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1

COMPACT, TUNABLE COMPTON SCATTERING GAMMA-RAY SOURCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent progress in accelerator physics and laser technology have enabled the development of a new class of gamma-ray light sources based on Compton scattering between a high-brightness, relativistic electron beam and a high intensity laser pulse produced via chirped-pulse amplification (CPA). A precision, tunable gamma-ray source driven by a compact, high-gradient X-band linac is currently under development at LLNL. High-brightness,

F V Hartemann; F Albert; G G Anderson; S G Anderson; A J Bayramian; S M Betts; T S Chu; R R Cross; C A Ebbers; S E Fisher; D J Gibson; A S Ladran; R A Marsh; M J Messerly; K L ONeill; V A Semenov; M Y Shverdin; C W Siders; D P McNabb; C J Barty; A E Vlieks; E N Jongewaard; S G Tantawi; T O Raubenheimer

2009-01-01

2

Color Superconductivity in Compact Stars and Gamma Ray Bursts  

E-print Network

We study the effects of color superconductivity on the structure and formation of compact stars. We show that it is possible to satisfy most of recent observational boundaries on masses and radii if a diquark condensate forms in a hybrid or a quark star. Moreover, we find that a huge amount of energy, of the order of $10^{53}$ erg, can be released in the conversion from a (metastable) hadronic star into a (stable) hybrid or quark star, if the presence of a color superconducting phase is taken into account. Accordingly to the scenario proposed in Astrophys.J.586(2003)1250, the energy released in this conversion can power a Gamma Ray Burst. This mechanism can explain the recent observations indicating a delay, of the order of days or years, between a few Supernova explosions and the subsequent Gamma Ray Burst.

A. Drago; A. Lavagno; G. Pagliara

2003-04-08

3

Compact Gamma-ray Source Technology Development Study  

SciTech Connect

This study focuses on the applicability of current accelerator and laser technologies to the construction of compact, narrow bandwidth, gamma-ray sources for DHS missions in illicit materials detection. It also identifies research and development areas in which advancement will directly benefit these light sources. In particular, we review the physics of Compton scattering based light sources and emphasize the source properties most important to Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) applications of interest. The influences of laser and electron beam properties on the light source are examined in order to evaluate the utility of different technologies for this application. Applicable bulk and fiber-based laser systems and laser recirculation technologies are discussed and Radio Frequency (RF) Linear Accelerator (linac) technologies are examined to determine the optimal frequency and pulse formats achievable.

Anderson, S G; Gibson, D J; Rusnak, B

2009-09-25

4

COMPACT BINARY PROGENITORS OF SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, detailed observations and accurate numerical simulations have provided support to the idea that mergers of compact binaries containing either two neutron stars (NSs) or an NS and a black hole (BH) may constitute the central engine of short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs). The merger of such compact binaries is expected to lead to the production of a spinning BH surrounded by an accreting torus. Several mechanisms can extract energy from this system and power the SGRBs. Here we connect observations and numerical simulations of compact binary mergers, and use the current sample of SGRBs with measured energies to constrain the mass of their powering tori. By comparing the masses of the tori with the results of fully general-relativistic simulations, we are able to infer the properties of the binary progenitors that yield SGRBs. By assuming a constant efficiency in converting torus mass into jet energy, {epsilon}{sub jet} = 10%, we find that most of the tori have masses smaller than 0.01 M{sub Sun }, favoring 'high-mass' binary NSs mergers, i.e., binaries with total masses {approx}> 1.5 the maximum mass of an isolated NS. This has important consequences for the gravitational wave signals that may be detected in association with SGRBs, since 'high-mass' systems do not form a long-lived hypermassive NS after the merger. While NS-BH systems cannot be excluded to be the engine of at least some of the SGRBs, the BH would need to have an initial spin of {approx}0.9 or higher.

Giacomazzo, Bruno [JILA, University of Colorado and National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Perna, Rosalba [JILA and Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Rezzolla, Luciano [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Potsdam D-14476 (Germany); Troja, Eleonora [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Lazzati, Davide [Department of Physics, NC State University, 2401 Stinson Drive, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States)

2013-01-10

5

Compact high-resolution gamma-ray computed tomography system for multiphase flow studies  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, a compact high-resolution gamma-ray Computed Tomography (CompaCT) measurement system for multiphase flow studies and tomographic imaging of technical objects is presented. Its compact and robust design makes it particularly suitable for studies on industrial facilities and outdoor applications. Special care has been given to thermal ruggedness, shock resistance, and radiation protection. Main components of the system are a collimated {sup 137}Cs isotopic source, a thermally stabilised modular high-resolution gamma-ray detector arc with 112 scintillation detector elements, and a transportable rotary unit. The CompaCT allows full CT scans of objects with a diameter of up to 130 mm and can be operated with any tilting angle from 0 Degree-Sign (horizontal) to 90 Degree-Sign (vertical).

Bieberle, A.; Nehring, H.; Berger, R.; Arlit, M.; Haerting, H.-U.; Schubert, M. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Fluid Dynamics, Bautzner Landstrasse 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Hampel, U. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Fluid Dynamics, Bautzner Landstrasse 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden, AREVA Endowed Chair of Imaging Techniques in Energy and Process Engineering, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

2013-03-15

6

Searching gamma-ray bursts for gravitational lensing echoes - Implications for compact dark matter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first available 44 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment on board the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory have been inspected for echo signals following shortly after the main signal. No significant echoes have been found. Echoes would have been expected were the GRBs distant enough and the universe populated with a sufficient density of compact objects composing the dark matter. Constraints on dark matter abundance and GRB redshifts from the present data are presented and discussed. Based on these preliminary results, a universe filled to critical density of compact objects between 10 exp 6.5 and 10 exp 8.1 solar masses are now marginally excluded, or the most likely cosmological distance paradigm for GRBs is not correct. We expect future constraints to be able either to test currently popular cosmological dark matter paradigms or to indicate that GRBs do not lie at cosmological distances.

Nemiroff, R. J.; Norris, J. P.; Wickramasinghe, W. A. D. T.; Horack, J. M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Fishman, G. J.; Meegan, C. A.; Wilson, R. B.; Paciesas, W. S.

1993-01-01

7

Compact Gamma-Ray Imager for In-Vivo Gene Imaging  

SciTech Connect

A compact, low-cost, gamma-ray imaging system is needed to study gene expression in small animals. State-of-the-art electronic imaging systems have insufficient resolution and animals must be sacrificed for detailed imaging that precludes time evolution studies. With improved electronics radioactive tracers attached to gene markers can be used to track the absorption and mobility of gene therapy medications in live animals. Other instrumentation being developed for medical applications does not have the response to match the radiation source for this work. The objective of this research was to develop thick film (Cd,Zn)Te detectors matched to the gamma ray energy of {sup 129}I. The detector would be a direct readout device using p-i-n diodes formed from the high Z material absorbing the radiation, with separate readout. Higher quality semiconducting material was expected from epitaxial growth on GaAs, a near lattice matched substrate. In practice, it was difficult to obtain material with high resistance and low leakage current. Spire Corporation achieved the goal of fabricating working detectors in (Cd,Zn)Te deposited on GaAs. The spectra of an alpha emitter ({sup 225}Am) was adequately resolved in thin film devices. Thick p-i-n diodes were fabricated but other processing problems prevented full demonstration of a gamma ray detector.

Greenwald, A. C.

2000-06-01

8

DEVELOPMENT OF A PRECISION TUNABLE GAMMA-RAY SOURCE DRIVEN BY A COMPACT X-BAND LINAC  

Microsoft Academic Search

A precision, tunable gamma-ray source driven by a compact, high-gradient X-band linac is currently under development at LLNL. High-brightness, relativistic electron bunches produced by the linac interact with a Joule-class, 10 ps laser pulse to generate tunable -rays in the 0.5-2.5 MeV photon energy range via Compton scattering. The source will be used to excite nuclear resonance fluorescence lines in

F V Hartemann; F Albert; G G Anderson; S G Anderson; A J Bayramian; S M Betts; T S Chu; R R Cross; C A Ebbers; S E Fisher; D J Gibson; A S Ladran; M J Messerly; V A Semenov; M Y Shverdin; C W Siders; D P McNabb; C J Barty; A E Vlieks; E N Jongewaard; S G Tantawi

2009-01-01

9

Observations of discrete gamma ray sources with SAS-2. [compact sources centered on Crab nebula and Vela X supernova remnant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compact gamma ray sources centered on the Crab nebula and the Vela X supernova remnant are considered. An excess in the galactic radiation was observed in both regions. Data indicate that a large fraction of this flux is pulsed. The excess from the Vela region could reflect either a large-scale galactic feature, such as a superposition of spiral arm segments, or it could be associated with the Vela supernova remnant. Low-energy gamma ray bursts were observed in the SAS-2 anticoincidence shielding.

Thompson, D. J.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.; Bignami, G. F.

1974-01-01

10

Diversity of Short Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows from Compact Binary Mergers Hosting Pulsars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short-duration gamma-ray bursts (sGRBs) are widely believed to result from the mergers of compact binaries. This model predicts an afterglow that bears the characteristic signatures of a constant, low-density medium, including a smooth prompt-afterglow transition, and a simple temporal evolution. However, these expectations are in conflict with observations for a non-negligible fraction of sGRB afterglows. In particular, the onset of the afterglow phase for some of these events appears to be delayed and, in addition, a few of them exhibit late-time rapid fading in their light curves. We show that these peculiar observations can be explained independently of ongoing central engine activity if some sGRB progenitors are compact binaries hosting at least one pulsar. The Poynting flux emanating from the pulsar companion can excavate a bow-shock cavity surrounding the binary. If this cavity is larger than the shock deceleration length scale in the undisturbed interstellar medium, then the onset of the afterglow will be delayed. Should the deceleration occur entirely within the swept-up thin shell, a rapid fade in the light curve will ensue. We identify two types of pulsar that can achieve the conditions necessary for altering the afterglow: low-field, long-lived pulsars, and high-field pulsars. We find that a sizable fraction (?20%-50%) of low-field pulsars are likely to reside in neutron star binaries based on observations, while their high-field counterparts are not. Hydrodynamical calculations motivated by this model are shown to be in good agreement with observations of sGRB afterglow light curves.

Holcomb, Cole; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; De Colle, Fabio; Montes, Gabriela

2014-07-01

11

THE LOCATIONS OF SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS AS EVIDENCE FOR COMPACT OBJECT BINARY PROGENITORS  

SciTech Connect

We present a detailed investigation of Hubble Space Telescope rest-frame UV/optical observations of 22 short gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies and sub-galactic environments. Utilizing the high angular resolution and depth of HST we characterize the host galaxy morphologies, measure precise projected physical and host-normalized offsets between the bursts and host centers, and calculate the locations of the bursts with respect to their host light distributions (rest-frame UV and optical). We calculate a median short GRB projected physical offset of 4.5 kpc, about 3.5 times larger than that for long GRBs, and find that ?25% of short GRBs have offsets of ?> 10 kpc. When compared to their host sizes, the median offset is 1.5 half-light radii (r{sub e} ), about 1.5 times larger than the values for long GRBs, core-collapse supernovae, and Type Ia supernovae. In addition, ?20% of short GRBs having offsets of ?> 5r{sub e} , and only ?25% are located within 1r{sub e} . We further find that short GRBs severely under-represent their hosts' rest-frame optical and UV light, with ?30%-45% of the bursts located in regions of their host galaxies that have no detectable stellar light, and ?55% in the regions with no UV light. Therefore, short GRBs do not occur in regions of star formation or even stellar mass. This demonstrates that the progenitor systems of short GRBs must migrate from their birth sites to their eventual explosion sites, a signature of kicks in compact object binary systems. Utilizing the full sample of offsets, we estimate natal kick velocities of ?20-140 km s{sup –1}. These independent lines of evidence provide the strongest support to date that short GRBs result from the merger of compact object binaries (NS-NS/NS-BH)

Fong, W.; Berger, E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2013-10-10

12

Experimental investigation of silicon photomultipliers as compact light readout systems for gamma-ray spectroscopy applications in fusion plasmasa)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A matrix of Silicon Photo Multipliers has been developed for light readout from a large area 1 in. × 1 in. LaBr3 crystal. The system has been characterized in the laboratory and its performance compared to that of a conventional photo multiplier tube. A pulse duration of 100 ns was achieved, which opens up to spectroscopy applications at high counting rates. The energy resolution measured using radioactive sources extrapolates to 3%-4% in the energy range E? = 3-5 MeV, enabling gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements at good energy resolution. The results reported here are of relevance in view of the development of compact gamma-ray detectors with spectroscopy capabilities, such as an enhanced gamma-ray camera for high power fusion plasmas, where the use of photomultiplier is impeded by space limitation and sensitivity to magnetic fields.

Nocente, M.; Fazzi, A.; Tardocchi, M.; Cazzaniga, C.; Lorenzoli, M.; Pirovano, C.; Rebai, M.; Uboldi, C.; Varoli, V.; Gorini, G.

2014-11-01

13

Gamma Ray Bursts and the transition to Quark Matter in Compact Stars  

E-print Network

We discuss a model for long Gamma-Ray-Bursts in which the central engine is associated with the conversion process of a metastable hadronic star into a star containing quark matter. We analyze the observational signatures of the model, i.e. the Supernova-GRB temporal connection and the existence of long quiescent times in the temporal structure of Gamma-Ray-Bursts.

Alessandro Drago; Andrea Lavagno; Giuseppe Pagliara

2005-10-01

14

Modulated gamma-ray emission from compact millisecond pulsar binary systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. A significant number of the millisecond pulsars (MSPs) have been discovered within binary systems. Tens of these MSPs emit ?-rays that are modulated with the pulsar period since this emission is produced in the inner pulsar magnetosphere. In several such binary systems, the masses of the companion stars have been derived allowing two classes of objects to be distinguished, which are called the black widow and the redback binaries. Pulsars in these binary systems are expected to produce winds that create conditions for acceleration of electrons, when colliding with stellar winds. These electrons should interact with the anisotropic radiation from the companion stars producing ?-ray emission modulated with the orbital period of the binary system, similar to what is observed in the massive TeV ?-ray binary systems. Aims: We consider the interaction of a MSP wind with a very inhomogeneous stellar wind from the companion star within binary systems of the black widow and redback types. Our aim is to determine the features of ?-ray emission produced in the collision region of the winds from a few typical MSP binary systems. Methods: It is expected that the pulsar wind should mix efficiently with the inhomogeneous stellar wind. The mixed winds move outside the binary with relatively low velocity. Electrons accelerated in such mixed, turbulent winds can interact with the magnetic field and strong radiation from the companion star, producing not only synchrotron radiation but also ?-rays in the inverse Compton process, fluxes of which are expected to be modulated on the periods of the binary systems. Applying numerical methods, we calculated the GeV-TeV gamma-ray spectra and the light curves expected from some MSP binary systems. Results: Gamma-ray emission, produced within the binary systems, is compared with the sensitivities of the present and future gamma-ray telescopes. It is concluded that energetic MSP binary systems create a new class of TeV ?-ray sources that could be detectable by the future Cherenkov arrays (e.g., CTA) and possibly also by the extensive campains with the present arrays (HESS, MAGIC, VERITAS). However, ?-ray emission from the MSP binary systems is predicted to have different features than those observed in the case of massive TeV gamma-ray binaries such as LS I 303 61 or LS 5039. The maximum in the TeV ?-ray orbital light curve should appear when the MSP is behind the companion star. This is in contrast to the observations of the orbital light curves from the massive TeV ?-ray binaries (LS I 303 61 or LS 5039). Moreover, the GeV and orbital TeV ?-ray light curves should be positively correlated unlike the case of massive TeV ?-ray binaries. Conclusions: We conclude that TeV ?-ray emission, modulated on the orbital period of MSP binary systems, should be detected by the future CTA. Moreover, some MSP binary systems of the Redback type might also show GeV ?-ray emission modulated on the binary periods on the level detectable by Fermi-LAT.

Bednarek, W.

2014-01-01

15

Compact, high-resolution, gamma ray imaging for scintimammography and other medical diagostic applications  

DOEpatents

A high resolution gamma ray imaging device includes an aluminum housing, a lead screen collimator at an opened end of the housing, a crystal scintillator array mounted behind the lead screen collimator, a foam layer between the lead screen collimator and the crystal scintillator array, a photomultiplier window coupled to the crystal with optical coupling grease, a photomultiplier having a dynode chain body and a base voltage divider with anodes, anode wire amplifiers each connected to four anodes and a multi pin connector having pin connections to each anode wire amplifier. In one embodiment the crystal scintillator array includes a yttrium aluminum perovskite (YAP) crystal array. In an alternate embodiment, the crystal scintillator array includes a gadolinium oxyorthosilicate (GSO) crystal array.

Majewski, Stanislaw (Grafton, VA); Weisenberger, Andrew G. (Grafton, VA); Wojcik, Randolph F. (Yorktown, VA); Steinbach, Daniela (Williamsburg, VA)

1999-01-01

16

Gamma-ray-computed tomography to investigate compaction on sewage-sludge-treated soil.  

PubMed

Soil compaction is one of the fundamental parameters to evaluate the environmental impact of agricultural machinery traffic on soils. Compaction causes modifications on soil physical properties such as changes in porosity and structure that are related to soil water movement and gas exchange The objective of this work was to evaluate soil surface sealing after sewage-sludge application, and the influence of agricultural machinery traffic, through computed tomography. A first generation tomograph was used having a 137Cs source and a 3 in x 3 in NaI(Tl) scintillation crystal detector coupled to a photomultiplier tube. Image analysis and tomographic unit profiles could successfully be used for the detection of soil surface sealing and soil compaction due to machinery traffic associated to sewage-sludge application. PMID:12878118

Pires, Luiz F; de Macedo, Jose R; de Souza, Manoel D; Bacchi, Osny O S; Reichardt, Klaus

2003-07-01

17

High-resolution gamma-ray measurement systems using a compact electro- mechanically cooled detector system and intelligent software  

SciTech Connect

Obtaining high-resolution gamma-ray measurements using high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors in the field has been of limited practicality due to the need to use and maintain a supply of liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}). This same constraint limits high-resolution gamma measurements in unattended safeguards or treaty Verification applications. We are developing detectors and software to greatly extend the applicability of high-resolution germanium-based measurements for these situations.

Buckley, W.M.; Carlson, J.B.; Neufeld, K.W.

1995-09-27

18

High energy gamma ray astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The SAS-2 gamma ray experiment and its detection of celestial gamma rays are described. Data also cover intensity of high energy gamma rays, gamma ray distribution, gamma ray origin, and diffuse radiation.

Fichtel, C. E.

1974-01-01

19

Soft X-ray Extended Emissions of Short Gamma-Ray Bursts as Electromagnetic Counterparts of Compact Binary Mergers; Possible Origin and Detectability  

E-print Network

We investigate the possible origin of extended emissions (EEs) of short gamma-ray bursts with an isotropic energy of ~ 10^(50-51) erg and a duration of a few 10 s to ~ 100 s, based on a compact binary (neutron star (NS)-NS or NS-black hole (BH)) merger scenario. We analyze the evolution of magnetized neutrino-dominated accretion disks of mass ~ 0.1 M_sun around BHs formed after the mergers, and estimate the power of relativistic outflows via the Blandford-Znajek (BZ) process. We show that a rotation energy of the BH up to > 10^52 erg can be extracted with an observed time scale of > 30 (1+z) s with a relatively small disk viscosity parameter of alpha a BZ power dissipates by clashing with non-relativistic pre-ejected matter of mass M ~ 10^-(2-4) M_sun, and forms a mildly relativistic fireball. We show that the dissipative photospheric emissions from such fireballs are likely in the soft X-ray band (1-10 keV) for M ~ 10^-2 M_sun possibly in NS-NS mergers, and in the BAT band (15-150 keV) for M ~ 10^-4 M_sun possibly in NS-BH mergers. In the former case, such soft EEs can provide a good chance of ~ 6 yr^-1 for simultaneous detections of the gravitational waves with a ~ 0.1 deg angular resolution by soft X-ray survey facilities like Wide-Field MAXI.

Takashi Nakamura; Kazumi Kashiyama; Daisuke Nakauchi; Yudai Suwa; Takanori Sakamoto; Nobuyuki Kawai

2013-12-02

20

Soft X-Ray Extended Emissions of Short Gamma-Ray Bursts as Electromagnetic Counterparts of Compact Binary Mergers: Possible Origin and Detectability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the possible origin of extended emissions (EEs) of short gamma-ray bursts with an isotropic energy of ~1050-51 erg and a duration of a few 10 s to ~100 s, based on a compact binary (neutron star (NS)-NS or NS-black hole (BH)) merger scenario. We analyze the evolution of magnetized neutrino-dominated accretion disks of mass ~0.1 M ? around BHs formed after the mergers and estimate the power of relativistic outflows via the Blandford-Znajek (BZ) process. We show that a rotation energy of the BH up to >~ 1052 erg can be extracted with an observed timescale of >~ 30(1 + z) s with a relatively small disk viscosity parameter of ? < 0.01. Such a BZ power dissipates by clashing with non-relativistic pre-ejected matter of mass M ~ 10–(2-4) M ?, and forms a mildly relativistic fireball. We show that the dissipative photospheric emissions from such fireballs are likely in the soft X-ray band (1-10 keV) for M ~ 10–2 M ?, possibly in NS-NS mergers, and in the BAT band (15-150 keV) for M ~ 10–4 M ?, possibly in NS-BH mergers. In the former case, such soft EEs can provide a good chance of ? 6 yr-1 (? ? softEE/4?) (R}GW/40 yr-1) for simultaneous detections of the gravitational waves with a ~0.°1 angular resolution by soft X-ray survey facilities like the Wide-Field MAXI. Here, ??softEE is the beaming factor of the soft EEs and R}GW is the NS-NS merger rate detectable by the advanced LIGO, the advanced Virgo, and KAGRA.

Nakamura, Takashi; Kashiyama, Kazumi; Nakauchi, Daisuke; Suwa, Yudai; Sakamoto, Takanori; Kawai, Nobuyuki

2014-11-01

21

Sandstone and shale compaction curves derived from sonic and gamma ray logs in offshore wells, North Slope, Alaska; parameters for basin modeling  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Representative compaction curves for the principle lithologies are essential input for reliable models of basin history. Compaction curves influence estimates of maximum burial and erosion. Different compaction curves may produce significantly different thermal histories. Default compaction curves provided by basin modeling packages may or may not be a good proxy for the compaction properties in a given area. Compaction curves in the published literature span a wide range, even within one lithology, e.g., sandstone (see Panel 3). An abundance of geophysical well data for the North Slope, from both government and private sources, provides us with an unusually good opportunity to develop compaction curves for the Cretaceous-Tertiary Brookian sandstones, siltstones, and shales. We examined the sonic and gamma ray logs from 19 offshore wells (see map), where significant erosion is least likely to have occurred. Our data are primarily from the Cretaceous-Tertiary Brookian sequence and are less complete for older sequences. For each well, the fraction of shale (Vsh) at a given depth was estimated from the gamma ray log, and porosity was computed from sonic travel time. By compositing porosities for the near-pure sand (Vsh99%)from many individual wells we obtained data over sufficient depth intervals to define sandstone and shale 'master' compaction curves. A siltstone curve was defined using the sonic-derived porosities for Vsh values of 50%. These compaction curves generally match most of the sonic porosities with an error of 5% or less. Onshore, the curves are used to estimate the depth of maximum burial at the end of Brookian sedimentation. The depth of sonic-derived porosity profiles is adjusted to give the best match with the 'master' compaction curves. The amount of the depth adjustment is the erosion estimate. Using our compaction curves, erosion estimates on the North Slope range from zero in much of the offshore, to as much as 1500 ft along the coast, and to more than 10,000 ft in the foothills (Panel 3). Compaction curves provide an alternative to vitrinite reflectance for estimating erosion. Vitrinite reflectance data are often very sparse in contrast to well log data and are subject to inconsistencies when measurements are made by different labs. The phenomenon of 'recycling' can also make the reflectance values of dispersed vitrinite problematic for quantifying erosion. Recycling is suspected in dispersed vitrinite in North Slope rocks, particularly in the younger, Cretaceous-Tertiary section. The compaction curves defined here are being integrated into our burial history and thermal models to determine the timing of source rock maturation. An example on Panel 3 shows the results of calculating the maturity of the Shublik Fm. at the Tulaga well using two different sets of shale and siltstone compaction curves. Finally, accurate compaction curves improve a model's ability to realistically simulate the pressure regime during burial, including overpressures.

Rowan, Elisabeth L.; Hayba, Daniel O.; Nelson, Philip H.; Burns, W. Matthew; Houseknecht, David W.

2003-01-01

22

Future prospects for gamma-ray  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astrophysical phenomena discussed are: the very energetic and nuclear processes associated with compact objects; astrophysical nucleo-synthesis; solar particle acceleration; the chemical composition of the planets and other bodies of the solar system; the structure of our galaxy; the origin and dynamic pressure effects of the cosmic rays; the high energy particles and energetic processes in other galaxies, especially active ones; and the degree of matter antimater symmetry of the universe. The gamma ray results of GAMMA-I, the gamma ray observatory, the gamma ray burst network, solar polar, and very high energy gamma ray telescopes on the ground provide justification for more sophisticated telescopes.

Fichtel, C.

1980-01-01

23

Gamma ray detector shield  

DOEpatents

A gamma ray detector shield comprised of a rigid, lead, cylindrical-shaped vessel having upper and lower portions with an pneumatically driven, sliding top assembly. Disposed inside the lead shield is a gamma ray scintillation crystal detector. Access to the gamma detector is through the sliding top assembly.

Ohlinger, R.D.; Humphrey, H.W.

1985-08-26

24

Cosmic Rays and Gamma Ray Bursts From Microblazars  

E-print Network

Highly relativistic jets from merger and accretion induced collapse of compact stellar objects, which may produce the cosmological gamma ray bursts (GRBs), are also very efficient and powerful cosmic ray accelerators. The expected luminosity, energy spectrum and chemical composition of cosmic rays from Galactic GRBs, most of which do not point in our direction, can explain the observed properties of Galactic cosmic rays.

Arnon Dar

1998-09-13

25

Gamma ray transients  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The discovery of cosmic gamma ray bursts was made with systems designed at Los Alamos Laboratory for the detection of nuclear explosions beyond the atmosphere. HELIOS-2 was the first gamma ray burst instrument launched; its initial results in 1976, seemed to deepen the mystery around gamma ray transients. Interplanetary spacecraft data were reviewed in terms of explaining the behavior and source of the transients.

Cline, Thomas L.

1987-01-01

26

Last moments in the life of a compact binary system: gravitational waves, gamma-ray bursts and magnetar formation  

E-print Network

The first detections of afterglows from short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have confirmed the previous suspicion that they are triggered by a different central engine than long bursts. In particular, the recent detections of short GRBs in galaxies without star formation lends support to the idea that an old stellar population is involved. Most prominent are mergers of either double neutron stars or of a neutron star with a stellar-mass black hole companion. Since the final identification of the central engine will only come from an integral view of several properties, we review the observable signatures that can be expected from both double neutron stars and neutron star black hole systems. We discuss the gravitational wave emission, the structure of the neutrino-cooled accretion disks, the resulting neutrino signal and possible mechanisms to launch a GRB. In addition, we address the speculative idea that in some cases a magnetar-like object may be the final outcome of a double neutron star merger. We also discuss possibilities to explain the late-time X-ray activity that has been observed in several bursts.

S. Rosswog

2006-12-20

27

Gamma Ray Bursts Sudden, intense flashes of gamma rays  

E-print Network

Gamma Ray Bursts #12;The Case Sudden, intense flashes of gamma rays come from nowhere and disappear with out a trace. Incredibly powerful: A single gamma ray burst is hundreds of times brighter a supernova #12;Who Vela (1960's) Looking for arms testing, found gamma ray bursts Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

Washington at Seattle, University of - Department of Physics, Electroweak Interaction Research Group

28

Gamma-ray Astronomy  

E-print Network

The relevance of gamma-ray astronomy to the search for the origin of the galactic and, to a lesser extent, the ultra-high-energy cosmic rays has long been recognised. The current renaissance in the TeV gamma-ray field has resulted in a wealth of new data on galactic and extragalactic particle accelerators, and almost all the new results in this field were presented at the recent International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC). Here I summarise the 175 papers submitted on the topic of gamma-ray astronomy to the 30th ICRC in Merida, Mexico in July 2007.

Jim Hinton

2007-12-20

29

Cosmological gamma-ray bursts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The distribution in angle and flux of gamma-ray bursts indicates that the majority of gamma-ray bursters are at cosmological distances, i.e., at z of about 1. The rate is then about 10 exp -8/yr in a galaxy like the Milky Way, i.e., orders of magnitude lower than the estimated rate for collisions between neutron stars in close binary systems. The energy per burst is about 10 exp 51 ergs, assuming isotropic emission. The events appear to be less energetic and more frequent if their emission is strongly beamed. Some tests for the distance scale are discussed: a correlation between the burst's strength and its spectrum; the absorption by the Galactic gas below about 2 keV; the X-ray tails caused by forward scattering by the Galactic dust; about 1 month recurrence of some bursts caused by gravitational lensing by foreground galaxies; and a search for gamma-ray bursts in M31. The bursts appear to be a manifestation of something exotic, but conventional compact objects can provide an explanation. The best possibility is offered by a decay of a bindary composed of a spinning-stellar-mass black-hole primary and a neutron or a strange-quark star secondary. In the final phase the secondary is tidally disrupted, forms an accretion disk, and up to 10 exp 54 ergs are released. A very small fraction of this energy powers the gamma-ray burst.

Paczynski, Bohdan

1991-01-01

30

Cosmic gamma-ray bursts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of the cosmic gamma-ray burst phenomenon is presented. Both the light curves and the energy spectra of these short transient events display a great diversity. However, rapid rise times and periodicities sometimes observed in the light curves suggest a compact object origin. Similarly, absorption and emission features in the energy spectra argue strongly in favor of this interpretation. Counterparts to gamma-bursters in other energy ranges, such as optical and sort x-ray, have still not been identified, however, leading to a large uncertainty in the distances to bursters. Although gamma-ray burst sources have not yet been observed to repeat, numerous bursts from three objects which may be related to the gamma-bursters, called Soft Gamma Repeaters, have been recorded; there is weak evidence that they may be relatively distant on a galactic scale. Future missions, particularly those emphasizing high energy, time, and/or spatial resolution, as well as a multiwavelength approach, are likely to advance our understanding of this enigmatic phenomenon.

Hurley, K.

1991-01-01

31

Gamma ray optics  

SciTech Connect

Via refractive or diffractive scattering one can shape {gamma} ray beams in terms of beam divergence, spot size and monochromaticity. These concepts might be particular important in combination with future highly brilliant gamma ray sources and might push the sensibility of planned experiments by several orders of magnitude. We will demonstrate the experimental feasibility of gamma ray monochromatization on a ppm level and the creation of a gamma ray beam with nanoradian divergence. The results are obtained using the inpile target position of the High Flux Reactor of the ILL Grenoble and the crystal spectrometer GAMS. Since the refractive index is believed to vanish to zero with 1/E{sup 2}, the concept of refractive optics has never been considered for gamma rays. The combination of refractive optics with monochromator crystals is proposed to be a promising design. Using the crystal spectrometer GAMS, we have measured for the first time the refractive index at energies in the energy range of 180 - 2000 keV. The results indicate a deviation from simple 1/E{sup 2} extrapolation of X-ray results towards higher energies. A first interpretation of these new results will be presented. We will discuss the consequences of these results on the construction of refractive optics such as lenses or refracting prisms for gamma rays and their combination with single crystal monochromators.

Jentschel, M.; Guenther, M. M.; Habs, D.; Thirolf, P. G. [Institut Laue-Langevin, F38042 Grenoble (France); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, D-85748 Garching, Germany and Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

2012-07-09

32

Gamma Ray Pulsars: Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-energy gamma rays are a valuable tool for studying particle acceleration and radiation in the magnetospheres of energetic pulsars. The six or more pulsars seen by CGRO/EGRET show that: the light curves usually have double-peak structures (suggesting a broad cone of emission); gamma rays are frequently the dominant component of the radiated power; and all the spectra show evidence of a high-energy turnover. Unless a new pulsed component appears at higher energies, progress in gamma-ray pulsar studies will be greatest in the 1-20 GeV range. Ground-based telescopes whose energy ranges extend downward toward 10 GeV should make important measurements of the spectral cutoffs. The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), now in planning for a launch in 2005, will provide a major advance in sensitivity, energy range, and sky coverage.

Thompson, David J.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

33

Gamma ray astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Miscellaneous tasks related to the development of the Bursts and Transient Source Experiment on the Gamma Ray Observatory and to analysis of archival data from balloon flight experiments were performed. The results are summarized and relevant references are included.

Paciesas, William S.

1991-01-01

34

The gamma-ray observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is given of the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) mission. Detection of gamma rays and gamma ray sources, operations using the Space Shuttle, and instruments aboard the GRO, including the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), the Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (OSSE), the Imaging Compton Telescope (COMPTEL), and the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) are among the topics surveyed.

1991-01-01

35

Cosmic gamma-ray lines - Theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The various processes that lead to gamma-ray line emission and the possible astrophysical sources of such emission are reviewed. The processes of nuclear excitation, radiative capture, positron annihilation, and cyclotron radiation, which may produce gamma-ray line emission from such diverse sources as the interstellar medium, novas, supernovas, pulsars, accreting compact objects, the galactic nucleus and the nuclei of active galaxies are considered. The significance of the relative intensities, widths, and frequency shifts of the lines are also discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on understanding those gamma-ray lines that have already been observed from astrophysical sources.

Lingenfelter, R. E.; Ramaty, R.

1980-01-01

36

Gamma Ray Bursts  

E-print Network

Gamma-ray bursts have been detected at photon energies up to tens of GeV. We review some recent developments in the X-ray to GeV photon phenomenology in the light of Swift and Fermi observations, and some of the theoretical models developed to explain them, with a view towards implications for C.T.A.

Peter Mészáros

2012-04-09

37

Gamma ray camera  

DOEpatents

A gamma ray camera for detecting rays emanating from a radiation source such as an isotope. The gamma ray camera includes a sensor array formed of a visible light crystal for converting incident gamma rays to a plurality of corresponding visible light photons, and a photosensor array responsive to the visible light photons in order to form an electronic image of the radiation therefrom. The photosensor array is adapted to record an integrated amount of charge proportional to the incident gamma rays closest to it, and includes a transparent metallic layer, photodiode consisting of a p-i-n structure formed on one side of the transparent metallic layer, and comprising an upper p-type layer, an intermediate layer and a lower n-type layer. In the preferred mode, the scintillator crystal is composed essentially of a cesium iodide (CsI) crystal preferably doped with a predetermined amount impurity, and the p-type upper intermediate layers and said n-type layer are essentially composed of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). The gamma ray camera further includes a collimator interposed between the radiation source and the sensor array, and a readout circuit formed on one side of the photosensor array.

Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA)

1997-01-01

38

Gamma ray camera  

DOEpatents

A gamma ray camera is disclosed for detecting rays emanating from a radiation source such as an isotope. The gamma ray camera includes a sensor array formed of a visible light crystal for converting incident gamma rays to a plurality of corresponding visible light photons, and a photosensor array responsive to the visible light photons in order to form an electronic image of the radiation therefrom. The photosensor array is adapted to record an integrated amount of charge proportional to the incident gamma rays closest to it, and includes a transparent metallic layer, photodiode consisting of a p-i-n structure formed on one side of the transparent metallic layer, and comprising an upper p-type layer, an intermediate layer and a lower n-type layer. In the preferred mode, the scintillator crystal is composed essentially of a cesium iodide (CsI) crystal preferably doped with a predetermined amount impurity, and the p-type upper intermediate layers and said n-type layer are essentially composed of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). The gamma ray camera further includes a collimator interposed between the radiation source and the sensor array, and a readout circuit formed on one side of the photosensor array. 6 figs.

Perez-Mendez, V.

1997-01-21

39

Compact Electronic Gamma Source For Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

A compact mono-energetic gamma source is being developed to replace the radiological sources used in radiotherapy and other medical instruments. The electronic gamma source utilizes low-energy nuclear reactions to generate gammas in the 0.5 to 1.0 MeV energy range. Independent control of the ion current and energy is achieved by decoupling the RF-driven ion source and pyroelectric crystal-based acceleration systems The ions are accelerated to voltages above 100 keV and bombard a reaction target to produce gammas. Thermal management of the pyroelectric crystal-based accelerator is achieved by convective dielectric fluid flow around the crystal. This approach provides better temperature uniformity in the crystal and higher dielectric strength for suppressing voltage breakdown and enabling faster thermal cycling rates.

Chen, A. X. [Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 969, Livermore, CA, 94550 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Antolak, A. J.; Raber, T. N.; Morse, D. H. [Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 969, Livermore, CA, 94550 (United States); Leung, K.-N. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2011-06-01

40

Gamma-ray bursts.  

PubMed

Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are bright flashes of gamma rays coming from the cosmos. They occur roughly once per day, typically last for tens of seconds, and are the most luminous events in the universe. More than three decades after their discovery, and after pioneering advances from space and ground experiments, they still remain mysterious. The launch of the Swift and Fermi satellites in 2004 and 2008 brought in a trove of qualitatively new data. In this Review, we survey the interplay between these recent observations and the theoretical models of the prompt GRB emission and the subsequent afterglow. PMID:22923573

Gehrels, Neil; Mészáros, Péter

2012-08-24

41

Gamma Ray Bursts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are bright flashes of gamma-rays coming from the cosmos. They occur roughly once per day ,last typically lOs of seconds and are the most luminous events in the universe. More than three decades after their discovery, and after pioneering advances from space and ground experiments, they still remain mysterious. The launch of the Swift and Fermi satellites in 2004 and 2008 brought in a trove of qualitatively new data. In this review we survey the interplay between these recent observations and the theoretical models of the prompt GRB emission and the subsequent afterglows.

Gehrels, Neil; Meszaros, Peter

2012-01-01

42

Gamma-ray Bursts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since their discovery in 1967, Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been puzzling to astrophysicists. With the advent of a new generation\\u000a of X-ray satellites in the late 90’s, it was possible to carry out deep multi-wavelength observations of the counterparts\\u000a associated with the long duration GRBs class just within a few hours of occurrence, thanks to the observation of the fading

Alberto J. Castro-Tirado

43

Celestial gamma ray study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents the research activities performed by Stanford University investigators as part of the data reduction effort and overall support of the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Observatory. This report is arranged chronologically, with each subsection detailing activities during roughly a one year period of time, beginning in June 1991.

Michelson, Peter F.

1995-01-01

44

Soft gamma rays from black holes versus neutron stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The recent launches of GRANAT and GRO provide unprecedented opportunities to study compact collapsed objects from their hard x ray and gamma ray emissions. The spectral range above 100 keV can now be explored with much higher sensitivity and time resolution than before. The soft gamma ray spectral data is reviewed of black holes and neutron stars, radiation, and particle energization mechanisms and potentially distinguishing gamma ray signatures. These may include soft x ray excesses versus deficiencies, thermal versus nonthermal processes, transient gamma ray bumps versus power law tails, lines, and periodicities. Some of the highest priority future observations are outlines which will shed much light on such systems.

Liang, Edison P.

1992-01-01

45

Solar Flares: Gamma Rays  

E-print Network

We briefly review the theory of gamma ray production in solar flares and present the highlights of the observations and their implications. Specifically: (i) the gamma ray data show that a large fraction of the released flare energy is in accelerated ions, mostly around 1 MeV/nucleon; (ii) the accelerated He-3, heavy ion, and relativistic electron abundances are enriched, implying that the particle acceleration is dominated by stochastic gyroresonant interactions with plasma turbulence; (iii) there is evidence for the enhancement of the abundances of ambient chromospheric elements with low first ionization potentials; (iv) the observed Li-7 and Be-7 lines, at 0.429 MeV and 0.478 MeV due to alpha-alpha interactions, show that both the accelerated alpha particle and the ambient He abundances are significantly enhanced.

Reuven Ramaty; Natalie Mandzhavidze

1998-10-06

46

Gamma ray astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) is one of four instruments on the Compton observatory which was launched by the space shuttle Atlantis on April 5, 1991. As of mid-March, 1994, BATSE detected more than 925 cosmic gamma-ray bursts and more than 725 solar flares. Pulsed gamma rays have been detected from at least 16 sources and emission from at least 28 sources (including most of the pulsed sources) has been detected by the earth occultation technique. UAH participation in BATSE is extensive but can be divided into two main areas, operations and data analysis. The daily BATSE operations tasks represent a substantial level of effort and involve a large team composed of MSFC personnel as well as contractors such as UAH. The scientific data reduction and analysis of BATSE data is also a substantial level of effort in which UAH personnel have made significant contributions.

Paciesas, William S.

1994-01-01

47

Unidentified Gamma-Ray Sources: Hunting Gamma-Ray Blazars  

SciTech Connect

One of the main scientific objectives of the ongoing Fermi mission is unveiling the nature of the unidentified {gamma}-ray sources (UGSs). Despite the large improvements of Fermi in the localization of {gamma}-ray sources with respect to the past {gamma}-ray missions, about one third of the Fermi-detected objects are still not associated to low energy counterparts. Recently, using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) survey, we discovered that blazars, the rarest class of Active Galactic Nuclei and the largest population of {gamma}-ray sources, can be recognized and separated from other extragalactic sources on the basis of their infrared (IR) colors. Based on this result, we designed an association method for the {gamma}-ray sources to recognize if there is a blazar candidate within the positional uncertainty region of a generic {gamma}-ray source. With this new IR diagnostic tool, we searched for {gamma}-ray blazar candidates associated to the UGS sample of the second Fermi {gamma}-ray catalog (2FGL). We found that our method associates at least one {gamma}-ray blazar candidate as a counterpart each of 156 out of 313 UGSs analyzed. These new low-energy candidates have the same IR properties as the blazars associated to {gamma}-ray sources in the 2FGL catalog.

Massaro, F.; D'Abrusco, R.; Tosti, G.; Ajello, M.; Gasparrini, A.Paggi.D.

2012-04-02

48

UNIDENTIFIED {gamma}-RAY SOURCES: HUNTING {gamma}-RAY BLAZARS  

SciTech Connect

One of the main scientific objectives of the ongoing Fermi mission is unveiling the nature of unidentified {gamma}-ray sources (UGSs). Despite the major improvements of Fermi in the localization of {gamma}-ray sources with respect to the past {gamma}-ray missions, about one-third of the Fermi-detected objects are still not associated with low-energy counterparts. Recently, using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer survey, we discovered that blazars, the rarest class of active galactic nuclei and the largest population of {gamma}-ray sources, can be recognized and separated from other extragalactic sources on the basis of their infrared (IR) colors. Based on this result, we designed an association method for the {gamma}-ray sources to recognize if there is a blazar candidate within the positional uncertainty region of a generic {gamma}-ray source. With this new IR diagnostic tool, we searched for {gamma}-ray blazar candidates associated with the UGS sample of the second Fermi {gamma}-ray LAT catalog (2FGL). We found that our method associates at least one {gamma}-ray blazar candidate as a counterpart to each of 156 out of 313 UGSs analyzed. These new low-energy candidates have the same IR properties as the blazars associated with {gamma}-ray sources in the 2FGL catalog.

Massaro, F.; Ajello, M. [SLAC National Laboratory and Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); D'Abrusco, R.; Paggi, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Tosti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Gasparrini, D. [ASI Science Data Center, ESRIN, I-00044 Frascati (Italy)

2012-06-10

49

{gamma} ray astronomy with muons  

SciTech Connect

Although {gamma} ray showers are muon poor, they still produce a number of muons sufficient to make the sources observed by GeV and TeV telescopes observable also in muons. For sources with hard {gamma} ray spectra there is a relative {open_quotes}enhancement{close_quotes} of muons from {gamma} ray primaries as compared to that from nucleon primaries. All shower {gamma} rays above the photoproduction threshold contribute to the number of muons N{sub {mu}}, which is thus proportional to the primary {gamma} ray energy. With {gamma} ray energy 50 times higher than the muon energy and a probability of muon production by the {gamma}{close_quote}s of about 1{percent}, muon detectors can match the detection efficiency of a GeV satellite detector if their effective area is larger by 10{sup 4}. The muons must have enough energy for sufficiently accurate reconstruction of their direction for doing astronomy. These conditions are satisfied by relatively shallow neutrino detectors such as AMANDA and Lake Baikal, and by {gamma} ray detectors such as MILAGRO. TeV muons from {gamma} ray primaries, on the other hand, are rare because they are only produced by higher energy {gamma} rays whose flux is suppressed by the decreasing flux at the source and by absorption on interstellar light. We show that there is a window of opportunity for muon astronomy with the AMANDA, Lake Baikal, and MILAGRO detectors. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

Halzen, F. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Stanev, T. [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)] [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Yodh, G.B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92715 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92715 (United States)

1997-04-01

50

Gamma-Ray Bursts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma-ray burst (GRB) have been an unsolved mystery in high-energy astrophysics for the last 30 years. Immediately after GRB were discovered, scientists tried to understand the mechanism that causes these events and where they come from. Since than, many theories have been suggested to explain GRB which have durations spanning five orders of magnitude (ranging between a few milliseconds and minutes) and spectrals that peak generally in the range of 0.1 to 1 MeV. Given this numbers, most theorists would think of processes occurring near neutron stars in our galaxy, many of which are known sources of rapidly varying, high-energy photon emission.

Kouveliotou, Chryssa

1997-01-01

51

Compact x-ray source and panel  

DOEpatents

A compact, self-contained x-ray source, and a compact x-ray source panel having a plurality of such x-ray sources arranged in a preferably broad-area pixelized array. Each x-ray source includes an electron source for producing an electron beam, an x-ray conversion target, and a multilayer insulator separating the electron source and the x-ray conversion target from each other. The multi-layer insulator preferably has a cylindrical configuration with a plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers surrounding an acceleration channel leading from the electron source to the x-ray conversion target. A power source is connected to each x-ray source of the array to produce an accelerating gradient between the electron source and x-ray conversion target in any one or more of the x-ray sources independent of other x-ray sources in the array, so as to accelerate an electron beam towards the x-ray conversion target. The multilayer insulator enables relatively short separation distances between the electron source and the x-ray conversion target so that a thin panel is possible for compactness. This is due to the ability of the plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers of the multilayer insulators to resist surface flashover when sufficiently high acceleration energies necessary for x-ray generation are supplied by the power source to the x-ray sources.

Sampayon, Stephen E. (Manteca, CA)

2008-02-12

52

Digital Pulse Processing and Gamma Ray Tracking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Two of the big changes in new generations of Nuclear Physics instrumentation will be the incorporation of digital processing and the use of gamma ray tracking. The Nuclear Physics Group at Daresbury has set up a project to investigate digital pulse processing for gamma ray detectors and how best to implement gamma ray tracking in large Germanium gamma ray detectors. Topics on this site include but are not limited to: gamma ray tracking, overview of the Gamma Ray Tracking Project, pictures of one of the tracking gamma ray detectors (TIGRE), pictures of test experiment, gamma ray tracking project publications, and links to other gamma ray tracking pages.

2010-09-21

53

Gamma-ray burst observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the most luminous known objects in the Universe. Their brief, random appearance in the gamma-ray region had made their study difficult since their discovery, over thirty years ago. There is a rich diversity in the duration and morphology of GRB time profiles. The spectra are characterized by a smooth continuum, usually peaking in the range from

Gerald J. Fishman

2000-01-01

54

High energy gamma ray astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High energy gamma ray astronomy has evolved with the space age. Nonexistent twenty-five years ago, there is now a general sketch of the gamma ray sky which should develop into a detailed picture with the results expected to be forthcoming over the next decade. The galactic plane is the dominant feature of the gamma ray sky, the longitude and latitude distribution being generally correlated with galactic structural features including the spiral arms. Two molecular clouds were already seen. Two of the three strongest gamma ray sources are pulsars. The highly variable X-ray source Cygnus X-3 was seen at one time, but not another in the 100 MeV region, and it was also observed at very high energies. Beyond the Milky Way Galaxy, there is seen a diffuse radiation, whose origin remains uncertain, as well as at least one quasar, 3C 273. Looking to the future, the satellite opportunities for high energy gamma ray astronomy in the near term are the GAMMA-I planned to be launched in late 1987 and the Gamma Ray Observatory, scheduled for launch in 1990. The Gamma Ray Observatory will carry a total of four instruments covering the entire energy range from 30,000 eV to 3 x 10 to the 10th eV with over an order of magnitude increase in sensitivity relative to previous satellite instruments.

Fichtel, Carl E.

1987-01-01

55

OVERVIEW OF MONO-ENERGETIC GAMMA-RAY SOURCES & APPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent progress in accelerator physics and laser technology have enabled the development of a new class of tunable gamma-ray light sources based on Compton scattering between a high-brightness, relativistic electron beam and a high intensity laser pulse produced via chirped-pulse amplification (CPA). A precision, tunable Mono-Energetic Gamma-ray (MEGa-ray) source driven by a compact, high-gradient X-band linac is currently under development

F V Hartemann; F Albert; G G Anderson; S G Anderson; A J Bayramian; S M Betts; T S Chu; R R Cross; C A Ebbers; S E Fisher; D J Gibson; A S Ladran; R A Marsh; M J Messerly; K L ONeill; V A Semenov; M Y Shverdin; C W Siders; D P McNabb; C P Barty; A E Vlieks; E N Jongewaard; S G Tantawi; T O Raubenheimer

2010-01-01

56

More data on (possible) gamma ray (point) sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2CG catalog of gamma ray sources was compiled before detailed knowledge was available on the fine-scale structure of the diffuse Galactic gamma-ray emission. Two independent analyses to discriminate sources which are either compact objects of due to very local and strong enhancements in the Galactic cosmic-ray distribution from those which are artifacts due to the clumpy gas distribution are

W. Hermsen

1990-01-01

57

Gamma rays, cosmic rays, and galactic structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations of cosmic and gamma radiation by SAS-2 satellite are summarized and analyzed to determine processes responsible for producing observed galactic radiation. In addition to the production of gamma rays in discrete galactic objects such as pulsars, there are three main mechanisms by which high-energy (greater than 100 MeV) radiation is produced by high-energy interactions involving cosmic rays in interstellar space. These processes, which produce what may be called diffuse galactic gamma-rays, are: (1) the decay of pi mesons produced by interactions of cosmic ray nucleons with interstellar gas nuclei; (2) the bremsstrahlung radiation produced by cosmic ray electrons interacting in the Coulomb fields of nuclei of interstellar gas atoms; and (3) Compton interactions between cosmic ray electrons and low-energy photons in interstellar space.

Stecker, F. W.

1977-01-01

58

Gamma rays, cosmic rays and galactic structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Working primarily from the recent SAS-2 observations of galactic gamma rays, the relation of these observations to the large scale distribution of cosmic rays and interstellar gas in the galaxy is reviewed and reexamined. Starting with a discussion of production rates, the case for pion decay being the predominant production mechanism in the galactic disk above 100 MeV is reestablished and it is also pointed out that Compton gamma rays can be a significant source. To facilitate discussion, the concepts of four distinct galactic regions are defined, viz. the nebulodisk, ectodisk, radiodisk and exodisk. Bremsstrahlung and pion decay gamma rays are associated with the first two (primarily the first) regions, and Compton gamma rays and synchrotron radiation are associated with the latter two regions. On a large scale, the cosmic rays, interstellar gas (primarily H2 clouds in the inner galaxy) and gamma ray emissivity all peak in a region between 5 and 6 kpc from the galactic center. This correlation is related to correlation with other population I phenomena and is discussed in terms of the density wave concept of galactic structure. The singular nature of the HI distribution appears to follow the supernova remnant and pulsar distributions in the galaxy.

Stecker, F. W.

1976-01-01

59

Cosmic-Rays and Gamma Ray Bursts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cosmic-rays are subatomic particles of energies ranging between a few eV to hundreds of TeV. These particles register a power-law spectrum, and it seems that most of them originate from astrophysical galactic and extragalactic sources. The shock acceleration in superalfvenic astrophysical plasmas, is believed to be the main mechanism responsible for the production of the non-thermal cosmic-rays. Especially, the importance of the very high energy cosmic-ray acceleration, with its consequent gamma-ray radiation and neutrino production in the shocks of the relativistic jets of Gamma Ray Bursts, is a favourable theme of study. I will discuss the cosmic-ray shock acceleration mechanism particularly focusing on simulation studies of cosmic-ray acceleration occurring in the relativistic shocks of GRB jets.

Meli, A.

2013-07-01

60

Gamma rays at airplane altitudes  

SciTech Connect

An examination of the gamma ray flux above 1 TeV in the atmosphere is needed to better understand the anomalous showers from point sources. Suggestions are made for future experiments on board airplanes.

Iwai, J.; Koss, T.; Lord, J.; Strausz, S.; Wilkes, J.; Woosley, J. (University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 USA (US))

1990-03-20

61

Gamma-Ray Burst Lines  

E-print Network

The evidence for spectral features in gamma-ray bursts is summarized. As a guide for evaluating the evidence, the properties of gamma-ray detectors and the methods of analyzing gamma-ray spectra are reviewed. In the 1980's, observations indicated that absorption features below 100 keV were present in a large fraction of bright gamma-ray bursts. There were also reports of emission features around 400 keV. During the 1990's the situation has become much less clear. A small fraction of bursts observed with BATSE have statistically significant low-energy features, but the reality of the features is suspect because in several cases the data of the BATSE detectors appear to be inconsistent. Furthermore, most of the possible features appear in emission rather than the expected absorption. Analysis of data from other instruments has either not been finalized or has not detected lines.

Michael S. Briggs

1999-10-20

62

Gamma Ray Bursts and CETI  

E-print Network

Gamma ray burst sources are isotropically distributed. They could be located at distances $\\sim 1000$ AU. (Katz \\cite{JK92}) GRB signals have many narrow peaks that are unresolved at the millisecond time resolution of existing observations. \\cite{JK87} CETI could use stars as gravitational lenses for interstellar gamma ray laser beam communication. Much better time resolution of GRB signals could rule out (or confirm?) the speculative hypothesis that GRB = CETI.

Frank D. Smith Jr

1993-02-10

63

Lightning Generated Gamma Ray Bursts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The prime focus of this effort is to advance the state of understanding of correlation between lightning strokes and gamma-ray flashes. key issue addressed was the revision of the existing models of runaway breakdown in the stratosphere due to low altitude lightning, which are related to the source of gamma-ray flashes. The revision includes the assessment of the effect due to geomagnetic field on the development of runaway discharge.

Milikh, Gennady

1996-01-01

64

Unveiling the secrets of gamma ray bursts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamma Ray Bursts are unpredictable and brief flashes of gamma rays that occur about once a day in random locations in the sky. Since gamma rays do not penetrate the Earth's atmosphere, they are detected by satellites, which automatically trigger ground-based telescopes for follow-up observations at longer wavelengths. In this introduction to Gamma Ray Bursts we review how building a

Andreja Gomboc

2012-01-01

65

Gamma ray bursts ROBERT S MACKAY  

E-print Network

Gamma ray bursts ROBERT S MACKAY COLIN ROURKE We propose that a gamma ray burst is a kinematic Gamma ray bursts are intense flashes of electromagnetic radiation of cosmic origin lasting from ten accepted mechanism. We propose that a gamma ray burst is simply a kinematic effect, namely the effect

Rourke, Colin

66

Physics of Gamma Ray Burst Sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During this grant period, the physics of gamma-ray bursts was investigated. A number of new results have emerged. The importance of pair formation in high compactness burst spectra may help explain x-ray flashes; a universal jet shape is a likely explanation for the distribution of jet break times; gravitational waves may be copiously produced both in short bursts from compact mergers and in long bursts arising from collapsars; x-ray iron lines are likely to be due to interaction with the stellar atmosphere of the progenitor; prompt optical flashes from reverse shocks will give diagnostics on the Lorentz factor and the environment; GeV and TeV emission from bursts may be expected in the external shock; etc. The group working with the PI included postdocs Dr. Bing Zhang (now assistant professor at University of Nevada); Dr. Shiho Kobayashi; graduate student Lijun Gou; collaborators Drs. Tim Kallman and Martin Rees. Meszaros shared with Rees and Dr. Bohan Paczynsky the AAS Rossi Prize in 2000 for their work on the theory of gamma ray bursts. The refereed publications and conference proceedings resulting from this research are summarized below. The PI gave a number of invited talks at major conferences, also listed.

Meszaros, Peter

2004-01-01

67

Light Curves of Swift Gamma Ray Bursts  

E-print Network

Recent observations from the Swift gamma-ray burst mission indicate that a fraction of gamma ray bursts are characterized by a canonical behaviour of the X-ray afterglows. We present an effective theory which allows us to account for X-ray light curves of both (short - long) gamma ray bursts and X-ray rich flashes. We propose that gamma ray bursts originate from massive magnetic powered pulsars.

Paolo Cea

2006-06-05

68

Gamma-RayGamma-Ray Bursts: from SwiftBursts: from Swift  

E-print Network

Gamma-RayGamma-Ray Bursts: from SwiftBursts: from Swift to GLASTto GLAST Bing ZhangBing ZhangGehrels, et al), et al) #12;Gamma-ray bursts: the mostGamma-ray bursts: the most violent explosions fireball central photosphere internal external shocks engine (shocks) (reverse) (forward) gamma-ray UV

California at Santa Cruz, University of

69

Spontaneously quenched ?-ray spectra from compact sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: We have studied a mechanism for producing intrinsic broken power-law ?-ray spectra in compact sources. This is based on the principles of automatic photon quenching, according to which ?-rays are being absorbed on spontaneously produced soft photons whenever the injected luminosity in ?-rays lies above a certain critical value. Methods: We derived an analytical expression for the critical ?-ray compactness in the case of power-law injection. For the case where automatic photon quenching is relevant, we calculated analytically the emergent steady-state ?-ray spectra. We also performed numerical calculations in order to back up our analytical results. Results: We show that a spontaneously quenched power-law ?-ray spectrum obtains a photon index 3?/2, where ? is the photon index of the power-law at injection. Thus, large spectral breaks of the ?-ray photon spectrum, e.g. ?? ? 1, can be obtained by this mechanism. We also discuss additional features of this mechanism that can be tested observationally. Finally, we fit the multiwavelength spectrum of a newly discovered blazar (PKS 0447-439) by using such parameters to explain the break in the ?-ray spectrum by means of spontaneous photon quenching, under the assumption that its redshift lies in the range 0.1 < z < 0.24.

Petropoulou, M.; Arfani, D.; Mastichiadis, A.

2013-09-01

70

Gamma-ray Emission from X-ray Binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection of PSR B1259-63, HESS J0632+057, LS 5039, LS I +61 303 at the TeV energies has established X-ray binaries (XRBs) as a new class of very-high-energy (VHE, >100 GeV) gamma-ray emitters. Among them, PSR B1259-63 is a Be/pulsar system, detected at TeV energies by HESS and Fermi LAT, while HESS J0632+057 is a recently discovered VHE emitter composed of a Be star and a compact object of unknown nature. LS 5039 and LS I +61 303 are possibly microquasars, a sub-class of XRBs that contain a black hole with collimated, relativistic jets. Powered by accretion from the companion stars, microquasars radiate strongly at X-ray and soft gamma-ray energies. Cygnus X-1 and Cygnus X-3 are two famous microquasars as well. Cygnus X-1 has been observed once at TeV energies while Cygnus X-3 is a known GeV emitter. Many theoretical models envision VHE emission when these sources manifest relativistic persistent jets or transient ejections. In light of these considerations, VERITAS has been employed to study two XRBs for possible TeV emission. The first Be/XRB is 1A 0535+262. No GeV or TeV emission was detected over the outburst and orbital period. The gamma-ray and X-ray observations suggest the absence of a significant population of non-thermal particles in the system, which distinguishes 1A 0535+262 from other Be/XRBs such as PSR B1259-63 and LS I +61 303. VERITAS has also been involved in the study of Cygnus X-3 as part of the multi-wavelength study effort in the radio, infra-red, soft x-ray, hard x-ray and gamma-ray (<100 GeV) bands, which has proven very useful in the understanding of the physics of the system, even in the lack of TeV emission. With the aid of VERITAS, it can be possible to cast light on the particular conditions which could trigger VHE emission. This can help us understand the mechanisms that may trigger VHE gamma-ray emission, thus improving our knowledge of particle acceleration and radiative processes in the jets. The implications have far reaching consequences on the understanding of other XRBs and microquasars and also of active galactic nuclei, which are in many ways similar to microquasars and are prominent VHE gamma-ray sources themselves.

Varlotta, Angelo; VERITAS; AGILE

2013-01-01

71

The Animated Gamma-ray Sky Revealed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope  

SciTech Connect

The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been observing the sky in gamma-rays since August 2008.  In addition to breakthrough capabilities in energy coverage (20 MeV-300 GeV) and angular resolution, the wide field of view of the Large Area Telescope enables observations of 20% of the sky at any instant, and of the whole sky every three hours. It has revealed a very animated sky with bright gamma-ray bursts flashing and vanishing in minutes, powerful active galactic nuclei flaring over hours and days, many pulsars twinkling in the Milky Way, and X-ray binaries shimmering along their orbit. Most of these variable sources had not been seen by the Fermi predecessor, EGRET, and the wealth of new data already brings important clues to the origin of the high-energy emission and particles powered by the compact objects. The telescope also brings crisp images of the bright gamma-ray emission produced by cosmic-ray interactions in the interstellar medium, thus allowing to measure the cosmic nuclei and electron spectra across the Galaxy, to weigh interstellar clouds, in particular in the dark-gas phase. The telescope sensitivity at high energy will soon provide useful constraints on dark-matter annihilations in a variety of environments. I will review the current results and future prospects of the Fermi mission.

Isabelle Grenier

2009-04-01

72

The Animated Gamma-ray Sky Revealed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope  

SciTech Connect

The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been observing the sky in gamma-rays since August 2008. In addition to breakthrough capabilities in energy coverage (20 MeV-300 GeV) and angular resolution, the wide field of view of the Large Area Telescope enables observations of 20% of the sky at any instant, and of the whole sky every three hours. It has revealed a very animated sky with bright gamma-ray bursts flashing and vanishing in minutes, powerful active galactic nuclei flaring over hours and days, many pulsars twinkling in the Milky Way, and X-ray binaries shimmering along their orbit. Most of these variable sources had not been seen by the Fermi predecessor, EGRET, and the wealth of new data already brings important clues to the origin of the high-energy emission and particles powered by the compact objects. The telescope also brings crisp images of the bright gamma-ray emission produced by cosmic-ray interactions in the interstellar medium, thus allowing to measure the cosmic nuclei and electron spectra across the Galaxy, to weigh interstellar clouds, in particular in the dark-gas phase. The telescope sensitivity at high energy will soon provide useful constraints on dark-matter annihilations in a variety of environments. I will review the current results and future prospects of the Fermi mission.

Grenier, Isabelle (University Paris Diderot and CEA Saclay, France) [University Paris Diderot and CEA Saclay, France

2009-04-01

73

The Animated Gamma-ray Sky Revealed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope  

ScienceCinema

The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been observing the sky in gamma-rays since August 2008.  In addition to breakthrough capabilities in energy coverage (20 MeV-300 GeV) and angular resolution, the wide field of view of the Large Area Telescope enables observations of 20% of the sky at any instant, and of the whole sky every three hours. It has revealed a very animated sky with bright gamma-ray bursts flashing and vanishing in minutes, powerful active galactic nuclei flaring over hours and days, many pulsars twinkling in the Milky Way, and X-ray binaries shimmering along their orbit. Most of these variable sources had not been seen by the Fermi predecessor, EGRET, and the wealth of new data already brings important clues to the origin of the high-energy emission and particles powered by the compact objects. The telescope also brings crisp images of the bright gamma-ray emission produced by cosmic-ray interactions in the interstellar medium, thus allowing to measure the cosmic nuclei and electron spectra across the Galaxy, to weigh interstellar clouds, in particular in the dark-gas phase. The telescope sensitivity at high energy will soon provide useful constraints on dark-matter annihilations in a variety of environments. I will review the current results and future prospects of the Fermi mission.

Isabelle Grenier

2010-01-08

74

The Gamma-ray Sky with Fermi  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma rays reveal extreme, nonthermal conditions in the Universe. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been exploring the gamma-ray sky for more than four years, enabling a search for powerful transients like gamma-ray bursts, novae, solar flares, and flaring active galactic nuclei, as well as long-term studies including pulsars, binary systems, supernova remnants, and searches for predicted sources of gamma rays such as dark matter annihilation. Some results include a stringent limit on Lorentz invariance derived from a gamma-ray burst, unexpected gamma-ray variability from the Crab Nebula, a huge gamma-ray structure associated with the center of our galaxy, surprising behavior from some gamma-ray binary systems, and a possible constraint on some WIMP models for dark matter.

Thompson, David

2012-01-01

75

A tandem-based compact dual-energy gamma generator  

SciTech Connect

A dual-energy tandem-type gamma generator has been developed at E. O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories. The tandem accelerator geometry allows higher energy nuclear reactions to be reached, thereby allowing more flexible generation of MeV-energy gammas for active interrogation applications. Both positively charged ions and atoms of hydrogen are created from negative ions via a gas stripper. In this paper, we show first results of the working tandem-based gamma generator and that a gas stripper can be utilized in a compact source design. Preliminary results of monoenergetic gamma production are shown.

Persaud, A.; Kwan, J. W.; Leitner, M.; Leung, K.-N.; Ludewigt, B.; Tanaka, N.; Waldron, W.; Wilde, S. [E. O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Antolak, A. J.; Morse, D. H.; Raber, T. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

2010-02-15

76

Gamma-ray Imaging Methods  

SciTech Connect

In this document we discuss specific implementations for gamma-ray imaging instruments including the principle of operation and describe systems which have been built and demonstrated as well as systems currently under development. There are several fundamentally different technologies each with specific operational requirements and performance trade offs. We provide an overview of the different gamma-ray imaging techniques and briefly discuss challenges and limitations associated with each modality (in the appendix we give detailed descriptions of specific implementations for many of these technologies). In Section 3 we summarize the performance and operational aspects in tabular form as an aid for comparing technologies and mapping technologies to potential applications.

Vetter, K; Mihailescu, L; Nelson, K; Valentine, J; Wright, D

2006-10-05

77

Neutrinos from Gamma Ray Bursts  

E-print Network

We show that the detection of neutrinos from a typical gamma ray burst requires a kilometer-scale detector. We argue that large bursts should be visible with the neutrino telescopes under construction. We emphasize the 3 techniques by which neutrino telescopes can perform this search: by triggering on i) bursts of muons from muon neutrinos, ii) muons from air cascades initiated by high energy gamma rays and iii) showers made by relatively low energy ($\\simeq 100\\,\\mev$) electron neutrinos. Timing of neutrino-photon coincidences may yield a measurement of the neutrino mass to order $10^{-5}$~eV, an interesting range in light of the solar neutrino anomaly.

F. Halzen; G. Jaczko

1996-02-07

78

The Gamma-ray Universe through Fermi  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma rays, the most powerful form of light, reveal extreme conditions in the Universe. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and its smaller cousin AGILE have been exploring the gamma-ray sky for several years, enabling a search for powerful transients like gamma-ray bursts, novae, solar flares, and flaring active galactic nuclei, as well as long-term studies including pulsars, binary systems, supernova remnants, and searches for predicted sources of gamma rays such as dark matter annihilation. Some results include a stringent limit on Lorentz invariance derived from a gamma-ray burst, unexpected gamma-ray variability from the Crab Nebula, a huge ga.nuna-ray structure associated with the center of our galaxy, surprising behavior from some gamma-ray binary systems, and a possible constraint on some WIMP models for dark matter.

Thompson, David J.

2012-01-01

79

Can Fireball or Firecone Models Explain Gamma Ray Bursts?  

E-print Network

The observed afterglows of gamma ray bursts, in particular that of GRB 970228 six months later, seem to rule out relativistic fireballs and relativistic firecones driven by merger or accretion induced collapse of compact stellar objects in galaxies as the origin of GRBs. GRBs can be produced by superluminal jets from such events.

Arnon Dar

1997-09-24

80

Photoabsorption of Gamma Rays in Relativistic Jets  

E-print Network

A derivation of the \\gamma\\gamma --> e^+ e^- optical depth for \\gamma rays produced in a comoving spherical emitting region is presented. Employing a simplified expression for the \\gamma\\gamma absorption cross section, analytic expressions for the minimum Doppler factor implied by the requirement of gamma-ray transparency are derived for a broken power-law spectrum of target photons which are isotropically distributed in the comoving frame. Application to specific systems is illustrated.

Charles Dermer

2004-02-18

81

IS CALVERA A GAMMA-RAY PULSAR?  

SciTech Connect

Originally selected as a neutron star (NS) candidate in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey, 1RXS J141256.0+792204 ('Calvera') was discovered to be a 59 ms X-ray pulsar in a pair of XMM-Newton observations by Zane et al. Surprisingly, their claimed detection of this pulsar in Fermi {gamma}-ray data requires no period derivative, severely restricting its dipole magnetic field strength, spin-down luminosity, and distance to small values. This implies that the cooling age of Calvera is much younger than its characteristic spin-down age. If so, it could be a mildly recycled pulsar, or the first 'orphaned' central compact object (CCO). Here we show that the published Fermi ephemeris fails to align the pulse phases of the two X-ray observations with each other, which indicates that the Fermi detection is almost certainly spurious. Analysis of additional Fermi data also does not confirm the {gamma}-ray detection. This leaves the spin-down rate of Calvera less constrained, and its place among the families of NSs uncertain. It could still be either an ordinary pulsar, a mildly recycled pulsar, or an orphaned CCO.

Halpern, J. P., E-mail: jules@astro.columbia.edu [Astronomy Department, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027-6601 (United States)

2011-07-20

82

Swift's 500th Gamma Ray Burst  

NASA Video Gallery

On April 13, 2010, NASA's Swift Gamma-ray Burst Explorer satellite discovered its 500th burst. Swift's main job is to quickly localize each gamma-ray burst (GRB), report its position so that others...

83

Recent developments in semiconductor gamma-ray detectors  

SciTech Connect

The successful development of lithium-drifted Ge detectors in the 1960's marked the beginning of the significant use of semiconductor crystals for direct detection and spectroscopy of gamma rays. In the 1970's, high-purity Ge became available, which enabled the production of complex detectors and multi-detector systems. In the following decades, the technology of semiconductor gamma-ray detectors continued to advance, with significant developments not only in Ge detectors but also in Si detectors and room-temperature compound-semiconductor detectors. In recent years, our group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has developed a variety of gamma ray detectors based on these semiconductor materials. Examples include Ge strip detectors, lithium-drifted Si strip detectors, and coplanar-grid CdZnTe detectors. These advances provide new capabilities in the measurement of gamma rays, such as the ability to perform imaging and the realization of highly compact spectroscopy systems.

Luke, Paul N.; Amman, Mark; Tindall, Craig; Lee, Julie S.

2003-10-28

84

Portable compton gamma-ray detection system  

DOEpatents

A Compton scattered gamma-ray detector system. The system comprises a gamma-ray spectrometer and an annular array of individual scintillators. The scintillators are positioned so that they are arrayed around the gamma-ray spectrometer. The annular array of individual scintillators includes a first scintillator. A radiation shield is positioned around the first scintillator. A multi-channel analyzer is operatively connected to the gamma-ray spectrometer and the annular array of individual scintillators.

Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA); Oldaker, Mark E. (Pleasanton, CA)

2008-03-04

85

Gamma rays from globular clusters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Globular clusters are known to contain a relatively large number of pulsars whose individual and collective emission in the X-ray and gamma-ray energy bands may be detectable by the instruments on board the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO), ROSAT, and possibly SIGMA. We discuss the several types of high-energy emission expected from isolated and interacting binary pulsars in globular clusters. Individual or collective high-energy emission from isolated pulsars is expected to be too low to be detected with current instruments. However, a class of high-luminosity hidden millisecond pulsars enshrouded in the evaporating material from irradiated companion stars can produce unpulsed shock emission detectable by the high-sensitivity instruments of ROSAT and CGRO. Establishing upper limits of high-energy emission from globular clusters will be valuable in constraining models for the formation of cluster millisecond pulsars.

Tavani, Marco

1993-01-01

86

Multiwavelength Studies of gamma-ray Binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) consist of an O or B star orbited by either a neutron star or a black hole. Of the 114 known Galactic HMXBs, a handful of these objects, dubbed gamma-ray binaries, have been observed to produce MeV-TeV emission. The very high energy emission can be produced either by accretion from the stellar wind onto a black hole or a collision between the stellar wind and a relativistic pulsar wind. Both these scenarios make gamma-ray binaries valuable nearby systems for studying the physics of shocks and jets. Currently, the nature of the compact object and the high energy production mechanism is unknown or unconfirmed in over half of these systems. My goal for this dissertation is to constrain the parameters describing two of these systems: LS 5039 and HD 259440. LS 5039 exhibits gamma-ray emission modulated with its orbital period. The system consists of an ON6.5V((f)) star and an unidentified compact companion. Using optical spectra from the CTIO 1.5m telescope, we found LS 5039 to have an orbital period of 3.90608 d and an eccentricity of 0.337. Spectra of the Halpha line observed with SOAR indicate a mass loss rate of ˜ 1.9x10 -8 M yr-1. Observations taken with ATCA at 13 cm, 6 cm, and 3 cm indicate radio fluxes between 10--40 mJy. The measurements show variability with time, indicating a source other than thermal emission from the stellar wind. HD 259440 is a B0pe star that was proposed as the optical counterpart to the gamma-ray source HESS J0632+057. Using optical spectra from the KPNO CF, KPNO 2.1m, and OHP telescopes, we find a best fit stellar effective temperature of 27500--30000 K, a log surface gravity of 3.75--4.0, a mass of 13.2--19.0 Msolar, and a radius of 6.0--9.6 Rsolar. By fitting the spectral energy distribution, we find a distance between 1.1--1.7 kpc. We do not detect any significant radial velocity shifts in our data, ruling out orbital periods shorter than one month. If HD 259440 is a binary, it is likely a long period (> 100 d) system.

Aragona, Christina

87

Gamma ray astrophysics. [emphasizing processes and absorption  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma ray production processes are reviewed, including Compton scattering, synchrotron radiation, bremsstrahlung interactions, meson decay, nucleon-antinucleon annihilations, and pion production. Gamma ray absorption mechanisms through interactions with radiation and with matter are discussed, along with redshifts and gamma ray fluxes.

Stecker, F. W.

1974-01-01

88

A tuneable ultra-compact high-power, ultra-short pulsed, bright gamma-ray source based on bremsstrahlung radiation from laser-plasma accelerated electrons  

SciTech Connect

The laser driven plasma wakefield accelerator is a very compact source of high energy electrons. When the quasi-monoenergetic beam from these accelerators passes through dense material, high energy bremsstrahlung photons are emitted in a collimated beam with high flux. We show how a source based on this emission process can produce more than 10{sup 9} photons per pulse with a mean energy of 10 MeV. We present experimental results that show the feasibility of this method of producing high energy photons and compare the experimental results with GEANT4 Montecarlo simulations, which also give the scaling required to evaluate its suitability as method to produce radioisotopes via photo-nuclear reactions or for imaging applications.

Cipiccia, S.; Wiggins, S. M.; Shanks, R. P.; Islam, M. R.; Vieux, G.; Issac, R. C.; Brunetti, E.; Ersfeld, B.; Welsh, G. H.; Anania, M. P.; Jaroszynski, D. A. [University of Strathclyde, Physics Department, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, John Anderson Building, 107 Rottenrow, Glasgow, G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Maneuski, D.; Shea, V. O. [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Lemos, N. R. C.; Bendoyro, R. A.; Dias, J. M. [GoLP/Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1049-001, Lisbon (Portugal); Rajeev, P. P.; Foster, P. [Central Laser Facility, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Bourgeois, N.; Ibbotson, T. P. A. [Oxford University, Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); and others

2012-03-15

89

Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes (TGFs)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the observation of Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flashes (TGFs) by Gamma-Ray Telescopes. These were: (1) BATSE /Compton Observatory, (2) Solar Spectroscopic Imager, (3) AGILE Gamma-ray Telescope, and (4) Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. It contains charts which display the counts over time, a map or the TGFs observed by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). and a map showing the latitude and longitude of 85 of the TGFs observed by the Fermi GBM.

Fishman, Gerald J.

2010-01-01

90

A compact gamma camera for biological imaging  

SciTech Connect

A compact detector, sized particularly for imaging a mouse, is described. The active area of the detector is approximately 46 mm; spl times/ 96 mm. Two flat-panel Hamamatsu H8500 position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMTs) are coupled to a pixellated NaI(Tl) scintillator which views the animal through a copper-beryllium (CuBe) parallel-hole collimator specially designed for {sup 125}I. Although the PSPMTs have insensitive areas at their edges and there is a physical gap, corrections for scintillation light collection at the junction between the two tubes results in a uniform response across the entire rectangular area of the detector. The system described has been developed to optimize both sensitivity and resolution for in-vivo imaging of small animals injected with iodinated compounds. We demonstrate an in-vivo application of this detector, particularly to SPECT, by imaging mice injected with approximately 10-15; spl mu/Ci of {sup 125}I.

Bradley, E.L.; Cella, J.; Majewski, S.; Popov, V.; Jianguo Qian; Saha, M.S.; Smith, M.F.; Weisenberger, A.G.; Welsh, R.E.

2006-02-01

91

High-entropy fireballs and jets in gamma-ray burst sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two mechanisms whereby compact coalescing binaries can produce relatively 'clean' fireballs via neutrino-antineutrino annihilation are proposed. Preejected mass due to tidal heating will collimate the fireball into jets. The resulting anisotropic gamma-ray emission can be efficient and intense enough to provide an acceptable model for gamma-ray bursts, if these originate at cosmological distances.

Meszaros, P.; Rees, M. J.

1992-01-01

92

Gamma-Ray Astronomy Technology Needs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In recent decades gamma-ray observations have become a valuable tool for studying the universe. Progress made in diverse 8re1lS such as gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), nucleosynthesis, and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) has complimented and enriched our astrophysical understanding in many ways. We present an overview of current and future planned space y-ray missions and discussion technology needs for- the next generation of space gamma-ray instruments.

Gehrels, N.; Cannizzo, J. K.

2012-01-01

93

Comparison of gamma-ray coincidence and low-background gamma-ray singles spectrometry.  

PubMed

Aerosol samples have been studied under different background conditions using gamma-ray coincidence and low-background gamma-ray singles spectrometric techniques with High-Purity Germanium detectors. Conventional low-background gamma-ray singles counting is a competitive technique when compared to the gamma-gamma coincidence approach in elevated background conditions. However, measurement of gamma-gamma coincidences can clearly make the identification of different nuclides more reliable and efficient than using singles spectrometry alone. The optimum solution would be a low-background counting station capable of both singles and gamma-gamma coincidence spectrometry. PMID:22037206

Konki, J; Greenlees, P T; Jakobsson, U; Jones, P; Julin, R; Juutinen, S; Ketelhut, S; Hauschild, K; Kontro, R; Leppänen, A-P; Lopez-Martens, A; Mattila, A; Nieminen, P; Nyman, M; Peräjärvi, K; Peura, P; Rahkila, P; Ruotsalainen, P; Sarén, J; Scholey, C; Sorri, J; Toivonen, H; Turunen, J; Uusitalo, J

2012-02-01

94

The Universe Viewed in Gamma-Rays 1 Galactic Diffuse Gamma-ray Spectrum from Cosmic-ray In-  

E-print Network

The Universe Viewed in Gamma-Rays 1 Galactic Diffuse Gamma-ray Spectrum from Cosmic-ray In- teractions with Gas Clouds Michiko OHISHI and Masaki MORI Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University, Australia Abstract Gamma-ray spectra from cosmic-ray proton and electron interactions with gas clouds have

Mori, Masaki

95

Special issue on compact x-ray sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics is delighted to announce a forthcoming special issue on compact x-ray sources, to appear in the winter of 2014, and invites you to submit a paper. The potential for high-brilliance x- and gamma-ray sources driven by advanced, compact accelerators has gained increasing attention in recent years. These novel sources—sometimes dubbed 'fifth generation sources'—will build on the revolutionary advance of the x-ray free-electron laser (FEL). New radiation sources of this type have widespread applications, including in ultra-fast imaging, diagnostic and therapeutic medicine, and studies of matter under extreme conditions. Rapid advances in compact accelerators and in FEL techniques make this an opportune moment to consider the opportunities which could be realized by bringing these two fields together. Further, the successful development of compact radiation sources driven by compact accelerators will be a significant milestone on the road to the development of high-gradient colliders able to operate at the frontiers of particle physics. Thus the time is right to publish a peer-reviewed collection of contributions concerning the state-of-the-art in: advanced and novel acceleration techniques; sophisticated physics at the frontier of FELs; and the underlying and enabling techniques of high brightness electron beam physics. Interdisciplinary research connecting two or more of these fields is also increasingly represented, as exemplified by entirely new concepts such as plasma based electron beam sources, and coherent imaging with fs-class electron beams. We hope that in producing this special edition of Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics (iopscience.iop.org/0953-4075/) we may help further a challenging mission and ongoing intellectual adventure: the harnessing of newly emergent, compact advanced accelerators to the creation of new, agile light sources with unprecedented capabilities. New schemes for compact accelerators: laser- and beam-driven plasma accelerators; dielectric laser accelerators; THz accelerators. Latest results for compact accelerators. Target design and staging of advanced accelerators. Advanced injection and phase space manipulation techniques. Novel diagnostics: single-shot measurement of sub-fs bunch duration; measurement of ultra-low emittance. Generation and characterization of incoherent radiation: betatron and undulator radiation; Thomson/Compton scattering sources, novel THz sources. Generation and characterization of coherent radiation. Novel FEL simulation techniques. Advances in simulations of novel accelerators: simulations of injection and acceleration processes; simulations of coherent and incoherent radiation sources; start-to-end simulations of fifth generation light sources. Novel undulator schemes. Novel laser drivers for laser-driven accelerators: high-repetition rate laser systems; high wall-plug efficiency systems. Applications of compact accelerators: imaging; radiography; medical applications; electron diffraction and microscopy. Please submit your article by 15 May 2014 (expected web publication: winter 2014); submissions received after this date will be considered for the journal, but may not be included in the special issue.

Hooker, Simon; Midorikawa, Katsumi; Rosenzweig, James

2014-04-01

96

VHE Gamma-rays from Galactic X-ray Binary Systems  

E-print Network

The detection of TeV gamma-rays from LS 5039 and the binary pulsar PSR B1259-63 by HESS, and from LS I +61 303 and the stellar-mass black hole Cygnus X-1 by MAGIC, provides a clear evidence of very efficient acceleration of particles to multi-TeV energies in X-ray binaries. These observations demonstrate the richness of non-thermal phenomena in compact galactic objects containing relativistic outflows or winds produced near black holes and neutron stars. I review here some of the main observational results on very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission from X-ray binaries, as well as some of the proposed scenarios to explain the production of VHE gamma-rays. I put special emphasis on the flare TeV emission, suggesting that the flaring activity might be a common phenomena in X-ray binaries.

J. M. Paredes

2008-03-07

97

Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays and Prompt TeV Gamma Rays from Gamma Ray Bursts  

E-print Network

Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) have been proposed as one {\\it possible} class of sources of the Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Ray (UHECR) events observed up to energies $\\gsim10^{20}\\ev$. The synchrotron radiation of the highest energy protons accelerated within the GRB source should produce gamma rays up to TeV energies. Here we briefly discuss the implications on the energetics of the GRB from the point of view of the detectability of the prompt TeV gamma rays of proton-synchrotron origin in GRBs in the up-coming ICECUBE muon detector in the south pole.

Pijushpani Bhattacharjee; Nayantara Gupta

2003-05-12

98

GRI: The Gamma-Ray Imager mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of the gamma-ray sky reveal the most powerful sources and the most violent events in the Universe While at lower wavebands the observed emission is generally dominated by thermal processes the gamma-ray sky provides us with a view on the non-thermal Universe Here particles are accelerated to extreme relativistic energies by mechanisms which are still poorly understood and nuclear reactions are synthesizing the basic constituents of our world Cosmic accelerators and cosmic explosions are the major science themes that are addressed in the gamma-ray regime With the INTEGRAL observatory ESA has provided a unique tool to the astronomical community and has put Europe in the lead in the field of gamma-ray astronomy INTEGRAL provides an unprecedented survey of the soft gamma-ray sky revealing hundreds of sources new classes of objects extraordinary views of antimatter annihilation in our Galaxy and fingerprints of recent nucleosynthesis processes While INTEGRAL has provided the global overview over the soft gamma-ray sky there is a growing need to perform deeper more focused investigations of gamma-ray sources In soft X-rays a comparable step was taken going from the Einstein satellite to the XMM Newton observatory Technological advances in the past years in the domain of gamma-ray focusing using Laue diffraction and multilayer-coated mirror techniques have paved the way towards a gamma-ray mission providing major improvements compared to past missions regarding sensitivity and angular resolution Such a

Knödlseder, J.; Gri Consortium

99

Gamma-Ray Bursts: History and Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the most luminous objects known in the Universe. Their brief, random appearance in the gamma-ray\\u000a region had made their study difficult since their discovery over thirty years ago. The discovery of counterparts to gamma-ray\\u000a bursts and afterglow radiation in other wavelengths has provided the long-sought breakthrough in the direct determination\\u000a of their distance and luminosity scales.

G. J. Fishman

100

Gamma-Ray Bursts: an Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

A history and overview of the observed properties of gamma-ray bursts are presented. The phenomenon of gamma-ray bursts is without precedence in astronomy, having no observed property that would be a direct indicator of their distance and no counterpart object in another wavelength region. Their brief, random appearance only in the gamma-ray region has made their study difficult. The observed

Gerald J. Fishman

1995-01-01

101

GAMCIT: A gamma ray burst detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The origin of celestial gamma ray bursts remains one of the great mysteries of modern astrophysics. The GAMCIT Get-Away-Special payload is designed to provide new and unique data in the search for the sources of gamma ray bursts. GAMCIT consists of three gamma ray detectors, an optical CCD camera, and an intelligent electronics system. This paper describes the major components of the system, including the electronics and structural designs.

Surka, Derek M.; Grunsfeld, John M.; Warneke, Brett A.

1992-01-01

102

Black Stars and Gamma Ray Bursts  

E-print Network

Stars that are collapsing toward forming a black hole but are frozen near the Schwarzschild horizon are termed ``black stars''. Collisions of black stars, in contrast to black hole collisions, may be sources of gamma ray bursts, whose basic parameters are estimated quite simply and are found to be consistent with observed gamma ray bursts. Black star gamma ray bursts should be preceded by gravitational wave emission similar to that from the coalescence of black holes.

Tanmay Vachaspati

2007-06-08

103

Low-resolution gamma-ray measurements of process holdup  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear facilities worldwide have deposits of nuclear material remaining in processing equipment. Nuclear facilities need portable, automated tools based on gamma-ray spectroscopy to perform plant wide in situ assays of special nuclear materials (SNM) deposited in processing equipment. These tools have requirements to (1) acquire and manage several hundred spectra in an hour; (2) produce prompt and reliable quantitative analyses; (3) be self-powered, easily carried, and operated by one use; (4) accommodate varying degrees of user expertise; (5) correct for the effects of equipment variables; (6) tolerate facility variables such as temperature and equipment accessibility; and (7) accommodate the geometry of each measurement. this paper describes a new system for in-situ measurements consisting of a compact gamma-ray detector, a self-contained portable gamma-ray spectroscopy instrument, and a palm-size programmable control and data storage unit.

Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.; Cole, R.; Collins, M.L.; Russo, P.A. [and others

1996-11-01

104

Gamma rays from extragalactic astrophysical sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presently there are several classes of detected gamma-ray extragalactic sources. They are mostly associated to active galactic nuclei (AGN) and (at soft gamma rays) to gamma-ray bursts (GRB), but not only.Active galactic nuclei consist of accreting supermassive black holeshosted by a galaxy that present in some cases powerful relativistic jet activity. Thesesources, which have been studied in gamma rays for several decades, areprobably the most energetic astrophysical objects, and their appearancedepends much on whether their jets point to us. Gamma-ray bursts, thought to be associated to collapsing or merging stellar-mass objects atcosmological distances, are also accreting highly relativistic jet sources that shine strongly at high energies. These are very short-duration events, but they are also the most luminous. Recently, star formation galaxies have turned out to be also gamma-ray emitters.On the other hand, clusters of galaxies have not been detected beyond X-rays yet. These are the largest knownstructures in the Universe; in their formation through accretion andmerging, shocks and turbulence are generated, which may lead to gamma-ray production. In thiswork, the gamma-ray physics of AGNs is briefly presented, as well as that of starburst galaxies, GRBs and clusters of galaxies.Afterwards, we consider some particular cases ofgamma-ray production in non-blazar AGN jets interacting with their medium at different scales.

Bosch-Ramon, V.

2011-11-01

105

X-ray and gamma ray astronomy detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-ray and gamma ray astronomy was made possible by the advent of space flight. Discovery and early observations of celestial x-rays and gamma rays, dating back almost 40 years, were first done with high altitude rockets, followed by Earth-orbiting satellites> once it became possible to carry detectors above the Earth's atmosphere, a new view of the universe in the high-energy part of the electromagnetic spectrum evolved. Many of the detector concepts used for x-ray and gamma ray astronomy were derived from radiation measuring instruments used in atomic physics, nuclear physics, and other fields. However, these instruments, when used in x-ray and gamma ray astronomy, have to meet unique and demanding requirements related to their operation in space and the need to detect and measure extremely weak radiation fluxes from celestial x-ray and gamma ray sources. Their design for x-ray and gamma ray astronomy has, therefore, become a rather specialized and rapidly advancing field in which improved sensitivity, higher energy and spatial resolution, wider spectral coverage, and enhanced imaging capabilities are all sought. This text is intended as an introduction to x-ray and gamma ray astronomy instruments. It provides an overview of detector design and technology and is aimed at scientists, engineers, and technical personnel and managers associated with this field. The discussion is limited to basic principles and design concepts and provides examples of applications in past, present, and future space flight missions.

Decher, Rudolf; Ramsey, Brian D.; Austin, Robert

1994-01-01

106

Modeling gamma-ray bursts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discovered serendipitously in the late 1960s, gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are huge explosions of energy that happen at cosmological distances. They provide a grand physical playground to those who study them, from relativistic effects such as beaming, jets, shocks and blastwaves to radiation mechanisms such as synchrotron radiation to galatic and stellar populations and history. Through the Swift and Fermi space telescopes dedicated to observing GRBs over a wide range of energies (from keV to GeV), combined with accurate pinpointing that allows ground based follow-up observations in the optical, infrared and radio, a rich tapestry of GRB observations has emerged. The general picture is of a mysterious central engine (CE) probably composed of a black hole or neutron star that ejects relativistic shells of matter into intense magnetic fields. These shells collide and combine, releasing energy in "internal shocks" accounting for the prompt emission and flaring we see and the "external shock" or plowing of the first blastwave into the ambient surrounding medium has well-explained the afterglow radiation. We have developed a shell model code to address the question of how X-ray flares are produced within the framework of the internal shock model. The shell model creates randomized GRB explosions from a central engine with multiple shells and follows those shells as they collide, merge and spread, producing prompt emission and X-ray flares. We have also included a blastwave model, which can constrain X-ray flares and explain the origin of high energy (GeV) emission seen by the Fermi telescope. Evidence suggests that gamma-ray prompt emission and X-ray flares share a common origin and that at least some flares can only be explained by long-lasting central engine activity. We pay special attention to the time history of central engine activity, internal shocks, and observed flares. We calculate the gamma-ray (Swift/BAT band) and X-ray (Swift/XRT band) lightcurves for arbitrary central engine activity and compare the model results with the observational data. We show that the observed X-ray flare phenomenology can be explained within the internal shock model. The number, width and occurring time of flares are then used to diagnose the central engine activity, putting constraints on the energy, ejection time, width and number of ejected shells. We find that the observed X-ray flare time history generally reflects the time history of the central engine, which reactivates multiple times after the prompt emission phase with progressively reduced energy. This shell model code can be used to constrain broadband observations of GRB 090926A, which showed two flares in both the Swift UVOT and XRT bands. Using the prompt emission fluence to constrain the total energy contained in the blastwave, the internal shock model requires that Lorentz factors of the shells causing flares must be less than the Lorentz factor of the blastwave when the shells are ejected. Recent observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) revealed a power law decay feature of the high energy emission (above 100 MeV), which led to the suggestion that it originates from an external shock. We analyze four GRBs (080916C, 090510, 090902B and 090926A) jointly detected by Fermi LAT and Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), which have high quality lightcurves in both instrument energy bands. Using the MeV prompt emission (GBM) data, we can record the energy output from the central engine as a function of time. Assuming a constant radiative efficiency, we are able to track energy accumulation in the external shock using our internal/external shell model code and show that the late time lightcurves fit well within the external shock model, but the early time lightcurves are dominated by the internal shock component which has a shallow decay phase due to the initial pile-up of shells onto the blast wave.

Maxham, Amanda

107

The Universe Viewed in Gamma-Rays 1 Gamma-ray Signatures of Dark Matter Particles  

E-print Network

The Universe Viewed in Gamma-Rays 1 Gamma-ray Signatures of Dark Matter Particles Lars Bergstr@physto.se Abstract Indirect detection methods of dark matter particles are discussed. In particular, detection of supersymmetric dark matter through annihilation into gamma-rays is described. Aspects of the density structure

Enomoto, Ryoji

108

Gamma-ray sources observed by COS-B  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of the fine-scale structure in the gamma-ray distribution is not yet disclosed. Considerable debate is going on whether these structures which appear point-like in the data, are mainly diffuse in nature or are genuinely compact objects. Most of the uncertainty is due to the experimental limitations. A status report is presented on the experimental study of the fine-scale

W. Hermsen

1983-01-01

109

Research in cosmic and gamma ray astrophysics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research activities in cosmic rays, gamma rays, and astrophysical plasmas are covered. The activities are divided into sections and described, followed by a bibliography. The astrophysical aspects of cosmic rays, gamma rays, and of the radiation and electromagnetic field environment of the Earth and other planets are investigated. These investigations are performed by means of energetic particle and photon detector systems flown on spacecraft and balloons.

Stone, E. C.; Davis, L., Jr.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Prince, T. A.

1989-01-01

110

Gamma-ray burster recurrence timescales  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three optical transients have been found which are associated with gamma-ray bursters (GRBs). The deduced recurrence timescale for these optical transients (tau sub opt) will depend on the minimum brightness for which a flash would be detected. A detailed analysis using all available data of tau sub opt as a function of E(gamma)/E(opt) is given. For flashes similar to those found in the Harvard archives, the best estimate of tau sub opt is 0.74 years, with a 99% confidence interval from 0.23 years to 4.7 years. It is currently unclear whether the optical transients from GRBs also give rise to gamma-ray events. One way to test this association is to measure the recurrence timescale of gamma-ray events tau sub gamma. A total of 210 gamma-ray error boxes were examined and it was found that the number of observed overlaps is not significantly different from the number expected from chance coincidence. This observation can be used to place limits on tau sub gamma for an assumed luminosity function. It was found that tau sub gamma is approx. 10 yr if bursts are monoenergetic. However, if GRBs have a power law luminosity function with a wide dynamic range, then the limit is tau sub gamma 0.5 yr. Hence, the gamma-ray data do not require tau sub gamma and tau sub opt to be different.

Schaefer, B. E.; Cline, T. L.

1984-01-01

111

Internal Energy Dissipation of Gamma-Ray Bursts Observed with Swift: Precursors, Prompt Gamma-Rays, Extended Emission, and Late X-Ray Flares  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We jointly analyze the gamma-ray burst (GRB) data observed with Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and X-ray Telescope on board the Swift mission to present a global view on the internal energy dissipation processes in GRBs, including precursors, prompt gamma-ray emission, extended soft gamma-ray emission, and late X-ray flares. The Bayesian block method is utilized to analyze the BAT light curves to identify various emission episodes. Our results suggest that these emission components likely share the same physical origin, which is the repeated activation of the GRB central engine. What we observe in the gamma-ray band may be a small part of more extended underlying activities. The precursor emission, which is detected in about 10% of Swift GRBs, is preferably detected in those GRBs that have a massive star core-collapse origin. The soft extended emission tail, on the other hand, is preferably detected in those GRBs that have a compact star merger origin. Bright X-ray emission is detected during the BAT quiescent phases prior to subsequent gamma-ray peaks, implying that X-ray emission may be detectable prior the BAT trigger time. Future GRB alert instruments with soft X-ray capability are essential for revealing the early stages of GRB central engine activities, and shedding light on jet composition and the jet launching mechanism in GRBs.

Hu, You-Dong; Liang, En-Wei; Xi, Shao-Qiang; Peng, Fang-Kun; Lu, Rui-Jing; Lü, Lian-Zhong; Zhang, Bing

2014-07-01

112

MAX-a gamma-ray lense for nuclear astrophysics.  

SciTech Connect

The mission concept MAX is a space borne crystal diffraction telescope, featuring a broad-band Laue lens optimized for the observation of compact sources in two wide energy bands of high astrophysical relevance. For the first time in this domain, gamma-rays will be focused from the large collecting area of a crystal diffraction lens onto a very small detector volume. As a consequence, the background noise is extremely low, making possible unprecedented sensitivities. The primary scientific objective of MAX is the study of type Ia supernovae by measuring intensities, shifts and shapes of their nuclear gamma-ray lines. When finally understood and calibrated, these profoundly radioactive events will be crucial in measuring the size, shape, and age of the Universe. Observing the radioactivities from a substantial sample of supernovae and novae will significantly improve our understanding of explosive nucleosynthesis. Moreover, the sensitive gamma-ray line spectroscopy performed with MAX is expected to clarify the nature of galactic microquasars (e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation radiation from the jets), neutrons stars and pulsars, X-ray Binaries, AGN, solar flares and, last but not least, gamma-ray afterglow from gamma-burst counterparts.

von Ballmoos, P.; Halloin, H.; Skinner, G.; Smither, B.; Paul, J.; Abrosimov, N.; Alvarez, J.; Astier , P.; Bastie, P.; Barrett, D.; Bazzano, A.; Blanchard, A.; Boutonnet, A.; Brousse, P.; Cordier, B.; Courvoisier, T.; DiCocco, G.; Giuliani, A.; Hamelin, B.; Hernanz, M.; Jean, P.; Isern, J.; Knodlseder, J.; Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F.; Experimental Facilities Division (APS); CESR; CEA-Saclay; Inst. fur Kristallzuchtung; IEEC; LPNHE; Inst. Laue-Langevin; IAS; LA-OMP; Alcatel Space Industries; ISDC; TESRE; Univ. Insurbia

2004-01-01

113

Concept of new gamma ray detector  

E-print Network

We present a concept of a new gamma ray detector in order to observe undetected TeV gamma ray background. We measure a track of an electron-positron pair made by a pair creation in a magnet. By using Si as a tracker in a magnetic field 3 T, an energy range is up to 10 TeV.

S. Osone

2002-11-29

114

What are gamma-ray bursters?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamma-ray bursters have defied explanation since their discovery over 15 years ago. These objects are luminous for only a few seconds at a time, mostly emitting gamma rays that are hundreds of thousands or even millions of times more energetic than photons of visible light. Then they lapse back into quiescence and remain invisible at all wavelengths for many years.

Kevin Hurley

1990-01-01

115

The Soft Gamma-Ray Repeaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Soft Gamma-Ray Repeaters (SGR) are sources of brief intense outbursts of low energy gamma rays. Most likely they are a new manifestation of neutron stars. Three sources were known prior to the launch of CGRO, and bursts from two of these have been seen by BATSE. However, no new sources have been discovered, which means that they are either

I. A. Smith

1997-01-01

116

Gamma ray lines from dark matter annihilation  

SciTech Connect

If direct annihilation of dark matter particles into a pair of photons occurs in the galactic halo, a narrow {gamma}-ray line can be discovered at future {gamma}-ray detectors sensitive to the GeV region. The signals predicted by different dark matter candidates are analyzed. 16 refs., 3 figs.

Giudice, G.F.

1989-08-01

117

Gamma rays from hidden millisecond pulsars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The properties were studied of a new class of gamma ray sources consisting of millisecond pulsars totally or partially surrounded by evaporating material from irradiated companion stars. Hidden millisecond pulsars offer a unique possibility to study gamma ray, optical and radio emission from vaporizing binaries. The relevance of this class of binaries for GRO observations and interpretation of COS-B data is emphasized.

Tavani, Marco

1992-01-01

118

Gamma Rays from Classical Novae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA at the University of Chicago, provided support for a program of theoretical research into the nature of the thermonuclear outbursts of the classical novae and their implications for gamma ray astronomy. In particular, problems which have been addressed include the role of convection in the earliest stages of nova runaway, the influence of opacity on the characteristics of novae, and the nucleosynthesis expected to accompany nova outbursts on massive Oxygen-Neon-Magnesium (ONeMg) white dwarfs. In the following report, I will identify several critical projects on which considerable progress has been achieved and provide brief summaries of the results obtained:(1) two dimensional simulation of nova runaway; (2) nucleosynthesis of nova modeling; and (3) a quasi-analytic study of nucleosynthesis in ONeMg novae.

1997-01-01

119

Unveiling the Secrets of Gamma Ray Bursts  

E-print Network

Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are unpredictable and brief flashes of gamma rays that occur about once a day in random locations in the sky. Since gamma rays do not penetrate the Earth's atmosphere, they are detected by satellites, which automatically trigger ground-based telescopes for follow-up observations at longer wavelengths. In this introduction to Gamma Ray Bursts we review how building a multi-wavelength picture of these events has revealed that they are the most energetic explosions since the Big Bang and are connected with stellar deaths in other galaxies. However, in spite of exceptional observational and theoretical progress in the last 15 years, recent observations raise many questions which challenge our understanding of these elusive phenomena. Gamma Ray Bursts therefore remain one of the hottest topics in modern astrophysics.

Gomboc, A

2012-01-01

120

Gamma-Ray Bursts: An Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A history and overview of the observed properties of gamma-ray bursts are presented. The phenomenon of gamma-ray bursts is without precedent in astronomy, having no observed property that would be a direct indicator of their distance and no counterpart object in another wavelength region. Their brief, random appearance only in the gamma-ray region has made their study difficult. The observed time profiles, spectral properties, and durations of gamma-ray bursts cover a wide range. All proposed models for their origin must be considered speculative. It is humbling to think that even after 25 years since their discovery, the distance scale of gamma-ray bursts is still very much debatable.

Fishman, Gerald J.

1995-01-01

121

Gamma-ray Astronomy and GLAST  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The high energy gamma-ray (30 MeV to 100 GeV) sky has been relatively poorly studied. Most of our current knowledge comes from observations made by the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) detector on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), which revealed that the GeV gamma-ray sky is rich and vibrant. Studies of astrophysical objects at GeV energies are interesting for several reasons: The high energy gamma-rays are often produced by a different physical process than the better studied X-ray and optical emission, thus providing a unique information for understanding these sources. Production of such high-energy photons requires that charged particles are accelerated to equally high energies, or much greater. Thus gamma-ray astronomy is the study of extreme environments, with natural and fundamental connections to cosmic-ray and neutrino astrophysics. The launch of GLAST in 2008 will herald a watershed in our understanding of the high energy gamma-ray sky, providing dramatic improvements in sensitivity, angular resolution and energy range. GLAST will open a new avenue to study our Universe as well as to answer scientific questions EGRET observations have raised. In this talk, I will describe the GLAST instruments and capabilities and highlight some of the science we expect to address.

McEnery, Julie

2007-01-01

122

Gamma Vector Camera: A Gamma Ray and Neutron Directional Detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have built a proof-of-concept gamma-ray camera capable of imaging the Compton recoil electron tracks in 3D, and reconstructing the gamma-ray source direction and energy spectrum from those tracks. The electrons are tracked in a fiber-optic scintillating block made from polystyrene fibers arranged in alternating, orthogonal layers, and viewed by image intensifiers and CCD cameras. We have also demonstrated the

M. M. Hindi; L. Klynn; H. Demroff

2008-01-01

123

PANGU: A high resolution gamma-ray space telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the instrument concept of a high angular resolution telescope dedicated to the sub-GeV (from >=10 MeV to >=1 GeV) gamma-ray photon detection. This mission, named PANGU (PAir-productioN Gamma-ray Unit), has been suggested as a candidate for the joint small mission between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Chinese Academy of Science (CAS). A wide range of topics of both astronomy and fundamental physics can be attacked with PANGU, covering Galactic and extragalactic cosmic-ray physics, extreme physics of a variety of extended (e.g. supernova remnants, galaxies, galaxy clusters) and compact (e.g. black holes, pulsars, gamma-ray bursts) objects, solar and terrestrial gamma-ray phenomena, and searching for dark matter decay and/or annihilation signature etc. The unprecedented point spread function can be achieved with a pair-production telescope with a large number of thin active tracking layers to precisely reconstruct the pair-produced electron and positron tracks. Scintillating fibers or thin silicon micro-strip detectors are suitable technology for such a tracker. The energy measurement is achieved by measuring the momentum of the electrons and positrons through a magnetic field. The innovated spectrometer approach provides superior photon pointing resolution, and is particular suitable in the sub-GeV range. The level of tracking precision makes it possible to measure the polarization of gamma rays, which would open up a new frontier in gamma-ray astronomy. The frequent full-sky survey at sub-GeV with PANGU's large field of view and significantly improved point spread function would provide crucial information to GeV-TeV astrophysics for current/future missions including Fermi, DAMPE, HERD, and CTA, and other multi-wavelength telescopes.

Wu, Xin; Su, Meng; Bravar, Alessandro; Chang, Jin; Fan, Yizhong; Pohl, Martin; Walter, Roland

2014-07-01

124

Thermal neutron capture gamma-rays  

SciTech Connect

The energy and intensity of gamma rays as seen in thermal neutron capture are presented. Only those (n,..cap alpha..), E = thermal, reactions for which the residual nucleus mass number is greater than or equal to 45 are included. These correspond to evaluations published in Nuclear Data Sheets. The publication source data are contained in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF). The data presented here do not involve any additional evaluation. Appendix I lists all the residual nuclides for which the data are included here. Appendix II gives a cumulated index to A-chain evaluations including the year of publication. The capture gamma ray data are given in two tables - the Table 1 is the list of all gamma rays seen in (n,..gamma..) reaction given in the order of increasing energy; the Table II lists the gamma rays according to the nuclide.

Tuli, J.K.

1983-01-01

125

Gamma-ray Astronomy and Cosmic-ray Origin Theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The assumption that cosmic rays originate from metagalactic sources is investigated. Gamma ray astronomy and its application to studying nuclear components of cosmic rays far from the earth, estimating energy density of cosmic rays, and determining magnetic field strength is also examined.

Ginzburg, V. L.

1973-01-01

126

Observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some basic observed properties of gamma-ray bursts are reviewed. Although some properties were known 25 years ago, new and more detailed observations have been made by the Compton Observatory in the past three years. The new observation with the greatest impact has been the observed isotropic distribution of bursts along with a deficiency of weak bursts which would be expected from a homogeneous burst distribution. This is not compatible with any known Galactic population of objects. Gamma-ray bursts show an enormous variety of burst morphologies and a wide spread in burst durations. The spectra of gamma-ray bursts are characterized by rapid variations and peak power which is almost entirely in the gamma-ray energy range. Delayed gamma-ray burst photons extending to GeV energies have been detected for the first time. A time dilation effect has also been reported to be observed in gamma-ray, bursts. The observation of a gamma-ray burst counterpart in another wavelength region has yet to be made.

Fishman, G. J.

1995-01-01

127

Gamma-Ray Burst Physics with GLAST  

SciTech Connect

The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) is an international space mission that will study the cosmos in the energy range 10 keV-300 GeV, the upper end of which is one of the last poorly observed region of the celestial electromagnetic spectrum. The ancestor of the GLAST/LAT was the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) detector, which flew onboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO). The amount of information and the step forward that the high energy astrophysics made thanks to its 9 years of observations are impressive. Nevertheless, EGRET uncovered the tip of the iceberg, raising many questions, and it is in the light of EGRET's results that the great potential of the next generation gamma-ray telescope can be appreciated. GLAST will have an imaging gamma-ray telescope, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) vastly more capable than instruments own previously, as well as a secondary instrument, the GLAST Bursts Monitor, or GBM, to augment the study of gamma-ray bursts. Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) science is one of the most exciting challenges for the GLAST mission, exploring the high energy emission of one of the most intense phenomena in the sky, shading light on various problems: from the acceleration of particles to the emission processes, to more exotic physics like Quantum Gravity effect. In this paper we report the work done so far in the simulation development as well as the study of the LAT sensitivity to GRB.

Omodei, N.; /INFN, Pisa

2006-10-06

128

IR observations in gamma-ray blazars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The infrared photometric and spectral observation of five gamma ray blazars in coordination with the energetic gamma ray experiment telescope (EGRET) onboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory is reported. The infrared measurements were made with a Cassegrain infrared camera and the mid-infrared large well imager at the Mt. Palomar 5 m telescope. The emphasis is on the three blazars observed simultaneously by EGRET and the ground-based telescope during viewing period 519. In addition to the acquisition of broadband spectral measurements for direct correlation with the 100 MeV EGRET observations, near infrared images were obtained, enabling a search for intra-day variability to be carried out.

Mahoney, W. A.; Gautier, T. N.; Ressler, M. E.; Wallyn, P.; Durouchoux, P.; Higdon, J. C.

1997-01-01

129

Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, launched in June 2008, is an observatory designed to survey the high-energy gamma-ray sky. The primary instrument, the Large Area Telescope (LAT), provides observations from 20 MeV to greater than 300 GeV. A second instrument, the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), provides observations of transients from less than 10 keV to 40 MeV. We describe the design and performance of the instruments and their subsystems, the spacecraft and the ground system.

McEnery, Julie E.; Michelson, Peter F.; Paclesas, William S.; Ritz, Steven

2012-01-01

130

Interpretations and implications of gamma ray lines from solar flares, the galactic center in gamma ray transients  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations and theories of astrophysical gamma ray line emission are reviewed and prospects for future observations by the spectroscopy experiments on the planned Gamma Ray Observatory are discussed.

Ramaty, R.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

1980-01-01

131

Cosmic ray albedo gamma rays from the quiet sun  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We estimate the flux of gamma-rays that result from collisions of high energy galactic cosmic rays with the solar atmosphere. An important aspect of our model is the propagation of cosmic rays through the magnetic fields of the inner solar systems. We use diffusion to model propagation down to the bottom of the corona. Below the corona we trace particle orbits through the photospheric fields to determine the location of cosmic ray interactions in the solar atmosphere and evolve the resultant cascades. For our nominal choice of parameters, we predict an integrated flux of gamma rays (at 1 AU) of F(E(sub gamma) greater than 100 MeV) approximately = 5 x 10(exp -8)/sq cm sec. This can be an order of magnitude above the galactic background and should be observable by the Energetic Gamma Ray experiment telescope (EGRET).

Seckel, D.; Stanev, T.; Gaisser, T. K.

1992-01-01

132

Research in cosmic and gamma ray astrophysics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discussed here is research in cosmic ray and gamma ray astrophysics at the Space Radiation Laboratory (SRL) of the California Institute of Technology. The primary activities discussed involve the development of new instrumentation and techniques for future space flight. In many cases these instrumentation developments were tested in balloon flight instruments designed to conduct new investigations in cosmic ray and gamma ray astrophysics. The results of these investigations are briefly summarized. Specific topics include a quantitative investigation of the solar modulation of cosmic ray protons and helium nuclei, a study of cosmic ray positron and electron spectra in interplanetary and interstellar space, the solar modulation of cosmic rays, an investigation of techniques for the measurement and interpretation of cosmic ray isotopic abundances, and a balloon measurement of the isotopic composition of galactic cosmic ray boron, carbon, and nitrogen.

Stone, Edward C.; Mewaldt, Richard A.; Prince, Thomas A.

1992-01-01

133

Historical aspects of gamma-ray astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the entire 20th century, Cosmic Rays proved to be the watershed of fundamental knowledge from which poured out several streams that made us familiar with aspects of the universe that could never have been known through optical and radio astronomies alone. Cosmic ray interaction studies opened up the field of elementary particles and high energy physical processes. Gamma-ray astronomy enabled us to study celestial environments characterised by the dominance of high energy particles and their interactions with matter, magnetic and electric fields in the neighbourhood of these special environments. While neutrino astronomy is still in its infancy, it has the potential of becoming the most exciting field of study in the current century. Gamma-ray astronomy has had a chequered career. In the early part of the 20th century, Millikan proposed that cosmic rays are merely gamma rays. This was disproved by Compton, through the establishment of the latitude effect. The soviet astrophysicist Shklovskii pointed out at the III International conference on cosmic rays held at Guanjuato, Mexico, the possibility of supernova remants like the Crab Nebula being sources of TeV gamma rays. This was based on his realisation that the high degree of polarized light from the Crab could be due to Synchrotron emission by TeV energy electrons spiralling round the filamentary magnetic fields of the nebula. He argued that the same mechanism that accelerated electrons could also accelerate the protons which through their interaction with the surrounding matter generate pi-zero measons that would immediately decay into gamma rays. However, the efforts by the soviet experimentalists, who used the night air cerenkov technique for detection of the TeV gamma rays, proved negative; only upper limits could be set on the fluxew of TeV gamma rays from several of the SN-remnants; the negative results were first reported at the 7th ICRC held at Jaipur, India in 1963. High energy gamma ray astronomy had a remarkable revival with the discovery of Pulsars in 1967 and their identification with Neutron stars. The field has thrived since then has been extended even to the PeV range. Beginning with 1965, gamma ray astronomy in the energy range MeV to tens of GeV has also been successfully pursued with ballons, and satellites. The most perplexing in this energy range has been the discovery of the Gamma ray bursts. In the keynote address the historical aspects of this field will be covered with some references to the work in India.

Sreekantan, B. V.

2002-03-01

134

GRI: the gamma-ray imager mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of the gamma-ray sky reveal the most powerful sources and the most violent events in the Universe. While at lower wavebands the observed emission is generally dominated by thermal processes, the gamma-ray sky provides us with a view on the non-thermal Universe. Here particles are accelerated to extreme relativistic energies by mechanisms which are still poorly understood, and nuclear reactions are synthesizing the basic constituents of our world. Cosmic accelerators and cosmic explosions are the major science themes that are addressed in the gamma-ray regime. With the INTEGRAL observatory, ESA has provided a unique tool to the astronomical community revealing hundreds of sources, new classes of objects, extraordinary views of antimatter annihilation in our Galaxy, and fingerprints of recent nucleosynthesis processes. While INTEGRAL provides the global overview over the soft gamma-ray sky, there is a growing need to perform deeper, more focused investigations of gamma-ray sources. In soft X-rays a comparable step was taken going from the Einstein and the EXOSAT satellites to the Chandra and XMM/Newton observatories. Technological advances in the past years in the domain of gamma-ray focusing using Laue diffraction and multilayer-coated mirror techniques hav paved the way towards a gamma-ray mission, providing major improvements compared to past missions regarding sensitivity and angular resolution. Such a future Gamma-Ray Imager will allow to study particle acceleration processes and explosion physics in unprecedented detail, providing essential clues on the innermost nature of the most violent and most energetic processes in the Universe.

Knödlseder, Jürgen

2006-06-01

135

The Gamma-Ray Imager GRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of the gamma-ray sky reveal the most powerful sources and the most violent events in the Universe. While at lower wavebands the observed emission is generally dominated by thermal processes, the gamma-ray sky provides us with a view on the non-thermal Universe. Here particles are accelerated to extreme relativistic energies by mechanisms which are still poorly understood, and nuclear reactions are synthesizing the basic constituents of our world. Cosmic accelerators and cosmic explosions are the major science themes that are addressed in the gamma-ray regime. With the INTEGRAL observatory, ESA has provided a unique tool to the astronomical community revealing hundreds of sources, new classes of objects, extraordinary views of antimatter annihilation in our Galaxy, and fingerprints of recent nucleosynthesis processes. While INTEGRAL provides the global overview over the soft gamma-ray sky, there is a growing need to perform deeper, more focused investigations of gamma-ray sources. In soft X-rays a comparable step was taken going from the Einstein and the EXOSAT satellites to the Chandra and XMM/Newton observatories. Technological advances in the past years in the domain of gamma-ray focusing using Laue diffraction and multilayer coated mirror techniques have paved the way towards a gamma-ray mission, providing major improvements compared to past missions regarding sensitivity and angular resolution. Such a future Gamma-Ray Imager will allow to study particle acceleration processes and explosion physics in unprecedented detail, providing essential clues on the innermost nature of the most violent and most energetic processes in the Universe.

Wunderer, Cornelia B.; GRI Collaboration

2006-09-01

136

Gamma-ray albedo of the moon  

E-print Network

We use the GEANT4 Monte Carlo framework to calculate the gamma-ray albedo of the Moon due to interactions of cosmic ray (CR) nuclei with moon rock. Our calculation of the albedo spectrum agrees with the EGRET data. We show that the spectrum of gamma rays from the Moon is very steep with an effective cutoff around 4 GeV (600 MeV for the inner part of the Moon disc). Apart from other astrophysical sources, the albedo spectrum of the Moon is well understood, including its absolute normalisation; this makes it a useful "standard candle" for gamma-ray telescopes, such as the forthcoming Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST). The albedo flux depends on the incident CR spectrum which changes over the solar cycle. Therefore, it is possible to monitor the CR spectrum using the albedo gamma-ray flux. Simultaneous measurements of CR proton and helium spectra by the Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA), and observations of the albedo gamma rays by the GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT), can be used to test the model predictions and will enable the GLAST LAT to monitor the CR spectrum near the Earth beyond the lifetime of PAMELA.

Igor V. Moskalenko; Troy A. Porter

2007-05-25

137

Geolocation of Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flashes in Gamma Rays Using the Fermi Large Area Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive geolocations of bright Terrestrial Gamma ray Flashes (TGFs) directly in gamma rays using the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) and compare with geolocations derived from LF and VLF (radio) networks. Imaging of the gamma ray direction is made possible by the fine spatial resolution of the LAT instrument, which is intended to make maps of the high-energy gamma ray astrophysical sky. Simulations show that LAT can geolocate very bright TGFs in favorable geometries with accuracies of several tens of km. Recent work by Connaughton et al. (2013) strongly suggests that the broadband radio signal is produced by the same bulk flow of relativistic electrons that create the gamma ray signal through bremsstrahlung interactions in the atmosphere. Our analysis confirms this picture by establishing that the radio and gamma ray signals are both temporally and spatially coincident. This work was performed at NRL and sponsored by NASA DPR S-15633-Y.

Schaal, Meagan; Grove, J. E.; Chekhtman, A.; Xiong, S.; Fitzpatrick, G.; Cummer, S.; Holzworth, R. H.

2014-01-01

138

Neutron Detection Gamma Ray Sensitivity Criteria  

SciTech Connect

The shortage of 3He has triggered the search for effective alternative neutron detection technologies for national security and safeguards applications. Any new detection technology must satisfy two basic criteria: (1) it must meet a neutron detection efficiency requirement, and (2) it must be insensitive to gamma-ray interference at a prescribed level, while still meeting the neutron detection requirement. It is the purpose of this paper to define measureable gamma ray sensitivity criteria for neutron detectors. Quantitative requirements are specified for: intrinsic gamma ray detection efficiency and gamma ray absolute rejection. The ratio GARRn is defined, and it is proposed that the requirement for neutron detection be 0.9 < GARRn < 1.1 at a 10 mR/h exposure rate. An example of results from a 3He based neutron detector are provided showing that this technology can meet the stated requirements. Results from tests of some alternative technologies are also reported.

Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Mace, Emily K.; Stephens, Daniel L.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

2011-10-21

139

Diffuse gamma-rays from galactic halos  

E-print Network

Here we review our current knowledge on diffuse gamma-rays from galactic halos. Estimates of the relative contribution of the various emission processes at low and high latitudes are compared to the data over 6 decades in energy. The observed spectral shape differs from what was expected, especially at ver low and very high energies. In the latter case, above 1 GeV, the sky emission related to gas exceeds the expected pi^0 decay spectrum. At energies below 1 MeV the relatively high gamma-ray intensity indicates at high density of nearly relativistic electrons which would have a strong influence on the energy and ionisation balance of the interstellar medium. Given the EGRET results for the Magellanic Clouds the gamma-ray emissivity in the outer halo is probably small, so that a substantial amount of baryonic dark matter may be hidden at 20-50 kpc radius without inducing observable gamma-ray emission.

M. Pohl

1996-03-12

140

Prospects of gamma-ray laser development  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the authors briefly present the current thrust of gamma-ray laser research. The authors discuss the major proposals of developing such lasers based on nuclear transitions and electron and positron beams.

Gupta, G.; Husain, J. (Dept. of Applied Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, A.M. Univ., Aligarh UP 202 002 (IN))

1991-06-01

141

Overview Animation of Gamma-ray Burst  

NASA Video Gallery

Gamma-ray bursts are the most luminous explosions in the cosmos. Astronomers think most occur when the core of a massive star runs out of nuclear fuel, collapses under its own weight, and forms a b...

142

A Compton scatter attenuation gamma ray spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compton attenuation technique, utilizing semiconductor sum-Compton detectors, has been proposed for gamma ray spectrometer capable of gamma spectral measurements in radition fields of 100 R/hr to one million R/hr. Spectrometer consists of two or more separate detectors, with only primary detector exposed to primary incident photon flux.

Austin, W. E.

1972-01-01

143

Study of gamma-ray strength functions  

SciTech Connect

The use of gamma-ray strength function systematics to calculate neutron capture cross sections and capture gamma-ray spectra is discussed. The ratio of the average capture width, GAMMA/sub ..gamma../-bar, to the average level spacing, D/sub obs/, both at the neutron separation energy, can be derived from such systematics with much less uncertainty than from separate systematics for values of GAMMA/sub ..gamma../-bar and D/sub obs/. In particular, the E1 gamma-ray strength function is defined in terms of the giant dipole resonance (GDR). The GDR line shape is modeled with the usual Lorentzian function and also with a new energy-dependent, Breit-Wigner (EDBW) function. This latter form is further parameterized in terms of two overlapping resonances, even for nuclei where photonuclear measurements do not resolve two peaks. In the mass ranges studied, such modeling is successful for all nuclei away from the N = 50 closed neutron shell. Near the N = 50 shell, a one-peak EDBW appears to be more appropriate. Examples of calculated neutron capture excitation functions and capture gamma-ray spectra using the EDBW form are given for target nuclei in the mass-90 region and also in the Ta-Au mass region. 20 figures.

Gardner, D.G.; Gardner, M.A.; Dietrich, F.S.

1980-08-07

144

POLAR: a new polarimeter for X and gamma rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a novel compact polarimeter instrument POLAR for polarization measurements in the energy range from hard X-rays to soft gamma rays It uses an array of fast low density scintillators and properties of the gamma-electron Compton scattering to determine polarization of the incoming photons The design consists of 2304 plastic scintillator bars with dimension of 6x6x200 mm 3 The instrument has a wide viewing angle third of the sky cover and is sensitive in the range from about ten to few hundred keV Its analyzing power and efficiency were optimized and modeled with Monte Carlo simulations Large active area and high efficiency for Compton scattering detection result in a particularly big figure of merit that combines analyzing power and the effective area of the detector Moreover such high values are kept also for gammas coming off the detector axis what makes POLAR especially attractive as a large field of view device that can be easily used for measurements from random sources like Gamma Ray Bursts Currently the laboratory tests are performed using smaller version of the instrument and polarized photon sources at different energies In the next step the detector prototype will be intensively calibrated with the polarized light from the PSI synchrotron source First verification in space will be performed using a balloon flight for background studies and observations of bright X-ray sources like CRAB

Suarez-Garcia, E.; Polar Team

145

Gamma Rays in a Spectrum from the Mars Odyssey Gamma-Ray Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The gamma-ray spectrum from a long sum over the middle latitudes of Mars measured by the Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer was analyzed. About 250 peaks and features were observed, including many seen during the cruise to Mars. The sources of about 85% of these gamma rays were identified. Most were background lines from the Ge detector or from Ti, Mg, and Zn near the detector.

Reedy, R. C.; Evans, L. G.; Brueckner, J.; Kim, K. J.; Boynton, W. V.

2003-01-01

146

Standoff 3D Gamma-Ray Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new standoff imaging technique able to provide 3-dimensional (3D) images of gamma-ray sources distributed in the environment. Unlike standard 3D tomographic methods, this technique does not require the radioactive sources to be bounded within a predefined physical space. In the present implementation, the gamma-ray imaging system is based on two large planar HPGe double sided segmented detectors,

Lucian Mihailescu; Kai Vetter; Daniel Chivers

2009-01-01

147

Gamma Ray Bursts from Ordinary Cosmic Strings  

E-print Network

We give an upper estimate for the number of gamma ray bursts from ordinary (non-superconducting) cosmic strings expected to be observed at terrestrial detectors. Assuming that cusp annihilation is the mechanism responsible for the bursts we consider strings arising at a GUT phase transition and compare our estimate with the recent BATSE results. Further we give a lower limit for the effective area of future detectors designed to detect the cosmic string induced flux of gamma ray bursts.

R. H. Brandenberger; A. T. Sornborger; M. Trodden

1993-02-12

148

Gamma-Ray Bursts: Old and New  

E-print Network

Gamma-ray bursts are sudden releases of energy that for a duration of a few seconds outshine even huge galaxies. 30 years after the first detection of a gamma-ray burst their origin remains a mystery. Here I first review the ``old'' problems which have baffled astronomers over decades, and then report on the ``new'' exciting discoveries of afterglow emission at longer wavelengths which have raised more new questions than answered old ones.

Jochen Greiner

1998-02-17

149

VHE Gamma-ray Supernova Remnants  

SciTech Connect

Increasing observational evidence gathered especially in X-rays and {gamma}-rays during the course of the last few years support the notion that Supernova remnants (SNRs) are Galactic particle accelerators up to energies close to the ''knee'' in the energy spectrum of Cosmic rays. This review summarizes the current status of {gamma}-ray observations of SNRs. Shell-type as well as plerionic type SNRs are addressed and prospect for observations of these two source classes with the upcoming GLAST satellite in the energy regime above 100 MeV are given.

Funk, Stefan; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

2007-01-22

150

X-ray afterglows from gamma-ray bursts  

E-print Network

We consider possible interpretations of the recently detected X- ray afterglow from the gamma-ray burst source GRB 970228. Cosmological and Galactic models of gamma-ray bursts predict different flux and spectral evolution of X-ray afterglows. We show that models based on adiabatic expansion of relativistic forward shocks require very efficient particle energization or post-burst re-acceleration during the expansion. Cooling neutron star models predict a very distinctive spectral and flux evolution that can be tested in current X-ray data.

M. Tavani

1997-03-24

151

Gamma Ray Astronomy and the Origin of Galactic Cosmic Rays  

E-print Network

Diffusive shock acceleration operating at expanding supernova remnant shells is by far the most popular model for the origin of galactic cosmic rays. Despite the general consensus received by this model, an unambiguous and conclusive proof of the supernova remnant hypothesis is still missing. In this context, the recent developments in gamma ray astronomy provide us with precious insights into the problem of the origin of galactic cosmic rays, since production of gamma rays is expected both during the acceleration of cosmic rays at supernova remnant shocks and during their subsequent propagation in the interstellar medium. In particular, the recent detection of a number of supernova remnants at TeV energies nicely fits with the model, but it still does not constitute a conclusive proof of it, mainly due to the difficulty of disentangling the hadronic and leptonic contributions to the observed gamma ray emission. In this paper, the most relevant cosmic-ray-related results of gamma ray astronomy are briefly summarized, and the foreseeable contribution of future gamma ray observations to the final solution of the problem of cosmic ray origin is discussed.

Stefano Gabici

2008-11-05

152

Supernovae and Gamma-Ray Bursts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Participants; Preface; Gamma-ray burst-supernova relation B. Paczynski; Observations of gamma-ray bursts G. Fishman; Fireballs T. Piran; Gamma-ray mechanisms M. Rees; Prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts R. Kehoe, C. Akerlof, R. Balsano, S. Barthelmy, J. Bloch, P. Butterworth, D. Casperson, T. Cline, S. Fletcher, F. Frontera, G. Gisler, J. Heise, J. Hills, K. Hurley, B. Lee, S. Marshall, T. McKay, A. Pawl, L. Piro, B. Priedhorsky, J. Szymanski and J. Wren; X-ray afterglows of gamma-ray bursts L. Piro; The first year of optical-IR observations of SN1998bw I. Danziger, T. Augusteijn, J. Brewer, E. Cappellaro, V. Doublier, T. Galama, J. Gonzalez, O. Hainaut, B. Leibundgut, C. Lidman, P. Mazzali, K. Nomoto, F. Patat, J. Spyromilio, M. Turatto, J. Van Paradijs, P. Vreeswijk and J. Walsh; X-ray emission of Supernova 1998bw in the error box of GRB980425 E. Pian; Direct analysis of spectra of type Ic supernovae D. Branch; The interaction of supernovae and gamma-ray bursts with their surroundings R. Chevalier; Magnetars, soft gamma-ray repeaters and gamma-ray bursts A. Harding; Super-luminous supernova remnants Y. -H. Chu, C. -H. Chen and S. -P. Lai; The properties of hypernovae: SNe Ic 1998bw, 1997ef, and SN IIn 1997cy K. Nomoto, P. Mazzali, T. Nakamura, K. Iwanmoto, K. Maeda, T. Suzuki, M. Turatto, I. Danziger and F. Patat; Collapsars, Gamma-Ray Bursts, and Supernovae S. Woosley, A. MacFadyen and A. Heger; Pre-supernova evolution of massive stars N. Panagia and G. Bono; Radio supernovae and GRB 980425 K. Weiler, N. Panagia, R. Sramek, S. Van Dyk, M. Montes and C. Lacey; Models for Ia supernovae and evolutionary effects P. Hoflich and I. Dominguez; Deflagration to detonation A. Khokhlov; Universality in SN Iae and the Phillips relation D. Arnett; Abundances from supernovae F. -K. Thielemann, F. Brachwitz, C. Freiburghaus, S. Rosswog, K. Iwamoto, T. Nakamura, K. Nomoto, H. Umeda, K. Langanke, G. Martinez-Pinedo, D. Dean, W. Hix and M. Strayer; Sne, GRBs, and the global properties of the Universe B. Schmidt; How good are SNe Ia as standard candles? A. Sandage, G. Tammann and A. Saha; Type Ia supernovae and their implications for cosmology M. Livio; Conference summary: supernovae and gamma-ray bursts J. Wheeler.

Livio, Mario; Panagia, Nino; Sahu, Kailash

2001-07-01

153

On Gamma-Ray Bursts  

E-print Network

(Shortened) We show by example how the uncoding of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) offers unprecedented possibilities to foster new knowledge in fundamental physics and in astrophysics. After recalling some of the classic work on vacuum polarization in uniform electric fields by Klein, Sauter, Heisenberg, Euler and Schwinger, we summarize some of the efforts to observe these effects in heavy ions and high energy ion collisions. We then turn to the theory of vacuum polarization around a Kerr-Newman black hole, leading to the extraction of the blackholic energy, to the concept of dyadosphere and dyadotorus, and to the creation of an electron-positron-photon plasma. We then present a new theoretical approach encompassing the physics of neutron stars and heavy nuclei. It is shown that configurations of nuclear matter in bulk with global charge neutrality can exist on macroscopic scales and with electric fields close to the critical value near their surfaces. These configurations may represent an initial condition for the process of gravitational collapse, leading to the creation of an electron-positron-photon plasma: the basic self-accelerating system explaining both the energetics and the high energy Lorentz factor observed in GRBs. We then turn to recall the two basic interpretational paradigms of our GRB model. [...] We then turn to the special role of the baryon loading in discriminating between "genuine" short and long or "fake" short GRBs [...] We finally turn to the GRB-Supernova Time Sequence (GSTS) paradigm: the concept of induced gravitational collapse. [...] We then present some general conclusions.

Remo Ruffini; Maria Grazia Bernardini; Carlo Luciano Bianco; Letizia Caito; Pascal Chardonnet; Christian Cherubini; Maria Giovanna Dainotti; Federico Fraschetti; Andrea Geralico; Roberto Guida; Barbara Patricelli; Michael Rotondo; Jorge Armando Rueda Hernandez; Gregory Vereshchagin; She-Sheng Xue

2008-04-17

154

The Gamma-Ray Imager GRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of the gamma-ray sky reveal the most powerful sources and the most violent events in the Universe. While at lower wavebands the observed emission is generally dominated by thermal processes, the gamma-ray sky provides us with a view on the non-thermal Universe. Here particles are accelerated to extreme relativistic energies by mechanisms which are still poorly understood, and nuclear reactions are synthesizing the basic constituents of our world. Cosmic accelerators and cosmic explosions are major science themes that are addressed in the gamma-ray regime. ESA's INTEGRAL observatory currently provides the astronomical community with a unique tool to investigate the sky up to MeV energies and hundreds of sources, new classes of objects, extraordinary views of antimatter annihilation in our Galaxy, and fingerprints of recent nucleosynthesis processes have been discovered. NASA's GLAST mission will similarly take the next step in surveying the high-energy ( GeV) sky, and NuSTAR will pioneer focusing observations at hard X-ray energies (to 80 keV). There will be clearly a growing need to perform deeper, more focused investigations of gamma-ray sources in the 100-keV to MeV regime. Recent technological advances in the domain of gamma-ray focusing using Laue diffraction and multilayer-coated mirror techniques have paved the way towards a gamma-ray mission, providing major improvements compared to past missions regarding sensitivity and angular resolution. Such a future Gamma-Ray Imager will allow the study of particle acceleration processes and explosion physics in unprecedented detail, providing essential clues on the innermost nature of the most violent and most energetic processes in the Universe.

Wunderer, Cornelia B.; GRI Collaboration

2008-03-01

155

Automated krypton-85 gamma ray stack monitor  

SciTech Connect

A Ge(Li) ..gamma..-ray detector, housed in a lead cave, was used in conjunction with a six-liter pressurized (60 psia) well spectroscopy cell to selectively detect /sup 85/Kr stack emissions. This system was calibrated so as to relate the 514 keV ..gamma..-ray counting rate to /sup 85/Kr concentration. Counting rate, or concentration, was continuously recorded using a count rate meter/strip chart recorder combination and was also time averaged over 15 minute intervals using a programmable multi-channel analyzer system with cassette readout. Being completely automated, this ..gamma..-analysis system required little more than liquid nitrogen service and data record retrieval throughout a four-month long sampling period. The sensitivity of this ..gamma..-ray analytical system was such as to achieve a minimum detectable /sup 85/Kr stack concentration of 2 ..mu..Ci/m/sup 3/ for 15 minute counting intervals.

Goles, R.W.; Brauer, F.P.

1980-09-01

156

Compact Stars in low-mass X-ray binaries  

E-print Network

We propose a model for compact stars in low-mass X-ray binaries(LMXBs) namely KS 1731-260, EXO 1745-248 and 4U 1608-52. Here we investigate the physical phenomena of a compact star in the LMXBs. Using our model, we have calculated central density, surface density, mass(M) and red-shift for the above mentioned compact stars, which is very much consistent with the reported data. We also obtain the possible equation of state(EOS) of the stars which is physically acceptable.

Hossein, Sk Monowar; Jafry, Md Abdul Kayum; Kalam, Mehedi

2014-01-01

157

Compact Stars in low-mass X-ray binaries  

E-print Network

We propose a model for compact stars in low-mass X-ray binaries(LMXBs) namely KS 1731-260, EXO 1745-248 and 4U 1608-52. Here we investigate the physical phenomena of a compact star in the LMXBs. Using our model, we have calculated central density, surface density, mass(M) and red-shift for the above mentioned compact stars, which is very much consistent with the reported data. We also obtain the possible equation of state(EOS) of the stars which is physically acceptable.

Sk. Monowar Hossein; Sajahan Molla; Md. Abdul Kayum Jafry; Mehedi Kalam

2014-08-11

158

Fast variability of TeV gamma-rays from the radio galaxy M 87  

E-print Network

The detection of fast variations of the TeV (10^12 eV) gamma-ray flux, on time-scales of days, from the nearby radio galaxy M 87 is reported. These variations are ~10 times faster than that observed in any other waveband and imply a very compact emission region with a dimension similar to the Schwarzschild radius of the central black hole. We thus can exclude several other sites and processes of the gamma-ray production. The observations confirm that TeV gamma-rays are emitted by extragalactic sources other than blazars, where jets are not relativistically beamed towards the observer.

HESS Collaboration; F. A. Aharonian

2006-12-01

159

CONSTRAINTS ON VERY HIGH ENERGY GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM GAMMA-RAY BURSTS R. Atkins,1,2  

E-print Network

CONSTRAINTS ON VERY HIGH ENERGY GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM GAMMA-RAY BURSTS R. Atkins,1,2 W. Benbow,3 11; accepted 2005 June 3 ABSTRACT The Milagro Gamma-Ray Observatory employs a water Cerenkov detector emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) during the prompt emission phase. Detection of >100 GeV counterparts

California at Santa Cruz, University of

160

Prompt gamma rays from thermal-neutron capture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A catalog of ..gamma..-rays emitted following thermal-neutron capture in natural elements is presented. In Table I, ..gamma..-rays are arranged in order of increasing energy. Each line contains the ..gamma..-ray energy, intensity, element identification, thermal-neutron radiative-capture cross section, and the energies and intensities of two of the more abundant ..gamma..-rays associated with that element. In Table II, ..gamma..-rays are arranged by

M. A. Lone; R. A. Leavitt; D. A. Harrison

1981-01-01

161

Astrophysics with the 3DTI Gamma-Ray Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite notable progress in gamma-ray astronomy, understanding the astrophysical sources of medium energy (MeV-range) gamma-rays still remains somewhat of a mystery. Medium-energy gamma-ray observations require diverse measurement techniques since the objects that produce these gamma- rays are both extended and point-like, transient and steady, and include both continuum and line emissions. The challenge is to develop a future gamma-ray instrument

S. D. Hunter; L. M. Barbier; P. F. Bloser

2008-01-01

162

Mercuric iodine room temperature gamma-ray detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

high resolution mercuric iodide room temperature gamma-ray detectors have excellent potential as an essential component of space instruments to be used for high energy astrophysics. Mercuric iodide detectors are being developed both as photodetectors used in combination with scintillation crystals to detect gamma-rays, and as direct gamma-ray detectors. These detectors are highly radiation damage resistant. The list of applications includes gamma-ray burst detection, gamma-ray line astronomy, solar flare studies, and elemental analysis.

Patt, Bradley E.; Markakis, Jeffrey M.; Gerrish, Vernon M.; Haymes, Robert C.; Trombka, Jacob I.

1990-01-01

163

Spectral formation in compact X-ray sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is described for calculating the transfer of X-rays through gas that is optically thick to Compton scattering. The method permits the simultaneous solution of the radiation-dominated temperature and ionization structure of the medium as well as the effects of incoherent Compton scattering of photons. Self-consistent results are obtained for idealized models of compact X-ray sources, represented as point sources of continuum X-rays surrounded by spherical shells of gas, demonstrating the range of spectral features that might result from such optically thick transfer. Some implications for the analysis of X-ray spectra of galactic X-ray sources are discussed.

Ross, R. R.

1979-01-01

164

X-ray emission from compact groups of galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The existence of very compact groups, or 'poor clusters,' of galaxies as a category of X-ray source is reported. By analogy with X-ray emission from clusters of galaxies, it is assumed that the extended X-ray emission is due to thermal bremsstrahlung from hot gas in the groups. The derived X-ray temperatures, luminosities, and sizes are similar to those for X-ray emitting, rich clusters of galaxies. It is inferred that these groups are in a late evolutionary stage because of the presence of a dominant galaxy, the absence of spiral galaxies, and the short cooling time inferred for 2A 0335 + 096.

Schwartz, D. A.; Schwarz, J.; Tucker, W.

1980-01-01

165

Gamma-ray binaries: pulsars in disguise?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: .LS 5039 and LS I+61°303 are unique amongst high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXB) for their spatially-resolved radio emission and their counterpart at >GeV gamma-ray energies, canonically attributed to non-thermal particles in an accretion-powered relativistic jet. The only other HMXB known to emit very high-energy (VHE) gamma-rays, PSR B1259-63, harbours a non-accreting millisecond pulsar. Aims: .The purpose is to investigate whether

Guillaume Dubus; Marie Curie

2006-01-01

166

Nucleosynthesis in gamma-ray bursts outflows  

E-print Network

It is shown that fusion of neutrons and protons to He-4 nuclei occurs in gamma-ray burst outflows in a process similar to big-bang nucleosynthesis in the early Universe. Only the surviving free neutrons can then decouple kinematically from the charged fluid so that the multi-GeV neutrino signal predicted from inelastic nuclear n-p collisions is significantly reduced. It is also argued that a sizeable fraction of ultra-high energy cosmic rays accelerated in gamma-ray bursts should be He-4 nuclei.

M. Lemoine

2002-05-07

167

Technology Needs for Gamma Ray Astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma ray astronomy is currently in an exciting period of multiple missions and a wealth of data. Results from INTEGRAL, Fermi, AGILE, Suzaku and Swift are making large contributions to our knowledge of high energy processes in the universe. The advances are due to new detector and imaging technologies. The steps to date have been from scintillators to solid state detectors for sensors and from light buckets to coded aperture masks and pair telescopes for imagers. A key direction for the future is toward focusing telescopes pushing into the hard X-ray regime and Compton telescopes and pair telescopes with fine spatial resolution for medium and high energy gamma rays. These technologies will provide finer imaging of gamma-ray sources. Importantly, they will also enable large steps forward in sensitivity by reducing background.

Gehrels, Neil

2011-01-01

168

THE fermi gamma-ray burst monitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) will significantly augment the science return from the Fermi Observatory in the study of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The primary objective of GBM is to extend the energy range over which bursts are observed downward from the energy range of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on Fermi into the hard X-ray range where extensive previous data sets exist. A secondary objective is to compute burst locations onboard to allow re-orienting the spacecraft so that the LAT can observe delayed emission from bright bursts. GBM uses an array of 12 sodium iodide scintillators and two bismuth germanate scintillators to detect gamma rays from ~8 keV to ~40 MeV over the full unocculted sky. The onboard trigger threshold is ~0.7 photons cm-2 s-1 (50-300 keV, 1 s peak). GBM generates onboard triggers for ~250 GRBs per year.

Meegan, Charles; Lichti, Giselher; Bhat, P. N.; Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Briggs, Michael S.; Connaughton, Valerie; Diehl, Roland; Fishman, Gerald; Greiner, Jochen; Hoover, Andrew S.; van der Horst, Alexander J.; von Kienlin, Andreas; Kippen, R. Marc; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; McBreen, Sheila; Paciesas, W. S.; Preece, Robert; Steinle, Helmut; Wallace, Mark S.; Wilson, Robert B.; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen

2009-09-01

169

Ground-Based Gamma Ray Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is the write-up of a rapporteur talk given by the author at the 33rd International Cosmic Ray Conference in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2013. It attempts to summarize results and developments in ground-based gamma-ray observations and instrumentation from among the ˜300 submissions to the gamma-ray sessions of the meeting. Satellite observations and theoretical developments were covered by a companion rapporteur (Stawarz, L., 33rd ICRC, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Rapporteur talk: Space-based Gamma-Ray Astronomy, 2013). Any review of this nature is unavoidably subjective and incomplete. Nevertheless, the article should provide a useful status report for those seeking an overview of this exciting and fast-moving field.

Holder, Jamie

2014-10-01

170

Ground-Based Gamma Ray Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is the write-up of a rapporteur talk given by the author at the 33rd International Cosmic Ray Conference in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2013. It attempts to summarize results and developments in ground-based gamma-ray observations and instrumentation from among the ˜300 submissions to the gamma-ray sessions of the meeting. Satellite observations and theoretical developments were covered by a companion rapporteur (Stawarz, L., 33rd ICRC, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Rapporteur talk: Space-based Gamma-Ray Astronomy, 2013). Any review of this nature is unavoidably subjective and incomplete. Nevertheless, the article should provide a useful status report for those seeking an overview of this exciting and fast-moving field.

Holder, Jamie

2014-08-01

171

Determination of the gamma-ray spectrum in a strong neutron/gamma-ray mixed field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The knowledge of gamma-ray spectrum highly affects the accuracy of the correspondingly derived gamma-ray dose and the correctness of calculated neutron dose in the neutron/gamma-ray mixed field dosimetry when using the paired ionization chambers technique. It is of our interest to develop a method to determine the gamma-ray spectrum in a strong neutron/gamma-ray mixed field. The current type detector, Mg(Ar) ionization chamber with 6 different thick caps incorporated with the unfolding technique, was used to determine the gamma-ray spectrum in the THOR epithermal neutron beam, which contains intense neutrons and gamma rays. The applied caps had nominal thicknesses from 1 to 6 mm. Detector response functions of the applied Mg(Ar) chamber with different caps were calculated using MCNP5 with a validated chamber model. The spectrum unfolding process was performed using the well-known SAND-II algorithm. The unfolded result was found much softer than the originally calculated spectrum at the design stage. A large portion of low energy continuum was shown in the adjusted spectrum. This work gave us a much deeper insight into the THOR epithermal neutron beam and also showed a way to determine the gamma-ray spectrum.

Liu, Yuan-Hao; Lin, Yi-Chun; Nievaart, Sander; Chou, Wen-Tsae; Liu, Hong-Ming; Jiang, Shiang-Huei

2011-10-01

172

Development Of A Prompt Gamma-ray Analysis Combined With Multiple Gamma-ray Detection  

SciTech Connect

By applying the multiple gamma ray detection method to PGA, the interference from strong gamma ray can be reduced, therefore quantification limits of trace elements are improved significantly. MPGA detector system is constructed at the guide-hall of JRR-3M in JAERI. Several standard samples were measured by MPGA detector system.

Toh, Y.; Oshima, M.; Koizumi, M.; Osa, A.; Kimura, A. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

2006-03-13

173

X-Ray Emission from Compact Sources  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a review of the physical parameters of neutron stars and black holes that have been derived from X-ray observations. I then explain how these physical parameters can be used to learn about the extreme conditions occurring in regions of strong gravity, and present some recent evidence for relativistic effects seen in these systems. A glossary of commonly used terms and a short tutorial on the names of X-ray sources are also included.

Cominsky, L

2004-03-23

174

Dark matter and gamma rays from the galactic halo  

E-print Network

The nature of the dark matter in the halo of our Galaxy is still largely unknown. The microlensing events found so far towards the Large Magellanic Cloud suggest that at most about 20% of the halo dark matter is in the form of MACHOs (Massive Astrophysical Compact Halo Objects). The dark matter could also, at least partially, consist of cold molecular clouds (mainly $H_2$). Another possibility is that WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles) make up the dark matter and that, due to annihilition processes, they show up through gamma-ray emission.

Philippe Jetzer

2001-11-30

175

Gamma-rays, cosmic rays, and galactic structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The relation of SAS-2 observations of galactic gamma-rays to the large scale distribution of cosmic rays and interstellar gas in the galaxy is reviewed. Starting with a discussion of production rates, the case for pion decay being the predominant production mechanism in the galactic disk above 100 MeV is reestablished, and it is also pointed out that Compton gamma-rays can be a significant source near l = 0. The concepts of four distinct galactic regions are defined, viz. the nebulodisk, ectodisk, radiodisk and exodisk. Bremsstrahlung and pion decay gamma-rays are associated with the first two (primarily the first) regions, and Compton gamma-rays and synchrotron radiation are associated with the latter two regions. On a large scale, the cosmic rays, interstellar gas (primarily H2 clouds in the inner galaxy) and gamma-ray emissivity all peak between 5 and 6 kpc from the galactic center. This correlation is related to correlation with other population I phenomena and is discussed in terms of the density wave concept of galactic structure.

Stecker, F. W.

1976-01-01

176

Cosmic Rays from Gamma Ray Bursts in the Galaxy  

E-print Network

The rate of terrestrial irradiation events by galactic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is estimated using recent standard-energy results. We assume that GRBs accelerate high-energy cosmic rays, and present results of three-dimensional simulations of cosmic rays moving in the Galactic magnetic field and diffusing through pitch-angle scattering. An on-axis GRB extinction event begins with a powerful prompt gamma-ray and neutron pulse, followed by a longer-lived phase from cosmic-ray protons and neutron-decay protons that diffuse towards Earth. Our results force a reinterpretation of reported ~ 10^{18} eV cosmic-ray anisotropies and offer a rigorous test of the model where high-energy cosmic rays originate from GRBs, which will soon be tested with the Auger Observatory.

Charles D. Dermer; Jeremy M. Holmes

2005-04-06

177

Radio and Gamma-ray emission in nearby BL Lacs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advent of Fermi is changing our understanding on the radio and ?-ray emission in active galactic nuclei. Unlike pre-Fermi ideas, BL Lac objects are found to be the most abundant emitters in the ?-ray band. However, since they are relatively weak radio sources, most of their parsec-scale structure and their multifrequency properties are poorly understood and/or have not been investigated in a systematic fashion. Here we are analyzing the radio and ?-ray emission properties of a sample of 42 BL Lacs selected with no constraint on their radio and ?-ray emission. Thanks to new Very Long Baseline Array observations at 8 and 15 GHz for the whole sample, we discuss their parsec-scale structure. Parsec-scale radio emission is observed in the majority of the sources at both frequencies. The comparison between our results in radio and gamma-ray bands points out the presence of a large number of faint BL Lacs showing ``non-classical'' properties such as low source compactness, low core dominance, no gamma-ray emission.

Giovannini, G.; Liuzzo, E.; Boccardi, B.; Giroletti, M.

2014-07-01

178

Luminosity Evolution of Gamma-Ray Pulsars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the electrodynamic structure of a pulsar outer-magnetospheric particle accelerator and the resulting gamma-ray emission. By considering the condition for the accelerator to be self-sustained, we derive how the trans-magnetic-field thickness of the accelerator evolves with the pulsar age. It is found that the thickness is small but increases steadily if the neutron-star envelope is contaminated by sufficient light elements. For such a light element envelope, the gamma-ray luminosity of the accelerator is kept approximately constant as a function of age in the initial 10,000 yr, forming the lower bound of the observed distribution of the gamma-ray luminosity of rotation-powered pulsars. If the envelope consists of only heavy elements, on the other hand, the thickness is greater, but it increases less rapidly than a light element envelope. For such a heavy element envelope, the gamma-ray luminosity decreases relatively rapidly, forming the upper bound of the observed distribution. The gamma-ray luminosity of a general pulsar resides between these two extreme cases, reflecting the envelope composition and the magnetic inclination angle with respect to the rotation axis. The cutoff energy of the primary curvature emission is regulated below several GeV even for young pulsars because the gap thickness, and hence the acceleration electric field, is suppressed by the polarization of the produced pairs.

Hirotani, Kouichi

2013-04-01

179

Internal Energy Dissipation of Gamma-Ray Bursts Observed with Swift: Precursors, Prompt Gamma-rays, Extended emission and Late X-ray Flares  

E-print Network

We jointly analyze the gamma-ray burst (GRB) data observed with BAT and XRT on board the Swift mission to present a global view on the internal energy dissipation processes in GRBs, including precursors, prompt gamma-ray emission, extended soft gamma-ray emission, and late X-ray flares. The Bayesian block method is utilized to analyze the BAT lightcurves to identify various emission episodes. Our results suggest that these emission components likely share a same physical origin, which is repeated activation of the GRB central engine. What we observe in the gamma-ray band may be the tip-of-iceberg of more extended underlying activities. The precursor emission, which is detected in about 10% of {\\em Swift} GRBs, is preferably detected in those GRBs that have a massive star core-collapse origin. The soft extended emission (EE) tail, on the other hand, is preferably detected in those GRBs that have a compact star merger origin. Bright X-ray emission is detected during the BAT quiescent phases prior to subsequent ...

Hu, You-Dong; Xi, Shao-Qiang; Peng, Fang-Kun; Lu, Rui-Jing; LV, Lian-Zhong; Zhang, Bing

2014-01-01

180

The Microchannel X-ray Telescope for the Gamma-Ray Burst mission SVOM  

E-print Network

We present the Microchannel X-ray Telescope, a new light and compact focussing telescope that will be flying on the Sino-French SVOM mission dedicated to Gamma-Ray Burst science. The MXT design is based on the coupling of square pore micro-channel plates with a low noise pnCCD. MXT will provide an effective area of about 50 cmsq, and its point spread function is expected to be better than 3.7 arc min (FWHM) on axis. The estimated sensitivity is adequate to detect all the afterglows of the SVOM GRBs, and to localize them to better then 60 arc sec after five minutes of observation.

Gotz, D; Cordier, B; Paul, J; Evans, P; Beardmore, A; Martindale, A; Willingale, R; O'Brien, P; Basa, S; Rossin, C; Godet, O; Webb, N; Greiner, J; Nandra, K; Meidinger, N; Perinati, E; Santangelo, A; Mercier, K; Gonzalez, F

2014-01-01

181

THE MILAGRO GAMMA RAY OBSERVATORY: Gaurang B. Yodh  

E-print Network

THE MILAGRO GAMMA RAY OBSERVATORY: Gaurang B. Yodh for the Milagro Collaboration Department from AGN's such as MRK 421. Milagro will be the first VHE detector capable of recording Gamma Ray meters. 1. Inroduction The EGRET detector on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory(CGRO) has observed gamma

California at Santa Cruz, University of

182

Solar flare gamma-ray line shapes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer code has been developed which is used to calculate ab initio the laboratory shapes and energy shifts of gamma-ray lines from (C-12)(p, gamma/4.438/)p-prime(C-12) and (O-16)(p, gamma/6.129/)p-prime(O-16) reactions and to calculate the expected shapes of these lines from solar flares. The sensitivity of observable solar flare gamma-ray line shapes to the directionality of the incident particles is investigated for several projectile angular distributions. Shapes of the carbon and oxygen lines are calculated assuming realistic proton energy spectra for particles in circular orbits at the mirror points of magnetic loops, for particle beams directed downward into the photosphere, and for isotropic particle distributions. Line shapes for flare sites near the center of the sun and on the limb are shown for both thin-target and thick-target interaction models.

Werntz, C.; Kim, Y. E.; Lang, Frederick L.

1990-01-01

183

Gamma-ray Bursts from X-ray Binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this contribution I review the mechanism proposed earlier for producing a gamma-ray burst from the rapidly spinning neutron star in an X-ray binary (Spruit 1999), with a discussion of some more recent developments and outstanding issues.

Spruit, H. C.

184

Benchmark gamma-ray skyshine experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A benchmark gamma-ray skyshine experiment is descibed in which ⁜°Co sources were either collimated into an upward 150-deg conical beam or shielded vertically by two different thicknesses of concrete. A NaI(Tl) spectrometer and a high pressure ion chamber were used to measure, respectively, the energy spectrum and the 4..pi..-exposure rate of the air-reflected gamma photons up to 700 m from

R. R. Nason; J. K. Shultis; R. E. Faw; C. E. Clifford

1982-01-01

185

Gamma rays and large scale galactic structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma ray astronomy is now beginning to provide a new look at the galactic structure and the distribution of cosmic rays, both electrons and nucleons, within the galaxy. The observations are consistent with a galactic spiral-arm model in which the cosmic rays are linearly coupled to the interstellar gas on the scale of the spiral arms. The agreement between the predictions of the model and the observations for regions of the plane where both 21-cm and 2.6-mm CO surveys exist emphasizes the need to extend these observations to include the entire plane. Future gamma-ray observations with more sensitivity and better angular resolutions, combined with these radio surveys, should shed new light on the distribution of cosmic rays, the nature of the galaxy, and the location and intensity of the spiral arms.

Kniffen, D. A.; Fichtel, C. E.; Thompson, D. J.

1977-01-01

186

Delayed Nickel Decay in Gamma Ray Bursts  

E-print Network

Recently observed emission lines in the X-ray afterglow of gamma ray bursts suggest that iron group elements are either produced in the gamma ray burst, or are present nearby. If this material is the product of a thermonuclear burn, then such material would be expected to be rich in Nickel-56. If the nickel remains partially ionized, this prevents the electron capture reaction normally associated with the decay of Nickel-56, dramatically increasing the decay timescale. Here we examine the consequences of rapid ejection of a fraction of a solar mass of iron group material from the center of a collapsar/hypernova. The exact rate of decay then depends on the details of the ionization and therefore the ejection process. Future observations of iron, nickel and cobalt lines can be used to diagnose the origin of these elements and to better understand the astrophysical site of gamma ray bursts. In this model, the X-ray lines of these iron-group elements could be detected in suspected hypernovae that did not produce an observable gamma ray burst due to beaming.

G. C. McLaughlin; R. A. M. J. Wijers

2002-05-19

187

Gamma rays from pulsar wind shock acceleration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A shock forming in the wind of relativistic electron-positron pairs from a pulsar, as a result of confinement by surrounding material, could convert part of the pulsar spin-down luminosity to high energy particles through first order Fermi acceleration. High energy protons could be produced by this mechanism both in supernova remnants and in binary systems containing pulsars. The pion-decay gamma-rays resulting from interaction of accelerated protons with surrounding target material in such sources might be observable above 70 MeV with EGRET (Energetic Gamma-Ray Experimental Telescope) and above 100 GeV with ground-based detectors. Acceleration of protons and expected gamma-ray fluxes from SN1987A, Cyg X-3 type sources and binary pulsars are discussed.

Harding, Alice K.

1990-01-01

188

Compact X-ray Light Source Workshop Report  

SciTech Connect

This report, produced jointly by EMSL and FCSD, is the result of a workshop held in September 2011 that examined the utility of a compact x-ray light source (CXLS) in addressing many scientific challenges critical to advancing energy science and technology.

Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Evans, James E.; Terminello, Louis J.; Koppenaal, David W.; Manke, Kristin L.; Plata, Charity

2012-12-01

189

Gamma ray spectrometer for Lunar Scout 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We review the current status of the Los Alamos program to develop a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer for the Lunar Scout-II mission, which is the second of two Space Exploration Initiative robotic precursor missions to study the Moon. This instrument will measure gamma rays in the energy range of approximately 0.1 - 10 MeV to determine the composition of the lunar surface. The instrument is a high-purity germanium crystal surrounded by an CsI anticoincidence shield and cooled by a split Stirling cycle cryocooler. It will provide the abundance of many elements over the entire lunar surface.

Moss, C. E.; Burt, W. W.; Edwards, B. C.; Martin, R. A.; Nakano, George H.; Reedy, R. C.

1993-01-01

190

The gamma-ray laser project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent approaches to the problem of the gamma-ray laser have focused on upconversion techniques in which metastable nuclei are pumped with long wavelength radiation. At the nuclear level the storage of energy can approach tera-Joules (10 to the 12th power J) per liter for thousands of years. However, any plan to use such a resource for a gamma-ray laser poses problems of a broad interdisciplinary nature requiring the fusion of concepts taken from relatively unrelated fields of physics.

Collins, Carl B.

1987-07-01

191

A supersymmetric model of gamma ray bursts  

E-print Network

We propose a model for gamma ray bursts in which a star subject to a high level of fermion degeneracy undergoes a phase transition to a supersymmetric state. The burst is initiated by the transition of fermion pairs to sfermion pairs which, uninhibited by the Pauli exclusion principle, can drop to the ground state of minimum momentum through photon emission. The jet structure is attributed to the Bose statistics of sfermions whereby subsequent sfermion pairs are preferentially emitted into the same state (sfermion amplification by stimulated emission). Bremsstrahlung gamma rays tend to preserve the directional information of the sfermion momenta and are themselves enhanced by stimulated emission.

L. Clavelli; G. Karatheodoris

2004-03-22

192

Neutrinos and Nucleosynthesis in Gamma Ray Bursts  

SciTech Connect

Gamma-ray bursts, while rare, may be important contributors to galactic nucleosynthesis. Here we consider the types of nucleosynthesis that can occur as material is ejected from a gamma-ray burst accretion disk. We calculate the composition of material within the disk as it dissociates into protons and neutrons and then use a parameterized outflow model to follow nuclear recombination in the wind. From the resulting nucleosynthesis we delineate the disk and outflow conditions in which iron peak, r-process, or light p-process nuclei may form. In all cases the neutrinos have an important impact on the final abundance distributions.

Surman, Rebecca [Union College; Mclaughlin, Gail C [North Carolina State University; Hix, William Raphael [ORNL

2006-01-01

193

Gamma ray line observations with OSSE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations from the oriented scintillation spectrometer experiment of the gamma ray lines originating from a variety of Galactic center sources are reviewed. Extensive observations were acquired of the Galactic center region, including the 0.511 MeV positron annihilation line and associated positronium continuum and Al-26 emission. The results reviewed include: Co-57 from SN 1987A; limits on Co-56 from SN 1991T; gamma ray lines from solar flares; searches for Ti-44 emission from Cas A, and searches for C-12 and O-16 lines from the Orion region.

Kurfess, J. D.; Grove, J. E.; Johnson, W. N.; Murphy, R. J.; Share, G. H.; Purcell, W. R.; Leising, M. D.; Harris, M. J.

1997-01-01

194

Gamma-ray Burst Skymap Website  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Gamma-ray Burst Skymap website automatically updates for each gamma-ray burst as it occurs, whether detected by Swift or other orbiting satellites. For each burst, the location on the sky, star map, constellation and detecting mission are generated automatically. It is then quickly updated by hand to include a written description of the burst properties and scientific significance, as observations continue. Note: In order to view the content of the website, users need to download and install Silverlight on their computers.

195

Very High Energy Gamma Ray Observations with the MAGIC  

E-print Network

Very High Energy Gamma Ray Observations with the MAGIC Telescope (a biased selection) Nepomuk Otte The non-thermal universe in VHE gamma-rays GRBs AGNs Origin of cosmic rays Cosmology Dark matter Space Physik / Humboldt Universität Berlin VHE gamma-ray sources status ICRC 2007 Rowell 71 known sources

California at Santa Cruz, University of

196

Physics of Gamma Ray Emitting AGN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TANAMI program has been studying the physics of relativistic jets of gamma-ray emitting AGN since November 2007 and was converted to a 5-year Large Proposal from Oct 2009. We propose to continue VLBI monitoring of these sources contemporaneously with observations at gamma-ray frequencies by the Fermi satellite which is continuously monitoring the full sky for the next 5 to 10 years. TANAMI has met all goals of its first 2.5 years, in particular by producing high-quality dual-frequency images and setting up a baseline for morphological and kinematic studies of Southern-Hemisphere gamma-ray sources/candidates. With its associated optical/UV and X-ray programs and its unique VLBI dual-frequency characteristics, TANAMI has become one of the major multiwavelength resources for the Fermi mission and the only one covering sources south of -30 degrees. The continuation of our program will establish critical jet parameters, including speeds and Doppler factors, which all depend on multi-year VLBI data. Tracking new jet components and associating their ejection epochs with gamma-ray flares will be possible and promises to pin down the origin and nature of the elusive high energy emission from AGN.

Ojha, Roopesh; Lovell, Jim; Edwards, Philip; Kadler, Matthias; Monitoringteam, Gamma Ray Blazar; Tingay, Steven

2010-10-01

197

Gamma-ray bursts as cosmological probes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are short, intense burstsof gamma-rays which during seconds to minutes outshine all other sources of gamma-ray emission in the sky.Following the prompt gamma-ray emission, an `afterglow' of emission from the X-ray range to radio wavelengthspersists up to months after the initial burst. The association of the class of long GRBs with the explosion of broad-line type Ic SNe GRBs allow galaxies to be selected independently oftheir emission properties (independently of dust obscuration and, uniquely, independently of their brightnesses atany wavelength) and they also permit the study of the gas in the interstellar medium (ISM) systematically and at anyredshift by the absorption lines present in the afterglow spectra. Moreover, the fading nature of GRBs and theprecise localization of the afterglow allow a detailed investigation of the emission properties of the GRB hostgalaxy once the afterglow has vanished. GRBs therefore constitute a unique tool to understand the link between theproperties of the ISM in the galaxy and the star formation activity, and this at any redshift. This is a unique wayto reveal the physical processes that trigger galaxy formation. The SVOM space mission project is designed to improve the use GRBs as cosmological probes.

Vergani, S. D.

2013-11-01

198

Cosmic Ray and Tev Gamma Ray Generation by Quasar Remnants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results from new broadband (radio to X-ray) high-resolution imaging studies of the dormant quasar remnant cores of nearby giant elliptical galaxies are now shown to permit the harboring of compact dynamos capable of generating the highest energy cosmic ray particles and associated curvature radiation of TeV photons. Confirmation would imply a global inflow of interstellar gas all the way to the accretion powered supermassive black hole at the center of the host galaxy.

Boldt, Elihu; Loewenstein, Michael; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

199

Skyshine spectra of gamma rays  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the spectra of gamma photons back-scattered in vertical direction by infinite air above ground (skyshine) is presented. The source for these measurements is a 650 Ci Cobalt-60 point-source and the skyshine spectra are reported for distances from 150 m to 325 m from the source, measured with a 5 cm NaI(T1) detector collimated with collimators of 12

J. Swarup

1980-01-01

200

Ground-Based Gamma-Ray Astronomy  

E-print Network

Ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has become an active astrophysical discipline with four confirmed sources of TeV gamma rays, two plerionic supernova remnants (SNRs) and two BL Lac objects (BL Lacs). An additional nine objects (one plerion, three shell-type SNRs, one X-ray binary, and four BL Lacs) have been detected but have not been confirmed by independent detections. None of the galactic sources require the presence of hadronic cosmic rays, so definitive evidence of their origin remains elusive. Mrk 421 and Mrk 501 are weak EGRET sources but they exhibit extremely variable TeV emission with spectra that extend beyond 10 TeV. They also exhibit correlations with lower energy photons during multi-wavelength campaigns, providing tests of emission models. Next generation telescopes like VERITAS hold the promise of moving this field dramatically forward.

Michael Catanese

1999-11-09

201

Prospects for Nuclear-gamma-ray Astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis was made of prospects for gamma rays coming from two sources outside the solar system: (1) radioactive decay of fresh nuclear products to explosive nucleosynthesis, and (2) scattering of low energy cosmic rays. The former should be detectable and will provide a factual base for many suppositions about the site and history of nucleosynthesis. The latter may be detectable and, if so, will probably provide factual information about high-flux regions of cosmic radiation.

Clayton, D. D.

1973-01-01

202

Propagation of Cosmic Rays and Diffuse Galactic Gamma Rays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents an introduction to the astrophysics of cosmic rays and diffuse gamma-rays and discusses some of the puzzles that have emerged recently due to more precise data and improved propagation models: the excesses in Galactic diffuse gamma-ray emission, secondary antiprotons and positrons, and the flatter than expected gradient of cosmic rays in the Galaxy. These also involve the dark matter, a challenge to modern physics, through its indirect searches in cosmic rays. Though the final solutions are yet to be found, I discuss some ideas and results obtained mostly with the numerical propagation model GALPROP. A fleet of spacecraft and balloon experiments targeting these specific issues is set to lift off in a few years, imparting a feeling of optimism that a new era of exciting discoveries is just around the corner. A complete and comprehensive discussion of all the recent results is not attempted here due to the space limitations.

Moskalenko, Igor V.

2004-01-01

203

Cosmic ray studies with the gamma-ray observatory  

SciTech Connect

Even prior to the first undisputed observations of the diffuse galactic gamma-ray emission, it was well understood that the dominant contribution to the observed galactic gamma-ray emission above 100 MeV would be that due to the decay of neutral pi-mesons resulting from the interaction of the galactic cosmic rays with the interstellar gas. The first unambiguous detection of this radiation was made in 1968 by the OSO-3 counter telescope{sup 1}, and details sufficient to allow preliminary studies of the implications of the observations were provided by the spark chamber experiments aboard NASA SAS-2 satellite{sup 2} ad by the ESA COS-B mission{sup 3}. Many theoretical and observational studies have addressed this question since these initial explorations, but interpretation has been hampered by limited angular resolution in the observations, lack of broad band spectral coverage and insufficient information on the interstellar gas distribution, and contributions from discrete gamma-ray sources. This paper will give details on how the instruments aboard the Gamma-Ray Observatory will provide the details necessary to resolve these problems and aid significantly in determining the distribution of both cosmic-ray nucleons and electrons throughout the galaxy.

Kniffen, D.A. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (US))

1990-03-20

204

Gamma-ray-burst beaming and gravitational-wave observations.  

PubMed

Using the observed rate of short-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) it is possible to make predictions for the detectable rate of compact binary coalescences in gravitational-wave detectors. We show that the nondetection of mergers in the existing LIGO/Virgo data constrains the beaming angles and progenitor masses of gamma-ray bursts, although these limits are fully consistent with existing expectations. We make predictions for the rate of events in future networks of gravitational-wave observatories, finding that the first detection of a neutron-star-neutron-star binary coalescence associated with the progenitors of short GRBs is likely to happen within the first 16 months of observation, even in the case of only two observatories (e.g., LIGO-Hanford and LIGO-Livingston) operating at intermediate sensitivities (e.g., advanced LIGO design sensitivity, but without signal recycling mirrors), and assuming a conservative distribution of beaming angles (e.g., all GRBs beamed within ?(j) = 30°). Less conservative assumptions reduce the waiting time until first detection to a period of weeks to months, with an event detection rate of >/~10/yr. Alternatively, the compact binary coalescence model of short GRBs can be ruled out if a binary is not seen within the first two years of operation of a LIGO-Hanford, LIGO-Livingston, and Virgo network at advanced design sensitivity. We also demonstrate that the gravitational wave detection rate of GRB triggered sources (i.e., those seen first in gamma rays) is lower than the rate of untriggered events (i.e., those seen only in gravitational waves) if ?(j)?30°, independent of the noise curve, network configuration, and observed GRB rate. The first detection in gravitational waves of a binary GRB progenitor is therefore unlikely to be associated with the observation of a GRB. PMID:24237502

Chen, Hsin-Yu; Holz, Daniel E

2013-11-01

205

Gamma-Ray-Burst Beaming and Gravitational-Wave Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the observed rate of short-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) it is possible to make predictions for the detectable rate of compact binary coalescences in gravitational-wave detectors. We show that the nondetection of mergers in the existing LIGO/Virgo data constrains the beaming angles and progenitor masses of gamma-ray bursts, although these limits are fully consistent with existing expectations. We make predictions for the rate of events in future networks of gravitational-wave observatories, finding that the first detection of a neutron-star-neutron-star binary coalescence associated with the progenitors of short GRBs is likely to happen within the first 16 months of observation, even in the case of only two observatories (e.g., LIGO-Hanford and LIGO-Livingston) operating at intermediate sensitivities (e.g., advanced LIGO design sensitivity, but without signal recycling mirrors), and assuming a conservative distribution of beaming angles (e.g., all GRBs beamed within ?j=30°). Less conservative assumptions reduce the waiting time until first detection to a period of weeks to months, with an event detection rate of ?10/yr. Alternatively, the compact binary coalescence model of short GRBs can be ruled out if a binary is not seen within the first two years of operation of a LIGO-Hanford, LIGO-Livingston, and Virgo network at advanced design sensitivity. We also demonstrate that the gravitational wave detection rate of GRB triggered sources (i.e., those seen first in gamma rays) is lower than the rate of untriggered events (i.e., those seen only in gravitational waves) if ?j?30°, independent of the noise curve, network configuration, and observed GRB rate. The first detection in gravitational waves of a binary GRB progenitor is therefore unlikely to be associated with the observation of a GRB.

Chen, Hsin-Yu; Holz, Daniel E.

2013-11-01

206

Phenomenology of Gamma-Ray Jets  

E-print Network

We discuss some phenomenological aspects of $\\gamma$-ray emitting jets. In particular, we present calculations of the $\\gamma$-sphere and $\\pi$-sphere for various target photon fields, and employ them to demonstrate how $\\gamma$-ray observations at very high energies can be used to constraint the Doppler factor of the emitting plasma and the production of VHE neutrinos. We also consider the implications of the rapid TeV variability observed in M87 and the TeV blazars, and propose a model for the very rapid TeV flares observed with HESS and MAGIC in some blazars,that accommodates the relatively small Doppler factors inferred from radio observations. Finally, we briefly discuss the prospects for detecting VHE neutrinos from relativistic jets.

Amir Levinson

2007-09-10

207

Gamma-ray bursts: Restarting the Engine  

E-print Network

Recent gamma-ray burst observations have revealed late-time, highly energetic events which deviate from the simplest expectations of the standard fireball picture. Instead they may indicate that the central engine is active or restarted at late times. We suggest that fragmentation and subsequent accretion during the collapse of a rapidly rotating stellar core offers a natural mechanism for this.

Andrew King; Paul T. O'Brien; Michael R. Goad; Julian Osborne; Emma Olsson; Kim Page

2005-08-04

208

Gamma Rays From Rotation-Powered Pulsars  

E-print Network

The seven known gamma-ray pulsars represent a very small fraction of the more than 1000 presently known radio pulsars, yet they can give us valuable information about pulsar particle acceleration and energetics. Although the theory of acceleration and high-energy emission in pulsars has been studied for over 25 years, the origin of the pulsed gamma rays is a question that remains unanswered. Characteristics of the pulsars detected by the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory could not clearly distinguish between an emission site at the magnetic poles (polar cap models) and emission from the outer magnetosphere (outer gap models). There are also a number of theoretical issues in both type of model which have yet to be resolved. The two types of models make contrasting predictions for the numbers of radio-loud and radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsars and of their spectral characteristics. GLAST will probably detect at least 50 radio-selected pulsars and possibly many more radio-quiet pulsars. With this large sample, it will be possible to fully test the model predictions and finally resolve this longstanding question.

Alice K. Harding

2002-08-22

209

Gamma-Ray Pulsars: Models and Predictions  

E-print Network

Pulsed emission from gamma-ray pulsars originates inside the magnetosphere, from radiation by charged particles accelerated near the magnetic poles or in the outer gaps. In polar cap models, the high energy spectrum is cut off by magnetic pair production above an energy that is dependent on the local magnetic field strength. While most young pulsars with surface fields in the range B = 10^{12} - 10^{13} G are expected to have high energy cutoffs around several GeV, the gamma-ray spectra of old pulsars having lower surface fields may extend to 50 GeV. Although the gamma-ray emission of older pulsars is weaker, detecting pulsed emission at high energies from nearby sources would be an important confirmation of polar cap models. Outer gap models predict more gradual high-energy turnovers at around 10 GeV, but also predict an inverse Compton component extending to TeV energies. Detection of pulsed TeV emission, which would not survive attenuation at the polar caps, is thus an important test of outer gap models. Next-generation gamma-ray telescopes sensitive to GeV-TeV emission will provide critical tests of pulsar acceleration and emission mechanisms.

Alice K. Harding

2000-12-12

210

GAMMA RAY IMAGING FOR ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The research is a three year development program to apply high resolution gamma-ray imaging technologies to environmental remediation of radioactive hazards. High resolution, position-sensitive germanium detectors are being developed at the Naval Research Laboratory for space app...

211

Search for Soft Gamma-Ray Events  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The support provided under this grant covered several projects, based on observations made with the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, particularly with the Burst And Transient Source Experiment BATSE. The results of our work were published in 23 papers, 18 Circulars of the International Astronomical Union, and one popular article. I report on these projects separately.

vanParadijs, J. A.

1998-01-01

212

Current segmented gamma-ray scanner technology  

SciTech Connect

A new generation of segmented gamma-ray scanners has been developed at Los Alamos for scrap and waste measurements at the Savannah River Plant and the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. The new designs are highly automated and exhibit special features such as good segmentation and thorough shielding to improve performance.

Bjork, C.W.

1987-01-01

213

Evaluation of gamma-Ray Intensities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of literature survey and evaluation of relative intensities and intensities per decay of gamma rays are presented. Evaluations were made for exp 22 Na, exp 24 Na, exp 46 Sc, exp 48 Sc, exp 48 V, exp 54 Mn, exp 57 Co, exp 60 Co, exp 85 Sr, exp 88 Y...

Y. Yoshizawa, H. Inoue, M. Hoshi, K. Shzuma, Y. Iwata

1978-01-01

214

Gamma-ray Pulsars: Models and Predictions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pulsed emission from gamma-ray pulsars originates inside the magnetosphere, from radiation by charged particles accelerated near the magnetic poles or in the outer gaps. In polar cap models, the high energy spectrum is cut off by magnetic pair production above an energy that is, dependent on the local magnetic field strength. While most young pulsars with surface fields in the range B = 10(exp 12) - 10(exp 13) G are expected to have high energy cutoffs around several GeV, the gamma-ray spectra of old pulsars having lower surface fields may extend to 50 GeV. Although the gamma-ray emission of older pulsars is weaker, detecting pulsed emission at high energies from nearby sources would be an important confirmation of polar cap models. Outer gap models predict more gradual high-energy turnovers of the primary curvature emission around 10 GeV, but also predict an inverse Compton component extending to TeV energies. Detection of pulsed TeV emission, which would not survive attenuation at the polar caps, is thus an important test of outer gap models. Next-generation gamma-ray telescopes sensitive to GeV-TeV emission will provide critical tests of pulsar acceleration and emission mechanisms.

Harding Alice K.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

215

Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector Interactive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This product illustrates how scientists learn about the composition of an asteroid by studying energy and neutrons that emanate from it. The Dawn spacecraft contains three instruments -- the Gamma Ray and Neutro Detector (GRaND), the Visible Infrared Spectrometer, and the Framing Camera -- that will provide answers to questions about the formation and evolution of the early solar system.

Ristvey, John

2009-04-22

216

A Compton scatter attenuation gamma ray spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Compton scatter attenuation gamma ray spectrometer conceptual design is discussed for performing gamma spectral measurements in monodirectional gamma fields from 100 R per hour to 1,000,000 R per hour. Selectable Compton targets are used to scatter gamma photons onto an otherwise heavily shielded detector with changeable scattering efficiencies such that the count rate is maintained between 500 and 10,000 per second. Use of two sum-Compton coincident detectors, one for energies up to 1.5 MeV and the other for 600 keV to 10 MeV, will allow good peak to tail pulse height ratios to be obtained over the entire spectrum and reduces the neutron recoil background rate.

Austin, W. E.

1972-01-01

217

Merging White Dwarf\\/Black Hole Binaries and Gamma-Ray Bursts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The merger of compact binaries, especially black holes and neutron stars, is frequently invoked to explain gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). In this paper, we present three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of the relatively neglected mergers of white dwarfs and black holes. During the merger, the white dwarf is tidally disrupted and sheared into an accretion disk. Nuclear reactions are followed, and the energy

Chris L. Fryer; S. E. Woosley; Marc Herant; Melvyn B. Davies

1999-01-01

218

Miniaturization in x ray and gamma ray spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents advances in two new sensor technologies and a miniaturized associated electronics technology which, when combined, can allow for very significant miniaturization and for the reduction of weight and power consumption in x-ray and gamma-ray spectroscopy systems: (1) Mercuric iodide (HgI2) x-ray technology, which allows for the first time the construction of truly portable, high-energy resolution, non-cryogenic x-ray fluorescence (XRF) elemental analyzer systems, with parameters approaching those of laboratory quality cryogenic instruments; (2) the silicon avalanche photodiode (APD), which is a solid-state light sensitive device with internal amplification, capable of uniquely replacing the vacuum photomultiplier tube in scintillation gamma-ray spectrometer applications, and offering substantial improvements in size, ruggedness, low power operation and energy resolution; and (3) miniaturized (hybridized) low noise, low power amplification and processing electronics, which take full advantage of the favorable properties of these new sensors and allow for the design and fabrication of advanced, highly miniaturized x-ray and gamma-ray spectroscopy systems. The paper also presents experimental results and examples of spectrometric systems currently under construction. The directions for future developments are discussed.

Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Wang, Yuzhong J.; Bradley, James G.

1993-01-01

219

Cosmogenic gamma rays and the composition of cosmic rays  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the prospects of detecting the sources of ultrahigh energy (UHE) cosmic ray (CR) nuclei via their emission of cosmogenic {gamma} rays in the GeV to TeV energy range. These {gamma} rays result from electromagnetic cascades initiated by high energy photons, electrons, and positrons that are emitted by CRs during their propagation in the cosmic radiation background and are independent of the simultaneous emission of {gamma} rays in the vicinity of the source. The corresponding production power by UHE CR nuclei (with mass number A and charge Z) is dominated by pion photo production ({proportional_to}A) and Bethe-Heitler pair production ({proportional_to}Z{sup 2}). We show that the cosmogenic {gamma}-ray signal from a single steady UHE CR source is typically more robust with respect to variations of the source composition and injection spectrum than the accompanying signal of cosmogenic neutrinos. We study the diffuse emission from the sum of extragalactic CR sources as well as the point-source emission of the closest sources.

Ahlers, Markus [C. N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, SUNY at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794-3840 (United States); Salvado, Jordi [Departament d'Estructura i Constituents de la Materia and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, 647 Diagonal, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

2011-10-15

220

The Nature of Plerions Surrounding Soft Gamma-Ray Repeaters  

E-print Network

Compact steady sources of X-ray emission have been detected at the positions of at least two soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs). These sources have been interpreted as synchrotron nebulae powered by the neutron star that is causing the bursts. We explore a plerion model for the sources surrounding SGRs where the steady observed emission is powered by the SGR bursts rather than by the spin-down of a pulsar. In this case there is no limit on the neutron star magnetic field. We find that the synchrotron lifetime of the particles injected into the plerion around SGR1806-20 is long enough to smear out nebular emission from individual bursts. Transient nebular emission would therefore not be detected following an SGR burst. The combined radio emission from multiple burst injections is expected to have a steeper spectrum than that of a typical plerion.

Alice K. Harding

1995-06-28

221

Spectral formation in compact X-ray sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The gas flows responsible for X-ray spectral emission in compact X-ray sources are complex and likely to be optically thick. In galactic sources these flows include: stellar wind, accretion disk and corona, magnetosphere, and shock at the compact object surface. Active galactic nuclei are surrounded by many dense clouds responsible for the broad optical and UV emission lines. The nature of these flows can be discovered through observations of their X-ray spectra and time variability. Theoretical models for the formation of line and continuum spectra in these sources are described, emphasizing atomic photoabsorption, line emission, and Comptonization. Current observations of X-ray and UV spectra of compact galactic sources and active galactic nuclei are interpreted in terms of these models. Great advances in the understanding of these systems will result from future missions capable of observing their spectra at higher resolution. Observations of the complex of iron K-alpha lines at 6.4-6.7 keV will be particularly valuable.

Mccray, R.

1984-01-01

222

High Energy Gamma Rays from Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays in Gamma Ray Bursts  

E-print Network

It has recently been proposed that ultrahigh energy ($\\gtrsim 10^{19}$ eV) cosmic rays (UHECRs) are accelerated by the blast waves associated with GRBs. We calculate the observed synchrotron radiation spectrum from protons and energetic leptons formed in the cascades initiated by photopion production, taking into account $\\gamma\\gamma$ attenuation at the source. Normalizing to the emission characteristics of GRB~970508, we predict $\\sim 10$ MeV - 100 GeV fluxes at a level which may have been observed with EGRET from bright GRBs, and could be detected with the proposed GLAST experiment or with ground-based air \\v Cerenkov telescopes having thresholds $\\lesssim $ several hundred GeV. The temporal decay of the UHECR-induced high-energy $\\gamma$-ray afterglows is significantly slower than that of the lower-energy burst and associated synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) radiation, which provides a direct way to test the hadronic origin of a high-energy GRB afterglow. Besides testing the UHECR origin hypothesis, the short wavelength emission and afterglows can be used to probe the level of the diffuse intergalactic infrared radiation field or constrain redshifts of GRB sources.

M. Boettcher; C. D. Dermer

1998-01-06

223

The future of high energy gamma ray astronomy and its potential astrophysical implications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future satellites should carry instruments having over an order of magnitude greater sensitivity than those flown thus far as well as improved energy and angular resolution. The information to be obtained from these experiments should greatly enhance knowledge of: the very energetic and nuclear processes associated with compact objects; the structure of our galaxy; the origin and dynamic pressure effects of the cosmic rays; the high energy particles and energetic processes in other galaxies; and the degree of matter-antimatter symmetry of the universe. The relevant aspects of extragalactic gamma ray phenomena are emphasized along with the instruments planned. The high energy gamma ray results of forthcoming programs such as GAMMA-1 and the Gamma Ray Observatory should justify even more sophisticated telescopes. These advanced instruments might be placed on the space station currently being considered by NASA.

Fichtel, C. E.

1982-01-01

224

New, room-temperature gamma-ray detector for improved assay of plutonium  

SciTech Connect

Gamma-ray spectroscopy for portable and unattended assay of nuclear materials requires rugged, reliable, room-temperature detectors that are stable in variable environments and detect gamma rays with good efficiency and energy resolution. For portable assays especially, compact detectors address needs for large numbers of measurements performed in rapid succession with heavy shielding and collimation by a user who must carry the spectroscopy equipment. Most measurements are made with compact NaI detectors. The assay of variable-burnup plutonium and other plutonium materials of variable isotopic composition challenges low-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy in numerous safeguards applications including holdup measurements, safeguards inspections, monitoring, and safeguards close-out in decontamination and decommissioning. A new, commercial-prototype coplanar-grid CdZnTe detector has been evaluated using the assay of variable-burnup plutonium as a metric indicator to show the substantial benefit of its improved performance compared to results of the same measurements performed with the compact NaI detector. Detector performance, spectrum-quality, and assay results as well as gamma-ray spectra of reference sources are compared for the coplanar-grid CdZnTe and compact NaI detectors to illustrate the advantages of the new room-temperature gamma-ray detector. Isotope identification with the coplanar-grid CdZnTe detector is demonstrated. Preliminary calculations (Monte Carlo coupled to simulations of radiation transport and charge collection) of the spectral response of the detector to plutonium indicate promise for the use of the coplanar-grid CdZnTe detector for further improvements in the accuracy of assays and for analysis of gamma-ray isotopic distributions.

Russo, P.A.; Meier, A.P.; Rawool-Sullivan, M. [and others

1997-11-01

225

Gamma ray constraints on the Galactic supernova rate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We perform Monte Carlo simulations of the expected gamma ray signatures of Galactic supernovae of all types to estimate the significance of the lack of a gamma ray signal due to supernovae occurring during the last millenium. Using recent estimates of the nuclear yields, we determine mean Galactic supernova rates consistent with the historic supernova record and the gamma ray limits. Another objective of these calculations of Galactic supernova histories is their application to surveys of diffuse Galactic gamma ray line emission.

Hartmann, D.; The, L.-S.; Clayton, Donald D.; Leising, M.; Mathews, G.; Woosley, S. E.

1991-01-01

226

Gamma-Ray Pulsars in the GLAST Era  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gamma-ray pulsar is a rotating neutron star that emits gamma-ray photons. The EGRET experiment has found seven so far. Gamma-ray pulsars exhibit a range of characteristics with some emitting at radio wavelengths and others not at all. The upcoming GLAST mission will dramatically improve on EGRET's flux sensitivity and energy range. In this talk gamma-ray pulsar models will be

Marcus Ziegler

2006-01-01

227

Quasars, Blazars, and the Gamma-Ray Sky  

Microsoft Academic Search

The statistical properties of gamma-ray emitting AGN are discussed, based on radio sources stronger than 1 Jy at 5 GHz that have been detected by the EGRET experiment on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. Most strong gamma-ray sources are radio quasars; radio galaxies are a small component of the population. Among the 1 Jy quasars, gamma-ray detections have stronger than

Chris Impey

1996-01-01

228

Simultaneous optical/gamma-ray observations of GRBs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Details on the project to search for serendipitous time correlated optical photographic observations of Gamma Ray Bursters (GRB's) are presented. The ongoing photographic observations at nine observatories are used to look for plates which were exposed simultaneously with a gamma ray burst detected by the gamma ray instrument team (BATSE) and contain the burst position. The results for the first two years of the gamma ray instrument team operation are presented.

Greiner, J.; Wenzel, W.; Hudec, R.; Moskalenko, E. I.; Metlov, V.; Chernych, N. S.; Getman, V. S.; Ziener, Rainer; Birkle, K.; Bade, N.

1994-01-01

229

COMPACT CdZnTe-BASED GAMMA CAMERA FOR PROSTATE CANCER IMAGING  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we discuss the design of a compact gamma camera for high-resolution prostate cancer imaging using Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CdZnTe or CZT) radiation detectors. Prostate cancer is a common disease in men. Nowadays, a blood test measuring the level of prostate specific antigen (PSA) is widely used for screening for the disease in males over 50, followed by (ultrasound) imaging-guided biopsy. However, PSA tests have a high false-positive rate and ultrasound-guided biopsy has a high likelihood of missing small cancerous tissues. Commercial methods of nuclear medical imaging, e.g. PET and SPECT, can functionally image the organs, and potentially find cancer tissues at early stages, but their applications in diagnosing prostate cancer has been limited by the smallness of the prostate gland and the long working distance between the organ and the detectors comprising these imaging systems. CZT is a semiconductor material with wide band-gap and relatively high electron mobility, and thus can operate at room temperature without additional cooling. CZT detectors are photon-electron direct-conversion devices, thus offering high energy-resolution in detecting gamma rays, enabling energy-resolved imaging, and reducing the background of Compton-scattering events. In addition, CZT material has high stopping power for gamma rays; for medical imaging, a few-mm-thick CZT material provides adequate detection efficiency for many SPECT radiotracers. Because of these advantages, CZT detectors are becoming popular for several SPECT medical-imaging applications. Most recently, we designed a compact gamma camera using CZT detectors coupled to an application-specific-integrated-circuit (ASIC). This camera functions as a trans-rectal probe to image the prostate gland from a distance of only 1-5 cm, thus offering higher detection efficiency and higher spatial resolution. Hence, it potentially can detect prostate cancers at their early stages. The performance tests of this camera have been completed. The results show better than 6-mm resolution at a distance of 1 cm. Details of the test results are discussed in this paper.

CUI, Y.; LALL, T.; TSUI, B.; YU, J.; MAHLER, G.; BOLOTNIKOV, A.; VASKA, P.; DeGERONIMO, G.; O'CONNOR, P.; MEINKEN, G.; JOYAL, J.; BARRETT, J.; CAMARDA, G.; HOSSAIN, A.; KIM, K.H.; YANG, G.; POMPER, M.; CHO, S.; WEISMAN, K.; SEO, Y.; BABICH, J.; LaFRANCE, N.; AND JAMES, R.B.

2011-10-23

230

X-ray Binaries in Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-rays from binaries in small, metal-deficient galaxies may have contributed significantly to the heating and reionization of the early Universe, depending on their population and spectral shape. We investigate both properties by studying blue compact dwarfs (BCDs) as local analogs to these early galaxies. We constrain the relation of the X-ray luminosity function (XLF) to the star-formation rate (SFR) using a Bayesian approach applied to a sample of 25 BCDs. Our results suggest a significant enhancement in the population of high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) in BCDs compared to near-solar metallicity galaxies. We show that X-ray binaries in the extremely metal-poor galaxies I Zw 18 and VII Zw 403 undergo spectral state transitions. The HMXB spectral shape affects how the emitted X-rays heat the intergalactic medium, thus affecting the 21-cm signal from the epoch of reionization.

Brorby, Matthew; Kaaret, Philip; Prestwich, Andrea H.

2014-08-01

231

Physical constraints on models of gamma-ray bursters  

SciTech Connect

This report deals with the constraints that can be placed on models of gamma-ray burst sources based on only the well-established observational facts and physical principles. The premise is developed that the very hard x-ray and gamma-ray continua spectra are well-established aspects of gamma-ray bursts. Recent theoretical work on gamma-ray bursts are summarized with emphasis on the geometrical properties of the models. Constraints on the source models which are implied by the x-ray and gamma-ray spectra are described. The allowed ranges for the luminosity and characteristic dimension for gamma-ray burst sources are shown. Some of the deductions and inferences about the nature of the gamma-ray burst sources are summarized. 67 refs., 3 figs.

Epstein, R.I.

1985-01-01

232

X-ray counterparts of Gamma Ray Bursts  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important recent progress in the field of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) has been made possible by fast positioning with arcminute accuracy of the X-ray counterpart of GRBs. These are obtained with two Wide Field Cameras (WFCs) on board BeppoSAX, sensitive in the range 2-30 keV. The WFCs have a sufficiently large field of view (40x40 degree, Full Width Zero

J. Heise

1997-01-01

233

Cosmic-ray effects on diffuse gamma-ray measurements.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evaluation of calculations and experimental evidence from 600-MeV proton irradiation indicating that cosmic-ray-induced radioactivity in detectors used to measure the diffuse gamma-ray background produces a significant counting rate in the energy region around 1 MeV. It is concluded that these counts may be responsible for the observed flattening of the diffuse photon spectrum at this energy.

Fishman, G. J.

1972-01-01

234

Very High-Energy Gamma-Ray Sources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses topics related to high-energy, gamma-ray astronomy (including cosmic radiation, gamma-ray detectors, high-energy gamma-ray sources, and others). Also considers motivation for the development of this field, the principal results to date, and future prospects. (JN)

Weekes, Trevor C.

1986-01-01

235

Gamma-ray spectra from neutron capture on Sr  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gamma-ray spectrum following neutron capture on Sr was measured at 3 neutron energies: E\\/sub n\\/ = thermal, 2 keV, and 24 keV. Gamma rays were detected in a three-crystal Ge(Li)-NaI-NaI pair spectrometer. Gamma-ray intensities deduced from these spectra by spectral unfolding are presented.

R. E. Sullivan; J. A. Becker; M. L. Stelts

1981-01-01

236

Results from the Milagro Gamma-Ray Observatory  

E-print Network

Results from the Milagro Gamma-Ray Observatory E. Blaufuss for the Milagro Collaboration a,1 , aUniversity of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA Abstract The Milagro Gamma-Ray Observatory, located at an altitude- tor capable of continuously monitoring the overhead sky for sources of TeV gamma rays. At the center

California at Santa Cruz, University of

237

X-RAYS FROM BLUE COMPACT DWARF GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

We measured the X-ray fluxes from an optically selected sample of blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs) with metallicities <0.07 and solar distances less than 15 Mpc. Four X-ray point sources were observed in three galaxies, with five galaxies having no detectable X-ray emission. Comparing X-ray luminosity and star formation rate (SFR), we find that the total X-ray luminosity of the sample is more than 10 times greater than expected if X-ray luminosity scales with SFR according to the relation found for normal-metallicity star-forming galaxies. However, due to the low number of sources detected, one can exclude the hypothesis that the relation of the X-ray binaries to SFR in low-metallicity BCDs is identical to that in normal galaxies only at the 96.6% confidence level. It has recently been proposed that X-ray binaries were an important source of heating and reionization of the intergalactic medium at the epoch of reionization. If BCDs are analogs to unevolved galaxies in the early universe, then enhanced X-ray binary production in BCDs would suggest an enhanced impact of X-ray binaries on the early thermal history of the universe.

Kaaret, Philip; Schmitt, Joseph; Gorski, Mark [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

2011-11-01

238

How Far Away Are Gamma-Ray Bursters?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The positions of over 1000 gamma-ray bursts detected with the BATSE experiment on board of the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory are uniformly and randomly distributed in the sky, with no significant concentration to the galactic plane or to the galactic center. The strong gamma-ray bursts have an intensity distribution consistent with a number density independent of distance in Euclidean space.

Bohdan Paczynski

1995-01-01

239

Celestial Gamma Ray Bursts Detector Development and Model Simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Celestial gamma-ray bursts are a poorly understood astrophysical phenomenon. These transient events were discovered over twenty years ago, yet their origin is still an unsolved mystery. At present no quiescent counterpart to a gamma ray burst source has been conclusively identified, partly because the poor angular resolution of gamma ray detectors and the short durations of the bursts make it

Patrick Charles Mock

1993-01-01

240

Viewing the Sky at Nuclear Gamma-Ray Wavelengths  

Microsoft Academic Search

I discuss our changed view of the gamma -ray sky as a result of measurements made by the gamma -ray spectrometer (GRS) on the Solar Maximum Mission satellite. This highly successful instrument was developed at UNH and MPE (Germany) to study solar flares and operated from 1980 February to 1989 November. The number of flares detected in nuclear gamma -rays

Gerald H. Share

1992-01-01

241

Gamma-Ray Telescopes: 400 Years of Astronomical Telescopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The last half-century has seen dramatic developments in gamma-ray telescopes, from their initial conception and development through to their blossoming into full maturity as a potent research tool in astronomy. Gamma-ray telescopes are leading research in diverse areas such as gamma-ray bursts, blazars, Galactic transients, and the Galactic distribution of Al-26.

Gehrels, Neil; Cannizzo, John K.

2010-01-01

242

Constraints on the Emission Geometries and Spin Evolution of Gamma-ray Millisecond Pulsars  

E-print Network

Millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are a growing class of gamma-ray emitters. Pulsed gamma-ray signals have been detected from more than 40 MSPs with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). The wider radio beams and more compact magnetospheres of MSPs enable studies of emission geometries over a broader range of phase space than non-recycled radio-loud gamma-ray pulsars. We have modeled the gamma-ray light curves of 40 LAT-detected MSPs using geometric emission models assuming a vacuum retarded-dipole magnetic field. We modeled the radio profiles using a single-altitude hollow-cone beam, with a core component when indicated by polarimetry; however, for MSPs with gamma-ray and radio light curve peaks occurring at nearly the same rotational phase we assume that the radio emission is co-located with the gamma rays and caustic in nature. The best-fit parameters and confidence intervals are determined using a maximum likelihood technique. We divide the light curves into three model classes, with gamma-ray peaks trailing (Cl...

Johnson, T J; Harding, A K; Guillemot, L; Smith, D A; Kramer, M; Celik, O; Hartog, P R den; Ferrara, E C; Hou, X; Lande, J; Ray, P S

2014-01-01

243

Benchmark gamma-ray skyshine experiment  

SciTech Connect

A benchmark gamma-ray skyshine experiment is descibed in which /sup 60/Co sources were either collimated into an upward 150-deg conical beam or shielded vertically by two different thicknesses of concrete. A NaI(Tl) spectrometer and a high pressure ion chamber were used to measure, respectively, the energy spectrum and the 4..pi..-exposure rate of the air-reflected gamma photons up to 700 m from the source. Analyses of the data and comparison to DOT discrete ordinates calculations are presented.

Nason, R.R.; Shultis, J.K.; Faw, R.E.; Clifford, C.E.

1982-01-01

244

Optimization of compact synchrotron optics for x-ray lithography  

SciTech Connect

The production of integrated circuits having sub-micron component dimensions has motivated the development of compact electron storage rings to provide synchrotron x-ray radiation. This paper presents considerations for optimizing the optics for small radius rings using superconducting dipole magnets. The key parameters are the sizes and angular divergences of the source points illuminating the different ports. Two ring designs are compared in terms of theoretical beam parameters achievable using idealized optics.

Decker, G.A.; Craft, B.C.

1987-03-01

245

Ultraviolet observations of the gamma-ray blazer 3C 279 following the gamma-ray flare of 1991 June  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultraviolet observations of the gamma-ray blazar 3C 279 were carried out in 1991 July with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite, 28 days after the outburst of intense gamma-ray emission detected from this source with the high-energy Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) instrument aboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory. IUE observations were conducted over the wavelength range 1200-3200 A (5-10

Jerry T. Bonnell; W. Thomas Vestrand; J. Gregory Stacy

1994-01-01

246

A model of the diffuse galactic gamma ray emission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The galaxy was observed to be a source of high energy gamma rays as shown by the two successful satellite experiments, SAS-2 and COS-B. It is generally understood that these diffuse gamma rays result from interactions between energetic cosmic rays and interstellar gas. This work makes use of the most recent data on the distribution of atomic and molecular hydrogen in the galaxy along with new estimates of gamma ray production functions to model the diffuse galactic gamma ray emission. The model allows various spatial distributions for cosmic rays in the Galaxy including non-axisymmetric ones. In the light of the expected data from EGRET (Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope), an improved model of cosmic ray-matter-gamma ray interaction will provide new insights into the distribution of cosmic rays and the strength of its coupling to matter.

Sreekumar, Parameswaran

1990-01-01

247

The Properties of Gamma-ray Binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are a small but growing number of high mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) that also exhibit emission above 100 MeV. All of these "gamma-ray binaries" exhibit variable emission across the electromagnetic spectrum, from radio to TeV energies, that is modulated with the binary orbital period. The optical stellar companions in these gamma-ray binaries fall into a range of spectral classes: Wolf-Rayet, O main sequence, B supergiant, and Be. Their high energy emission is probably powered by the collision of stellar wind or disk outflows with relativistic pulsar winds in a shock region. These sources present a unique opportunity to study particle acceleration in nearby, Galactic sources. I will review the observed multiwavelength properties of known gamma-ray binaries and discuss the population in the context of the late stages of massive star evolution. I am grateful for support from the Fermi Cycle 4 program through NASA grant NNX11AO41G and from NSF grant AST-1109247.

McSwain, M. Virginia

2013-06-01

248

THE FERMI GAMMA-RAY BURST MONITOR  

SciTech Connect

The Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) will significantly augment the science return from the Fermi Observatory in the study of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The primary objective of GBM is to extend the energy range over which bursts are observed downward from the energy range of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on Fermi into the hard X-ray range where extensive previous data sets exist. A secondary objective is to compute burst locations onboard to allow re-orienting the spacecraft so that the LAT can observe delayed emission from bright bursts. GBM uses an array of 12 sodium iodide scintillators and two bismuth germanate scintillators to detect gamma rays from {approx}8 keV to {approx}40 MeV over the full unocculted sky. The onboard trigger threshold is {approx}0.7 photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} (50-300 keV, 1 s peak). GBM generates onboard triggers for {approx}250 GRBs per year.

Meegan, Charles [Universities Space Research Association, NSSTC, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Lichti, Giselher; Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Diehl, Roland; Greiner, Jochen; Von Kienlin, Andreas; Steinle, Helmut [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstrasse Postfach 1312, Garching 85748 (Germany); Bhat, P. N.; Briggs, Michael S.; Connaughton, Valerie; Paciesas, W. S.; Preece, Robert; Wilson, Robert B. [University of Alabama in Huntsville, NSSTC, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Fishman, Gerald; Kouveliotou, Chryssa [Space Science Office, VP62, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Hoover, Andrew S.; Kippen, R. Marc; Wallace, Mark S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Van der Horst, Alexander J. [NSSTC, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); McBreen, Sheila [University College, Dublin, Belfield, Stillorgan Road, Dublin 4 (Ireland)] (and others)

2009-09-01

249

Solar gamma rays. [in solar flares  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theory of gamma ray production in solar flares is treated in detail. Both lines and continuum are produced. Results show that the strongest line predicted at 2.225 MeV with a width of less than 100 eV and detected at 2.24 + or - 2.02 MeV, is due to neutron capture by protons in the photosphere. Its intensity is dependent on the photospheric He-3 abundance. The neutrons are produced in nuclear reactions of flare accelerated particles which also produce positrons and prompt nuclear deexcitation lines. The strongest prompt lines are at 4.43 MeV from c-12 and at approximately 6.2 from 0-16 and N-15. The gamma ray continuum, produced by electron bremsstrahlung, allows the determination of the spectrum and number of accelerated electrons in the MeV region. From the comparison of the line and continuum intensities a proton-to-electron ratio of about 10 to 100 at the same energy for the 1972, August 4 flare. For the same flare the protons above 2.5 MeV which are responsible for the gamma ray emission produce a few percent of the heat generated by the electrons which make the hard X rays above 20 keV.

Ramaty, R.; Kozlovsky, B.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

1974-01-01

250

Update on the Compact Synchrotron X-Ray Source Helios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Helios is a compact superconducting Synchrotron X-ray source designed specifically for lithography. It will produce a total X-ray power of 8.2 kW when the design stored beam of 200 mA is achieved. The first phase of commissioning has just been completed in less than 2 months. A stored beam of 305 mA has been accumulated at the injection energy of 200 MeV and 55 mA has been accelerated to the full energy of 700 MeV.

Wilson, M. N.; Smith, A. I. C.; Kempson, V. C.; Purvis, A. L.; Anderson, R. J.; Townsend, M. C.; Jorden, A. R.; Andrews, D. E.; Suller, V. P.; Poole, M. W.

1990-11-01

251

X-ray and Gamma-ray Observations from Lightning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this dissertation, we show that the energetic electrons that produce x-rays exhibit a characteristic energy less than 3 MeV for the natural and rocket-triggered leaders investigated. Furthermore, the spectra from 47 leaders were determined using data from NaI detectors to show the variability of the average source energy. Energetic electron luminosity, total energy, and energetic electron per meter from 28 different leaders from 12 triggered flashes were also compared to their return stroke currents. It was found that the electron luminosity increases exponentially with return stroke current up to about 10 kA and was roughly constant for currents greater than 10 kA. The maximum luminosity in this report was measured to be on the order of 1017 electrons/s, which is less than the value found from theoretical calculations. Additionally, we investigate x-ray emission from individual lightning leader bursts to determine if energetic electrons at the source are emitted isotropically or with some degree of anisotropy. We find that at least 8 out of 18 x-ray bursts show a statistically significant first-order anisotropy, and are inconsistent with isotropic emission. The level of anisotropy of the runaway electrons is important because it provides, in principle, information on the electric field near the lightning leader tip. Finally, we investigate the structure of x-ray emissions from downward rocket-triggered leaders using a pinhole-type x-ray camera (XCAM). Five out of 12 leaders, from 2011, produced XCAM images showing the leader propagating downward with x-ray emission. Particularly, two of these five leaders displayed unique x-ray emission patterns (compact and diffuse). These two distinct x-ray emission patterns illustrate the variability of the emission pattern of lightning leaders. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we show that the diffuse x-ray source must originate from a diffuse source of energetic electrons and that compact x-ray sources originate from compact electron sources. Furthermore, we show one "chaotic" dart and one dart-stepped leader that displays a narrow electron source. The maximum x-ray source region radius and maximum electric charge contained within the x-ray source region were also found.

Schaal, Meagan Marie

252

POET: a SMEX mission for gamma ray burst polarimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polarimeters for Energetic Transients (POET) is a mission concept designed to t within the envelope of a NASA Small Explorer (SMEX) mission. POET will use X-ray and gamma-ray polarimetry to uncover the energy release mechanism associated with the formation of stellar-mass black holes and investigate the physics of extreme magnetic ields in the vicinity of compact objects. Two wide-FoV, non-imaging polarimeters will provide polarization measurements over the broad energy range from about 2 keV up to about 500 keV. A Compton scatter polarimeter, using an array of independent scintillation detector elements, will be used to collect data from 50 keV up to 500 keV. At low energies (2{15 keV), data will be provided by a photoelectric polarimeter based on the use of a Time Projection Chamber for photoelectron tracking. During a two-year baseline mission, POET will be able to collect data that will allow us to distinguish between three basic models for the inner jet of gamma-ray bursts.

McConnell, Mark L.; Baring, Matthew; Bloser, Peter; Dwyer, Joseph F.; Emslie, A. Gordon; Ertley, Camden D.; Greiner, Jochen; Harding, Alice K.; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Hill, Joanne E.; Kaaret, Philip; Kippen, R. M.; Mattingly, David; McBreen, Sheila; Pearce, Mark; Produit, Nicolas; Ryan, James M.; Ryde, Felix; Sakamoto, Takanori; Toma, Kenji; Vestrand, W. Thomas; Zhang, Bing

2014-07-01

253

Gamma ray burst outflows and afterglows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We carry out a theoretical investigation of jet propagation in Gamma Ray Bursts and examine the jitter radiation mechanism as a means of producing prompt and afterglow emission. We study the long-term evolution of relativistic jets in collapsars and examine the effects of viewing angle on the subsequent gamma ray bursts. Our simulations allow us to single out three phases in the jet evolution: a precursor phase in which relativistic material turbulently shed from the head of the jet first emerges from the star; a shocked jet phase where a fully shocked jet of material is emerging; and an unshocked jet phase where the jet consists of a free-streaming, unshocked core surrounded by a thin boundary layer of shocked jet material. We also carry out a series of simulations with central engines that vary on long time periods comparable to the breakout time of the jet, on short time periods (0.1s) much less than the breakout time, and finally that decay as a power law at late times. We conclude that rapid variability seen in prompt GRB emission, as well as shallow decays and flares seen in the X-ray afterglow, can be caused by central engine variability. Finally, we present a detailed computation of the jitter radiation spectrum, including self-absorption, for electrons inside Weibel-like shock- generated magnetic fields. We apply our results to the case of the prompt and afterglow emission of gamma-ray bursts. We conclude that jitter and synchrotron afterglows can be distinguished from each other with good quality observations. However, it is unlikely that the difference can explain the peculiar behavior of several recent observations, such as flat X-ray slopes and uncorrelated optical and X-ray behavior.

Morsony, Brian J.

2008-08-01

254

The Gamma-Ray Burst Next Door  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

I hesitate to spawn a thousand bad sci-fi flicks, but here it goes: Scientists now say that some gamma-ray bursts, the most powerful explosions in the universe, originate in nearby galaxy clusters. If one were to occur nearby, it could wipe out life on Earth. Fortunately, the chances of mass extinction are slimmer than the Chicago Cubs meeting the Boston Red Sox in the World Series (. . . and the Red Sox winning). But a new analysis of over 1400 archived gamma-ray bursts reveals that about 100 bursts originated within 325 million light-years of Earth, and not billions of light-years away as previously thought. If so, there's no reason why a burst couldn't go off in our galaxy.

Wanjek, Christopher

2003-01-01

255

EBT-P gamma ray shielding analysis  

SciTech Connect

First, a one-dimensional scoping study was performed for the gamma ray shield of the ELMO Bumpy Torus proof-of-principle device to define appropriate shielding material and determine the required shielding thickness. The dose equivalent results are analyzed as a function of the radiation shield thickness for different shielding options. A sensitivity analysis for the pessimistic case is given. The recommended shielding option based on the performance and cost is discussed. Next, a three-dimensional scoping study for the coil shield was performed for four different shielding options to define the heat load for each component and check the compliance with the design criterion of 10 watts maximum heat load per coil from the gamma ray sources. Also, a detailed biological dose survey was performed which included: a) the dose equivalent inside and outside the building, b) the dose equivalent from the two mazes of the building, and c) the skyshine contribution to the dose equivalent.

Gohar, Y.

1983-09-01

256

Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO): Emergency support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) is an Earth orbiting satellite that studies sources of localized, galactic, and extragalactic gamma rays. It will be carried into a near-circular orbit by the Space Shuttle, following which it will be placed in its operational orbit by its on-board hydrazine propulsion system. Formal orbit parameters are 350 km x 450 km x 28.5 degrees with a period of 93 minutes. Deep Space Network coverage will be provided during emergencies that would prevent communications via the normal Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS)-White Sands data link. Emergency support will be provided by the DSN's 26-meter antenna subnetwork. Information is given in tabular form for DSN support, frequency assignments, telemetry, and command.

Schauer, K.; Madden, J.

1991-01-01

257

Gamma ray spectroscopic measurements of Mars.  

PubMed

A gamma ray spectrometer placed in orbit around Mars is expected to yield significant compositional data which can be related to the evolution of that planet. Components of the observable gamma ray flux come from the Martian surface, galactic and intergalactic space, and the spacecraft itself. The flux can be detected by a scintillation crystal or solid state detector, either of which combines efficiency of detection with energy resolution, and returns information to the earth as a pulse height distribution in order to detect characteristic energy line structure. The data will be evaluated for evidence of elemental differentiation with reference to terrestrial, meteoritic, solar, and lunar abundances. A lengthy mission will allow the surface of Mars to be mapped in a search for possible correlations between composition and topography or albedo. PMID:20076376

Metzger, A E; Arnold, J R

1970-06-01

258

Nucleosynthesis and astrophysical gamma ray spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The HEAO-3 gamma ray spectrometer has provided evidence in the quest for the understanding of complex element formation in the universe with the discovery of Al-26 in the interstellar medium. It has demonstrated that the synthesis of intermediate mass nuclei is currently going on in the galaxy. This discovery was confirmed by the Solar Maximum Mission. The flux is peaked near the galactic center and indicates about 3 solar masses of Al-26 in the interstellar medium, with an implied ratio of Al-26/Al-27 = .00001. Several possible distributions were studied but the data gathered thus far do not allow discrimination between them. It is felt that only the spaceflight of a high resolution gamma ray spectrometer with adequate sensitivity will ultimately resolve the issue of the source of this material.

Jacobson, Allan S.

1987-01-01

259

The GAMCIT gamma ray burst detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The GAMCIT payload is a Get-Away-Special payload designed to search for high-energy gamma-ray bursts and any associated optical transients. This paper presents details on the design of the GAMCIT payload, in the areas of battery selection, power processing, electronics design, gamma-ray detection systems, and the optical imaging of the transients. The paper discusses the progress of the construction, testing, and specific design details of the payload. In addition, this paper discusses the unique challenges involved in bringing this payload to completion, as the project has been designed, constructed, and managed entirely by undergraduate students. Our experience will certainly be valuable to other student groups interested in taking on a challenging project such as a Get-Away-Special payload.

Mccall, Benjamin J.; Grunsfeld, John M.; Sobajic, Srdjan D.; Chang, Chinley Leonard; Krum, David M.; Ratner, Albert; Trittschuh, Jennifer E.

1993-01-01

260

Real time gamma-ray signature identifier  

DOEpatents

A real time gamma-ray signature/source identification method and system using principal components analysis (PCA) for transforming and substantially reducing one or more comprehensive spectral libraries of nuclear materials types and configurations into a corresponding concise representation/signature(s) representing and indexing each individual predetermined spectrum in principal component (PC) space, wherein an unknown gamma-ray signature may be compared against the representative signature to find a match or at least characterize the unknown signature from among all the entries in the library with a single regression or simple projection into the PC space, so as to substantially reduce processing time and computing resources and enable real-time characterization and/or identification.

Rowland, Mark (Alamo, CA); Gosnell, Tom B. (Moraga, CA); Ham, Cheryl (Livermore, CA); Perkins, Dwight (Livermore, CA); Wong, James (Dublin, CA)

2012-05-15

261

X-ray Polarization And The Physics Of Compact Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The upcoming GEMS mission will enable us, for the first time, to measure soft X-ray polarization of bright astrophysical objects as a function of photon energy. This will give important insights because the X-ray polarization is connected to fundamental emission and radiative transfer processes. Significant and even strong polarization can be induced by scattering processes in the accretion and ejection flow around compact objects. It may further be modified by the structure of non-Newtonian spacetime. When strong magnetic fields are present they also alter the polarization state of an X- ray photon. The information derived from X-ray polarimetry is particularly helpful when combined with simultaneous, multiple waveband spectroscopy and timing results as it thereby helps to break degeneracy in complex modeling. In my talk, I review theoretical methods and predictions relating future X-ray polarimetry observations to the properties of accreting black holes, neutron stars and surrounding outflows or jets. In particular, I show how X-ray polarization will put constraints on the black hole angular momentum in X-ray binaries and on the emission and scattering geometry in active galactic nuclei. I summarize the state-of-the-art observational techniques and discuss prospects as well as useful future directions for X-ray polarimetry.

Goosmann, R.

2011-09-01

262

Gamma rays from active galactic nuclei  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general properties of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and quasars are reviewed with emphasis on their continuum spectral emission. Two general classes of models for the continuum are outlined and critically reviewed in view of the impending GRO (Gamma Ray Observatory) launch and observations. The importance of GRO in distinguishing between these models and in general in furthering the understanding of AGN is discussed. The very broad terms the status of the current understanding of AGN are discussed.

Kazanas, Demosthenes

1990-01-01

263

EBT-P gamma ray shielding analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

First, a one-dimensional scoping study was performed for the gamma ray shield of the ELMO Bumpy Torus proof-of-principle device to define appropriate shielding material and determine the required shielding thickness. The dose equivalent results are analyzed as a function of the radiation shield thickness for different shielding options. A sensitivity analysis for the pessimistic case is given. The recommended shielding

Gohar

1983-01-01

264

Beacons at the gamma ray horizon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blazars with redshifts z<=0.1 are likely candidates for detection at energies in the range 300GeV-50TeV with Cerenkov telescopes and scintillator arrays. We present gamma-ray flux predictions for a sample of 15 nearby flat-spectrum radio sources fitting the proton blazar model of Mannheim (1993A&A...269...67M) to their observed broad-band spectral energy distributions. At high energies, we use fluxes or flux limits measured

K. Mannheim; S. Westerhoff; H. Meyer; H.-H. Fink

1996-01-01

265

Status of the Milagro Gamma Ray Observatory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Milagro Gamma Ray Observatory is the world's first large-area water Cherenkov detector capable of continuously monitoring the sky at TeV energies. Located in the mountains of northern New Mexico, Milagro will perform an all sky survey of the Northern Hemisphere at energies between 250 GeV and 50 TeV. With ą a high duty-cycle, large detector area, and wide field-of-view

Joseph McCullough; W. Benbow; D. Berley; M.-L. Chen; D. G. Coyne; R. S. Delay; B. L. Dingus; D. E. Dorfan; R. W. Ellsworth; D. Evans; A. Falcone; L. Fleysher; R. Fleysher; G. Gisler; J. A. Goodman; T. J. Haines; C. M. Hoffman; S. Hugenberger; L. A. Kelley; I. Leonor; J. Macri; M. McConnell; J. E. McEnery; R. S. Miller; A. I. Mincer; M. F. Morales; P. Nemethy; J. M. Ryan; M. Schneider; B. Shen; A. Shoup; G. Sinnis; A. J. Smith; G. W. Sullivan; T. N. Thompson; O. T. Tumer; K. Wang; M. O. Wascko; S. Westerhoff; D. A. Williams; T. Yang; G. B. Yodh

1999-01-01

266

Gamma-Ray Line Observations with RHESSI  

E-print Network

The Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) has been observing gamma-ray lines from the Sun and the Galaxy since its launch in February 2002. Here I summarize the status of RHESSI observations of solar lines (nuclear de-excitation, neutron capture, and positron annihilation), the lines of $^{26}$Al and $^{60}$Fe from the inner Galaxy, and the search for positron annihilation in novae.

David M. Smith

2004-04-30

267

The cannonball model of gamma ray bursts  

E-print Network

The cannonball model (CB) of gamma ray bursts (GRBs) is incredibly more successful than the standard blast-wave models (SM) of GRBs, which suffer from profound inadequacies and limited predictive power. The CB model is falsifiable in its hypothesis and results. Its predictions are summarized in simple analytical expressions, derived, in fair approximations, from first principles. It provides a good description on a universal basis of the properties of long-duration GRBs and of their afterglows (AGs).

Arnon Dar

2003-01-20

268

Are Gamma-Ray Bursts Standard Candles?  

E-print Network

By dividing a sample of 48 long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) into four groups with redshift from low to high and fitting each group with the Amati relation log Eiso = a + b log Epeak, I find that parameters a and b vary with the mean redshift of the GRBs in each group systematically and significantly. The results suggest that GRBs evolve strongly with the cosmic redshift and hence are not standard candles.

Li-Xin Li

2007-05-30

269

Common Gamma-ray Glows above Thunderclouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma-ray glows are continuous, long duration gamma- and x-ray emission seen coming from thunderclouds. The Airborne for Energetic Lightning Emissions (ADELE) observed 12 gamma-ray glows during its summer 2009 flight campaign over the areas of Colorado and Florida in the United States. For these glows we shall present their spectra, relationship to lightning activity and how their duration and size changes as a function of distance. Gamma-ray glows follow the relativistic runaway electron avalanche (RREA) spectrum and have been previously measured from the ground and inside the cloud. ADELE measured most glows as it flew above the screening layer of the cloud. During the brightest glow on August 21, 2009, we can show that we are flying directly into a downward facing relativistic runaway avalanche, indicative of flying between the upper positive and negative screening layer of the cloud. In order to explain the brightness of this glow, RREA with an electric field approaching the limit for relativistic feedback must be occurring. Using all 12 glows, we show that lightning activity diminishes during the onset of the glow. Using this along with the fact that glows occur as the field approaches the level necessary for feedback, we attempt to distinguish between two possibilities: that glows are evidence that RREA with feedback, rather than lightning, is sometimes the primary channel for discharging the cloud, or else that the overall discharging is still controlled by lightning, with glows simply appearing during times when a subsidence of lightning allows the field to rise above the threshold for RREA.

Kelley, Nicole; Smith, David; Dwyer, Joseph; Hazelton, Bryna; Grefenstette, Brian; Lowell, Alex; Splitt, Michael; Lazarus, Steven; Rassoul, Hamid

2013-04-01

270

Gamma Ray Bursts: an Enigma Being Unraveled  

SciTech Connect

The best astrophysical accelerators are quasars and the 'progenitors' of GRBs which, after decades of observations and scores of theories, we still do not understand. But, I shall argue, we now know quite well where GRBs come from, and we understand how their 'beams' behave, as they make short pulses of gamma rays and long-duration X-ray, optical and radio 'afterglows'. I shall argue that our understanding of these phenomena, based on the 'Cannonball Model', is unusually simple, precise and successful. The 'sociology' of GRBs is interesting per se and, in this sense, the avatars of the Cannonball Model in confronting the generally accepted 'fireball models' are also quite revealing.

De Rujula, Alvaro (Boston University and CERN) [Boston University and CERN

2003-05-14

271

Comptonization of gamma rays by cold electrons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytic method is developed for calculating the emergent spectrum of gamma-rays and X-rays scattered in a homogeneous medium with low-temperature electrons. The Klein-Nishina corrections of the scattering cross section and absorption processes are taken in account. The wavelength relaxation and the spatial diffusion problems are solved separately, and the emergent spectrum is calculated by convolving the evolution function of the spectrum in an infinite medium with the photon luminosity resulting from the spatial diffusion in a finite sphere. The analytic results are compared with that of Monte Carlo calculations and it is concluded that the analytic result is quite accurate.

Xu, Yueming; Ross, Randy R.; Mccray, Richard

1991-01-01

272

Computational techniques in gamma-ray Skyshine analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two computer codes were developed to analyze gamma-ray skyshine, the scattering of gamma photons by air molecules. A review of previous gamma-ray skyshine studies discusses several Monte Carlo codes, programs using a single-scatter model, and the MicroSkyshine program for microcomputers. A benchmark gamma-ray skyshine experiment performed at Kansas State University is also described. A single-scatter numerical model was presented which

Darin L. George

1988-01-01

273

Gamma-ray binaries : a bridge between Be stars and high energy astrophysics  

E-print Network

Advances in X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy have opened a new window on our universe and revealed a wide variety of binaries composed of a compact object and a Be star. In Be X-ray binaries, a neutron star accretes the Be disk and truncates it through tidal interactions. Such systems have important X-ray outbursts, some related to the disk structure. In other systems, strong gamma ray emission is observed. In gamma-ray binaries, the neutron star is not accreting but driving a highly relativistic wind. The wind collision region presents similarities to colliding wind binaries composed of massive stars. The high energy emission is coming from particles being accelerated at the relativistic shock. I will review the physics of X-ray and gamma-ray binaries, focusing particularly on the recent developments on gamma-ray binaries. I will describe physical mechanisms such as relativistic hydrodynamics, tidal forces and non thermal emission. I will highlight how high energy astrophysics can shed a new light on Be star ph...

Lamberts, Astrid

2014-01-01

274

Highlights of GeV Gamma-Ray Astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because high-energy gamma rays are primarily produced by high-energy particle interactions, the gamma-ray survey of the sky by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope offers a view of sites of cosmic ray production and interactions. Gamma-ray bursts, pulsars, pulsar wind nebulae, binary sources, and Active Galactic Nuclei are all phenomena that reveal particle acceleration through their gamma-ray emission. Diffuse Galactic gamma radiation, Solar System gamma-ray sources, and energetic radiation from supernova remnants are likely tracers of high-energy particle interactions with matter and photon fields. This paper will present a broad overview of the constantly changing sky seen with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi spacecraft.

Thompson, David J.

2010-01-01

275

Nucleosynthesis and Gamma Ray-Line Astronomy  

E-print Network

The most energetic part of the electromagnetic spectrum bears the purest clues to the synthesis of atomic nuclei in the universe. The decay of radioactive species, synthesized in stellar environments and ejected into the interstellar medium, gives rise to specific gamma ray lines. The observations gathered up to now show evidence for radioactivities throughout the galactic disk, in young supernova remnants (Cas A, Vela), and in nearby extragalactic supernovae (SN 1987A, SN 1991T and SN1998bu), in the form of specific gamma ray lines resulting, respectively, from the radioactive decay of 26Al, 44Ti and 56Co. The various astrophysical sites of thermal nucleosynthesis of the radioactive nuclei were discussed: AGB and Wolf-Rayet stars, novae, and type Ia and type II supernovae. Nuclear excitations by fast particles also produce gamma ray lines which have been observed in great detail from solar flares, and more hypothetically from active star forming regions where massive supernovae and WR stars abound. This non thermal process and its nucleosynthetic consequences was reviewed. The 511 keV line arising from e+ + e- annihilation also provides important information on explosive nucleosynthesis, as well as on the nature of the interstellar medium where the positrons annihilate. INTEGRAL, the main mission devoted to high resolution nuclear spectroscopy, should lead to important progress in this field.

Elisabeth Vangioni-Flam; Reuven Ramaty; Michel Casse

1999-02-04

276

The Most Remote Gamma-Ray Burst  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESO Telescopes Observe "Lightning" in the Young Universe Summary Observations with telescopes at the ESO La Silla and Paranal observatories (Chile) have enabled an international team of astronomers [1] to measure the distance of a "gamma-ray burst", an extremely violent, cosmic explosion of still unknown physical origin. It turns out to be the most remote gamma-ray burst ever observed . The exceedingly powerful flash of light from this event was emitted when the Universe was very young, less than about 1,500 million years old, or only 10% of its present age. Travelling with the speed of light (300,000 km/sec) during 11,000 million years or more, the signal finally reached the Earth on January 31, 2000. The brightness of the exploding object was enormous, at least 1,000,000,000,000 times that of our Sun, or thousands of times that of the explosion of a single, heavy star (a "supernova"). The ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) was also involved in trail-blazing observations of another gamma-ray burst in May 1999, cf. ESO PR 08/99. PR Photo 28a/00 : Sky field near GRB 000131 . PR Photo 28b/00 : The fading optical counterpart of GRB 000131 . PR Photo 28c/00 : VLT spectrum of GRB 000131 . What are Gamma-Ray Bursts? One of the currently most active fields of astrophysics is the study of the mysterious events known as "gamma-ray bursts" . They were first detected in the late 1960's by instruments on orbiting satellites. These short flashes of energetic gamma-rays last from less than a second to several minutes. Despite much effort, it is only within the last few years that it has become possible to locate the sites of some of these events (e.g. with the Beppo-Sax satellite ). Since the beginning of 1997, astronomers have identified about twenty optical sources in the sky that are associated with gamma-ray bursts. They have been found to be situated at extremely large (i.e., "cosmological") distances. This implies that the energy release during a gamma-ray burst within a few seconds is larger than that of the Sun during its entire life time (about 10,000 million years). "Gamma-ray bursts" are in fact by far the most powerful events since the Big Bang that are known in the Universe. While there are indications that gamma-ray bursts originate in star-forming regions within distant galaxies, the nature of such explosions remains a puzzle. Recent observations with large telescopes, e.g. the measurement of the degree of polarization of light from a gamma-ray burst in May 1999 with the VLT ( ESO PR 08/99), are now beginning to cast some light on this long-standing mystery. The afterglow of GRB 000131 ESO PR Photo 28a/00 ESO PR Photo 28a/00 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 475 pix - 41k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 949 pix - 232k] [Full-Res - JPEG: 1200 x 1424 pix - 1.2Mb] ESO PR Photo 28b/00 ESO PR Photo 28b/00 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 480 pix - 67k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 959 pix - 288k] [Full-Res - JPEG: 1200 x 1439 pix - 856k] Caption : PR Photo 28a/00 is a colour composite image of the sky field around the position of the gamma-ray burst GRB 000131 that was detected on January 31, 2000. It is based on images obtained with the ESO Very Large Telescope at Paranal. The object is indicated with an arrow, near a rather bright star (magnitude 9, i.e., over 1 million times brighter than the faintest objects visible on this photo). This and other bright objects in the field are responsible for various unavoidable imaging effects, caused by optical reflections (ring-shaped "ghost images", e.g. to the left of the brightest star) and detector saturation effects (horizontal and vertical straight lines and coloured "coronae" at the bright objects, and areas of "bleeding", e.g. below the bright star). PR Photo 28b/00 shows the rapid fading of the optical counterpart of GRB 000131 (slightly left of the centre), by means of exposures with the VLT on February 4 (upper left), 6 (upper right), 8 (lower left) and March 5 (lower right). It is no longer visible on the last photo. Techni

2000-10-01

277

Positron annihilation in gamma-ray bursts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emission features appear at energies of 350 to 450 keV in the spectra of a number of gamma ray burst sources. These features were interpreted as electron-positron annihilation lines, redshifted by the gravitational field near the surface of a neutron star. Evidence that gamma ray bursts originate at neutron stars with magnetic field strengths of approx. 10(exp 12) Gauss came from recent observations of cyclotron scattering harmonics in the spectra of two bursts. Positrons could be produced in gamma ray burst sources either by photon-photon pair production or by one-photon pair production in a strong magnetic field. The annihilation of positrons is affected by the presence of a strong neutron star magnetic field in several ways. The relaxation of transverse momentum conservation causes an intrinsic broadening of the two-photon annihilation line and there is a decrease in the annihilation cross section below the free-space value. An additional channel for one-photon annihilation also becomes possible in high magnetic fields. The physics of pair production and annihilation near strongly magnetized neutron stars will be reviewed. Results from a self-consistent model for non-thermal synchrotron radiation and pair annihilation are beginning to identify the conditions required to produce observable annihilation features from strongly magnetized plasmas.

Harding, Alice K.

1990-01-01

278

Hadronic Gamma Rays from Supernova Remnants  

E-print Network

A gas cloud near a supernova remnant (SNR) provides a target for pp-collisions leading to subsequent gamma-ray emission through neutral pion decay. The assumption of a power-law ambient spectrum of accelerated particles with index near -2 is usually built into models predicting the spectra of very-high energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission from SNRs. However, if the gas cloud is located at some distance from the SNR shock, this assumption is not necessarily correct. In this case, the particles which interact with the cloud are those leaking from the shock and their spectrum is approximately monoenergetic with the injection energy gradually decreasing as the SNR ages. In the GLAST energy range the gamma-ray spectrum resulting from particle interactions with the gas cloud will be flatter than expected, with the cutoff defined by the pion momentum distribution in the laboratory frame. We evaluate the flux of particles escaping from a SNR shock and apply the results to the VHE diffuse emission detected by the HESS at the Galactic centre.

I. V. Moskalenko; T. A. Porter; M. A. Malkov; P. H. Diamond

2007-05-25

279

The solar gamma ray and neutron capabilities of COMPTEL on the Gamma Ray Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The imaging Compton telescope COMPTEL on the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) has unusual spectroscopic capabilities for measuring solar gamma-ray and neutron emission. The launch of the GRO is scheduled for June 1990 near the peak of the sunspot cycle. With a 30 to 40 percent probability for the Sun being in the COMPTEL field-of-view during the sunlit part of an orbit, a large number of flares will be observed above the 800 keV gamma-ray threshold of the telescope. The telescope energy range extends to 30 MeV with high time resolution burst spectra available from 0.1 to 10 MeV. Strong Compton tail suppression of instrumental gamma-ray interactions will facilitate improved spectral analysis of solar flare emissions. In addition, the high signal to noise ratio for neutron detection and measurement will provide new neutron spectroscopic capabilities. Specifically, a flare similar to that of 3 June 1982 will provide spectroscopic data on greater than 1500 individual neutrons, enough to construct an unambiguous spectrum in the energy range of 20 to 200 MeV. Details of the instrument and its response to solar gamma-rays and neutrons will be presented.

Ryan, James M.; Lockwood, John A.

1989-01-01

280

X ray and gamma ray standards for detector calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IAEA established a Coordinated Research Program (CRP) on the measurements and evaluation of x- and gamma-ray standards for detector efficiency calibration in 1986 with the aim of alleviating the generation of such discrepancies. Within the framework of this CRP, representatives of nine research groups from six member states and one international organization performed a number of precise measurements and systematic in-depth evaluations of the required decay data. They have also contributed to the development of evaluation methodology and measurement techniques, and stimulated a number of such studies at laboratories not directly involved in the IAEA project. The results of the work of the CRP, which was finished in 1990, are presented in this report. Recommended values of half-lives and photon emission probabilities are given for a carefully selected set of radionuclides that are suitable for detector efficiency calibration (x-rays from 5 to 90 keV and gamma-rays from 30 to about 3000 keV). Detector efficiency calibration for higher gamma-ray energies (up to 14 MeV) is also considered. The evaluation procedures used to obtain the recommended values and their estimated uncertainties are reported, and a summary of the remaining discrepancies is given.

1991-09-01

281

Gamma Rays from Clusters of Galaxies: Dark Matter versus Cosmic Rays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clusters of galaxies have so far not been detected at gamma ray frequencies. However, clusters are likely to host significant gamma ray emissions from cosmic ray interactions with the intra-cluster medium. Additionally, being the largest bound dark matter structures in the Universe, clusters could source a sizable gamma ray signal from dark matter pair annhilation or decay. We explore, for

Stefano Profumo; J. Kehayias; T. Jeltema

2008-01-01

282

On the Hadronic Beam Model for Gamma-ray Production in Blazars  

E-print Network

We consider, herein, a model for gamma-ray production in blazars in which a relativistic, highly-collimated electron-proton beam interacts with a dense, compact cloud as the jet propagates through the broad and perhaps narrow line regions (BLR and NLR) of active galactic nuclei (AGN). During the propagation of the beam through the cloud, the process of excitation of plasma waves becomes an important energy loss mechanism, especially for mildly relativistic proton beams. We compute the expected spectra of gamma-rays from the decay of neutral pions produced in hadronic collisions of the beam with the cloud, taking into account collisionless losses of the electron-proton beam. This model may explain the X-ray and TeV gamma-ray (both low and high emission states) of Mrk 421 as a result of synchrotron emission of secondary pairs from the decay of charged pions and gamma-ray emission from the decay of neutral pions for the plausible cloud parameters. However clouds can not be too hot and too dense. Otherwise the TeV gamma-rays can be attenuated by the bremsstrahlung radiation in the cloud and the secondary pairs are not able to efficiently produce synchrotron flares because of the dominant role of inverse Compton scattering. The non-variable $\\gamma$-ray emission observed from Mrk 421 in the EGRET energy range cannot be described by the $\\gamma$-rays from decay of neutral pions provided that the spectrum of protons in the beam is well described by a simple power law. These $\\gamma$-rays might only be produced by secondary pairs scattering the soft non-variable X-rays which might originate in the inner part of the accretion disk.

J. H. Beall; W. Bednarek

1998-01-31

283

X-ray emission from hot subdwarfs with compact companions  

E-print Network

We review the X-ray observations of hot subdwarf stars. While no X-ray emission has been detected yet from binaries containing B-type subdwarfs, interesting results have been obtained in the case of the two luminous O-type subdwarfs HD 49798 and BD +37 442. Both of them are members of binary systems in which the X-ray luminosity is powered by accretion onto a compact object: a rapidly spinning (13.2 s) and massive (1.28 M_sun) white dwarf in the case of HD 49798 and most likely a neutron star, spinning at 19.2 s, in the case of BD +37 442. Their study can shed light on the poorly known processes taking place during common envelope evolutionary phases and on the properties of wind mass loss from hot subdwarfs.

Mereghetti, Sandro; Esposito, Paolo; Tiengo, Andrea

2012-01-01

284

On the Prompt Signals of Gamma Ray Bursts  

E-print Network

We introduce a new model of gamma ray burst (GRB) that explains its observed prompt signals, namely, its primary thermal spectrum and high energy tail. This mechanism can be applied to either assumption of GRB progenitor: coalescence of compact objects or hypernova explosion. The key ingredients of our model are: (1) The initial stage of a GRB is in the form of a relativistic quark-gluon plasma "lava"; (2) The expansion and cooling of this lava results in a QCD phase transition that induces a sudden gravitational stoppage of the condensed non-relativistic baryons and form a hadrosphere; (3) Acoustic shocks and Alfven waves (magnetoquakes) that erupt in episodes from the epicenter efficiently transport the thermal energy to the hadrospheric surface and induce a rapid detachment of leptons and photons from the hadrons; (4) The detached $e^+e^-$ and $\\gamma$ form an opaque, relativistically hot leptosphere, which expands and cools to $T \\sim mc^2$, or 0.5 MeV, where $e^+e^- \\to 2\\gamma$ and its reverse process b...

Chen, Pisin; Takahashi, Yoshi

2013-01-01

285

Iron K Lines from Gamma Ray Bursts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present models for reprocessing of an intense flux of X-rays and gamma rays expected in the vicinity of gamma ray burst sources. We consider the transfer and reprocessing of the energetic photons into observable features in the X-ray band, notably the K lines of iron. Our models are based on the assumption that the gas is sufficiently dense to allow the microphysical processes to be in a steady state, thus allowing efficient line emission with modest reprocessing mass and elemental abundances ranging from solar to moderately enriched. We show that the reprocessing is enhanced by down-Comptonization of photons whose energy would otherwise be too high to absorb on iron, and that pair production can have an effect on enhancing the line production. Both "distant" reprocessors such as supernova or wind remnants and "nearby" reprocessors such as outer stellar envelopes can reproduce the observed line fluxes with Fe abundances 30-100 times above solar, depending on the incidence angle. The high incidence angles required arise naturally only in nearby models, which for plausible values can reach Fe line to continuum ratios close to the reported values.

Kallman, T. R.; Meszaros, P.; Rees, M. J.

2003-01-01

286

Polarimetry with the Soft Gamma-ray Detector onboard ASTRO-H  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray and gamma-ray polarimetry is a powerful probe to investigate emission mechanisms and geometries of astrophysical sources. It provides vital information on ordered magnetic field and accretion disk around compact objects. The Soft Gamma-ray Detector (SGD) onboard ASTRO-H satellite, scheduled for launch in 2014, is a highly-sensitive spectrometer in the 40-600 keV energy band. Since the SGD employs a Si/CdTe Compton camera surrounded by a thick BGO active shield, it is also sensitive to polarization in the 50-200 keV energy range. We have been developing the SGD through extensive tests in laboratory, detailed Monte-Carlo simulation and verification tests at synchrotron facilities (e.g., Takeda et al. 2010; Tajima et al. 2010). In this contribution, we will present the SGD instrumentation, prototype testing and expected performance as a gamma-ray polarimeter.

Mizuno, Tsunefumi

2012-07-01

287

General Relativistic Binary Merger Simulations and Short Gamma Ray Bursts  

E-print Network

The recent localization of some short-hard gamma ray bursts (GRBs) in galaxies with low star formation rates has lent support to the suggestion that these events result from compact object binary mergers. We discuss how new simulations in general relativity are helping to identify the central engine of short-hard GRBs. Motivated by our latest relativistic black hole-neutron star merger calculations, we discuss a scenario in which these events may trigger short-hard GRBs, and compare this model to competing relativistic models involving binary neutron star mergers and the delayed collapse of hypermassive neutron stars. Distinguishing features of these models may help guide future GRB and gravitational wave observations to identify the nature of the sources.

Joshua A. Faber; Thomas W. Baumgarte; Stuart L. Shapiro; Keisuke Taniguchi

2006-03-10

288

Gamma Ray Bursts via emission of axion-like particles  

E-print Network

The Pseudo-Goldstone Boson (PGB) emission could provide a very efficient mechanism for explaining the cosmic Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). The PGBs could be produced during the merging of two compact objects like two neutron stars or neutron star - black hole, and then decay into electron-positron pairs and photons at distances ~ 100-1000 km. In this way, a huge energy (up to more than 10^{54} erg) can be deposited into the outer space with low baryon density in the form of ultrarelativistic e^+e^- plasma, the so called fireball, which originates the observed gamma-ray bursts. The needed ranges for the PGB parameters are: mass of order MeV, coupling to nucleons g_{aN} ~ few x 10^{-6} and to electrons g_{ae} ~ few x 10^{-9}. Interestingly enough, the range for coupling constants correspond to that of the invisible axion with the Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaking scale V ~ few x 10^5 GeV, but the mass of the PGB is many orders of magnitude larger than what such a scale would demand to an axion. Neither present experimental data nor astrophysical and cosmological arguments can exclude such an ultramassive axion, however the relevant parameters' window is within the reach of future experiments. Another exciting point is that our mechanism could explain the association of some GRBs with supernovae type Ib/c, as far as their progenitor stars have a radius ~ 10^4 km. And finally, it also could help the supernova type II explosion: PGBs emitted from the core of the collapsing star and decaying in the outer shells would deposit a kinetic energy of the order of 10^{51} erg. In this way, emission of such an axion-like particle could provide an unique theoretical base for understanding the gamma ray bursts and supernova explosions.

Zurab Berezhiani; Alessandro Drago

1999-11-12

289

GAMMA RAYS FROM STAR FORMATION IN CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

Star formation in galaxies is observed to be associated with gamma-ray emission, presumably from non-thermal processes connected to the acceleration of cosmic-ray nuclei and electrons. The detection of gamma rays from starburst galaxies by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has allowed the determination of a functional relationship between star formation rate and gamma-ray luminosity. Since star formation is known to scale with total infrared (8-1000 {mu}m) and radio (1.4 GHz) luminosity, the observed infrared and radio emission from a star-forming galaxy can be used to quantitatively infer the galaxy's gamma-ray luminosity. Similarly, star-forming galaxies within galaxy clusters allow us to derive lower limits on the gamma-ray emission from clusters, which have not yet been conclusively detected in gamma rays. In this study, we apply the functional relationships between gamma-ray luminosity and radio and IR luminosities of galaxies derived by the Fermi Collaboration to a sample of the best candidate galaxy clusters for detection in gamma rays in order to place lower limits on the gamma-ray emission associated with star formation in galaxy clusters. We find that several clusters have predicted gamma-ray emission from star formation that are within an order of magnitude of the upper limits derived in Ackermann et al. based on non-detection by Fermi-LAT. Given the current gamma-ray limits, star formation likely plays a significant role in the gamma-ray emission in some clusters, especially those with cool cores. We predict that both Fermi-LAT over the course of its lifetime and the future Cerenkov Telescope Array will be able to detect gamma-ray emission from star-forming galaxies in clusters.

Storm, Emma M.; Jeltema, Tesla E.; Profumo, Stefano [Department of Physics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

2012-08-20

290

Gamma-to-electron magnetic spectrometer (GEMS): An energy-resolved {gamma}-ray diagnostic for the National Ignition Facility  

SciTech Connect

The gamma-to-electron magnetic spectrometer, having better than 5% energy resolution, is proposed to resolve {gamma}-rays in the range of E{sub o}{+-} 20% in single shot, where E{sub o} is the central energy and is tunable from 2 to 25 MeV. Gamma-rays from inertial confinement fusion implosions interact with a thin Compton converter (e.g., beryllium) located at approximately 300 cm from the target chamber center (TCC). Scattered electrons out of the Compton converter enter an electromagnet placed outside the NIF chamber (approximately 600 cm from TCC) where energy selection takes place. The electromagnet provides tunable E{sub o} over a broad range in a compact manner. Energy resolved electrons are measured by an array of quartz Cherenkov converters coupled to photomultipliers. Given 100 detectable electrons in the energy bins of interest, 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} minimum deuterium/tritium (DT) neutrons will be required to measure the 4.44 MeV {sup 12}C {gamma}-rays assuming 200 mg/cm{sup 2} plastic ablator areal density and 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} minimum DT neutrons to measure the 16.75 MeV DT {gamma}-ray line.

Kim, Y.; Herrmann, H. W.; Mack, J. M.; Young, C. S.; Barlow, D. B.; Schillig, J. B.; Sims, J. R. Jr.; Lopez, F. E.; Mares, D.; Oertel, J. A.; Hayes-Sterbenz, A. C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Hilsabeck, T. J.; Wu, W. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186 (United States); Moy, K. [National Security Technologies, Special Technologies Laboratory, Santa Barbara, California 93111 (United States); Stoeffl, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

2012-10-15

291

The SWIFT Gamma-Ray Burst X-Ray Telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer is designed to make prompt multi-wavelength observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts and GRB afterglows. The X-ray Telescope enables Swift to determine GRB positions with a few arcseconds accuracy within 100 seconds of the burst onset. The XRT utilizes a mirror set built for JET-X and an XMM-Newton/ EPIC MOS CCD detector to provide a sensitive broad-band (0.2-10 keV) X-ray imager with an effective area of more than 120 sq cm at 1.5 keV, a field of view of 23.6 x 23.6 arcminutes, and an angular resolution of 18 arcseconds (HPD). The detection sensitivity is 2x10(exp 14) erg/sq cm/s in 10(exp 4) seconds. The instrument provides automated source detection and position reporting within 5 seconds of target acquisition. It can also measure the redshifts of GRBs with Iron line emission or other spectral features. The XRT operates in an auto-exposure mode, adjusting the CCD readout mode automatically to optimize the science return as the source intensity fades. The XRT measures spectra and lightcurves of the GRB afterglow beginning about a minute after the burst and follows each burst for days or weeks. We provide an overview of the X-ray Telescope scientific background from which the systems engineering requirements were derived, with specific emphasis on the design and qualification aspects from conception through to launch. We describe the impact on cleanliness and vacuum requirements for the instrument low energy response and to maintain the high sensitivity to the fading signal of the Gamma-ray Bursts.

Hill, J. E.; Burrows, D. N.; Nousek, J. A.; Wells, A.; Chincarini, G.; Abbey, A. F.; Angelini, L.; Beardmore, A.; Brauninger, H. W.; Chang, W.

2006-01-01

292

UNCOVERING THE INTRINSIC VARIABILITY OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a robust technique to determine the minimum variability timescale for gamma-ray burst (GRB) light curves, utilizing Haar wavelets. Our approach averages over the data for a given GRB, providing an aggregate measure of signal variation while also retaining sensitivity to narrow pulses within complicated time series. In contrast to previous studies using wavelets, which simply define the minimum timescale in reference to the measurement noise floor, our approach identifies the signature of temporally smooth features in the wavelet scaleogram and then additionally identifies a break in the scaleogram on longer timescales as a signature of a true, temporally unsmooth light curve feature or features. We apply our technique to the large sample of Swift GRB gamma-ray light curves and for the first time—due to the presence of a large number of GRBs with measured redshift—determine the distribution of minimum variability timescales in the source frame. We find a median minimum timescale for long-duration GRBs in the source frame of ?tmin = 0.5 s, with the shortest timescale found being on the order of 10 ms. This short timescale suggests a compact central engine (3000 km). We discuss further implications for the GRB fireball model and present a tantalizing correlation between the minimum timescale and redshift, which may in part be due to cosmological time dilation.

Golkhou, V. Zach; Butler, Nathaniel R

2014-08-01

293

X ray and gamma ray emission from classical nova outbursts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The outbursts of classical novae are now recognized to be consequences of thermonuclear runaways proceeding in accreted hydrogen-rich shells on white dwarfs in close binary systems. For the conditions that are known to exist in these environments, it is expected that soft x-rays can be emitted, and indeed x-rays were detected from a number of novae. The circumstances for which we expect novae to produce significant x-ray fluxes and provide estimates of the luminosities and effective temperatures are described. It is also known that at the high temperatures that are known to be achieved in this explosive hydrogen-burning environment, significant production of both Na-22 and Al-26 will occur. In this context, we identify the conditions for which gamma-ray emission may be expected to result from nova outbursts.

Truran, James W.; Starrfield, Sumner; Sparks, Warren M.

1992-01-01

294

COMPACT OPTICAL COUNTERPARTS OF ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES  

SciTech Connect

Using archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging data, we report the multiband photometric properties of 13 ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) that have a unique compact optical counterpart. Both magnitude and color variation are detected at timescales of days to years. The optical color, variability, and X-ray to optical flux ratio indicate that the optical emission of most ULXs is dominated by X-ray reprocessing on the disk, similar to that of low-mass X-ray binaries. For most sources, the optical spectrum is a power law, F{sub {nu}}{proportional_to}{nu}{sup {alpha}} with {alpha} in the range 1.0-2.0 and the optically emitting region has a size on the order of 10{sup 12} cm. Exceptions are NGC 2403 X-1 and M83 IXO 82, which show optical spectra consistent with direct emission from a standard thin disk, M101 ULX-1 and M81 ULS1, which have X-ray to optical flux ratios more similar to high-mass X-ray binaries, and IC 342 X-1, in which the optical light may be dominated by the companion star. Inconsistent extinction between the optical counterpart of NGC 5204 X-1 and the nearby optical nebulae suggests that they may be unrelated.

Tao Lian; Feng Hua [Department of Engineering Physics and Center for Astrophysics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Grise, Fabien; Kaaret, Philip [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Van Allen Hall, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

2011-08-20

295

Gamma-ray detectors for breast imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Breast cancer is the most common cancer of American women and is the leading cause of cancer-related death among women aged 15 - 54; however recent years have shown that early detection using x-ray mammography can lead to a high probability of cure. However, because of mammography's low positive predictive value, surgical or core biopsy is typically required for diagnosis. In addition, the low radiographic contrast of many nonpalpable breast masses, particularly among women with radiographically dense breasts, results in an overall rate of 10% to 25% for missed tumors. Nuclear imaging of the breast using single gamma emitters (scintimammography) such as (superscript 99m)Tc, or positron emitters such as F-18- fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) for positron emission tomography (PET), can provide information on functional or metabolic tumor activity that is complementary to the structural information of x-ray mammography, thereby potentially reducing the number of unnecessary biopsies and missed cancers. This paper summarizes recent data on the efficacy of scintimammography using conventional gamma cameras, and describes the development of dedicated detectors for gamma emission breast imaging. The detectors use new, high density crystal scintillators and large area position sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMTs). Detector design, imaging requirements, and preliminary measured imaging performance are discussed.

Williams, Mark B.; Goode, Allen R.; Majewski, Stan; Steinbach, Daniela; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Wojcik, Randolph F.; Farzanpay, Farzin

1997-07-01

296

SAS-2 galactic gamma ray results. 2. Localized sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma-ray emission was detected from the radio pulsars PSR1818-04 and PSR1747-46, in addition to the previously reported gamma-ray emission from the Crab and Vela pulsars. Since the Crab pulsar is the only one observed in the optical and X-ray bands, these gamma-ray observations suggest a uniquely gamma-ray phenomenon occurring in a fraction of the radio pulsars. Using distance estimates it is found that PSR1818-04 has a gamma-ray luminosity comparable to that of the Crab pulsar, while the luminosities of PSR1747-46 and the Vela pulsar are approximately an order of magnitude lower. This survey of SAS-2 data for pulsar correlations has also yielded upper limits to gamma-ray luminosity for 71 other radio pulsars.

Hartman, R. C.; Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D. A.; Lamb, R. C.; Thompson, D. J.; Bignami, G. F.; Oegelman, H.; Oezel, M. E.; Tuemer, T.

1976-01-01

297

Optical and Gamma Ray Space Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of the first year of data acquired from several Earth observatories concerning the optical counterparts gamma ray bursts (GRB) are presented. From the present statistics, it seems to be obvious that typical GRB's have optical emission at the time of the burst at a level at least below 1/(F(sub gamma)/F(sub opt)) approximately equal to 1/0.5 and optical emission a few hours after the burst is lower by a factor of 10 to 200 than the simultaneous emission. Given the fact that GRB spectra are rather broad over the observed energy range of say 20 keV up to 100 MeV, the observations indicate that the broad spectral shape may not continue into the optical range. After the confirmation of the isotropic distribution of GRB's by the BATSE experiment the interpretation now tends to put the sources at cosmological distances.

1992-01-01

298

Gamma Ray Fresnel lenses - why not?  

E-print Network

Fresnel lenses offer the possibility of concentrating the flux of X-rays or gamma-rays flux falling on a geometric area of many square metres onto a focal point which need only be a millimetre or so in diameter (and which may even be very much smaller). They can do so with an efficiency that can approach 100%, and yet they are easily fabricated and have no special alignment requirements. Fresnel lenses can offer diffraction-limited angular resolution, even in a domain where that limit corresponds to less than a micro second of arc. Given all these highly desirable attributes, it is natural to ask why Fresnel gamma ray lenses are not already being used, or at least why there is not yet any mission that plans to use the technology. Possible reasons (apart from the obvious one that nobody thought of doing so) include the narrow bandwidth of simple Fresnel lenses, their very long focal length, and the problems of target finding. It is argued that none of these is a "show stopper" and that this technique should be seriously considered for nuclear astrophysics.

G. K. Skinner

2006-02-03

299

Spectral modeling of gamma-ray blazars  

E-print Network

We present model calculations reproducing broadband spectra of $\\gamma$-ray blazars by a relativistic leptonic jet, combining the EIC and the SSC model. To this end, the evolution of the particle distribution functions inside a relativistic pair jet and of the resulting photon spectra is investigated. Inverse-Compton scattering of both external (EIC) as well as synchrotron photons (SSC) is treated using the full Klein-Nishina cross-section and the full angle-dependence of the external photon source. We present model fits to the broadband spectra of Mrk~421 and 3C279 and the X-ray and $\\gamma$-ray spectrum of PKS~1622-297. We find that the most plausible way to explain both the quiescent and the flaring states of these objects consists of a model where EIC and SSC dominate the observed spectrum in different frequency bands. For both Mrk~421 and 3C279 the flaring states can be reproduced by a harder spectrum of the injected pairs.

M. Boettcher; H. Mause; R. Schlickeiser

1997-06-23

300

Gamma-Ray Bursts and Cosmology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The unrivalled, extreme luminosities of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) make them the favored beacons for sampling the high redshift Universe. To employ GRBs to study the cosmic terrain -- e.g., star and galaxy formation history -- GRB luminosities must be calibrated, and the luminosity function versus redshift must be measured or inferred. Several nascent relationships between gamma-ray temporal or spectral indicators and luminosity or total energy have been reported. These measures promise to further our understanding of GRBs once the connections between the luminosity indicators and GRB jets and emission mechanisms are better elucidated. The current distribution of 33 redshifts determined from host galaxies and afterglows peaks near z $\\sim$ 1, whereas for the full BATSE sample of long bursts, the lag-luminosity relation predicts a broad peak z $\\sim$ 1--4 with a tail to z $\\sim$ 20, in rough agreement with theoretical models based on star formation considerations. For some GRB subclasses and apparently related phenomena -- short bursts, long-lag bursts, and X-ray flashes -- the present information on their redshift distributions is sparse or entirely lacking, and progress is expected in Swift era when prompt alerts become numerous.

Norris, Jay P.

2003-01-01

301

The measurement of gamma ray induced heating in a mixed neutron and gamma ray environment  

SciTech Connect

The problem of measuring the gamma heating in a mixed DT neutron and gamma ray environment was explored. A new detector technique was developed to make this measurement. Gamma heating measurements were made in a low-Z assembly irradiated with 14-Mev neutrons and (n, n{prime}) gammas produced by a Texas Nuclear Model 9400 neutron generator. Heating measurements were made in the mid-line of the lattice using a proportional counter operating in the Continuously-varied Bias-voltage Acquisition mode. The neutron-induced signal was separated from the gamma-induced signal by exploiting the signal rise-time differences inherent to radiations of different linear energy transfer coefficient, which are observable in a proportional counter. The operating limits of this measurement technique were explored by varying the counter position in the low-Z lattice, hence changing the irradiation spectrum observed. The experiment was modelled numerically to help interpret the measured results. The transport of neutrons and gamma rays in the assembly was modelled using the one- dimensional radiation transport code ANISN/PC. The cross-section set used for these calculations was derived from the ENDF/B-V library using the code MC{sup 2}-2 for the case of DT neutrons slowing down in a low-Z material. The calculated neutron and gamma spectra in the slab and the relevant mass-stopping powers were used to construct weighting factors which relate the energy deposition in the counter fill-gas to that in the counter wall and in the surrounding material. The gamma energy deposition at various positions in the lattice is estimated by applying these weighting factors to the measured gamma energy deposition in the counter at those locations.

Chiu, H.K.

1991-10-01

302

The microchannel x-ray telescope for the gamma-ray burst mission SVOM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the Microchannel X-ray Telescope, a new light and compact focussing telescope that will be ying on the Sino-French SVOM mission dedicated to Gamma-Ray Burst science. The MXT design is based on the coupling of square pore micro-channel plates with a low noise pnCCD. MXT will provide an effective area of about 50 cm2, and its point spread function is expected to be better than 3.7 arc min (FWHM) on axis. The estimated sensitivity is adequate to detect all the afterglows of the SVOM GRBs, and to localize them to better then 60 arc sec after five minutes of observation.

Götz, D.; Osborne, J.; Cordier, B.; Paul, J.; Evans, P.; Beardmore, A.; Martindale, A.; Willingale, R.; O'Brien, P.; Basa, S.; Rossin, C.; Godet, O.; Webb, N.; Greiner, J.; Nandra, K.; Meidinger, N.; Perinati, E.; Santangelo, A.; Mercier, K.; Gonzalez, F.

2014-07-01

303

Wide-field compact detector for hard x-ray polarization measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The polarization data in hard X-ray and gamma-ray energy regimes remain until now very scarce. Having in mind very large importance of the polarization information provided by astrophysical objects we propose a novel compact polarimeter POLAR. It utilizes Compton scattering process and is based on the detector array made of low-Z, fast scintillators. As the instrument with its relatively small dimensions and mass will be a non-intrusive one, it can be installed on any typical satellite platform. It has a sensitivity peak in the energy range from tens to several hundreds keV and a wide viewing angle covering almost a third of the sky. The main objects to be observed by POLAR will be Gamma Ray Bursts and X-Ray Flashes but also X-ray pulsars (Crab). The instrument response and measurement accuracy were intensively modeled and optimized in series of Monte Carlo simulations. It resulted in laboratory design that consists of 2304 plastic scintillator bars with dimension 6x6x200 mm 3. The scintillator light is converted by an array of multi-anode photomultipliers. This arrangement assures both a large effective area for Compton scattering as well as a big polarization modulation factor. Moreover, both quantities keep large values also for gammas coming off the detector axis. Currently, a sequence of laboratory tests is performed using polarized photon sources of different energies and various experimental setups. The first experiment consists of small (8x8) array of nominal scintillators while the other one will utilize a large array (1536) of smaller bars (4x4x20 mm 3) from the existing high energy project. The goal of these two measurements is to optimize the design, validate simulation results and test the prototype.

Hajdas, W.; Produit, N.; Suarez-Garcia, E.; Barao, F.; Casella, C.; Deiters, K.; Deluit, S.; Leluc, C.; Mschedlishvilli, A.; Pohl, M.; Rapin, D.; Tao, Ch.; Vialle, J.-P.; Walter, R.; Wigger, C.; Zehnder, A.

2006-06-01

304

Science with the new generation high energy gamma- ray experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Conference is the fifth of a series of Workshops on High Energy Gamma- ray Experiments, following the Conferences held in Perugia 2003, Bari 2004, Cividale del Friuli 2005, Elba Island 2006. This year the focus was on the use of gamma-ray to study the Dark Matter component of the Universe, the origin and propagation of Cosmic Rays, Extra Large

M. Alvarez; D. D'Armiento; G. Agnetta; A. Alberdi; A. Antonelli; A. Argan; P. Assis; E. A. Baltz; C. Bambi; G. Barbiellini; H. Bartko; M. Basset; D. Bastieri; P. Belli; G. Benford; L. Bergstrom; R. Bernabei; G. Bertone; A. Biland; B. Biondo; F. Bocchino; E. Branchini; M. Brigida; T. Bringmann; P. Brogueira; A. Bulgarelli; J. A. Caballero; G. A. Caliandro; P. Camarri; F. Cappella; P. Caraveo; R. Carbone; M. Carvajal; S. Casanova; A. J. Castro-Tirado; O. Catalano; R. Catena; F. Celi; A. Celotti; R. Cerulli; A. Chen; R. Clay; V. Cocco; J. Conrad; E. Costa; A. Cuoco; G. Cusumano; C. J. Dai; B. Dawson; B. De Lotto; G. De Paris; A. de Ugarte Postigo; E. Del Monte; C. Delgado; A. Di Ciaccio; G. Di Cocco; S. Di Falco; G. Di Persio; B. L. Dingus; A. Dominguez; F. Donato; I. Donnarumma; M. Doro; J. Edsjo; J. M. Espino Navas; M. C. Espirito Santo; Y. Evangelista; C. Evoli; D. Fargion; C. Favuzzi; M. Feroci; M. Fiorini; L. Foggetta; N. Fornengo; T. Froysland; M. Frutti; F. Fuschino; J. L. Gomez; M. Gomez; D. Gaggero; N. Galante; M. I. Gallardo; M. Galli; J. E. Garcia; M. Garczarczyk; F. Gargano; M. Gaug; F. Gianotti; S. Giarrusso; B. Giebels; N. Giglietto; P. Giommi; F. Giordano; A. Giuliani; J. Glicenstein; P. Goncalves; D. Grasso; M. Guerriero; H. L. He; A. Incicchitti; J. Kirk; H. H. Kuang; A. La Barbera; G. La Rosa; C. Labanti; G. Lamanna; I. Lapshov; F. Lazzarotto; S. Liberati; F. Liello; P. Lipari; F. Longo; F. Loparco; M. Lozano; P. G. Lucentini De Sanctis; J. M. Ma; M. C. Maccarone; L. Maccione; V. Malvezzi; A. Mangano; M. Mariotti; M. Marisaldi; I. Martel; A. Masiero; E. Massaro; M. Mastropietro; E. Mattaini; F. Mauri; M. N. Mazziotta; S. Mereghetti; T. Mineo; S. Mizobuchi; A. Moiseev; M. Moles; C. Monte; F. Montecchia; E. Morelli; A. Morselli; I. Moskalenko; F. Nozzoli; J. F. Ormes; M. A. Peres-Torres; L. Pacciani; A. Pellizzoni; F. Perez-Bernal; F. Perotti; P. Picozza; L. Pieri; M. Pietroni; M. Pimenta; A. Pina; C. Pittori; C. Pontoni; G. Porrovecchio; F. Prada; M. Prest; D. Prosperi; R. Protheroe; G. Pucella; J. M. Quesada; J. M. Quintana; J. R. Quintero; S. Raino; M. Rapisarda; M. Rissi; J. Rodriguez; E. Rossi; G. Rowell; A. Rubini; F. Russo; M. Sanchez-Conde; B. Sacco; V. Scapin; M. Schelke; A. Segreto; A. Sellerholm; X. D. Sheng; A. Smith; P. Soffitta; R. Sparvoli; P. Spinelli; V. Stamatescu; L. S. Stark; M. Tavani; G. Thornton; L. G. Titarchuk; B. Tome; A. Traci; M. Trifoglio; A. Trois; P. Vallania; E. Vallazza; S. Vercellone; S. Vernetto; V. Vitale; N. Wild; Z. P. Ye; A. Zambra; F. Zandanel; D. Zanello

2007-01-01

305

A compact x-ray free electron laser  

SciTech Connect

We present a design concept and simulation of the performance of a compact x-ray, free electron laser driven by ultra-high gradient rf-linacs. The accelerator design is based on recent advances in high gradient technology by a LLNL/SLAC/LBL collaboration and on the development of bright, high current electron sources by BNL and LANL. The GeV electron beams generated with such accelerators can be concerted to soft x-rays in the range from 2--10 nm by passage through short period, high fields strength wigglers as are being designed at Rocketdyne. Linear light sources of this type can produce trains of picosecond (or shorter) pulses of extremely high spectral brilliance suitable for flash holography of biological specimens in vivo and for studies of fast chemical reactions. 12 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Barletta, W.; Attac, M.; Cline, D.B.; Kolonko, J.; Wang, X.; Bhowmik, A.; Bobbs, B.; Cover, R.A.; Dixon, F.P.; Rakowsky, G.; Gallardo, J.; Pellegrini, C.; Westenskow, G.

1988-09-09

306

Can Naked Singularities Yield Gamma Ray Bursts?  

E-print Network

Gamma-ray bursts are believed to be the most luminous objects in the Universe. There has been some suggestion that these arise from quantum processes around naked singularities. The main problem with this suggestion is that all known examples of naked singularities are massless and hence there is effectively no source of energy. It is argued that a globally naked singularity coupled with quantum processes operating within a distance of the order of Planck length of the singularity will probably yield energy burst of the order of M_pc^2\\approx2\\times 10^{16} ergs, where M_p is the Planck mass.

H. M. Antia

1998-07-09

307

High Energy Neutrinos from Gamma Ray Bursts  

E-print Network

We treat high-energy neutrino production in GRBs. Detailed calculations of photomeson neutrino production are presented for the collapsar model, where internal nonthermal synchrotron radiation is the primary target photon field, and the supranova model, where external pulsar-wind synchrotron radiation provides important additional target photons. Detection of > 10 TeV neutrinos from GRBs with Doppler factors > 200, inferred from gamma-ray observations, would support the supranova model. Detection of 3x10^{-4} erg/cm^2 offer a realistic prospect for detection of muon neutrinos.

Dermer, C D; Dermer, Charles D.; Atoyan, Armen

2003-01-01

308

Gamma-Ray Fuel Gauges for Airplanes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accurate system overcomes problems of capacitance gauges. Feasibility study conducted on use of attenuation of gamma rays to measure quantities of fuel in tanks. Studies with weak Am241 59.5-keV radiation source indicate it is possible to monitor continuously fuel quantity in tanks to accuracy of better than 1 percent. Measurements also indicate easily measurable differences in physical properties and resultant attenuation characteristics of JP-4, JP-5, and Jet A fuels. Am241-based densitometers currently in use aboard some aircraft . Estimated complete system, including microprocessor and associated display devices, assembled at cost of less than $10,000 per fuel tank.

Singh, Jag J.; Sprinkle, Danny R.; Mall, Gerald H.; Chegini, Hoshang

1987-01-01

309

Gamma ray emission and solar flares  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar gamma ray line and continuum emission provide information about particle acceleration and its temporal behavior; the energy spectrum, composition and directivity of the accelerated particles; and the composition, density and temperatures of the ambient medium. These data, coupled with the comprehensive photon and particle observations available for the sun, give a detailed picture of the particle acceleration and flare energy release processes. Additional information on elemental and isotopic abundances, surface nuclear reactions and coronal heating mechanisms can be obtained. Implications of present observations and the potential return from future observational are discussed.

Lin, R. P.; Ramaty, R.

1978-01-01

310

Do gamma-ray burst sources repeat?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The demonstration of repeated gamma-ray bursts from an individual source would severely constrain burst source models. Recent reports of evidence for repetition in the first BATSE burst catalog have generated renewed interest in this issue. Here, we analyze the angular distribution of 585 bursts of the second BATSE catalog (Meegan et al. 1994). We search for evidence of burst recurrence using the nearest and farthest neighbor statistic ad the two-point angular correlation function. We find the data to be consistent with the hypothesis that burst sources do not repeat; however, a repeater fraction of up to about 20% of the bursts cannot be excluded.

Meegan, C. A.; Hartmann, D. H.; Brainerd, J. J.; Briggs, M.; Paciesas, W. S.; Pendleton, G.; Kouveliotou, C.; Fishman, G.; Blumenthal, G.; Brock, M.

1994-01-01

311

Neutrino Event Rates from Gamma Ray Bursts  

E-print Network

We recalculate the diffuse flux of high energy neutrinos produced by Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB) in the relativistic fireball model. Although we confirm that the average single burst produces only ~10^{-2} high energy neutrino events in a detector with 1 km^2 effective area, i.e. about 10 events per year, we show that the observed rate is dominated by burst-to-burst fluctuations which are very large. We find event rates that are expected to be larger by one order of magnitude, likely more, which are dominated by a few very bright bursts. This greatly simplifies their detection.

F. Halzen; D. W. Hooper

1999-08-12

312

Beaming Effects in Gamma-Ray Bursts  

E-print Network

Based on a refined generic dynamical model, we investigate afterglows from jetted gamma-ray burst (GRB) remnants numerically. In the relativistic phase, the light curve break could marginally be seen. However, an obvious break does exist at the transition from the relativistic phase to the non-relativistic phase, which typically occurs at time 10 to 30 days. It is very interesting that the break is affected by many parameters, especially by the electron energy fraction (xi_e), and the magnetic energy fraction (xi_B^2). Implication of orphan afterglow surveys on GRB beaming is investigated. The possible existence of a kind of cylindrical jets is also discussed.

Y. F. Huang; T. Lu; Z. G. Dai; K. S. Cheng

2002-07-29

313

Gamma-Ray Bursts observed by INTEGRAL  

E-print Network

During the first six months of operations, six Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) have been detected in the field of view of the INTEGRAL instruments and localized by the INTEGRAL Burst Alert System (IBAS): a software for the automatic search of GRBs and the rapid distribution of their coordinates. I describe the current performances of IBAS and review the main results obtained so far. The coordinates of the latest burst localized by IBAS, GRB 031203, have been distributed within 20 s from the burst onset and with an uncertainty radius of only 2.7 arcmin.

S. Mereghetti

2003-12-12

314

High Energy Neutrinos from Gamma Ray Bursts  

E-print Network

We treat high-energy neutrino production in GRBs. Detailed calculations of photomeson neutrino production are presented for the collapsar model, where internal nonthermal synchrotron radiation is the primary target photon field, and the supranova model, where external pulsar-wind synchrotron radiation provides important additional target photons. Detection of > 10 TeV neutrinos from GRBs with Doppler factors > 200, inferred from gamma-ray observations, would support the supranova model. Detection of 3x10^{-4} erg/cm^2 offer a realistic prospect for detection of muon neutrinos.

Charles D. Dermer; Armen Atoyan

2003-01-02

315

Gamma Ray Bursts as Cosmological Probes  

E-print Network

We discuss the prospects of using Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) as high-redshift distance estimators, and consider their use in the study of two dark energy models, the Generalized Chaplygin Gas (GCG), a model for the unification of dark energy and dark matter, and the XCDM model, a model where a generic dark energy fluid like component is described by the equation of state, $p= \\omega \\rho$. Given that the GRBs range of redshifts is rather high, it turns out that they are not very sensitive to the dark energy component, being however, fairly good estimators of the amount of dark matter in the Universe.

O. Bertolami; P. T. Silva

2006-01-23

316

Gamma ray lines from interstellar grains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The existence of very narrow (FWHM or approximately = 5 KeV) gamma ray line emission from interstellar grains is pointed out. The prime candidate for detection is the line at 6.129 Mev from O-16, but other very narrow lines could also be detected at 0.847, 1.369, 1.634, 1.779 and 2.313 Mev from Fe-56, Mg-24, Ne-20, Si-28 and N-14. Measurements of this line emission can provide information on the composition, size and spatial distribution of interstellar grains.

Lingenfelter, R. E.; Ramaty, R.

1976-01-01

317

Gamma-ray lines from interstellar grains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The letter points out the existence of a hitherto unknown component of gamma-ray line emission: very narrow (FWHM less than 5 keV) lines from interstellar grains. The prime candidate for detection is the line at 6.129 MeV from O-16, but other very narrow lines could also be detected at 0.847, 1.369, 1.634, 1.779, and 2.313 MeV from Fe-56, Mg-24, Ne-20, Si-28, and N-14. Measurements of this line emission can provide information on the composition, size, and spatial distribution of interstellar grains.

Lingenfelter, R. E.; Ramaty, R.

1977-01-01

318

Pre-flight performance of a micro-satellite TSUBAME for X-ray polarimetry of gamma-ray bursts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To measure the polarization of gamma-ray bursts in X-ray energy band, we have developed a 50 kg micro-satellite named "SUBAME". The satellite has a compact and high-sensitive hard X-ray polarimeter employing newly-developed shock resistant multi-anode photomultipliers and Si avalanche photodiodes. Thanks to the ultra low-noise detectors and signal processors, the polarimeter can cover a wide energy range of 30􀀀200 keV even at 25°C with a high modulation factor of 62 %. TSUBAME is in the phase of final functional tests waiting for shipping to Baikonur and will be launched into a sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 700 km in late 2014. In this paper, the pre-ight performance of the gamma-ray detector system and the satellite bus system are presented.

Yatsu, Yoichi; Ito, Kei; Kurita, Shin; Arimoto, Makoto; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Matsushita, Masanori; Kawajiri, Shota; Kitamura, Shogo; Matunaga, Saburo; Kimura, Shin'ichi; Kataoka, Jun; Nakamori, Takeshi; Kubo, Sin

2014-07-01

319

DETECTION OF VHE {gamma}-RAYS FROM HESS J0632+057 DURING THE 2011 FEBRUARY X-RAY OUTBURST WITH THE MAGIC TELESCOPES  

SciTech Connect

The very high energy (VHE) {gamma}-ray source HESS J0632+057 has recently been confirmed to be a {gamma}-ray binary. The optical counterpart is the Be star MWC 148, and a compact object of unknown nature orbits it every {approx}321 days with a high eccentricity of {approx}0.8. We monitored HESS J0632+057 with the stereoscopic MAGIC telescopes from 2010 October to 2011 March and detected significant VHE {gamma}-ray emission during 2011 February, when the system exhibited an X-ray outburst. We find no {gamma}-ray signal in the other observation periods when the system did not show increased X-ray flux. Thus, HESS J0632+057 exhibits {gamma}-ray variability on timescales of the order of one to two months possibly linked to the X-ray outburst that takes place about 100 days after the periastron passage. Furthermore, our measurements provide for the first time the {gamma}-ray spectrum down to about 140 GeV and indicate no turnover of the spectrum at low energies. We compare the properties of HESS J0632+057 with the similar {gamma}-ray binary LS I +61 Degree-Sign 303 and discuss the possible origin of the multi-wavelength emission of the source.

Aleksic, J.; Blanch, O. [IFAE, Edifici Cn., Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Alvarez, E. A.; Asensio, M.; Barrio, J. A. [Grupo de Fisica Altas Energias, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Antonelli, L. A.; Bonnoli, G. [INAF National Institute for Astrophysics, I-00136 Rome (Italy); Antoranz, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Siena and INFN Pisa, I-53100 Siena (Italy); Backes, M. [Technische Universitaet Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund (Germany); Barres de Almeida, U.; Bock, R. K.; Borla Tridon, D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, D-80805 Muenchen (Germany); Bastieri, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova and INFN, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Becerra Gonzalez, J.; Berger, K. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Bednarek, W. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Lodz, PL-90236 Lodz (Poland); Bernardini, E. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Biland, A.; Boller, A. [ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Bosch-Ramon, V., E-mail: jogler@slac.stanford.edu, E-mail: pmunar@am.ub.es [Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Barcelona (ICC/IEEC), E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); and others

2012-07-20

320

High Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts - Before GLAST  

SciTech Connect

Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are short and intense emission of soft {gamma}-rays, which have fascinated astronomers and astrophysicists since their unexpected discovery in 1960s. The X-ray/optical/radio afterglow observations confirm the cosmological origin of GRBs, support the fireball model, and imply a long-activity of the central engine. The high-energy {gamma}-ray emission (> 20 MeV) from GRBs is particularly important because they shed some lights on the radiation mechanisms and can help us to constrain the physical processes giving rise to the early afterglows. In this work, we review observational and theoretical studies of the high-energy emission from GRBs. Special attention is given to the expected high-energy emission signatures accompanying the canonical early-time X-ray afterglow that was observed by the Swift X-ray Telescope. We also discuss the detection prospect of the upcoming GLAST satellite and the current ground-based Cerenkov detectors.

Fan, Yi-Zhong; Piran, Tsvi

2011-11-29

321

Report of the x ray and gamma ray sensors panel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Overall five major areas of technology are recommended for development in order to meet the science requirements of the Astrotech 21 mission set. These are: detectors for high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy, cryogenic detectors for improved x ray spectral and spatial resolution, advanced x ray charge coupled devices (CCDs) for higher energy resolution and larger format, extension to higher energies, liquid and solid position sensitive detectors for improving stopping power in the energy range 5 to 500 keV and 0.2 to 2 MeV. Development plans designed to achieve the desired capabilities on the time scales required by the technology freeze dates have been recommended in each of these areas.

Szymkowiak, Andrew; Collins, S.; Kurfess, J.; Mahoney, W.; Mccammon, D.; Pehl, R.; Ricker, G.

1991-01-01

322

The Prompt Gamma-Ray and Afterglow Energies of Short-Duration Gamma-Ray Bursts  

E-print Network

I present an analysis of the gamma-ray and afterglow energies of the complete sample of 17 short duration GRBs with prompt X-ray follow-up. I find that 80% of the bursts exhibit a linear correlation between their gamma-ray fluence and the afterglow X-ray flux normalized to t=1 d, a proxy for the kinetic energy of the blast wave ($F_{X,1}~F_{gamma}^1.01). An even tighter correlation is evident between E_{gamma,iso} and L_{X,1} for the subset of 13 bursts with measured or constrained redshifts. The remaining 20% of the bursts have values of F_{X,1}/F_{gamma} that are suppressed by about three orders of magnitude, likely because of low circumburst densities (Nakar 2007). These results have several important implications: (i) The X-ray luminosity is generally a robust proxy for the blast wave kinetic energy, indicating nu_X>nu_c and hence a circumburst density n>0.05 cm^{-3}; (ii) most short GRBs have a narrow range of gamma-ray efficiency, with ~0.85 and a spread of 0.14 dex; and (iii) the isotropic-equivalent energies span 10^{48}-10^{52} erg. Furthermore, I find tentative evidence for jet collimation in the two bursts with the highest E_{gamma,iso}, perhaps indicative of the same inverse correlation that leads to a narrow distribution of true energies in long GRBs. I find no clear evidence for a relation between the overall energy release and host galaxy type, but a positive correlation with duration may be present, albeit with a large scatter. Finally, I note that the outlier fraction of 20% is similar to the proposed fraction of short GRBs from dynamically-formed neutron star binaries in globular clusters. This scenario may naturally explain the bimodality of the F_{X,1}/F_{gamma} distribution and the low circumburst densities without invoking speculative kick velocities of several hundred km/s.

E. Berger

2007-02-27

323

Gamma-ray bursts from synchrotron self-Compton emission  

E-print Network

The emission mechanism of the gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is still a matter of debates. The standard synchrotron energy spectrum of cooling electrons F_E ~ E^{-1/2} is much too soft to account for the majority of the observed spectral slopes. An alternative in the form of quasi-thermal Comptonization in a high compactness source has difficulties in reproducing the peak of the observed photon distribution below a few hundred keV. We show here that for typical parameters expected in the GRB ejecta the observed spectra in the 20-1000 keV BATSE energy range can be produced by inverse Compton scattering of the synchrotron radiation in a partially self-absorbed regime. If the particles are continuously accelerated/heated over the life-time of a source rather than being instantly injected, a prominent peak develops in their distribution at a Lorentz factor gamma ~ 30-100, where synchrotron and inverse-Compton losses are balanced by acceleration and heating due to synchrotron self-absorption. The synchrotron peak should be observed at 10-100 eV, while the self-absorbed low-energy tail with F_E ~ E^2 can produce the prompt optical emission (like in the case of GRB 990123). The first Compton scattering radiation by nearly monoenergetic electrons can then be as hard as F_E ~ E^1 reproducing the hardness of most of the observed GRB spectra. The second Compton peak should be observed in the high energy gamma-ray band, possibly being responsible for the emission detected by EGRET in GRB 941017. A significant electron-positron pair production reduces the available energy per particle, moving the spectral peaks to lower energies as the burst progresses. The regime is very robust, operates in a broad range of parameter space and can explain most of the observed GRB spectra and their temporal evolution.

Boris E. Stern; Juri Poutanen

2004-05-25

324

Gamma Ray/neutron Spectrometers for Planetary Elemental Mapping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Los Alamos has designed gamma ray and neutron spectrometers for Lunar Scout, two robotic missions to map the Moon from 100 km polar orbits. Knowledge of the elemental composition is desirable in identifying resources and for geochemical studies and can be obtained using gamma ray and neutron spectrometers. Measurements with gamma ray and neutron spectrometers complement each other in determining elemental abundances in a planet's surface. Various aspects of the instruments are discussed.

Reedy, R. C.; Auchampaugh, G. F.; Barraclough, B. L.; Burt, W. W.; Byrd, R. C.; Drake, D. M.; Edwards, B. C.; Feldman, W. C.; Martin, R. A.; Moss, C. E.

1993-01-01

325

Two Classes of Gamma-Ray--emitting Active Galactic Nuclei  

Microsoft Academic Search

We interpret recent gamma-ray observations of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) made with the Whipple Observatory, Granat and especially the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. The gamma-ray data show that there are two distinct classes of AGNs defined by their redshift and luminosity distributions and high-energy spectral properties. Sources in the first class, which are generally associated with AGNs classified in other

Charles D. Dermer; Neil Gehrels

1995-01-01

326

Recommended standards for gamma-ray energy calibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A consistent set of gamma-ray energies, generally with uncertainties of less than 10ppm, has been prepared for use in the energy calibration of gamma-ray spectra. The energy scale used for the previously recommended standards (1979) has been modified to take into account subsequent adjustments in the fundamental constants (-7.71ppm) and in the gamma-ray wavelengths deduced from a revised estimate of

R. G. Helmer; C. van der Leun

1999-01-01

327

Measurements of Gamma-Ray Bursts with GLAST  

Microsoft Academic Search

The next large NASA mission in the field of gamma-ray astronomy is the Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), which is scheduled for a launch end of 2007. This satellite consists of the main instrument LAT (Large-Area Telescope) which is sensitive in the energy range between 10 MeV and >300 GeV, and a secondary instrument, the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM),

Helmut Steinle; N. P. Bhat; M. S. Briggs; V. Connaughton; R. Diehl; G. J. Fishman; J. Greiner; R. M. Kippen; A. Von Kienlin; C. Kouveliotou; G. G. Lichti; C. A. Meegan; W. S. Paciesas; R. D. Preece; R. B. Wilson

2006-01-01

328

Gamma-Ray Bursts and Afterglows: The Fireball Shock Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Gamma-ray bursts (GRB) are detected about once a day, and while they are on, they outshine everything else in the gamma-ray\\u000a sky, including the Sun. A major advance occurred in 1992 with the launch of the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory, whose superb\\u000a results were summarized in a review by Fishman & Meegan (1995; see also Fishman, these proceedings). The all-sky survey

P. Mészáros

2001-01-01

329

Recommended standards for gamma-ray energy calibration (1999)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A consistent set of gamma-ray energies, generally with uncertainties of less than 10ppm, is recommended for use in the energy calibration of gamma-ray spectra. The energy scale used for the previously recommended standards (1979) has been modified to take into account subsequent adjustments in the fundamental constants (-7.71ppm) and in the gamma-ray wavelengths deduced from a revised estimate of the

R. G. Helmer; C. van der Leun

2000-01-01

330

Neutron-Capture gamma Rays from Various Elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutron-capture gamma-ray spectra have been measured in the energy range 0.3 to 3 Mev by means of a two-crystal Compton scintillation spectrometer. The efficiency of the instrument as a function of energy was determined experimentally. The uniqueness of the 2.23-Mev gamma ray following capture of a neutron by hydrogen has been confirmed, and this gamma ray was used as a

T. H. Braid

1956-01-01

331

Fermi GBM Observations of Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation explores the relationship between Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes (TGF) and lightning. Using data from the World-Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN), and the gamma ray observations from Fermi's Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), the study reviews any causal relationship between TGFs and lightning. The conclusion of the study is that the TGF and lightning are simultaneous with out a causal relationship.

Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V.; Fishman, G. J.; Bhat, P. N.; Paciesas, W. S.; Preece, R.; Kippen, R. M.; vonKienlin, A.; Dwyer, J. R.; Smith, D. M.; Holzworth, R.

2010-01-01

332

Gamma Ray Bursts, Neutron Star Quakes, and the Casimir Effect  

E-print Network

We propose that the dynamic Casimir effect is a mechanism that converts the energy of neutron starquakes into $\\gamma$--rays. This mechanism efficiently produces photons from electromagnetic Casimir energy released by the rapid motion of a dielectric medium into a vacuum. Estimates based on the cutoff energy of the gamma ray bursts and the volume involved in a starquake indicate that the total gamma ray energy emission is consonant with observational requirements.

C. Carlson; T. Goldman; J. Perez-Mercader

1994-11-25

333

Digital gamma-ray tracking algorithms in segmented germanium detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gamma-ray tracking algorithm has been implemented and tested, using simulated data, for gamma rays with energies between 0.1 and 2 MeV, and its performance evaluated for a 90-mm-long, 60-mm-diameter, cylindrical, 36 (6 × 6) segment detector. The performance of the algorithm in two areas was determined: Compton suppression and Doppler shift correction. It was found that for gamma rays

C. J. Pearson; J. J. Valiente Dobón; P. H. Regan; P. J. Sellin; E. Morton; P. J. Nolan; A. Boston; M. Descovich; J. Thornhill; J. Cresswell; I. Lazarus; J. Simpson

2002-01-01

334

Nucleonic gamma-ray production in pulsar wind nebulae  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Observations of the inner radian of the Galactic disk at very high energy (VHE) gamma-rays have revealed at least 16 new sources.\\u000a Besides shell type super-nova remnants, pulsar wind nebulae (PWN) appear to be a dominant source population in the catalogue\\u000a of VHE gamma-ray sources. Except for the Crab nebula, the newly discovered PWN are resolved at VHE gamma-rays to

D. Horns; F. Aharonian; A. I. D. Hoffmann; A. Santangelo

335

Nucleonic gamma-ray production in pulsar wind nebulae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of the inner radian of the Galactic disk at very high energy (VHE) gamma-rays have revealed at least 16 new sources.\\u000a Besides shell type super-nova remnants, pulsar wind nebulae (PWN) appear to be a dominant source population in the catalogue\\u000a of VHE gamma-ray sources. Except for the Crab nebula, the newly discovered PWN are resolved at VHE gamma-rays to

D. Horns; F. Aharonian; A. I. D. Hoffmann; A. Santangelo

2007-01-01

336

Sensitivity of Gamma-Ray Detectors to Polarization  

E-print Network

Previous studies have shown that the largest gamma-ray detector to date, EGRET, does not have useful polarization sensitivity. We have explored here some improved approaches to analyzing gamma-ray pair production events, leading to important gains in sensitivity to polarization. The performance of the next generation gamma-ray instrument GLAST is investigated using a detailed Monte Carlo simulation of the complete detector.

I. -A. Yadigaroglu

1996-12-13

337

Fermi Large Area Telescope Measurements of the Diffuse Gamma-Ray Emission at Intermediate Galactic Latitudes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The diffuse galactic (gamma)-ray emission is produced by cosmic rays (CRs) interacting with the interstellar gas and radiation field. Measurements by the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) instrument on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory indi...

A. A. Abdo, B. Anderson, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, M. Axelsson, W. B. Atwood

2012-01-01

338

Gamma Ray Burst Discoveries with SWIFT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma-ray bursts are among the most fascinating occurrences in the cosmos. They are thought to be the birth cries of black holes throughout the universe. There has been tremendous recent progress in our understanding of bursts with the new data from the SWIFT mission. SWIFT was launched in November 2004 and is an international multiwavelength observatory designed to determine the origin of bursts and use them to probe the early Universe. Findings from the mission will be presented with emphasis on the relativistic outflows from GRBs. A huge step forward has been made in our understanding of the mysterious short GRBs. High redshift bursts have been detected from enormous explosions early in the universe. GRBs have been found with giant X-ray flares occurring in their afterglow, challenging predictions of the fireball model. These, and other topics, will be discussed.

Gehrels, Neil

2007-01-01

339

The Swift Gamma Ray Burst Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Swift mission: scheduled for launch in early 2004: is a multiwavelength observatory for gamma-ray burst (GRB) astronomy. It is the first-of-its-kind autonomous rapid-slewing satellite for transient astronomy and pioneers the way for future rapid-reaction and multiwavelength missions. It will be far more powerful than any previous GRB mission, observing more than 100 bursts per year and performing detailed X-ray and UV/optical afterglow observations spanning timescales from 1 minute to several days after the burst. The objectives are to: 1) determine the origin of GFU3s; 2) classify GRBs and search for new types; 3) study the interaction of the ultra-relativistic outflows of GRBs with their surrounding medium; and 4) use GRBs to study the early universe out to z greater than 10. The mission is being developed by a NASA-led international collaboration. It will carry three instruments: a new-generation wide-field gamma-ray (15-150 keV) detector that will detect bursts, calculate 1-4 arcmin positions: and trigger autonomous spacecraft slews; a narrow-field X-ray telescope that will give 5 arcsec positions and perform spectroscopy in the 0.2 to 10 keV band; and a narrow-field UV/optical telescope that will operate in the 170-600 nm band and provide 0.3 arcsec positions and optical finding charts. Redshift determinations will be made for most bursts. In addition to the primary GRB science, the mission will perform a hard X-ray survey to a sensitivity of approx. 1 mCrab (approx. 2 x l0(exp -11) erg/sq cm s in the 15-150 keV band), more than an order of magnitude better than HEAO A-4. A flexible data and operations system will allow rapid follow-up observations of all types of high-energy transients. with rapid data downlink and uplink available through the NASA TDRSS system. Swift transient data will be rapidly distributed to the astronomical community and all interested observers are encouraged to participate in follow-up measurements. A Guest Investigator program for the mission will provide funding for community involvement. Innovations from the Swift program applicable to the future include: 1) a large-area gamma-ray detector us- ing the new CdZnTe detectors; 2) an autonomous rapid slewing spacecraft; 3) a multiwavelength payload combining optical, X-ray, and gamma-ray instruments; 4) an observing program coordinated with other ground-based and space-based observatories; and 5) immediate multiwavelength data flow to the community. The mission is currently funded for 2 years of operations and the spacecraft will have a lifetime to orbital decay of approx. 8 years.

Gehrels, N.; Chincarini, G.; Giommi, P.; Mason, K. O.; Nousek, J. A.; Wells, A. A.; White, N. E.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Burrows, D. N.; Cominsky, L. R.

2004-01-01

340

SAS-2 galactic gamma ray results, 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Continuing analysis of the data from the SAS-2 high energy gamma-ray experiment has produced an improved picture of the sky at photon energies above 35 MeV. On a large scale, the diffuse emission from the galactic plane is the dominant feature observed by SAS-2. This galactic plane emission is most intense between galactic longitude 310 and 45 deg, corresponding to a region within 7kpc of the galactic center. Within the high-intensity region, SAS-2 observes peaks around galactic longitudes 315 deg, 330 deg, 345 deg, 0 deg, and 35 deg. These peaks appear to be correlated with such galactic features and components as molecular hydrogen, atomic hydrogen, magnetic fields, cosmic ray concentrations, and photon fields.

Thompson, D. J.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.; Bignami, G. F.; Lamb, R. C.; Oegelman, H.; Oezel, M. E.; Tuemer, T.

1976-01-01

341

Fermi Large Area Telescope Bright Gamma-ray Source List  

SciTech Connect

Following its launch in 2008 June, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) began a sky survey in August. The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on Fermi in three months produced a deeper and better resolved map of the {gamma}-ray sky than any previous space mission. We present here initial results for energies above 100 MeV for the 205 most significant (statistical significance greater than {approx}10{sigma}) {gamma}-ray sources in these data. These are the best characterized and best localized point-like (i.e., spatially unresolved) {gamma}-ray sources in the early mission data.

Abdo, Aous A.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Ackermann, M.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Ajello, M.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Atwood, W.B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Axelsson, M.; /Stockholm U., OKC /Stockholm U.; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Band, D.L.; /NASA, Goddard /NASA, Goddard; Barbiellini, Guido; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bastieri, Denis; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Bechtol, K.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Bignami, G.F.; /Pavia U.; Bloom, Elliott D.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Burnett, Thompson H.; /Washington U., Seattle /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /IASF, Milan /IASF, Milan /DAPNIA, Saclay /ASDC, Frascati /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /George Mason U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /NASA, Goddard /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Montpellier U. /Sonoma State U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm /Stockholm U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /ASDC, Frascati /NASA, Goddard /Maryland U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /INFN, Trieste /Pavia U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /UC, Santa Cruz /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Montpellier U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /NASA, Goddard; /more authors.; ,

2009-05-15

342

Gamma ray constraints on the galactic supernova rate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Monte Carlo simulations of the expected gamma-ray signatures of galactic supernovae of all types are performed in order to estimate the significance of the lack of a gamma-ray signal due to supernovae occurring during the last millenium. Using recent estimates of nuclear yields, we determine galactic supernova rates consistent with the historic supernova record and the gamma-ray limits. Another objective of these calculations of galactic supernova histories is their application to surveys of diffuse galactic gamma-ray line emission.

Hartmann, D.; The, L.-S.; Clayton, D. D.; Leising, M.; Mathews, G.; Woosley, S. E.

1992-01-01

343

Radio and gamma-ray emission from pulsars  

E-print Network

The radiation of pulsars have been observed for many years. A few pulsars are discovered to have both radio and gamma-ray emission. Many models on pulsar radiation have been developed, but so far we are still lacking an elaborate model which can explain the emission from radio to gamma-rays in detail. In this paper we present a joint model for radio and gamma-ray emission, in which both the dominate emission mechanisms are inverse Compton scattering. The pulse profiles at radio and gamma-ray bands are reproduced for the Crab-like, Vela-like and Geminga-like pulsars, in good agreement with observations.

G. J. Qiao; K. J. Lee; H. G. Wang; R. X. Xu

2003-03-11

344

Gamma ray bursts triggered by turbulent reconnection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding of the nature of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is one of the challenging problem facing the astrophysics community. Magnetic reconnection plays a crucial roles in the physics of GRBs, particularly, for those highly magnetized ones. Similar process can happen, as those on solar surface. I shall present our model of GRBs based on turbulent reconnection process. Turbulence fluctuations accumulates through shell collisions and triggers a bursty reconnection event once the turbulence reaches the critical condition, resulting in a runway release of the stored magnetic field energy. Particles are accelerated either directly in the reconnection zone, or stochastically in the turbulent regions, which radiate synchrotron photons that power the observed gamma rays. Within this model, the observed GRB variability timescales could have two components, one slow component associated with the central engine time history, and another fast component associated with relativistic magnetic turbulence in the emission region. The model may be applied to the GRBs that have time-resolved, featureless Band-function spectra.

Yan, Huirong

2012-07-01

345

The transient gamma-ray spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors describe the Transient Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (TGRS) to be flown onboard the WIND spacecraft. This instrument is designed to detect cosmic gamma-ray bursts over the energy range of 20 keV to 10 MeV with an expected spectroscopic resolution of 2 keV at 1 MeV (E/Delta-E = 500). The active detection element is a 215-cu cm high-purity n-type Ge crystal cooled to cryogenic temperatures by a passive radiative cooler. The geometric field of view (FOV) defined by the cooler is 170 deg FWFM. Burst data are stored directly in an onboard 2.75-Mb burst memory with an absolute timing accuracy of +/-1.5 ms. This capacity is sufficient to store the entire spectral data set of all but the largest bursts. In addition to burst measurements, the instrument will also study solar flares, search for possible diffuse background lines, and monitor the 511-keV positron annihilation radiation from the galactic center. The experiment is scheduled to be launched on a Delta II launch vehicle from Cape Canaveral on December 31, 1992.

Owens, A.; Baker, R.; Cline, T. L.; Gehrels, N.; Jermakian, J.; Nolan, T.; Ramaty, R.; Smith, G.; Stilwell, D. E.; Teegarden, B. J.

1991-04-01

346

Gamma-ray emission from massive young stellar objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context: Massive stars form in dense and massive molecular cores. The exact formation mechanism is unclear, but it is possible that some massive stars are formed by processes similar to those that produce the low-mass stars, with accretion/ejection phenomena occurring at some point of the evolution of the protostar. This picture seems to be supported by the detection of a collimated stellar wind emanating from the massive protostar IRAS 16547-4247. A triple radio source is associated with the protostar: a compact core and two radio lobes. The emission of the southern lobe is clearly non-thermal. Such emission is interpreted as synchrotron radiation produced by relativistic electrons locally accelerated at the termination point of a thermal jet. Since the ambient medium is determined by the properties of the molecular cloud in which the whole system is embedded, we can expect high densities of particles and infrared photons. Because of the confirmed presence of relativistic electrons, inverse Compton and relativistic Bremsstrahlung interactions are unavoidable. Aims: We aim to make quantitative predictions of the spectral energy distribution of the non-thermal spots generated by massive young stellar objects, with emphasis on the particular case of IRAS 16547-4247. Methods: We study the high-energy emission generated by the relativistic electrons which produce the non-thermal radio source in IRAS 16547-4247. We also study the result of proton acceleration at the terminal shock of the thermal jet and make estimates of the secondary gamma rays and electron-positron pairs produced by pion decay. Results: We present spectral energy distributions for the southern lobe of IRAS 16547-4247, for a variety of conditions. We show that high-energy emission might be detectable from this object in the gamma-ray domain. The source may also be detectable in X-rays through long exposures with current X-ray instruments. Conclusions: Gamma-ray telescopes such as GLAST, and even ground-based Cherenkov arrays of new generation can be used to study non-thermal processes occurring during the formation of massive stars.

Araudo, A. T.; Romero, G. E.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Paredes, J. M.

2007-12-01

347

Swift Observations of Gamma Ray Bursts  

SciTech Connect

Since its launch on 20 November 2004, the Swift mission is detecting {approx}100 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) each year, and immediately (within {approx}90 s) starting X-ray and UV/optical observations of the afterglow. It has already collected an impressive database including prompt emission to higher sensitivities than BATSE, uniform monitoring of afterglows, and rapid follow-up by other observatories notified through the GCN. The detection of X-ray afterglows have been found to have complex temporal shapes including tails emission from the prompt phase and bright flares. X-ray afterglows from short bursts has led to accurate localizations. It is found that they can occur in non-star forming galaxies or regions, whereas long GRBs are strongly concentrated within star forming regions. This is consistent with the NS merger model. Swift has greatly increased the redshift range of GRB detection. The highest redshift GRBs, at z{approx}5-6, are approaching the era of reionization. Ground-based deep optical spectroscopy of high redshift bursts is giving metallicity measurements and other information on the source environment to much greater distance than other techniques. The localization of GRB 060218 to a nearby galaxy, and association with SN 2006aj, added a valuable member to the class of GRBs with detected supernova. The prospects for future progress are excellent give the >10 year orbital lifetime of the Swift satellite.

Gehrels, Neil [Astroparticle Physics Laboratory NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2008-01-10

348

Evidence for a spatially extended component of gamma rays from solar flares  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present gamma-ray measurements of a large solar flare that occurred beyond the western solar limb on September 29, 1989. The gamma-ray spectrum shows a neutron capture line which is much stronger than predicted by limb-darkening curves that fit the measurements for flares on the visible hemisphere. We show that this strong neutron capture line can be explained if, in addition to the compact impulsive phase component that normally dominates the total fluence, there is a spatially extended component. For the September 29, 1989 flare we find that such a spatially extended region must subtend more than about 30 deg on the solar surface. We suggest that the extended component could be powered by particles that diffuse from a compact impulsive region or by particles that diffuse into the lower solar atmosphere from a large-scale acceleration site.

Vestrand, W. T.; Forrest, David J.

1993-01-01

349

Near-infrared and gamma-ray monitoring of TANAMI gamma-ray bright sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Spectral energy distribution and its variability are basic tools for understanding the physical processes operating in active galactic nuclei (AGN). Aims: In this paper we report the results of a one-year near-infrared (NIR) and optical monitoring of a sample of 22 AGN known to be gamma-ray emitters, aimed at discovering correlations between optical and gamma-ray emission. Methods: We observed our objects with the Rapid Eye Mount (REM) telescope in J,H,K, and R bands nearly twice every month during their visibility window and derived light curves and spectral indexes. We also analyzed the gamma-ray data from the Fermi gamma-ray Space Telescope, making weekly averages. Results: Six sources were never detected during our monitoring, proving to be fainter than their historical Two micron all sky survey (2MASS) level. All of the sixteen detected sources showed marked flux density variability, while the spectral indexes remained unchanged within our sensitivity limits. Steeper sources showed, on average, a larger variability. From the NIR light curves we also computed a variability speed index for each detected source. Only one source (PKS 0208-512) underwent an NIR flare during our monitoring. Half of the sources showed a regular flux density trend on a one-year time scale, but do not show any other peculiar characteristic. The broadband spectral index ?ro appears to be a good proxy of the NIR spectral index only for BL Lac objects. No clear correlation between NIR and gamma-ray data is evident in our data, save for PKS 0537-441, PKS 0521-360, PKS 2155-304, and PKS 1424-418. The gamma-ray/NIR flux ratio showed a large spread, QSO being generally gamma-louder than BL Lac, with a marked correlation with the estimated peak frequency (?peak) of the synchrotron emission. A table of the photometry is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/555/A2

Nesci, R.; Tosti, G.; Pursimo, T.; Ojha, R.; Kadler, M.

2013-07-01

350

Gamma-ray transfer and energy deposition in supernovae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solutions to the energy-independent (gray) radiative transfer equations are compared to results of Monte Carlo simulations of the Ni-56 and Co-56 decay gamma-ray energy deposition in supernovae. The comparison shows that an effective, purely absorptive, gray opacity, kappa(sub gamma) approximately (0. 06 +/- 0.01)Y(sub e) sq cm/g, where Y is the total number of electrons per baryon, accurately describes the interaction of gamma-rays with the cool supernova gas and the local gamma-ray energy deposition within the gas. The nature of the gamma-ray interaction process (dominated by Compton scattering in the relativistic regime) creates a weak dependence of kappa(sub gamma) on the optical thickness of the (spherically symmetric) supernova atmosphere: The maximum value of kappa(sub gamma) applies during optically thick conditions when individual gamma-rays undergo multiple scattering encounters and the lower bound is reached at the phase characterized by a total Thomson optical depth to the center of the atmosphere tau(sub e) approximately less than 1. Gamma-ray deposition for Type Ia supernova models to within 10% for the epoch from maximum light to t = 1200 days. Our results quantitatively confirm that the quick and efficient solution to the gray transfer problem provides an accurate representation of gamma-ray energy deposition for a broad range of supernova conditions.

Swartz, Douglas A.; Sutherland, Peter G.; Harkness, Robert P.

1995-01-01

351

Borehole compensated density logs corrected for naturally occurring gamma rays  

SciTech Connect

A method for measuring formation density is disclosed. It provides a corrected gamma gamma-type density log having a correction for the adverse effects of gamma radiation from thorium, uranium and potassium ore bodies. The adjacent formation is irradiated with gamma radiation preferably from a cesium (Cs/sup 137/) source which emits gamma radiation at 0.663 Mev. Two differently longitudinally spaced detectors are used, a short spaced detector and a long spaced detector. A gamma ray spectrum observed at one of the detectors is broken down into four energy windows across the spectrum and count rate signals are determined and corrected to separate the naturally occurring gamma radiation from the scattered gamma radiation. This information may then be combined with count rate information from the other detector, thereby yielding a compensated density log corrected from naturally occurring gamma rays.

Arnold, D. M.

1985-07-16

352

Ultraviolet observations of the gamma-ray blazar 3C 279 following the gamma-ray flare of June 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultraviolet observations of the gamma-ray blazar 3C 279 were carried out in July 1991 with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite, 28 d after the outburst of intense gamma-ray emission detected from this source with the high-energy EGRET instrument aboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO). IUE observations were conducted over the wavelength range 1200 - 3200 Ĺ (5 -

J. T. Bonnell; W. T. Vestrand; J. G. Stacy

1994-01-01

353

Ultraviolet observations of the Gamma-Ray Blazar 3C 279 following the gamma-ray flare of June 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultraviolet observations of the gamma-ray blazar 3C 279 were carried out in July 1991 with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite, 28 days after the outburst of intense gamma-ray emission detected from this source with the high-energy EGRET instrument aboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO). IUE observations were conducted over the wavelength range 1200–3200 A? (5–10 eV), and are

Jerry T. Bonnell; W. Thomas Vestrand; J. Gregory Stacy

1994-01-01

354

Multichannel CdZnTe Gamma Ray Spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

A 3 cm{sup 3} multichannel gamma spectrometer for DOE applications is under development by Digirad Corporation. The device is based on a position sensitive detector packaged in a compact multi-chip module (MCM) with integrated readout circuitry. The modular, multichannel design will enable identification and quantitative analysis of radionuclides in extended sources, or sources containing low levels of activity. The MCM approach has the advantages that the modules are designed for imaging applications, and the sensitivity can be arbitrarily increased by increasing the number of pixels, i.e. adding modules to the instrument. For a high sensitivity probe, the outputs for each pixel can be corrected for gain and offset variations, and summed digitally. Single pixel results obtained with discrete low noise readout indicate energy resolution of 3 keV can be approached with currently available CdZnTe. The energy resolution demonstrated to date with MCMs for 511 keV gamma rays is 10 keV.

F. P. Doty; C. L. Lingren; B. A. Apotovsky; J. Brunsch; J. F. Butler; T. Collins; R. L. Conwell; S. Friesenhahn; J. Gormley; B. Pi; S. Zhao (Digirad Corp., San Diego, CA); F. L. Augustine, Augustine Engineering, Encinitas, CA; B. A. Bennet; E. Cross; R. B. James (Sandia Nat'l. Labs.)

1998-07-22

355

Analysis of post LOCA gamma-ray effects in representative light water reactions. Volume II. LWR gamma source data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology has been developed to investigate actinide and fission product gamma ray effects in a post-LOCA situation. Specifically, gamma ray source strengths from ORIGEN are coupled with Monte Carlo transport results to predict the gamma ray heat redistribution (for the transient non-flooded case) and gamma ray energy deposition in water (for the long term hydrolysis of water in the

L. Goldstein; S. Lee

1976-01-01

356

Gamma-ray bursts and collisionless shocks  

E-print Network

Particle acceleration in collisionless shocks is believed to be responsible for the production of cosmic-rays over a wide range of energies, from few GeV to >10^{20}eV, as well as for the non-thermal emission of radiation from a wide variety of high energy astrophysical sources. A theory of collisionless shocks based on first principles does not, however, exist. Observations of gamma-ray burst (GRB) "afterglows" provide a unique opportunity for diagnosing the physics of relativistic collisionless shocks. Most GRBs are believed to be associated with explosions of massive stars. Their "afterglows," delayed low energy emission following the prompt burst of gamma-rays, are well accounted for by a model in which afterglow radiation is due to synchrotron emission of electrons accelerated in relativistic collisionless shock waves driven by the explosion into the surrounding plasma. Within the framework of this model, some striking characteristics of collisionless relativistic shocks are implied. These include the generation of downstream magnetic fields with energy density exceeding that of the upstream field by ~8 orders of magnitude, the survival of this strong field at distances ~10^{10} skin-depths downstream of the shock, and the acceleration of particles to a power-law energy spectrum, d\\log n/d\\log E ~ -2, possibly extending to 10^{20}eV. I review in this talk the phenomenological considerations, based on which these characteristics are inferred, and the challenges posed to our current models of particle acceleration and magnetic field generation in collisionless shocks. Some recent theoretical results derived based on the assumption of a self-similar shock structure are briefly discussed.

E. Waxman

2006-07-15

357

Single-Sided Charge-Sharing CZT Strip Detectors for Gamma Ray Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report progress in the study of thick single-sided charge-sharing cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) strip detector modules designed to perform gamma-ray spectroscopy and 3-D imaging. We report laboratory and simulation measurements of prototype detectors with 11x11 unit cells (15x15x7.5mm^3). We report measurements of the 3-D spatial resolution. Our studies are aimed at developing compact, efficient, detector modules for 0.05 to

Burcin Donmez; James Ryan; John Macri; Mark McConnell; Tomohiko Narita; Louis-Andre Hamel

2006-01-01

358

Merging White Dwarf\\/Black Hole Binaries and Gamma-Ray Bursts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The merger of compact binaries, especially black holes and neutron stars, is\\u000afrequently invoked to explain gamma-ray bursts (GRB's). In this paper, we\\u000apresent three dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of the relatively\\u000aneglected mergers of white dwarfs and black holes. During the merger, the white\\u000adwarf is tidally disrupted and sheared into an accretion disk. Nuclear\\u000areactions are followed and the

Chris L. Fryer; S. E. Woosley; Marc Herant; Melvyn B. Davies

1998-01-01

359

Gamma Ray Burst Discoveries with the Swift Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the current understanding of Gamma Ray Bursts. It covers the Long GRBs, our current understanding of Collapsar, Short GRBs, afterglows, and reduced trigger threshold. It also discusses the Hard X-ray Sky Survey.

Gehrels, Neil

2007-01-01

360

Contraband detection using high-energy gamma rays from {sup 16}O*  

SciTech Connect

High-energy monoenergetic gamma rays (6.13 and 7.12 MeV) from the decay of excited states of the {sup 16}O* nucleus are highly penetrating and thus offer potential for non-intrusive inspection of loaded containers for narcotics, explosives, and other contraband items. These excited states can be produced by irradiation of water with 14-MeV neutrons from a DT neutron generator or through the {sup 19}F(p,{alpha}){sup 16}O* reaction. Resonances in {sup 19}F(p,{alpha}){sup 16}O* at proton energies between 340 keV and 2 MeV allow use of a low-energy accelerator to provide a compact, portable gamma source of reasonable intensity. The present work provides estimates of gamma source parameters and suggests how various types of contraband could be detected. Gamma rays can be used to perform transmission or emission radiography of containers or other objects. Through the use of ({gamma}, n) and ({gamma}, fission) reactions, this technique is also capable of detecting special nuclear materials such as deuterium, lithium, beryllium, uranium, and plutonium. Analytic and Monte Carlo techniques are used to model empty and loaded container inspection for accelerator-produced gamma, radioisotope, and x-ray sources.

Micklich, B.J.; Fink, C.L.; Sagalovsky, L.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Technology Development Div.

1996-12-01

361

Contraband detection using high-energy gamma rays from 16O*  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-energy monoenergetic gamma rays (6.13 and 7.12 MeV) from the decay of excited states of the 16O* nucleus are highly penetrating and thus offer potential for non- intrusive inspection of loaded containers for narcotics, explosives, and other contraband items. These excited states can be produced by irradiation of water with 14-MeV neutrons from a DT neutron generator or through the 19F(p,alpha)16O* reaction. Resonances in 19F(p,alpha)16O* at proton energies between 340 keV and 2 MeV allow use of a low-energy accelerator to provide a compact, portable gamma source of reasonable intensity. The present work provides estimates of gamma source parameters and suggests how various types of contraband could be detected. Gamma rays can be used to perform transmission or emission radiography of containers or other objects. Through the use of (gamma,n) and (gamma,fission) reactions, this technique is also capable of detecting special nuclear materials such as deuterium, lithium, beryllium, uranium, and plutonium. Analytic and Monte Carlo techniques are used to model empty and loaded container inspection for accelerator-produced gamma, radioisotope, and x-ray sources.

Micklich, Bradley J.; Fink, Charles L.; Sagalovsky, Leonid; Smith, Donald L.

1997-02-01

362

Significance of medium energy gamma ray astronomy in the study of cosmic rays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Medium energy (about 10 to 30 MeV) gamma ray astronomy provides information on the product of the galactic electron cosmic ray intensity and the galactic matter to which the electrons are dynamically coupled by the magnetic field. Because high energy (greater than 100 MeV) gamma ray astronomy provides analogous information for the nucleonic cosmic rays and the relevant matter, a comparison between high energy and medium energy gamma ray intensities provides a direct ratio of the cosmic ray electrons and nucleons throughout the galaxy. A calculation of gamma ray production by electron bremsstrahlung shows that: bremsstrahlung energy loss is probably not negligible over the lifetime of the electrons in the galaxy; and the approximate bremsstrahlung calculation often used previously overestimates the gamma ray intensity by about a factor of two. As a specific example, expected medium energy gamma ray intensities are calculated for the speral arm model.

Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D. A.; Thompson, D. J.; Bignami, G. F.; Cheung, C. Y.

1975-01-01

363

Low and medium energy galactic gamma-ray observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observation of 0.2-100 MeV diffuse gamma radiation emitted from the Galaxy can provide information on the intensities of 5-50 MeV/nucleon cosmic-rays and 50 MeV electrons in interstellar space. Recent measurements of gamma-rays emitted from the galactic center region provide evidence for a diffuse continuum between 10 and 100 MeV. The intensities of the recently reported nuclear line gamma rays, also observed in the direction of the galactic center, require the presence of intense fluxes of low-energy cosmic-rays in the inner Galaxy if the gamma-rays are produced on a galactic scale. Current detection techniques for 0.1-100 MeV gamma-ray measurements are summarized and their capabilities for measuring the diffuse galactic emission are evaluated.

Share, G. H.

1976-01-01

364

Low- and medium-energy galactic gamma-ray observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observation of 0.2 to 100 MeV-diffuse gamma-radiation emitted from a galaxy provides information on the intensities of 5 to 50 MeV/nucleon cosmic-rays and approximately less than 50-MeV electrons in interstellar space. Recent measurements of gamma-rays emitted from the galactic center region provide evidence for a diffuse continuum between 10 and 100 MeV, which is dominant over the pi-decay emission generated in high-energy nuclear collisions. The intensities of the recently reported nuclear line gamma-rays, also observed in the direction of the galactic center, require the presence of intense fluxes of low energy cosmic rays in the inner galaxy if the gamma-ray are produced on a galactic scale. Current detection techniques for 0.1 to 100 MeV gamma-ray measurements are summarized, and their capabilities for measuring the diffuse galactic emission are evaluated.

Share, G. H.

1977-01-01

365

Multiwavelength observations of unidentified high energy gamma-ray sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As was the case for COS B, the majority of high-energy (greater than 100 MeV) gamma-ray sources detected by the EGRET instrument on GRO are not immediately identifiable with catalogued objects at other wavelengths. These persistent gamma-ray sources are, next to the gamma-ray bursts, the least understood objects in the universe. This two year investigation is intended to support the analysis, correlation, and theoretical interpretation of data that we are obtaining at x-ray, optical, and radio wavelengths in order to render the gamma-ray data interpretable. This second year was devoted to studies of unidentified gamma-ray sources from the first EGRET catalog, similar to previous observations. Efforts have concentrated on the sources at low and intermediate Galactic latitudes, which are the most plausible pulsar candidates.

Halpern, Jules P.

1995-01-01

366

MilagroA TeV Observatory for Gamma Ray Bursts  

E-print Network

Milagro­A TeV Observatory for Gamma Ray Bursts B.L. Dingus and the Milagro Collaboration Los- servatory sensitive to gamma-rays above 100 GeV. This unique detector is ideal for observing the highest energy gamma-rays from gamma-ray bursts. The highest energy gamma rays supply very strong constraints

California at Santa Cruz, University of

367

Search for GeV Emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts Using Milagro Scaler Data  

E-print Network

Search for GeV Emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts Using Milagro Scaler Data D. A. Williams to search for high energy emission from a sample of 98 gamma-ray bursts (GRB) detected from January 2000: gamma-ray sources; gamma-ray bursts; astronomical observations: gamma-ray PACS: 98.70.Rz,95.85.Pw Air

California at Santa Cruz, University of

368

3.9 day orbital modulation in the TeV gamma-ray flux and spectrum from the X-ray binary LS 5039  

E-print Network

New observations of LS 5039, a High Mass X-ray Binary comprising a massive star and compact object, were carried out with the High Energy Stereoscopic System of Cherenkov Telescopes (H.E.S.S.) in 2005 at very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray energies. These observations reveal that its flux and energy spectrum are modulated with the 3.9 day orbital period of the binary system. This is the first time in gamma-ray astronomy that orbital modulation has been observed, and periodicity clearly established using ground-based gamma-ray detectors. The VHE gamma-ray emission is largely confined to half of the orbit, peaking around the inferior conjunction epoch of the compact object. For this epoch, there is also a hardening of the energy spectrum in the energy range between 0.2 TeV and a few TeV. The flux vs. orbital phase profile provides the first clear indication of gamma-ray absorption via pair production within an astrophysical source, a process which is expected to occur if the gamma-ray production site is situated within ~1 AU of the compact object. Moreover the production region size must be not significantly greater than the binary separation (~0.15 AU). Notably, these constraints are also considerably smaller than the collimated outflows or jets (extending out to ~1000 AU) observed in LS 5039. The spectral hardening could arise from variations with phase in the maximum electron energies, and/or the dominant VHE gamma-ray production mechanism.

The H. E. S. S. Collaboration; :; F. A. Aharonian

2006-07-10

369

Discoveries by the Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fermi is a large space gamma-ray mission developed by NASA and the DOE with major contributions from France, Germany, Italy, Japan and Sweden. It was launched in June 2008 and has been performing flawlessly since then. The main instrument is the Large Area Telescope (LAT) operating in the 20 MeV to 300 GeV range and a smaller monitor instrument is the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) operating in the 8 keV to 40 MeV range. New findings are occurring every week. Some of the key discoveries are: 1) Discovery of many new gamma-ray pulsars, including gamma-ray only and millisecond pulsars. 2) Detection of high energy gamma-ray emission from globular clusters, most likely due to summed emission from msec pulsars. 3) Discovery of delayed and extended high energy gamma-ray emission from short and long gamma-ray busts. 4) Detection of approximately 250 gamma-ray bursts per year with the GBM instrument. 5) Most accurate measurement of the cosmic ray electron spectrum between 30 GeV and 1 TeV, showing some excess above the conventional diffusion model. The talk will present the new discoveries and their implications.

Gehrels, Neil

2011-01-01

370

SAS-2 galactic gamma-ray results. 2: Localized sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma ray emission was detected from the radio pulsars PSR 1818-04 and PSR 1747-46, in addition to the previously reported gamma ray emission from the Crab and Vela pulsars. Because the Crab pulsar is the only one observed in the optical and X-ray bands, these gamma ray observations suggest a uniquely gamma ray phenomenon occurring in a fraction of the radio pulsars. PSR 1818-04 has a gamma ray luminosity comparable to that of the Crab pulsar, whereas the luminosities of PSR 1747-46 and the Vela pulsar are approximately an order of magnitude lower. SAS-2 data for pulsar correlations yielded upper limits to gamma ray luminosity for 71 other radio pulsars. For five of the closest pulsars, upper limits for gamma ray luminosity are found to be at least three orders of magnitude lower than that of the Crab pulsar. Gamma ray enhancement near the Milky Way satellite galaxy and the galactic plane in the Cygnus region is also discussed.

Hartman, R. C.; Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D. A.; Lamb, R. C.; Thompson, D. J.; Bignami, G. F.; Oegelman, H.; Oezel, M. E.; Tuemer, T.

1977-01-01

371

Low intensity X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low intensity X-ray and gamma ray spectrometer for imaging, counting, and energy resolving of single invisible radiation particles is described. The spectrometer includes a converting device for converting single invisible radiation particles to visible light photons. Another converting device converts the visible light photons to photoelectrons. A fiber optics coupling device couples together the two converting devices. An intensifying device intensifies the photoelectrons by an average gain factor of between 10 to the 4th power and 10 to the 7th power. The tensifying device is an anti-ion feedback microchannel plate amplifier which is operated substantially below saturation. A displaying device displays the intensified photoelectrons. The displaying device 32 indicates the spatial position, number, and energy of the incoming single invisible radiation particles.

Yin, L. I. (inventor)

1982-01-01

372

MAXI observations of gamma-ray bursts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) Gas Slit Camera (GSC) detects gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), including bursts with soft spectra, such as X-ray flashes (XRFs). MAXI/GSC is sensitive to the energy range from 2 to 30 keV. This energy range is lower than other currently operating instruments which are capable of detecting GRBs. Since the beginning of the MAXI operation on 2009 August 15, GSC observed 35 GRBs up to the middle of 2013. One third of them were also observed by other satellites. The rest of them show a trend to have soft spectra and low fluxes. Because of the contribution of those XRFs, the MAXI GRB rate is about three times higher than those expected from the BATSE log N-log P distribution. When we compare it to the observational results of the Wide-field X-ray Monitor on the High Energy Transient Explorer 2, which covers the the same energy range as that of MAXI/GSC, we find the possibility that many of the MAXI bursts are XRFs with Epeak lower than 20 keV. We discuss the source of soft GRBs observed only by MAXI. The MAXI log N-log S distribution suggests that the MAXI XRFs are distributed over a closer distance than hard GRBs. Since the distributions of the hardness of galactic stellar flares and X-ray bursts overlap with those of MAXI GRBs, we discuss the possibility of confusion of such galactic transients with the MAXI GRB samples.

Serino, Motoko; Sakamoto, Takanori; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Yoshida, Atsumasa; Ohno, Masanori; Ogawa, Yuji; Nishimura, Yasunori; Fukushima, Kosuke; Higa, Masaya; Ishikawa, Kazuto; Ishikawa, Masaki; Kawamuro, Taiki; Kimura, Masashi; Matsuoka, Masaru; Mihara, Tatehiro; Morii, Mikio; Nakagawa, Yujin E.; Nakahira, Satoshi; Nakajima, Motoki; Nakano, Yuki; Negoro, Hitoshi; Onodera, Takuya; Sasaki, Masayuki; Shidatsu, Megumi; Sugimoto, Juri; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Suwa, Fumitoshi; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Tachibana, Yutaro; Takagi, Toshihiro; Toizumi, Takahiro; Tomida, Hiroshi; Tsuboi, Yohko; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Ueno, Shiro; Usui, Ryuichi; Yamada, Hisaki; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Yamauchi, Makoto; Yoshidome, Koshiro; Yoshii, Taketoshi

2014-10-01

373

High-resolution compact X-ray microscopy.  

PubMed

We demonstrate compact full-field soft X-ray transmission microscopy with sub 60-nm resolution operating at lambda= 2.48 nm. The microscope is based on a 100-Hz regenerative liquid-nitrogen-jet laser-plasma source in combination with a condenser zone plate and a micro-zone plate objective for high-resolution imaging onto a 2048 x 2048 pixel CCD detector. The sample holder is mounted in a helium atmosphere and allows imaging of both dry and wet specimens. The microscope design enables fast sample switching and the sample can be pre-aligned using a visible-light microscope. High-quality images can be acquired with exposure times of less than 5 min. We demonstrate the performance of the microscope using both dry and wet samples. PMID:17444946

Takman, P A C; Stollberg, H; Johansson, G A; Holmberg, A; Lindblom, M; Hertz, H M

2007-05-01

374

The radial distribution of gamma rays and cosmic rays in the outer galaxy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gamma ray emissivity spectrum is derived for three distance ranges in the second and third galactic quadrants and is discussed in terms of the contribution from bremsstrahlung and pi(0) decay and of the distribution of cosmic rays. The radial distribution of gamma ray emissivities for different energy ranges is used to determine the radial distribution of cosmic ray electrons

J. B. G. M. Bloemen; W. Hermsen; K. Bennett; G. F. Bignami; P. A. Caraveo; A. W. Strong; L. Blitz; M. Gottwald; H. A. Mayer-Hasselwander; F. Lebrun

1983-01-01

375

Gamma-ray lens development status for a European Gamma-Ray Imager  

E-print Network

A breakthrough in the sensitivity level of the hard X-/gamma-ray telescopes, which today are based on detectors that view the sky through (or not) coded masks, is expected when focusing optics will be available also in this energy range. Focusing techniques are now in an advanced stage of development. To date the most efficient technique to focus hard X-rays with energies above 100 keV appears to be the Bragg diffraction from crystals in transmission configuration (Laue lenses). Crystals with mosaic structure appear to be the most suitable to build a Laue lens with a broad passband, even though other alternative structures are being investigated. The goal of our project is the development of a broad band focusing telescope based on gamma-ray lenses for the study of the continuum emission of celestial sources from 60 keV up to >600 keV. We will report details of our project, its development status and results of our assessment study of a lens configuration for the European Gamma Ray Imager (GRI) mission now under study for the ESA plan "Cosmic Vision 2015-2025".

F. Frontera; A. Pisa; V. Carassiti; F. Evangelisti; G. Loffredo; D. Pellicciotta; K. H. Andersen; P. Courtois; L. Amati; E. Caroli; T. Franceschini; G. Landini; S. Silvestri; J. B. Stephen

2006-11-15

376

GROSS- GAMMA RAY OBSERVATORY ATTITUDE DYNAMICS SIMULATOR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) spacecraft will constitute a major advance in gamma ray astronomy by offering the first opportunity for comprehensive observations in the range of 0.1 to 30,000 megaelectronvolts (MeV). The Gamma Ray Observatory Attitude Dynamics Simulator, GROSS, is designed to simulate this mission. The GRO Dynamics Simulator consists of three separate programs: the Standalone Profile Program; the Simulator Program, which contains the Simulation Control Input/Output (SCIO) Subsystem, the Truth Model (TM) Subsystem, and the Onboard Computer (OBC) Subsystem; and the Postprocessor Program. The Standalone Profile Program models the environment of the spacecraft and generates a profile data set for use by the simulator. This data set contains items such as individual external torques; GRO spacecraft, Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS), and solar and lunar ephemerides; and star data. The Standalone Profile Program is run before a simulation. The SCIO subsystem is the executive driver for the simulator. It accepts user input, initializes parameters, controls simulation, and generates output data files and simulation status display. The TM subsystem models the spacecraft dynamics, sensors, and actuators. It accepts ephemerides, star data, and environmental torques from the Standalone Profile Program. With these and actuator commands from the OBC subsystem, the TM subsystem propagates the current state of the spacecraft and generates sensor data for use by the OBC and SCIO subsystems. The OBC subsystem uses sensor data from the TM subsystem, a Kalman filter (for attitude determination), and control laws to compute actuator commands to the TM subsystem. The OBC subsystem also provides output data to the SCIO subsystem for output to the analysts. The Postprocessor Program is run after simulation is completed. It generates printer and CRT plots and tabular reports of the simulated data at the direction of the user. GROSS is written in FORTRAN 77 and ASSEMBLER and has been implemented on a VAX 11/780 under VMS 4.5. It has a virtual memory requirement of 255k. GROSS was developed in 1986.

Garrick, J.

1994-01-01

377

Gamma-Ray Observatory - The next great observatory in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Gamma-Ray Observatory (GRO) which is part of NASA's Great Observatories space program is presented. The GRO is equipped with the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (which detects low-energy gamma-ray photons from 20 keV to 600 keV and locates sources of gamma-ray bursts), the Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (which detects celestial gamma rays from 100 keV to 10 MeV and identifies the elements producing these rays by measuring the ray's spectra and time variability), the Imaging Compton Telescope (which images gamma rays with energies from 1 to 30 MeV created when cosmic rays interact with interstellar matter), and the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (which detects high-energy photons associated with the most energetic processes occurring in nature). After the energies of photons from each source are classified, the gamma-ray mechanisms can be modelled. Nuclei, radioactive isotopes, and nuclear reactions can be identified, and the physical conditions at the radiation's source can also be modelled. From these models, theories can be developed about the creation of elements in the explosion and collapse of giant stars, the acceleration of charged particles to velocities approaching the speed of light, and the destruction of matter and antimatter.

Neal, Valerie; Fishman, Gerald; Kniffen, Donald

1990-01-01

378

The axion-photon interaction and gamma ray signals of dark matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore two scenarios where the axion-photon interaction could induce additional astrophysical gamma ray signals for the dark matter. In the first scenario, dark compact objects made of axions, named axion stars, could collide with neutron stars. The whole energy of the axion star can be dissipated in the magnetized conducting medium of the neutron star generating gamma rays. The second scenario is an indirect method for observing self-annihilating dark matter trapped in stars: Gamma rays produced by the self-annihilation of neutralinos in the interior of the Sun can be transformed into axions due to photon-axion conversion. Then, the axion will travel freely in the Sun and be converted into photons again. This process is often referred as 'shine light through walls', in this case, the wall will be the solar interior. Hence, GeV gamma rays might pass through the Sun. We may conclude that observation of GeV photons by gamma-ray observatories like HAWC, coming from the Sun, may be a signal of annihilation of neutralinos in the interior of the Sun.

Barranco, J.; Carrillo Monteverde, A.; Delepine, D.

2014-03-01

379

Constraints on the Emission Geometries and Spin Evolution of Gamma-Ray Millisecond Pulsars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are a growing class of gamma-ray emitters. Pulsed gamma-ray signals have been detected from more than 40 MSPs with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). The wider radio beams and more compact magnetospheres of MSPs enable studies of emission geometries over a broader range of phase space than non-recycled radio-loud gamma-ray pulsars. We have modeled the gamma-ray light curves of 40 LAT-detected MSPs using geometric emission models assuming a vacuum retarded-dipole magnetic field. We modeled the radio profiles using a single-altitude hollow-cone beam, with a core component when indicated by polarimetry; however, for MSPs with gamma-ray and radio light curve peaks occurring at nearly the same rotational phase, we assume that the radio emission is co-located with the gamma rays and caustic in nature. The best-fit parameters and confidence intervals are determined using a maximum likelihood technique. We divide the light curves into three model classes, with gamma-ray peaks trailing (Class I), aligned (Class II), or leading (Class III) the radio peaks. Outer gap and slot gap (two-pole caustic) models best fit roughly equal numbers of Class I and II, while Class III are exclusively fit with pair-starved polar cap models. Distinguishing between the model classes based on typical derived parameters is difficult. We explore the evolution of the magnetic inclination angle with period and spin-down power, finding possible correlations. While the presence of significant off-peak emission can often be used as a discriminator between outer gap and slot gap models, a hybrid model may be needed.

Johnson, T. J.; Venter, C.; Harding, A. K.; Guillemot, L.; Smith, D. A.; Kramer, M.; Çelik, Ö.; den Hartog, P. R.; Ferrara, E. C.; Hou, X.; Lande, J.; Ray, P. S.

2014-07-01

380

Absorbed Gamma-Ray Doses due to Natural Radionuclides in Building Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is devoted to the application of high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry in the study of the effective dose coming from naturally occurring radionuclides, namely 40K, 232Th and 238U, present in building materials such as sand, cement, and granitic gravel. Four models were applied to estimate the effective dose and the hazard indices. The maximum estimated effective dose coming from the three reference rooms considered is 0.90(45) mSv/yr, and maximum internal hazard index is 0.77(24), both for the compact clay brick reference room. The principal gamma radiation sources are cement, sand and bricks.

Aguiar, Vitor A. P.; Medina, Nilberto H.; Moreira, Ramon H.; Silveira, Marcilei A. G.

2010-05-01

381

Gamma rays from grazing incidence cosmic rays in the earth's atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interactions of grazing incidence, ultra high-energy cosmic rays with the earth's atmosphere may provide a new method of studying energetic cosmic rays with gamma-ray satellites. It is found that these cosmic ray interactions may produce gamma-rays on millisecond timescales which may be detectable by satellites. An extremely low gamma-ray background for transient gamma-ray events and a large area of interaction, the earth's surface, make the scheme plausible. The effective cross section of detection of interactions for cosmic rays above 10(exp 20) eV is found to be more than two orders of magnitude higher than Earth-based detection techniques. This method may eventually offer an efficient way of probing this region of the cosmic-ray energy spectrum where events are scarce. In this paper, a conceptual model is presented for the production of short bursts of gamma-rays based on these grazing incidence encounters with the Earth's atmosphere.

Ulmer, Andrew

1994-01-01

382

Saturated Compton Scattering Models for the Soft GammaRay  

E-print Network

Saturated Compton Scattering Models for the Soft Gamma­Ray Repeater Bursts I. A. Smith, E. P. Liang, A. Crider, D. Lin Department of Space Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, MS­108, 6100 South 662, Japan Abstract. The Soft Gamma­Ray Repeaters (SGR) are sources of brief intense outbursts of low

Smith, Ian Andrew

383

SCUBA Submillimeter Observations of GammaRay Burst Counterparts  

E-print Network

SCUBA Sub­millimeter Observations of Gamma­Ray Burst Counterparts I. A. Smith \\Lambda , J. van Department of Space Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, MS­108, 6100 South Main, Houston, TX 77005­1892 y to use in the sub­millimeter on arcminute sized gamma­ray burst error boxes. For well­localized radio

Smith, Ian Andrew

384

Very High Energy Gamma Ray Extension of GRO Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The membership, progress, and invited talks, publications, and proceedings made by the Whipple Gamma Ray Collaboration is reported for june 1990 through May 1994. Progress was made in the following areas: the May 1994 Markarian Flare at Whipple and EGRET (Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope) energies; AGN's (Active Galactic Nuclei); bursts; supernova remnants; and simulations and energy spectra.

Weekes, Trevor C.

1994-01-01

385

Discovery of Intense Gamma-Ray Flashes of Atmospheric Origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detectors aboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory have observed an unexplained terrestrial phenomenon: brief, intense flashes of gamma rays. These flashes must originate in the atmosphere at altitudes above at least 30 kilometers in order to escape atmospheric absorption and reach the orbiting detectors. At least a dozen such events have been detected over the past 2 years. The photon

G. J. Fishman; P. N. Bhat; R. Mallozzi; J. M. Horack; T. Koshut; C. Kouveliotou; G. N. Pendleton; C. A. Meegan; R. B. Wilson; W. S. Paciesas; S. J. Goodman; H. J. Christian

1994-01-01

386

GRAYSKY-A new gamma-ray skyshine code  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new prototype gamma-ray skyshine code GRAYSKY (Gamma-RAY SKYshine) that has been developed at BNFL, as part of an industrially based master of science course, to overcome the problems encountered with SKYSHINEII and RANKERN. GRAYSKY is a point kernel code based on the use of a skyshine response function. The scattering within source or shield materials is

D. J. Witts; T. Twardowski; M. H. Watmough

1993-01-01

387

QUALITY CONTROL FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MEASUREMENTS USING GAMMA-RAY SPECTROMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes the quality control procedures, calibration, collection, analysis, and interpretation of data in measuring the activity of gamma ray-emitting radionuclides in environmental samples. Included in the appendices are basic data for selected gamma ray-emitting ra...

388

The Gamma-Ray Luminosity Function of Radio Pulsars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This final report is a study of gamma-ray luminosity function of radio pulsars. The goal is to constrain certain parameters in order to address such diverse issues as the high energy emission mechanism in pulsars and the fraction of the Galaxy's gamma ray emission attributable to these objects.

Helfand, David J.

1998-01-01

389

Gamma-ray astronomy: Promise for the future  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are in a very active period in gamma-ray astronomy due primarily to new discoveries from the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO). While the near future looks bright with the ESA INTEGRAL mission scheduled for launch in ~2001, there are currently no major missions being planned beyond INTEGRAL and none being planned at all by NASA. This paper reviews current

Neil Gehrels; Daryl Macomb

1997-01-01

390

Coordinated UV Observations of Gamma-Ray Selected Blazars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose to use the unique capabilities of the IUE satellite to make UV observations as part of a large international multiwavelength campaign to monitor gamma-ray selected blazars. This program is being coordinated by Hartman with the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) phase 4 time line to obtain simultaneous observations of blazars over the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Multiwavelength observations are

Robert C. Hartman

1994-01-01

391

Images of Simultaneous Gamma-Ray Burst Optical Counterpart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Astronomers have observed a visible light emitted at the same time as a gamma-ray burst for the first time on January 27, 1999. Six images of this gamma-ray burst are provided at the University of Michigan site.

1999-01-01

392

Diagram of the Apollo 15 & 16 Gamma-ray Detector  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a diagram of the Apollo 15 & 16 Gamma-ray Detector from the NASA website. Primarily intended to study the Moon's radioactivity, it made measurements of the cosmic gamma-ray background during its trip. It shows measurements in millimeters.

2010-05-05

393

Crystal diffraction lens telescope for focusing nuclear gamma rays  

Microsoft Academic Search

A crystal diffraction lens was constructed at Argonne National Laboratory for use as a telescope to focus nuclear gamma rays. It consists of 600 single crystals of germanium arranged in 8 concentric rings. The mounted angle of each crystal was adjusted to intercept and diffract the incoming gamma rays with an accuracy of a few arcsec. The performance of the

Robert K. Smither; Patricia B. Fernandez; Timothy Graber; Peter von Ballmoos; Juan E. Naya; Francis Albernhe; Gilbert Vedrenne; Mohamed Faiz

1996-01-01

394

Gamma rays from accretion onto rotating black holes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ionized matter falling onto an isolated, rotating black hole will be heated sufficiently that proton-proton collisions will produce mesons, including neutral pions, which decay into gamma rays. For massive (1000 M sub circled dot), black holes, the resulting gamma-ray luminosity may exceed 10 to the 36th power engs/s, with a spectrum peaked near 20 MeV.

Collins, M. S.

1978-01-01

395

Gamma-ray Bursts as Probes of Galaxy Evolution  

E-print Network

Gamma-ray Bursts as Probes of Galaxy Evolution Daniele Malesani, Dark Cosmology Centre and the X to ongoing star formation "Naked-eye" GRB 080319B GRBs explode within star-forming galaxies Gamma-ray bursts formation rate (you "only" need a redshift) Includes "invisible" star formation: - SF in faint galaxies

Â?umer, Slobodan

396

VHE Gamma Rays from PKS 2155-304  

E-print Network

The close X-ray selected BL Lac PKS 2155-304 has been observed using the University of Durham Mark 6 very high energy (VHE) gamma ray telescope during 1996 September/October/November and 1997 October/November. VHE gamma rays with energy > 300 GeV were detected from this object with a time-averaged integral flux of (4.2 +/- 0.7 (stat) +/- 2.0 (sys)) x 10^(-11) per cm2 per s. There is evidence for VHE gamma ray emission during our observations in 1996 September and 1997 October/November, with the strongest emission being detected in 1997 November, when the object was producing the largest flux ever recorded in high-energy X-rays and was detected in > 100 MeV gamma-rays. The VHE and X-ray fluxes show evidence of a correlation.

P. M. Chadwick; K. Lyons; T. J. L. McComb; K. J. Orford; J. L. Osborne; S. M. Rayner; S. E. Shaw; K. E. Turver; G. J. Wieczorek

1998-10-14

397

Perspectives on Gamma-Ray Pulsar Emission  

SciTech Connect

Pulsars are powerful sources of radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum. This paper highlights some theoretical insights into non-thermal, magnetospheric pulsar gamma-ray radiation. These advances have been driven by NASA's Fermi mission, launched in mid-2008. The Large Area Telescope (LAT) instrument on Fermi has afforded the discrimination between polar cap and slot gap/outer gap acceleration zones in young and middle-aged pulsars. Altitude discernment using the highest energy pulsar photons will be addressed, as will spectroscopic interpretation of the primary radiation mechanism in the LAT band, connecting to both polar cap/slot gap and outer gap scenarios. Focuses will mostly be on curvature radiation and magnetic pair creation, including population trends that may afford probes of the magnetospheric accelerating potential.

Baring, Matthew G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, MS-108, Rice University, P. O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251-1892 (United States)

2011-09-21

398

Gamma-ray bursts: nature's brightest explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the roughly 20 seconds it shines brightest, a gamma-ray burst (GRB) is over a billion times brighter, in electromagnetic radiation, than an ordinary supernova. The key difference is that GRBs emit some appreciable fraction of their kinetic energy in channeled ultra-relativistic outflows (Lorentz factor ? > 200). Currently credible models point to rotation as the key factor required to generate the outflows. We explore here the collapse of the core a massive, rotating star to a black hole and accretion disk and the subsequent propagation of relativistic jets through the star. A variety of high energy transients may be observed based upon the energy of the jet and the angle at which the explosion is observed, but there may be a minimum energy for GRBs that last only tens of seconds.

Zhang, W.; Woosley, S. E.; MacFadyen, A. I.

2006-09-01

399

Gamma Ray Bursts:. Some Facts and Ideas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are the most explosive events after the big bang: their energy output corresponds to a sizeable fraction of a solar mass entirely converted into energy in a few seconds. Although many questions about their progenitors remain to be answered, it is likely that they are generated by a newly formed and fast spinning black hole. The colossal power characterizing GRBs is carried by a surprisingly small amount of matter, which is accelerated to speeds differing from c by one part in ten thousands. GRBs are then the most (special and general) relativistic objects we know of. Since GRBs are the brightest sources at high redshift, albeit for a limited amount of time, they are also the best torchlights we have to shine the far universe.

Ghisellini, Gabriele

2003-01-01

400

Do gamma-ray burst sources repeat?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The demonstration of repeated gamma-ray bursts from an individual source would severely constrain burst source models. Recent reports (Quashnock and Lamb, 1993; Wang and Lingenfelter, 1993) of evidence for repetition in the first BATSE burst catalog have generated renewed interest in this issue. Here, we analyze the angular distribution of 585 bursts of the second BATSE catalog (Meegan et al., 1994). We search for evidence of burst recurrence using the nearest and farthest neighbor statistic and the two-point angular correlation function. We find the data to be consistent with the hypothesis that burst sources do not repeat; however, a repeater fraction of up to about 20% of the observed bursts cannot be excluded.

Meegan, Charles A.; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Brainerd, J. J.; Briggs, Michael S.; Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Fishman, Gerald; Blumenthal, George; Brock, Martin

1995-01-01

401

Host Galaxies of Gamma-Ray Bursts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Host galaxies are an excellent means of probing the natal environments that generate gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Recent work on the host galaxies of short-duration GRBs has offered new insights into the parent stellar populations and ages of their enigmatic progenitors. Similarly, surveys of long-duration GRB (LGRB) host environments and their ISM properties have produced intriguing new results with important implications for long GRB progenitor models. These host studies are also critical in evaluating the utility of LGRBs as potential tracers of star formation and metallicity at high redshifts. I will summarize the latest research on LGRB host galaxies, and discuss the resulting impact on our understanding of these events' progenitors, energetics, and cosmological applications.

Levesque, Emily M.

2012-09-01

402

Gamma ray constraints on decaying dark matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive new bounds on decaying dark matter from the gamma ray measurements of (i) the isotropic residual (extragalactic) background by Fermi and (ii) the Fornax galaxy cluster by H.E.S.S. We find that those from (i) are among the most stringent constraints currently available, for a large range of dark matter masses and a variety of decay modes, excluding half-lives up to ˜1026 to few 1027seconds. In particular, they rule out the interpretation in terms of decaying dark matter of the eą spectral features in PAMELA, Fermi and H.E.S.S., unless very conservative choices are adopted. We also discuss future prospects for CTA bounds from Fornax which, contrary to the present H.E.S.S. constraints of (ii), may allow for an interesting improvement and may become better than those from the current or future extragalactic Fermi data.

Cirelli, Marco; Moulin, Emmanuel; Panci, Paolo; Serpico, Pasquale D.; Viana, Aion

2012-10-01

403

The High Altitude Gamma Ray Observatory, HAWC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Volcano Sierra Negra in Puebla, Mexico was selected to host HAWC (High Altitude Water Cherenkov), a unique obervatory of wide field of view (2? sr) capable of observing the sky continously at energies from 0.5 TeV to 100 TeV. HAWC is an array of 300 large water tanks (7.3 m diameter × 5 m depth) at an altitude of 4100 m. a. s. l. Each tank is instrumented with three upward-looking photomultipliers tubes. The full array will be capable of observing the most energetic gamma rays from the most violent events in the universe. HAWC will be 15 times more sensitive than its predecesor, Milagro. We present HAWC, the scientific case and capabilities.

González, M. M.

2011-10-01

404

Pulsar gamma rays from polar cap regions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The production is studied of pulsar gamma rays by energetic electrons flowing in the open field region above pulsar polar caps. The propagation was followed of curvature radiation from primary electrons, as well as hard synchrotron radiation generated by secondary pairs, through the pulsar magnetosphere for vacuum dipole open field geometries. Using data from radio and optical observations, models were constructed for the specific geometries and viewing angles appropriate to particular pulsars. These detailed models produce normalized spectra above 10 MeV, pulse profiles, beaming fractions and phase resolved spectra appropriate for direct comparison with COS-B and GRO data. Models are given for the Crab, Vela, and other potentially detectable pulsars; general agreement with existing data is good, although perturbations to the simplified models are needed for close matches. The calculations were extended to the millisecond pulsar range, which allows the production of predictions for the flux and spectra of populations of recycled pulsars and search strategies are pointed out.

Chiang, James; Romani, Roger W.

1992-01-01

405

Constraining Lorentz violations with Gamma Ray Bursts  

E-print Network

Gamma ray bursts are excellent candidates to constrain physical models which break Lorentz symmetry. We consider deformed dispersion relations which break the boost invariance and lead to an energy-dependent speed of light. In these models, simultaneously emitted photons from cosmological sources reach Earth with a spectral time delay that depends on the symmetry breaking scale. We estimate the possible bounds which can be obtained by comparing the spectral time delays with the time resolution of available telescopes. We discuss the best strategy to reach the strongest bounds. We compute the probability of detecting bursts that improve the current bounds. The results are encouraging. Depending on the model, it is possible to build a detector that within several years will improve the present limits of 0.015 m_pl.

Maria Rodriguez Martinez; Tsvi Piran

2006-01-10

406

Super Luminous Supernova and Gamma Ray Bursts  

E-print Network

We use a simple analytical model to derive a closed form expression for the bolometric light-curve of super-luminus supernovae (SLSNe) powered by a plastic collision between the fast ejecta from core collapse supernovae (SNe) of types Ib/c and IIn and slower massive circum-stellar shells, ejected during the late stage of the life of their progenitor stars preceding the SN explosion. We demonstrate that this expression reproduces well the bolometric luminosity of SLSNe with and without an observed gamma ray burst (GRB), and requires only a modest amount ($M < 0.1\\,M_\\odot$) of radioactive $^{56}$Ni synthesized in the SN explosion in order to explain their late-time luminosity. Long duration GRBs can be produced by ordinary SNe of type Ic rather than by 'hypernovae' - a subclass of superenergetic SNeIb/c.

Shlomo Dado; Arnon Dar

2012-07-16

407

The GLAST Gamma-Ray Observatory  

SciTech Connect

GLAST is a space mission that will observe the gamma-ray sky between 20MeV and 1TeV with unprecedented resolution and sensitivity. The Large Area Telescope (LAT), the main instrument onboard the GLAST satellite, is built with state-of-the-art particle physics detectors, and combines a large area is-strip tracker-converter, that will measure direction of incoming photons to an imaging CsI e.m. calorimeter for measurements of photon energies; an outer, segmented Anti-Coincidence Detector will reject charged particle background. In this paper they give an overview of the many physics goals and potential reach of the GLAST observatory and describe in detail the instrument design and performance.

Latronico, L.

2004-10-27

408

Gamma-ray bursts and cosmology.  

PubMed

I review the current status of the use of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) as probes of the early Universe and cosmology. I describe the promise of long GRBs as probes of the high redshift (z>4) and very high redshift (z>5) Universe, and several key scientific results that have come from observations made possible by accurate, rapid localizations of these bursts by Swift. I then estimate the fraction of long GRBs that lie at very high redshifts and discuss ways in which it may be possible to rapidly identify-and therefore study-a larger number of these bursts. Finally, I discuss the ways in which both long and short GRBs can be made 'standard candles' and used to constrain the properties of dark energy. PMID:17301023

Lamb, D Q

2007-05-15

409

Gamma-ray bursts - The current status  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The field of gamma ray burst astronomy is reviewed with emphasis on the results obtained since 1978 by numerous spacecraft experiments. Burst energy spectra are now known to display complex and rapidly varying shapes; however, the detection of line emission poses both experimental and theoretical problems. The log N-log S curves, when properly corrected for instrumental effects, are substantially in agreement at high intensities, although the shape of the curves is inconsistent with the observed spatial distribution of the bursts. Precise localizations using the method of arrival time analysis between widely separated spacecraft have given small error boxes which have in many cases been searched down to magnitude 23.5 and beyond. The results of these searches, as well as those of archival and real-time optical searches, are reviewed.

Hurley, K.

410

LONG GAMMA-RAY TRANSIENTS FROM COLLAPSARS  

SciTech Connect

In the collapsar model for common gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), the formation of a centrifugally supported disk occurs during the first {approx}10 s following the collapse of the iron core in a massive star. This only occurs in a small fraction of massive stellar deaths, however, and requires unusual conditions. A much more frequent occurrence could be the death of a star that makes a black hole and a weak or absent outgoing shock, but in a progenitor that only has enough angular momentum in its outermost layers to make a disk. We consider several cases where this is likely to occur-blue supergiants with low mass-loss rates, tidally interacting binaries involving either helium stars or giant stars, and the collapse to a black hole of very massive pair-instability supernovae. These events have in common the accretion of a solar mass or so of material through a disk over a period much longer than the duration of a common GRB. A broad range of powers is possible, 10{sup 47}-10{sup 50} erg s{sup -1}, and this brightness could be enhanced by beaming. Such events were probably more frequent in the early universe where mass-loss rates were lower. Indeed, this could be one of the most common forms of gamma-ray transients in the universe and could be used to study first generation stars. Several events could be active in the sky at any one time. Recent examples of this sort of event may have been the Swift transients Sw-1644+57, Sw-2058+0516, and GRB 101225A.

Woosley, S. E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Heger, Alexander, E-mail: woosley@ucolick.org, E-mail: alex@physics.umn.edu [Minnesota Institute of Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

2012-06-10

411

Gamma-Ray Bursts: Pulses and Populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe ongoing work on two projects that are enabling more thorough and accurate use of archival BATSE data for elucidating the nature of GRB sources; the methods and tools we are developing will also be valuable for analyzing data from other missions. The first project addresses modeling the spectro-temporal behavior of prompt gamma ray emission from GRBs by modeling gamma ray count and event data with a population of pulses, with the population drawn from one or more families of single-pulse kernels. Our approach is built on a multilevel nonparametric probabilistic framework we have dubbed "Bayesian droplets," and offers several important advances over previous pulse decomposition approaches: (1) It works in the pulse-confusion regime, quantifying uncertainty in the number, locations, and shapes of pulses, even when there is strong overlap. (2) It can self-consistently model pulse behavior across multiple spectral bands. (3) It readily handles a variety of spatio-temporal kernel shapes. (4) It reifies the idea of a burst as a population of pulses, enabling explicit modeling and estimation of the pulse population distribution. We describe the framework and present analyses of prototypical simple and complex GRB light curves. The second project aims to enable accurate demographic modeling of GRBs using the BATSE catalog. We present new calculations of the BATSE sky exposure, encompassing the full duration of the BATSE catalog for the first time, with many improvements over the currently available exposure map. A similar calculation of the detection efficiency is in progress. We also describe public Python software enabling access and accurate modeling of BATSE GRB data. The software enables demographic studies (e.g., modeling log N - log S distributions) with accurate accounting of both selection effects and measurement errors. It also enables spectro-temporal modeling of detailed data from individual GRBs. These projects are supported by NASA through the AISR and ADAP programs.

Loredo, Thomas J.; Hakkila, J. E.; Broadbent, M.; Wasserman, I. M.; Wolpert, R. L.

2013-04-01

412

The COS-B experiment for gamma ray astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experimental package on-board the COS-B satellite is described. Extraterrestrial gamma radiation sources are investigated by observing of gamma rays with energies in excess of 20 MeV. Major areas studied are: the angular structure of gamma ray emission from the galactic plane, the flux of the isotropic radiation from high galactic latitudes believed to be of extragalactic origin, point sources

G. F. Bignami; G. Boella; J. J. Burger; P. Keirle; H. A. Mayer-Hasselwander; J. A. Paul; E. Pfeffermann; L. Scarsi; B. N. Swanenburg; B. G. Taylor; W. Voges; R. D. Wills

1974-01-01

413

The COS-B experiment for gamma-ray astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The COS-B satellite will carry a single large experiment, capable of detecting gamma-rays with energies in excess of 20 MeV in order to study in detail the sources of extraterrestrial gamma radiation. The principal objectives of the study will be to investigate the angular structure of gamma-ray emission from the galactic plane, to measure the flux of the isotropic radiation

G. F. Bignami; G. Boella; J. J. Burger; B. G. Taylor; P. Keirle; J. A. Paul; H. A. Mayer-Hasselwander; E. Pfeffermann; L. Scarsi; B. N. Swanenburg

1975-01-01

414

Magnetic Structures in Gamma-Ray Burst Jets Probed by Gamma-Ray Polarization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report polarization measurements in two prompt emissions of gamma-ray bursts, GRB 110301A and GRB 110721A, observed with the gamma-ray burst polarimeter (GAP) on borad the IKAROS solar sail mission. We detected linear polarization signals from each burst with polarization degree of ? = 70 ą 22% with statistical significance of 3.7? for GRB 110301A, and ? = 84+16 - 28% with 3.3? confidence level for GRB 110721A. We did not detect any significant change of polarization angle. These two events had shorter durations and dimmer brightness compared with GRB 100826A, which showed a significant change of polarization angle, as reported in Yonetoku et al. Synchrotron emission model can be consistent with the data of the three GRBs, while the photospheric quasi-thermal emission model is not favored. We suggest that magnetic field structures in the emission region are globally ordered fields advected from the central engine.

Yonetoku, Daisuke; Murakami, Toshio; Gunji, Shuichi; Mihara, Tatehiro; Toma, Kenji; Morihara, Yoshiyuki; Takahashi, Takuya; Wakashima, Yudai; Yonemochi, Hajime; Sakashita, Tomonori; Toukairin, Noriyuki; Fujimoto, Hirofumi; Kodama, Yoshiki

2012-10-01

415

The supernova-gamma-ray burst-jet connection.  

PubMed

The observed association between supernovae and gamma-ray bursts represents a cornerstone in our understanding of the nature of gamma-ray bursts. The collapsar model provides a theoretical framework for this connection. A key element is the launch of a bipolar jet (seen as a gamma-ray burst). The resulting hot cocoon disrupts the star, whereas the (56)Ni produced gives rise to radioactive heating of the ejecta, seen as a supernova. In this discussion paper, I summarize the observational status of the supernova-gamma-ray burst connection in the context of the 'engine' picture of jet-driven supernovae and highlight SN 2012bz/GRB 120422A--with its luminous supernova but intermediate high-energy luminosity--as a possible transition object between low-luminosity and jet gamma-ray bursts. The jet channel for supernova explosions may provide new insights into supernova explosions in general. PMID:23630379

Hjorth, Jens

2013-06-13

416

Polarization mesurements of gamma ray bursts and axion like particles  

E-print Network

A polarized gamma ray emission spread over a sufficiently wide energy band from a strongly magnetized astrophysical object like gamma ray bursts (GRBs) offers an opportunity to test the hypothesis of axion like particles (ALPs). Based on evidences of polarized gamma ray emission detected in several gamma ray bursts we estimated the level of ALPs induced dichroism, which could take place in the magnetized fireball environment of a GRB. This allows to estimate the sensitivity of polarization measurements of GRBs to the ALP-photon coupling. This sensitivity $\\gag\\le 2.2\\cdot 10^{-11} {\\rm GeV^{-1}}$ calculated for the ALP mass $m_a=10^{-3}~{\\rm eV}$ and MeV energy spread of gamma ray emission is competitive with the sensitivity of CAST and becomes even stronger for lower ALPs masses.

Andre Rubbia; Alexander Sakharov

2008-09-03

417

Gamma ray irradiation for sludge solubilization and biological nitrogen removal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of gamma ray irradiation on the solubilization of waste sewage sludge. The recovery of an organic carbon source from sewage sludge by gamma ray irradiation was also studied. The gamma ray irradiation showed effective sludge solubilization efficiencies. Both soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 5) increased by gamma ray irradiation. The feasibility of the solubilized sludge carbon source for a biological nitrogen removal was also investigated. A modified continuous bioreactor (MLE process) for a denitrification was operated for 20 days by using synthetic wastewater. It can be concluded that the gamma ray irradiation was useful for the solubilization of sludge and the recovery of carbon source from the waste sewage sludge for biological nitrogen removal.

Kim, Tak-Hyun; Lee, Myunjoo; Park, Chulhwan

2011-12-01

418

Gamma rays from clusters and groups of galaxies: Cosmic rays versus dark matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clusters of galaxies have not yet been detected at gamma-ray frequencies; however, the recently launched Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, formerly known as GLAST, could provide the first detections in the near future. Clusters are expected to emit gamma rays as a result of (1) a population of high-energy cosmic rays fueled by accretion, merger shocks, active galactic nuclei, and supernovae,

Tesla E. Jeltema; John Kehayias; Stefano Profumo

2009-01-01

419

Afterglows as Diagnostics of Gamma Ray Burst Beaming  

E-print Network

If gamma ray bursts are highly collimated, radiating into only a small fraction of the sky, the energy requirements of each event may be reduced by several (up to 4 - 6) orders of magnitude, and the event rate increased correspondingly. The large Lorentz factors (Gamma > 100) inferred from GRB spectra imply relativistic beaming of the gamma rays into an angle 1/Gamma. We are at present ignorant of whether there are ejecta outside this narrow cone. Afterglows allow empirical tests of whether GRBs are well-collimated jets or spherical fireballs. The bulk Lorentz factor decreases and radiation is beamed into an ever increasing solid angle as the burst remnant expands. It follows that if gamma ray bursts are highly collimated, many more optical and radio transients should be observed without associated gamma rays than with them. In addition, a burst whose ejecta are beamed into angle zeta undergoes a qualitative change in evolution when Gamma < 1/zeta: Before this, Gamma ~ r^{-3/2}, while afterwards, Gamma decays exponentially with r. This change results in a potentially observable break in the afterglow light curve. Successful application of either test would eliminate the largest remaining uncertainty in the energy requirements and space density of gamma ray bursters.

James E. Rhoads

1997-12-03

420

Imager for gamma-ray astronomy: balloon prototype  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel low energy astronomical gamma-ray detector is being developed for future satellite missions. Recent advances in the technology of photodiodes and small, low noise amplifier circuits have meant that more compact detectors can be assembled in a complex array in order to give a 3-D position reconstruction capability. In a mask-detector telescope this capability is potentially very useful since it allows the reconstruction of the path of the incident gamma rays making it valuable both for imaging and background rejection. A small prototype of a 3-D detector has been realized for test in a balloon mission. The detector is based on a 12 X 8 array of position sensitive CsI(T1) bars, typically 15 cm long with 1.3 X 1.3 cm cross section, viewed at each end by photodiodes. The detector includes four 1.3 X 1.3 X 2.5 cm CsI(T1) scintillators located above the main array in order to evaluate the low energy response of the imager. The detector constitutes an active block of 2400 cm(superscript 3) of scintillator that can operate in the 0.2 - 10 MeV energy range. The energy resolution is 13% at 662 keV and the positional resolution is of the order of 1.5 cm in each dimension. An active shield of CSI(T1) and plastic scintillators surrounds the bar detector. The overall experiment is briefly described in general and preliminary results of laboratory tests are presented.

Di Cocco, Guido; Labanti, Claudio; Malaguti, Giuseppe; Rossi, Elio; Schiavone, Filomena; Spizzichino, A.; Traci, A.; Bird, A. J.; Carter, T.; Dean, Anthony J.; Gomm, A. J.; Grant, K. J.; Corba, Massimiliano; Quadrini, E.; Rossi, Massimo; Villa, G. E.; Swinyard, Bruce M.

1991-10-01

421

International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL): a future ESA mission for gamma-ray astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The INTEGRAL observatory, due for launch in 2001, will address the fine spectroscopy (2 keV FWHM 1 MeV) and accurate imaging (12 arcminute FWHM) of celestial gamma-ray sources in the important 15 keV to 10 MeV energy range. The fine spectroscopy will permit spectral features to be uniquely identified and line profiles to be determined for in-depth studies of the

Neil A. Gehrels; Christoph Winkler

1996-01-01

422

Very high energy gamma-rays from Centaurus X-3: indications and implications  

E-print Network

A timing analysis of VHE gamma-ray observations of Cen X-3 taken with the University of Durham Mark 6 telescope was performed, using both Rayleigh and Bayesian statistics. Data from only 1 observation produced evidence for periodicity, in a 'soft' cut data set, with an overall chance probability <0.01 and blueshifted by 6.6ms from the nominal second harmonic of the pulse period. We show that the disappearance of the Rayleigh peak in the fully cut data set is consistent with a gamma-ray origin hypothesis. The second part of the paper considers theoretical models that could explain the existing data of Cen X-3 in high and very high energy gamma-rays. On the basis of energetics, all reasonable options for gamma-ray production must be connected to jets emerging from the inner accretion disc around the neutron star. One principal option is a large scale source, with R_s~10^13-14cm, assuming effective acceleration of electrons by shocks produced by the interaction of the jets with the dense atmosphere of the binary. The bulk of gamma-ray features could be explained by this model except modulations at the pulsar period, which would require a source with R_s<10^11cm. We consider hadronic and leptonic models for the formation of such a compact object. Both models predict the episodes of pulsed emission may be rare, of typical duration ~few hours, and the frequency of pulsations should be significantly shifted from the nominal frequency of the X-ray pulsar. The opportunities to distinguish between different models using future gamma-ray observations of this X-ray binary are discussed. (v. abridged)

A. M. Atoyan; P. M. Chadwick; M. K. Daniel; K. Lyons; T. J. L. McComb; J. M. McKenny; S. J. Nolan; K. J. Orford; J. L. Osborne; S. M. Rayner

2001-12-07

423

NO CORRELATION BETWEEN HOST GALAXY METALLICITY AND GAMMA-RAY ENERGY RELEASE FOR LONG-DURATION GAMMA-RAY BURSTS  

SciTech Connect

We compare the redshifts, host galaxy metallicities, and isotropic (E{sub {gamma}},iso) and beaming-corrected (E{sub {gamma}}) gamma-ray energy release of 16 long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) at z < 1. From this comparison, we find no statistically significant correlation between host metallicity and redshift, E{sub {gamma}},iso, or E{sub {gamma}}. These results are at odds with previous theoretical and observational predictions of an inverse correlation between gamma-ray energy release and host metallicity, as well as the standard predictions of metallicity-driven wind effects in stellar evolutionary models. We consider the implications that these results have for LGRB progenitor scenarios, and discuss our current understanding of the role that metallicity plays in the production of LGRBs.

Levesque, Emily M.; Kewley, Lisa J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Soderberg, Alicia M.; Berger, Edo, E-mail: emsque@ifa.hawaii.ed, E-mail: kewley@ifa.hawaii.ed, E-mail: asoderbe@cfa.harvard.ed, E-mail: eberger@cfa.harvard.ed [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden St., MS-20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2010-12-10

424

Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope: High-Energy Results from the First Year  

E-print Network

The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) was launched on June 11, 2008 and began its first year sky survey on August 11, 2008. The Large Area Telescope (LAT), a wide field-of-view pair-conversion telescope covering the energy range from 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV, is the primary instrument on Fermi. While this review focuses on results obtained with the LAT, the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) complements the LAT in its observations of transient sources and is sensitive to X-rays and gamma-rays with energies between 8 keV and 40 MeV. During the first year in orbit, the Fermi LAT has observed a large number of sources that include active galaxies, pulsars, compact binaries, globular clusters, supernova remnants, as well as the Sun, the Moon and the Earth. The GBM and LAT together have uncovered surprising characteristics in the high-energy emission of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) that have been used to set significant new limits on violations of Lorentz invariance. The Fermi LAT has also made important new measurements of the Galactic diffuse radiation and has made precise measurements of the spectrum of cosmic-ray electrons and positrons from 20 GeV to 1 TeV.

Peter F. Michelson; William B. Atwood; Steven Ritz

2010-10-31

425

Developing a method for soft gamma-ray Laue lens assembly and calibration  

E-print Network

Laue lenses constitute a promising option for concentrating soft gamma rays with a large collection area and reasonable focal lengths. In astronomy they could lead to increased telescope sensitivity by one to two orders of magnitude, in particular for faint nuclear gamma-ray lines, but also for continua like hard X-ray tails from a variety of compact objects. Other fields like Homeland security and nuclear medicine share the same need for more sensitive gamma-ray detection systems and could find applications for gamma-ray focusing optics. There are two primary challenges for developing Laue lenses: the search for high-reflectivity and reproducible crystals, and the development of a method to accurately orient and fix the thousands of crystals constituting a lens. In this paper we focus on the second topic. We used our dedicated X-ray beamline and Laue lens assembly station to build a breadboard lens made of 15 crystals. This allowed us to test our tools and methods, as well as our simulation code and calibrat...

Barričre, Nicolas M; Boggs, Steven E; Lowell, Alexander; Wade, Colin; Baugh, Max; von Ballmoos, Peter; Abrosimov, Nikolay V; Hanlon, Lorraine

2013-01-01

426

Physics of Gamma-ray Bursts and Multi-messenger Signals from Double Neutron Star Mergers.  

E-print Network

??My dissertation includes two parts: Physics of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs): Gamma-ray bursts are multi-wavelength transients, with both prompt gamma-ray emission and late time afterglow emission… (more)

Gao, He

2014-01-01

427

Directionality of continuum gamma rays from solar flares  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using hard X-ray burst spectrometer total counts as calibration, the changes in the brightness of gamma rays above 300 keV as a function of the heliocentric angle of a flare are investigated. The normalized gamma-ray brightness, on the average, increases with the heliocentric angle; a flare at the limb is estimated to be 13 times brighter in beam gamma rays than a similar flare near the central meridian. Both pancakelike electron distributions and downward beam distributions can be adjusted to produce the deduced limb brightening.

Bai, Taeil

1988-01-01

428

VHE Gamma Rays from PKS 2155-304  

E-print Network

The X-ray selected BL Lac PKS 2155-304 has been observed using the University of Durham Mark 6 very high energy gamma ray telescope during 1998. We find no evidence for TeV emission during these recent observations when the X-ray flux was observed to be low. We have reconsidered our measurements made in 1997 November when PKS 2155-304 was in a bright X-ray state and extended X-ray and GeV gamma ray observations were made as part of a multiwavelength campaign. Comparisons are made of the VHE emission during this time with the available data from other wavelengths.

P. M. Chadwick; K. Lyons; T. J. L. McComb; K. J. Orford; J. L. Osborne; S. M. Rayner; S. E. Shaw; K. E. Turver

1999-06-08

429

Gamma-Ray Burst Prompt Emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin of gamma-ray burst (GRB) prompt emission, bursts of ?-rays lasting from shorter than one second to thousands of seconds, remains not fully understood after more than 40 years of observations. The uncertainties lie in several open questions in the GRB physics, including jet composition, energy dissipation mechanism, particle acceleration mechanism and radiation mechanism. Recent broad-band observations of prompt emission with Fermi sharpen the debates in these areas, which stimulated intense theoretical investigations invoking very different ideas. I will review these debates, and argue that the current data suggest the following picture: A quasi-thermal spectral component originating from the photosphere of the relativistic ejecta has been detected in some GRBs. Even though in some cases (e.g. GRB 090902B) this component dominates the spectrum, in most GRBs, this component either forms a sub-dominant "shoulder" spectral component in the low energy spectral regime of the more dominant "Band" component, or is not detectable at all. The main "Band" spectral component likely originates from the optically thin region due to synchrotron radiation. The diverse magnetization in the GRB central engine is likely the origin of the observed diverse prompt emission properties among bursts.

Zhang, Bing

2014-12-01

430

Gamma-ray Astrophysics: a New Look at the Universe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma-ray astronomy which includes the spectral region from above approximately 100 keV to greater than or equal to 1000 GeV permits investigation of the most energetic photons originating in our galaxy and beyond and provides the most direct means of studying the largest transfers of energy occurring in astrophysical processes. Of all the electromagnetic spectrum, high-energy gamma-ray astronomy measures most directly the presence and dynamic effects of the energetic charged cosmic ray particles, element synthesis, and particle acceleration. Further, gamma rays suffer negligible absorption or scatterings as they travel in straight paths; hence, they may survive billions of years and still reveal their source. The high energy processes in stellar objects (including our Sun), the dynamics of the cosmic-ray gas, the formation of clouds and nebulae, galactic evolution and even certain aspects of cosmology and the origin of the universe may be explored by gamma-ray observations.

Trombka, J. I.; Fichtel, C. E.; Grindlay, J.; Hofstadter, R.

1978-01-01

431

Gamma-ray Astronomy: Implications for Fundamental Physics  

E-print Network

Gamma-ray Astronomy studies cosmic accelerators through their electromagnetic radiation in the energy range between ~100 MeV and ~100 TeV. The present most sensitive observations in this energy band are performed, from space, by the Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi satellite and, from Earth, by the Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescopes MAGIC, H.E.S.S. and VERITAS. These instruments have revolutionized the field of Gamma-ray Astronomy, discovering different populations of gamma-ray emitters and studying in detail the non-thermal astrophysical processes producing this high-energy radiation. The scientific objectives of these observatories include also questions of fundamental physics. With gamma-ray instruments we study the origin of Galactic cosmic rays, testing the hypothesis or whether they are mainly produced in supernova explosions. Also, we obtain the most sensitive measurement of the cosmic electron-positron spectrum between 20 GeV and 5 TeV. By observing the gamma-ray emission from sources at cosmological distances, we learn about the intensity and evolution of the extragalactic background light, and perform tests of Lorentz Invariance. Moreover, we can search for dark matter by looking for gamma-ray signals produced by its annihilation or decay in over-density sites. In this paper, we review the most recent results produced with the current generation of gamma-ray instruments in these fields of research.

Javier Rico

2011-11-28

432

The Gamma-ray Albedo of the Moon  

E-print Network

We use the GEANT4 Monte Carlo framework to calculate the gamma-ray albedo of the Moon due to interactions of cosmic ray (CR) nuclei with moon rock. Our calculation of the albedo spectrum agrees with the EGRET data. We show that the spectrum of gamma rays from the Moon is very steep with an effective cutoff around 3-4 GeV (600 MeV for the inner part of the Moon disk) and exhibits a narrow pion-decay line at 67.5 MeV, perhaps unique in astrophysics. Apart from other astrophysical sources, the albedo spectrum of the Moon is well understood, including its absolute normalisation; this makes it a useful "standard candle" for gamma-ray telescopes. The steep albedo spectrum also provides a unique opportunity for energy calibration of gamma-ray telescopes, such as the forthcoming Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST). Since the albedo flux depends on the incident CR spectrum which changes over the solar cycle, it is possible to monitor the CR spectrum using the albedo gamma-ray flux. Simultaneous measurements of CR proton and helium spectra by the Payload for Antimatter-Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA), and observations of the albedo gamma rays by the GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT), can be used to test the model predictions and will enable the LAT to monitor the CR spectrum near the Earth beyond the lifetime of the PAMELA.

Igor V. Moskalenko; Troy A. Porter

2007-08-21

433

Gamma-ray astronomy: From Fermi up to the HAWC high-energy {gamma}-ray observatory in Sierra Negra  

SciTech Connect

Gamma-rays represent the most energetic electromagnetic window for the study of the Universe. They are studied both from space at MeV and GeV energies, with instruments like the Fermi{gamma}-ray Space Telescope, and at TeV energies with ground based instruments profiting of particle cascades in the atmosphere and of the Cerenkov radiation of charged particles in the air or in water. The Milagro gamma-ray observatory represented the first instrument to successfully implement the water Cerenkov technique for {gamma}-ray astronomy, opening the ground for the more sensitive HAWC {gamma}-ray observatory, currently under development in the Sierra Negra site and already providing early science results.

Carraminana, Alberto [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica Luis Enrique Erro 1, Tonantzintla, Puebla 72840 (Mexico); Collaboration: HAWC Collaboration

2013-06-12

434

Ionospheric detection of high-energy astrophysical phenomena: Soft Gamma-Ray Repeaters and Gamma-Ray Bursts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soft Gamma-Ray Repeaters (SGR) and Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRB) are among the most energetic phenomena in the outer space, and are of great astrophysical importance. SGR and GRB differ from their photon spectra, harder for the latter, and duration, longer for the former. While SGRs may occur in groups from known localized objects, GRBs are generally observed once from spots all over the sky. Finally, SGRs can produce giant flares: three were observed in the last 30 years. The relevance of studying such objects is that they are exotic compact rotating neutron stars with extremely high magnetic fields of the order 10 ^{15-16} G, according to the present more accepted models. In this talk we show that SGRs and GRBs can also be detected indirectly from the disturbances they produce in the low ionosphere. Specifically, the entry of photons above a few keV from these objects change the electrical conductivity of the lower layers of the ionosphere, producing propagation anomalies for Very Low Frequency waves propagating on long distances within the Earth-Ionosphere waveguide. The South America VLF Network (SAVNET) is an array of VLF tracking receivers being operated since 2007, and we will list the astrophysical phenomena SGR and GRB detected so far by this network of VLF receiving stations. The main objective is to illustrate the lower detection limit of these objects using the VLF technique, and to show that this limit is certainly no set by the already known 3 giant flares. Such information is important because it complements space detection of SGRs and GRBs which usually undergoes observational limitations, like, Earth occultation, off-pointing or saturation.

Raulin, Jean Pierre; Trottet, Gerard; Correia, Em&ília; Gimenez de Castro, Carlos; Makhmutov, Vladimir; Bertoni, Fernando C. P.; Tadin Alvarenga, Vinicius; Kaufmann, Pierre

2012-07-01

435

Catalog of Gamma Rays from Radioactive Decay, Part I  

Microsoft Academic Search

The catalog is arranged in two parts. Part II is a listing by nuclide of emitted gamma rays and other properties; it also includes some information on stable nuclides which bear on radionuclide production or decay studies. Information given for radioactive nuclides includes half-life, decay mode(s) and branching ratio(s), genetic relationships, spin and parity, literature references, and gamma-ray and x-ray

U. Reus; W. Westmeier

1983-01-01

436

Energy distribution of Compton-scattered gamma rays  

E-print Network

ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF COMPTON- SCATTERED GAMMA RAYS A Thesis by RICHARD WAYNE MORELAND Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1966... - Curve 2 Fig. 20 71 ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF COMPTON SCATTERED GANNA RAYS CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A beam of monochromatic gamma rays observed after scattering by electrons at a well defined scattering angle suffers a change of wave- length...

Moreland, Richard Wayne

2012-06-07

437

The Blackholic energy and the canonical Gamma-Ray Burst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) represent very likely ``the'' most extensive computational, theoretical and observational effort ever carried out successfully in physics and astrophysics. The extensive campaign of observation from space based X-ray and gamma-ray observatory, such as the Vela, CGRO, BeppoSAX, HETE-II, INTEGRAL, Swift, R-XTE, Chandra, XMM satellites, have been matched by complementary observations in the radio wavelength (e.g. by the

Remo Ruffini; Maria Grazia Bernardini; Carlo Luciano Bianco; Letizia Caito; Pascal Chardonnet; Maria Giovanna Dainotti; Federico Fraschetti; Roberto Guida; Michael Rotondo; Gregory Vereshchagin; Luca Vitagliano; She-Sheng Xue

2007-01-01

438

X- and gamma-ray tomography for nondestructive material testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various apparatus for x and (gamma) -ray computed tomography (CT) have been constructed by us during the last 20 years, with the aim of producing simple and low-cost systems for nondestructive testing. The first one was constructed in 1980 and used an Am241 radioactive source emitting 59.6 keV (gamma) -rays and a single NaI(Tl)-x ray detector. Successively, the radioactive source

Roberto Cesareo; Antonio Brunetti; Ricardo T. Lopes; Gianfranco Galli; Donepudi V. Rao; Alfredo Castellano; Giovanni E. Gigante; Sergio Mascarenhas; Rene Robert; Vitoldo S. Filho; Marco Gilardoni; Hamilton P. da Silva; Piero Q. Colosso

1999-01-01

439

Science with the new generation high energy gamma- ray experiments  

E-print Network

This Conference is the fifth of a series of Workshops on High Energy Gamma- ray Experiments, following the Conferences held in Perugia 2003, Bari 2004, Cividale del Friuli 2005, Elba Island 2006. This year the focus was on the use of gamma-ray to study the Dark Matter component of the Universe, the origin and propagation of Cosmic Rays, Extra Large Spatial Dimensions and Tests of Lorentz Invariance.

M. Alvarez; D. D'Armiento; G. Agnetta; A. Alberdi; A. Antonelli; A. Argan; P. Assis; E. A. Baltz; C. Bambi; G. Barbiellini; H. Bartko; M. Basset; D. Bastieri; P. Belli; G. Benford; L. Bergstrom; R. Bernabei; G. Bertone; A. Biland; B. Biondo; F. Bocchino; E. Branchini; M. Brigida; T. Bringmann; P. Brogueira; A. Bulgarelli; J. A. Caballero; G. A. Caliandro; P. Camarri; F. Cappella; P. Caraveo; R. Carbone; M. Carvajal; S. Casanova; A. J. Castro-Tirado; O. Catalano; R. Catena; F. Celi; A. Celotti; R. Cerulli; A. Chen; R. Clay; V. Cocco; J. Conrad; E. Costa; A. Cuoco; G. Cusumano; C. J. Dai; B. Dawson; B. De Lotto; G. De Paris; A. de Ugarte Postigo; E. Del Monte; C. Delgado; A. Di Ciaccio; G. Di Cocco; S. Di Falco; G. Di Persio; B. L. Dingus; A. Dominguez; F. Donato; I. Donnarumma; M. Doro; J. Edsjo; J. M. Espino Navas; M. C. Espirito Santo; Y. Evangelista; C. Evoli; D. Fargion; C. Favuzzi; M. Feroci; M. Fiorini; L. Foggetta; N. Fornengo; T. Froysland; M. Frutti; F. Fuschino; J. L. Gomez; M. Gomez; D. Gaggero; N. Galante; M. I. Gallardo; M. Galli; J. E. Garcia; M. Garczarczyk; F. Gargano; M. Gaug; F. Gianotti; S. Giarrusso; B. Giebels; N. Giglietto; P. Giommi; F. Giordano; A. Giuliani; J. Glicenstein; P. Goncalves; D. Grasso; M. Guerriero; H. L. He; A. Incicchitti; J. Kirk; H. H. Kuang; A. La Barbera; G. La Rosa; C. Labanti; G. Lamanna; I. Lapshov; F. Lazzarotto; S. Liberati; F. Liello; P. Lipari; F. Longo; F. Loparco; M. Lozano; P. G. Lucentini De Sanctis; J. M. Ma; M. C. Maccarone; L. Maccione; V. Malvezzi; A. Mangano; M. Mariotti; M. Marisaldi; I. Martel; A. Masiero; E. Massaro; M. Mastropietro; E. Mattaini; F. Mauri; M. N. Mazziotta; S. Mereghetti; T. Mineo; S. Mizobuchi; A. Moiseev; M. Moles; C. Monte; F. Montecchia; E. Morelli; A. Morselli; I. Moskalenko; F. Nozzoli; J. F. Ormes; M. A. Peres-Torres; L. Pacciani; A. Pellizzoni; F. Perez-Bernal; F. Perotti; P. Picozza; L. Pieri; M. Pietroni; M. Pimenta; A. Pina; C. Pittori; C. Pontoni; G. Porrovecchio; F. Prada; M. Prest; D. Prosperi; R. Protheroe; G. Pucella; J. M. Quesada; J. M. Quintana; J. R. Quintero; S. Raino; M. Rapisarda; M. Rissi; J. Rodriguez; E. Rossi; G. Rowell; A. Rubini; F. Russo; M. Sanchez-Conde; B. Sacco; V. Scapin; M. Schelke; A. Segreto; A. Sellerholm; X. D. Sheng; A. Smith; P. Soffitta; R. Sparvoli; P. Spinelli; V. Stamatescu; L. S. Stark; M. Tavani; G. Thornton; L. G. Titarchuk; B. Tome; A. Traci; M. Trifoglio; A. Trois; P. Vallania; E. Vallazza; S. Vercellone; S. Vernetto; V. Vitale; N. Wild; Z. P. Ye; A. Zambra; F. Zandanel; D. Zanello

2007-12-04