Starburst Galaxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Starburst galaxies exhibit in their central regions a highly increased rate of supernovae, the remnants of which are thought to accelerate energetic cosmic rays up to energies of ~1015 electron volts. We report the detection of gamma rays—tracers of such cosmic rays—from the starburst galaxy NGC 253 using the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) array of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. The gamma-ray flux above 220 billion electron volts is F = (5.5 ± 1.0stat ± 2.8sys) × 10-13 cm-2 s-1, implying a cosmic-ray density about three orders of magnitude larger than that in the center of the Milky Way. The fraction of cosmic-ray energy channeled into gamma rays in this starburst environment is five times as large as that in our Galaxy.

Acero, F.; Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Anton, G.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Bazer-Bachi, A. R.; Becherini, Y.; Behera, B.; Bernlöhr, K.; Bochow, A.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Borrel, V.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bühler, R.; Bulik, T.; Büsching, I.; Boutelier, T.; Chadwick, P. M.; Charbonnier, A.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Chounet, L.-M.; Clapson, A. C.; Coignet, G.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Drury, L. O.'C.; Dubois, F.; Dubus, G.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Egberts, K.; Emmanoulopoulos, D.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fiasson, A.; Förster, A.; Fontaine, G.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gallant, Y. A.; Gérard, L.; Gerbig, D.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Glück, B.; Goret, P.; Göring, D.; Hauser, D.; Hauser, M.; Heinz, S.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hinton, J. A.; Hoffmann, A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Hoppe, S.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; de Jager, O. C.; Jahn, C.; Jung, I.; Katarzy?ski, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Khangulyan, D.; Khélifi, B.; Keogh, D.; Klochkov, D.; Klu?niak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Kossakowski, R.; Lamanna, G.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lohse, T.; Marandon, V.; Martineau-Huynh, O.; Marcowith, A.; Masbou, J.; Maurin, D.; McComb, T. J. L.; Medina, M. C.; Méhault, J.; Moderski, R.; Moulin, E.; Naumann-Godo, M.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Nekrassov, D.; Nicholas, B.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Ohm, S.; Olive, J.-F.; Wilhelmi, E. de Oña; Orford, K. J.; Ostrowski, M.; Panter, M.; Arribas, M. Paz; Pedaletti, G.; Pelletier, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Pita, S.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raubenheimer, B. C.; Raue, M.; Rayner, S. M.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; Rieger, F.; Ripken, J.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Ruppel, J.; Sahakian, V.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schöck, F. M.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Shalchi, A.; Sikora, M.; Skilton, J. L.; Sol, H.; Stawarz, ?.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Superina, G.; Szostek, A.; Tam, P. H.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Terrier, R.; Tibolla, O.; Tluczykont, M.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Venter, L.; Vialle, J. P.; Vincent, P.; Vivier, M.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Wagner, S. J.; Ward, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.

2009-11-01

361

Induced Background in the Mars Observer Gamma-Ray Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma-Ray Spectrometers in space must necessarily work in an environment of a background of lines due to natural and cosmic-ray induced radioactivity and lines due to prompt emission following nuclear reactions caused by primary and secondary cosmic rays. The Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) on the Mar Observer mission has provided important data allowing one to estimate for future missions the extent of the background due to cosmic rays. These data will help in the design of instruments and in calculation of realistic background intensities that may effect the sensitivity of determining the intensity of lines of interest.

Boynton, William V.; Evans, Larry G.; Starr, Richard; Bruekner, Johnnes; Bailey, S. H.; Trombka, Jacob I.

1997-01-01

362

MeV Mono-Energetic Gamma Ray Compton Scattering Source R&D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A precision, tunable gamma-ray source driven by a compact, high-gradient X-band linac is currently under development at LLNL. High-brightness, relativistic electron bunches produced by the linac interact with a Joule-class, 10 ps laser pulse to generate tunable ?-rays in the 0.5-2.5 MeV photon energy range via Compton scattering. The source will be used to excite nuclear resonance fluorescence lines in various isotopes; applications include homeland security, stockpile science and surveillance, nuclear fuel assay, and waste imaging and assay. The source design, key parameters, and current status are presented.

Hartemann, Fred; Albert, Felicie; Anderson, Scott; Chu, Sam; Cross, Rick; Ebbers, Chris; Gibson, David; Messerly, Mike; Semenov, Vlad; Shverdin, Miro; Siders, Craig; McNabb, Dennis; Barty, Chris; Vlieks, Arnold; Tantawi, Sami

2009-11-01

363

PKS 2123-463: A Confirmed Gamma-ray Blazar at High Redshift  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flat spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ) PKS 2123-463 was associated in the first Fermi- Large Area Telescope (LAT) source catalogue with the gamma-ray source 1FGL J2126.1-4603, but when considering the full first two years of Fermi observations, no gamma-ray source at a position consistent with this FSRQ was detected, and thus PKS 2123-463 was not reported in the second Fermi-LAT source catalogue. On 2011 December 14 a gamma-ray source positionally consistent with PKS 2123-463 was detected in flaring activity by Fermi-LAT. This activity triggered radio-to-X-ray observations by the Swift,Gamma-ray Optical/Near-Infrared Detector (GROND), Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA), Ceduna and Seven Dishes Karoo Array Telescope (KAT-7) observatories. Results of the localization of the gamma-ray source over 41 months of Fermi-LAT operation are reported here in conjunction with the results of the analysis of radio, optical, ultraviolet (UV) and X-ray data collected soon after the gamma-ray flare. The strict spatial association with the lower energy counterpart together with a simultaneous increase of the activity in optical, UV, X-ray and gamma-ray bands led to a firm identification of the gamma-ray source with PKS 2123-463. A new photometric redshift has been estimated as z = 1.46 plus or minus 0.05 using GROND and Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope (UVOT) observations, in rough agreement with the disputed spectroscopic redshift of z = 1.67.We fit the broad-band spectral energy distribution with a synchrotron/external Compton model. We find that a thermal disc component is necessary to explain the optical/UV emission detected by Swift/UVOT. This disc has a luminosity of approximately 1.8 x 10(exp 46) erg s(exp -1), and a fit to the disc emission assuming a Schwarzschild (i.e. non-rotating) black hole gives a mass of approximately 2 x 10(exp 9) solar mass. This is the first black hole mass estimate for this source.

D'Ammando, F.; Rau, A.; Schady, P.; Finke, J.; Orienti, M.; Greiner, J.; Kann, D. A.; Ojha, R.; Foley, A. R.; Stevens, J.; Blanchard, J. M.; Edwards, P. G.; Kadler, M.; Lovell, J. E.

2013-01-01

364

Dawn's Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Dawn Mission will determine the surface composition of 4 Vesta and 1 Ceres, providing constraints on their formation and thermal evolution. The payload includes a Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND), which will map the surface elemental composition at regional spatial scales. Target elements include the constituents of silicate and oxide minerals, ices, and the products of volcanic exhalation and aqueous alteration. At Vesta, GRaND will map the mixing ratio of end-members of the howardite, diogenite, and eucrite (HED) meteorites, determine relative proportions of plagioclase and mafic minerals, and search for compositions not well sampled by the meteorite collection. The large south polar impact basin may provide an opportunity to determine the composition of Vesta’s mantle and lower crust. At Ceres, GRaND will provide chemical information needed to test different models of Ceres’ origin and thermal and aqueous evolution. GRaND is also sensitive to hydrogen layering and can determine the equivalent H2O/OH content of near-surface hydrous minerals as well as the depth and water abundance of an ice table, which may provide information about the state of water in the interior of Ceres. Here, we document the design and performance of GRaND with sufficient detail to interpret flight data archived in the Planetary Data System, including two new sensor designs: an array of CdZnTe semiconductors for gamma ray spectroscopy, and a loaded-plastic phosphor sandwich for neutron spectroscopy. An overview of operations and a description of data acquired from launch up to Vesta approach is provided, including annealing of the CdZnTe sensors to remove radiation damage accrued during cruise. The instrument is calibrated using data acquired on the ground and in flight during a close flyby of Mars. Results of Mars flyby show that GRaND has ample sensitivity to meet science objectives at Vesta and Ceres. Strategies for data analysis are described and prospective results for Vesta are presented for different operational scenarios and compositional models.

Prettyman, Thomas H.; Feldman, William C.; McSween, Harry Y.; Dingler, Robert D.; Enemark, Donald C.; Patrick, Douglas E.; Storms, Steven A.; Hendricks, John S.; Morgenthaler, Jeffery P.; Pitman, Karly M.; Reedy, Robert C.

2011-12-01

365

INTEGRAL Results on Gamma-Ray Bursts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prompt, precise localizations of gamma-ray bursts imaged by IBIS are being disseminated at a rate of about 10 per year (49 to date). The INTEGRAL Burst Alert System (IBAS) produces automated alerts within 10's of seconds, giving positions which are accurate to several arcminutes for events as weak as 5.7 x 10-8 erg cm-2. IBIS is also a very sensitive detector of soft gamma repeaters (SGRs). It has detected well over 200 bursts from SGR1806-20, down to a fluence of 7×10-9 erg cm-2. An unexpected discovery is that the quiescent X-ray emission of this source and SGR 1900+14 is considerably harder than previous measurements indicated, and extends to 200 keV, a property which SGRs share with the AXP's. In addition, the SPI anti-coincidence shield (ACS) system is an extremely useful component of the interplanetary network. With its isotropic response, it detects about 66 confirmed bursts/year ( 450 to date) down to a threshold of 4.8×10-8 erg cm-2, many of which can be localized by triangulation. Most of these events are not detected by Swift or IBIS due to their limited fields of view. The triangulation results are currently being used to search for coincident neutrino emission, for gravitational radiation simultaneous with GRBs, and for coincidences between Type Ic supernovae and bursts, among other things. The SPI ACS has recently played a key role in localizing and identifying two events which are believed to be extragalactic giant magnetar flares (EMFs), from M81 and M31. LIGO was operating at the time of one of these events, and their observations support the EMF hypothesis. SPI is also being used as a Compton-scatter polarimeter for GRBs. Kalemci et al. (2007) and McGlynn et al. (2007) studied its response to GRB041219a, and obtained polarizations of 98% +/- 33%, and 63% (+31%,-30%) respectively.

Hurley, Kevin C.

2008-03-01

366

Cosmic Gamma-ray Background from Star-forming Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin of the extragalactic gamma-ray background is a pressing cosmological mystery. The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has recently measured the intensity and spectrum of this background; both are substantially different from previous measurements. We present a novel calculation of the gamma-ray background from normal star-forming galaxies. Contrary to long-standing expectations, we find that numerous but individually faint normal galaxies may comprise the bulk of the Fermi signal, rather than rare but intrinsically bright active galaxies. This result has wide-ranging implications, including: the possibility to probe the cosmic star formation history with gamma rays; the ability to infer the cosmological evolution of cosmic rays and galactic magnetic fields; and an increased likelihood of identifying subdominant components from rare sources (e.g., dark matter clumps) through their large anisotropy.

Fields, Brian D.; Pavlidou, Vasiliki; Prodanovi?, Tijana

2010-10-01

367

Diffuse Gamma-Ray Background from Star-Forming Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin of the extragalactic gamma-ray background is a pressing cosmological mystery. The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has recently measured the intensity and spectrum of this background; both are substantially different from previous measurements. We present a novel calculation of the gamma-ray background from normal star-forming galaxies. Contrary to longstanding expectations, we find that numerous but individually faint normal galaxies may comprise the bulk of the Fermi signal, rather than rare but intrinsically bright active galaxies. This result has wide-ranging implications, including: the possibility to probe the cosmic star-formation history with gamma rays; the ability to infer the cosmological evolution of cosmic rays and galactic magnetic fields; and an increased likelihood to identify subdominant components from rare sources (e.g., dark matter annihilation).

Fields, Brian D.; Pavlidou, V.; Prodanovic, T.

2011-01-01

368

Evaluation of a CdTe semiconductor based compact gamma camera for sentinel lymph node imaging  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The authors assembled a prototype compact gamma-ray imaging probe (MediPROBE) for sentinel lymph node (SLN) localization. This probe is based on a semiconductor pixel detector. Its basic performance was assessed in the laboratory and clinically in comparison with a conventional gamma camera. Methods: The room-temperature CdTe pixel detector (1 mm thick) has 256x256 square pixels arranged with a 55 {mu}m pitch (sensitive area 14.08x14.08 mm{sup 2}), coupled pixel-by-pixel via bump-bonding to the Medipix2 photon-counting readout CMOS integrated circuit. The imaging probe is equipped with a set of three interchangeable knife-edge pinhole collimators (0.94, 1.2, or 2.1 mm effective diameter at 140 keV) and its focal distance can be regulated in order to set a given field of view (FOV). A typical FOV of 70 mm at 50 mm skin-to-collimator distance corresponds to a minification factor 1:5. The detector is operated at a single low-energy threshold of about 20 keV. Results: For {sup 99m}Tc, at 50 mm distance, a background-subtracted sensitivity of 6.5x10{sup -3} cps/kBq and a system spatial resolution of 5.5 mm FWHM were obtained for the 0.94 mm pinhole; corresponding values for the 2.1 mm pinhole were 3.3x10{sup -2} cps/kBq and 12.6 mm. The dark count rate was 0.71 cps. Clinical images in three patients with melanoma indicate detection of the SLNs with acquisition times between 60 and 410 s with an injected activity of 26 MBq {sup 99m}Tc and prior localization with standard gamma camera lymphoscintigraphy. Conclusions: The laboratory performance of this imaging probe is limited by the pinhole collimator performance and the necessity of working in minification due to the limited detector size. However, in clinical operative conditions, the CdTe imaging probe was effective in detecting SLNs with adequate resolution and an acceptable sensitivity. Sensitivity is expected to improve with the future availability of a larger CdTe detector permitting operation at shorter distances from the patient skin.

Russo, Paolo; Curion, Assunta S.; Mettivier, Giovanni; Esposito, Michela; Aurilio, Michela; Caraco, Corradina; Aloj, Luigi; Lastoria, Secondo [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli Federico II, I-80126 Napoli (Italy) and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Medicina Nucleare, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Fondazione G. Pascale, I-80131 Napoli (Italy)

2011-03-15

369

The rarity of soft gamma-ray repeaters deduced from reactivation of SGR1806-20  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Only two different types of gamma-ray transient sources are presently known: over one thousand Gamma-Ray Bursters (GRBs) and only three Soft Gamma-Ray repeaters (SGRs). The latter are distinguished by their propensity for recurrent burst behaviour, in contrast to the nonrepeating GRB sources. Recurrent emission from one of the repeaters, SGR1900 + 14, has been detected earlier by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) aboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory. Here we report renewed burst activity from SGR1806 - 20, the most prolific of the three known SGRs. This detection of reactivation of this source has been rapidly followed by identification of an X-ray counterpart, which also coincides with a compact radio source now identified as a plerionic (pulsar-powered) supernova remnant. In combination, these results are leading to a convergence of ideas about the nature of SGRs, which can now be firmly identified as neutron stars. That BATSE has detected no new sources in its two and a half years of operation indicates that SGRs are rare in our Galaxy.

Kouveliotou, C.; Fishman, G. J.; Meegan, C. A.; Paciesas, W.S.; Paradijs, J. Van; Norris, J. P.; Preece, R. D.; Briggs, M. S.; Horack, J. M.; Pendleton, G. N.; Green, D.A.

1994-01-01

370

Feasibility study of gamma-ray medical radiography.  

PubMed

This research explores the feasibility of using gamma-ray radiography in medical imaging. We will show that gamma-ray medical radiography has the potential to provide alternative diagnostic medical information to X-ray radiography. Approximately one Ci Am-241 radioactive source which emits mono-energetic 59.5 keV gamma rays was used. Several factors that influence the feasibility of this study were tested. They were the radiation source uniformity, image uniformity, and image quality parameters such as contrast, noise, and spatial resolution. In addition, several gamma-ray and X-ray images were acquired using humanoid phantoms. These images were recorded on computed radiography image receptors and displayed on a standard monitor. Visual assessments of these images were then conducted. The Am-241 radioactive source provided relatively uniform radiation exposure and images. Image noise and image contrast were mainly dependent on the exposure time and source size, whereas spatial resolution was dependent on source size and magnification factor. The gamma-ray humanoid phantom images were of lower quality than the X-ray images mainly due to the low radioactivity used and not enough exposure time. Nevertheless, the gamma-ray images displayed most of the main structures contained in the humanoid phantoms. Higher exposure rates and thus lower exposure times were estimated for different pure Am-241 source sizes that are hypothesized to provide high quality images similar to X-ray images. For instance, a 10mm source size of pure Am-241 with 7s exposure time should produce images similar in contrast and noise to X-ray images. This research paves the way for the production and usage of a highly radioactive Am-241 source with the potential to lead to the feasibility of acceptable quality medical gamma-ray radiography. PMID:23208227

Alyassin, Abdalmajeid M; Maqsoud, Hamza A; Mashat, Ahmad M; Al-Mohr, Al-Sayed; Abdulwajid, Subhan

2013-02-01

371

Observational techniques for solar flare gamma-rays, hard X-rays, and neutrons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of new instrumentation and techniques for solar hard X-ray, gamma ray and neutron observations from spacecraft and/or balloon-borne platforms is examined. The principal accomplishments are: (1) the development of a two segment germanium detector which is near ideal for solar hard X-ray and gamma ray spectroscopy; (2) the development of long duration balloon flight techniques and associated instrumentation; and (3) the development of innovative new position sensitive detectors for hard X-ray and gamma rays.

Lin, Robert P.

1989-01-01

372

A directional low energy gamma-ray detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The sensitivity of a directional gamma ray detector, which relies on blocking a source to determine its direction and energy spectrum, is calculated and compared to the more conventional well-shaped shielded detectors. It is shown that such an anticollimator detection system provides a basis for measuring the celestial diffuse gamma ray background, gamma ray sources and bursts with good energy, angular, and time resolution, and that additionally the system is 20 to 50 times as sensitive as conventional detectors when compared on a per unit mass basis.

Morfill, G.; Pieper, G. F.

1973-01-01

373

The LXeCAT instrument for gamma-ray astrophysics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Liquid Xenon Coded Aperture Telescope (LXeCAT) and its capability to image astrophysical gamma-ray sources in the MeV region is described. The gamma-ray detector is a Liquid Xenon Time Projection Chamber (LXeTPC) triggered by the primary scintillation light. Effective background rejection is a direct consequence of the intrinsic three-dimensional imaging capability of the LXeTPC. Initial results with a 10 liter prototype confirm an energy resolution of 6% FWHM, a position resolution of 1 mm RMS and a light triggering efficiency higher than 90% for 1 MeV gamma-rays.

Aprile, E.; Xu, F.; Zhou, M.; Doke, T.; Kikuchi, J.; Masuda, K.; Chupp, E. L.; Dunphy, P. P.; Fishman, G.; Pendelton, G.

1995-01-01

374

Al-26: A galactic source of gamma ray line emission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that Al26 is a very good candidate for producing a detectable gamma-ray line, and that this line is not only intense but also very narrow. By examining the chart of nuclides for other radioactive isotopes which could produce hiterto unnoticed gamma-ray lines following nucleosynthesis, it is found that for mass numbers less than 60, the isotopes Na22, Al26, K40, Ar42, Ti44, Sc46, Mn54, Co56, Co57, Co58, Co60 and Fe60 are the only ones with sufficiently long half lives (70) days to produce gamma rays in optically thin regions.

Ramaty, R.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

1976-01-01

375

Unresolved Blazar Component of the Extragalactic Gamma-Ray Background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present new theoretical estimates of the relative contribution of unresolved blazars and star forming galaxies to the extragalactic gamma-ray background and discuss constraints on the contributions from other possible components. We find that the Fermi data do not rule out a scenario in which the extragalactic gamma-ray background is dominated by emission from unresolved blazars. The spectrum of unresolved FSRQs, when accounting for the energy dependent effects of source confusion, could be consistent with the combined spectrum of the low energy EGRET extragalactic gamma-ray background measurements and the Fermi-LAT measurements above 200 MeV.

Stecker, Floyd W.; Venters, T. M.

2011-01-01

376

Simulation of Gamma Rays from Proton Interaction in Local Galaxies  

SciTech Connect

The GLAST Large Area Telescope will provide unprecedented opportunities to detect cosmic GeV gamma rays, thanks to its large effective area, field of view and angular resolution compared with earlier telescopes. We present here the possibility of detecting GeV gamma rays produced by interactions of accelerated protons (or hadrons) with surrounding ambient material. Sources where such detection could be made include local galaxies, such as the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), molecular clouds and other extended sources. We have calculated the expected gamma-ray spectrum for an isotropic distribution of protons in the LMC and simulated a one-year GLAST-LAT observation.

Karlsson, Niklas; /SLAC /Stockholm U.; Cohen-Tanugi, Johann; Kamae, Tuneyoshi; Tajima, Hiroyasu; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park

2007-06-06

377

A small-angle X-ray scattering study of powder compaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work demonstrated a novel and potentially important application of two-dimensional small-angle X-ray scattering (2D-SAXS) to investigate powder compaction. SAXS from powder compacts of three materials commonly used for pharmaceutical tabletting exhibited azimuthal variations, with stronger intensity in the direction of the applied compaction force, relative to the transverse direction. This implied that compaction of a (macroscopic) powder could also

Peter R. Laity; Ruth E. Cameron

2008-01-01

378

Search for Thunderstorm Associated Nuclear Gamma Rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from further analysis of thunderstorm data taken with a liquid nitrogen-cooled germanium spectrometer with energy range from 13 keV-2.6 MeV that was setup on South Baldy Peak at Langmuir Laboratory in New Mexico during June through August of 2005. The purpose of the experiment was to investigate the suggestion made by Greenfield et al. (2003) that delayed gamma ray emissions associated with thunderstorms may be attributed to Chlorine-39 and Chlorine-38. We improve upon results of Boggs et al. (2005) by doing a careful spectral calibration to improve sensitivity.Two methods to determine the presence of chlorine emission lines were used; we created storm length background-subtracted spectra, and also examined the change in count rates in energy bins that correspond to the Chlorine emission energies. Both these methods confirm the conclusions of Boggs et al. that chlorine emission was not detected and any signature of Chlorine production was below the detectability of the detector. These results lead to an upper limit on photon flux in chlorine line emission that can be used to place an upper limit on chlorine production during thunderstorms.

Lundberg, J. L.; Millan, R.; Boggs, S.; Eack, K.; Aulich, G.

2007-12-01

379

Gamma-ray emission from pulsar binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulsar winds, containing charged particles, waves and a net (phase-averaged) magnetic field, are thought to fuel the high-energy emission from several gamma-ray binaries. They terminate where the ram pressure matches that of the surroundings - which, in binaries, is provided by the wind of the companion. Before termination, pulsed emission can be produced by inverse Compton scattering of photons from the companion by particles in the waves. After termination, both the bulk kinetic energy of the particles and the Poynting flux in the waves are dissipated into an energetic particle population embedded in the surviving phase-averaged magnetic field. Pulsed emission is no longer possible, but a substantial flux of unpulsed high-energy photons can be produced. I will present results showing that the physical conditions at the termination shock can be divided into two regimes: a high density one, where current sheets in the wind are first compressed by an MHD shock and subsequently dissipate by reconnection, and a low density one, where the wind can first convert into an electromagnetic wave in the shock precursor, which then damps and merges into the wind nebula. The shocks surrounding isolated pulsars fall into the low-density category, but those around pulsars in binary systems, may transit from one regime to the other according to binary phase. The implications of the shock-structure dichotomy for these objects will be discussed.

Kirk, John; Mochol, Iwona

2013-03-01

380

The electromagnetic model of Gamma Ray Bursts  

E-print Network

I describe electromagnetic model of gamma ray bursts and contrast its main properties and predictions with hydrodynamic fireball model and its magnetohydrodynamical extension. The electromagnetic model assumes that rotational energy of a relativistic, stellar-mass central source (black-hole--accretion disk system or fast rotating neutron star) is converted into magnetic energy through unipolar dynamo mechanism, propagated to large distances in a form of relativistic, subsonic, Poynting flux-dominated wind and is dissipated directly into emitting particles through current-driven instabilities. Thus, there is no conversion back and forth between internal and bulk energies as in the case of fireball model. Collimating effects of magnetic hoop stresses lead to strongly non-spherical expansion and formation of jets. Long and short GRBs may develop in a qualitatively similar way, except that in case of long bursts ejecta expansion has a relatively short, non-relativistic, strongly dissipative stage inside the star. Electromagnetic and fireball models (as well as strongly and weakly magnetized fireballs) lead to different early afterglow dynamics, before deceleration time. Finally, I discuss the models in view of latest observational data in the Swift era.

Maxim Lyutikov

2005-12-13

381

Persistent Counterparts to Gamma-Ray Bursts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent discovery of persistent gamma-ray burst (GRB) counterparts at lower frequencies permits several important conclusions to be drawn. The spectrum of GRB 970508 is not consistent with an external shock origin for both the prompt GRB and the persistent emission, suggesting that at least the prompt radiation is produced by internal shocks. Comparisons among three GRBs with counterparts (or upper limits on them) establishes that GRBs are not all scaled versions of similar events. The angular size inferred from the apparent observation of self-absorption in the radio spectrum of GRB 970508 a week later implies that its expansion had slowed to semirelativistic speeds. This permits a remarkably low upper bound to be placed on its residual energy, suggesting either that radiation has been more than 99.7% efficient or that the initial outflow was strongly collimated. Observations of self-absorbed radio emission from future GRBs may permit direct measurement of their expansion and determination of their parameters and energetics. We estimate initial Lorentz factors of ?0 ~ 100 for GRB 970228 and GRB 970508, and present a solution for the evolution of a blast wave with instantaneous cooling.

Katz, J. I.; Piran, T.

1997-12-01

382

Gamma-Ray Bursts - The Second Revolution  

E-print Network

Gamma-ray bursts GRBs are among the most mysterious astronomical phenomenon ever discovered. Unlike most astronomical discoveries which were explained within weeks or months after their initial discovery, GRBs remain a puzzle for more than thirty years. During the last decade our understanding of GRBs has undergone two major revolutions. First, BATSE discovered that GRBs are distributed isotropically over the sky and thereby demonstrated their cosmological origin. The second revolution tool place more recently when BeppoSAX discovered GRB afterglow. This confirmed the fireball model and led to a wealth of observational data, some of which has not been fully understood yet. The emerging picture is that GRBs are the most luminous objects and the most relativistic objects ever discovered: (i) GRBs involve relativistic motion at a velocity of 0.9999c or larger. (ii) Most current GRB models involve the formation of a black hole in one way or another. (iii) If binary neutron star mergers are the sources of GRBs then GRBs are also associated with gravitational radiation signals. Finally, (iv) as cosmological power-houses that are observed to high red-shift GRBs might be used to measure cosmological parameters and to teach us about the epoch of galaxy formation.

Tsvi Piran

1998-07-24

383

Precision X-Band Linac Technologies for Nuclear Photonics Gamma-Ray Sources  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear photonics is an emerging field of research requiring new tools, including high spectral brightness, tunable gamma-ray sources; high photon energy, ultrahigh-resolution crystal spectrometers; and novel detectors. This presentation focuses on the precision linac technology required for Compton scattering gamma-ray light sources, and on the optimization of the laser and electron beam pulse format to achieve unprecedented spectral brightness. Within this context, high-gradient X-band technology will be shown to offer optimal performance in a compact package, when used in conjunction with the appropriate pulse format, and photocathode illumination and interaction laser technologies. The nascent field of nuclear photonics is enabled by the recent maturation of new technologies, including high-gradient X-band electron acceleration, robust fiber laser systems, and hyper-dispersion CPA. Recent work has been performed at LLNL to demonstrate isotope-specific detection of shielded materials via NRF using a tunable, quasi-monochromatic Compton scattering gamma-ray source operating between 0.2 MeV and 0.9 MeV photon energy. This technique is called Fluorescence Imaging in the Nuclear Domain with Energetic Radiation (or FINDER). This work has, among other things, demonstrated the detection of {sup 7}Li shielded by Pb, utilizing gamma rays generated by a linac-driven, laser-based Compton scattering gamma-ray source developed at LLNL. Within this context, a new facility is currently under construction at LLNL, with the goal of generating tunable {gamma}-rays in the 0.5-2.5 MeV photon energy range, at a repetition rate of 120 Hz, and with a peak brightness in the 10{sup 20} photons/(s x mm{sup 2} x mrad{sup 2} x 0.1% bw).

Hartemann, F V; Albert, F; Anderson, S G; Bayramian, A J; Cross, R R; Ebbers, C A; Gibson, D J; Houck, T L; Marsh, R A; Messerly, M J; Siders, C W; McNabb, D P; Barty, C J; Adolphsen, C E; Chu, T S; Jongewaard, E N; Tantawi, S G; Vlieks, A E; Wang, F; Wang, J W; Raubenheimer, T O; Ighigeanu, D; Toma, M; Cutoiu, D

2011-08-31

384

Wolf-Rayet Stars and Cosmic Gamma-ray Bursts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The observational properties of cosmic gamma-ray bursts and of Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars and their CO cores at the end of their evolution are analyzed. WR stars do not have hydrogen envelopes, facilitating the transformation of the energy of collapse into observable gamma rays. Of the ?90 well-localized gamma-ray bursts, 21 have optical identifications, of which 16 have measured redshifts (z=0.4 4.5). The distribution of gamma-ray bursts in energy N(?E) has a large scatter, from 3×1051 to 2×1054 erg. There is some evidence that the distribution N(?E) is bimodal if we include the gamma-ray burst GRB 980425, which is associated with the peculiar type Ic supernova SN 1998bw in the nearby elliptical galaxy ESO 184-G82, for which ?E ??1048erg. These characteristics of gamma-ray bursts are reminiscent of the distribution of final masses for the CO cores of WR stars, which uniformly covers a broad range: M CO=(1 2)M ?-(20 44)M ?. The possible bimodality of the gamma-ray burst energy distribution (E 1=1048 erg; ?E 2=3×1051-2×1054erg) could be associated with the bimodal mass distribution for stellar relativistic objects (M NS=(1.35±0.15)M ?; M BH=4 15M ?). The fact that SN 1998bw is a “peculiar” type Ic supernova, not typical for the collapses of WR stars (which usually give rise to type Ib/c supernovae), could be related to the rotation of the collapsing CO core. This “drags out/rd the time for the collapse, leading to the formation of a neutron star, a decrease in the gamma-ray burst energy, and an increase in the fraction of kinetic energy transferred to the supernova envelope. The expected rate of collapse of the CO cores of WR stars in the Galaxy is ?10-3/yr. This is at least three orders of magnitude higher than the mean frequency of gamma-ray bursts per galaxy (?10-6 10-7/yr). Two models for gamma-ray bursts with WR stars as progenitors are considered: the hypernova model of Paczynski (1998) and the pulsation instability CO-core collapse model proposed by Gershte & $/set{lower0.5emhbox{smashriptscriptstylesmile}}{l} $ ; n (2000). In both models, the rate of CO-core collapses can be brought into agreement with the observed rate of gamma-ray bursts by taking into account the anisotropy of the gamma radiation, associated with either a relativistic jet or the random character of the initial CO-core collapse due to instabilities. It is concluded that WR stars could be the progenitors of gamma-ray bursts. This hypothesis predicts the existence of two types of gamma-ray bursts, corresponding to the bimodal mass distribution for stellar relativistic objects, and of three types of optical afterglow, associated with collapses of the CO cores of WR stars that are single, in WR+O binaries, and in hypothetical WR+(A-M) systems. The paper also briefly examines a model of gamma-ray bursts as transient phenomena in the early stages of the evolution of galaxies (z>1), when very massive stars (M>100M ?) weak in heavy elements could form. Such massive stars should also lose their hydrogen envelopes and be transformed into massive WR stars, whose collapses could be accompanied by gamma-ray bursts. It is suggested that WR galaxies are the most probable candidates for the host galaxies of gamma-ray bursts.

Postnov, K. A.; Cherepashchuk, A. M.

2001-07-01

385

Astrophysical applications of Delbrück scattering: Dust scattered gamma radiation from gamma ray bursts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A preliminary, and perhaps the first, study of astrophysical applications of Delbrück scattering in a gamma-ray emitting celestial object like a gamma-ray burst (GRB) has been made. At energies?100 MeV the elastic scattering of gamma-ray photons off the molecular dust surrounding the GRB site is dominated by Delbrück scattering. Expressions for Delbrück-scattered gamma-ray flux as a function of time has been obtained for a few selected energies by assuming a simple model of GRB. These are compared with Compton-scattered flux. At certain situations, interestingly, the former is found to exceed the latter for the first few milliseconds of the burst. The issue of detectability of Delbrück-scattered gamma-ray echo from the cloud of a GRB is discussed. Although it is observed that the detection of such an echo is not within the capability of the presently operating gamma-ray missions such as Fermi LAT, a rough estimate shows that one can be optimistic that future generation gamma-ray telescopes might be able to see such photons' contribution to the total flux.

Kunwar, B.; Bhadra, A.; Gupta, S. K. Sen

2014-02-01

386

Multiwavelength observations of unidentified high energy gamma ray sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As was the case for COS B, the majority of high-energy (greater than 100 MeV) gamma-ray sources detected by the EGRET instrument on GRO are not immediately identifiable with cataloged objects at other wavelengths. These persistent gamma-ray sources are, next to the gamma-ray bursts, the least understood objects in the universe. Even a rudimentary understanding of their nature awaits identifications and follow-up work at other wavelengths to tell us what they are. The as yet unidentified sources are potentially the most interesting, since they may represent unrecognized new classes of astronomical objects, such as radio-quiet pulsars or new types of active galactic nuclei (AGN's). This two-year investigation is intended to support the analysis, correlation, and theoretical interpretation of data that we are obtaining at x ray, optical, and radio wavelengths in order to render the gamma-ray data interpretable. According to plan, in the first year concentration was on the identification and study of Geminga. The second year will be devoted to studies of similar unidentified gamma-ray sources which will become available in the first EGRET catalogs. The results obtained so far are presented in the two papers which are reproduced in the Appendix. In these papers, we discuss the pulse profiles of Geminga, the geometry and efficiency of the magnetospheric accelerator, the distance to Geminga, the implications for theories of polar cap heating, the effect of the magnetic field on the surface emission and environment of the neutron star, and possible interpretations of a radio-quiet Geminga. The implications of the other gamma-ray pulsars which were discovered to have high gamma-ray efficiency are also discussed, and the remaining unidentified COS B sources are attributed to a population of efficient gamma-ray sources, some of which may be radio quiet.

Halpern, Jules P.

1993-01-01

387

Thunderstorm ground enhancements: Gamma ray differential energy spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shape and evolution of the energy spectra of the thunderstorm ground enhancement (TGE) electrons and gamma rays shed light on the origin of TGEs, on the relationship of modification of the energy spectra (MOS) and relativistic runaway electron avalanche processes, on the nature of the seed particles, and on the strength and elongation of an atmospheric electric field. However, till now the measurements of energy spectra of TGE electrons and gamma rays have been rather scarce. For the first time, we present differential energy spectra of gamma rays in the wide energy range 4-100 MeV for five TGE events detected in 2012-2013 at Aragats. We use the special technique of electron/gamma ray fraction determination to select TGE events with very small contamination of electrons. The network of large NaI spectrometers located 3200 m above sea level measured energy spectra of gamma rays. The power law indices of “small” TGEs are rather close to the background cosmic gamma ray spectrum (?˜-2); thus, we may deduce that these small events are due to MOS of cosmic ray electrons in the electric field of a thundercloud. Larger TGEs measured by the NaI network and the two largest TGE events earlier recovered from energy releases in a 60-cm-thick scintillator have much steeper energy spectra typical for the avalanche process in atmosphere. The classification of TGEs according to intensity and gamma ray spectral index pointed toward two main mechanisms of the TGE gamma ray origin: the runaway process and modification of electron energy spectra in the thunderstorm atmospheres.

Chilingarian, A.; Hovsepyan, G.; Kozliner, L.

2013-10-01

388

Nucleosynthesis of elements in gamma-ray burst engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: We consider the gamma-ray burst (GRB) central engine that is powered by the collapse of a massive rotating star or compact binary merger. The engine is a hot and dense accretion disk, which is composed of free nucleons, electron-positron pairs, and helium, and cooled by neutrino emission. A significant number density of neutrons in the inner disk body provide conditions for neutron rich plasma in the GRB outflows or jets. helium is synthesized in the inner disk if the accretion rate is large, and heavy nuclei are also formed in the outer disk at distances above 150-250rg from the black hole. We study the process of nucleosynthesis in the GRB engine, depending on its physical properties. Methods: The GRB central engine is hydrodynamically modelled in the frame of a dense and hot disk, which accretes with a high rate (up to 1 Solar mass per second) onto a maximally spinning, stellar mass black hole. The synthesis of heavy nuclei up to germanium and gallium is then followed by the nuclear reaction network. Results: The accretion at high rate onto a Kerr black hole feeds the engine activity and establishes conditions for efficient synthesis of heavy nuclei in the disk. These processes may have important observational implications for the jet deceleration process and heavy elements observed in the spectra of GRB afterglows.

Janiuk, Agnieszka

2014-08-01

389

From Neutron Star Binaries to Gamma-ray bursts  

E-print Network

I summarize recent results about how a neutron star binary coalescence can produce short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Two possibilities are discussed: the annihilation of neutrino anti-neutrino pairs above the merged remnant and the exponential amplification of magnetic fields in the central object up to values close to equipartition. We find that the neutrino annihilation drives bipolar, relativistic outflows with Lorentz-factors large enough to circumvent the GRB 'compactness problem'. The total energy within these outflows is moderate by GRB-standards ($\\sim 10^{48}-10^{49}$ ergs), but the interaction with the baryonic material blown-off by the neutrinos collimates the outflows into opening angles of typically 0.1 sterad, yielding isotropic energies close to $10^{51}$ ergs. We further want to stress the plausibility of the central object resisting the immediate collapse to a black hole. In this case the central object will --similar to a proto-neutron star-- be subject to neutrino driven convection that --together with the rapid, differential rotation-- will lead to a drastic amplification of pre-existing magnetic fields. Within fractions of a second, field strengths comparable to equipartition field strength ($> 10^{17}$ G) will be reached. These will produce large torques that will spin-down the object within about 0.2 s, and would thus naturally explain the duration of short GRBs.

S. Rosswog

2005-04-17

390

Gamma-ray Albedo of Small Solar System Bodies  

SciTech Connect

We calculate the {gamma}-ray albedo flux from cosmic-ray (CR) interactions with the solid rock and ice in Main Belt asteroids and Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs) using the Moon as a template. We show that the {gamma}-ray albedo for the Main Belt and KBOs strongly depends on the small-body mass spectrum of each system and may be detectable by the forthcoming Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST). If detected, it can be used to derive the mass spectrum of small bodies in the Main Belt and Kuiper Belt and to probe the spectrum of CR nuclei at close-to-interstellar conditions. The orbits of the Main Belt asteroids and KBOs are distributed near the ecliptic, which passes through the Galactic center and high Galactic latitudes. Therefore, the {gamma}-ray emission by the Main Belt and Kuiper Belt has to be taken into account when analyzing weak {gamma}-ray sources close to the ecliptic. The asteroid albedo spectrum also exhibits a 511 keV line due to secondary positrons annihilating in the rock. This may be an important and previously unrecognized celestial foreground for the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) observations of the Galactic 511 keV line emission including the direction of the Galactic center. For details of our calculations and references see [1].

Moskalenko, I.V.

2008-03-25

391

Discovery of New Gamma-Ray Pulsars with AGILE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using gamma-ray data collected by the Astro-rivelatore Gamma ad Immagini LEggero (AGILE) satellite over a period of almost one year (from 2007 July to 2008 June), we searched for pulsed signals from 35 potentially interesting radio pulsars, ordered according to F_{gamma}? &surd;{\\\\dot{E}} d^{-2} and for which contemporary or recent radio data were available. AGILE detected three new top-ranking nearby and

A. Pellizzoni; M. Pilia; A. Possenti; A. Chen; A. Giuliani; A. Trois; P. Caraveo; E. Del Monte; F. Fornari; F. Fuschino; S. Mereghetti; M. Tavani; A. Argan; M. Burgay; I. Cognard; A. Corongiu; E. Costa; N. D'Amico; A. De Luca; P. Esposito; Y. Evangelista; M. Feroci; S. Johnston; M. Kramer; F. Longo; M. Marisaldi; G. Theureau; P. Weltevrede; G. Barbiellini; F. Boffelli; A. Bulgarelli; P. W. Cattaneo; V. Cocco; F. D'Ammando; G. DeParis; G. Di Cocco; I. Donnarumma; M. Fiorini; T. Froysland; M. Galli; F. Gianotti; C. Labanti; I. Lapshov; F. Lazzarotto; P. Lipari; T. Mineo; A. Morselli; L. Pacciani; F. Perotti; G. PUCELLA; P. Picozza; M. Prest; M. Rapisarda; A. Rappoldi; S. Sabatini; P. Soffitta; M. Trifoglio; E. Vallazza; S. Vercellone; V. Vittorini; A. Zambra; D. Zanello; C. Pittori; F. Verrecchia; B. Preger; P. Santolamazza; P. Giommi; L. Salotti; G. F. Bignami

2009-01-01

392

Gamma-ray burst theory: Back to the drawing board  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma-ray bursts have always been intriguing sources to study in terms of particle acceleration, but not since their discovery two decades ago has the theory of these objects been in such turmoil. Prior to the launch of Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory and observations by Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), there was strong evidence pointing to magnetized Galactic neutron stars as the sources of gamma-ray bursts. However, since BATSE the observational picture has changed dramatically, requiring much more distant and possibly cosmological sources. I review the history of gamma-ray burst theory from the era of growing consensus for nearby neutron stars to the recent explosion of halo and cosmological models and the impact of the present confusion on the particle acceleration problem.

Harding, Alice K.

1994-01-01

393

Fireball and cannonball models of gamma ray bursts confront observations  

E-print Network

The two leading contenders for the theory of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and their afterglows, the Fireball and Cannonball models, are compared and their predictions are confronted, within space limitations, with key GRB observations, including recent observations with SWIFT

Arnon Dar

2006-07-27

394

Antimatter in the Universe: constraints from gamma-ray astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review gamma-ray observations that constrain antimatter - both baryonic and leptonic - in the Universe. Antimatter is probed through ordinary matter, with the resulting annihilation gamma-rays providing indirect evidence for its presence. Although it is generally accepted that equal amounts of matter and antimatter have been produced in the Big Bang, gamma-rays have so far failed to detect substantial amounts of baryonic antimatter in the Universe. Conversely, positrons are abundantly observed through their annihilation in the central regions of our Galaxy and, although a wealth of astrophysical sources are plausible, their very origin is still unknown. As both antimatter questions - the source of the Galactic positrons and the baryon asymmetry in the Universe - can be investigated through the low energy gamma-ray channel, the mission concept of a dedicated space telescope is sketched out.

von Ballmoos, Peter

2014-02-01

395

Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope- GLAST Mission Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), and the instrumentation that will be on the spacecraft: Large Area Telescope (LAT) and GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM). The presentation revierws in detail the LAT instrument.

Moiseev, Alexander A.

2007-01-01

396

Gamma-ray dosimetry measurements of the Little Boy replica  

SciTech Connect

We present the current status of our gamma-ray dosimetry results for the Little Boy replica. Both Geiger-Mueller and thermoluminescent detectors were used in the measurements. Future work is needed to test assumptions made in data analysis.

Plassmann, E.A.; Pederson, R.A.

1984-01-01

397

Analysis of fissionable material using delayed gamma rays from photofission  

SciTech Connect

The energetic gamma-ray spectra from the fission products of photofission have been investigated to determine whether photofission can identify heavily shielded fissionable material. Target samples of natural thorium, 93% enriched /sup 235/U, natural uranium, and 93% enriched /sup 239/Pu were irradiated with bremsstrahlung gamma rays produced by 10-MeV electrons from a small linear accelerator. The gamma-ray spectra for each of the four isotopes studied reveals a distinctive intensity distribution. For example, the intensity ratio of the pair of gamma rays at 1436 keV (/sup 138/Cs) and 1428 keV (/sup 94/Sr) is 1.9 for /sup 235/U, 2.4 for /sup 238/U, 1.7 for /sup 232/Th and 1.4 for /sup 239/Pu. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Hollas, C.L.; Close, D.A.; Moss, C.E.

1986-09-01

398

Jet Shockwaves Produce Gamma Rays - Duration: 0:20.  

NASA Video Gallery

Theorists believe that GRB jets produce gamma rays by two processes involving shock waves. Shells of material within the jet move at different speeds and collide, generating internal shock waves th...

399

Prompt gamma-ray coincidences from U-235 induced fission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experiment to measure gamma-ray emission from the prompt fission fragments of U-235 was recently performed at the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source facility at Argonne National Laboratory. Ten HPGE detectors were used to observe coincident gamma-rays from the fission fragments. Unlike previous fission studies which focused on the fission fragments populated by beta decay, we have measured the prompt fission yields by inducing fission in the U-235 target. Coincidence information between light and heavy fission fragments permits the assignment of observed gamma-rays to a particular isotope. Preliminary analysis indicates new spectroscopic information for dozens of nuclei, as well as the observation of isotopes for which gamma-ray decays were previously unreported. We will report on the prompt fission yields of the major fission fragments, as well as the new spectroscopic information for select nuclei.

Jewell, J. Keith; Cole, Jerald; Drigert, Mark; Reber, Edward; Aryaeinejad, Rahmat

1999-10-01

400

Very high energy gamma ray extension of GRO observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This has been an exiciting year for high energy gamma-ray astronomy, both from space and from ground-based observatories. It has been a particularly active period for the Whipple Observatory gamma-ray group. In phase 1 of the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO), there has not been too much opportunity for overlapping observations with the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) and the other GRO telescopes; however, significant progress was made in the development of data analysis techniques and in improving the sensitivity of the technique which will have direct application in correlative observations in phase 2. Progress made during the period 1 Jul. 1991 - 31 Dec. 1991 is presented.

Weekes, Trevor C.

1992-01-01

401

Gamma Ray Burst Observations with Swift and GLAST  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Swift and GLAST missions promise a great increase in our understanding of the gamma-ray universe. Swift was launched in November 2004 with a primary objective to study gamma-ray bursts. All instruments are performing well and more than 200 GRBs have been studied in detail. Major advances have already been made in the areas of short bursts, high redshift events and afterglow physics. The GLAST mission is scheduled for launch in fall 2007. It features a large newtechnology instrument for high energy gamma-ray observations. Hundreds of gamma-ray bursts will be detected by the LAT and GBM instruments. The talk will discuss the GRB science available with GLAST and the opportunities for joint Swift and GLAST observations of bursts.

Gehrels, Neil

2007-01-01

402

Gamma Ray Burst Discoveries with the Swift Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is a great synergy between the Swift and INTEGRAL missions. Swift provides wide-field hard x-ray monitoring and sensitive x-ray and UV/optical observations. INTEGRAL provides optical through gamma-ray coverage with emphasis on hard xray imaging and gamma-ray spectroscopy. For hard x-ray survey studies, the BAT and IBIS instruments are complementary with BAT covering the full sky every day and IBIS scanning the galactic plane. For GRBs, Swift follows up bursts detected by INTEGRAL. X-ray and optical observations give arcsecond positions and afterglow lightcurves. For IGR sources, X-ray observations identify counterparts. The joint BAT and IBIS survey data are giving the most complete picture of the hard x-ray sky ever obtained. This talk will review Swift capabilities and discuss joint observations that are taking place and planned

Gehrels, Neil; Tueller, Jack

2007-01-01

403

X-RAY AND GAMMA-RAY POLARIZATION IN LEPTONIC AND HADRONIC JET MODELS OF BLAZARS  

SciTech Connect

We present a theoretical analysis of the expected X-ray and {gamma}-ray polarization signatures resulting from synchrotron self-Compton emission in leptonic models compared to the polarization signatures from proton synchrotron and cascade synchrotron emission in hadronic models for blazars. Source parameters resulting from detailed spectral-energy-distribution modeling are used to calculate photon-energy-dependent upper limits on the degree of polarization, assuming a perfectly organized mono-directional magnetic field. In low-synchrotron-peaked blazars, hadronic models exhibit substantially higher maximum degrees of X-ray and gamma-ray polarization than leptonic models, which may be within reach of existing X-ray and {gamma}-ray polarimeters. In high-synchrotron-peaked blazars (with electron-synchrotron-dominated X-ray emission), leptonic and hadronic models predict the same degree of X-ray polarization but substantially higher maximum {gamma}-ray polarization in hadronic models than leptonic ones. These predictions are particularly relevant in view of the new generation of balloon-borne X-ray polarimeters (and possibly GEMS, if revived), and the ability of Fermi-LAT to measure {gamma}-ray polarization at <200 MeV. We suggest observational strategies combining optical, X-ray, and {gamma}-ray polarimetry to determine the degree of ordering of the magnetic field and to distinguish between leptonic and hadronic high-energy emissions.

Zhang, H.; Boettcher, M. [Astrophysical Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States)

2013-09-01

404

Current Trends in Gamma Ray Detection for Radiological Emergency Response  

SciTech Connect

Passive and active detection of gamma rays from shielded radioactive materials, including special nuclear materials, is an important task for any radiological emergency response organization. This article reports on the current trends and status of gamma radiation detection objectives and measurement techniques as applied to nonproliferation and radiological emergencies.

Mukhopadhyay, S., Guss, P., Maurer, R.

2011-08-18

405

Tandem collimators for the JET tangential gamma-ray spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tangential gamma-ray spectrometer (TGRS) of the JET tokamak fusion facility is an important diagnostics for investigating the fast particle evolution. A well defined field of view for the TGRS diagnostics is essential for its proper operation and this is to be determined by a rather complex system of collimators and shields both for the neutron and gamma radiations. A

Sorin Soare; Nick Balshaw; Patrick Blanchard; Teddy Craciunescu; David Croft; Marian Curuia; Trevor Edlington; Vasily Kiptily; Andrea Murari; Phil Prior; Steven Sanders; Brian Syme; Vasile Zoita

2011-01-01

406

Resonant Compton scattering and gamma-ray burst continuum spectra  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Thomson limit of resonant inverse Compton scattering in the strong magnetic fields of neutron stars is considered as a mechanism for producing gamma-ray burst continuum spectra. Photon production spectra and electron cooling rates are presented using the full magnetic Thomson cross-section. Model emission spectra are obtained as self-consistent solutions of a set of photon and electron kinetic equations, displaying spectral breaks and other structure at gamma-ray energies.

Baring, M. G.

1995-01-01

407

Prospects in space-based gamma-ray astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of the gamma-ray sky reveal the most powerful sources and the most violent events in the Universe. While at lower wavebands the observed emission is generally dominated by thermal processes, the gamma-ray sky provides us with a view on the non-thermal Universe. Here particles are accelerated to extreme relativistic energies by mechanisms which are still poorly understood, and nuclear

Jürgen Knödlseder

2005-01-01

408

Prospects in space-based gamma-ray astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of the gamma-ray sky reveal the most powerful sources and the most violent events in the Universe. While at lower\\u000a wavebands the observed emission is generally dominated by thermal processes, the gamma-ray sky provides us with a view on\\u000a the non-thermal Universe. Here particles are accelerated to extreme relativistic energies by mechanisms which are still poorly\\u000a understood, and nuclear

J. Knödlseder

409

[gamma]-ray bursts from ordinary cosmic strings  

SciTech Connect

We give an upper estimate for the number of [gamma]-ray bursts from ordinary (nonsuperconducting) cosmic strings expected to be observed at terrestrial detectors. Assuming that cusp annihilation is the mechanism responsible for the bursts we consider strings arising at a GUT phase transition and compare our estimate with the recent BATSE results. Further we give a lower limit for the effective area of future detectors designed to detect the cosmic-string-induced flux of [gamma]-ray bursts.

Brandenberger, R.H.; Sornborger, A.T.; Trodden, M. (Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States))

1993-07-15

410

The LXeCAT instrument for gamma-ray astrophysics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Liquid Xenon Coded Aperture Telescope (LXeCAT) and its capability to image astrophysical gamma-ray sources in the MeV region is described. The gamma-ray detector is a Liquid Xenon Time Projection Chamber (LXe-TPC) triggered by the primary scintillation light. Effective background rejection is a direct consequence of the intrinsic three-dimensional imaging capability of the LXe-TPC. Initial results with a 10 liter

E. Aprile; F. Xu; M. Zhou; T. Doke; J. Kikuchi; E. L. Chupp; P. P. Dunphy; G. Fishman; G. Pendleton; K. Masuda

1996-01-01

411

Gamma ray satellite to be launched from Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The announcement is presented of the launch of NASA's Small Astronomy Satellite B (SAS-B) on 2 Nov. 1972, to study gamma rays. The launch is to be from the Italian-operated San Marco Equatorial Range in the Indian Ocean for ease in acquiring an equatorial orbit. The spacecraft systems described include: stabilization and control, communication, and spark chamber gamma ray telescope. The results of Uhuru (Explorer 42) are also presented.

Allaway, H. G.; Senstad, K.

1972-01-01

412

Electret gamma X-ray low level dosimeter  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for monitoring gamma or X-ray radiation. It comprises a chamber having an inner surface which is electrically conductive, an electret positioned within the chamber for holding an electrostatic charge which collects ions formed in the chamber by bombardment of gamma or X-ray radiation, and a removable means connected with the chamber for mounting the electret, the chamber enclosed in a radioactive gas tight container.

Dempsey, J.C.

1991-04-16

413

Neutron and gamma-ray penetrations in thick iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of neutron and gamma-ray penetrations in an iron shield were performed up to a 60-cm depth in a tightly coupled source shield configuration with the fast-neutron reactor YAYOI as a source. Rates of neutron reactions and gamma-ray dose rates in the iron shield were obtained using activation foils and thermoluminescent dosimeters. Analyses of the experiments were made by using

Y. Oka; S. An; S. Kasai; K. Koyama; S. Miyasaka

1980-01-01

414

Al26: A galactic source of gamma ray line emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that Al26 is a very good candidate for producing a detectable gamma-ray line, and that this line is not only intense but also very narrow. By examining the chart of nuclides for other radioactive isotopes which could produce hiterto unnoticed gamma-ray lines following nucleosynthesis, it is found that for mass numbers less than 60, the isotopes Na22,

R. Ramaty; R. E. Lingenfelter

1976-01-01

415

Gamma ray bursts: Current status of observations and theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma-ray bursts display a wide range of temporal and spectral characteristics, but typically last several seconds and emit most of their energy in the low-energy gamma-ray region. The burst sources appear to be isotropically distributed on the sky. Several lines of evidence suggest magnetic neutron stars as sources for bursts. A variety of energy sources and emission mechanisms were proposed.

Meegan, Charles A.

1990-01-01

416

Search for spectral lines in cosmic gamma-ray bursts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Time-integrated spectra from 177 gamma-ray bursts observed by the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) on NASA's Solar Maximum Mission satellite (SMM) have been systematically searched for evidence of emission lines in the range 300 keV and higher. The distribution of fitted line strengths is consistent with what is expected from a random sample of data, suggesting that there are no statistically significant narrow or moderately broadened line features in any of the bursts.

Messina, Daniel C.; Share, Gerald H.

1992-01-01

417

Measuring The Variability Of Gamma-Ray Sources With AGILE  

SciTech Connect

Variability in the gamma-ray flux above 100 MeV at various time scales is one of the primary characteristics of the sources detected by EGRET, both allowing the identification of individual sources and constraining the unidentified source classes. We present a detailed simulation of the capacity of AGILE to characterize the variability of gamma-ray sources, discussing the implications for source population studies.

Chen, Andrew W. [Consorzio Interuniversitario per la Fisica Spaziale, Torino, TO 10133 (Italy); Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica Sezione di Milano, Milan, MI 20133 (Italy); Vercellone, Stefano; Pellizzoni, Alberto [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica Sezione di Milano, Milan, MI 20133 (Italy); Tavani, Marco [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica Sezione di Roma, Rome 00133 (Italy)

2005-02-21

418

STS-37 Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) grappled by RMS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Backdropped against the Earth's cloud-covered surface, the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) with its solar array (SA) panels deployed is grappled by the remote manipulator system (RMS) during STS-37 systems checkout. GRO's four complement instruments are visible: the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) (at the bottom); the Imaging Compton Telescope (COMPTEL) (center); the Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (OSSE) (top); and Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) (on four corners).

1991-01-01

419

The effect of neutrinos on the initial fireballs in gamma-ray bursts  

E-print Network

We investigate the fate of very compact, sudden energy depositions that may lie at the origin of gamma-ray bursts. Following on from the work of Cavallo and Rees (1978), we take account of the much higher energies now believed to be involved. The main effect of this is that thermal neutrinos are present and energetically important. We show that these may provide sufficient cooling to tap most of the explosion energy. However, at the extreme energies usually invoked for gamma-ray bursts, the neutrino opacity suffices to prevent dramatic losses, provided that the heating process is sufficiently fast. In a generic case, a few tens of percent of the initial fireball energy will escape as an isotropic millisecond burst of thermal neutrinos with a temperature of about 60 MeV, which is detectable for nearby gamma-ray bursts and hypernovae. For parameters we find most likely for gamma-ray burst fireballs, the dominant processes are purely leptonic, and thus the baryon loading of the fireball does not affect our conclusions.

Hylke B. J. Koers; Ralph A. M. J. Wijers

2005-05-26

420

Advanced radiation imaging of low-intensity gamma-ray sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging gamma-ray sources and distributions of low intensity is difficult using current commercially available radiation imagers. Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc. has carried out the research and development necessary to construct a novel, compact radiation-imaging device, RADCAM, for low-intensity applications. The device consists of a position-sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT) coupled to a CsI(Na) scintillation crystal, which is an excellent candidate for such applications due to its high light output. A tungsten coded-aperture mask, placed in front of the scintillator, creates a gamma-ray intensity pattern across the face of the crystal. The PSPMT detects the resulting scintillation pattern and the analog output signals are captured and converted to digital signals by the RMD PSPMT interface card. The digital data is stored and processed by a portable personal computer. The gamma-ray "shadowgram" is then mathematically decoded to yield the original source image. The pseudo-color radiation-source image is overlaid on a video picture of the same area captured by a high-resolution CCD. The combined image is displayed on screen as an accurate map of radioactive gamma-ray sources in the physical environment. Data acquisition and image display are controlled by the IMager Acquisition and Graphical-user-interface Environment (IMAGE), a Windows-NT program developed for the imager.

Woodring, M.; Souza, D.; Tipnis, S.; Waer, P.; Squillante, M.; Entine, G.; Ziock, K. P.

1999-02-01

421

Gamma-ray burst investigation via polarimetry and spectroscopy (GRIPS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary scientific goal of the GRIPS mission is to revolutionize our understanding of the early universe using ?-ray bursts. We propose a new generation gamma-ray observatory capable of unprecedented spectroscopy over a wide range of\\u000a ?-ray energies (200 keV–50 MeV) and of polarimetry (200–1000 keV). The ?-ray sensitivity to nuclear absorption features enables the measurement of column densities as high as 1028cm???2.

J. Greiner; A. Iyudin; G. Kanbach; A. Zoglauer; R. Diehl; F. Ryde; D. Hartmann; A. V. Kienlin; S. McBreen; M. Ajello; Z. Bagoly; L. G. Balasz; G. Barbiellini; R. Bellazini; L. Bezrukov; D. V. Bisikalo; G. Bisnovaty-Kogan; S. Boggs; A. Bykov; A. M. Cherepashuk; A. Chernenko; W. Collmar; G. DiCocco; W. Dröge; M. Gierlik; L. Hanlon; I. Horvath; R. Hudec; J. Kiener; C. Labanti; N. Langer; S. Larsson; G. Lichti; V. M. Lipunov; B. K. Lubsandorgiev; A. Majczyna; K. Mannheim; R. Marcinkowski; M. Marisaldi; B. McBreen; A. Meszaros; E. Orlando; M. I. Panasyuk; M. Pearce; E. Pian; R. V. Poleschuk; A. Pollo; A. Pozanenko; S. Savaglio; B. Shustov; A. Strong; S. Svertilov; V. Tatischeff; J. Uvarov; D. A. Varshalovich; C. B. Wunderer; G. Wrochna; A. G. Zabrodskij; L. M. Zeleny

2009-01-01

422

Discovery of an Ultracompact Gamma-Ray Millisecond Pulsar Binary Candidate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report multi-wavelength observations of the unidentified Fermi object 2FGL J1653.6-0159. With the help of high-resolution X-ray observations, we have identified an X-ray and optical counterpart to 2FGL J1653.6-0159. The source exhibits a periodic modulation of 75 minutes in the optical and possibly also in the X-ray. We suggest that 2FGL J1653.6-0159 is a compact binary system with an orbital period of 75 minutes. Combining the gamma-ray and X-ray properties, 2FGL J1653.6-0159 is potentially a black-widow-/redback-type gamma-ray millisecond pulsar (MSP). The optical and X-ray light curve profiles show that the companion is mildly heated by the high-energy emission and that the X-rays are from intrabinary shock. Although no radio pulsation has yet been detected, we estimated that the spin period of the MSP is ~ 2 ms based on a theoretical model. If pulsation can be confirmed in the future, 2FGL J1653.6-0159 will become the first ultracompact rotation-powered MSP.

Kong, Albert K. H.; Jin, Ruolan; Yen, T.-C.; Hu, C.-P.; Hui, C. Y.; Tam, P. H. T.; Takata, J.; Lin, L. C. C.; Cheng, K. S.; Park, S. M.; Kim, C. L.

2014-10-01

423

H{alpha} EMISSION VARIABILITY IN THE {gamma}-RAY BINARY LS I +61 303  

SciTech Connect

LS I +61 303 is an exceptionally rare example of a high-mass X-ray binary that also exhibits MeV-TeV emission, making it one of only a handful of '{gamma}-ray binaries'. Here we present H{alpha} spectra that show strong variability during the 26.5 day orbital period and over decadal timescales. We detect evidence of a spiral density wave in the Be circumstellar disk over part of the orbit. The H{alpha} line profile also exhibits a dramatic emission burst shortly before apastron, observed as a redshifted shoulder in the line profile, as the compact source moves almost directly away from the observer. We investigate several possible origins for this red shoulder, including an accretion disk, mass-transfer stream, and a compact pulsar wind nebula that forms via a shock between the Be star's wind and the relativistic pulsar wind.

McSwain, M. Virginia [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, 16 Memorial Drive E, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States); Grundstrom, Erika D. [Physics and Astronomy Department, Vanderbilt University, 6301 Stevens Center, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Gies, Douglas R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303-4106 (United States); Ray, Paul S., E-mail: mcswain@lehigh.ed, E-mail: erika.grundstrom@vanderbilt.ed, E-mail: gies@chara.gsu.ed, E-mail: paul.ray@nrl.navy.mi [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7655, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

2010-11-20

424

NEW FERMI-LAT EVENT RECONSTRUCTION REVEALS MORE HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA RAYS FROM GAMMA-RAY BURSTS  

SciTech Connect

Based on the experience gained during the four and a half years of the mission, the Fermi-LAT Collaboration has undertaken a comprehensive revision of the event-level analysis going under the name of Pass 8. Although it is not yet finalized, we can test the improvements in the new event reconstruction with the special case of the prompt phase of bright gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), where the signal-to-noise ratio is large enough that loose selection cuts are sufficient to identify gamma rays associated with the source. Using the new event reconstruction, we have re-analyzed 10 GRBs previously detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) for which an X-ray/optical follow-up was possible and found four new gamma rays with energies greater than 10 GeV in addition to the seven previously known. Among these four is a 27.4 GeV gamma ray from GRB 080916C, which has a redshift of 4.35, thus making it the gamma ray with the highest intrinsic energy ({approx}147 GeV) detected from a GRB. We present here the salient aspects of the new event reconstruction and discuss the scientific implications of these new high-energy gamma rays, such as constraining extragalactic background light models, Lorentz invariance violation tests, the prompt emission mechanism, and the bulk Lorentz factor of the emitting region.

Atwood, W. B. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Baldini, L. [Universita di Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bregeon, J.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Sgro, C.; Tinivella, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bruel, P. [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); Chekhtman, A. [Center for Earth Observing and Space Research, College of Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Cohen-Tanugi, J. [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Universite Montpellier 2, CNRS/IN2P3, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Drlica-Wagner, A.; Omodei, N.; Rochester, L. S.; Usher, T. L. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Granot, J. [Department of Natural Sciences, The Open University of Israel, 1 University Road, P.O. Box 808, Ra'anana 43537 (Israel); Longo, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Razzaque, S. [Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, Auckland Park 2006 (South Africa); Zimmer, S., E-mail: melissa.pesce.rollins@pi.infn.it, E-mail: nicola.omodei@stanford.edu, E-mail: granot@openu.ac.il [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

2013-09-01

425

RADIO AND GAMMA-RAY PULSED EMISSION FROM MILLISECOND PULSARS  

SciTech Connect

Pulsed {gamma}-ray emission from millisecond pulsars (MSPs) has been detected by the sensitive Fermi space telescope, which sheds light on studies of the emission region and its mechanism. In particular, the specific patterns of radio and {gamma}-ray emission from PSR J0101-6422 challenge the popular pulsar models, e.g., outer gap and two-pole caustic models. Using the three-dimensional annular gap model, we have jointly simulated radio and {gamma}-ray light curves for three representative MSPs (PSR J0034-0534, PSR J0101-6422, and PSR J0437-4715) with distinct radio phase lags, and present the best simulated results for these MSPs, particularly for PSR J0101-6422 with complex radio and {gamma}-ray pulse profiles, and for PSR J0437-4715 with a radio interpulse. We have found that both the {gamma}-ray and radio emission originate from the annular gap region located in only one magnetic pole, and the radio emission region is not primarily lower than the {gamma}-ray region in most cases. In addition, the annular gap model with a small magnetic inclination angle instead of an 'orthogonal rotator' can account for the MSPs' radio interpulse with a large phase separation from the main pulse. The annular gap model is a self-consistent model not only for young pulsars but also MSPs, and multi-wavelength light curves can be fundamentally explained using this model.

Du, Y. J.; Chen, D. [National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.1 Nanertiao, Zhongguancun, Haidian District, Beijing 100190 (China)] [National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.1 Nanertiao, Zhongguancun, Haidian District, Beijing 100190 (China); Qiao, G. J., E-mail: duyj@nssc.ac.cn [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2013-01-20

426

Milagro - A TeV Observatory for Gamma Ray Bursts  

SciTech Connect

Milagro is a large field of view ({approx} 2 sr), high duty cycle ({approx}90%), ground-based observatory sensitive to gamma-rays above {approx}100 GeV. This unique detector is ideal for observing the highest energy gamma-rays from gamma-ray bursts. The highest energy gamma rays supply very strong constraints on the nature of gamma-ray burst sources as well as fundamental physics. Because the highest energy gamma-rays are attenuated by pair production with the extragalactic infrared background light, Milagro's sensitivity decreases rapidly for bursts with redshift > 0.5. While only 10 % of bursts have been measured to be within z=0.5, these bursts are very well studied at all wavelengths resulting in the most complete understanding of GRB phenomena. Milagro has sufficient sensitivity in units of E2 dN/dE to detect VHE luminosities lower than the observed luminosities at {approx} 100 keV for these nearby bursts. Therefore, the launch of SWIFT and its ability to localize and measure redshifts of many bursts points to great future possibilities.

Dingus, B.L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (United States)

2004-09-28

427

Absolute calibration of fusion gamma ray detector on TFTR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An in situ measurement of the absolute detection efficiency of the fusion gamma ray detector on TFTR has been completed. The efficiency was determined by measuring the yield of the 4.44 MeV gamma ray from a plutonium-berrylium source situated within the vacuum vessel. The absolute detection efficiency at 4.44 MeV is extended to higher energies using the known energy dependence of the gamma ray attenuation coefficients in the vessel port cover, the detector neutron moderator, and the scintillator. The absolute detection efficiency (full energy peak detected gamma rays per source gamma ray) varies from 8.6E-9 at 4.44 MeV to 1.1E-8 at 17 MeV and is insensitive at the few percent level to relatively large variations in the radial profile of the gamma ray source distribution in the plasma. The absolute detection efficiency is used to determine the total d-3He reaction rate during recent deuterium neutral beam heated 3He plasmas on TFTR.

Medley, S. S.; Roquemore, A. L.; Cecil, F. E.

1992-10-01

428

INVERSE COMPTON X-RAY EMISSION FROM SUPERNOVAE WITH COMPACT PROGENITORS: APPLICATION TO SN2011fe  

SciTech Connect

We present a generalized analytic formalism for the inverse Compton X-ray emission from hydrogen-poor supernovae and apply this framework to SN 2011fe using Swift X-Ray Telescope (XRT), UVOT, and Chandra observations. We characterize the optical properties of SN 2011fe in the Swift bands and find them to be broadly consistent with a 'normal' SN Ia, however, no X-ray source is detected by either XRT or Chandra. We constrain the progenitor system mass-loss rate M-dot < 2 x 10{sup -9} M{sub Sun }yr{sup -1} (3{sigma} c.l.) for wind velocity v{sub w} = 100 km s{sup -1}. Our result rules out symbiotic binary progenitors for SN 2011fe and argues against Roche lobe overflowing subgiants and main-sequence secondary stars if {approx}> 1% of the transferred mass is lost at the Lagrangian points. Regardless of the density profile, the X-ray non-detections are suggestive of a clean environment (n{sub CSM} < 150 cm{sup -3}) for 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} {approx}< R {approx}< 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} cm around the progenitor site. This is either consistent with the bulk of material being confined within the binary system or with a significant delay between mass loss and supernova explosion. We furthermore combine X-ray and radio limits from Chomiuk et al. to constrain the post-shock energy density in magnetic fields. Finally, we searched for the shock breakout pulse using gamma-ray observations from the Interplanetary Network and find no compelling evidence for a supernova-associated burst. Based on the compact radius of the progenitor star we estimate that the shock breakout pulse was likely not detectable by current satellites.

Margutti, R.; Soderberg, A. M.; Chomiuk, L.; Milisavljevic, D.; Foley, R. J.; Slane, P.; Moe, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Chevalier, R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Hurley, K. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Hughes, J. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8019 (United States); Fransson, C. [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Barthelmy, S.; Cummings, J. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Boynton, W.; Enos, H.; Fellows, C. [Department of Planetary Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Briggs, M.; Connaughton, V. [Physics Department, The University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35809 (United States); Costa, E.; Del Monte, E. [INAF/IASF-Roma, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Roma (Italy); and others

2012-06-01

429

Localization of Gamma-Ray Bursts Using the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) has detected over 1400 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) since it began science operations in 2008 July. We use a subset of over 300 GRBs localized by instruments such as Swift, the Fermi Large Area Telescope, INTEGRAL, and MAXI, or through triangulations from the InterPlanetary Network, to analyze the accuracy of GBM GRB localizations. We find that the reported statistical uncertainties on GBM localizations, which can be as small as 1°, underestimate the distance of the GBM positions to the true GRB locations and we attribute this to systematic uncertainties. The distribution of systematic uncertainties is well represented (68% confidence level) by a 3.°7 Gaussian with a non-Gaussian tail that contains about 10% of GBM-detected GRBs and extends to approximately 14°. A more complex model suggests that there is a dependence of the systematic uncertainty on the position of the GRB in spacecraft coordinates, with GRBs in the quadrants on the Y axis better localized than those on the X axis.

Connaughton, V.; Briggs, M. S.; Goldstein, A.; Meegan, C. A.; Paciesas, W. S.; Preece, R. D.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Gibby, M. H.; Greiner, J.; Gruber, D.; Jenke, P.; Kippen, R. M.; Pelassa, V.; Xiong, S.; Yu, H.-F.; Bhat, P. N.; Burgess, J. M.; Byrne, D.; Fitzpatrick, G.; Foley, S.; Giles, M. M.; Guiriec, S.; van der Horst, A. J.; von Kienlin, A.; McBreen, S.; McGlynn, S.; Tierney, D.; Zhang, B.-B.

2015-02-01

430

Analysis of Data from the Energetic Gamma-ray Experiment on the Gamma Ray Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work under the Grant has involved participation with the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) Team in the analysis of data obtained during instrument operations and the preparation of scientific papers and proposals for future observations. The Principal Investigator (PI) has been a co-author on a total of 90 papers published in refereed professional journals since the beginning of 1991, plus many other non-refereed publications, and contributed and invited papers at professional meetings and IAU telegrams. On seven of these papers he was the lead author. The EGRET team continues to submit IAU Astronomical telegrams and present many papers at scientific meetings. The effort by the PI has involved working remotely by internet connection on the Goddard Space Flight Center Computers where the EGRET data are archived. Students have monitored instrument performance, performed Viewing Period Analyses and analyzed data remotely. The PI has completed the detailed analysis of over 20 viewing periods to search for point sources and this work has been used in developing the first and second EGRET catalog of sources, published in Supplements to the Astrophysical Journal.

Kniffen, Donald A.

1996-01-01

431

Gamma-Ray Burst Class Properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Guided by the supervised pattern recognition algorithm C4.5 developed by Quinlan in 1986, we examine the three gamma-ray burst classes identified by Mukherjee et al. in 1998. C4.5 provides strong statistical support for this classification. However, with C4.5 and our knowledge of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) instrument, we demonstrate that class 3 (intermediate fluence, intermediate duration, soft) does not have to be a distinct source population: statistical/systematic errors in measuring burst attributes combined with the well-known hardness/intensity correlation can cause low peak flux class 1 (high fluence, long, intermediate hardness) bursts to take on class 3 characteristics naturally. Based on our hypothesis that the third class is not a distinct one, we provide rules so that future events can be placed in either class 1 or class 2 (low fluence, short, hard). We find that the two classes are relatively distinct on the basis of Band's work in 1993 on spectral parameters alpha, beta, and E (sub peak) alone. Although this does not indicate a better basis for classification, it does suggest that different physical conditions exist for class 1 and class 2 bursts. In the process of studying burst class characteristics, we identify a new bias affecting burst fluence and duration measurements. Using a simple model of how burst duration can be underestimated, we show how this fluence duration bias can affect BATSE measurements and demonstrate the type of effect it can have on the BATSE fluence versus peak flux diagram.

Hakkila, Jon; Haglin, David J.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Mallozzi, Robert S.; Meegan, Charles A.; Roiger, Richard J.

2000-01-01

432

Gamma Ray Bursts and recent Swift Results .  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the large activity we had during these last months with the Swift satellite I started the writing of the presentation I gave at the SAIt Catania meeting only in the middle of September. The Swift satellite, however, never rested. Since then and in addition to the results I showed at the meeting in relation to the early and steep light curves observed with the XRT telescope in the 0.2 - 10 keV band, we had fundamental discoveries among which the detection and localization of short bursts and the detection of the largest redshift ever. It obviously would be improper to discuss here the most recent results but it would also be silly in such a fast evolving topics where the day by day observations show excellent results and the observer is far ahead of the theoretician, to write an article that, from the observational point of view, would be completely obsolete. The best approach here seems to be a brief description of what was presented during the meeting briefly mentioning also some of the most recent results. We remind the reader, however, that a copious literature written, and in preparation, exists so that we urge the reader to refer to the specialized articles. This brief article will touch on the basic characteristics of the Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) in the Introduction (section 1) and illustrate the basic characteristics of the Swift mission in section 2. Preliminary science results will be discussed in section 3 and finally we will mention one, among many, of the main goal we plan to achieve in Cosmology via the observations of very distant GRBs.

Chincarini, G.

433

A New View of the High Energy Gamma-ray Sky with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews some of the findings that have been made possible by the use of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. It describes the current status of the Fermi Telescope and reviews some of the science highlights.

McEnery, Julie

2010-01-01

434

Detection of high-energy gamma rays from quasar PKS 0528 + 134 by EGRET on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first several pointing directions of the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, launched on 1991 April 5, were toward the Galactic anticenter. In addition to the known gamma-ray sources, Crab and Geminga, high-energy gamma-ray emission was observed from the quasar PKS 0528 + 134 by the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET). A redshift measurement, reported here, of 2.07 confirms the identification of this object as a quasar. The differential photon spectrum is well represented by a power law with an exponent of 2.56 +/- 0.09 and a photon intensity above 100 MeV of (8.4 +/- 1.0) x 10 exp -7 photons sq cm/s. There is evidence for time variability on a time scale of a few days.

Hunter, S. D.; Bertsch, D. L.; Dingus, B. L.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kanbach, G.; Kniffen, D. A.; Kwok, P. W.; Lin, Y. C.; Mattox, J. R.

1993-01-01

435

The BATSE experiment on the Gamma Ray Observatory: Solar flare hard x ray and gamma-ray capabilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) for the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) consists of eight detector modules that provide full-sky coverage for gamma-ray bursts and other transient phenomena such as solar flares. Each detector module has a thin, large-area scintillation detector (2025 sq cm) for high time-resolution studies, and a thicker spectroscopy detector (125 sq cm) to extend the energy range and provide better spectral resolution. The total energy range of the system is 15 keV to 100 MeV. These 16 detectors and the associated onboard data system should provide unprecedented capabilities for observing rapid spectral changes and gamma-ray lines from solar flares. The presence of a solar flare can be detected in real-time by BATSE; a trigger signal is sent to two other experiments on the GRO. The launch of the GRO is scheduled for June 1990, so that BATSE can be an important component of the Max '91 campaign.

Fishman, G. J.; Meegan, C. A.; Wilson, R. B.; Parnell, T. A.; Paciesas, W. S.; Pendleton, G. N.; Hudson, H. S.; Matteson, J. L.; Peterson, L. E.; Cline, T. L.

1989-01-01

436

Gamma-Ray Astrophysics: New Insight Into the Universe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the 15 years that have passed since the first edition of this book was published, there has been a major increase in our knowledge of gamma-ray astronomy. Much of this advance arises from the extensive results that have been forthcoming from the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory. There has been the discovery of a new class of gamma-ray objects, namely high-energy gamma- ray-emitting blazars, a special class of Active Galactic Nuclei, whose basic high-energy properties now seem to be understood. A much improved picture of our galaxy now exists in the frequency range of gamma rays. The question of whether cosmic rays are galactic or metagalactic now seems settled with certainty. Significant new information exists on the gamma-ray properties of neutron star pulsars, Seyfert galaxies, and gamma-ray bursts. Substantial new insight has been obtained on solar phenomena through gamma-ray observations. Hence, this seemed to be an appropriate time to write a new edition of this book to add the important scientific implications of these many new findings. The special importance of gamma-ray astrophysics had long been recognized by many physicists and astronomers, and theorists had pursued many aspects of the subject well before the experimental results began to become available. The slower development of the experimental side was not because of a lack of incentive, but due to the substantial experimental difficulties that had to be overcome. Thus, as the gamma-ray results became available in much greater number and detail, it was possible to build upon the theoretical work that already existed and to make substantial progress in the study of many of the phenomena involved. Consequently, a much better understanding of many of the astrophysical phenomena mentioned here and others is now possible. Our principal aims in writing this book are the same as they were for the first edition: to provide a text which describes the significance of gamma-ray astrophysics and to assemble in one place a treatment of gamma rays emitted from bodies in the solar i system, from objects in our galaxy, as well as from interactions between cosmic rays and the interstellar medium, and from beyond our galaxy. Thus, this book is intended for those in astrophysics who wish to have the opportunity to learn more about the evolving field of gamma-ray astronomy and its relationship to the high-energy, evolutionary processes occurring in the universe. The last three chapters of the book provide a general discussion of the experimental aspects of the field that seemed best treated together, separately from the astrophysical aspects of gamma-ray astronomy that are discussed in the first ten chapters.

Fichtel, Carl E.; Trombka, Jacob I.

1997-01-01

437

Gamma-ray shielding properties of some travertines in Turkey  

SciTech Connect

The radiation is an essential phenomenon in daily life. There are various amounts of radioactivite substances in the underground and the earth was irradiated by this substances. Humans are exposed to various kind of radiation from these sources. The travertines are usually used as a coating material in buildings. In this study, the photon attenuation coefficients of some travertines have been measured using a gamma spectroscopy with NaI(Tl) detector. The measurements have been performed using {sup 60}Co source which gives 1173 and 1332 keV energies gamma rays and {sup 137}Cs source which gives 662 keV energy gamma rays and the results will be discussed.

Akkurt, Iskender; Guenoglu, Kadir [Suleyman Demirel University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Physics, Isparta (Turkey)

2012-09-06

438

Gamma-ray shielding properties of some travertines in Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiation is an essential phenomenon in daily life. There are various amounts of radioactivite substances in the underground and the earth was irradiated by this substances. Humans are exposed to various kind of radiation from these sources. The travertines are usually used as a coating material in buildings. In this study, the photon attenuation coefficients of some travertines have been measured using a gamma spectroscopy with NaI(Tl) detector. The measurements have been performed using 60Co source which gives 1173 and 1332 keV energies gamma rays and 137Cs source which gives 662 keV energy gamma rays and the results will be discussed.

Akkurt, ?skender; Güno?lu, Kadir

2012-09-01

439

Pulsed Gamma-Ray Emission From Short-Period Pulsars: Predicted Gamma-Ray Pulsar PSR1951+32  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the gamma-ray emission mechanisms from pulsars with period, P, between 4.6 times 10(-2) B12(2/5) s and 0.17 B12(5/12) sin (1/6) theta alpha (-5/4) s in terms of outermagnetospheric gap model. We found that the spectra of all known gamma -ray pulsars can be fitted by two free parameters, namely, alpha r_L, the mean distance to the outergap, and sin theta , the mean pitch angle of the secondary e(+/-) pairs. Gamma-rays from those pulsars with P < 0.17 B12(5/12) sin (1/6) alpha (-5/4) s are mainly emitted by secondary e(+/-) pairs, which are created beyond the outergap, via synchrotron radiation and the gamma-ray emission efficiency is ~ 10(-2) . For pulsars with period approaching ~ 0.17 B12(5/12) sin (1/6) alpha (-5/4) s, their gamma-ray emission efficiency is approaching unity. We used our model to fit the observed spectra of gamma -ray pulsars (Vela, PSR1706-44, PSR1055-52, PSR1509-58, Geminga). All the best fit curv