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Sample records for compact hyperbolic spaces

  1. Nonlinear sigma models with compact hyperbolic target spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubser, Steven; Saleem, Zain H.; Schoenholz, Samuel S.; Stoica, Bogdan; Stokes, James

    2016-06-01

    We explore the phase structure of nonlinear sigma models with target spaces corresponding to compact quotients of hyperbolic space, focusing on the case of a hyperbolic genus-2 Riemann surface. The continuum theory of these models can be approximated by a lattice spin system which we simulate using Monte Carlo methods. The target space possesses interesting geometric and topological properties which are reflected in novel features of the sigma model. In particular, we observe a topological phase transition at a critical temperature, above which vortices proliferate, reminiscent of the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition in the O(2) model [1, 2]. Unlike in the O(2) case, there are many different types of vortices, suggesting a possible analogy to the Hagedorn treatment of statistical mechanics of a proliferating number of hadron species. Below the critical temperature the spins cluster around six special points in the target space known as Weierstrass points. The diversity of compact hyperbolic manifolds suggests that our model is only the simplest example of a broad class of statistical mechanical models whose main features can be understood essentially in geometric terms.

  2. Analytic vortex solutions on compact hyperbolic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, Rafael; Manton, Nicholas S.

    2015-06-01

    We construct, for the first time, abelian Higgs vortices on certain compact surfaces of constant negative curvature. Such surfaces are represented by a tessellation of the hyperbolic plane by regular polygons. The Higgs field is given implicitly in terms of Schwarz triangle functions and analytic solutions are available for certain highly symmetric configurations.

  3. Can rodents conceive hyperbolic spaces?

    PubMed Central

    Urdapilleta, Eugenio; Troiani, Francesca; Stella, Federico; Treves, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The grid cells discovered in the rodent medial entorhinal cortex have been proposed to provide a metric for Euclidean space, possibly even hardwired in the embryo. Yet, one class of models describing the formation of grid unit selectivity is entirely based on developmental self-organization, and as such it predicts that the metric it expresses should reflect the environment to which the animal has adapted. We show that, according to self-organizing models, if raised in a non-Euclidean hyperbolic cage rats should be able to form hyperbolic grids. For a given range of grid spacing relative to the radius of negative curvature of the hyperbolic surface, such grids are predicted to appear as multi-peaked firing maps, in which each peak has seven neighbours instead of the Euclidean six, a prediction that can be tested in experiments. We thus demonstrate that a useful universal neuronal metric, in the sense of a multi-scale ruler and compass that remain unaltered when changing environments, can be extended to other than the standard Euclidean plane. PMID:25948611

  4. On compactness estimates for hyperbolic systems of conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancona, Fabio; Glass, Olivier; Nguyen, Khai T.

    2015-11-01

    We study the compactness in $L^{1}_{loc}$ of the semigroup mapping $(S_t)_{t > 0}$ defining entropy weak solutions of general hyperbolic systems of conservation laws in one space dimension. We establish a lower estimate for the Kolmogorov $\\varepsilon$-entropy of the image through the mapping $S_t$ of bounded sets in $L^{1}\\cap L^\\infty$, which is of the same order $1/\\varepsilon$ as the ones established by the authors for scalar conservation laws. We also provide an upper estimate of order $1/\\varepsilon$ for the Kolmogorov $\\varepsilon$-entropy of such sets in the case of Temple systems with genuinely nonlinear characteristic families, that extends the same type of estimate derived by De Lellis and Golse for scalar conservation laws with convex flux. As suggested by Lax, these quantitative compactness estimates could provide a measure of the order of "resolution" of the numerical methods implemented for these equations.

  5. D-branes on spaces stratified fibered over hyperbolic orbifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bytsenko, A. A.; Chaichian, M.; Guimarães, M. E. X.

    2014-09-01

    We apply the methods of homology and K-theory for branes wrapping spaces stratified fibered over hyperbolic orbifolds. In addition, we discuss the algebraic K-theory of any discrete co-compact Lie group in terms of appropriate homology and Atiyah-Hirzebruch type spectral sequence with its nontrivial lift to K-homology. We emphasize the fact that the physical D-branes properties are completely transparent within the mathematical framework of K-theory. We derive criteria for D-brane stability in the case of strongly virtually negatively curved groups. We show that branes wrapping spaces stratified fibered over hyperbolic orbifolds carry charge structure and change the additive structural properties in K-homology.

  6. Gauge theories on hyperbolic spaces and dual wormhole instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Buchel, Alex

    2004-09-15

    We study supergravity duals of strongly coupled four-dimensional gauge theories formulated on compact quotients of hyperbolic spaces. The resulting background geometries are represented by Euclidean wormholes, which complicate establishing the precise gauge theory/string theory correspondence dictionary. These backgrounds suffer from the nonperturbative instabilities arising from the D3D3-bar pair-production in the background four-form potential. We discuss conditions for suppressing this Schwingerlike instability. We find that Euclidean wormholes arising in this construction develop a naked singularity before they can be stabilized.

  7. Duality between preferential attachment and static networks on hyperbolic spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferretti, L.; Cortelezzi, M.; Mamino, M.

    2014-02-01

    There is a complex relation between the mechanism of preferential attachment, scale-free degree distributions and hyperbolicity in complex networks. In fact, both preferential attachment and hidden hyperbolic spaces often generate scale-free networks. We show that there is actually a duality between a class of growing spatial networks based on preferential attachment on the sphere and a class of static random networks on the hyperbolic plane. Both classes of networks have the same scale-free degree distribution as the Barabasi-Albert model. As a limit of this correspondence, the Barabasi-Albert model is equivalent to a static random network on an hyperbolic space with infinite curvature.

  8. Vacua and correlators in hyperbolic de Sitter space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrakopoulos, Fotios V.; Kabir, Laurens; Mosk, Benjamin; Parikh, Maulik; van der Schaar, Jan Pieter

    2015-06-01

    We study the power- and bi-spectrum of vacuum fluctuations in a hyperbolic section of de Sitter space, comparing two states of physical interest: the Bunch-Davies and hyperbolic vacuum. We introduce a one-parameter family of de Sitter hyperbolic sections and their natural vacua, and identify a limit in which it reduces to the planar section and the corresponding Bunch-Davies vacuum state. Selecting the Bunch-Davies vacuum for a massless scalar field implies a mixed reduced density matrix in a hyperbolic section of de Sitter space. We stress that in the Bunch-Davies state the hyperbolic de Sitter n-point correlation functions have to match the planar de Sitter n-point correlation functions. The expressions for the planar and hyperbolic Bunch-Davies correlation functions only appear different because of the transformation from planar to hyperbolic coordinates. Initial state induced deviations from the standard inflationary predictions are instead obtained by considering the pure hyperbolic vacuum, as we verify explicitly by computing the power- and bi-spectrum. For the bi-spectrum in the hyperbolic vacuum we find that the corrections as compared to the standard Bunch-Davies result are not enhanced in specific momentum configurations and strongly suppressed for momenta large compared to the hyperbolic curvature scale. We close with some final remarks, in particular regarding the implications of these results for more realistic inflationary bubble scenarios.

  9. Compact hyperbolic extra dimensions: branes, kaluza-klein modes, and cosmology

    PubMed

    Kaloper; March-Russell; Starkman; Trodden

    2000-07-31

    We reconsider theories with low gravitational (or string) scale M(*) where Newton's constant is generated via new large-volume spatial dimensions, while standard model states are localized to a 3-brane. Utilizing compact hyperbolic manifolds we show that the spectrum of Kaluza-Klein modes is radically altered. This allows the early Universe to evolve normally up to substantial temperatures, and completely negates the astrophysical constraints on M(*). Furthermore, an exponential hierarchy between the usual Planck scale and the true fundamental scale of physics can emerge with only O(1) coefficients. The linear size of the internal space remains small. The proposal has striking testable signatures. PMID:10991441

  10. A remark on geometric desingularization of a non-hyperbolic point using hyperbolic space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, Christian

    2016-06-01

    A steady state (or equilibrium point) of a dynamical system is hyperbolic if the Jacobian at the steady state has no eigenvalues with zero real parts. In this case, the linearized system does qualitatively capture the dynamics in a small neighborhood of the hyperbolic steady state. However, one is often forced to consider non-hyperbolic steady states, for example in the context of bifurcation theory. A geometric technique to desingularize non-hyperbolic points is the blow-up method. The classical case of the method is motivated by desingularization techniques arising in algebraic geometry. The idea is to blow up the steady state to a sphere or a cylinder. In the blown-up space, one is then often able to gain additional hyperbolicity at steady states. The method has also turned out to be a key tool to desingularize multiple time scale dynamical systems with singularities. In this paper, we discuss an explicit example of the blow-up method where we replace the sphere in the blow-up by hyperbolic space. It is shown that the calculations work in the hyperbolic space case as for the spherical case. This approach may be even slightly more convenient if one wants to work with directional charts. Hence, it is demonstrated that the sphere should be viewed as an auxiliary object in the blow-up construction. Other smooth manifolds are also natural candidates to be inserted at steady states. Furthermore, we conjecture several problems where replacing the sphere could be particularly useful, i.e., in the context of singularities of geometric flows, for avoiding compactification, and generating 'interior' steady states.

  11. Linking and Causality in Globally Hyperbolic Space-times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernov (Tchernov), Vladimir V.; Rudyak, Yuli B.

    2008-04-01

    The classical linking number lk is defined when link components are zero homologous. In [15] we constructed the affine linking invariant alk generalizing lk to the case of linked submanifolds with arbitrary homology classes. Here we apply alk to the study of causality in Lorentzian manifolds. Let M m be a spacelike Cauchy surface in a globally hyperbolic space-time ( X m+1, g). The spherical cotangent bundle ST * M is identified with the space mathcal N of all null geodesics in ( X, g). Hence the set of null geodesics passing through a point xin X gives an embedded ( m-1)-sphere mathfrak S_x in mathcal N=ST^*M called the sky of x. Low observed that if the link (mathfrak S_x, mathfrak S_y) is nontrivial, then x,yin X are causally related. This observation yielded a problem (communicated by R. Penrose) on the V. I. Arnold problem list [3,4] which is basically to study the relation between causality and linking. Our paper is motivated by this question. The spheres mathfrak S_x are isotopic to the fibers of (ST^*M)^{2m-1}to M^m. They are nonzero homologous and the classical linking number lk(mathfrak S_x, mathfrak S_y) is undefined when M is closed, while alk(mathfrak S_x, mathfrak S_y) is well defined. Moreover, alk(mathfrak S_x, mathfrak S_y)in {mathbb{Z}} if M is not an odd-dimensional rational homology sphere. We give a formula for the increment of alk under passages through Arnold dangerous tangencies. If ( X, g) is such that alk takes values in {mathbb{Z}} and g is conformal to widehat{g} that has all the timelike sectional curvatures nonnegative, then x, yin X are causally related if and only if alk (mathfrak S_x, mathfrak S_y)neq 0 . We prove that if alk takes values in {mathbb{Z}} and y is in the causal future of x, then alk(mathfrak S_x, mathfrak S_y) is the intersection number of any future directed past inextendible timelike curve to y and of the future null cone of x. We show that x, y in a nonrefocussing ( X, g) are causally unrelated if and only if

  12. Visualising very large phylogenetic trees in three dimensional hyperbolic space

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Timothy; Hyun, Young; Liberles, David A

    2004-01-01

    Background Common existing phylogenetic tree visualisation tools are not able to display readable trees with more than a few thousand nodes. These existing methodologies are based in two dimensional space. Results We introduce the idea of visualising phylogenetic trees in three dimensional hyperbolic space with the Walrus graph visualisation tool and have developed a conversion tool that enables the conversion of standard phylogenetic tree formats to Walrus' format. With Walrus, it becomes possible to visualise and navigate phylogenetic trees with more than 100,000 nodes. Conclusion Walrus enables desktop visualisation of very large phylogenetic trees in 3 dimensional hyperbolic space. This application is potentially useful for visualisation of the tree of life and for functional genomics derivatives, like The Adaptive Evolution Database (TAED). PMID:15117420

  13. Exact moduli space metrics for hyperbolic vortex polygons

    SciTech Connect

    Krusch, S.; Speight, J. M.

    2010-02-15

    Exact metrics on some totally geodesic submanifolds of the moduli space of static hyperbolic N-vortices are derived. These submanifolds, denoted as {sigma}{sub n,m}, are spaces of C{sub n}-invariant vortex configurations with n single vortices at the vertices of a regular polygon and m=N-n coincident vortices at the polygon's center. The geometric properties of {sigma}{sub n,m} are investigated, and it is found that {sigma}{sub n,n-1} is isometric to the hyperbolic plane of curvature -(3{pi}n){sup -1}. The geodesic flow on {sigma}{sub n,m} and a geometrically natural variant of geodesic flow recently proposed by Collie and Tong ['The dynamics of Chern-Simons vortices', Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields Gravit. Cosmol. 78, 065013 (2008);e-print arXiv:hep-th/0805.0602] are analyzed in detail.

  14. Convergence theorems for generalized nonexpansive multivalued mappings in hyperbolic spaces.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Kyu; Pathak, Ramesh Prasad; Dashputre, Samir; Diwan, Shailesh Dhar; Gupta, Rajlaxmi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we establish the existence of a fixed point for generalized nonexpansive multivalued mappings in hyperbolic spaces and we prove some [Formula: see text]-convergence and strong convergence theorems for the iterative scheme proposed by Chang et al. (Appl Math Comp 249:535-540, 2014) to approximate a fixed point for generalized nonexpansive multivalued mapping under suitable conditions. Our results are the extension and improvements of the recent well-known results announced in the current literature. PMID:27386356

  15. Space-time methods for hyperbolic conservation laws

    SciTech Connect

    Lowrie, R.B.; Roe, P.L.; Leer, B.V.

    1996-12-31

    Two challenges for computational fluid dynamics are problems that involve wave propagation over long times and problems with a wide range of amplitude scales. An example with both of these characteristics is the propagation and generation of acoustic waves, where the mean-flow amplitude scales are typically orders-of-magnitude larger than those of the generated acoustics. Other examples include vortex evolution and the direct simulation of turbulence. All these problems require greater than second-order accuracy, whereas for nonlinear equations, most current methods are at best second- order accurate. Of the higher-order (greater than second-order) methods that exist, most are tailored to high-spatial resolution, coupled with time integrators that are only second or third-order accurate. But for wave phenomena, time accuracy is as important as spatial accuracy. One property of successful second-order methods is that they attempt to be faithful to the physics of hyperbolic problems. To develop higher-order methods, particularly for unsteady problems, it is tempting to violate this philosophy. Typically, higher accuracy is obtained by increasing the size of the update stencil. Instead our aim is to develop time-accurate methods that minimize the size of the update stencil. The approach in this study is strongly motivated by the physics of hyperbolic conservation laws. Specifically, we insist that a numerical method`s discrete zone of dependence should only be slightly larger (for stability) than the physical zone of dependence. A time-accurate method has been developed that is based on the Discontinuous Galerkin method. In deriving the method, the idea of compactness has been strictly followed. That is, that the discrete domain of dependence should contain a minimum amount of data outside of the physical domain of dependence. For any order-of-accuracy, the method is stable for Courant numbers less than 1, satisfies an entropy condition, and a minimization property.

  16. Experimental compact space power station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pospisil, M.; Pospisilova, L.; Hanzelka, Z.; Prochazka, M.

    1980-09-01

    A hexagonal structure of 1-km diameter and a weight of 500 metric tons situated at geosynchronous orbit is proposed for testing a space power station of 64 MW peak power in operation and for evaluating materials, means and methods needed for production of large stations. In this compact space power station, solar blankets and microwave sources are situated on one supporting structure, thus saving a lot of auxiliary parts, but the exploitation of solar elements is 3.3 times lower than for an earlier concept.

  17. Invariant distributions on compact homogeneous spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Gorbatsevich, V V

    2013-12-31

    In this paper, we study distributions on compact homogeneous spaces, including invariant distributions and also distributions admitting a sub-Riemannian structure. We first consider distributions of dimension 1 and 2 on compact homogeneous spaces. After this, we study the cases of compact homogeneous spaces of dimension 2, 3, and 4 in detail. Invariant distributions on simply connected compact homogeneous spaces are also treated. Bibliography: 18 titles.

  18. Strings in compact cosmological spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craps, Ben; Evnin, Oleg; Konechny, Anatoly

    2013-10-01

    We confront the problem of giving a fundamental definition to perturbative string theory in spacetimes with totally compact space (taken to be a torus for simplicity, though the nature of the problem is very general) and non-compact time. Due to backreaction induced by the presence of even a single string quantum, the usual formulation of perturbative string theory in a fixed classical background is infrared-divergent at all subleading orders in the string coupling, and needs to be amended. The problem can be seen as a closed string analogue of D0-brane recoil under an impact by closed strings (a situation displaying extremely similar infrared divergences). Inspired by the collective coordinate treatment of the D0-brane recoil, whereby the translational modes of the D0-brane are introduced as explicit dynamical variables in the path integral, we construct a similar formalism for the case of string-induced gravitational backreaction, in which the spatially uniform modes of the background fields on the compact space are quantized explicitly. The formalism can equally well be seen as an ultraviolet completion of a minisuperspace quantum cosmology with string degrees of freedom. We consider the amplitudes for the universe to have two cross-sections with specified spatial properties and string contents, and show (at the first non-trivial order) that they are finite within our formalism.

  19. Orienteering in knowledge spaces: the hyperbolic geometry of Wikipedia Mathematics.

    PubMed

    Leibon, Gregory; Rockmore, Daniel N

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we show how the coupling of the notion of a network with directions with the adaptation of the four-point probe from materials testing gives rise to a natural geometry on such networks. This four-point probe geometry shares many of the properties of hyperbolic geometry wherein the network directions take the place of the sphere at infinity, enabling a navigation of the network in terms of pairs of directions: the geodesic through a pair of points is oriented from one direction to another direction, the pair of which are uniquely determined. We illustrate this in the interesting example of the pages of Wikipedia devoted to Mathematics, or "The MathWiki." The applicability of these ideas extends beyond Wikipedia to provide a natural framework for visual search and to prescribe a natural mode of navigation for any kind of "knowledge space" in which higher order concepts aggregate various instances of information. Other examples would include genre or author organization of cultural objects such as books, movies, documents or even merchandise in an online store. PMID:23844017

  20. Compaction of Space Mission Wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, John; Pisharody, Suresh; Wignarajah, K.

    2004-01-01

    The current solid waste management system employed on the International Space Station (ISS) consists of compaction, storage, and disposal. Wastes such plastic food packaging and trash are compacted manually and wrapped in duct tape footballs by the astronauts. Much of the waste is simply loaded either into the empty Russian Progress vehicle for destruction on reentry or into Shuttle for return to Earth. This manual method is wasteful of crew time and does not transition well to far term missions. Different wastes onboard spacecraft vary considerably in their characteristics and in the appropriate method of management. In advanced life support systems for far term missions, recovery of resources such as water from the wastes becomes important. However waste such as plastic food packaging, which constitutes a large fraction of solid waste (roughly 21% on ISS, more on long duration missions), contains minimal recoverable resource. The appropriate management of plastic waste is waste stabilization and volume minimization rather than resource recovery. This paper describes work that has begun at Ames Research Center on development of a heat melt compactor that can be used on near term and future missions, that can minimize crew interaction, and that can handle wastes with a significant plastic composition. The heat melt compactor takes advantage of the low melting point of plastics to compact plastic materials using a combination of heat and pressure. The US Navy has demonstrated successful development of a similar unit for shipboard application. Ames is building upon the basic approach demonstrated by the Navy to develop an advanced heat melt type compactor for space mission type wastes.

  1. Nonoscillatory Central Schemes for Hyperbolic Systems of Conservation Laws in Three-Space Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Guarendi, Andrew N.; Chandy, Abhilash J.

    2013-01-01

    We extend a family of high-resolution, semidiscrete central schemes for hyperbolic systems of conservation laws to three-space dimensions. Details of the schemes, their implementation, and properties are presented together with results from several prototypical applications of hyperbolic conservation laws including a nonlinear scalar equation, the Euler equations of gas dynamics, and the ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations. Parallel scaling analysis and grid-independent results including contours and isosurfaces of density and velocity and magnetic field vectors are shown in this study, confirming the ability of these types of solvers to approximate the solutions of hyperbolic equations efficiently and accurately. PMID:24058287

  2. Nonoscillatory central schemes for hyperbolic systems of conservation laws in three-space dimensions.

    PubMed

    Guarendi, Andrew N; Chandy, Abhilash J

    2013-01-01

    We extend a family of high-resolution, semidiscrete central schemes for hyperbolic systems of conservation laws to three-space dimensions. Details of the schemes, their implementation, and properties are presented together with results from several prototypical applications of hyperbolic conservation laws including a nonlinear scalar equation, the Euler equations of gas dynamics, and the ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations. Parallel scaling analysis and grid-independent results including contours and isosurfaces of density and velocity and magnetic field vectors are shown in this study, confirming the ability of these types of solvers to approximate the solutions of hyperbolic equations efficiently and accurately. PMID:24058287

  3. Motion Among Random Obstacles on a Hyperbolic Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsingher, Enzo; Ricciuti, Costantino; Sisti, Francesco

    2016-02-01

    We consider the motion of a particle along the geodesic lines of the Poincaré half-plane. The particle is specularly reflected when it hits randomly-distributed obstacles that are assumed to be motionless. This is the hyperbolic version of the well-known Lorentz Process studied in the Euclidean context. We analyse the limit in which the density of the obstacles increases to infinity and the size of each obstacle vanishes: under a suitable scaling, we prove that our process converges to a Markovian process, namely a random flight on the hyperbolic manifold.

  4. SRB measures for a class of partially hyperbolic attractors in Hilbert spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Zeng; Liu, Peidong; Lu, Kening

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we study the existence of SRB measures and their properties for infinite dimensional dynamical systems in a Hilbert space. We show several results including (i) if the system has a partially hyperbolic attractor with nontrivial finite dimensional unstable directions, then it has at least one SRB measure; (ii) if the attractor is uniformly hyperbolic and the system is topological mixing and the splitting is Hölder continuous, then there exists a unique SRB measure which is mixing; (iii) if the attractor is uniformly hyperbolic and the system is non-wondering and the splitting is Hölder continuous, then there exist at most finitely many SRB measures; (iv) for a given hyperbolic measure, there exist at most countably many ergodic components whose basin contains an observable set.

  5. Fast community detection based on sector edge aggregation metric model in hyperbolic space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zuxi; Li, Qingguang; Xiong, Wei; Jin, Fengdong; Wu, Yao

    2016-06-01

    By studying the edge aggregation characteristic of nodes in hyperbolic space, Sector Edge Aggregation Metric (SEAM) model is proposed and theoretically proved in this paper. In hyperbolic disk SEAM model determines the minimum angular range of a sector which possesses the maximal edge aggregation of nodes. The set of nodes within such sector has dense internal links, which corresponds with the characteristic of community structure. Based on SEAM model, we propose a fast community detection algorithm called Greedy Optimization Modularity Algorithm (GOMA) which employs greedy optimization strategy and hyperbolic coordinates. GOMA firstly divides initial communities according to the quantitative results of sector edge aggregation given by SEAM and the nodes' hyperbolic coordinates, then based on greedy optimization strategy, only merges the two angular neighboring communities in hyperbolic disk to optimize the network modularity function, and consequently obtains high-quality community detection. The strategies of initial community partition and merger in hyperbolic space greatly improve the speed of searching the most optimal modularity. Experimental results indicate that GOMA is able to detect out high-quality community structure in synthetic and real networks, and performs better when applied to the large-scale and dense networks with strong clustering.

  6. Some remarks on the current status of the control theory of single space dimension hyperbolic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    Various aspects of the control theory of hyperbolic systems, including controllability, stabilization, control canonical form theory, etc., are reviewed. To allow a unified and not excessively technical treatment, attention is restricted to the case of a single space variable. A newly developed procedure of canonical augmentation is discussed.

  7. Orienteering in Knowledge Spaces: The Hyperbolic Geometry of Wikipedia Mathematics

    PubMed Central

    Leibon, Gregory; Rockmore, Daniel N.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we show how the coupling of the notion of a network with directions with the adaptation of the four-point probe from materials testing gives rise to a natural geometry on such networks. This four-point probe geometry shares many of the properties of hyperbolic geometry wherein the network directions take the place of the sphere at infinity, enabling a navigation of the network in terms of pairs of directions: the geodesic through a pair of points is oriented from one direction to another direction, the pair of which are uniquely determined. We illustrate this in the interesting example of the pages of Wikipedia devoted to Mathematics, or “The MathWiki.” The applicability of these ideas extends beyond Wikipedia to provide a natural framework for visual search and to prescribe a natural mode of navigation for any kind of “knowledge space” in which higher order concepts aggregate various instances of information. Other examples would include genre or author organization of cultural objects such as books, movies, documents or even merchandise in an online store. PMID:23844017

  8. The Fujita exponent for the Cauchy problem in the hyperbolic space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandle, Catherine; Pozio, Maria Assunta; Tesei, Alberto

    It is well known that the heat kernel in the hyperbolic space has a different behavior for large times than the one in the Euclidean space. The main purpose of this paper is to study its effect on the positive solutions of Cauchy problems with power nonlinearities. Existence and non-existence results for local solutions are derived. Emphasis is put on their long time behavior and on Fujita's phenomenon. To have the same situation as for the Cauchy problem in R, namely finite time blow up for all solutions if the exponent is smaller than a critical value and existence of global solutions only for powers above the critical exponent, we must introduce a weight depending exponentially on the time. In this respect the situation is similar to problems in bounded domains with Dirichlet boundary conditions. Important tools are estimates for the heat kernel in the hyperbolic space and comparison principles.

  9. Global embedding of the Kerr black hole event horizon into hyperbolic 3-space

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, G. W.; Herdeiro, C. A. R.; Rebelo, C.

    2009-08-15

    An explicit global and unique isometric embedding into hyperbolic 3-space, H{sup 3}, of an axi-symmetric 2-surface with Gaussian curvature bounded below is given. In particular, this allows the embedding into H{sup 3} of surfaces of revolution having negative, but finite, Gaussian curvature at smooth fixed points of the U(1) isometry. As an example, we exhibit the global embedding of the Kerr-Newman event horizon into H{sup 3}, for arbitrary values of the angular momentum. For this example, considering a quotient of H{sup 3} by the Picard group, we show that the hyperbolic embedding fits in a fundamental domain of the group up to a slightly larger value of the angular momentum than the limit for which a global embedding into Euclidean 3-space is possible. An embedding of the double-Kerr event horizon is also presented, as an example of an embedding that cannot be made global.

  10. Hyperbolic-metamaterial antennas for broadband enhancement of dipole emission to free space

    SciTech Connect

    Valagiannopoulos, C. A.; Mirmoosa, M. S.; Nefedov, I. S.; Tretyakov, S. A.; Simovski, C. R.

    2014-10-28

    Dipole emitters used in nano optics and nanophotonics (e.g., fluorescent molecules or quantum dots) are weak radiators and thus detecting the radiation of a single emitter gets possible only if it is significantly enhanced. For this enhancement, one often utilizes resonant nanoantennas (Purcell's effect); this method, however, requires the exact knowledge of source location and radiation frequency which constitute a significant drawback. One known possibility for broadband location-insensitive radiation enhancement is to use a layer of the so-called hyperbolic metamaterial. However, the enhanced radiated energy is mainly directed into the volume of the lossy medium, where it is lost to heating. In this work, we suggest specific shapes of macroscopic hyperbolic metamaterial samples to open radiation windows for enhanced radiation to free space. We show that hyperbolic media slabs with properly shaped macroscopic grooves convert the evanescent waves produced by a dipole into waves traveling in free space, which results in the enhancement of useful radiation by one to two orders of magnitude. That level of enhancement of radiation into free-space which is also wideband and of non-resonant nature has not been reported up to now. These results may open possibilities for realization of broadband and directive antennas, where the primary radiators are randomly positioned fluorescent molecules or quantum dots.

  11. Efficient embedding of complex networks to hyperbolic space via their Laplacian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alanis-Lobato, Gregorio; Mier, Pablo; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A.

    2016-07-01

    The different factors involved in the growth process of complex networks imprint valuable information in their observable topologies. How to exploit this information to accurately predict structural network changes is the subject of active research. A recent model of network growth sustains that the emergence of properties common to most complex systems is the result of certain trade-offs between node birth-time and similarity. This model has a geometric interpretation in hyperbolic space, where distances between nodes abstract this optimisation process. Current methods for network hyperbolic embedding search for node coordinates that maximise the likelihood that the network was produced by the afore-mentioned model. Here, a different strategy is followed in the form of the Laplacian-based Network Embedding, a simple yet accurate, efficient and data driven manifold learning approach, which allows for the quick geometric analysis of big networks. Comparisons against existing embedding and prediction techniques highlight its applicability to network evolution and link prediction.

  12. Compact Deep-Space Optical Communications Transceiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, W. Thomas; Charles, Jeffrey R.

    2009-01-01

    Deep space optical communication transceivers must be very efficient receivers and transmitters of optical communication signals. For deep space missions, communication systems require high performance well beyond the scope of mere power efficiency, demanding maximum performance in relation to the precious and limited mass, volume, and power allocated. This paper describes the opto-mechanical design of a compact, efficient, functional brassboard deep space transceiver that is capable of achieving megabyte-per-second rates at Mars ranges. The special features embodied to enhance the system operability and functionality, and to reduce the mass and volume of the system are detailed. System tests and performance characteristics are described in detail. Finally, lessons learned in the implementation of the brassboard design and suggestions for improvements appropriate for a flight prototype are covered.

  13. Abstract State-Space Models for a Class of Linear Hyperbolic Systems of Balance Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartecki, Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    The paper discusses and compares different abstract state-space representations for a class of linear hyperbolic systems defined on a one-dimensional spatial domain. It starts with their PDE representation in both weakly and strongly coupled forms. Next, the homogeneous state equation including the unbounded formal state operator is presented. Based on the semigroup approach, some results of well-posedness and internal stability are given. The boundary and observation operators are introduced, assuming a typical configuration of boundary inputs as well as pointwise observations of the state variables. Consequently, the homogeneous state equation is extended to the so-called boundary control state/signal form. Next, the classical additive statespace representation involving (A, B, C)-triple of state, input and output operators is considered. After short discussion on the appropriate Hilbert spaces, state-space equation in the so-called factor form is also presented. Finally, the resolvent of the system state operator A is discussed.

  14. An instability of hyperbolic space under the Yang-Mills flow

    SciTech Connect

    Gegenberg, Jack; Day, Andrew C.; Liu, Haitao; Seahra, Sanjeev S.

    2014-04-15

    We consider the Yang-Mills flow on hyperbolic 3-space. The gauge connection is constructed from the frame-field and (not necessarily compatible) spin connection components. The fixed points of this flow include zero Yang-Mills curvature configurations, for which the spin connection has zero torsion and the associated Riemannian geometry is one of constant curvature. We analytically solve the linearized flow equations for a large class of perturbations to the fixed point corresponding to hyperbolic 3-space. These can be expressed as a linear superposition of distinct modes, some of which are exponentially growing along the flow. The growing modes imply the divergence of the (gauge invariant) perturbative torsion for a wide class of initial data, indicating an instability of the background geometry that we confirm with numeric simulations in the partially compactified case. There are stable modes with zero torsion, but all the unstable modes are torsion-full. This leads us to speculate that the instability is induced by the torsion degrees of freedom present in the Yang-Mills flow.

  15. Time-stable boundary conditions for finite-difference schemes solving hyperbolic systems: Methodology and application to high-order compact schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Mark H.; Gottlieb, David; Abarbanel, Saul

    1993-01-01

    We present a systematic method for constructing boundary conditions (numerical and physical) of the required accuracy, for compact (Pade-like) high-order finite-difference schemes for hyperbolic systems. First, a roper summation-by-parts formula is found for the approximate derivative. A 'simultaneous approximation term' (SAT) is then introduced to treat the boundary conditions. This procedure leads to time-stable schemes even in the system case. An explicit construction of the fourth-order compact case is given. Numerical studies are presented to verify the efficacy of the approach.

  16. Time-stable boundary conditions for finite-difference schemes solving hyperbolic systems: Methodology and application to high-order compact schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Mark H.; Gottlieb, David; Abarbanel, Saul

    1994-01-01

    We present a systematic method for constructing boundary conditions (numerical and physical) of the required accuracy, for compact (Pade-like) high-order finite-difference schemes for hyperbolic systems. First a proper summation-by-parts formula is found for the approximate derivative. A 'simultaneous approximation term' is then introduced to treat the boundary conditions. This procedure leads to time-stable schemes even in the system case. An explicit construction of the fourth-order compact case is given. Numerical studies are presented to verify the efficacy of the approach.

  17. Efficient embedding of complex networks to hyperbolic space via their Laplacian.

    PubMed

    Alanis-Lobato, Gregorio; Mier, Pablo; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    The different factors involved in the growth process of complex networks imprint valuable information in their observable topologies. How to exploit this information to accurately predict structural network changes is the subject of active research. A recent model of network growth sustains that the emergence of properties common to most complex systems is the result of certain trade-offs between node birth-time and similarity. This model has a geometric interpretation in hyperbolic space, where distances between nodes abstract this optimisation process. Current methods for network hyperbolic embedding search for node coordinates that maximise the likelihood that the network was produced by the afore-mentioned model. Here, a different strategy is followed in the form of the Laplacian-based Network Embedding, a simple yet accurate, efficient and data driven manifold learning approach, which allows for the quick geometric analysis of big networks. Comparisons against existing embedding and prediction techniques highlight its applicability to network evolution and link prediction. PMID:27445157

  18. Efficient embedding of complex networks to hyperbolic space via their Laplacian

    PubMed Central

    Alanis-Lobato, Gregorio; Mier, Pablo; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A.

    2016-01-01

    The different factors involved in the growth process of complex networks imprint valuable information in their observable topologies. How to exploit this information to accurately predict structural network changes is the subject of active research. A recent model of network growth sustains that the emergence of properties common to most complex systems is the result of certain trade-offs between node birth-time and similarity. This model has a geometric interpretation in hyperbolic space, where distances between nodes abstract this optimisation process. Current methods for network hyperbolic embedding search for node coordinates that maximise the likelihood that the network was produced by the afore-mentioned model. Here, a different strategy is followed in the form of the Laplacian-based Network Embedding, a simple yet accurate, efficient and data driven manifold learning approach, which allows for the quick geometric analysis of big networks. Comparisons against existing embedding and prediction techniques highlight its applicability to network evolution and link prediction. PMID:27445157

  19. On quantum symmetries of compact metric spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirvasitu, Alexandru

    2015-08-01

    An action of a compact quantum group on a compact metric space (X, d) is (D)-isometric if the distance function is preserved by a diagonal action on X × X. In this study, we show that an isometric action in this sense has the following additional property: the corresponding action on the algebra of continuous functions on X by the convolution semigroup of probability measures on the quantum group contracts Lipschitz constants. In other words, it is isometric in another sense due to Li, Quaegebeur, and Sabbe, which partially answers a question posed by Goswami. We also introduce other possible notions of isometric quantum actions in terms of the Wasserstein p-distances between probability measures on X for p ≥ 1, which are used extensively in optimal transportation. Indeed, all of these definitions of quantum isometry belong to a hierarchy of implications, where the two described above lie at the extreme ends of the hierarchy. We conjecture that they are all equivalent.

  20. Gravitational catalysis of chiral and color symmetry breaking of quark matter in hyperbolic space

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, D.; Tyukov, A. V.; Zhukovsky, V. Ch.

    2009-10-15

    We study the dynamical breaking of chiral and color symmetries of dense quark matter in the ultrastatic hyperbolic spacetime R x H{sup 3} in the framework of an extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. On the basis of analytical expressions for chiral and color condensates as functions of curvature and temperature, the phenomenon of dimensional reduction and gravitational catalysis of symmetry breaking in strong gravitational field is demonstrated in the regime of weak coupling constants. In the case of strong couplings it is shown that curvature leads to small corrections to the flat-space values of condensate and thus enhances the symmetry breaking effects. Finally, using numerical calculations phase transitions under the influence of chemical potential and negative curvature are considered and the phase portrait of the system is constructed.

  1. Isoperimetric inequality on conformally hyperbolic manifolds

    SciTech Connect

    Kesel'man, V M

    2003-04-30

    It is shown that on an arbitrary non-compact Riemannian manifold of conformally hyperbolic type the isoperimetric inequality can be taken by a conformal change of the metric to the same canonical linear form as in the case of the standard hyperbolic Lobachevskii space. Both the absolute isoperimetric inequality and the relative one (for manifolds with boundary) are obtained. This work develops the results and methods of a joint paper with Zorich, in which the absolute isoperimetric inequality was obtained under a certain additional condition; the resulting statements are definitive in a certain sense.

  2. An Adaptive Finite Difference Method for Hyperbolic Systems in OneSpace Dimension

    SciTech Connect

    Bolstad, John H.

    1982-06-01

    Many problems of physical interest have solutions which are generally quite smooth in a large portion of the region of interest, but have local phenomena such as shocks, discontinuities or large gradients which require much more accurate approximations or finer grids for reasonable accuracy. Examples are atmospheric fronts, ocean currents, and geological discontinuities. In this thesis we develop and partially analyze an adaptive finite difference mesh refinement algorithm for the initial boundary value problem for hyperbolic systems in one space dimension. The method uses clusters of uniform grids which can ''move'' along with pulses or steep gradients appearing in the calculation, and which are superimposed over a uniform coarse grid. Such refinements are created, destroyed, merged, separated, recursively nested or moved based on estimates of the local truncation error. We use a four-way linked tree and sequentially allocated deques (double-ended queues) to perform these operations efficiently. The local truncation error in the interior of the region is estimated using a three-step Richardson extrapolation procedure, which can also be considered a deferred correction method. At the boundaries we employ differences to estimate the error. Our algorithm was implemented using a portable, extensible Fortran preprocessor, to which we added records and pointers. The method is applied to three model problems: the first order wave equation, the second order wave equation, and the inviscid Burgers equation. For the first two model problems our algorithm is shown to be three to five times more efficient (in computing time) than the use of a uniform coarse mesh, for the same accuracy. Furthermore, to our knowledge, our algorithm is the only one which adaptively treats time-dependent boundary conditions for hyperbolic systems.

  3. Magnetic hyperbolic optical metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Kruk, Sergey S.; Wong, Zi Jing; Pshenay-Severin, Ekaterina; O'Brien, Kevin; Neshev, Dragomir N.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Strongly anisotropic media where the principal components of electric permittivity or magnetic permeability tensors have opposite signs are termed as hyperbolic media. Such media support propagating electromagnetic waves with extremely large wave vectors exhibiting unique optical properties. However, in all artificial and natural optical materials studied to date, the hyperbolic dispersion originates solely from the electric response. This restricts material functionality to one polarization of light and inhibits free-space impedance matching. Such restrictions can be overcome in media having components of opposite signs for both electric and magnetic tensors. Here we present the experimental demonstration of the magnetic hyperbolic dispersion in three-dimensional metamaterials. We measure metamaterial isofrequency contours and reveal the topological phase transition between the elliptic and hyperbolic dispersion. In the hyperbolic regime, we demonstrate the strong enhancement of thermal emission, which becomes directional, coherent and polarized. Our findings show the possibilities for realizing efficient impedance-matched hyperbolic media for unpolarized light. PMID:27072604

  4. Magnetic hyperbolic optical metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruk, Sergey S.; Wong, Zi Jing; Pshenay-Severin, Ekaterina; O'Brien, Kevin; Neshev, Dragomir N.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-04-01

    Strongly anisotropic media where the principal components of electric permittivity or magnetic permeability tensors have opposite signs are termed as hyperbolic media. Such media support propagating electromagnetic waves with extremely large wave vectors exhibiting unique optical properties. However, in all artificial and natural optical materials studied to date, the hyperbolic dispersion originates solely from the electric response. This restricts material functionality to one polarization of light and inhibits free-space impedance matching. Such restrictions can be overcome in media having components of opposite signs for both electric and magnetic tensors. Here we present the experimental demonstration of the magnetic hyperbolic dispersion in three-dimensional metamaterials. We measure metamaterial isofrequency contours and reveal the topological phase transition between the elliptic and hyperbolic dispersion. In the hyperbolic regime, we demonstrate the strong enhancement of thermal emission, which becomes directional, coherent and polarized. Our findings show the possibilities for realizing efficient impedance-matched hyperbolic media for unpolarized light.

  5. Magnetic hyperbolic optical metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Kruk, Sergey S; Wong, Zi Jing; Pshenay-Severin, Ekaterina; O'Brien, Kevin; Neshev, Dragomir N; Kivshar, Yuri S; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Strongly anisotropic media where the principal components of electric permittivity or magnetic permeability tensors have opposite signs are termed as hyperbolic media. Such media support propagating electromagnetic waves with extremely large wave vectors exhibiting unique optical properties. However, in all artificial and natural optical materials studied to date, the hyperbolic dispersion originates solely from the electric response. This restricts material functionality to one polarization of light and inhibits free-space impedance matching. Such restrictions can be overcome in media having components of opposite signs for both electric and magnetic tensors. Here we present the experimental demonstration of the magnetic hyperbolic dispersion in three-dimensional metamaterials. We measure metamaterial isofrequency contours and reveal the topological phase transition between the elliptic and hyperbolic dispersion. In the hyperbolic regime, we demonstrate the strong enhancement of thermal emission, which becomes directional, coherent and polarized. Our findings show the possibilities for realizing efficient impedance-matched hyperbolic media for unpolarized light. PMID:27072604

  6. Electrodynamics of hyperbolically accelerated charges V. The field of a charge in the Rindler space and the Milne space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksen, E.; Grøn, Ø.

    2004-09-01

    We describe the electromagnetic field of a uniformly accelerated charge in its co-moving Rindler frame. It is shown that the electrical field lines coincide with the trajectories of photons. The self force of a charged particle at rest in Rindler space, and the increase of its weight due to its charge, is calculated. The general case of an accelerated charge in Rindler space is also considered. It is shown that the electrical field inside a uniformly charged spherical shell can be used as a measure of it 4-acceleration. A result that has earlier been deduced in a different way by Fugmann and Kretzschmar is confirmed, namely that the intensity of radiation from a point charge instantaneously at rest in an accelerated frame is proportional to the square of the relative acceleration of the charge and the observer. In particular it is shown that a freely falling charge in Rindler space radiates in accordance with Larmor's formula. In this case the radiation energy is taken from the Schott energy. The energy of the electromagnetic field is analysed from the point of view of the Hirayama-separation, which generalizes the Teitelboim-separation to non-inertial frames, of the field in a bound part and an unbound part. A detailed account, with reference to the Rindler frame, of the field energy and particle energy is given for the case of a charge entering and leaving a region with hyperbolic motion. We also consider the electromagnetic field of a uniformly accelerated charge with reference to the Milne frame, which covers a different part of spacetime than the Rindler frame. The radiating part of the electromagnetic field is found in the Milne sector of spacetime.

  7. Effects of Hyperbolic Rotation in Minkowski Space on the Modeling of Plasma Accelerators in a Lorentz Boosted Frame

    SciTech Connect

    Vay, J.-L.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Grote, D. P.

    2010-09-21

    Laser driven plasma accelerators promise much shorter particle accelerators but their development requires detailed simulations that challenge or exceed current capabilities. We report the first direct simulations of stages up to 1 TeV from simulations using a Lorentz boosted calculation frame resulting in a million times speedup, thanks to a frame boost as high as gamma = 1300. Effects of the hyperbolic rotation in Minkowski space resulting from the frame boost on the laser propagation in the plasma is shown to be key in the mitigation of a numerical instability that was limiting previous attempts.

  8. Liquid phase sintered compacts in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mookherji, T. K.; Mcanelly, W. B.

    1974-01-01

    A model that will explain the effect of gravity on liquid phase sintering was developed. Wetting characteristics and density segregation which are the two important phenomena in liquid phase sintering are considered in the model development. Experiments were conducted on some selected material combinations to study the gravity effects on liquid phase sintering, and to verify the validity of the model. It is concluded that: (1) The surface tension forces acting on solid particles in a one-g environment are not appreciably different from those anticipated in a 0.00001g/g sub 0 (or lower) environment. (2) The capillary forces are dependent on the contact angle, the quantity of the liquid phase, and the distance between solid particles. (3) The pores (i.e., bubbles) do not appear to be driven to the surface by gravity-produced buoyancy forces. (4) The length of time to produce the same degree of settling in a low-gravity environment will be increased significantly. (5) A low gravity environment would appear to offer a unique means of satisfactorily infiltrating a larger and/or complex shaped compact.

  9. A New Time-Space Accurate Scheme for Hyperbolic Problems. 1; Quasi-Explicit Case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidilkover, David

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a new discretization scheme for hyperbolic systems of conservations laws. It satisfies the TVD property and relies on the new high-resolution mechanism which is compatible with the genuinely multidimensional approach proposed recently. This work can be regarded as a first step towards extending the genuinely multidimensional approach to unsteady problems. Discontinuity capturing capabilities and accuracy of the scheme are verified by a set of numerical tests.

  10. Fuel systems for compact fast space reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, C.M.; Dutt, D.S.; Karnesky, R.A.

    1983-12-01

    About 200 refractory metal clad ceramic fuel pins have been irradiated in thermal reactors under the 1200 K to 1550 K cladding temperature conditions of primary relevance to space reactors. This paper reviews performance with respect to fissile atom density, operating temperatures, fuel swelling, fission gas release, fuel-cladding compatibility, and consequences of failure. It was concluded that UO/sub 2/ and UN fuels show approximately equal performance potential and that UC fuel has lesser potential. W/Re alloys have performed quite well as cladding materials, and Ta, Nb, and Mo/Re alloys, in conjunction with W diffusion barriers, show good promise. Significant issues to be addressed in the future include high burnup swelling of UN, effects of UO/sub 2/-Li coolant reaction in the event of fuel pin failure, and development of an irradiation performance data base with prototypically configured fuel pins irradiated in a fast neutron flux.

  11. Curved noncommutative tori as Leibniz quantum compact metric spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latrémolière, Frédéric

    2015-12-01

    We prove that curved noncommutative tori are Leibniz quantum compact metric spaces and that they form a continuous family over the group of invertible matrices with entries in the image of the quantum tori for the conjugation by modular conjugation operator in the regular representation, when this group is endowed with a natural length function.

  12. Curved noncommutative tori as Leibniz quantum compact metric spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Latrémolière, Frédéric

    2015-12-15

    We prove that curved noncommutative tori are Leibniz quantum compact metric spaces and that they form a continuous family over the group of invertible matrices with entries in the image of the quantum tori for the conjugation by modular conjugation operator in the regular representation, when this group is endowed with a natural length function.

  13. Limit equation for vacuum Einstein constraints with a translational Killing vector field in the compact hyperbolic case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gicquaud, Romain; Huneau, Cécile

    2016-09-01

    We construct solutions to the constraint equations in general relativity using the limit equation criterion introduced in Dahl et al. (2012). We focus on solutions over compact 3-manifolds admitting a S1-symmetry group. When the quotient manifold has genus greater than 2, we obtain strong far from CMC results.

  14. The Tremblay-Turbiner-Winternitz system on spherical and hyperbolic spaces: superintegrability, curvature-dependent formalism and complex factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rañada, Manuel F.

    2014-04-01

    The higher order superintegrability of the Tremblay-Turbiner-Winternitz system (related to the harmonic oscillator) is studied on the two-dimensional spherical and hyperbolic spaces, S_\\kappa ^2 (κ > 0) and H_{\\kappa }^2 (κ < 0). The curvature κ is considered as a parameter and all the results are formulated in explicit dependence on κ. The idea is that the additional constant of motion can be factorized as the product of powers of two particular rather simple complex functions (here denoted by Mr and Nϕ). This technique leads to a proof of the superintegrability of the Tremblay-Turbiner-Winternitz system on S_\\kappa ^2 (κ > 0) and H_{\\kappa }^2 (κ < 0), and to the explicit expression of the constants of motion.

  15. Compact, Continuous Beam Cold Atom Clock for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buell, Walter

    2000-06-01

    Highly stable atomic frequency standards are of increasing importance for a variety of space applications, ranging from communication to navigation and time transfer to tests of fundamental science. The requirements for an atomic clock vary significantly depending on the application, and for many space systems compactness and robust design are at a premium and stability dominates over absolute accuracy. We report on progress with our design for a compact Cs beam atomic clock suitable for space applications and featuring a cold atomic beam source based on a single beam, conical mirror MOT with a hole at the apex to produce a low velocity high flux atomic beam. This cold atomic beam is then used in a laser-pumped Ramsey clock, with the clock signal derived from either a microwave C-field or alternatively by Raman resonance between the Ramsey fields. The cold atom source produces a continuous beam, which relaxes requirements on the local oscillator as compared with pulsed sources. In order to reduce light shifts from the MOT light and improve signal-to-noise, the atomic beam is optically deflected and transversely cooled upon exiting the MOT's conical reflector. We estimate that the shot-noise-limited stability achievable with this physics package can be two to three orders of magnitude better than current cesium beam atomic clocks used in space applications. We present our latest experimental progress towards a working frequency standard.

  16. On Hyperbolic Embedding of Complements of Divisors and the Limiting Behavior of the Kobayashi-Royden Metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaĭdenberg, M. G.

    1986-02-01

    In the following three cases criteria are found for complements of divisors in compact complex manifolds to be hyperbolically embedded in the sense of Kobayashi: for divisors with normal crossings, for arbitrary divisors in complex surfaces, and for unions of hyperplanes in projective space. A criterion is given for two-dimensional polynomial polyhedra to be hyperbolically embedded, and Iitaka's conjecture about conditions for hyperbolicity of the complement of a set of projective lines is confirmed. Upper semicontinuity is proved for the Kobayashi-Royden pseudometrics and Kobayashi-Eisenman pseudovolumes of a family of complex manifolds containing degenerate fibers, and conditions are given under which the hyperbolic length (volume) on the smooth part of a degenerate fiber is the limit of the hyperbolic length (volume) on the nonsingular fibers.Bibliography: 28 titles.

  17. Compact atomic clocks and stabilised laser for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mileti, Gaetano; Affolderbach, Christoph; Matthey-de-l'Endroit, Renaud

    2016-07-01

    We present our developments towards next generation compact vapour-cell based atomic frequency standards using a tunable laser diode instead of a traditional discharge lamp. The realisation of two types of Rubidium clocks addressing specific applications is in progress: high performance frequency standards for demanding applications such as satellite navigation, and chip-scale atomic clocks, allowing further miniaturisation of the system. The stabilised laser source constitutes the main technological novelty of these new standards, allowing a more efficient preparation and interrogation of the atoms and hence an improvement of the clock performances. However, before this key component may be employed in a commercial and ultimately in a space-qualified instrument, further studies are necessary to demonstrate their suitability, in particular concerning their reliability and long-term operation. The talk will present our preliminary investigations on this subject. The stabilised laser diode technology developed for our atomic clocks has several other applications on ground and in space. We will conclude our talk by illustrating this for the example of a recently completed ESA project on a 1.6 microns wavelength reference for a future space-borne Lidar. This source is based on a Rubidium vapour cell providing the necessary stability and accuracy, while a second harmonic generator and a compact optical comb generated from an electro-optic modulator allow to transfer these properties from the Rubidium wavelength (780nm) to the desired spectral range.

  18. A compact 500GHz SIS receiver developed for space observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D.; Yao, Q. J.; Li, J.; Shi, S. C.

    2011-08-01

    The submillimeter (submm) regime, ranging from 100 to 1000um, is an important frequency band for radio astronomy. A large number of astronomical spectral lines are located in this frequency region. Compared with ground-based observation, which is limited by the atmospheric absorption of signal, space borne platform provides perfect condition for submm observation. Here we introduce some preliminary results for a compact 500GHz SIS (Superconductor- Insulator-Superconductor) heterodyne receiver system developed for future space borne observation. Considering low power consumption requirement for space applications, we adopt a high critical temperature (Tc) NbN/AlN/NbN SIS tunnel junction for the mixer, a key component of the receiver system, which may work at relatively high temperature around 10 K. All the components, including the SIS mixer, HEMT low noise amplifier and optical lens, are assembled into a compact system. The whole system is cooled by a close-cycled 4K cryo-cooler in laboratory and test result shows a good noise performance, less than 250K at the 500GHz band. Detailed simulation and experimental results will be presented in this paper.

  19. Adaptive Controller for Compact Fourier Transform Spectrometer with Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keymeulen, D.; Yiu, P.; Berisford, D. F.; Hand, K. P.; Carlson, R. W.; Conroy, M.

    2014-12-01

    Here we present noise mitigation techniques developed as part of an adaptive controller for a very compact Compositional InfraRed Interferometric Spectrometer (CIRIS) implemented on a stand-alone field programmable gate array (FPGA) architecture with emphasis on space applications in high radiation environments such as Europa. CIRIS is a novel take on traditional Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTS) and replaces linearly moving mirrors (characteristic of Michelson interferometers) with a constant-velocity rotating refractor to variably phase shift and alter the path length of incoming light. The design eschews a monochromatic reference laser typically used for sampling clock generation and instead utilizes constant time-sampling via internally generated clocks. This allows for a compact and robust device, making it ideal for spaceborne measurements in the near-IR to thermal-IR band (2-12 µm) on planetary exploration missions. The instrument's embedded microcontroller is implemented on a VIRTEX-5 FPGA and a PowerPC with the aim of sampling the instrument's detector and optical rotary encoder in order to construct interferograms. Subsequent onboard signal processing provides spectral immunity from the noise effects introduced by the compact design's removal of a reference laser and by the radiation encountered during space flight to destinations such as Europa. A variety of signal processing techniques including resampling, radiation peak removal, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), spectral feature alignment, dispersion correction and calibration processes are applied to compose the sample spectrum in real-time with signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) performance comparable to laser-based FTS designs in radiation-free environments. The instrument's FPGA controller is demonstrated with the FTS to characterize its noise mitigation techniques and highlight its suitability for implementation in space systems.

  20. Coxeter decompositions of hyperbolic simplexes

    SciTech Connect

    Felikson, A A

    2002-12-31

    A Coxeter decomposition of a polyhedron in a hyperbolic space H{sup n} is a decomposition of it into finitely many Coxeter polyhedra such that any two tiles having a common facet are symmetric with respect to it. The classification of Coxeter decompositions is closely related to the problem of the classification of finite-index subgroups generated by reflections in discrete hyperbolic groups generated by reflections. All Coxeter decompositions of simplexes in the hyperbolic spaces H{sup n} with n>3 are described in this paper.

  1. Compact time- and space-integrating SAR processor: performance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haney, Michael W.; Levy, James J.; Michael, Robert R., Jr.; Christensen, Marc P.

    1995-06-01

    Progress made during the previous 12 months toward the fabrication and test of a flight demonstration prototype of the acousto-optic time- and space-integrating real-time SAR image formation processor is reported. Compact, rugged, and low-power analog optical signal processing techniques are used for the most computationally taxing portions of the SAR imaging problem to overcome the size and power consumption limitations of electronic approaches. Flexibility and performance are maintained by the use of digital electronics for the critical low-complexity filter generation and output image processing functions. The results reported for this year include tests of a laboratory version of the RAPID SAR concept on phase history data generated from real SAR high-resolution imagery; a description of the new compact 2D acousto-optic scanner that has a 2D space bandwidth product approaching 106 sports, specified and procured for NEOS Technologies during the last year; and a design and layout of the optical module portion of the flight-worthy prototype.

  2. Algebraic K-theory of spaces stratified fibered over hyperbolic orbifolds.

    PubMed

    Farrell, F T; Jones, L E

    1986-08-01

    Among other results, we rationally calculate the algebraic K-theory of any discrete cocompact subgroup of a Lie group G, where G is either O(n, 1), U(n, 1), Sp(n, 1), or F(4), in terms of the homology of the double coset space Gamma\\G/K, where K is a maximal cocompact subgroup of G. We obtain the formula K(n)(ZGamma) [unk] [unk] congruent with [unk](i=0) (infinity)H(i)(Gamma\\G/K; [unk](n-i)), where [unk](j) is a stratified system of Q vector spaces over Gamma\\G/K and the vector space [unk](j)(GammagK) corresponding to the double coset GammagK is isomorphic to K(J)(Z(Gamma [unk] gKg(-1))) [unk] Q. Note Gamma [unk] gKg(-1) is a finite subgroup of Gamma. Earlier, a similar formula for discrete cocompact subgroups Gamma of the group of rigid motions of Euclidean space was conjectured by F. T. Farrell and W. C. Hsiang and proven by F. Quinn. PMID:16593733

  3. Algebraic K-theory of spaces stratified fibered over hyperbolic orbifolds

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, F. T.; Jones, L. E.

    1986-01-01

    Among other results, we rationally calculate the algebraic K-theory of any discrete cocompact subgroup of a Lie group G, where G is either O(n, 1), U(n, 1), Sp(n, 1), or F4, in terms of the homology of the double coset space Γ\\G/K, where K is a maximal cocompact subgroup of G. We obtain the formula Kn(ZΓ) [unk] [unk] ≅ [unk]i=0∞Hi(Γ\\G/K; [unk]n-i), where [unk]j is a stratified system of Q vector spaces over Γ\\G/K and the vector space [unk]j(ΓgK) corresponding to the double coset ΓgK is isomorphic to KJ(Z(Γ [unk] gKg-1)) [unk] Q. Note Γ [unk] gKg-1 is a finite subgroup of Γ. Earlier, a similar formula for discrete cocompact subgroups Γ of the group of rigid motions of Euclidean space was conjectured by F. T. Farrell and W. C. Hsiang and proven by F. Quinn. PMID:16593733

  4. Extension of trigonometric and hyperbolic functions to vectorial arguments and its application to the representation of rotations and Lorentz transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasaki, H.

    1983-11-01

    The use of the axial vector representing a three-dimensional rotation makes the rotation representation much more compact by extending the trigonometric functions to vectorial arguments. Similarly, the pure Lorentz transformations are compactly treated by generalizing a scalar rapidity to a vector quantity in spatial three-dimensional cases and extending hyperbolic functions to vectorial arguments. A calculation of the Wigner rotation simplified by using the extended functions illustrates the fact that the rapidity vector space obeys hyperbolic geometry. New representations bring a Lorentz-invariant fundamental equation of motion corresponding to the Galilei-invariant equation of Newtonian mechanics.

  5. Measure of Similarity and Compactness in Competitive Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagoruiko, Nikolay

    The given work is devoted to measures of similarity which are used at discovering of empirical regularities (knowledge). The function of competitive (rival) similarity (FRiS) is proposed as a similarity measure for classification and pattern recognition applications. This function allows one to design effective algorithms for solving all basic data mining tasks, obtain quantitative estimates of the compactness of patterns and the informativeness of feature spaces, and construct easily interpretable decision rules. The method is suitable for any number of patterns regardless of the nature of their distributions and conditionality of training samples (the ratio of the numbers of objects and features). The usefulness of the FRiS is shown by solving a problems of molecular biology.

  6. Existence of hyperbolic calorons

    PubMed Central

    Sibner, Lesley; Sibner, Robert; Yang, Yisong

    2015-01-01

    Recent work of Harland shows that the SO(3)-symmetric, dimensionally reduced, charge-N self-dual Yang–Mills calorons on the hyperbolic space H3×S1 may be obtained through constructing N-vortex solutions of an Abelian Higgs model as in the study of Witten on multiple instantons. In this paper, we establish the existence of such minimal action charge-N calorons by constructing arbitrarily prescribed N-vortex solutions of the Witten type equations.

  7. An approach to the development of numerical algorithms for first order linear hyperbolic systems in multiple space dimensions: The constant coefficient case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, John W.

    1995-01-01

    Two methods for developing high order single step explicit algorithms on symmetric stencils with data on only one time level are presented. Examples are given for the convection and linearized Euler equations with up to the eighth order accuracy in both space and time in one space dimension, and up to the sixth in two space dimensions. The method of characteristics is generalized to nondiagonalizable hyperbolic systems by using exact local polynominal solutions of the system, and the resulting exact propagator methods automatically incorporate the correct multidimensional wave propagation dynamics. Multivariate Taylor or Cauchy-Kowaleskaya expansions are also used to develop algorithms. Both of these methods can be applied to obtain algorithms of arbitrarily high order for hyperbolic systems in multiple space dimensions. Cross derivatives are included in the local approximations used to develop the algorithms in this paper in order to obtain high order accuracy, and improved isotropy and stability. Efficiency in meeting global error bounds is an important criterion for evaluating algorithms, and the higher order algorithms are shown to be up to several orders of magnitude more efficient even though they are more complex. Stable high order boundary conditions for the linearized Euler equations are developed in one space dimension, and demonstrated in two space dimensions.

  8. An ODE for boundary layer separation on a sphere and a hyperbolic space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Chi Hin; Czubak, Magdalena; Yoneda, Tsuyoshi

    2014-07-01

    Ma and Wang derived an equation linking the separation location and times for the boundary layer separation of incompressible fluid flows. The equation gave a necessary condition for the separation (bifurcation) point. The purpose of this paper is to generalize the equation to other geometries, and to phrase it as a simple ODE. Moreover we consider the Navie-Stokes equation with the Coriolis effect, which is related to the presence of trade winds on Earth. A ∂-singular point (bifurcation point) occurs at t0 iff a function α1(t) satisfies α1(t0)=0. The above result is a generalization of [10] which is considered in the Euclidean space R2. We can regard α1(t), α2(t) and α3(t) as a part of the inflow profile. However η(t) is not. Let us be more precise. Choose p˜∈∂K close to p0∈∂K, and let K˜≔{p∈M-K:d(p,p˜)0. It is reasonable to assume uθ does not grow polynomially for the r direction (this is due to the observation of the "boundary layer", since the flow should be a uniform one away from the boundary). Thus, it should be reasonable to focus on the following two cases: (Poiseuille type profile) -k2α1(t)+2kα2(t)<0 (α1(t)>0, α2(t)<0) and α3(t) is small comparing with α1(t) and α2(t). (Before separation profile) 2kα2(t)+α3(t)<0 (α2(t)>0, α3(t)<0) and α1(t) is small comparing with α2(t) and α3(t). In this point of view, the well-known physical phenomena of "adverse

  9. MIRIS: A Compact Wide-field Infrared Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wonyong; Lee, Dae-Hee; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Park, Youngsik; Moon, Bongkon; Park, Sung-Joon; Pyo, Jeonghyun; Kim, Il-Joong; Park, Won-Kee; Lee, Dukhang; Seon, Kwang-Il; Nam, Uk-Won; Cha, Sang-Mok; Park, Kwijong; Park, Jang-Hyun; Yuk, In-Soo; Ree, Chang Hee; Jin, Ho; Choel Yang, Sun; Park, Hong-Young; Shin, Goo-Hwan; Seo, Joung-Ki; Rhee, Seung-Wu; Park, Jong-Oh; Lee, Hyung Mok; Murakami, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Toshio

    2014-09-01

    A compact infrared space telescope called MIRIS (Multi-purpose Infra-Red Imaging System) was developed by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), and launched onboard the Science and Technology Satellite-3 of Korea (STSAT-3) in 2013 November. The main mission of MIRIS is the Paschen-α emission line survey along the Galactic plane and the cosmic infrared background (CIB) observation, particularly around the north ecliptic pole region. For these missions, a wide field of view (3.67 × 3.67°) with an angular resolution of 51.6'' and wavelength coverage from 0.9 ~ 2.0 μm have been adopted for MIRIS, having optical components consisting of a 80 mm main lens and four other lenses with F/2 focal ratio optics. The opto-mechanical system was carefully designed to minimize any effects from shock during the launch process and thermal variation. Also, the telescope was designed to use a passive cooling technique to maintain the temperature around 200 K in order to reduce thermal noise. A micro Stirling cooler was used to cool down the Teledyne PICNIC infrared array to 90 K, which was equipped in a dewar with four filters for infrared passbands of I, H, and Paschen-α and a dual-band continuum line filter. MIRIS system was integrated into the STSAT-3 as its primary payload and successfully passed required tests in the laboratory, such as thermal-vacuum, vibration, and shock tests. MIRIS is now operating in sun synchronous orbits for initial tests and has observed its first images successfully.

  10. The Post-Winternitz system on spherical and hyperbolic spaces: A proof of the superintegrability making use of complex functions and a curvature-dependent formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rañada, Manuel F.

    2015-10-01

    Two important advances in integrability have been the recent discovery of the higher-order superintegrability of the Tremblay-Turbiner-Winternitz system (related to the harmonic oscillator) and the Post-Winternitz system (related to the Kepler problem). The properties of the TTW system have been recently studied on the two-dimensional spherical Sκ2 (κ > 0) and hyperbolic Hκ2 (κ < 0) spaces by making use of a curvature-dependent formalism and the existence of a complex factorization for the higher-order constant of motion. Now in this Letter we prove that a similar technique can also be applied for the study of the PW system.

  11. Hyperbolic interfaces.

    PubMed

    Giomi, Luca

    2012-09-28

    Fluid interfaces, such as soap films, liquid droplets, or lipid membranes, are known to give rise to several special geometries, whose complexity and beauty continue to fascinate us, as observers of the natural world, and challenge us as scientists. Here I show that a special class of surfaces of constant negative Gaussian curvature can be obtained in fluid interfaces equipped with an orientational ordered phase. These arise in various soft and biological materials, such as nematic liquid crystals, cytoskeletal assemblies, or hexatic colloidal suspensions. The purely hyperbolic morphology originates from the competition between surface tension, that reduces the area of the interface at the expense of increasing its Gaussian curvature, and the orientational elasticity of the ordered phase, that in turn suffers for the distortion induced by the underlying curvature. PMID:23030106

  12. Hyperbolic Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giomi, Luca

    2012-09-01

    Fluid interfaces, such as soap films, liquid droplets, or lipid membranes, are known to give rise to several special geometries, whose complexity and beauty continue to fascinate us, as observers of the natural world, and challenge us as scientists. Here I show that a special class of surfaces of constant negative Gaussian curvature can be obtained in fluid interfaces equipped with an orientational ordered phase. These arise in various soft and biological materials, such as nematic liquid crystals, cytoskeletal assemblies, or hexatic colloidal suspensions. The purely hyperbolic morphology originates from the competition between surface tension, that reduces the area of the interface at the expense of increasing its Gaussian curvature, and the orientational elasticity of the ordered phase, that in turn suffers for the distortion induced by the underlying curvature.

  13. Non-uniformly hyperbolic flows and shadowing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wenxiang; Tian, Xueting; Vargas, Edson

    2016-07-01

    We consider a hyperbolic ergodic measure of a C1 flow on a compact manifold. Under the hypothesis that there are no fixed points and that the Oseledec splitting of the normal bundle satisfies a limit domination property, we prove that the measure has a shadowing property. As an application of this result we prove that the measure can be approached on the weak* topology by measures supported on hyperbolic periodic orbits.

  14. A formula for the first eigenvalue of the Dirac operator on compact spin symmetric spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Milhorat, Jean-Louis

    2006-04-15

    Let G/K be a simply connected spin compact inner irreducible symmetric space, endowed with the metric induced by the Killing form of G sign-changed. We give a formula for the square of the first eigenvalue of the Dirac operator in terms of a root system of G. As an example of application, we give the list of the first eigenvalues for the spin compact irreducible symmetric spaces endowed with a quaternion-Kaehler structure.

  15. Criteria for compactness in L{sup p}-spaces, p {>=} 0

    SciTech Connect

    Krotov, Veniamin G

    2012-07-31

    The paper puts forward new compactness criteria for spaces of summable and measurable functions on a metric space with measure satisfying the doubling condition. These criteria are formulated in terms of either local smoothness inequalities or maximal operators that measure local smoothness. Bibliography: 28 titles.

  16. The Hyperbolic Sine Cardinal and the Catenary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez-Reyes, Javier

    2012-01-01

    The hyperbolic function sinh(x)/x receives scant attention in the literature. We show that it admits a clear geometric interpretation as the ratio between length and chord of a symmetric catenary segment. The inverse, together with the use of dimensionless parameters, furnishes a compact, explicit construction of a general catenary segment of…

  17. A Compact Remote Heat Transfer Device for Space Cryocoolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, T.; Zhao, Y.; Liang, T.

    In this paper a compact remote heat transfer device (CRHD) for cryocoolers is proposed. This device is especially attractive in cases where cryocoolers are not easy to set near the heat source, generally the infrared sensor. The CRHD is designed on basis of the concept of loop heat pipes, while the primary evaporator is located near the cryocooler cold head and a simple tube-in-tube secondary evaporator is remotely located and thermally connected with the heat source for cooling. With such a device a cooling power of 1 W is achieved across a heat transfer distance of about 2 m. The major problem of this device is the low heat transfer efficiency (1 W of net cooling power at the cost of about 7 W of cooling power from the cryocooler), and in the future a secondary wicked evaporator will be used instead of the tube-in-tube evaporator in order to improve the efficiency.

  18. All-metal, compact heat exchanger for space cryocoolers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, Walter L.; Valenzuela, Javier; Sixsmith, Herbert

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the development of a high performance, all metal compact heat exchanger. The device is designed for use in a reverse Brayton cryogenic cooler which provides five watts of refrigeration at 70 K. The heat exchanger consists of a stainless steel tube concentrically assembled within a second stainless steel tube. Approximately 300 pairs of slotted copper disks and matching annular slotted copper plates are positioned along the centerline axis of the concentric tubes. Each of the disks and plates has approximately 1200 precise slots machined by means of a special electric discharge process. Positioning of the disk and plate pairs is accomplished by means of dimples in the surface of the tubes. Mechanical and thermal connections between the tubes and plate/disk pairs are made by solder joints. The heat exchanger assembly is 9 cm in diameter by 50 cm in length and has a mass of 10 kg. The predicted thermal effectiveness is greater than 0.985 at design conditions. Pressure loss at design conditions is less than 5 kPa in both fluid passages. Tests were performed on a subassembly of plates integrally soldered to two end headers. The measured thermal effectiveness of the test article exceeded predicted levels. Pressure losses were negligibly higher than predictions.

  19. Hyperbolic graph generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldecoa, Rodrigo; Orsini, Chiara; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2015-11-01

    Networks representing many complex systems in nature and society share some common structural properties like heterogeneous degree distributions and strong clustering. Recent research on network geometry has shown that those real networks can be adequately modeled as random geometric graphs in hyperbolic spaces. In this paper, we present a computer program to generate such graphs. Besides real-world-like networks, the program can generate random graphs from other well-known graph ensembles, such as the soft configuration model, random geometric graphs on a circle, or Erdős-Rényi random graphs. The simulations show a good match between the expected values of different network structural properties and the corresponding empirical values measured in generated graphs, confirming the accurate behavior of the program.

  20. Compact IR laser for calibration of space based sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Kietrick, K.M.; Dezenberg, G.; Hamilton, C.; Vann, J.; LaSala, J.

    1996-04-17

    An Er:YAG laser, operating at 2.94 microns, has been developed for in-theater calibration of space based infrared sensors. The laser is used to illuminate a spaceborne sensor focal plane from a surveyed ground reference point. The known reference point is compared to the laser position reported by the sensor, and boresight corrections are made. The Er:YAG laser is side pumped by a InGaAs diode array and is tuned to an atmospheric microwindow with and intracavity etalon. This technology is being directly applied to meet Army requirements for enhanced deep strike targeting information supplied to theater weapons systems.

  1. Compact Microwave Mercury Ion Clock for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prestage, John D.; Tu, Meirong; Chung, Sang K.; MacNeal, Paul

    2007-01-01

    We review progress in developing a small Hg ion clock for space operation based on breadboard ion-clock physics package where Hg ions are shuttled between a quadrupole and a 16-pole rf trap. With this architecture we have demonstrated short-term stability approx.1-2x10(exp -13) at 1 second, averaging to 10-15 at 1 day. This development shows that H-maser quality stabilities can be produced in a small clock package, comparable in size to an ultra-stable quartz oscillator required or holding 1-2x10(exp -13) at 1 second. We have completed an ion clock physics package designed to withstand vibration of launch and are currently building a approx. 1 kg engineering model for test. We also discuss frequency steering software algorithms that simultaneously measure ion signal size and lamp light output, useful for long term operation and self-optimization of microwave power and return engineering data.

  2. A Compact Nuclear Fusion Reactor for Space Flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastoyashchiy, Anatoly F.

    2006-05-01

    A small-scale nuclear fusion reactor is suggested based on the concepts of plasma confinement (with a high pressure gas) which have been patented by the author. The reactor considered can be used as a power setup in space flights. Among the advantages of this reactor is the use of a D3He fuel mixture which at burning gives main reactor products — charged particles. The energy balance considerably improves, as synchrotron radiation turn out "captured" in the plasma volume, and dangerous, in the case of classical magnetic confinement, instabilities in the direct current magnetic field configuration proposed do not exist. As a result, the reactor sizes are quite suitable (of the order of several meters). A possibility of making reactive thrust due to employment of ejection of multiply charged ions formed at injection of pellets from some adequate substance into the hot plasma center is considered.

  3. Reliable compact electrical power source systems for space launch vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Young, A.R.

    1996-12-31

    Described herein are several key technologies utilized in the design of a family of direct-drive turboalternator systems for space launch vehicles. These systems automatically provide conditioned and regulated electrical power at various voltages, powering actuators, valves, and avionics throughout the vehicle. The simple and robust ring-wound two-pole toothless alternator operates at peripheral speeds, making it suitable to be driven directly by a turbine, thereby eliminating the weight, reliability, zero ``g`` lubrication, and cooling issues of a speed-reducing gearbox, while allowing the turbine to operate at reasonable efficiency. Additionally, the use of self-aligning foil bearing and catalytic combustors or cold gas propellants enhance the reliability. The power conditioner and electronic controller provide hands-off regulated ac or dc power on demand, maintaining critical parameters within established limits and performance while reporting on built-in health-monitoring tests.

  4. The Thermal Infrared Compact Imaging Spectrometer (TIRCIS): a follow-on to the Space Ultra Compact Hyperspectral Imager (SUCHI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crites, S. T.; Wright, R.; Lucey, P. G.; Chan, J.; Gabrieli, A.; Garbeil, H.; Horton, K. A.; Imai-Hong, A. K. R.; Pilger, E. J.; Wood, M.; Yoneshige, L.

    2015-05-01

    The Thermal Infrared Compact Imaging Spectrometer (TIRCIS) is a long wave infrared (LWIR, 8-14 microns) hyperspectral imager designed as the follow-on to the University of Hawaii's SUCHI (Space Ultra Compact Hyperspectral Imager). SUCHI is a low-mass (<9kg), low-volume (10x12x40cm3) LWIR spectrometer designed as the primary payload on the University of Hawaii-built 'HiakaSat' microsatellite. SUCHI is based on a variable-gap Fabry Perot interferometer employed as a Fourier transform spectrometer with images collected by a commercial off-the-shelf microbolometer contained inside a 1-atm sealed vessel. The sensor has been fully integrated with the HiakaSat microsatellite and is awaiting launch in 2015. The TIRCIS instrument is based on the same principles but takes lessons learned from SUCHI and applies them to a new design with improvements in spatial resolution, spectral resolution and spectral responsivity. The TIRCIS instrument is based on an uncooled microbolometer array with custom detector coatings to enhance responsivity towards 7 microns. Like SUCHI, TIRCIS utilizes a variable-gap Fabry Perot interferometer to create the spectra, but three different interferometer wedges with varying slopes resulting in spectral resolution ranging from 44 cm-1 to 6.5 cm-1 will be tested to explore tradeoffs between spectral resolution and sensitivity. TIRCIS is designed to achieve 120 m spatial resolution, compared with 230 m for SUCHI, from a theoretical 500 km orbit. It will be used for ground and aircraft data collection but will undergo environmental testing to demonstrate its relevance to the space environment. TIRCIS has been fully designed and is entering fabrication, with an operational instrument to be delivered in October, 2015.

  5. Discretizing singular point sources in hyperbolic wave propagation problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersson, N. Anders; O'Reilly, Ossian; Sjögreen, Björn; Bydlon, Samuel

    2016-09-01

    We develop high order accurate source discretizations for hyperbolic wave propagation problems in first order formulation that are discretized by finite difference schemes. By studying the Fourier series expansions of the source discretization and the finite difference operator, we derive sufficient conditions for achieving design accuracy in the numerical solution. Only half of the conditions in Fourier space can be satisfied through moment conditions on the source discretization, and we develop smoothness conditions for satisfying the remaining accuracy conditions. The resulting source discretization has compact support in physical space, and is spread over as many grid points as the number of moment and smoothness conditions. In numerical experiments we demonstrate high order of accuracy in the numerical solution of the 1-D advection equation (both in the interior and near a boundary), the 3-D elastic wave equation, and the 3-D linearized Euler equations.

  6. Movable-molybdenum-reflector reactivity experiments for control studies of compact space power reactor concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, T. A.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental reflector reactivity study was made with a compact cylindrical reactor using a uranyl fluoride - water fuel solution. The reactor was axially unreflected and radially reflected with segments of molybdenum. The reflector segments were displaced incrementally in both the axial and radial dimensions, and the shutdown of each configuration was measured by using the pulsed-neutron source technique. The reactivity effects for axial and radial displacement of reflector segments are tabulated separately and compared. The experiments provide data for control-system studies of compact-space-power-reactor concepts.

  7. Hyperbolic Hopfield neural networks.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, M

    2013-02-01

    In recent years, several neural networks using Clifford algebra have been studied. Clifford algebra is also called geometric algebra. Complex-valued Hopfield neural networks (CHNNs) are the most popular neural networks using Clifford algebra. The aim of this brief is to construct hyperbolic HNNs (HHNNs) as an analog of CHNNs. Hyperbolic algebra is a Clifford algebra based on Lorentzian geometry. In this brief, a hyperbolic neuron is defined in a manner analogous to a phasor neuron, which is a typical complex-valued neuron model. HHNNs share common concepts with CHNNs, such as the angle and energy. However, HHNNs and CHNNs are different in several aspects. The states of hyperbolic neurons do not form a circle, and, therefore, the start and end states are not identical. In the quantized version, unlike complex-valued neurons, hyperbolic neurons have an infinite number of states. PMID:24808287

  8. Modelling of the void space of tablets compacted over a range of pressures.

    PubMed

    Ridgway, C J; Ridgway, K; Matthews, G P

    1997-04-01

    A previously developed computer model, named Pore-Cor, has been used to simulate the changes in the void-space dimensions which occur during the compaction of tablets over a range of pressures. The tablets were made by mixing pharmaceutical grade crystalline lactose and an anti-inflammatory compound in the proportion 4:1. Compacts were made by placing a weighed amount of the mixed powder into a stainless-steel die and applying pressure with a hand-operated calibrated hydraulic press. Compacts were prepared at eight pressures over the hydraulic pressure range 1 to 8 ton in-2 (15.4-123.2 MPa) in 1 ton in-2 increments. Mercury-intrusion curves were measured for the eight samples by use of a porosimeter and the Pore-Cor package was then used to simulate the mercury-intrusion curves and generate void-space models of the correct porosity. The experimental and simulated characteristic throat diameter, the experimental and simulated porosity, and the simulated permeability of the tablets have all been shown to follow expected trends. The successful modelling of void-structure parameters, which are difficult or impossible to measure experimentally, opens the way to an improved understanding of the strength of compacts. PMID:9232534

  9. Representation of the contextual statistical model by hyperbolic amplitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2005-06-01

    We continue the development of a so-called contextual statistical model (here context has the meaning of a complex of physical conditions). It is shown that, besides contexts producing the conventional trigonometric cos-interference, there exist contexts producing the hyperbolic cos-interference. Starting with the corresponding interference formula of total probability we represent such contexts by hyperbolic probabilistic amplitudes or in the abstract formalism by normalized vectors of a hyperbolic analogue of the Hilbert space. There is obtained a hyperbolic Born's rule. Incompatible observables are represented by noncommutative operators. This paper can be considered as the first step towards hyperbolic quantum probability. We also discuss possibilities of experimental verification of hyperbolic quantum mechanics: in physics of elementary particles, string theory as well as in experiments with nonphysical systems, e.g., in psychology, cognitive sciences, and economy.

  10. Boundary control problems for quasilinear systems of hyperbolic equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseenko, A. E.; Kholodov, A. S.; Kholodov, Ya. A.

    2016-06-01

    For quasilinear systems of hyperbolic equations, the nonclassical boundary value problem of controlling solutions with the help of boundary conditions is considered. Previously, this problem was extensively studied in the case of the simplest hyperbolic equations, namely, the scalar wave equation and certain linear systems. The corresponding problem formulations and numerical solution algorithms are extended to nonlinear (quasilinear and conservative) systems of hyperbolic equations. Some numerical (grid-characteristic) methods are considered that were previously used to solve the above problems. They include explicit and implicit conservative difference schemes on compact stencils that are linearizations of Godunov's method. The numerical algorithms and methods are tested as applied to well-known linear examples.

  11. Fourth order difference methods for hyperbolic IBVP's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustafsson, Bertil; Olsson, Pelle

    1994-01-01

    Fourth order difference approximations of initial-boundary value problems for hyperbolic partial differential equations are considered. We use the method of lines approach with both explicit and compact implicit difference operators in space. The explicit operator satisfies an energy estimate leading to strict stability. For the implicit operator we develop boundary conditions and give a complete proof of strong stability using the Laplace transform technique. We also present numerical experiments for the linear advection equation and Burgers' equation with discontinuities in the solution or in its derivative. The first equation is used for modeling contact discontinuities in fluid dynamics, the second one for modeling shocks and rarefaction waves. The time discretization is done with a third order Runge-Kutta TVD method. For solutions with discontinuities in the solution itself we add a filter based on second order viscosity. In case of the non-linear Burger's equation we use a flux splitting technique that results in an energy estimate for certain different approximations, in which case also an entropy condition is fulfilled. In particular we shall demonstrate that the unsplit conservative form produces a non-physical shock instead of the physically correct rarefaction wave. In the numerical experiments we compare our fourth order methods with a standard second order one and with a third order TVD-method. The results show that the fourth order methods are the only ones that give good results for all the considered test problems.

  12. Hyperbolic Triangle Centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungar, A. A.

    Einstein's addition law of three-dimensional relativistically admissible velocities is the corner stone of Einstein's three-vector formalism of the special theory of relativity that he founded in 1905. In this chapter, we present Einstein addition along with its role in nonassociative algebra and hyperbolic geometry. We make no demands upon readers of this book as to a prior acquaintance with either special relativity, nonassociative algebra or hyperbolic geometry.

  13. Compact Low Cost Hybrid DC/DC Converter Controller For Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpi, Gian Franco; Contissa, Alessandro; Mantegazza, Massimiliano

    2011-10-01

    The need for low cost, space qualified (ESA requirements), compact DC/DC converters is becoming increasingly important both for commercial market and programs controlled by space administration. Market is also showing request for large scale production. To face market needs, the design of low power multi- output DC/DC converters can be based on small and low mass hybrid controllers for better mechanical optimization. Moreover, this approach, maintaining robust performances against harsh space environment, allows taking the advantages typical of recurrent design: high reliability and reduction of cost. Also, using the hybrid controller allows designers to focus just on power transformer and filters, reducing the time necessary to complete the design. This paper shall provide description of the standard Thales Alenia Space hybrid controller in its two variants: 40V-760V (HYLPSC03RAD) and 20.5V-43V (HYLPSC04RAD) bus voltage.

  14. Classification of hyperbolic Dynkin diagrams, root lengths and Weyl group orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, Lisa; Chung, Sjuvon; Cobbs, Leigh; McRae, Robert; Nandi, Debajyoti; Naqvi, Yusra; Penta, Diego

    2010-04-01

    We give a criterion for a Dynkin diagram, equivalently a generalized Cartan matrix, to be symmetrizable. This criterion is easily checked on the Dynkin diagram. We obtain a simple proof that the maximal rank of a Dynkin diagram of compact hyperbolic type is 5, while the maximal rank of a symmetrizable Dynkin diagram of compact hyperbolic type is 4. Building on earlier classification results of Kac, Kobayashi-Morita, Li and Saçlio\\skew3\\tildeg lu, we present the 238 hyperbolic Dynkin diagrams in ranks 3-10, 142 of which are symmetrizable. For each symmetrizable hyperbolic generalized Cartan matrix, we give a symmetrization and hence the distinct lengths of real roots in the corresponding root system. For each such hyperbolic root system we determine the disjoint orbits of the action of the Weyl group on real roots. It follows that the maximal number of disjoint Weyl group orbits on real roots in a hyperbolic root system is 4.

  15. Compact time- and space-integrating SAR processor: design and development status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haney, Michael W.; Levy, James J.; Christensen, Marc P.; Michael, Robert R., Jr.; Mock, Michael M.

    1994-06-01

    Progress toward a flight demonstration of the acousto-optic time- and space- integrating real-time SAR image formation processor program is reported. The concept overcomes the size and power consumption limitations of electronic approaches by using compact, rugged, and low-power analog optical signal processing techniques for the most computationally taxing portions of the SAR imaging problem. Flexibility and performance are maintained by the use of digital electronics for the critical low-complexity filter generation and output image processing functions. The results reported include tests of a laboratory version of the concept, a description of the compact optical design that will be implemented, and an overview of the electronic interface and controller modules of the flight-test system.

  16. The design and fabrication of a prototype trash compacting unit. [for long duration space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A prototype trash compactor, that is compatible with the anticipated requirements of future long-term space missions, is described. Preliminary problem definition studies were conducted to identify typical types and quantities of waste materials to be expected from a typical mission. Bench-scale compaction tests were then conducted on typical waste materials to determine force/compaction curves. These data were used to design a boilerplate compactor that was fabricated to prove the feasibility of the basic design concept. A final design was then prepared from which the deliverable unit was fabricated. Design concepts are presented for suggested further development of the compactor, including a version that is capable of handling wet biodegradable wastes.

  17. Hidden symmetry of hyperbolic monopole motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, G. W.; Warnick, C. M.

    2007-10-01

    Hyperbolic monopole motion is studied for well separated monopoles. It is shown that the motion of a hyperbolic monopole in the presence of one or more fixed monopoles is equivalent to geodesic motion on a particular submanifold of the full moduli space. The metric on this submanifold is found to be a generalisation of the multi-centre Taub-NUT metric introduced by LeBrun. The one centre case is analysed in detail as a special case of a class of systems admitting a conserved Runge-Lenz vector. The two centre problem is also considered. An integrable classical string motion is exhibited.

  18. Some compactness tests in Banach spaces by Cesaro means of Fourier coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öztürk, Seda

    2015-09-01

    Let H be a complex Banach space, T be the topological group of the unit circle with respect to the Euclidean topology, α be a strongly continuous isometric linear representation of T in H, {Fkα}k ∈ℤ be the family of Fourier coefficients with respect to α, and {σkα}k ∈ℤ be Cesaro means of the family {Fkα}k ∈ℤ . In this work, we give some compactness tests for closed subsets of H.

  19. QED{sub 3} on a space-time lattice: Compact versus noncompact formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Fiore, R.; Giudice, P.; Giuliano, D.; Marmottini, D.; Papa, A.; Sodano, P.

    2005-11-01

    We study quantum electrodynamics in a (2+1)-dimensional space-time with two flavors of dynamical fermions by numerical simulations on the lattice. We discretize the theory using both the compact and the noncompact formulations and analyze the behavior of the chiral condensate and of the monopole density in the finite lattice regime as well as in the continuum limit. By comparing the results obtained with the two approaches, we draw some conclusions about the possible equivalence of the two lattice formulations in the continuum limit.

  20. Metric properties in the mean of polynomials on compact isotropy irreducible homogeneous spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gichev, V. M.

    2013-06-01

    Let M=G/H be a compact connected isotropy irreducible Riemannian homogeneous manifold, where G is a compact Lie group (may be, disconnected) acting on M by isometries. This class includes all compact irreducible Riemannian symmetric spaces and, for example, the tori {R }^n/{Z }^n with the natural action on itself extended by the finite group generated by all permutations of the coordinates and inversions in circle factors. We say that u is a polynomial on M if it belongs to some G-invariant finite dimensional subspace {E } of L^2(M). We compute or estimate from above the averages over the unit sphere {S } in {E } for some metric quantities such as Hausdorff measures of level set and norms in L^p(M), 1le ple infty , where M is equipped with the invariant probability measure. For example, the averages over {S } of Vert uVert _{L^p(M)}, pge 2, are less than sqrt{p+1/e} independently of M and {E }.

  1. Braneworld localisation in hyperbolic spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crampton, B.; Pope, C. N.; Stelle, K. S.

    2014-12-01

    We present a construction employing a type IIA supergravity and 3-form flux background together with an NS5-brane that localises massless gravity near the 5-brane worldvolume. The nonsingular underlying type IIA solution is a lift to 10D of the vacuum solution of the 6D Salam-Sezgin model and has a hyperbolic structure in the lifting dimensions. A fully back-reacted solution including the NS5-brane is constructed by recognising the 10D Salam-Sezgin vacuum solution as a "brane resolved through transgression." The background hyperbolic structure plays a key rôle in generating a mass gap in the spectrum of the transverse-space wave operator, which gives rise to the localisation of gravity on the 6D NS5-brane worldvolume, or, equally, in a further compactification to 4D. Also key to the successful localisation of gravity is the specific form of the corresponding transverse wavefunction Schrödinger problem, which asymptotically involves a V = -1 /(4 ρ 2) potential, where ρ is the transverse-space radius, and for which the NS5-brane source gives rise to a specific choice of self-adjoint extension for the transverse wave operator. The corresponding boundary condition as ρ → 0 ensures the masslessness of gravity in the effective braneworld theory. Above the mass gap, there is a continuum of massive states which give rise to small corrections to Newton's law.

  2. Compact-sized and broadband carpet cloak and free-space cloak.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hui Feng; Jiang, Wei Xiang; Yang, Xin Mi; Zhou, Xiao Yang; Cui, Tie Jun

    2009-10-26

    Recently, invisible cloaks have attracted much attention due to their exciting property of invisibility, which are based on a solid theory of transformation optics and quasi-conformal mapping. Two kinds of cloaks have been proposed: free-space cloaks, which can render objects in free space invisible to incident radiation, and carpet cloaks (or ground-plane cloaks), which can hide objects under the conducting ground. The first free-space and carpet cloaks were realized in the microwave frequencies using metamaterials. The free-space cloak was composed of resonant metamaterials, and hence had restriction of narrow bandwidth and high loss; the carpet cloak was made of non-resonant metamaterials, which have broad bandwidth and low loss. However, the carpet cloak has a severe restriction of large size compared to the cloaked object. The above restrictions become the bottlenecks to the real applications of free-space and carpet cloaks. Here we report the first experimental demonstration of broadband and low-loss directive free-space cloak and compact-sized carpet cloak based on a recent theoretical study. Both cloaks are realized using non-resonant metamaterials in the microwave frequency, and good invisibility properties have been observed in experiments. This approach represents a major step towards the real applications of invisibility cloaks. PMID:19997219

  3. Study and Developement of Compact Permanent Magnet Hall Thrusters for Future Brazillian Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Martins, Alexandre; Cerda, Rodrigo

    2016-07-01

    The Plasma Physics Laboratory of UnB has been developing a Permanent Magnet Hall Thruster (PHALL) for the UNIESPAÇO program, part of the Space Activities Program conducted by AEB- The Brazillian Space Agency since 2004. Electric propulsion is now a very successful method for primary and secondary propulsion systems. It is essential for several existing geostationary satellite station keeping systems and for deep space long duration solar system missions, where the thrusting system can be designed to be used on orbit transfer maneuvering and/or for satellite attitude control in long term space missions. Applications of compact versions of Permanent Magnet Hall Thrusters on future brazillian space missions are needed and foreseen for the coming years beginning with the use of small divergent cusp field (DCFH) Hall Thrusters type on CUBESATS ( 5-10 kg , 1W-5 W power consumption) and on Micro satellites ( 50- 100 kg, 10W-100W). Brazillian (AEB) and German (DLR) space agencies and research institutions are developing a new rocket dedicated to small satellite launching. The VLM- Microsatellite Launch Vehicle. The development of PHALL compact versions can also be important for the recently proposed SBG system, a future brazillian geostationary satellite system that is already been developed by an international consortium of brazillian and foreign space industries. The exploration of small bodies in the Solar System with spacecraft has been done by several countries with increasing frequency in these past twenty five years. Since their historical beginning on the sixties, most of the Solar System missions were based on gravity assisted trajectories very much depended on planet orbit positioning relative to the Sun and the Earth. The consequence was always the narrowing of the mission launch window. Today, the need for Solar System icy bodies in situ exploration requires less dependence on gravity assisted maneuvering and new high precision low thrust navigation methods

  4. Development of a Compact, Efficient Cooling Pump for Space Suit Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    van Boeyen, Roger; Reeh, Jonathan; Trevino, Luis

    2009-01-01

    A compact, low-power electrochemically-driven fluid cooling pump is currently being developed by Lynntech, Inc. With no electric motor and minimal lightweight components, the pump is significantly lighter than conventional rotodynamic and displacement pumps. Reliability and robustness is achieved with the absence of rotating or moving components (apart from the bellows). By employing sulfonated polystyrene-based proton exchange membranes, rather than conventional Nafion membranes, a significant reduction in the actuator power consumption was demonstrated. Lynntech also demonstrated that these membranes possess the necessary mechanical strength, durability, and temperature range for long life space operation. The preliminary design for a Phase II prototype pump compares very favorably to the fluid cooling pumps currently used in space suit primary life support systems (PLSSs). Characteristics of the electrochemically-driven pump are described and the benefits of the technology as a replacement for electric motor pumps in mechanically pumped single-phase fluid loops is discussed.

  5. Efficiently enclosing the compact binary parameter space by singular-value decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, Kipp; Hanna, Chad; Keppel, Drew

    2011-10-15

    Gravitational-wave searches for the merger of compact binaries use matched filtering as the method of detecting signals and estimating parameters. Such searches construct a fine mesh of filters covering a signal parameter space at high density. Previously it has been shown that singular-value decomposition can reduce the effective number of filters required to search the data. Here we study how the basis provided by the singular-value decomposition changes dimension as a function of template-bank density. We will demonstrate that it is sufficient to use the basis provided by the singular-value decomposition of a low-density bank to accurately reconstruct arbitrary points within the boundaries of the template bank. Since this technique is purely numerical, it may have applications to interpolating the space of numerical relativity waveforms.

  6. Spectral properties of the Ruelle operator on the Walters class over compact spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cioletti, Leandro; Silva, Eduardo A.

    2016-08-01

    Recently the Ruelle–Perron–Frobenius theorem was proved for Hölder potentials defined on the symbolic space Ω ={{M}{N}} , where (the alphabet) M is any compact metric space. In this paper, we extend this theorem to the Walters space W(Ω ) , in similar general alphabets. We also describe in detail an abstract procedure to obtain the Fréchet analyticity of the Ruelle operator under quite general conditions and we apply this result to prove the analytic dependence of this operator on both Walters and Hölder spaces. The analyticity of the pressure functional on Hölder spaces is established. An exponential decay of the correlations is shown when the Ruelle operator has the spectral gap property. A new (and natural) family of Walters potentials (on a finite alphabet derived from the Ising model) which do not have an exponential decay of the correlations is presented. Because of the lack of exponential decay, for such potentials there is an absence of the spectral gap for the Ruelle operator. The key idea in proving the lack of exponential decay of the correlations is the Griffiths–Kelly–Sherman inequalities.

  7. Angular spectrum method with compact space-bandwidth: generalization and full-field accuracy.

    PubMed

    Kozacki, Tomasz; Falaggis, Konstantinos

    2016-07-01

    A recent Letter [Opt. Lett.40, 3420 (2015)OPLEDP0146-959210.1364/OL.40.003420] reported a modified angular spectrum method that uses a sampling scheme based on a compact space-bandwidth product representation. That technique is useful for focusing and defocusing propagation cases and is generalized here for the case of propagation between two defocus planes. The proposed method employs paraxial spherical phase factors and modified propagation kernels to reduce the size of the numerical space-bandwidth product needed for wave field calculations. A Wigner distribution analysis is carried out in order to ensure high accuracy of the calculations in the entire computational domain. This is achieved by analyzing the evolution of the generalized space-bandwidth product when passing through the propagation algorithm for various space-frequency constraints. The results allow the derivations of sampling criteria, and, despite this, also show that a small amount of space/frequency zero padding significantly extends the capability of the recently reported modified angular spectrum method. Simulations validate the high accuracy of that method and verify a computational and memory gain of more than two orders of magnitude when comparing this technique with the conventional angular spectrum method. PMID:27409185

  8. Compact Tissue-equivalent Proportional Counter for Deep Space Human Missions

    PubMed Central

    Straume, T.; Braby, L.A.; Borak, T.B.; Lusby, T.; Warner, D.W.; Perez-Nunez, D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Effects on human health from the complex radiation environment in deep space have not been measured and can only be simulated here on Earth using experimental systems and beams of radiations produced by accelerators, usually one beam at a time. This makes it particularly important to develop instruments that can be used on deep-space missions to measure quantities that are known to be relatable to the biological effectiveness of space radiation. Tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs) are such instruments. Unfortunately, present TEPCs are too large and power intensive to be used beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Here, the authors describe a prototype of a compact TEPC designed for deep space applications with the capability to detect both ambient galactic cosmic rays and intense solar particle event radiation. The device employs an approach that permits real-time determination of (and thus quality factor) using a single detector. This was accomplished by assigning sequential sampling intervals as detectors “1” and “2” and requiring the intervals to be brief compared to the change in dose rate. Tests with γ rays show that the prototype instrument maintains linear response over the wide dose-rate range expected in space with an accuracy of better than 5% for dose rates above 3 mGy h−1. Measurements of for 200 MeV n−1 carbon ions were better than 10%. Limited tests with fission spectrum neutrons show absorbed dose-rate accuracy better than 15%. PMID:26313585

  9. A New Discretization Method of Order Four for the Numerical Solution of One-Space Dimensional Second-Order Quasi-Linear Hyperbolic Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohanty, R. K.; Arora, Urvashi

    2002-01-01

    Three level-implicit finite difference methods of order four are discussed for the numerical solution of the mildly quasi-linear second-order hyperbolic equation A(x, t, u)u[subscript xx] + 2B(x, t, u)u[subscript xt] + C(x, t, u)u[subscript tt] = f(x, t, u, u[subscript x], u[subscript t]), 0 less than x less than 1, t greater than 0 subject to…

  10. Hyperbolic polaritons in nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhiyuan; Rubio, Angel; Guinea, Francisco; Basov, Dimitri; Fogler, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Hyperbolic optical materials (HM) are characterized by permittivity tensor that has both positive and negative principal values. Collective electromagnetic modes (polaritons) of HM have novel properties promising for various applications including subdiffractional imaging and on-chip optical communication. Hyperbolic response is actively investigated in the context of metamaterials, anisotropic polar insulators, and layered superconductors. We study polaritons in spheroidal HM nanoparticles using Hamiltonian optics. The field equations are mapped to classical dynamics of fictitious particles (wave packets) of an indefinite Hamiltonian. This dynamics is quantized using the Einstein-Brillouin-Keller quantization rule. The eigenmodes are classified as either bulk or surface according to whether their transverse momenta are real or imaginary. To model how such hyperbolic polaritons can be probed by near-field experiments, we compute the field distribution induced inside and outside the spheroid by an external point dipole. At certain magic frequencies the field shows striking geometric patterns whose origin is traced to the classical periodic orbits. The theory is applied to natural hyperbolic materials hexagonal boron nitride and superconducting LaSrCuO.

  11. Hyperbolic octonion formulation of the fluid Maxwell equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, Süleyman; Tanişli, Murat

    2016-03-01

    The equations of compressible ideal fluids analogous to those of electromagnetism are reformulated in terms of hyperbolic octonions. Furthermore, the wave equations with source terms are generalized in a compact and elegant form. The analogy between fluid mechanics and electromagnetism is also argued by considering the previous octonionic formulations in relevant literature.

  12. A compact time-resolved system for near infrared spectroscopy based on wavelength space multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Re, Rebecca; Contini, Davide; Caffini, Matteo; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Torricelli, Alessandro

    2010-11-01

    We designed and developed a compact dual-wavelength and dual-channel time-resolved system for near-infrared spectroscopy studies of muscle and brain. The system employs pulsed diode lasers as sources, compact photomultipliers, and time-correlated single photon counting boards for detection. To exploit the full temporal and dynamic range of the acquisition technique, we implemented an approach based on wavelength space multiplexing: laser pulses at the two wavelengths are alternatively injected into the two channels by means of an optical 2×2 switch. In each detection line (i.e., in each temporal window), the distribution of photon time-of-flights at one wavelength is acquired. The proposed approach increases the signal-to-noise ratio and avoids wavelength cross-talk with respect to the typical approach based on time multiplexing. The instrument was characterized on tissue phantoms to assess its properties in terms of linearity, stability, noise, and reproducibility. Finally, it was successfully tested in preliminary in vivo measurements on muscle during standard cuff occlusion and on the brain during a motor cortex response due to hand movements.

  13. Hubble space telescope observations and geometric models of compact multipolar planetary nebulae

    SciTech Connect

    Hsia, Chih-Hao; Chau, Wayne; Zhang, Yong; Kwok, Sun E-mail: wwlljj1314@gmail.com E-mail: sunkwok@hku.hk

    2014-05-20

    We report high angular resolution Hubble Space Telescope observations of 10 compact planetary nebulae (PNs). Many interesting internal structures, including multipolar lobes, arcs, two-dimensional rings, tori, and halos, are revealed for the first time. These results suggest that multipolar structures are common among PNs, and these structures develop early in their evolution. From three-dimensional geometric models, we have determined the intrinsic dimensions of the lobes. Assuming the lobes are the result of interactions between later-developed fast winds and previously ejected asymptotic giant branch winds, the geometric structures of these PNs suggest that there are multiple phases of fast winds separated by temporal variations and/or directional changes. A scenario of evolution from lobe-dominated to cavity-dominated stages is presented. The results reported here will provide serious constraints on any dynamical models of PNs.

  14. Multiscale quantum propagation using compact-support wavelets in space and time

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Haixiang; Acevedo, Ramiro; Molle, Heather; Mackey, Jeffrey L.; Kinsey, James L.; Johnson, Bruce R.

    2004-10-22

    Orthogonal compact-support Daubechies wavelets are employed as bases for both space and time variables in the solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. Initial value conditions are enforced using special early-time wavelets analogous to edge wavelets used in boundary-value problems. It is shown that the quantum equations may be solved directly and accurately in the discrete wavelet representation, an important finding for the eventual goal of highly adaptive multiresolution Schroedinger equation solvers. While the temporal part of the basis is not sharp in either time or frequency, the Chebyshev method used for pure time-domain propagations is adapted to use in the mixed domain and is able to take advantage of Hamiltonian matrix sparseness. The orthogonal separation into different time scales is determined theoretically to persist throughout the evolution and is demonstrated numerically in a partially adaptive treatment of scattering from an asymmetric Eckart barrier.

  15. Covariant hyperbolization of force-free electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, F. L.; Reula, O. A.

    2016-04-01

    Force-free electrodynamics (FFE) is a nonlinear system of equations modeling the evolution of the electromagnetic field, in the presence of a magnetically dominated relativistic plasma. This configuration arises on several astrophysical scenarios which represent exciting laboratories to understand physics in extreme regimes. We show that this system, when restricted to the correct constraint submanifold, is symmetric hyperbolic. In numerical applications, it is not feasible to keep the system in that submanifold, and so it is necessary to analyze its structure first in the tangent space of that submanifold and then in a whole neighborhood of it. As has been shown [1], a direct (or naive) formulation of this system (in the whole tangent space) results in a weakly hyperbolic system of evolution equations for which well-posedness for the initial value formulation does not follow. Using the generalized symmetric hyperbolic formalism of Geroch [2], we introduce here a covariant hyperbolization for the FFE system. In fact, in analogy to the usual Maxwell case, a complete family of hyperbolizers is found, both for the restricted system on the constraint submanifold as well as for a suitably extended system defined in a whole neighborhood of it. A particular symmetrizer among the family is then used to write down the pertaining evolution equations, in a generic (3 +1 ) decomposition on a background spacetime. Interestingly, it turns out that for a particular choice of the lapse and shift functions of the foliation, our symmetrized system reduces to the one found in [1]. Finally, we analyze the characteristic structure of the resulting evolution system.

  16. Compact Tissue-equivalent Proportional Counter for Deep Space Human Missions.

    PubMed

    Straume, T; Braby, L A; Borak, T B; Lusby, T; Warner, D W; Perez-Nunez, D

    2015-10-01

    Effects on human health from the complex radiation environment in deep space have not been measured and can only be simulated here on Earth using experimental systems and beams of radiations produced by accelerators, usually one beam at a time. This makes it particularly important to develop instruments that can be used on deep-space missions to measure quantities that are known to be relatable to the biological effectiveness of space radiation. Tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs) are such instruments. Unfortunately, present TEPCs are too large and power intensive to be used beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Here, the authors describe a prototype of a compact TEPC designed for deep space applications with the capability to detect both ambient galactic cosmic rays and intense solar particle event radiation. The device employs an approach that permits real-time determination of yD (and thus quality factor) using a single detector. This was accomplished by assigning sequential sampling intervals as detectors “1” and “2” and requiring the intervals to be brief compared to the change in dose rate. Tests with g rays show that the prototype instrument maintains linear response over the wide dose-rate range expected in space with an accuracy of better than 5% for dose rates above 3 mGy h(-1). Measurements of yD for 200 MeV n(-1) carbon ions were better than 10%. Limited tests with fission spectrum neutrons show absorbed dose-rate accuracy better than 15%. PMID:26313585

  17. Violation of hyperbolicity in a diffusive medium with local hyperbolic attractor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuptsov, Pavel V.; Kuznetsov, Sergey P.

    2009-07-01

    Departing from a system of two nonautonomous amplitude equations, demonstrating hyperbolic chaotic dynamics, we construct a one-dimensional medium as an ensemble of such local elements introducing spatial coupling via diffusion. When length of the medium is small, all spatial cells oscillate synchronously, reproducing the local hyperbolic dynamics. This regime is characterized by a single positive Lyapunov exponent. The hyperbolicity survives when the system gets larger in length so that the second Lyapunov exponent passes zero and the oscillations become inhomogeneous in space. However, at a point where the third Lyapunov exponent becomes positive, some bifurcation occur that results in violation of the hyperbolicity due to the emergence of one-dimensional intersections of contracting and expanding tangent subspaces along trajectories on the attractor. Further growth of the length results in the two-dimensional intersections of expanding and contracting subspaces that we classify as a stronger type of the violation. Beyond the point of the hyperbolicity loss, the system demonstrates an extensive spatiotemporal chaos typical for extended chaotic systems: when the length of the system increases the Kaplan-Yorke dimension, the number of positive Lyapunov exponents and the upper estimate for Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy grow linearly, while the Lyapunov spectrum tends to a limiting curve.

  18. Hyperbole, abstract motion and spatial knowledge: sequential versus simultaneous scanning.

    PubMed

    Catricalà, Maria; Guidi, Annarita

    2012-08-01

    Hyperbole is an interesting trope in the perspective of Space Grammar, since it is related to the displacing of a limit (Lausberg in Elemente der literarischen Rhetorik. M.H. Verlag, Munchen 1967; see the Ancient Greek meaning 'to throw over' > 'exaggerate'). Hyperbole semantic mechanisms are related to virtual scanning (Holmqvist and Płuciennik in Imagery in language. Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main, pp 777-785, 2004). Basic concepts of SIZE and QUANTITY, related image-schemas (IS) and conceptual metaphors (UP IS MORE; IMPORTANT IS BIG: Lakoff 1987, Johnson 1987) are implied in hyperbole processing. The virtual scanning is the simulation of a perceptual domain (here, the vertically oriented space). The virtual limit is defined by expected values on the relevant scale. Since hyperbole is a form of intensification, its linguistic interest lies in cases involving the extremes of a scale, for which a limit can be determined (Schemann 1994). In this experimental study, we analyze the concept of 'limit' in terms of 'abstract motion' and 'oriented space' domains (Langacker 1990) with respect to hyperboles expressed by Italian Verbs of movement. The IS considered are PATH and SOURCE-PATH-GOAL. The latter corresponds to a virtual scale whose limit is arrived at, or overcome, in hyperboles. PMID:22820865

  19. SUSEE: A Compact, Lightweight Space Nuclear Power System Using Present Water Reactor Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Maise, George; Powell, James; Paniagua, John

    2006-01-20

    The SUSEE space reactor system uses existing nuclear fuels and the standard steam cycle to generate electrical and thermal power for a wide range of in-space and surface applications, including manned bases, sub-surface mobile probes to explore thick ice deposits on Mars and the Jovian moons, and mobile rovers. SUSEE cycle efficiency, thermal to electric, ranges from {approx}20 to 24%, depending on operating parameters. Rejection of waste heat is by a lightweight condensing radiator that can be launched as a compact rolled-up package and deployed into flat panels when appropriate. The 50 centimeter diameter SUSEE reactor can provide power over the range of 10 kW(e) to 1 MW(e) for a period of 10 years. Higher power outputs are possible using slightly larger reactors. System specific weight (reactor, turbine, generator, piping, and radiator) is {approx}3 kg/kW(e). Two SUSEE reactor options are described, based on the existing Zr/O2 cermet and the UH3/ZrH2 TRIGA nuclear fuels.

  20. Continued Development of Compact Multi-gas Monitor for Life Support Systems Control in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado-Alonso, Jesús; Phillips, Straun; Chullen, Cinda; Quinn, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Miniature optic gas sensors (MOGS) based on luminescent materials have shown great potential as alternatives to Near-Infrared-based gas sensor systems for the advanced space suit portable life support system (PLSS). The unique capability of MOGS for carbon dioxide and oxygen monitoring under wet conditions has been reported, as has the fast recovery of MOGS humidity sensors after long periods of being wet. Lower volume and power requirements are also potential advantages of MOGS over both traditional and advanced Non-Dispersive Infrared (NDIR) gas sensors, which have shown so far longer life than luminescent sensors. This paper presents the most recent results in the development and analytical validation of a compact multi-gas sensor unit based on luminescent sensors for the PLSS. Results of extensive testing are presented, including studies conducted at Intelligent Optical Systems laboratories, a United Technology Corporation Aerospace Systems (UTAS) laboratory, and a Johnson Space Center laboratory. The potential of this sensor technology for gas monitoring in PLSSs and other life support systems and the advantages and limitations found through detailed sensor validation are discussed.

  1. SUSEE: A Compact, Lightweight Space Nuclear Power System Using Present Water Reactor Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maise, George; Powell, James; Paniagua, John

    2006-01-01

    The SUSEE space reactor system uses existing nuclear fuels and the standard steam cycle to generate electrical and thermal power for a wide range of in-space and surface applications, including manned bases, sub-surface mobile probes to explore thick ice deposits on Mars and the Jovian moons, and mobile rovers. SUSEE cycle efficiency, thermal to electric, ranges from ~20 to 24%, depending on operating parameters. Rejection of waste heat is by a lightweight condensing radiator that can be launched as a compact rolled-up package and deployed into flat panels when appropriate. The 50 centimeter diameter SUSEE reactor can provide power over the range of 10 kW(e) to 1 MW(e) for a period of 10 years. Higher power outputs are possible using slightly larger reactors. System specific weight (reactor, turbine, generator, piping, and radiator is ~3 kg/kW(e). Two SUSEE reactor options are described, based on the existing Zr/O2 cermet and the UH3/ZrH2 TRIGA nuclear fuels.

  2. Optimal space of linear classical observables for Maxwell k-forms via spacelike and timelike compact de Rham cohomologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benini, Marco

    2016-05-01

    Being motivated by open questions in gauge field theories, we consider non-standard de Rham cohomology groups for timelike compact and spacelike compact support systems. These cohomology groups are shown to be isomorphic respectively to the usual de Rham cohomology of a spacelike Cauchy surface and its counterpart with compact support. Furthermore, an analog of the usual Poincaré duality for de Rham cohomology is shown to hold for the case with non-standard supports as well. We apply these results to find optimal spaces of linear observables for analogs of arbitrary degree k of both the vector potential and the Faraday tensor. The term optimal has to be intended in the following sense: The spaces of linear observables we consider distinguish between different configurations; in addition to that, there are no redundant observables. This last point in particular heavily relies on the analog of Poincaré duality for the new cohomology groups.

  3. Hyperbolic resonances of metasurface cavities.

    PubMed

    Keene, D; Durach, M

    2015-07-13

    We propose a new class of optical resonator structures featuring one or two metasurface reflectors or metacavities and predict that such resonators support novel hyperbolic resonances. As an example of such resonances we introduce hyperbolic Tamm plasmons (HTPs) and hyperbolic Fabry-Perot resonances (HFPs). The hyperbolic optical modes feature low-loss incident power re-distribution over TM and TE polarization output channels, clover-leaf anisotropic dispersion, and other unique properties which are tunable and are useful for multiple applications. PMID:26191916

  4. Single-Mode, High Repetition Rate, Compact Ho:YLF Laser for Space-Borne Lidar Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bai, Yingxin; Yu, Jirong; Wong, Teh-Hwa; Chen, Songsheng; Petros, Mulugeta; Singh, Upendra N.

    2014-01-01

    A single transverse/longitudinal mode, compact Q-switched Ho:YLF laser has been designed and demonstrated for space-borne lidar applications. The pulse energy is between 34-40 mJ for 100-200 Hz operation. The corresponding peak power is >1 MW.

  5. Study and Developement of Compact Permanent Magnet Hall Thrusters for Future Brazillian Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Martins, Alexandre; Cerda, Rodrigo

    2016-07-01

    The Plasma Physics Laboratory of UnB has been developing a Permanent Magnet Hall Thruster (PHALL) for the UNIESPAÇO program, part of the Space Activities Program conducted by AEB- The Brazillian Space Agency since 2004. Electric propulsion is now a very successful method for primary and secondary propulsion systems. It is essential for several existing geostationary satellite station keeping systems and for deep space long duration solar system missions, where the thrusting system can be designed to be used on orbit transfer maneuvering and/or for satellite attitude control in long term space missions. Applications of compact versions of Permanent Magnet Hall Thrusters on future brazillian space missions are needed and foreseen for the coming years beginning with the use of small divergent cusp field (DCFH) Hall Thrusters type on CUBESATS ( 5-10 kg , 1W-5 W power consumption) and on Micro satellites ( 50- 100 kg, 10W-100W). Brazillian (AEB) and German (DLR) space agencies and research institutions are developing a new rocket dedicated to small satellite launching. The VLM- Microsatellite Launch Vehicle. The development of PHALL compact versions can also be important for the recently proposed SBG system, a future brazillian geostationary satellite system that is already been developed by an international consortium of brazillian and foreign space industries. The exploration of small bodies in the Solar System with spacecraft has been done by several countries with increasing frequency in these past twenty five years. Since their historical beginning on the sixties, most of the Solar System missions were based on gravity assisted trajectories very much depended on planet orbit positioning relative to the Sun and the Earth. The consequence was always the narrowing of the mission launch window. Today, the need for Solar System icy bodies in situ exploration requires less dependence on gravity assisted maneuvering and new high precision low thrust navigation methods

  6. Hyperbolicity measures democracy in real-world networks.

    PubMed

    Borassi, Michele; Chessa, Alessandro; Caldarelli, Guido

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we analyze the hyperbolicity of real-world networks, a geometric quantity that measures if a space is negatively curved. We provide two improvements in our understanding of this quantity: first of all, in our interpretation, a hyperbolic network is "aristocratic", since few elements "connect" the system, while a non-hyperbolic network has a more "democratic" structure with a larger number of crucial elements. The second contribution is the introduction of the average hyperbolicity of the neighbors of a given node. Through this definition, we outline an "influence area" for the vertices in the graph. We show that in real networks the influence area of the highest degree vertex is small in what we define "local" networks (i.e., social or peer-to-peer networks), and large in "global" networks (i.e., power grid, metabolic networks, or autonomous system networks). PMID:26465533

  7. Hyperbolicity measures democracy in real-world networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borassi, Michele; Chessa, Alessandro; Caldarelli, Guido

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we analyze the hyperbolicity of real-world networks, a geometric quantity that measures if a space is negatively curved. We provide two improvements in our understanding of this quantity: first of all, in our interpretation, a hyperbolic network is "aristocratic", since few elements "connect" the system, while a non-hyperbolic network has a more "democratic" structure with a larger number of crucial elements. The second contribution is the introduction of the average hyperbolicity of the neighbors of a given node. Through this definition, we outline an "influence area" for the vertices in the graph. We show that in real networks the influence area of the highest degree vertex is small in what we define "local" networks (i.e., social or peer-to-peer networks), and large in "global" networks (i.e., power grid, metabolic networks, or autonomous system networks).

  8. The Hype over Hyperbolic Browsers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Maryellen Mott

    2002-01-01

    Considers complaints about the usability in the human-computer interaction aspect of information retrieval and discusses information visualization, the Online Library of Information Visualization Environments, hyperbolic information structure, subject searching, real-world applications, relational databases and hyperbolic trees, and the future of…

  9. A Compact and Robust Method for Spectropolarimetry: Application to Space Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, W. B.

    2012-12-01

    A compact and robust method for spectropolarimetry is described which lends itself, in principle, to application in the field and in space. With space-based polarimetry, profoundly important astronomical topics may be addressed, including the search for extrasolar planets, their characterization and the presence of life. Within the Solar System, exploration and characterization opportunities are greatly enhanced. Polarization observations provide fundamental and unique insights into planetary characteristics, and may be invaluable in establishing the presence and nature of extrasolar planets. Within the Solar System, time resolved spectropolarimetry may probe aerosol, surface, plasma and atmospheric scattering processes, and cometary and zodiacal dust and dusty ring systems. Beyond the Solar System, in the search for extrasolar planets seen by reflected light, polarization can play a critical role in the recognition of planets, the characterization of their environment, and of the planets themselves. We may identify Rayleigh scattering atmospheres, liquid oceans, clouds, rocks and ices from their polarimetric signatures. A powerful new dimension is introduced by the addition of circular polarization. Through the homochirality of biological molecules, circular polarization may offer one of the purest biosignatures available. Homochirality arises as a consequence of self-replication hence is likely to be generic to all forms of biological life. We have shown that a variety of photosynthetic microbial organisms and macroscopic vegetation, yield distinctive signatures in their circular polarization spectra, hence circular polarization may prove to be an effective way to remotely sense photosynthesis. These topics are best tackled from space; a planetary probe or a space-based telescope. However, there are serious challenges to precision polarimetry in space, some applicable to polarimetry in general, which include: fragile components such as photoelastic modulators or

  10. Possibility of hyperbolic tunneling

    SciTech Connect

    Lobo, Francisco S. N.; Mimoso, Jose P.

    2010-08-15

    Traversable wormholes are primarily useful as 'gedanken experiments' and as a theoretician's probe of the foundations of general relativity. In this work, we analyze the possibility of having tunnels in a hyperbolic spacetime. We obtain exact solutions of static and pseudo-spherically symmetric spacetime tunnels by adding exotic matter to a vacuum solution referred to as a degenerate solution of class A. The physical properties and characteristics of these intriguing solutions are explored, and through the mathematics of embedding it is shown that particular constraints are placed on the shape function, that differ significantly from the Morris-Thorne wormhole. In particular, it is shown that the energy density is always negative, and the radial pressure is positive, at the throat, contrary to the Morris-Thorne counterpart. Specific solutions are also presented by considering several equations of state, and by imposing restricted choices for the shape function or the redshift function.

  11. Hyperbolic mapping of complex networks based on community information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zuxi; Li, Qingguang; Jin, Fengdong; Xiong, Wei; Wu, Yao

    2016-08-01

    To improve the hyperbolic mapping methods both in terms of accuracy and running time, a novel mapping method called Community and Hyperbolic Mapping (CHM) is proposed based on community information in this paper. Firstly, an index called Community Intimacy (CI) is presented to measure the adjacency relationship between the communities, based on which a community ordering algorithm is introduced. According to the proposed Community-Sector hypothesis, which supposes that most nodes of one community gather in a same sector in hyperbolic space, CHM maps the ordered communities into hyperbolic space, and then the angular coordinates of nodes are randomly initialized within the sector that they belong to. Therefore, all the network nodes are so far mapped to hyperbolic space, and then the initialized angular coordinates can be optimized by employing the information of all nodes, which can greatly improve the algorithm precision. By applying the proposed dual-layer angle sampling method in the optimization procedure, CHM reduces the time complexity to O(n2) . The experiments show that our algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.

  12. Criteria of cyclic compactness of the sets from Lp - spaces, associated with vector measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilin, V.; Rakhimov, B.; Rakhimov, A.

    2013-09-01

    We study the conditional expectations in the Lp-modules associated with a partition of unity of a Boolean algebra. Cyclic compactness criteria of the subsets of Lp found in terms of convergent nets of conditional expectations.

  13. Blackbody Theory for Hyperbolic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biehs, Svend-Age; Lang, Slawa; Petrov, Alexander Yu.; Eich, Manfred; Ben-Abdallah, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    The blackbody theory is revisited in the case of thermal electromagnetic fields inside uniaxial anisotropic media in thermal equilibrium with a heat bath. When these media are hyperbolic, we show that the spectral energy density of these fields radically differs from that predicted by Planck's blackbody theory and that the maximum of the spectral energy density determined by Wien's law is redshifted. Finally, we derive the Stefan-Boltzmann law for hyperbolic media which becomes a quadratic function of the heat bath temperature.

  14. Compact free-space optical terminal for multi-gigabit signal transmissions with a single-mode fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arimoto, Yoshinori

    2009-02-01

    This paper shows the design and the performance of a new free-space optical communication terminal including the results of the indoor and outdoor demonstration experiments in a short link distance. To provide flexible and high-speed connectivity to the terrestrial free-space optical communications, a new compact laser communication terminal has been developed at NICT. The terminal has a feature to connect the free-space laser beam directly to single mode fiber by using a special fiber coupler to focus the free-space laser beam and couple it into the single mode fiber, fast and accurate fine tracking system and a small refractive-type telescope with diffraction limited performance. The bandwidth of the fine tracking system is more than 5 kHz using an off-the-shelf miniature Galvano mirror actuator and an analog PID controller.

  15. Broadband absorption engineering of hyperbolic metafilm patterns

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Dengxin; Song, Haomin; Zeng, Xie; Hu, Haifeng; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Nan; Gan, Qiaoqiang

    2014-01-01

    Perfect absorbers are important optical/thermal components required by a variety of applications, including photon/thermal-harvesting, thermal energy recycling, and vacuum heat liberation. While there is great interest in achieving highly absorptive materials exhibiting large broadband absorption using optically thick, micro-structured materials, it is still challenging to realize ultra-compact subwavelength absorber for on-chip optical/thermal energy applications. Here we report the experimental realization of an on-chip broadband super absorber structure based on hyperbolic metamaterial waveguide taper array with strong and tunable absorption profile from near-infrared to mid-infrared spectral region. The ability to efficiently produce broadband, highly confined and localized optical fields on a chip is expected to create new regimes of optical/thermal physics, which holds promise for impacting a broad range of energy technologies ranging from photovoltaics, to thin-film thermal absorbers/emitters, to optical-chemical energy harvesting. PMID:24675706

  16. Broadband absorption engineering of hyperbolic metafilm patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Dengxin; Song, Haomin; Zeng, Xie; Hu, Haifeng; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Nan; Gan, Qiaoqiang

    2014-03-01

    Perfect absorbers are important optical/thermal components required by a variety of applications, including photon/thermal-harvesting, thermal energy recycling, and vacuum heat liberation. While there is great interest in achieving highly absorptive materials exhibiting large broadband absorption using optically thick, micro-structured materials, it is still challenging to realize ultra-compact subwavelength absorber for on-chip optical/thermal energy applications. Here we report the experimental realization of an on-chip broadband super absorber structure based on hyperbolic metamaterial waveguide taper array with strong and tunable absorption profile from near-infrared to mid-infrared spectral region. The ability to efficiently produce broadband, highly confined and localized optical fields on a chip is expected to create new regimes of optical/thermal physics, which holds promise for impacting a broad range of energy technologies ranging from photovoltaics, to thin-film thermal absorbers/emitters, to optical-chemical energy harvesting.

  17. Broadband absorption engineering of hyperbolic metafilm patterns.

    PubMed

    Ji, Dengxin; Song, Haomin; Zeng, Xie; Hu, Haifeng; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Nan; Gan, Qiaoqiang

    2014-01-01

    Perfect absorbers are important optical/thermal components required by a variety of applications, including photon/thermal-harvesting, thermal energy recycling, and vacuum heat liberation. While there is great interest in achieving highly absorptive materials exhibiting large broadband absorption using optically thick, micro-structured materials, it is still challenging to realize ultra-compact subwavelength absorber for on-chip optical/thermal energy applications. Here we report the experimental realization of an on-chip broadband super absorber structure based on hyperbolic metamaterial waveguide taper array with strong and tunable absorption profile from near-infrared to mid-infrared spectral region. The ability to efficiently produce broadband, highly confined and localized optical fields on a chip is expected to create new regimes of optical/thermal physics, which holds promise for impacting a broad range of energy technologies ranging from photovoltaics, to thin-film thermal absorbers/emitters, to optical-chemical energy harvesting. PMID:24675706

  18. Computational methods for estimation of parameters in hyperbolic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, H. T.; Ito, K.; Murphy, K. A.

    1983-01-01

    Approximation techniques for estimating spatially varying coefficients and unknown boundary parameters in second order hyperbolic systems are discussed. Methods for state approximation (cubic splines, tau-Legendre) and approximation of function space parameters (interpolatory splines) are outlined and numerical findings for use of the resulting schemes in model "one dimensional seismic inversion' problems are summarized.

  19. Hawking into Unruh mapping for embeddings of hyperbolic type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paston, S. A.

    2015-07-01

    We study the conditions of the existence of Hawking into Unruh mapping for hyperbolic (Fronsdal-type) metric embeddings into the Minkowski space, for which timelines are hyperbolas. Many examples are known for global embeddings into the Minkowskian spacetime (GEMS), with such mapping for physically interesting metrics with some symmetry. However, examples of embeddings, both smooth and hyperbolic, for which there is no mapping, were also given. In the present work we prove that Hawking into Unruh mapping takes place for a hyperbolic embedding of an arbitrary metric with a time-like Killing vector and a Killing horizon if the embedding of such type exists and smoothly covers the horizon. At the same time, we do not assume any symmetry (spherical, for example), except the time translational invariance, which corresponds to the existence of a time-like Killing vector. We show that the known examples of the absence of mapping do not satisfy the formulated conditions of its existence.

  20. Characteristics of trapped magnetic fields in HTS bulk annuli with various axial spaces for compact NMR magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. B.; Imai, M.; Takano, R.; Kashima, K.; Hahn, S.

    2010-11-01

    Recently, the performance of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks such as a critical current density, size, and mechanical strength has been improved. In consequence, various applications with HTS bulks such as motors, bearings, and flywheels are being investigated by many research groups; Compact nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) magnet is one of the new applications after a technique to enhance maximum trapped field of an HTS bulk more than 11.7 T, 500 MHz 1H NMR frequency, has been developed. This new compact NMR magnet out of HTS bulks is far less expensive than those conventional NMR magnets and expected to be widely used in food and drug industry. In design and manufacture of those compact NMR magnets, the issues of spatial homogeneity and temporal stability of trapped magnetic fields in HTS bulk annuli are very important. In this paper, the characteristics of the trapped magnetic fields in a stack of assembled HTS bulk annuli were investigated with various axial spaces between HTS bulks, experimentally and analytically.

  1. Optics near a hyperbolic defect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fumeron, Sébastien; Berche, Bertrand; Santos, Fernando; Pereira, Erms; Moraes, Fernando

    2015-12-01

    We examine the properties of a family of defects called hyperbolic disclinations, and discuss their possible use for the design of perfect optical absorbers. In hyperbolic metamaterials, the ratio of ordinary and extraordinary permittivities is negative, which leads to an effective metric of Kleinian signature (two timelike coordinates). Considering a disclination in the hyperbolic nematic host matrix, we show that the timelike geodesics are Poinsot spirals, i.e., whatever the impact parameter of an incident light beam, it is confined and whirls about the defect core. The trapping effect does not require light to be coherent. This property also remains in the wave formalism, which may be the sign for many potential applications.

  2. Blackbody Theory for Hyperbolic Materials.

    PubMed

    Biehs, Svend-Age; Lang, Slawa; Petrov, Alexander Yu; Eich, Manfred; Ben-Abdallah, Philippe

    2015-10-23

    The blackbody theory is revisited in the case of thermal electromagnetic fields inside uniaxial anisotropic media in thermal equilibrium with a heat bath. When these media are hyperbolic, we show that the spectral energy density of these fields radically differs from that predicted by Planck's blackbody theory and that the maximum of the spectral energy density determined by Wien's law is redshifted. Finally, we derive the Stefan-Boltzmann law for hyperbolic media which becomes a quadratic function of the heat bath temperature. PMID:26551116

  3. Sharp estimates of the Kobayashi metric and Gromov hyperbolicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Florian

    2008-09-01

    Let D={[rho]<0} be a smooth relatively compact domain in a four-dimensional almost complex manifold (M,J), where [rho] is a J-plurisubharmonic function on a neighborhood of and strictly J-plurisubharmonic on a neighborhood of [not partial differential]D. We give sharp estimates of the Kobayashi metric. Our approach is based on an asymptotic quantitative description of both the domain D and the almost complex structure J near a boundary point. Following Z.M. Balogh and M. Bonk [Z.M. Balogh, M. Bonk, Gromov hyperbolicity and the Kobayashi metric on strictly pseudoconvex domains, Comment. Math. Helv. 75 (2000) 504-533], these sharp estimates provide the Gromov hyperbolicity of the domain D.

  4. Double-pass Cassegrain revisited: a compact optic for space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, David A.

    2000-10-01

    If intended to operate outside the Earth's atmosphere, the imaging optics demanded of a designer become critical. A typical specification would be diffraction-limited imaging over a usefully wide field angle with a broad spectral bandpass, high transmittance, no distortion and no vignetting. When combined with demands for a light and compact structure, such a specification calls for some trade-offs if a real system is to be devised. This paper describes an exceptionally compact imaging system in which the only significant trade-off is the 21% transmittance loss caused by the central obstruction of a Cassegrain-like optic. The entire 1° field angle is diffraction limited for all pupil diameters up to 1m (which would give 0.2 arcsec resolution), while providing a flat, distortionless, unvignetted, f/2.4 image, bandpass-limited only by the reflective coatings of the totally catoptric design. For fields less than 1 degree(s), scaling is possible to very large pupil diameters while maintaining full-field diffraction-limited imaging. By employing a single-axis, double-pass, four-reflection format, compactness is such that the overall length is less than the pupil diameter. The primary and tertiary mirror surfaces are formed from a single substrate. The primary, secondary and tertiary mirrors are hyperboloids of increasing eccentricity, and the quaternary is a weak aspheric zonal corrector. The geometry is such that stray light exclusion is simply achieved without occluding the optical path. The rearward propagating final beam provides significant useful free surrounding volume for cryostat structures, filters and shutters. A further example is given of a scalable f/1.25 version of the system.

  5. Deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging of a compact radio galaxy at z = 2.390

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windhorst, Rogier; Mathis, Douglas F.; Keel, William C.

    1992-01-01

    The radio galaxy with the highest redshift in the Leiden-Berkeley Deep Survey, 53W002, is described and examined in terms of UV profile in relation to an early-type galaxy. The HST WFC images have a resolution of 0.2 arcsec FWHM, and the I- and V-band structures are assessed. The source is elongated in a manner similar to the Ly alpha cloud in V, and the structure is highly compact in I. The present object with a young starburst has very high central UV surface brightnesses relative to nearby luminous early-type galaxies, while the light profiles are similar. The data are concluded to suggest that 53W002 is a young galaxy that has a regular light profile at z = 2.390 even though it has been forming stars since not more than about 0.5 Gyr before z = 2.390. Such a scenario is consistent with concurrent dynamical collapse and star formation in the compact radio galaxy.

  6. Euclidean, Spherical, and Hyperbolic Shadows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoban, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Many classical problems in elementary calculus use Euclidean geometry. This article takes such a problem and solves it in hyperbolic and in spherical geometry instead. The solution requires only the ability to compute distances and intersections of points in these geometries. The dramatically different results we obtain illustrate the effect…

  7. Visible-frequency hyperbolic metasurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    High, Alexander A.; Devlin, Robert C.; Dibos, Alan; Polking, Mark; Wild, Dominik S.; Perczel, Janos; de Leon, Nathalie P.; Lukin, Mikhail D.; Park, Hongkun

    2015-06-01

    Metamaterials are artificial optical media composed of sub-wavelength metallic and dielectric building blocks that feature optical phenomena not present in naturally occurring materials. Although they can serve as the basis for unique optical devices that mould the flow of light in unconventional ways, three-dimensional metamaterials suffer from extreme propagation losses. Two-dimensional metamaterials (metasurfaces) such as hyperbolic metasurfaces for propagating surface plasmon polaritons have the potential to alleviate this problem. Because the surface plasmon polaritons are guided at a metal-dielectric interface (rather than passing through metallic components), these hyperbolic metasurfaces have been predicted to suffer much lower propagation loss while still exhibiting optical phenomena akin to those in three-dimensional metamaterials. Moreover, because of their planar nature, these devices enable the construction of integrated metamaterial circuits as well as easy coupling with other optoelectronic elements. Here we report the experimental realization of a visible-frequency hyperbolic metasurface using single-crystal silver nanostructures defined by lithographic and etching techniques. The resulting devices display the characteristic properties of metamaterials, such as negative refraction and diffraction-free propagation, with device performance greatly exceeding those of previous demonstrations. Moreover, hyperbolic metasurfaces exhibit strong, dispersion-dependent spin-orbit coupling, enabling polarization- and wavelength-dependent routeing of surface plasmon polaritons and two-dimensional chiral optical components. These results open the door to realizing integrated optical meta-circuits, with wide-ranging applications in areas from imaging and sensing to quantum optics and quantum information science.

  8. Vascular Spaces in Compact Bone: A Technique to Correct a Common Misinterpretation of Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, M.; Dean, Rob L.

    2003-01-01

    Old bones are often discolored by the grime that infiltrates spaces in the matrix once occupied by blood vessels. This suggested that allowing dry bone to absorb colorants might be a useful way to show the three dimensional complexity of bone vascularization. The authors have developed a simple way to show blood vessels spaces in bone at a glance…

  9. Reducing compaction effort and incorporating air permeability in Proctor testing for design of urban green spaces on cohesive soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is well established that compaction negatively affects agronomic productivity, that air permeability is a sensitive measure of the degree of soil compaction and therefore a good indicator of soil productivity impairment from compaction. Cohesive soils in urban settings are often heavily compacted...

  10. Effect of blade spacing of polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bits on stability of drillstrings

    SciTech Connect

    Elsayed, M.A.; Dupuy, C.A.

    1997-07-01

    The geometry of PDC bits, particularly their blade spacing, plays a major role in stability of the drillstrings to which they are attached. In this paper, the authors use a bit model in which the cutters are arrayed in radial blades and examine the effect of blade spacing on stability. They show that for a given bit size, blade spacing may be changed to produce stable cutting in a desired speed range. This data, combined with downhole assembly design, may be used to optimize operating conditions for drillstrings.

  11. A Compact Disk Type Plasma Propulsion System with Modulated Magnetic Field for Nanoscale Space Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Takeshi; Ueda, Satoshi; Ohnishi, Yukihiro; Inomoto, Michiaki

    2008-12-01

    A compact 5 mm disk type plasma thruster simply composed of only a set of antenna windings and bias field coil which produces significant thrust of 0.74 mN with rotating magnetic field has been proposed and successfully developed for future applications to low altitude nanosatellites. The key technology issue is that the rotating speed is set above the ion plasma frequency but far below the electron plasma frequency, in order to produce the electron drag current and axial electric field as a consequence of the interaction with the bias field. The formation of axial electric field was confirmed and the produced plasma density was >6×1018 m-3, whereas the power consumption is 500 W in the inductively coupled mode of operation. The anticipated thrust density and specific thrust could potentially be extended to 7.64 Nm-2 and 850 s, respectively, which is comparable to conventional Hall effect thrusters.

  12. Compact and Rugged Transceiver for Coherent Doppler Wind Lidar Applications in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Koch, Grady J.; Yu, Jirong; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Singh, Upendra N.; Trieu, Bo C.; Modlin, Ed A.; Petros, Mulugeta; Bai, Yingxin; Reithmaier, Karl; Petzar, Paul J.

    2007-01-01

    High-accuracy, vertical profiles of the horizontal vector wind in earth s atmosphere, with the global coverage of an orbiting sensor, are a highly desired measurement of NASA, NOAA, and many other agencies and countries. It is the consensus of NASA and NOAA that the most cost effective, lowest risk measurement method with the earliest achievable mission date is the hybrid Doppler lidar method which utilizes both coherent- and direct-detection Doppler lidars to obtain the desired profiles. NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has advanced the 2-micron pulsed solid-state laser greatly over the past 15 years and has recently demonstrated 1.2 J of pulse energy whereas the requirement for a 400-km hybrid Doppler lidar mission is only 0.25 J. The IIP project reported here is an effort to increase the ruggedness and to compactly package the LaRC state-of-the-art laser technology.

  13. A Compact Disk Type Plasma Propulsion System with Modulated Magnetic Field for Nanoscale Space Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuda, Takeshi; Ueda, Satoshi; Ohnishi, Yukihiro; Inomoto, Michiaki

    2008-12-31

    A compact 5 mm disk type plasma thruster simply composed of only a set of antenna windings and bias field coil which produces significant thrust of 0.74 mN with rotating magnetic field has been proposed and successfully developed for future applications to low altitude nanosatellites. The key technology issue is that the rotating speed is set above the ion plasma frequency but far below the electron plasma frequency, in order to produce the electron drag current and axial electric field as a consequence of the interaction with the bias field. The formation of axial electric field was confirmed and the produced plasma density was >6x10{sup 18} m{sup -3}, whereas the power consumption is 500 W in the inductively coupled mode of operation. The anticipated thrust density and specific thrust could potentially be extended to 7.64 Nm{sup -2} and 850 s, respectively, which is comparable to conventional Hall effect thrusters.

  14. Measurement of Insulation Compaction in the Cryogenic Fuel Tanks at Kennedy Space Center by Fast/Thermal Neutron Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingston, R. A.; Schweitzer, J. S.; Parsons, Ann M.; Arens, Ellen E.

    2010-01-01

    The liquid hydrogen and oxygen cryogenic storage tanks at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) use expanded perlite as thermal insulation. Th ere is evidence that some of the perlite has compacted over time, com promising the thermal performance and possibly also structural integr ity of the tanks. Therefore an Non-destructive Testing (NDT) method for measuring the perlite density or void fraction is urgently needed. Methods based on neutrons are good candidates because they can readil y penetrate through the 1.75 cm outer steel shell and through the ent ire 120 cm thickness of the perlite zone. Neutrons interact with the nuclei of materials to produce characteristic gamma rays which are the n detected. The gamma ray signal strength is proportional to the atom ic number density. Consequently, if the perlite is compacted then the count rates in the individual peaks in the gamma ray spectrum will i ncrease. Perlite is a feldspathic volcanic rock made up of the major elements Si, AI, Na, K and 0 along with some water. With commercially available portable neutron generators it is possible to produce simul taneously fluxes of neutrons in two energy ranges: fast (14 MeV) and thermal (25 meV). Fast neutrons produce gamma rays by inelastic scatt ering which is sensitive to Fe and O. Thermal neutrons produce gamma rays by radiative capture in prompt gamma neutron activation (PGNA) and this is sensitive to Si, AI, Na, Kand H. Thus the two energy ranges produce complementary information. The R&D program has three phases: numerical simulations of neutron and gamma ray transport with MCNP s oftware, evaluation of the system in the laboratory on test articles and finally mapping of the perlite density in the cryogenic tanks at KSC. The preliminary MCNP calculations have shown that the fast/therma l neutron NDT method is capable of distinguishing between expanded an d compacted perlite with excellent statistics.

  15. CONFIRMATION OF THE COMPACTNESS OF A z = 1.91 QUIESCENT GALAXY WITH HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE'S WIDE FIELD CAMERA 3

    SciTech Connect

    Szomoru, Daniel; Franx, Marijn; Bouwens, Rychard J.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Trenti, Michele; Illingworth, Garth D.; Oesch, Pascal A.; Carollo, C. Marcella

    2010-05-10

    We present very deep Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) photometry of a massive, compact galaxy located in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. This quiescent galaxy has a spectroscopic redshift z = 1.91 and has been identified as an extremely compact galaxy by Daddi et al. We use new H {sub F160W} imaging data obtained with Hubble Space Telescope/WFC3 to measure the deconvolved surface brightness profile to H {approx} 28 mag arcsec{sup -2}. We find that the surface brightness profile is well approximated by an n = 3.7 Sersic profile. Our deconvolved profile is constructed by a new technique which corrects the best-fit Sersic profile with the residual of the fit to the observed image. This allows for galaxy profiles which deviate from a Sersic profile. We determine the effective radius of this galaxy: r{sub e} = 0.42 {+-} 0.14 kpc in the observed H {sub F160W} band. We show that this result is robust to deviations from the Sersic model used in the fit. We test the sensitivity of our analysis to faint 'wings' in the profile using simulated galaxy images consisting of a bright compact component and a faint extended component. We find that due to the combination of the WFC3 imaging depth and our method's sensitivity to extended faint emission we can accurately trace the intrinsic surface brightness profile, and that we can therefore confidently rule out the existence of a faint extended envelope around the observed galaxy down to our surface brightness limit. These results confirm that the galaxy lies a factor {approx}10 off from the local mass-size relation.

  16. Development of a Compact Efficient Cooling Pump for Space Suit Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanBoeyen, Roger W.; Reeh, Jonathan A.; Trevino, Luis

    2008-01-01

    With the increasing demands placed on extravehicular activity (EVA) for the International Space Station (ISS) assembly and maintenance, along with planned lunar and Martian missions, the need for increased human productivity and capability becomes ever more critical. This is most readily achieved by reduction in space suit weight and volume, and increased hardware reliability, durability, and operating lifetime. Considerable progress has been made with each successive generation of space suit design; from the Apollo A7L suit, to the current Shuttle Extravehicular Mobile Unit (EMU) suit, and the next generation Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE). However, one area of space suit design which has continued to lag is the fluid pump used to drive the water cooling loop of the Primary Life Support System (PLSS). The two main types of fluid pumps typically used in space applications are rotodynamic pumps (pumping is achieved through a rotary vaned impeller) and displacement pumps (which includes rotary and diaphragm pumps). The rotating and moving parts found in the pumps and electric motor add significantly to the susceptibility to wear and friction, thermal mismatch, and complexity of the pumps. Electric motor-driven pumps capable of achieving high operational reliability are necessarily large, heavy, and energy inefficient. This report describes a development effort conducted for NASA by Lynntech, Inc., who recently demonstrated the feasibility of an electrochemically-driven fluid cooling pump. With no electric motor and minimal lightweight components, an electrochemically-driven pump is expected to be significantly smaller, lighter and achieve a longer life time than conventional rotodynamic and displacement pumps. By employing sulfonated polystyrene-based proton exchange membranes, rather than conventional Nafion membranes, a significant reduction in the actuator power consumption was demonstrated. It was also demonstrated that these membranes possess the

  17. Compact optical transmitters for CubeSat free-space optical communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingsbury, R. W.; Caplan, D. O.; Cahoy, K. L.

    2015-03-01

    We present the results of an architectural trade study and prototype implementation of an optical transmitter suitable for resource-constrained CubeSats. Recent advances in CubeSat attitude determination and control systems have made it possible to achieve three-axis stabilization. This is essential for laser communications systems, which have challenging pointing and stability requirements. Our downlink terminal design fits in a 10 cm x 10 cm x 5 cm volume, uses < 10W of power, weighs < 1 kg, and supports data rates up to 50 Mbps. The terminal incorporates pointing, tracking and acquisition optics, an optical fine-steering mechanism, and a compact transmitter. This work focuses on the development of the transmitter for the Nanosatellite Optical Downlink Experiment (NODE). Two transmitter architectures were considered initially: direct modulation of a high-power laser diode and a master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA). The MOPA-based approach was selected and a prototype "breadboard" was built from commercially available components. The prototype transmitter produces high fidelity (extinction ratio, ER < 33 dB) pulse position modulation (PPM) waveforms at 1550nm with 200mW average output power while consuming 6:5W of electrical power.

  18. On a fourth order accurate implicit finite difference scheme for hyperbolic conservation laws. II - Five-point schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harten, A.; Tal-Ezer, H.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents a family of two-level five-point implicit schemes for the solution of one-dimensional systems of hyperbolic conservation laws, which generalized the Crank-Nicholson scheme to fourth order accuracy (4-4) in both time and space. These 4-4 schemes are nondissipative and unconditionally stable. Special attention is given to the system of linear equations associated with these 4-4 implicit schemes. The regularity of this system is analyzed and efficiency of solution-algorithms is examined. A two-datum representation of these 4-4 implicit schemes brings about a compactification of the stencil to three mesh points at each time-level. This compact two-datum representation is particularly useful in deriving boundary treatments. Numerical results are presented to illustrate some properties of the proposed scheme.

  19. On the superconvergence of Galerkin methods for hyperbolic IBVP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottlieb, David; Gustafsson, Bertil; Olsson, Pelle; Strand, BO

    1993-01-01

    Finite element Galerkin methods for periodic first order hyperbolic equations exhibit superconvergence on uniform grids at the nodes, i.e., there is an error estimate 0(h(sup 2r)) instead of the expected approximation order 0(h(sup r)). It will be shown that no matter how the approximating subspace S(sup h) is chosen, the superconvergence property is lost if there are characteristics leaving the domain. The implications of this result when constructing compact implicit difference schemes is also discussed.

  20. Hyperbolic Metamaterials with Bragg Polaritons.

    PubMed

    Sedov, Evgeny S; Iorsh, I V; Arakelian, S M; Alodjants, A P; Kavokin, Alexey

    2015-06-12

    We propose a novel mechanism for designing quantum hyperbolic metamaterials with the use of semiconductor Bragg mirrors containing periodically arranged quantum wells. The hyperbolic dispersion of exciton-polariton modes is realized near the top of the first allowed photonic miniband in such a structure which leads to the formation of exciton-polariton X waves. Exciton-light coupling provides a resonant nonlinearity which leads to nontrivial topologic solutions. We predict the formation of low amplitude spatially localized oscillatory structures: oscillons described by kink shaped solutions of the effective Ginzburg-Landau-Higgs equation. The oscillons have direct analogies in gravitational theory. We discuss implementation of exciton-polariton Higgs fields for the Schrödinger cat state generation. PMID:26196825

  1. Fluctuational electrodynamics of hyperbolic metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Yu; Jacob, Zubin

    2014-06-21

    We give a detailed account of equilibrium and non-equilibrium fluctuational electrodynamics of hyperbolic metamaterials. We show the unifying aspects of two different approaches; one utilizes the second kind of fluctuation dissipation theorem and the other makes use of the scattering method. We analyze the near-field of hyperbolic media at finite temperatures and show that the lack of spatial coherence can be attributed to the multi-modal nature of super-Planckian thermal emission. We also adopt the analysis to phonon-polaritonic super-lattice metamaterials and describe the regimes suitable for experimental verification of our predicted effects. The results reveal that far-field thermal emission spectra are dominated by epsilon-near-zero and epsilon-near-pole responses as expected from Kirchoff's laws. Our work should aid both theorists and experimentalists to study complex media and engineer equilibrium and non-equilibrium fluctuations for applications in thermal photonics.

  2. Visible-frequency hyperbolic metasurface.

    PubMed

    High, Alexander A; Devlin, Robert C; Dibos, Alan; Polking, Mark; Wild, Dominik S; Perczel, Janos; de Leon, Nathalie P; Lukin, Mikhail D; Park, Hongkun

    2015-06-11

    Metamaterials are artificial optical media composed of sub-wavelength metallic and dielectric building blocks that feature optical phenomena not present in naturally occurring materials. Although they can serve as the basis for unique optical devices that mould the flow of light in unconventional ways, three-dimensional metamaterials suffer from extreme propagation losses. Two-dimensional metamaterials (metasurfaces) such as hyperbolic metasurfaces for propagating surface plasmon polaritons have the potential to alleviate this problem. Because the surface plasmon polaritons are guided at a metal-dielectric interface (rather than passing through metallic components), these hyperbolic metasurfaces have been predicted to suffer much lower propagation loss while still exhibiting optical phenomena akin to those in three-dimensional metamaterials. Moreover, because of their planar nature, these devices enable the construction of integrated metamaterial circuits as well as easy coupling with other optoelectronic elements. Here we report the experimental realization of a visible-frequency hyperbolic metasurface using single-crystal silver nanostructures defined by lithographic and etching techniques. The resulting devices display the characteristic properties of metamaterials, such as negative refraction and diffraction-free propagation, with device performance greatly exceeding those of previous demonstrations. Moreover, hyperbolic metasurfaces exhibit strong, dispersion-dependent spin-orbit coupling, enabling polarization- and wavelength-dependent routeing of surface plasmon polaritons and two-dimensional chiral optical components. These results open the door to realizing integrated optical meta-circuits, with wide-ranging applications in areas from imaging and sensing to quantum optics and quantum information science. PMID:26062510

  3. Geometric proof for normally hyperbolic invariant manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capiński, Maciej J.; Zgliczyński, Piotr

    2015-12-01

    We present a new proof of the existence of normally hyperbolic manifolds and their whiskers for maps. Our result is not perturbative. Based on the bounds on the map and its derivative, we establish the existence of the manifold within a given neighborhood. Our proof follows from a graph transform type method and is performed in the state space of the system. We do not require the map to be invertible. From our method follows also the smoothness of the established manifolds, which depends on the smoothness of the map, as well as rate conditions, which follow from bounds on the derivative of the map. Our method is tailor made for rigorous, interval arithmetic based, computer assisted validation of the needed assumptions.

  4. Coincidence lattices in the hyperbolic plane.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Andrade, M A; Aragón-González, G; Aragón, J L; Gómez-Rodríguez, A

    2011-01-01

    The problem of coincidences of lattices in the space R(p,q), with p + q = 2, is analyzed using Clifford algebra. We show that, as in R(n), any coincidence isometry can be decomposed as a product of at most two reflections by vectors of the lattice. Bases and coincidence indices are constructed explicitly for several interesting lattices. Our procedure is metric-independent and, in particular, the hyperbolic plane is obtained when p = q = 1. Additionally, we provide a proof of the Cartan-Dieudonné theorem for R(p,q), with p + q = 2, that includes an algorithm to decompose an orthogonal transformation into a product of reflections. PMID:21173471

  5. Traffic noise and the hyperbolic plane

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, G.W. Warnick, C.M.

    2010-04-15

    We consider the problem of sound propagation in a wind. We note that the rays, as in the absence of a wind, are given by Fermat's principle and show how to map them to the trajectories of a charged particle moving in a magnetic field on a curved space. For the specific case of sound propagating in a stratified atmosphere with a small wind speed, we show that the corresponding particle moves in a constant magnetic field on the hyperbolic plane. In this way, we give a simple 'straightedge and compass' method to estimate the intensity of sound upwind and downwind. We construct Mach envelopes for moving sources. Finally, we relate the problem to that of finding null geodesics in a squashed anti-de Sitter spacetime and discuss the SO(3,1)xR symmetry of the problem from this point of view.

  6. Mu-Spec - A High Performance Ultra-Compact Photon Counting spectrometer for Space Submillimeter Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moseley, H.; Hsieh, W.-T.; Stevenson, T.; Wollack, E.; Brown, A.; Benford, D.; Sadleir; U-Yen, I.; Ehsan, N.; Zmuidzinas, J.; Bradford, M.

    2011-01-01

    We have designed and are testing elements of a fully integrated submillimeter spectrometer based on superconducting microstrip technology. The instrument can offer resolving power R approximately 1500, and its high frequency cutoff is set by the gap of available high performance superconductors. All functions of the spectrometer are integrated - light is coupled to the microstrip circuit with a planar antenna, the spectra discrimination is achieved using a synthetic grating, orders are separated using planar filter, and detected using photon counting MKID detector. This spectrometer promises to revolutionize submillimeter spectroscopy from space. It replaces instruments with the scale of 1m with a spectrometer on a 10 cm Si wafer. The reduction in mass and volume promises a much higher performance system within available resource in a space mission. We will describe the system and the performance of the components that have been fabricated and tested.

  7. Calibration of the Compact Environmental Anomaly Sensor (CEASE) for the DSX space weather mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dichter, Bronislaw K.; McGarity, John; Mullen, E. G.; Brautigam, Donald; Galica, Gary E.; Golightly, Michael J.

    2009-08-01

    The CEASE instrument was designed to measure energetic electrons and protons in the space environment. It consists of two dosimeter detectors, a particle telescope and a Single Event Effect rate detector. CEASE was designed to be an engineering instrument providing real-time warnings of space weather hazards to the spacecraft operators. The Air Force Research Laboratory has flown CEASE instruments on two long term missions and is using the data as a part of its radiation belt model research. A third CEASE instrument will be flown on the Air Force Research Laboratory DSX mission. The method and results of the calibration of the particle telescope sensor on CEASE will be presented. An extensive program of telescope response simulation calculations has also been carried out using both simple analytical models and the Monte Carlo particle interaction codes, MCNPX and Integrated TIGER Series. Comparison of calculated telescope results to the measured calibration data will be presented.

  8. Instrumented roll technology for the design space development of roller compaction process.

    PubMed

    Nesarikar, Vishwas V; Vatsaraj, Nipa; Patel, Chandrakant; Early, William; Pandey, Preetanshu; Sprockel, Omar; Gao, Zhihui; Jerzewski, Robert; Miller, Ronald; Levin, Michael

    2012-04-15

    Instrumented roll technology on Alexanderwerk WP120 roller compactor was developed and utilized successfully for the measurement of normal stress on ribbon during the process. The effects of process parameters such as roll speed (4-12 rpm), feed screw speed (19-53 rpm), and hydraulic roll pressure (40-70 bar) on normal stress and ribbon density were studied using placebo and active pre-blends. The placebo blend consisted of 1:1 ratio of microcrystalline cellulose PH102 and anhydrous lactose with sodium croscarmellose, colloidal silicon dioxide, and magnesium stearate. The active pre-blends were prepared using various combinations of one active ingredient (3-17%, w/w) and lubricant (0.1-0.9%, w/w) levels with remaining excipients same as placebo. Three force transducers (load cells) were installed linearly along the width of the roll, equidistant from each other with one transducer located in the center. Normal stress values recorded by side sensors and were lower than normal stress values recorded by middle sensor and showed greater variability than middle sensor. Normal stress was found to be directly proportional to hydraulic pressure and inversely to screw to roll speed ratio. For active pre-blends, normal stress was also a function of compressibility. For placebo pre-blends, ribbon density increased as normal stress increased. For active pre-blends, in addition to normal stress, ribbon density was also a function of gap. Models developed using placebo were found to predict ribbon densities of active blends with good accuracy and the prediction error decreased as the drug concentration of active blend decreased. Effective angle of internal friction and compressibility properties of active pre blend may be used as key indicators for predicting ribbon densities of active blend using placebo ribbon density model. Feasibility of on-line prediction of ribbon density during roller compaction was demonstrated using porosity-pressure data of pre-blend and normal stress

  9. Vibration and stress analysis of soft-bonded shuttle insulation tiles. Modal analysis with compact widely space stringers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ojalvo, I. U.; Austin, F.; Levy, A.

    1974-01-01

    An efficient iterative procedure is described for the vibration and modal stress analysis of reusable surface insulation (RSI) of multi-tiled space shuttle panels. The method, which is quite general, is rapidly convergent and highly useful for this application. A user-oriented computer program based upon this procedure and titled RESIST (REusable Surface Insulation Stresses) has been prepared for the analysis of compact, widely spaced, stringer-stiffened panels. RESIST, which uses finite element methods, obtains three dimensional tile stresses in the isolator, arrestor (if any) and RSI materials. Two dimensional stresses are obtained in the tile coating and the stringer-stiffened primary structure plate. A special feature of the program is that all the usual detailed finite element grid data is generated internally from a minimum of input data. The program can accommodate tile idealizations with up to 850 nodes (2550 degrees-of-freedom) and primary structure idealizations with a maximum of 10,000 degrees-of-freedom. The primary structure vibration capability is achieved through the development of a new rapid eigenvalue program named ALARM (Automatic LArge Reduction of Matrices to tridiagonal form).

  10. Convergence of Lax-Friedrichs and Godunov schemes for a nonstrictly hyperbolic system of conservation laws arising in oil recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djoufedie, George Noel; Felaco, Elisabetta; Rubino, Bruno; Sampalmieri, Rosella

    2016-03-01

    This paper is devoted to the compactness framework and the convergence theorem for the Lax-Friedrichs and Godunov schemes applied to a {2 × 2} system of non-strictly hyperbolic nonlinear conservation laws that arises from mathematical models for oil recovery. The presence of a degeneracy in the hyperbolicity of the system requires a careful analysis of the entropy functions, whose regularity is necessary to obtain the result. For this purpose, it is necessary to combine the classical techniques referring to a singular Euler-Poisson-Darboux equation with the compensated compactness method.

  11. A Compact Infrared Space Telescope MIRIS and its Preliminary Observational Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wonyong; Pyo, Jeonghyun; Kim, Il-Joong; Lee, Dae-Hee; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Moon, Bongkon; Park, Youngsik; Park, Sung-Joon; Lee, Dukhang; Park, Won-Kee; Ko, Kyeongyeon; Kim, Min Gyu; Nam, Uk-Won; Park, Hong-Young; Lee, Hyung Mok; Matsumoto, Toshio

    2015-08-01

    The first Korean infrared space telescope MIRIS (Milti-purpose InfraRed Imaging System) was successfully launched in November 2013, as the main payload of Korean STSAT-3 (Science and Technology Satellite-3). After the initial on-orbit operation for verification, the observations are made with MIRIS for the fluctuation of Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB) and the Galactic Plane survey. For the study of near-infrared background, MIRIS surveyed large areas (> 10° x 10°) around the pole regions: the north ecliptic pole (NEP), the north and south Galactic poles (NGP, SGP), while the NEP region is continually monitored for the instrumental calibration and the zodiacal light study. In addition, the Paschen-α Galactic plane survey has been made with two narrow-band filters (at 1.88 μm and 1.84+1.92 μm) for the study of warm interstellar medium. We plan to continue surveying the entire galactic plane with the latitude of ±3°, and expect to be completed by 2015. The data are still under the stage of reduction and analysis, and guest observations are on-going. We present some of the preliminary results.

  12. Seniority number in spin-adapted spaces and compactness of configuration interaction wave functions.

    PubMed

    Alcoba, Diego R; Torre, Alicia; Lain, Luis; Massaccesi, Gustavo E; Oña, Ofelia B

    2013-08-28

    This work extends the concept of seniority number, which has been widely used for classifying N-electron Slater determinants, to wave functions of N electrons and spin S, as well as to N-electron spin-adapted Hilbert spaces. We propose a spin-free formulation of the seniority number operator and perform a study on the behavior of the expectation values of this operator under transformations of the molecular basis sets. This study leads to propose a quantitative evaluation for the convergence of the expansions of the wave functions in terms of Slater determinants. The non-invariant character of the seniority number operator expectation value of a wave function with respect to a unitary transformation of the molecular orbital basis set, allows us to search for a change of basis which minimizes that expectation value. The results found in the description of wave functions of selected atoms and molecules show that the expansions expressed in these bases exhibit a more rapid convergence than those formulated in the canonical molecular orbital bases and even in the natural orbital ones. PMID:24006970

  13. Seniority number in spin-adapted spaces and compactness of configuration interaction wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcoba, Diego R.; Torre, Alicia; Lain, Luis; Massaccesi, Gustavo E.; Oña, Ofelia B.

    2013-08-01

    This work extends the concept of seniority number, which has been widely used for classifying N-electron Slater determinants, to wave functions of N electrons and spin S, as well as to N-electron spin-adapted Hilbert spaces. We propose a spin-free formulation of the seniority number operator and perform a study on the behavior of the expectation values of this operator under transformations of the molecular basis sets. This study leads to propose a quantitative evaluation for the convergence of the expansions of the wave functions in terms of Slater determinants. The non-invariant character of the seniority number operator expectation value of a wave function with respect to a unitary transformation of the molecular orbital basis set, allows us to search for a change of basis which minimizes that expectation value. The results found in the description of wave functions of selected atoms and molecules show that the expansions expressed in these bases exhibit a more rapid convergence than those formulated in the canonical molecular orbital bases and even in the natural orbital ones.

  14. Minimality of invariant laminations for partially hyperbolic attractors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobili, Felipe

    2015-06-01

    Let f : M → M be a C1-diffeomorphism over a compact boundaryless Riemannian manifold M, and Λ a compact f-invariant subset of M admitting a partially hyperbolic spliting TfΛ = Es ⊕ Ec ⊕ Eu over the tangent bundle TfΛ. It's known from the Hirsch-Pugh-Shub theory that Λ admits two invariant laminations associated to the extremal bundles Es and Eu. These laminations are families of dynamically defined immersed submanifolds of the M tangent, respectively, to the bundles Es and Eu at every point in Λ. In this work, we prove that at least one of the invariant laminations of a transitive partially hyperbolic attractor with a one-dimensional center bundle is minimal: the orbit of every leaf intersects Λ densely. This result extends those in Bonatti et al (2002 J. Inst. Math. Jussieu 1 513-41) and Hertz et al (2007 Fields Institute Communications vol 51 (Providence, RI: American Mathematical Society) pp 103-9) about minimal foliations for robustly transitive diffeomorphisms.

  15. A low-energy charged particle distribution imager with a compact sensor for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsen, D. J.; Burchill, J. K.; Berg, K.; Cameron, T.; Enno, G. A.; Marcellus, C. G.; King, E. P.; Wevers, I.; King, R. A.

    2003-01-01

    Low-energy plasmas having temperatures of order 1 eV or less are found commonly in the ionospheres and space environments of Earth and other planets. Measuring the density, temperature, drift velocities, phase-space anisotropies, and other properties of these plasmas presents numerous challenges. Examples are distortions of particle trajectories due to spacecraft wakes, spacecraft charging, and particle gyromotion in magnetized plasmas. Furthermore, these plasmas are known to organize into structures as small as tens of meters across, traversed by spacecraft in tens of milliseconds or less. The Suprathermal Plasma Imager (SPI) was developed to address these challenges. The SPI is optimized for measurements of particles with ~1 eV energies, and of the suprathermal extension of those populations up to several hundred eV. The SPI is sensitive to particle flux intensities of order 6×105 cm-2 s-1 sr-1 eV-1 and greater. It produces 3024-pixel images corresponding to two-dimensional (angle/energy) cuts through plasma velocity distribution functions, with an image frame rate of up to 100 s-1. The SPI has a cylindrical sensor head measuring 37.5 mm in diameter and 14 cm long, with a mass of 350 g. The relatively small size and mass of the sensor allow it to be deployed easily on a boom, outside of the spacecraft's electrical sheath and in a region where wake perturbations are reduced. The SPI sensor head contains no electronic circuitry, but instead creates a visible image of the particle distribution with a system of dc-biased grids, microchannel plates, and a phosphor screen. The phosphor image is transferred via an imaging fiber-optic cable to an instrument box in the main spacecraft body, where it is sampled with a charge-coupled device and support electronics. Inside the sensor, angle/energy images of incident particle distributions are formed by a pair of concentric hemispherical grids. The incident energies Ei accessible to the analyzer lie in the range 0<=Ei

  16. Second- and third-order upwind difference schemes for hyperbolic conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, J. Y.

    1984-01-01

    Second- and third-order two time-level five-point explicit upwind-difference schemes are described for the numerical solution of hyperbolic systems of conservation laws and applied to the Euler equations of inviscid gas dynamics. Nonliner smoothing techniques are used to make the schemes total variation diminishing. In the method both hyperbolicity and conservation properties of the hyperbolic conservation laws are combined in a very natural way by introducing a normalized Jacobian matrix of the hyperbolic system. Entropy satisfying shock transition operators which are consistent with the upwind differencing are locally introduced when transonic shock transition is detected. Schemes thus constructed are suitable for shockcapturing calculations. The stability and the global order of accuracy of the proposed schemes are examined. Numerical experiments for the inviscid Burgers equation and the compressible Euler equations in one and two space dimensions involving various situations of aerodynamic interest are included and compared.

  17. Mid-infrared nanophotonics: Probing hyperbolic polaritons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, Joshua D.; Vurgaftman, Igor; Tischler, Joseph G.

    2015-10-01

    Hyperbolic phonon polaritons confined to the subdiffraction limit exhibit encouragingly long lifetimes and group velocities as slow as 0.002c. Researchers use a time-resolved set-up sensitive to nanometre-scale optical fields to shed light on the exciting optical properties of hyperbolic materials.

  18. An integrated time-of-flight versus residual energy subsystem for a compact dual ion composition experiment for space plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, M. I.; Ogasawara, K.; Ebert, R. W.; McComas, D. J.; Allegrini, F.; Weidner, S. E.; Alexander, N.; Livi, S. A.

    2015-05-01

    We have developed a novel concept for a Compact Dual Ion Composition Experiment (CoDICE) that simultaneously provides high quality plasma and energetic ion composition measurements over 6 decades in ion energy in a wide variety of space plasma environments. CoDICE measures the two critical ion populations in space plasmas: (1) mass and ionic charge state composition and 3D velocity and angular distributions of ˜10 eV/q-40 keV/q plasma ions—CoDICE-Lo and (2) mass composition, energy spectra, and angular distributions of ˜30 keV-10 MeV energetic ions—CoDICE-Hi. CoDICE uses a common, integrated Time-of-Flight (TOF) versus residual energy (E) subsystem for measuring the two distinct ion populations. This paper describes the CoDICE design concept, and presents results of the laboratory tests of the TOF portion of the TOF vs. E subsystem, focusing specifically on (1) investigation of spill-over and contamination rates on the start and stop microchannel plate (MCP) anodes vs. secondary electron steering and focusing voltages, scanned around their corresponding model-optimized values, (2) TOF measurements and resolution and angular resolution, and (3) cross-contamination of the start and stop MCPs' singles rates from CoDICE-Lo and -Hi, and (4) energy resolution of avalanche photodiodes near the lower end of the CoDICE-Lo energy range. We also discuss physical effects that could impact the performance of the TOF vs. E subsystem in a flight instrument. Finally, we discuss advantages of the CoDICE design concept by comparing with capabilities and resources of existing flight instruments.

  19. An integrated time-of-flight versus residual energy subsystem for a compact dual ion composition experiment for space plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, M. I.; McComas, D. J.; Allegrini, F.; Livi, S. A.; Ogasawara, K.; Ebert, R. W.; Weidner, S. E.; Alexander, N.

    2015-05-15

    We have developed a novel concept for a Compact Dual Ion Composition Experiment (CoDICE) that simultaneously provides high quality plasma and energetic ion composition measurements over 6 decades in ion energy in a wide variety of space plasma environments. CoDICE measures the two critical ion populations in space plasmas: (1) mass and ionic charge state composition and 3D velocity and angular distributions of ∼10 eV/q–40 keV/q plasma ions—CoDICE-Lo and (2) mass composition, energy spectra, and angular distributions of ∼30 keV–10 MeV energetic ions—CoDICE-Hi. CoDICE uses a common, integrated Time-of-Flight (TOF) versus residual energy (E) subsystem for measuring the two distinct ion populations. This paper describes the CoDICE design concept, and presents results of the laboratory tests of the TOF portion of the TOF vs. E subsystem, focusing specifically on (1) investigation of spill-over and contamination rates on the start and stop microchannel plate (MCP) anodes vs. secondary electron steering and focusing voltages, scanned around their corresponding model-optimized values, (2) TOF measurements and resolution and angular resolution, and (3) cross-contamination of the start and stop MCPs’ singles rates from CoDICE-Lo and -Hi, and (4) energy resolution of avalanche photodiodes near the lower end of the CoDICE-Lo energy range. We also discuss physical effects that could impact the performance of the TOF vs. E subsystem in a flight instrument. Finally, we discuss advantages of the CoDICE design concept by comparing with capabilities and resources of existing flight instruments.

  20. High Gene Family Turnover Rates and Gene Space Adaptation in the Compact Genome of the Carnivorous Plant Utricularia gibba.

    PubMed

    Carretero-Paulet, Lorenzo; Librado, Pablo; Chang, Tien-Hao; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Rozas, Julio; Albert, Victor A

    2015-05-01

    Utricularia gibba is an aquatic carnivorous plant with highly specialized morphology, featuring fibrous floating networks of branches and leaf-like organs, no recognizable roots, and bladder traps that capture and digest prey. We recently described the compressed genome of U. gibba as sufficient to control the development and reproduction of a complex organism. We hypothesized intense deletion pressure as a mechanism whereby most noncoding DNA was deleted, despite evidence for three independent whole-genome duplications (WGDs). Here, we explore the impact of intense genome fractionation in the evolutionary dynamics of U. gibba's functional gene space. We analyze U. gibba gene family turnover by modeling gene gain/death rates under a maximum-likelihood statistical framework. In accord with our deletion pressure hypothesis, we show that the U. gibba gene death rate is significantly higher than those of four other eudicot species. Interestingly, the gene gain rate is also significantly higher, likely reflecting the occurrence of multiple WGDs and possibly also small-scale genome duplications. Gene ontology enrichment analyses of U. gibba-specific two-gene orthogroups, multigene orthogroups, and singletons highlight functions that may represent adaptations in an aquatic carnivorous plant. We further discuss two homeodomain transcription factor gene families (WOX and HDG/HDZIP-IV) showing conspicuous differential expansions and contractions in U. gibba. Our results 1) reconcile the compactness of the U. gibba genome with its accommodation of a typical number of genes for a plant genome, and 2) highlight the role of high gene family turnover in the evolutionary diversification of U. gibba's functional gene space and adaptations to its unique lifestyle and highly specialized body plan. PMID:25637935

  1. The art and science of hyperbolic tessellations.

    PubMed

    Van Dusen, B; Taylor, R P

    2013-04-01

    The visual impact of hyperbolic tessellations has captured artists' imaginations ever since M.C. Escher generated his Circle Limit series in the 1950s. The scaling properties generated by hyperbolic geometry are different to the fractal scaling properties found in nature's scenery. Consequently, prevalent interpretations of Escher's art emphasize the lack of connection with nature's patterns. However, a recent collaboration between the two authors proposed that Escher's motivation for using hyperbolic geometry was as a method to deliberately distort nature's rules. Inspired by this hypothesis, this year's cover artist, Ben Van Dusen, embeds natural fractals such as trees, clouds and lightning into a hyperbolic scaling grid. The resulting interplay of visual structure at multiple size scales suggests that hybridizations of fractal and hyperbolic geometries provide a rich compositional tool for artists. PMID:23517611

  2. Frequency of hyperbolic and interstellar meteoroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajduková, Maria; Kornoš, Leonard; Tóth, Juraj

    2014-01-01

    Hyperbolic meteor orbits from the catalog of 64,650 meteors observed by the multistation video meteor network located in Japan (SonotaCo 2009) have been investigated with the aim of determining the relation between the frequency of hyperbolic and interstellar meteors. The proportion of hyperbolic meteors in the data decreased significantly (from 11.58% to 3.28%) after a selection of quality orbits, which shows its dependence on the quality of observations. Initially, the hyperbolic orbits were searched for meteors unbound due to planetary perturbation. It was determined that 22 meteors from the 7489 hyperbolic orbits in the catalog (and 2 from the selection of the orbits with the highest quality) had had a close encounter with a planet, none of which, however, produced essential changes in their orbits. Similarly, the fraction of hyperbolic orbits in the data, which could be hyperbolic by reason of a meteor's interstellar origin, was determined to be at most 3.9 × 10-2. From the statistical point of view, the vast majority of hyperbolic meteors in the database have definitely been caused by inaccuracy in the velocity determination. This fact does not necessarily assume great measurement errors, since, especially near the parabolic limit, a small error in the value of the heliocentric velocity of a meteor can create an artificial hyperbolic orbit that does not really exist. The results show that the remaining 96% of meteoroids with apparent hyperbolic orbits belong to the solar system meteoroid population. This is also supported by their high abundance (about 50%) among the meteor showers.

  3. Comparison of hyperbolic and hyperboloid conductor electrostatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekner, John

    2006-01-01

    The potentials and fields of hyperbolic and hyperboloidal conductors are available analytically. A detailed comparison of the two-dimensional and three-dimensional problems shows strong similarities, but also interesting differences. The electric field near a hyperboloidal needle is stronger (ceteris paribus) than near a hyperbolic blade, and dies off faster. The field at the hyperbolic conductor varies as the 1/3 power of the local curvature. At the hyperboloid conductor the field varies as the 1/4 power of the local Gaussian curvature (which is the product of the two principal curvatures).

  4. Scaling of clusters near discontinuous percolation transitions in hyperbolic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vijay; Boettcher, Stefan

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the onset of the discontinuous percolation transition in small-world hyperbolic networks by studying the systems-size scaling of the typical largest cluster approaching the transition, p ↗pc. To this end, we determine the average size of the largest cluster ˜NΨ (p) in the thermodynamic limit using real-space renormalization of cluster-generating functions for bond and site percolation in several models of hyperbolic networks that provide exact results. We determine that all our models conform to the recently predicted behavior regarding the growth of the largest cluster, which found diverging, albeit subextensive, clusters spanning the system with finite probability well below pc and at most quadratic corrections to unity in Ψ (p) for p ↗pc. Our study suggests a large universality in the cluster formation on small-world hyperbolic networks and the potential for an alternative mechanism in the cluster formation dynamics at the onset of discontinuous percolation transitions.

  5. Twist transition of nematic hyperbolic hedgehogs.

    PubMed

    James, Richard; Fukuda, Jun-ichi

    2014-04-01

    Stability of an idealized hyperbolic hedgehog in a nematic liquid crystal against a twist transition is investigated by extending the methodology of Rüdinger and Stark [Liq. Cryst. 26, 753 (1999)], where the hedgehog is confined between two concentric spheres. In the ideal hyperbolic-hedgehog the molecular orientation is assumed to rotate proportionally with respect to the inclination angle, θ (and in the opposite sense). However, when splay, k11, and bend, k33, moduli differ this proportionality is lost and the liquid crystal deforms relative to the ideal with bend and splay. Although slight, these deformations are shown to significantly shift the transition if k11/k33 is small. By increasing the degree of confinement the twist transition can be inhibited, a characteristic both hyperbolic and radial hedgehogs have in common. The twist transition of a hyperbolic defect that accompanies a particle is found to be well predicted by the earlier stability analysis of a thick shell. PMID:24827263

  6. Galois Representations Connected with Hyperbolic Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voevodskiĭ, V. A.

    1992-06-01

    The author considers Galois group actions on the fundamental groups of curves of hyperbolic type, and proves certain cases of Grothendieck's conjecture about the possibility of recovering a curve from its Galois representation.

  7. Combinatorial and algorithm aspects of hyperbolic polynomials

    SciTech Connect

    Gurvits, Leonid I.

    2004-01-01

    Univariate polynomials with real roots appear quite often in modern combinatorics, especially in the context of integer polytopes. We discovered in this paper rather unexpected and very likely far-reaching connections between hyperbolic polynomials and many classical combinatorial and algorithmic problems. There are still several open problems. The most interesting is a hyperbolic generalization of the van der Waerden conjecture for permanents of doubly stochastic matrices.

  8. Existence of eigenvalues of problem with shift for an equation of parabolic-hyperbolic type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tengayeva, Aizhan; Dildabek, Gulnar

    2016-08-01

    In the present paper, a spectral problem for an operator of parabolic-hyperbolic type of I kind with non-classical boundary conditions is considered. The problem is considered in a standard domain. The parabolic part of the space is a rectangle. And the hyperbolic part of the space coincides with a characteristic triangle. We consider a problem with the local boundary condition in the domain of parabolicity and with the boundary condition with displacement in the domain of hyperbolicity. We prove the strong solvability of the considered problem. The main aim of the paper is the research of spectral properties of the problem. The existence of eigenvalues of the problem is proved.

  9. Toward optical sensing with hyperbolic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, Tom G.

    2015-06-01

    A possible means of optical sensing, based on a porous hyperbolic material that is infiltrated by a fluid containing an analyte to be sensed, was theoretically investigated. The sensing mechanism relies on the observation that extraordinary plane waves propagate in the infiltrated hyperbolic material only in directions enclosed by a cone aligned with the optic axis of the infiltrated hyperbolic material. The angle this cone subtends to the plane perpendicular to the optic axis is θc. The sensitivity of θc to changes in the refractive index of the infiltrating fluid, namely nb, was explored; also considered were the permittivity parameters and porosity of the hyperbolic material, as well as the shape and size of its pores. Sensitivity was gauged by the derivative dθc/dnb. In parametric numerical studies, values of dθc/dnb in excess of 500 deg per refractive index unit were computed, depending upon the constitutive parameters of the porous hyperbolic material and infiltrating fluid and the nature of the porosity. In particular, it was observed that exceeding large values of dθc/dnb could be attained as the negative-valued eigenvalue of the infiltrated hyperbolic material approached zero.

  10. Hyperbolic phonon polaritons in hexagonal boron nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Siyuan

    2015-03-01

    Uniaxial materials whose axial and tangential permittivities have opposite signs are referred to as indefinite or hyperbolic media. While hyperbolic responses are normally achieved with metamaterials, hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) naturally possesses this property due to the anisotropic phonons in the mid-infrared. Using scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy, we studied polaritonic phenomena in hBN. We performed infrared nano-imaging of highly confined and low-loss hyperbolic phonon polaritons in hBN. The polariton wavelength was shown to be governed by the hBN thickness according to a linear law persisting down to few atomic layers [Science, 343, 1125-1129 (2014)]. Additionally, we carried out the modification of hyperbolic response in heterostructures comprised of a mononlayer graphene deposited on hBN. Electrostatic gating of the top graphene layer allows for the modification of wavelength and intensity of hyperbolic phonon polaritons in bulk hBN. The physics of the modification originates from the plasmon-phonon coupling in the hyperbolic medium. Furthermore, we demonstrated the ``hyperlens'' for subdiffractional imaging and focusing using a slab of hBN.

  11. Overview of the Performance of the Compact Total Electron Content Sensor (CTECS) on the Space Environmental NanoSatellite Experiment (SENSE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, R. L.; Hansel, S.; Stoffel, D.; Ping, D.; Bardeen, J.; Chin, A.; Bielat, S.; Mulligan, T. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Air Force's Space & Missile Systems Center (SMC) SENSE mission consists of two identical cubesat buses with space weather payloads. One of the goals of the SENSE mission is to demonstrate the operational potential and usefulness of space weather measurements from a cubesat platform. The payloads on the two cubesats include the Cubesat Tiny Ionospheric Photometer (SRI), Wind Ion Neutral Composite Suite (NRL), and Compact Total Electron Content GPS radio occultation sensor (CTECS). After initial contact with both space vehicles (SV), we were able to confirm successful operation of both CTECS. Because of power issues on SV2, only SV1 has provided consistent data. In this presentation, we present an overview of the CTECS sensor. Then we present initial CTECS data, discuss the data quality, and lessons learned.

  12. A kinetic scheme for the Navier-Stokes equations and high-order methods for hyperbolic conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Georg

    This dissertation revolves around algorithm development in the context of numerical methods for hyperbolic conservation laws and the compressible Navier-Stokes equations, with particular emphasis on unstructured meshes. Three distinct topics may be identified: Firstly, a new kinetic scheme for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations is developed. Kinetic numerical schemes are based on the discretization of a probability density function. In the context of fluid flow such schemes have a natural basis rooted in the kinetic theory of gases. A significant advantage of kinetic schemes is that they allow a compact, completely mesh-independent discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations, which makes them well suited for next-generation solvers on general unstructured meshes. The new kinetic scheme is based on the Xu-Prenderaast BGK scheme, and achieves a dramatic reduction in computational cost, while also improving and clarifying the formulation with respect to the underlying kinetic gas theory. The second topic addresses high-order numerical methods for conservation laws on unstructured meshes. High-order methods potentially produce higher accuracy with fewer degrees of freedom, compared to standard first or second order accurate schemes, while formulation for unstructured meshes makes complex computational domains amenable. The Spectral Difference Method offers a remarkably simple alternative to such high-order schemes for unstructured meshes as the Discontinuous Galerkin and Spectral Volume Methods. Significant contributions to the development of the Spectral Difference Method are presented, including stability analysis, viscous formulation, and h/p-multigrid convergence acceleration. Finally, the theory of Gibbs-complementary reconstruction is utilized in the context of high-order numerical methods for hyperbolic equations. Gibbs-complementary reconstruction makes it possible to extract pointwise high-order convergence in the spectral approximation of non

  13. Triangle based TVD schemes for hyperbolic conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durlofsky, Louis J.; Osher, Stanley; Engquist, Bjorn

    1990-01-01

    A triangle based total variation diminishing (TVD) scheme for the numerical approximation of hyperbolic conservation laws in two space dimensions is constructed. The novelty of the scheme lies in the nature of the preprocessing of the cell averaged data, which is accomplished via a nearest neighbor linear interpolation followed by a slope limiting procedures. Two such limiting procedures are suggested. The resulting method is considerably more simple than other triangle based non-oscillatory approximations which, like this scheme, approximate the flux up to second order accuracy. Numerical results for linear advection and Burgers' equation are presented.

  14. Minimal dissipation hybrid bicompact schemes for hyperbolic equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragin, M. D.; Rogov, B. V.

    2016-06-01

    New monotonicity-preserving hybrid schemes are proposed for multidimensional hyperbolic equations. They are convex combinations of high-order accurate central bicompact schemes and upwind schemes of first-order accuracy in time and space. The weighting coefficients in these combinations depend on the local difference between the solutions produced by the high- and low-order accurate schemes at the current space-time point. The bicompact schemes are third-order accurate in time, while having the fourth order of accuracy and the first difference order in space. At every time level, they can be solved by marching in each spatial variable without using spatial splitting. The upwind schemes have minimal dissipation among all monotone schemes constructed on a minimum space-time stencil. The hybrid schemes constructed has been successfully tested as applied to a number of two-dimensional gas dynamics benchmark problems.

  15. MCNP Simulations of Measurement of Insulation Compaction in the Cryogenic Rocket Fuel Tanks at Kennedy Space Center by Fast/Thermal Neutron Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingston, R. A.; Schweitzer, J. S.; Parsons, A. M.; Arens, E. E.

    2010-01-01

    MCNP simulations have been run to evaluate the feasibility of using a combination of fast and thermal neutrons as a nondestructive method to measure of the compaction of the perlite insulation in the liquid hydrogen and oxygen cryogenic storage tanks at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Perlite is a feldspathic volcanic rock made up of the major elements Si, AI, Na, K and 0 along with some water. When heated it expands from four to twenty times its original volume which makes it very useful for thermal insulation. The cryogenic tanks at Kennedy Space Center are spherical with outer diameters of 69-70 feet and lined with a layer of expanded perlite with thicknesses on the order of 120 cm. There is evidence that some of the perlite has compacted over time since the tanks were built 1965, affecting the thermal properties and possibly also the structural integrity of the tanks. With commercially available portable neutron generators it is possible to produce simultaneously fluxes of neutrons in two energy ranges: fast (14 Me V) and thermal (25 me V). The two energy ranges produce complementary information. Fast neutrons produce gamma rays by inelastic scattering, which is sensitive to Fe and O. Thermal neutrons produce gamma rays by prompt gamma neutron activation (PGNA) and this is sensitive to Si, Al, Na, K and H. The compaction of the perlite can be measured by the change in gamma ray signal strength which is proportional to the atomic number densities of the constituent elements. The MCNP simulations were made to determine the magnitude of this change. The tank wall was approximated by a I-dimensional slab geometry with an 11/16" outer carbon steel wall, an inner stainless wall and 120 cm thick perlite zone. Runs were made for cases with expanded perlite, compacted perlite or with various void fractions. Runs were also made to simulate the effect of adding a moderator. Tallies were made for decay-time analysis from t=0 to 10 ms; total detected gamma

  16. Stability of shock waves for multi-dimensional hyperbolic-parabolic conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dening

    1988-01-01

    The uniform linear stability of shock waves is considerd for quasilinear hyperbolic-parabolic coupled conservation laws in multi-dimensional space. As an example, the stability condition and its dynamic meaning for isothermal shock wave in radiative hydrodynamics are analyzed.

  17. Second-order numerical solution of time-dependent, first-order hyperbolic equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Patricia L.; Hardin, Jay

    1995-01-01

    A finite difference scheme is developed to find an approximate solution of two similar hyperbolic equations, namely a first-order plane wave and spherical wave problem. Finite difference approximations are made for both the space and time derivatives. The result is a conditionally stable equation yielding an exact solution when the Courant number is set to one.

  18. Invisible Hyperbolic Metamaterial Nanotube at Visible Frequency.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Ho; No, You-Shin; Chang, Sehwan; Choi, Jae-Hyuck; Park, Hong-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Subwavelength-scale metal and dielectric nanostructures have served as important building blocks for electromagnetic metamaterials, providing unprecedented opportunities for manipulating the optical response of the matter. Recently, hyperbolic metamaterials have been drawing particular interest because of their unusual optical properties and functionalities, such as negative refraction and hyperlensing of light. Here, as a promising application of a hyperbolic metamaterial at visible frequency, we propose an invisible nanotube that consists of metal and dielectric alternating thin layers. The theoretical study of the light scattering of the layered nanotube reveals that almost-zero scattering can be achieved at a specific wavelength when the transverse-electric- or transverse-magnetic-polarized light is incident to the nanotube. In addition, the layered nanotube can be described as a radial-anisotropic hyperbolic metamaterial nanotube. The low scattering occurs when the effective permittivity of the hyperbolic nanotube in the angular direction is near zero, and thus the invisibility of the layered nanotube can be efficiently obtained by analyzing the equivalent hyperbolic nanotube. Our new method to design and tune an invisible nanostructure represents a significant step toward the practical implementation of unique nanophotonic devices such as invisible photodetectors and low-scattering near-field optical microscopes. PMID:26522815

  19. Invisible Hyperbolic Metamaterial Nanotube at Visible Frequency

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung-Ho; No, You-Shin; Chang, Sehwan; Choi, Jae-Hyuck; Park, Hong-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Subwavelength-scale metal and dielectric nanostructures have served as important building blocks for electromagnetic metamaterials, providing unprecedented opportunities for manipulating the optical response of the matter. Recently, hyperbolic metamaterials have been drawing particular interest because of their unusual optical properties and functionalities, such as negative refraction and hyperlensing of light. Here, as a promising application of a hyperbolic metamaterial at visible frequency, we propose an invisible nanotube that consists of metal and dielectric alternating thin layers. The theoretical study of the light scattering of the layered nanotube reveals that almost-zero scattering can be achieved at a specific wavelength when the transverse-electric- or transverse-magnetic-polarized light is incident to the nanotube. In addition, the layered nanotube can be described as a radial-anisotropic hyperbolic metamaterial nanotube. The low scattering occurs when the effective permittivity of the hyperbolic nanotube in the angular direction is near zero, and thus the invisibility of the layered nanotube can be efficiently obtained by analyzing the equivalent hyperbolic nanotube. Our new method to design and tune an invisible nanostructure represents a significant step toward the practical implementation of unique nanophotonic devices such as invisible photodetectors and low-scattering near-field optical microscopes. PMID:26522815

  20. Experimental comparison of Pressure ratio in Alpha and Gamma Stirling cryocoolers with identical compression space volumes and driven simultaneously by a solitary novel compact mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sant, K. D.; Bapat, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    The cryocooler technology is advancing in different ways at a considerable pace to explore cooler applications in diversified field. Stirling cryocoolers are capable to satisfy the contemporary requirements of a low-capacity cooler. A compact mechanism that can drive Stirling cryocooler with larger stroke and thus enhance the cooler performance is the need of the hour. The increase in the stroke will lead to a higher volumetric efficiency. Hence, a cryocooler with larger stroke will experience higher mass flow rate of the working fluid, thereby increasing its ideal cooling capacity. The novel compact drive mechanism that fulfils this need is a promising option in this regards. It is capable of operating more than one cryocoolers of different Stirling configurations simultaneously. This arrangement makes it possible to compare different Stirling cryocoolers on the basis of pressure ratio obtained experimentally. The preliminary experimental results obtained in this regard are presented here. The initial experimentation is carried out on two Alpha Stirling units driven simultaneously by the novel compact mechanism. The pressure ratio obtained during the initial stages is 1.3538, which is enhanced to 1.417 by connecting the rear volumes of the compressor pistons to each other. The fact that annular leak across the expander pistons due to high pressure ratio affects the cryocooler performance, generates the need to separate the expansion space from bounce space. This introduces a Gamma configuration that is operated simultaneously with one of the existing Alpha units by same drive mechanism and having identical compression space volume. The results obtained for pressure ratio in both these units prove the concept that cooling capacity of Alpha configuration exceeds that of Gamma under similar operating conditions. This has been observed at 14 bar and 20 bar charge pressures during the preliminary experimentation. These results are presented in this paper. Thus, the

  1. Link prediction based on hyperbolic mapping with community structure for complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zuxi; Wu, Yao; Li, Qingguang; Jin, Fengdong; Xiong, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Link prediction is becoming a concerned topic in the complex network field in recent years. However, the existing link prediction methods are unsatisfactory for processing topological information and have high time complexity. This paper presents a novel method of Link Prediction with Community Structure (LPCS) based on hyperbolic mapping. Different from the existing link prediction methods, to utilize global structure information of the network, LPCS deals with the network from an overall perspective. LPCS takes full advantage of the community structure and its hierarchical organization to map networks into hyperbolic space, and obtains the hyperbolic coordinates which depict the global structure information of the network, then uses hyperbolic distance to describe the similarity between the nodes, finally predicts missing links according to the degree of the similarity between unconnected node pairs. The combination of the hyperbolic geometry framework and the community structure makes LPCS perform well in predicting missing links, and the time complexity of LPCS is linear, which makes LPCS can be applied to handle large scale networks in acceptable time. LPCS outperforms many state-of-the-art link prediction methods in the networks obeying power-law degree distribution.

  2. Hyperbolic metamaterial lens with hydrodynamic nonlocal response.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wei; Mortensen, N Asger; Wubs, Martijn

    2013-06-17

    We investigate the effects of hydrodynamic nonlocal response in hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs), focusing on the experimentally realizable parameter regime where unit cells are much smaller than an optical wavelength but much larger than the wavelengths of the longitudinal pressure waves of the free-electron plasma in the metal constituents. We derive the nonlocal corrections to the effective material parameters analytically, and illustrate the noticeable nonlocal effects on the dispersion curves numerically. As an application, we find that the focusing characteristics of a HMM lens in the local-response approximation and in the hydrodynamic Drude model can differ considerably. In particular, the optimal frequency for imaging in the nonlocal theory is blueshifted with respect to that in the local theory. Thus, to detect whether nonlocal response is at work in a hyperbolic metamaterial, we propose to measure the near-field distribution of a hyperbolic metamaterial lens. PMID:23787690

  3. Mapping AdS to dS spaces and back

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Dato, Adriana; Fröb, Markus B.

    2015-03-01

    We derive a map between Einstein spaces of positive and negative curvature, including scalar matter. Starting from a space of positive curvature with some dimensions compactified on a sphere and analytically continuing the number of compact dimensions, we obtain a space of negative curvature with a compact hyperbolic subspace, and vice versa. Prime examples of such spaces are de Sitter (dS) and anti-de Sitter (AdS) space, as well as black hole spacetimes with (A)dS asymptotics and perturbed versions thereof, which play an important role in holography. This map extends work done by Caldarelli et al., who map asymptotically AdS spaces to Ricci-flat ones. A remarkable result is that the boundary of asymptotically AdS spaces is mapped to a brane in the bulk of de Sitter, and perturbations near the AdS boundary are sourced by a stress tensor confined to this brane. We also calculate the Brown-York stress tensor for the perturbed AdS metric, which turns out to be the negative of the stress tensor on the de Sitter brane. The map can also be used as a solution generator, and we obtain a Kerr/AdS solution with hyperbolic horizon from a known Kerr/dS one.

  4. Congruence Approximations for Entrophy Endowed Hyperbolic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Timothy J.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Building upon the standard symmetrization theory for hyperbolic systems of conservation laws, congruence properties of the symmetrized system are explored. These congruence properties suggest variants of several stabilized numerical discretization procedures for hyperbolic equations (upwind finite-volume, Galerkin least-squares, discontinuous Galerkin) that benefit computationally from congruence approximation. Specifically, it becomes straightforward to construct the spatial discretization and Jacobian linearization for these schemes (given a small amount of derivative information) for possible use in Newton's method, discrete optimization, homotopy algorithms, etc. Some examples will be given for the compressible Euler equations and the nonrelativistic MHD equations using linear and quadratic spatial approximation.

  5. C∗-algebras of Penrose hyperbolic tilings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyono-Oyono, Hervé; Petite, Samuel

    2011-02-01

    Penrose hyperbolic tilings are tilings of the hyperbolic plane which admit, up to affine transformations a finite number of prototiles. In this paper, we give a complete description of the C∗-algebras and of the K-theory for such tilings. Since the continuous hull of these tilings have no transversally invariant measure, these C∗-algebras are traceless. Nevertheless, harmonic currents give rise to 3-cyclic cocycles and we discuss in this setting a higher-order version of the gap-labeling.

  6. On a characteristic of the first eigenvalue of the Dirac operator on compact spin symmetric spaces with a Kähler or Quaternion-Kähler structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milhorat, Jean-Louis

    2015-04-01

    It is shown that on a compact spin symmetric space with a Kähler or Quaternion-Kähler structure, the first eigenvalue of the Dirac operator is linked to a "lowest" action of the holonomy, given by the fiberwise action on spinors of the canonical forms characterized by this holonomy. The result is also verified for the symmetric space F4 /Spin9, proving that it is valid for all the "possible" holonomies in Berger's list occurring in that context. The proof is based on a characterization of the first eigenvalue of the Dirac operator given in Milhorat (2005) and Milhorat (2006). By the way, we review an incorrect statement in the proof of the first lemma in Milhorat (2005).

  7. Adult Compacts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    This bulletin focuses on adult compacts, three-way agreements among employers, potential employees, and trainers to provide the right kind of quality training to meet the employers' requirements. Part 1 is an executive summary of a report of the Adult Compacts Project, which studied three adult compacts in Birmingham and Loughborough, England, and…

  8. Dynamical compactness and sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wen; Khilko, Danylo; Kolyada, Sergiĭ; Zhang, Guohua

    2016-05-01

    To link the Auslander point dynamics property with topological transitivity, in this paper we introduce dynamically compact systems as a new concept of a chaotic dynamical system (X , T) given by a compact metric space X and a continuous surjective self-map T : X → X. Observe that each weakly mixing system is transitive compact, and we show that any transitive compact M-system is weakly mixing. Then we discuss the relationships between it and other several stronger forms of sensitivity. We prove that any transitive compact system is Li-Yorke sensitive and furthermore multi-sensitive if it is not proximal, and that any multi-sensitive system has positive topological sequence entropy. Moreover, we show that multi-sensitivity is equivalent to both thick sensitivity and thickly syndetic sensitivity for M-systems. We also give a quantitative analysis for multi-sensitivity of a dynamical system.

  9. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE WFC3 GRISM SPECTROSCOPY AND IMAGING OF A GROWING COMPACT GALAXY AT z = 1.9

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Brammer, Gabriel

    2010-08-01

    We present HST/WFC3 grism near-IR spectroscopy of the brightest galaxy at z > 1.5 in the GOODS-South WFC3 ERS grism pointing. The spectrum is of remarkable quality and shows the redshifted Balmer lines H{beta}, H{gamma}, and H{delta} in absorption at z = 1.902 {+-} 0.002. The absorption lines can be produced by a post-starburst stellar population with a luminosity-weighted age of {approx}0.5 Gyr. The mass-to-light ratio inferred from the spectrum implies a stellar mass of (4 {+-} 1) x 10{sup 11} M{sub sun}. We determine the morphology of the galaxy from a deep WFC3 H{sub 160} image. Similar to other massive galaxies at z {approx} 2 the galaxy is compact, with an effective radius of 2.1 {+-} 0.3 kpc. Although most of the light is in a compact core, the galaxy has two red, smooth spiral arms that appear to be tidally induced. The spatially resolved spectroscopy demonstrates that the center of the galaxy is quiescent whereas the surrounding disk is forming stars, as it shows H{beta} in emission. The galaxy interacts with a companion at a projected distance of 18 kpc, which also shows prominent tidal features. The companion is a factor of {approx}10 fainter than the primary galaxy and may have a lower metallicity. It is tempting to interpret these observations as evidence for the growth of compact, quiescent high-redshift galaxies through minor mergers, which has been proposed by several recent observational and theoretical studies. Interestingly both objects host luminous active galactic nuclei, which implies that these mergers can be accompanied by significant black hole growth.

  10. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Landau levels on the hyperbolic plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhri, H.; Shariati, M.

    2004-11-01

    The quantum states of a spinless charged particle on a hyperbolic plane in the presence of a uniform magnetic field with a generalized quantization condition are proved to be the bases of the irreducible Hilbert representation spaces of the Lie algebra u(1, 1). The dynamical symmetry group U(1, 1) with the explicit form of the Lie algebra generators is extracted. It is also shown that the energy has an infinite-fold degeneracy in each of the representation spaces which are allocated to the different values of the magnetic field strength. Based on the simultaneous shift of two parameters, it is also noted that the quantum states realize the representations of Lie algebra u(2) by shifting the magnetic field strength.

  11. Optical pulling forces in hyperbolic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalin, Alexander S.; Sukhov, Sergey V.; Bogdanov, Andrey A.; Belov, Pavel A.; Ginzburg, Pavel

    2015-06-01

    Control over mechanical motion of nanoscale particles is a valuable functionality desired in a variety of multidisciplinary applications, e.g., biophysics, and it is usually achieved by employing optical forces. Hyperbolic metamaterials enable tailoring and enhancing electromagnetic scattering and, as the result, provide a platform for a new type of optical manipulation. Here optical pulling forces acting on a small particle placed inside a hyperbolic metamaterial slab were predicted and analyzed. In order to attract particles to a light source, highly confined extraordinary modes of hyperbolic metamaterial were excited via scattering from an imperfection situated at the slab's interface. This type of structured illumination together with remarkable scattering properties, inspired by the hyperbolic dispersion in the metamaterial, creates optical attraction. Forces acting on high-, low-index dielectric, and gold particles were investigated and it was shown that the pulling effect emerges in all of the cases. The ability to control mechanical motion at nanoscale using auxiliary photonic structures paves the way for investigation of various phenomena, e.g., biochemical reactions, molecular dynamics, and more.

  12. Fibonacci words, hyperbolic tilings and grossone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margenstern, Maurice

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we study the contribution of the theory of grossone to the study of infinite Fibonacci words, combining this tool with the help of a particular tiling of the hyperbolic plane: the tiling { 7, 3 } , called the heptagrid. With the help of the numeral system based on grossone, we obtain a richer family of infinite Fibonacci words compared with the traditional approach.

  13. Twist transition of nematic hyperbolic hedgehogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Richard; Fukuda, Jun-ichi

    2014-04-01

    Stability of an idealized hyperbolic hedgehog in a nematic liquid crystal against a twist transition is investigated by extending the methodology of Rüdinger and Stark [Liq. Cryst. 26, 753 (1999), 10.1080/026782999204840], where the hedgehog is confined between two concentric spheres. In the ideal hyperbolic-hedgehog the molecular orientation is assumed to rotate proportionally with respect to the inclination angle, θ (and in the opposite sense). However, when splay, k11, and bend, k33, moduli differ this proportionality is lost and the liquid crystal deforms relative to the ideal with bend and splay. Although slight, these deformations are shown to significantly shift the transition if k11/k33 is small. By increasing the degree of confinement the twist transition can be inhibited, a characteristic both hyperbolic and radial hedgehogs have in common. The twist transition of a hyperbolic defect that accompanies a particle is found to be well predicted by the earlier stability analysis of a thick shell.

  14. On a microscopic representation of space-time

    SciTech Connect

    Dahm, R.

    2012-10-15

    We start from a noncompact Lie algebra isomorphic to the Dirac algebra and relate this Lie algebra in a brief review to low-energy hadron physics described by the compact group SU(4). This step permits an overall physical identification of the operator actions. Then we discuss the geometrical origin of this noncompact Lie algebra and 'reduce' the geometry in order to introduce in each of these steps coordinate definitions which can be related to an algebraic representation in terms of the spontaneous symmetry breakdown along the Lie algebra chain su*(4) {yields} usp(4) {yields} su(2) Multiplication-Sign u(1). Standard techniques of Lie algebra decomposition(s) as well as the (physical) operator identification give rise to interesting physical aspects and lead to a rank-1 Riemannian space which provides an analytic representation and leads to a 5-dimensional hyperbolic space H{sub 5} with SO(5, 1) isometries. The action of the (compact) symplectic group decomposes this (globally) hyperbolic space into H{sub 2} Circled-Plus H{sub 3} with SO(2, 1) and SO(3, 1) isometries, respectively, which we relate to electromagnetic (dynamically broken SU(2) isospin) and Lorentz transformations. Last not least, we attribute this symmetry pattern to the algebraic representation of a projective geometry over the division algebra H and subsequent coordinate restrictions.

  15. A generalized scheme for three-dimensional hyperbolic grid generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, William M.; Steger, Joseph L.

    1991-01-01

    A hyperbolic grid generation scheme formulated from grid orthogonality and cell volume specification is generalized such that high quality three-dimensional grids can be obtained for a wide variety of geometries. The speed of the scheme is one to two orders of magnitude faster than typical elliptic grid generation methods. The robustness of the scheme is significantly enhanced by several new techniques. By using a spatially variable smoothing coefficient, orthogonality and smoothness of the grid are maintained around complex concave and convex surface topologies. A metric correction procedure is employed to guarantee that the grid marches out of a corner by bisecting the angles subtended by the neighboring points. Extra robustness at severe convex corners is achieved by special local treatments. Different extrapolation methods are used to provide smoothness at floating edges and axis regions. The versatility of the new hyperbolic grid generation scheme is demonstrated by three-dimensional grids generated for external components of the intergrated Space Shuttle vehicle and the SOFIA telescope.

  16. Assimilating compact phase space retrievals of atmospheric composition with WRF-Chem/DART: a regional chemical transport/ensemble Kalman filter data assimilation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizzi, Arthur P.; Arellano, Avelino F., Jr.; Edwards, David P.; Anderson, Jeffrey L.; Pfister, Gabriele G.

    2016-03-01

    This paper introduces the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with chemistry/Data Assimilation Research Testbed (WRF-Chem/DART) chemical transport forecasting/data assimilation system together with the assimilation of compact phase space retrievals of satellite-derived atmospheric composition products. WRF-Chem is a state-of-the-art chemical transport model. DART is a flexible software environment for researching ensemble data assimilation with different assimilation and forecast model options. DART's primary assimilation tool is the ensemble adjustment Kalman filter. WRF-Chem/DART is applied to the assimilation of Terra/Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) carbon monoxide (CO) trace gas retrieval profiles. Those CO observations are first assimilated as quasi-optimal retrievals (QORs). Our results show that assimilation of the CO retrievals (i) reduced WRF-Chem's CO bias in retrieval and state space, and (ii) improved the CO forecast skill by reducing the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and increasing the Coefficient of Determination (R2). Those CO forecast improvements were significant at the 95 % level. Trace gas retrieval data sets contain (i) large amounts of data with limited information content per observation, (ii) error covariance cross-correlations, and (iii) contributions from the retrieval prior profile that should be removed before assimilation. Those characteristics present challenges to the assimilation of retrievals. This paper addresses those challenges by introducing the assimilation of compact phase space retrievals (CPSRs). CPSRs are obtained by preprocessing retrieval data sets with an algorithm that (i) compresses the retrieval data, (ii) diagonalizes the error covariance, and (iii) removes the retrieval prior profile contribution. Most modern ensemble assimilation algorithms can efficiently assimilate CPSRs. Our results show that assimilation of MOPITT CO CPSRs reduced the number of observations (and assimilation computation

  17. Assimilating compact phase space retrievals of atmospheric composition with WRF-Chem/DART: a regional chemical transport/ensemble Kalman filter data assimilation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizzi, A. P.; Arellano, A. F.; Edwards, D. P.; Anderson, J. L.; Pfister, G. G.

    2015-09-01

    This paper introduces the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with chemistry/Data Assimilation Research Testbed (WRF-Chem/DART) chemical transport forecasting/data assimilation system together with the assimilation of "compact phase space retrievals" of satellite-derived atmospheric composition products. WRF-Chem is a state-of-the-art chemical transport model. DART is a flexible software environment for researching ensemble data assimilation with different assimilation and forecast model options. DART's primary assimilation tool is the ensemble adjustment Kalman filter. WRF-Chem/DART is applied to the assimilation of Terra/Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) carbon monoxide (CO) trace gas retrieval profiles. Those CO observations are first assimilated as quasi-optimal retrievals (QORs). Our results show that assimilation of the CO retrievals: (i) reduced WRF-Chem's CO bias in retrieval and state space, and (ii) improved the CO forecast skill by reducing the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and increasing the Coefficient of Determination (R2). Those CO forecast improvements were significant at the 95 % level. Trace gas retrieval data sets contain: (i) large amounts of data with limited information content per observation, (ii) error covariance cross-correlations, and (iii) contributions from the retrieval prior profile that should be removed before assimilation. Those characteristics present challenges to the assimilation of retrievals. This paper addresses those challenges by introducing the assimilation of "compact phase space retrievals" (CPSRs). CPSRs are obtained by preprocessing retrieval datasets with an algorithm that: (i) compresses the retrieval data, (ii) diagonalizes the error covariance, and (iii) removes the retrieval prior profile contribution. Most modern ensemble assimilation algorithms can efficiently assimilate CPSRs. Our results show that assimilation of MOPITT CO CPSRs reduced the number of observations (and assimilation

  18. Feasibility study for measurement of insulation compaction in the cryogenic rocket fuel storage tanks at Kennedy Space Center by fast/thermal neutron techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, R. A.; Schweitzer, J. S.; Parsons, A. M.; Arens, E. E.

    2014-02-18

    The liquid hydrogen and oxygen cryogenic storage tanks at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) use expanded perlite as thermal insulation. Some of the perlite may have compacted over time, compromising the thermal performance and also the structural integrity of the tanks. Neutrons can readily penetrate through the 1.75 cm outer steel shell and through the entire 120 cm thick perlite zone. Neutrons interactions with materials produce characteristic gamma rays which are then detected. In compacted perlite the count rates in the individual peaks in the gamma ray spectrum will increase. Portable neutron generators can produce neutron simultaneous fluxes in two energy ranges: fast (14 MeV) and thermal (25 meV). Fast neutrons produce gamma rays by inelastic scattering which is sensitive to Si, Al, Fe and O. Thermal neutrons produce gamma rays by radiative capture in prompt gamma neutron activation (PGNA), which is sensitive to Si, Al, Na, K and H among others. The results of computer simulations using the software MCNP and measurements on a test article suggest that the most promising approach would be to operate the system in time-of-flight mode by pulsing the neutron generator and observing the subsequent die away curve in the PGNA signal.

  19. Feasibility study for measurement of insulation compaction in the cryogenic rocket fuel storage tanks at Kennedy Space Center by fast/thermal neutron techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingston, R. A.; Schweitzer, J. S.; Parsons, A. M.; Arens, E. E.

    2014-02-01

    The liquid hydrogen and oxygen cryogenic storage tanks at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) use expanded perlite as thermal insulation. Some of the perlite may have compacted over time, compromising the thermal performance and also the structural integrity of the tanks. Neutrons can readily penetrate through the 1.75 cm outer steel shell and through the entire 120 cm thick perlite zone. Neutrons interactions with materials produce characteristic gamma rays which are then detected. In compacted perlite the count rates in the individual peaks in the gamma ray spectrum will increase. Portable neutron generators can produce neutron simultaneous fluxes in two energy ranges: fast (14 MeV) and thermal (25 meV). Fast neutrons produce gamma rays by inelastic scattering which is sensitive to Si, Al, Fe and O. Thermal neutrons produce gamma rays by radiative capture in prompt gamma neutron activation (PGNA), which is sensitive to Si, Al, Na, K and H among others. The results of computer simulations using the software MCNP and measurements on a test article suggest that the most promising approach would be to operate the system in time-of-flight mode by pulsing the neutron generator and observing the subsequent die away curve in the PGNA signal.

  20. Tunable VO2/Au hyperbolic metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prayakarao, S.; Mendoza, B.; Devine, A.; Kyaw, C.; van Dover, R. B.; Liberman, V.; Noginov, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) is known to have a semiconductor-to-metal phase transition at ˜68 °C. Therefore, it can be used as a tunable component of an active metamaterial. The lamellar metamaterial studied in this work is composed of subwavelength VO2 and Au layers and is designed to undergo a temperature controlled transition from the optical hyperbolic phase to the metallic phase. VO2 films and VO2/Au lamellar metamaterial stacks have been fabricated and studied in electrical conductivity and optical (transmission and reflection) experiments. The observed temperature-dependent changes in the reflection and transmission spectra of the metamaterials and VO2 thin films are in a good qualitative agreement with theoretical predictions. The demonstrated optical hyperbolic-to-metallic phase transition is a unique physical phenomenon with the potential to enable advanced control of light-matter interactions.

  1. Normal hyperbolicity and unbounded critical manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, Christian

    2014-06-01

    This work is motivated by mathematical questions arising in differential equation models for autocatalytic reactions. We extend the local theory of singularities in fast-slow polynomial vector fields to classes of unbounded manifolds which lose normal hyperbolicity due to an alignment of the tangent and normal bundles. A projective transformation is used to localize the unbounded problem. Then the blow-up method is employed to characterize the loss of normal hyperbolicity for the transformed slow manifolds. Our analysis yields a rigorous scaling law for all unbounded manifolds which exhibit a power-law decay for the alignment with a fast subsystem domain. Furthermore, the proof also provides a technical extension of the blow-up method itself by augmenting the analysis with an optimality criterion for the blow-up exponents.

  2. VIBRATION COMPACTION

    DOEpatents

    Hauth, J.J.

    1962-07-01

    A method of compacting a powder in a metal container is described including the steps of vibrating the container at above and below the resonant frequency and also sweeping the frequency of vibration across the resonant frequency several times thereby following the change in resonant frequency caused by compaction of the powder. (AEC)

  3. Hyperbolic conservation laws and numerical methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveque, Randall J.

    1990-01-01

    The mathematical structure of hyperbolic systems and the scalar equation case of conservation laws are discussed. Linear, nonlinear systems and the Riemann problem for the Euler equations are also studied. The numerical methods for conservation laws are presented in a nonstandard manner which leads to large time steps generalizations and computations on irregular grids. The solution of conservation laws with stiff source terms is examined.

  4. High resolution schemes for hyperbolic conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harten, A.

    1983-01-01

    A class of new explicit second order accurate finite difference schemes for the computation of weak solutions of hyperbolic conservation laws is presented. These highly nonlinear schemes are obtained by applying a nonoscillatory first order accurate scheme to an appropriately modified flux function. The so-derived second order accurate schemes achieve high resolution while preserving the robustness of the original nonoscillatory first order accurate scheme. Numerical experiments are presented to demonstrate the performance of these new schemes.

  5. Hybrid surface phononic waveguide using hyperbolic boron nitride.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuancheng; Premkumar, Navaneeth; Yang, Yuchen; Lail, Brian A

    2016-07-25

    Sub-diffraction limited waveguides have been studied as a means to manipulate light into nanoscale regions. Hybrid waveguides are popular candidates in optical regimes for subwavelength confinement and long range propagation. However, advances in the mid-IR are lacking due to high propagation losses and limited confinement. Here we present the first analysis of hybrid phononic waveguide using a hyperbolic material h-BN to generate surface phonon polaritons. The strong coupling between the photonic cylinder and phononic surface enhances the confined field up to 10-3 λo 2o is free-space wavelength) and enables propagation distances up to 100 λo. Our work is fully compatible with integrated polaritonic devices in the mid-IR and provides a systematic approach to design hybrid phononic waveguides. PMID:27464168

  6. Enhancing spontaneous emission rates of molecules using nanopatterned multilayer hyperbolic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dylan; Kan, Jimmy J; Fullerton, Eric E; Liu, Zhaowei

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonic nanostructures have been extensively used to manipulate the spontaneous light emission rate of molecules and their radiative efficiency. Because molecules near a metallic surface experience a different environment than in free space, their spontaneous radiative emission rate is generally enhanced. Such enhancement, measured by means of the Purcell factor, arises as a consequence of the overlap between the surface plasmon mode frequency and the emission spectrum of the molecule. However, such overlap is available only for a few narrow bands of frequency due to the limited plasmonic materials existing in nature. Although this limitation can be overcome by using hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs)—a type of nanoscale artificial material with hyperbolic dispersion relations—the Purcell factor and the radiative power have remained relatively low. Here, we show that by nanopatterning a hyperbolic metamaterial made of Ag and Si multilayers, the spontaneous emission rate of rhodamine dye molecules is enhanced 76-fold at tunable frequencies and the emission intensity of the dye increases by ~80-fold compared with the same hyperbolic metamaterial without nanostructuring. We explain these results using a dynamic Lorentzian model in the time domain. PMID:24390565

  7. Enhancing spontaneous emission rates of molecules using nanopatterned multilayer hyperbolic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Dylan; Kan, Jimmy J.; Fullerton, Eric E.; Liu, Zhaowei

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonic nanostructures have been extensively used to manipulate the spontaneous light emission rate of molecules and their radiative efficiency. Because molecules near a metallic surface experience a different environment than in free space, their spontaneous radiative emission rate is generally enhanced. Such enhancement, measured by means of the Purcell factor, arises as a consequence of the overlap between the surface plasmon mode frequency and the emission spectrum of the molecule. However, such overlap is available only for a few narrow bands of frequency due to the limited plasmonic materials existing in nature. Although this limitation can be overcome by using hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs)--a type of nanoscale artificial material with hyperbolic dispersion relations--the Purcell factor and the radiative power have remained relatively low. Here, we show that by nanopatterning a hyperbolic metamaterial made of Ag and Si multilayers, the spontaneous emission rate of rhodamine dye molecules is enhanced 76-fold at tunable frequencies and the emission intensity of the dye increases by ~80-fold compared with the same hyperbolic metamaterial without nanostructuring. We explain these results using a dynamic Lorentzian model in the time domain.

  8. On the coupling of hyperbolic and parabolic systems: Analytical and numerical approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gastaldi, Fabio; Quarteroni, Alfio

    1988-01-01

    The coupling of hyperbolic and parabolic systems is discussed in a domain Omega divided into two distinct subdomains omega(+) and omega(-). The main concern is to find the proper interface conditions to be fulfilled at the surface separating the two domains. Next, they are used in the numerical approximation of the problem. The justification of the interface conditions is based on a singular perturbation analysis, i.e., the hyperbolic system is rendered parabolic by adding a small artifical viscosity. As this goes to zero, the coupled parabolic-parabolic problem degenerates into the original one, yielding some conditions at the interface. These are taken as interface conditions for the hyperbolic-parabolic problem. Actually, two alternative sets of interface conditions are discussed according to whether the regularization procedure is variational or nonvariational. It is shown how these conditions can be used in the frame of a numerical approximation to the given problem. Furthermore, a method of resolution is discussed which alternates the resolution of the hyperbolic problem within omega(-) and of the parabolic one within omega(+). The spectral collocation method is proposed, as an example of space discretization (different methods could be used as well); both explicit and implicit time-advancing schemes are considered. The present study is a preliminary step toward the analysis of the coupling between Euler and Navier-Stokes equations for compressible flows.

  9. Compact, High Energy 2-micron Coherent Doppler Wind Lidar Development for NASA's Future 3-D Winds Measurement from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Koch, Grady; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Beyon, Jeffrey; Kavaya, Michael J.; Trieu, Bo; Chen, Songsheng; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, paul; Modlin, Edward A.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Demoz, Belay B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of 2-micron laser transmitter development at NASA Langley Research Center for coherent-detection lidar profiling of winds. The novel high-energy, 2-micron, Ho:Tm:LuLiF laser technology developed at NASA Langley was employed to study laser technology currently envisioned by NASA for future global coherent Doppler lidar winds measurement. The 250 mJ, 10 Hz laser was designed as an integral part of a compact lidar transceiver developed for future aircraft flight. Ground-based wind profiles made with this transceiver will be presented. NASA Langley is currently funded to build complete Doppler lidar systems using this transceiver for the DC-8 aircraft in autonomous operation. Recently, LaRC 2-micron coherent Doppler wind lidar system was selected to contribute to the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Earth Science Division (ESD) hurricane field experiment in 2010 titled Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP). The Doppler lidar system will measure vertical profiles of horizontal vector winds from the DC-8 aircraft using NASA Langley s existing 2-micron, pulsed, coherent detection, Doppler wind lidar system that is ready for DC-8 integration. The measurements will typically extend from the DC-8 to the earth s surface. They will be highly accurate in both wind magnitude and direction. Displays of the data will be provided in real time on the DC-8. The pulsed Doppler wind lidar of NASA Langley Research Center is much more powerful than past Doppler lidars. The operating range, accuracy, range resolution, and time resolution will be unprecedented. We expect the data to play a key role, combined with the other sensors, in improving understanding and predictive algorithms for hurricane strength and track. 1

  10. A hyperbolic model for viscous Newtonian flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peshkov, Ilya; Romenski, Evgeniy

    2016-03-01

    We discuss a pure hyperbolic alternative to the Navier-Stokes equations, which are of parabolic type. As a result of the substitution of the concept of the viscosity coefficient by a microphysics-based temporal characteristic, particle settled life (PSL) time, it becomes possible to formulate a model for viscous fluids in a form of first-order hyperbolic partial differential equations. Moreover, the concept of PSL time allows the use of the same model for flows of viscous fluids (Newtonian or non-Newtonian) as well as irreversible deformation of solids. In the theory presented, a continuum is interpreted as a system of material particles connected by bonds; the internal resistance to flow is interpreted as elastic stretching of the particle bonds; and a flow is a result of bond destructions and rearrangements of particles. Finally, we examine the model for simple shear flows, arbitrary incompressible and compressible flows of Newtonian fluids and demonstrate that Newton's viscous law can be obtained in the framework of the developed hyperbolic theory as a steady-state limit. A basic relation between the viscosity coefficient, PSL time, and the shear sound velocity is also obtained.

  11. Classical and quantum optics of hyperbolic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Zubin

    Nanotechnology has paved the way for artificial materials which have electromagnetic, mechanical, thermal and acoustic properties beyond those which are ordinarily found in nature. Photonic nanomaterials hold the promise:- to usher in a new generation of photonic devices with imaging capabilities well beyond the reach of conventional optics, to drive CMOS compatible nanophotonics research for sustaining Moores law and even address pressing societal needs of solar energy harvesting. The central theme of this thesis is the understanding of the essential physics for new devices based on nanofabricated metamaterials, where the bulk macroscopic material properties are governed and tailored at will, according to the constituent nanostructured building blocks. The particular class of metamaterials considered are uniaxial media with an extreme dielectric anisotropy i.e. materials with dielectric constants of opposite signs in the dielectric tensor. This gives rise to a hyperbolic dispersion relation for extraordinary propagating waves in the medium. We unravel a unique singularity in the photonic density of states (PDOS) of such hyperbolic metamaterials. The remarkable property which sets it apart from other photonic systems is the broad spectral bandwidth in which the PDOS diverges, paving the way for a new approach to controlling broadband light-matter interaction. We use the unique electromagnetic metamaterial states that cause the divergence in the PDOS for two specific device applications: subdiffraction imaging and quantum optics. We solve the long standing problem of the fundamental diffraction limit which plagues all conventional optical imaging systems using a device called the hyperlens, comprising of nanostructured hyperbolic metamaterials. The hyperlens produces magnified images of subwavelength objects in the far-field, promising to revolutionize applications such as nano-bio imaging and subdiffraction lithography. We show that the hyperlens can be understood

  12. Flow tests of a single fuel element coolant channel for a compact fast reactor for space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springborn, R. H.

    1971-01-01

    Water flow tests were conducted on a single-fuel-element cooling channel for a nuclear concept to be used for space power. The tests established a method for measuring coolant flow rate which is applicable to water flow testing of a complete mockup of the reference reactor. The inlet plenum-to-outlet plenum pressure drop, which approximates the overall core pressure drop, was measured and correlated with flow rate. This information can be used for reactor coolant flow and heat transfer calculations. An analytical study of the flow characteristics was also conducted.

  13. Embedding of simply laced hyperbolic Kac-Moody superalgebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Saudamini; Pati, K. C.

    2013-03-01

    We show that HD(4, 1) hyperbolic Kac-Moody superalgebra of rank 6 contains every simply laced Kac-Moody superalgebra with degenerate odd root as a Lie subalgebra. Our result is the supersymmetric extension of earlier work [S. Viswanath, "Embeddings of HyperbolicKac-Moody Algebras into E10," Lett. Math. Phys. 83, 139-148 (2008)], 10.1007/s11005-007-0214-7 for hyperbolic Kac-Moody algebra.

  14. Meta-Optics with Nanowire Grid Arrays: Hyperbolic Fabry-Perot Modes and Hyperbolic Tamm Plasmons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durach, Maxim; Keene, David; Lepain, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    In this talk we introduce a new class of structures - cavities formed by metal-dielectric metasurfaces. These cavities support a zoo of various resonances, including hyperbolic Tamm plasmons and hyperbolic Fabry-Perot modes, which feature anisotropic clover-leaf dispersion parallel to the metasurface and strong coupling between TM and TE polarizations in the modes. The properties and spectrum of the modes are highly tunable by the dimensional and material parameters of the structure and can be used for directional emission, modification of radiation produced by electric dipole emitters into magnetic dipole radiation as well as 90 degree polarization rotators and polarization rotation mirrors.

  15. Compact Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Pharis E.

    2007-01-30

    Weyl's Gauge Principle of 1929 has been used to establish Weyl's Quantum Principle (WQP) that requires that the Weyl scale factor should be unity. It has been shown that the WQP requires the following: quantum mechanics must be used to determine system states; the electrostatic potential must be non-singular and quantified; interactions between particles with different electric charges (i.e. electron and proton) do not obey Newton's Third Law at sub-nuclear separations, and nuclear particles may be much different than expected using the standard model. The above WQP requirements lead to a potential fusion reactor wherein deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei. Because the deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei at temperatures and energies lower than specified by the standard model there is no harmful radiation as a byproduct of this fusion process. Therefore, a reactor using this reaction does not need any shielding to contain such radiation. The energy released from each reaction and the absence of shielding makes the deuterium-plus-deuterium-to-helium (DDH) reactor very compact when compared to other reactors, both fission and fusion types. Moreover, the potential energy output per reactor weight and the absence of harmful radiation makes the DDH reactor an ideal candidate for space power. The logic is summarized by which the WQP requires the above conditions that make the prediction of DDH possible. The details of the DDH reaction will be presented along with the specifics of why the DDH reactor may be made to cause two deuterium nuclei to preferentially fuse to a helium nucleus. The presentation will also indicate the calculations needed to predict the reactor temperature as a function of fuel loading, reactor size, and desired output and will include the progress achieved to date.

  16. Manipulating light polarizations with a hyperbolic metamaterial waveguide.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hua; Yin, Xiang; Chen, Lin; Zhu, Zhongshu; Li, Xun

    2015-10-15

    In this Letter we demonstrate that a hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM) waveguide array exhibits a giant modal birefringence between the TE and TM modes by utilization of a rectangular waveguide cross section. We further reveal that the designed polarization manipulation device using such a HMM waveguide array with a subwavelength thickness presents the ability to function as a polarizer or quarter- or half-wave plate that enables transmission only for electromagnetic wave (EW) that is polarized at a specific direction, or converting linearly polarized EW to circularly and elliptically polarized EW or rotating linearly polarized EW with 90° at terahertz (THz) frequencies. A giant modal birefringence between the TE and TM modes from 0.8 to 2 between 2 and 4.8 THz is achievable, which is dozens of times higher than conventional quartz birefringent crystals for THz waves. This polarization manipulation device has the performance merits including high transmission efficiency, ultra-compactness, and tunable birefringence, offering a promising approach to manipulating the polarization states of EW. PMID:26469572

  17. COMPACT SCHOOL AND $$ SAVINGS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BAIR, W.G.

    A REVIEW OF THE CRITERIA FOR CONSIDERING THE USE OF A TOTAL ENERGY SYSTEM WITHIN A SCHOOL BUILDING STATES THE WINDOWLESS, COMPACT SCHOOL OFFERS MORE EFFICIENT SPACE UTILIZATION WITH LESS AREA REQUIRED FOR GIVEN STUDENT POPULATION AND LOWER OPERATION COSTS. THE AUTHOR RECOMMENDS THAT THESE BUILDINGS BE WINDOWLESS TO REDUCE HEAT COSTS, HOWEVER, AT…

  18. Stability of Hyperbolic Imbeddedness and Construction of Examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaĭdenberg, M. G.

    1989-02-01

    Methods are worked out for constructing smooth hyperbolic curves \\Gamma\\subset\\mathbf{CP}^2 and surfaces H\\subset\\mathbf{CP}^3 with hyperbolically imbedded complements, and the methods are then used to construct examples of such curves with least possible degree 5. The existence of these curves agrees well with the 1970 conjecture of Kobayashi. It is proved that the sets of such curves and surfaces are open (in the classical topology). The proofs are based on tests obtained for stability of hyperbolicity and of hyperbolic imbeddedness of analytic subsets of complex manifolds under perturbations that can in general reconstruct the topology.Bibliography: 18 titles.

  19. Hyperbolic Rendezvous at Mars: Risk Assessments and Mitigation Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedrey, Ricky; Landau, Damon; Whitley, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Given the current interest in the use of flyby trajectories for human Mars exploration, a key requirement is the capability to execute hyperbolic rendezvous. Hyperbolic rendezvous is used to transport crew from a Mars centered orbit, to a transiting Earth bound habitat that does a flyby. Representative cases are taken from future potential missions of this type, and a thorough sensitivity analysis of the hyperbolic rendezvous phase is performed. This includes early engine cutoff, missed burn times, and burn misalignment. A finite burn engine model is applied that assumes the hyperbolic rendezvous phase is done with at least two burns.

  20. On a Non-Reflecting Boundary Condition for Hyperbolic Conservation Laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loh, Ching Y.

    2003-01-01

    A non-reflecting boundary condition (NRBC) for practical computations in fluid dynamics and aeroacoustics is presented. The technique is based on the hyperbolicity of the Euler equation system and the first principle of plane (simple) wave propagation. The NRBC is simple and effective, provided the numerical scheme maintains locally a C(sup 1) continuous solution at the boundary. Several numerical examples in ID, 2D and 3D space are illustrated to demonstrate its robustness in practical computations.

  1. On a Non-Reflecting Boundary Condition for Hyperbolic Conservation Laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loh, Ching Y.

    2003-01-01

    A non-reflecting boundary condition (NRBC) for practical computations in fluid dynamics and aeroacoustics is presented. The technique is based on the first principle of non-reflecting, plane wave propagation and the hyperbolicity of the Euler equation system. The NRBC is simple and effective, provided the numerical scheme maintains locally a C(sup 1) continuous solution at the boundary. Several numerical examples in 1D, 2D, and 3D space are illustrated to demonstrate its robustness in practical computations.

  2. Asymptotic profile of a parabolic-hyperbolic system with boundary effect arising from tumor angiogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Ming; Peng, Hongyun; Wang, Zhi-An

    2015-11-01

    This paper concerns a parabolic-hyperbolic system on the half space R+ with boundary effect. The system is derived from a singular chemotaxis model describing the initiation of tumor angiogenesis. We show that the solution of the system subject to appropriate boundary conditions converges to a traveling wave profile as time tends to infinity if the initial data is a small perturbation around the wave which is shifted far away from the boundary but its amplitude can be arbitrarily large.

  3. Single-material semiconductor hyperbolic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Wei, D; Harris, C; Bomberger, C C; Zhang, J; Zide, J; Law, S

    2016-04-18

    Layered semiconductor hyperbolic metamaterials for the mid-infrared are grown by molecular beam epitaxy using a single material system, doped and undoped InAs. The onset wavelength for metamaterial behavior can be tuned from 5.8μm to beyond 10μm, while the fill factor ranges from 0.25 to 0.75, resulting in designer optical behavior. The reflection and transmission behavior were studied by Fourier transform spectroscopy and modeled using effective medium theory. We also conducted a geometric optics experiment to demonstrate negative refraction of our materials. PMID:27137307

  4. Angular distribution of emission from hyperbolic metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Lei; Livenere, J. E.; Zhu, G.; Tumkur, T. U.; Hu, H.; Cortes, C. L.; Jacob, Z.; Prokes, S. M.; Noginov, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    We have studied angular distribution of emission of dye molecules deposited on lamellar metal/dielectric and Si/Ag nanowire based metamaterials with hyperbolic dispersion. In agreement with the theoretical prediction, the emission pattern of dye on top of lamellar metamaterial is similar to that on top of metal. At the same time, the effective medium model predicts the emission patterns of the nanowire array and the dye film deposited on glass to be nearly identical to each other. This is not the case of our experiment. We tentatively explain the nearly Lambertian (∝cosθ) angular distribution of emission of the nanowire based sample by a surface roughness. PMID:25476126

  5. Geometry in the large and hyperbolic chaos

    SciTech Connect

    Hasslacher, B.; Mainieri, R.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors calculated observables in strongly chaotic systems. This is difficult to do because of a lack of a workable orbit classification for such systems. This is due to global geometrical information from the original dynamical system being entangled in an unknown way throughout the orbit sequence. They used geometrical methods from modern mathematics and recent connections between global geometry and modern quantum field theory to study the natural geometrical objects belonging to hard chaos-hyperbolic manifolds.

  6. Transonic potential flow in hyperbolic nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, M.; Caughey, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    The full potential equation for the classical problem of transonic flow through a hyperbolic nozzle (with or without a shock wave) is solved in conservation form using the finite volume method of Jameson and Caughey (1977). Either a firstor a second-order numerical viscosity is added in the direction of the flow, explicitly, in conservation form. A multigrid alternating direction implicit method is used to solve the difference equations, and the results obtained are compared with analytical and numerical results from previous researches.

  7. A SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE FAR-INFRARED SPECTRAL ATLAS OF COMPACT SOURCES IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS. I. THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Van Loon, Jacco Th.; Oliveira, Joana M.; Gordon, Karl D.; Meixner, Margaret; Shiao, Bernie; Boyer, Martha L.; Kemper, F.; Woods, Paul M.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Marengo, Massimo; Indebetouw, Remy; Chen, C.-H. Rosie; Sloan, G. C.

    2010-01-15

    We present far-infrared spectra, {lambda} = 52-93 {mu}m, obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope in the spectral energy distribution mode of its MIPS instrument, of a representative sample of the most luminous compact far-infrared sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). These include carbon stars, OH/IR asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, post-AGB objects and planetary nebulae, the R CrB-type star HV 2671, the OH/IR red supergiants (RSGs) WOH G064 and IRAS 05280 - 6910, the three B[e] stars IRAS 04530 - 6916, R 66 and R 126, the Wolf-Rayet star Brey 3a, the luminous blue variable (LBV) R 71, the supernova remnant N 49, a large number of young stellar objects (YSOs), compact H II regions and molecular cores, and a background galaxy at a redshift z {approx_equal} 0.175. We use the spectra to constrain the presence and temperature of cold dust and the excitation conditions and shocks within the neutral and ionized gas, in the circumstellar environments and interfaces with the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM). First, we introduce a spectral classification scheme. Then, we measure line strengths, dust temperatures, and IR luminosities. Objects associated with star formation are readily distinguished from evolved stars by their cold dust and/or fine-structure lines. Evolved stars, including the LBV R 71, lack cold dust except in some cases where we argue that this is swept-up ISM. This leads to an estimate of the duration of the prolific dust-producing phase ('superwind') of several thousand years for both RSGs and massive AGB stars, with a similar fractional mass loss experienced despite the different masses. We tentatively detect line emission from neutral oxygen in the extreme RSG WOH G064, which suggests a large dust-free cavity with implications for wind driving. In N 49, the shock between the supernova ejecta and ISM is revealed in spectacular fashion by its strong [O I] {lambda}63 {mu}m emission and possibly water vapor; we estimate that 0.2 M {sub

  8. Methodologies to determine forces on bones and muscles of body segments during exercise, employing compact sensors suitable for use in crowded space vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Fernando

    1994-01-01

    A complete description of an instrumented ergometer system, including the sensors, the data acquisition system, and the methodologies to calculate the kinematic parameters were initially developed at Tulane University. This work was continued by the PI at NASA Johnson Space Center, where a flight ergometer was instrumented and tested during a KC-135 Zero-Gravity flight. The sensors that form part of the system include EMG probes and accelerometers mounted on the subject using the ergometer, load cells to measure pedal forces, and encoders to measure position and orientation of the pedal (foot). Currently, data from the flight test is being analyzed and processed to calculate the kinematic parameters of the individual. The formulation developed during the initial months of the grant will be used for this purpose. The system's components are compact (all sensors are very small). A salient feature of the system and associated methodology to determine the kinematics is that although it uses accelerometers, position is not determined by integration. Position is determined by determining the angle of two frames of reference for which acceleration at one point is known in coordinates of both frames.

  9. Contact Geometry of Hyperbolic Equations of Generic Type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The, Dennis

    2008-08-01

    We study the contact geometry of scalar second order hyperbolic equations in the plane of generic type. Following a derivation of parametrized contact-invariants to distinguish Monge-Ampère (class 6-6), Goursat (class 6-7) and generic (class 7-7) hyperbolic equations, we use Cartan's equivalence method to study the generic case. An intriguing feature of this class of equations is that every generic hyperbolic equation admits at most a nine-dimensional contact symmetry algebra. The nine-dimensional bound is sharp: normal forms for the contact-equivalence classes of these maximally symmetric generic hyperbolic equations are derived and explicit symmetry algebras are presented. Moreover, these maximally symmetric equations are Darboux integrable. An enumeration of several submaximally symmetric (eight and seven-dimensional) generic hyperbolic structures is also given.

  10. Purcell effect in hyperbolic metamaterial resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slobozhanyuk, Alexey P.; Ginzburg, Pavel; Powell, David A.; Iorsh, Ivan; Shalin, Alexander S.; Segovia, Paulina; Krasavin, Alexey V.; Wurtz, Gregory A.; Podolskiy, Viktor A.; Belov, Pavel A.; Zayats, Anatoly V.

    2015-11-01

    The radiation dynamics of optical emitters can be manipulated by properly designed material structures modifying local density of photonic states, a phenomenon often referred to as the Purcell effect. Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials with hyperbolic dispersion of electromagnetic modes are believed to deliver a significant Purcell enhancement with both broadband and nonresonant nature. Here, we have investigated finite-size resonators formed by nanorod metamaterials and shown that the main mechanism of the Purcell effect in such resonators originates from the supported hyperbolic modes, which stem from the interacting cylindrical surface plasmon modes of the finite number of nanorods forming the resonator. The Purcell factors delivered by these resonator modes reach several hundreds, which is up to 5 times larger than those in the ɛ-near-zero regime. It is shown that while the Purcell factor delivered by the Fabry-Pérot modes depends on the resonator size, the decay rate in the ɛ-near-zero regime is almost insensitive to geometry. The presented analysis shows a possibility to engineer emission properties in structured metamaterials, taking into account their internal composition.