Science.gov

Sample records for comparacao das medicoes

  1. Medico-legal implications of traumatic cataract.

    PubMed

    Moreschi, Carlo; Da Broi, Ugo; Lanzetta, Paolo

    2013-02-01

    Traumatic cataract is due to lens damage when mechanical, irradiative, electrical or chemical agents injury the globe. The appearance of a traumatic cataract is typically short and unilateral with rare spontaneous resolution and often involves other ocular anatomical areas. Medico-legal evaluation of the appearance and the consequences of a traumatic cataract requires a correct methodological approach with the support of qualified ophthalmological competences. PMID:23357390

  2. Crisis in medico-legal death investigation.

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Joye M.

    2002-01-01

    There is a crisis in the field of medico-legal death investigation! This medical practice is one that most physicians do not think about until they are called in the middle of the night and informed that their patient has died and medical history is requested. Worse still, the trauma surgeon may need to explain why the patient did not survive the life-saving techniques used at his or her medical institution. The worst-case scenario is when the clinician is hit with a malpractice lawsuit. PMID:11837352

  3. MedicoPort: a medical search engine for all.

    PubMed

    Can, Aysu Betin; Baykal, Nazife

    2007-04-01

    We present a new next generation domain search engine called MedicoPort. MedicoPort is a medical search engine designed for the users with no medical expertise. It is enhanced with the domain knowledge obtained from Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) to increase the effectiveness of the searches. The power of the system is based on the ability to understand the semantics of web pages and the user queries. MedicoPort transforms a keyword search into a conceptual search. Through our system we present a topical web crawling technique and indexing techniques empowered by the semantics information. MedicoPort aims to generate maximum output with semantic value using minimum input from the user. Since MedicoPort is designed to help people seeking information about health on the web, our target users are not medical specialists who can effectively use the special jargon of medicine and access medical databases. Medical experts have the advantage of shrinking the answer set by expressing several terms using medical terminology. MedicoPort provides the same advantage to its users through the automated use of the medical domain knowledge in the background. The results of our experiments indicate that, expanding the queries with domain knowledge, such as using the synonyms and partially or contextually relevant terms from UMLS, increase dramatically the relevance of an answer set produced by MedicoPort and the number of retrieved web pages that are relevant to the user request. PMID:17321002

  4. Medico-legal aspects of histopathology practice.

    PubMed

    Ong, B B; Looi, L M

    2001-06-01

    Medico-legal problems experienced by histopathologists differ from those of other clinicians as they are rarely in direct contact with patients. Nevertheless, the pathologist owes a duty of care to the patient and is liable for medical negligence. In the absence of local guidelines, it is prudent to follow guidelines published by learned Colleges elsewhere. This is also true when delegating duties to non-pathologists, technical and other support staff. Errors in diagnosis and documentation pose the most common problems in histopathology. In this, liability also depends on many factors including the provision of adequate clinical information by clinicians and competence of laboratory staff. Clinicopathological discussions, participation in quality assurance programmes and adherence to standard operating procedures are important audit activities to minimize and detect errors as well as prevent grievous outcome to patients. Issues also arise over the retention of specimens and reports. In general, wet, formalin-fixed tissues should be kept until histopathological assessment is finalized and preferably after clinicopathological sessions, and even longer if there is potential litigation. Reports should be archival. Paraffin blocks should be kept for at least the lifetime of the patient, and histology slides for at least 10 years, to facilitate review and reassessment. Despite adverse publicity in the foreign press over the use of human organs and tissues for research and education, it is accepted that processed tissues can be used for research and educational purposes provided the patient's identity is kept confidential. Nevertheless, it would be prudent to revise consent forms for surgery and autopsies to include the possibility that tissues removed can be stored or used for research and education. Good medical practice in pathology encourages a willingness to consult colleagues when in doubt, but advises that the treating clinician be informed if histopathological

  5. Phytol in a pharma-medico-stance.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Torequl; de Alencar, Marcus Vinícius Oliveira Barros; da Conceição Machado, Katia; da Conceição Machado, Keylla; de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante, Ana Amélia; de Sousa, Damiao Pergentino; de Freitas, Rivelilson Mendes

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to review phytol (PYT), through published articles, periodicals, magazines and patents, which were retrieved from the PM, SD, WS, SP; DII, WIPO, CIPO, USPTO and INPI databases. Among the 149 articles and 62 patents, 27.52% articles and 87.09% patients were found on the searched topic, PYT and its sources and synthesis and metabolism; then followed by 15.44% and 14.77% articles on PYT in cytotoxicity/cancer/mutagenicity/teratogenicity and PYT in neurological diseases, respectively. In the pharma-medico viewpoint, PYT and its derivatives have been evident to have antimicrobial, cytotoxic, antitumorous, antimutagenic, anti-teratogenic, antibiotic-chemotherapeutic, antidiabetic, lipid lowering, antispasmodic, anticonvulsant, antinociceptive, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic, antidepressant, immunoadjuvancy, hair growth facilitator, hair fall defense and antidandruff activities. Otherwise, the important biometebolite of PYT is phytanic acid (PA). Evidence shows PA to have cytotoxic, anticancer, antidiabetic, lipid lowering and aniteratogenic activities. In addition, it may be considered as an important biomarker for some diseases such as Refsum's Disease (RD), Sjögren Larsson syndrome (SLS), rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (RZCP), chronic polyneuropathy (CP), Zellweger's disease hyperpipecolic academia (ZDHA) and related diseases. Thus, phytol may be considered as a new drug candidate. PMID:26296761

  6. Medico-legal aspects of doping.

    PubMed

    Madea, B; Grellner, W; Musshoff, F; Dettmeyer, R

    1998-03-01

    Abuse of anabolic steroids is an increasing problem not only among athletes but also body-builders and teenagers. A fast-developing black market has been established since the opening of the borders to eastern Europe. Medico-legal aspects of doping are addressed with particular reference to toxicology and pathology. Constituents of anabolic steroids bought on the black market were identified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; the products did not contain the expected ingredients in 35% of cases. Long-term effects and fatalities because of anabolic steroid abuse are reported here based on our own case material and a literature review. In our own cases, severe cardiovascular side-effects developed after long-term abuse of Dianabol (methandrostenolone) and Oral-Turinabol (chlordehydromethyltestosterone), i.e. myocardial infarction, stroke, organomegaly and/or severe atherosclerosis. The pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications (cardiotoxic effect, risk of atherosclerosis, thrombogenic risk) is discussed based on the available literature reports following fatal outcome after the abuse of anabolic steroids. PMID:15335551

  7. [Immediate intervention of medico-psychological emergency units].

    PubMed

    Bernard-Brunel, Laurent; Cholin, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    Medico-psychological emergency units (CUMP) are part of the emergency medical assistance services. They are adapted to the early treatment of people suffering from the psychological effects of an intentional or accidental disaster. Immediate intervention implies the rapid setting up of a system adapted to the context and to the clinic. PMID:20684467

  8. Current medico-legal death investigation system in China.

    PubMed

    Chang, Lin; Zhang, Baosheng; Yan, Ping; Fowler, David; Li, Ling

    2011-07-01

    Medico-legal death investigation in China has a long history that can be traced back to the Chhin era in the third century BC. We conducted a national study on the current medico-legal death investigation system in China. Our study showed that, at present, medico-legal death investigations in China are conducted by c. 12,000 forensic medical experts mainly within five relatively independent agencies: the police organizations, the prosecutors' offices, the departments/divisions of forensic medicine/science in medical colleges and universities, the Institute of Forensic Science in the Ministry of Justice, and the government or private forensic societies. Owing to China's large population and area, the medico-legal death investigation is largely based on the administrative divisions. There is a wide variation in the scope, extent, and quality of investigations among the agencies and at the different levels of county/district, municipal, and provincial governments. This article gives a general overview of medicolegal death investigation in modern China. PMID:21496020

  9. Imaging of body packing: errors and medico-legal issues.

    PubMed

    Reginelli, Alfonso; Russo, Anna; Urraro, Fabrizio; Maresca, Duilia; Martiniello, Ciro; D'Andrea, Alfredo; Brunese, Luca; Pinto, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Body packing is the ingestion or insertion in the human body of packed illicit substances. Over the last 20 years, drug smuggling has increased global and new means of transport of narcotics have emerged. Among these, the most frequent one is the gastrointestinal tract: from mouth to anus, vagina, and ears. Cocaine is one of the most traded drugs, followed by heroin. Condoms, latex gloves, and balloons are typically used as drug packets for retention in the body. There are different radiologic modalities to detect illicit drugs in body packing: Plain radiography, computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, and magnetic resonance. Current protocols recommend the use of radiography to confirm packet retention and, in case of doubt, the use of abdominal CT scan with reduced mAs. In case of packet rupture, catastrophic effects can occur. Management of patients carrying packets of drugs is a recurrent medico-legal problem. To improve diagnostic accuracy and prevent hazardous complications, radiologists and emergency physicians should be familiar with radiologic features of body packing. The radiologist plays both a social and a medico-legal role in their assessment, and it should not be limited only to the identification of the packages but must also provide accurate information about their number and their exact location. In this review, we focus on diagnostic errors and medico-legal issues related to the radiological assessment of body packers. PMID:26063072

  10. The medico-legal aspects of prescribing vitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Davies, John S; Poole, Chris D; Feldschreiber, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D is a particularly important sterol hormone and its effects beyond bone are increasingly recognized. Over the last decade clinical interest has grown in vitamin D, with increased recognition of deficiency and hence increased prescribing of vitamin D products. However, the increased prescription of vitamin D has generally been met with unlicensed vitamin D products which potentially expose the patient to clinical risk. This review discusses the issues relating to the clinical use of unlicensed vitamin D products, safety concerns that may arise from this, as well as discussing the medico-legal responsibilities of the prescriber and dispenser. PMID:25047693

  11. Ethno – Medico – Botany of Chenchus of Mahaboobnagar District, Andhra Pradesh

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, T. Dharmachandra; Pullaiah, T.

    1999-01-01

    The present paper deals with the ethno-medico-botany of Chenchus of Mahaboobnagar district, Andhra Pradesh. About fourty four plants are enumerated with knowledge of the tribals for their medicinal uses in curing different diseases and ailments. PMID:22556915

  12. Medico - historical study of "Visŭcikă" (Cholera).

    PubMed

    Prasad, P V V

    2005-01-01

    The Sanskrit word Visŭcikă refers to a condition in which vitiated văta dŏşa causes pain like pricking with a needle over the body. It occurs in a person suffering with ajĭrna (indigestion) and its detailed description is available in Ayurvedic literature. This disease has its existence in India since ancient times; it has also been referred in Mahăhărata and Tripitikas. Its etiology, signs, symptoms, complications, prognosis and treatment etc. as described in Ayurveda may be correlated with the disease Cholera, which is commonly known as "Haiza" in Hindi. In Greek language, the word Cholera means a flow of bile or the bilious disease. Cholera is an acute infectious diarrheal disease, caused by comma bacillus or vibrio cholerae sero groups 01 or 0139. Aretaetus, Benjamin Rush, Chadwick, John Snow, Robert Koch, etc. were some of the pioneers in Cholera research. Medico- historical importance of Cholera, its transmission, description and references from Ayurvedic texts etc., are being presented in this article. PMID:17333658

  13. Medico-ecological zoning of the territory of the Russian Federation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubovtseva, Yu. S.; Kagan, A. I.; Pyatigina, O. O.; Voronova, E. V.

    2015-12-01

    The medico-ecological state of Russian regions has been analyzed on the basis of statistical data. It is found that the incidence of different groups of diseases varies significantly in different regions. The regions of Russia are classified according to their medico-ecological parameters; the zones of maximal health risk caused by environmental pollutions, including air, water and soil pollution, are determined. The proposed methods for zoning by health level and the estimate of medico-ecological conditions in different administrative units provide the basis for the development of measures for the adaptation of population. These data can be used for the control of sanitary measures planned by regional organizations for the social-ecological protection of the population.

  14. [Prevention of medico-legal conflicts in medical practice].

    PubMed

    Minossi, José Guilherme

    2009-02-01

    Generally, medico-legal conflicts which occur in surgical and medical practice are a source of worry for both the medical profession and the society as a whole, because on one hand, they could cause high emotional stress for doctors, and on the other hand, patients could be rejected. Once consolidated, defensive medicine increases treatment costs and the doctor-patient relationship could transform into a tragedy. There are many causes for this, including non-treatment factors, such as an unsupported and disorganized health system, lack of participation from society and the doctor in improving this system, the training machine which launches a large number of young unprepared doctors to practice in this noble profession, along with a lack of continuing training, as there are few public or private institutions providing preparation, or further medical training. The related treatment factors are generally, a deficient doctor-patient relationship, poor work condition, power abuse by the doctor, a lack of clear agreement, and poor medical record keeping. These conflicts cannot be solved by simple creating legislation, or by denying the existence of medical error, which occurs at higher frequency than the actual conflicts. It is very important to improve the doctor-patient relationship because an effective fraternal relationship reduces the chance of a judicial demand. The doctor still needs to fully understand his/her conduct obligations and mainly to avoid power abuse. Doctors must also professionally link themselves with politicians who fight for the individual's rights against the system. Society must also understand that health is not just an issue exclusive for doctors, and people must fight to improve living conditions. Society must seriously show its frustration with the increasing disparity between scientific possibilities and actual wellbeing. The training machine needs immediate profound changes to produce professionals with the highest qualifications equipped

  15. The shifting sands of medico-legal intra-partum Ctg (I-P Ctg) monitoring.

    PubMed

    Buttigieg, George G

    2016-03-01

    Intra-partum (IP) surveillance of the unborn child by cardiotacography (CTG) monitoring is the commonest obstetric procedure in the developed world.(1) It is also the most medico-legally contested obstetric procedure in labour. In 2011, 'birth asphyxia' comprised 50% of the UK National Health Service (NHS) litigation costs,(2) and in the 2000-2010 decade, the same NHS paid out £3.1 billion for maternity medico-legal claims (the highest of any speciality), mostly involving cerebral palsy and CTG misinterpretation.(3) This article looks at a number of characteristics of IP CTG monitoring which argue for its questionable solidity of base in court proceedings. PMID:26275850

  16. The medico-legal investigation of abandoned fetuses and newborns--a review of cases admitted to the Pretoria Medico-Legal Laboratory, South Africa.

    PubMed

    du Toit-Prinsloo, L; Pickles, C; Smith, Z; Jordaan, J; Saayman, G

    2016-03-01

    There is a dearth of literature on the extent of fetal or newborn abandonment or "dumping" and the medico-legal investigation procedures these cases require. This is despite the fact that these occurrences are a worldwide phenomenon and by definition involve criminal law concerns such as illegal abortion, concealment of birth, murder, or neonaticide, depending on the country concerned. This article contributes to current literature in both respects and provides a retrospective case audit for the period 2004-2008 pertaining to all abandoned newborns and fetuses admitted to the Pretoria Medico-Legal Laboratory (PMLL) in South Africa. Demographic details, scope, and nature of the medico-legal investigation as well as formulation of cause of death were recorded. A total of 289 cases were identified for inclusion in this study, 57% of which were considered to have been non-viable fetuses, while 45 of the viable fetuses were deemed to have been stillborn. These instances involve the crimes of concealment of birth and at times illegal abortion, yet prosecution of these cases are relatively unheard of. Signs of live birth were identified in 38 of the cases in the study. Of these infants, 9 were deemed to have died from injuries they have sustained, and in a further 9 cases, no anatomical cause of death could be identified. Homicidal cases should be brought in cases where death ensued as a result of abandonment; however, it is not known how many cases were prosecuted. A comparatively large number of cases were found to have been admitted to the Pretoria Medico-Legal Laboratory. This is alarming because South African abortion laws are liberal and services are free at point of access in the public health care sector. A substantial percentage of cases of abandoned infants were found to have shown signs of life after birth implying a homicidal manner of death or death by abandonment, but it seems these cases are merely shelved. PMID:25935238

  17. Documentation of torture victims, assessment of the start procedure for medico-legal documentation.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Lene; Worm, Lise

    2007-01-01

    A Pilot Study was performed at the Rehabilitation and Research Centre for Torture Victims (RCT) in Copenhagen in order to explore the possibilities for adding a medico-legal documentation component to the rehabilitation of torture victims already taking place. It describes the process and results on implementing medico-legal documentation in a rehabilitative setting. A modified version of the Guidelines in the Istanbul Protocol was developed on the basis of the review of literature and current practices described in "Documentation of torture victims, implementation of medico-legal protocols". The modified guidelines were tested on five clients. The aim was twofold: 1) To assess the client's attitude towards the idea of adding a documentation component to the rehabilitation process and: 2) To assess the practical circumstances of implementing the Istanbul Protocol in the everyday life of a rehabilitation centre. Results show that all five clients were positive towards the project and found comfort in being able to contribute to the fight against impunity. Also, the Pilot Study demonstrated that a large part of the medico-legal documentation was already obtained in the rehabilitation process. It was however not accessible due to lack of systematization and a data registering system. There are thus important synergies in collecting data for rehabilitation and documentation but a joint database system is necessary to realize these synergies. PMID:19289892

  18. Barriers to the effective use of medico-legal findings in sexual assault cases worldwide.

    PubMed

    Mont, Janice Du; White, Deborah

    2013-09-01

    Despite the increasing implementation of standardized rape kits across jurisdictions, the medico-legal findings generated by these tools are often not related to positive criminal justice outcomes. Given that there has been no global investigation of the factors that might impede their successful use in cases of sexual assault, we conducted a review of relevant scholarly and "grey" literature from industrialized and less-developed regions. One key theme to emerge from the analysis concerned certain problematic practices and behaviors of professional groups involved in the various stages of the post-sexual assault process. We found that a lack of competence in handling sexual assault cases, contempt for women who have been victimized, and corruption among some forensic examiners, police, scientists, and legal personnel often have shaped the collection, processing, analysis, and use of medico-legal evidence. We discuss recent initiatives and future directions for research that might serve to address these issues. PMID:23935160

  19. Standard of care and guidelines in prevention and diagnosis of venous thromboembolism: medico-legal implications.

    PubMed

    Vassalini, Marzia; Verzeletti, Andrea; De Ferrari, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Concerning recent Italian laws and jurisprudential statements, guidelines application involves several difficulties in clinical practice, regarding prevention, diagnosis and therapy of venous thromboembolism. International scientific community systematically developed statements about this disease in order to optimize the available resources in prophylaxis, diagnosis and therapy. Incongruous prevention, missed or delayed diagnosis and/or inadequate treatment of this disease can frequently give rise to medico-legal litigation. PMID:27374034

  20. Using existing information from medico-legal death investigations to improve care of older people in residential aged care services.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Joseph Elias; Bugeja, Lyndal; Ranson, David

    2013-12-01

    The care of older people in residential aged care services could be improved by optimising the use of existing information gathered for medico-legal death investigations. The authors address three myths contributing to underuse of this information: deaths are not preventable; public health gains are too small; and it is someone else's charter or responsibility A significant proportion of deaths are preventable, specifically those occurring prematurely from natural causes or due to injury and trauma. By addressing these preventable deaths, significant public health cost savings and better health outcomes for our growing ageing population can be achieved. Despite substantive monitoring of the provision of aged care, no single entity is explicitly responsible for systematically analysing medico-legal death information. The data and skills for using information from medico-legal death investigations currently exist. Dispelling the myths removes one impediment to investing in this area of public health. PMID:24597371

  1. The medico-legal, social and ethical implications of surrogate parenthood.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, R A

    1992-01-01

    Infertility has existed for thousands of years and treatment has evolved with the advance of medical science. Surrogate parenthood was effected previously by sexual intercourse, but AIH, AID and GIFT have rendered this practice obsolete. The terms surrogate mother, partial and full surrogacy are defined. Medico-legal, social and ethical arguments for and against surrogacy are discussed. References are made to varying national attitudes as to the desirability of legalizing surrogate parenthood and the implications for commissioning parents, the surrogate mother and adequate counselling are considered. PMID:1302784

  2. DAS performance analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, G.; Bodine, S.; Carroll, T.; Keller, M.

    1984-02-01

    This report begins with an overview of the Data Acquisition System (DAS), which supports several of PPPL's experimental devices. Performance measurements which were taken on DAS and the tools used to make them are then described.

  3. Witnesses of the body: medico-legal cases in seventeenth-century Rome.

    PubMed

    De Renzi, Silvia

    2002-06-01

    Studying early modern medico-legal testimonies can enrich our understanding of witnessing, the focus of much research in the history of science. Expert testimonies were well established in the Roman Cannon law, but the sphere of competence of expert witnesses - one of the grounds on which seventeenth-century physicians claimed social and intellectual authority- troubled contemporary jurists. By reconstructing these debates in Counter Reformation Rome, and by placing in them the testimonies given by Poalo Zacchia, one of the founding fathers of legal medicine, this article discusses the epistemological and social issues surrounding the definition of expertise about the body in court. It shows how a high-ranking expert witness would define his competence versus the legal authority on the one hand, lower-status expert witnesses on the other. But it also explores the interactions between specific legal constraints, for example about eye witnessing, and the ways in which different kinds of witnesses would use the body as a source of evidence for testimony. While engaging with medico-legal issues including the ambiguous signs of childbirth and the (in)visibility of pain, the article examines their meanings within Counter Reformation social controversies, including control over sexuality, imposition of discipline and the social status of physicians. PMID:12240683

  4. Maxillofacial Surgeon as Fact Witness for Medico-Legal Cases: Indian Scenario.

    PubMed

    Kedarnath, N S; Shruthi, R

    2015-12-01

    An Oral and Maxillofacial surgeon at any time during the practice will encounter medicolegal cases (MLC). There are lacunae in the knowledge and understanding of the correct method of dealing with such cases. Many of the practitioners are apprehensive and anxious as they have to interact with individuals and systems outside the normal realm of practice. In today's arena, it is of utmost importance to be aware of legal system and law of the land. An OMF surgeon needs to have thorough understanding in recording and maintenance of the details of all MLCs and presenting the same in the court. Professional guidelines for expert witness are often not well recognised as those relating to the clinical practice. Surgeon has an obligation to conduct him/herself to highest ethical standards. This article provides insight into the details of registration of MLC, examination and recording of injuries, collecting medico-legal evidences and writing a medico legal report. Also discusses the court proceedings and possible questions that may be faced by the surgeon in the court. PMID:26604471

  5. Survey of medico-legal investigation of homicides in the city of Turku, Finland.

    PubMed

    Wahlsten, P; Koiranen, V; Saukko, P

    2007-07-01

    Finland has one of the highest homicide rates in western Europe but the clear-up rate is also exceptionally high. To create a detailed analysis of homicides (n=161) in a region of western Finland during the 20-year period from 1983 to 2002 all available information was collected retrospectively from multiple sources including medico-legal reports, reports of police investigations, and court proceedings. Among the data collected and analysed were location, time, circumstances, and motives of homicides, forensic pathologists' role at the scene-of-the-crime and in court, autopsy findings, demographics and substance abuse of both victims and offenders, criminal background, forensic psychiatric examinations, and the verdicts of the offenders. A typical homicide was committed without premeditation during the weekend by a drunken male with a knife at hand and with a history of violent crimes. The perpetrator was later found guilty of manslaughter and received a prison sentence. Some noted shortcomings both in the police and the medico-legal investigation procedures are discussed, as well as the forensic pathologist's role in the judicial process in Finland. PMID:17052942

  6. [The auditory analysis in the context of the problem of medico-criminalistic identification of the speaker].

    PubMed

    Kaganov, A Sh

    2016-01-01

    This article was designed to discuss the theoretical foundations and methodological basis of the auditory component of the comprehensive medico-criminalistic study aimed at the identification of the speaker from his (her) voice and speech. The article is based on the literature data and the materials of forensic and criminalistic examination carried out by the author. PMID:27070035

  7. [Brazil-Medico and the contributions of medical-hygienist thought to the scientific bases of Brazilian physical education].

    PubMed

    Mendes, Maria Isabel Brandão de Souza; da Nóbrega, Terezinha Petrucia

    2008-01-01

    The end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth were emblematic in the 'scientifization' of physical education in Brazil. This examination of the journal Brazil-Medico during 1887-1923 seeks to identify views of the body and health as well as contributions to the scientific bases of physical education in Brazil. PMID:19241681

  8. When range of motion is not enough: towards an evidence-based approach to medico-legal reporting in whiplash injury.

    PubMed

    Worsfold, Christian

    2014-07-01

    Whiplash injury medico-legal reporting has traditionally been focused upon identifying restrictions in range of motion and identifying the presence of tender areas in the cervical spine in an effort both to diagnose the condition and to offer a prognosis. There have been considerable advances in this field over the last decade however that calls into question such a diminutive approach. This paper reviews the contemporary evidence base for the medico-legal assessment of whiplash injury and identifies a body of literature that strongly implicates a Claimant's physiological and psychological stress response as a key medico-legal marker in predicting prognosis following whiplash injury. PMID:24931872

  9. Teledermatology and clinical photography: safeguarding patient privacy and mitigating medico-legal risk.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Paul; Finnane, Anna R; Soyer, H Peter

    2016-03-21

    Capturing clinical images is becoming more prevalent in everyday clinical practice, and dermatology lends itself to the use of clinical photographs and teledermatology. "Store-and-forward", whereby clinical images are forwarded to a specialist who later responds with an opinion on diagnosis and management is a popular form of teledermatology. Store-and-forward teledermatology has proven accurate and reliable, accelerating the process of diagnosis and treatment and improving patient outcomes. Practitioners' personal smartphones and other devices are often used to capture and communicate clinical images. Patient privacy can be placed at risk with the use of this technology. Practitioners should obtain consent for taking images, explain how they will be used, apply appropriate security in their digital communications, and delete images and other data on patients from personal devices after saving these to patient health records. Failing to use appropriate security precautions poses an emerging medico-legal risk for practitioners. PMID:26985853

  10. A new ethical and medico-legal issue: vascular surgery and the postoperative cognitive dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Setacci, C; Sirignano, A; Ricci, G; Spagnolo, A G; Pugliese, F; Speziale, F

    2015-08-01

    Patients undergoing major surgery are at risk for postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). The consciousness of the POCD arises new ethical and medico-legal issues that should be identified, managed and, if possible, prevented. Elderly patients still represent a real challenge for physicians and medical science. This challenge can be surmounted not only through technical progress but also by safeguarding the correct ethical behavior at the base of each relationship between a patient and his physician. Effective communication with the elderly patient is a prerequisite for clear and complete information, involving family members and caregivers when necessary. In every case, the identification of patients with pre-existing risk factors of POCD, shortening the period of time preceding the surgery and a proper technique of the procedure as well as physical and intellectual exercises, nutrition and medication play an important role in decreasing the incidence of neurocognitive deficits in the elderly. PMID:25216219

  11. Fatal idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis in association with pregnancy - medico-legal evaluation.

    PubMed

    Töro, Klára; Herjavecz, Irén; Vereckei, Edit; Kovács, Margit

    2012-02-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis is a rare disorder characterised by repeated episodes of intra-alveolar bleeding in association with consecutive anaemia, pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension and respiratory failure. Pregnancy may exacerbate the symptoms of idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis typically worsening in the third trimester. A 32-year-old female after delivery was admitted to hospital with progressive dyspnoea of about 1-month duration. Sudden circulatory collapse caused fatal complication. During the post-mortem investigation, lung haemorrhage and histologically abundant iron deposition in macrophages and interstitial fibrosis were found. Medico-legal post-mortem evaluation of fatal cases may support the clinico-pathological context of the diagnosis of this entity. PMID:22281220

  12. Danger points, complications and medico-legal aspects in endoscopic sinus surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hosemann, W.; Draf, C.

    2013-01-01

    Endoscopic endonasal sinus surgery represents the overall accepted type of surgical treatment for chronic rhinosinusitis. Notwithstanding raised and still evolving quality standards, surgeons performing routine endoscopic interventions are faced with minor complications in 5% and major complications in 0.5–1%. A comprehensive review on all minor and major complications of endoscopic surgery of the paranasal sinuses and also on the anterior skull base is presented listing the actual scientific literature. The pathogenesis, signs and symptoms of each complication are reviewed and therapeutic regimens are discussed in detail relating to actual publication references. Potential medico-legal aspects are explicated and recent algorithms of avoidance are mentioned taking into account options in surgical training and education. PMID:24403974

  13. Medico-legal autopsy of abandoned foetuses and newborns in India.

    PubMed

    Behera, C; Sikary, Asit Kumar; Krishna, Karthik; Garg, Aayushi; Chopra, Saurav; Gupta, S K

    2016-06-01

    Foeticide and the abandonment of newborns are important, albeit frequently neglected, issues. Concealment of childbirth is often seen in the setting of unwanted pregnancy which has been recognised as one of the most important factors in both cases. This study highlights the medico-legal autopsy findings of 238 abandoned foetuses and newborns over a period of 17 years (1996-2012) from the region of South Delhi, India. There was no sex predilection. The majority of the cases were full term. Nearly 35% of the foetuses were still born, about 29% were live born and the remainder were non-viable. Among the live born, death by homicide was more common than a natural death and most were left by the roadside. The abandoning and killing of newborns needs urgent attention, and strict measures are needed to save thousands of innocent lives. PMID:26857075

  14. [Infections associated with percutaneous arterial closure devices: medico-legal issues].

    PubMed

    Gaultier, C J; Houselstein, T

    2014-12-01

    Percutaneous suture closure devices have reduced the time needed for manual compression and hospital stays, but several meta-analysis emphasized a higher risk of vascular damages compared to manual compression. Two cases of infections on percutaneous suture closure devices were analyzed; which had medico-legal issues. Beyond the medical point of view, the patient's complaints, the way lawyers and medical experts have examined the cases were analyzed and resulted in physicians and hospitals being sentenced. Rather than stigmatizing those devices, we just want to invite cardiologists not to underestimate this serious risk. Before using those devices, physicians should balance the risk-benefit ratio, follow prevention guidelines, and most of all, be aware of any single signs of emerging infection to detect and treat them early, and thus reduce the severity of infections thanks to a targeted antibiotic treatment adapted to the antibiogram and an active role of vascular surgeons. PMID:25440766

  15. Medico-legal aspects of dental treatment of the ageing and aged patient.

    PubMed

    Story, R D

    2015-03-01

    The medico-legal aspects of the dental management of ageing and aged patients relate mainly to the assessment of the patient's competence and the role of substitute decision makers. Dentists will assess whether or not a patient is competent to give informed consent to treatment. Lawyers use the word 'capacity' when deciding whether a person can make an important decision about their life. Competence and capacity mean the same thing. Assessment of competence and the role of substitute decision makers rests firmly on a sound understanding of the ethical basis of dental practice. This article will discuss the ethical basis of dental practice; the assessment of competence and the gaining of informed consent; the role of substitute decision makers and the nature of the decisions that are made at the end of life. PMID:25762043

  16. Responsible use of cone beam computed tomography: minimising medico-legal risks.

    PubMed

    Noffke, C E E; Farman, A G; Van der Linde, A; Nel, S

    2013-07-01

    This communication highlights some of the ethical and possible legal responsibilities which pertain to the taking, reading, reporting, and communication of findings from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans. The importance of knowledge of head and neck anatomy and pathology to reduce the likelihood of incorrect interpretation is emphasised. Failure to detect critical findings in any diagnostic image can potentially result in medico-legal consequences. CBCT is no exception to this rule. Dental schools are advised to include CBCT imaging as a diagnostic tool in their under- and postgraduate curricula thereby equipping graduates to use 3D imaging in general and CBCT in particular. Existing dental practitioners are advised to seek continuing education on 3D imaging as part of their required lifelong learning. PMID:23971277

  17. Medico-legal aspects of traumatic injury of the vertebrobasilar artery.

    PubMed

    Hiraiwa, Kouichi; Sato, Taku; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Mizusawa, Ikubumi; Nata, Masayuki; Kodama, Namio

    2005-11-01

    Based on our experiences with medico-legal autopsies, we analyzed traumatic injury of the vertebrobasilar artery (VBA) in traffic accident victims. VBA rupture occurred in six cases with traumatic medullary lesions, but in none with cervical cord injury. A relatively small external force applied to the head or neck can induce isolated traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), which accounts for approximately 11% of fatal head injuries. We examined the relationship between site of impact and site of vascular injury in 16 cases of isolated traumatic SAH. The results showed that the vertebral artery (VA) on the side of impact tended to be longitudinally injured in victims experiencing an external force equivalent to that of a fist punch to the head or face. There was no clear relationship between the site of impact and the site of vascular injury in victims who had sustained an external force greater than that of a fist punch. However, our results suggest that an external force causing rotation of the head was likely to cause tearing of the artery. In cases in which an external force equivalent to that of a fist punch was applied to the head, a raised blood alcohol level was a significant risk factor for artery rupture. Furthermore, a difference in the diameters of the left and right VAs was a risk factor for artery rupture. To determine why the VA, the most frequent site of arterial dissection, is also frequently the site of injury, we histologically examined normal and dissected VBAs. We also discuss medico-legal issues of the causal relationship between external force applied and rupture or dissection of the VA. PMID:16308512

  18. "Against all hushing up and stamping down": the Medico-Psychological Clinic of London and the novelist May Sinclair.

    PubMed

    Martindale, Philippa

    2004-01-01

    May Sinclair (1863-1946) was one of the first modern novelists to appropriate psychoanalytic theories in her works. She was an early reader of the new psychoanalytic techniques but, rather than embracing its theories wholeheartedly and unquestioningly, she synthesized those that appealed to her own psychology of womanhood. Moreover, Sinclair's position was a unique one. As well as a highly acclaimed novelist with a respected public voice, she was closely associated with the setting up of one of the first psychotherapeutic centres in Britain, the Medico-Psychological Clinic of London. In this paper, I argue that the eclectic psychoanalytic situations in which Sinclair places her literary heroines mirror the eclectic and potentially feminist endeavours of the medico-Psychological Clinic. I draw upon archival material, hitherto unexamined by literary critics and medical historians, to reflect upon the turbulent lifespan of the Clinic and the attempts to curtail its controversial practices. PMID:21850804

  19. To err is human: Quality management practices in surgical oral pathology, a safety net for medico-legal complications.

    PubMed

    Venkatraman, Narayan T; Bhadranna, Abhishek; Shenoy, Sadhana; Mohanty, Leeky

    2013-05-01

    Reading a slide and rendering a diagnosis is not only a science but also requires us to appreciate the constant artifact that is introduced in a controlled manner by tissue processing and obtaining a stained tissue section. There are a number of steps involved in getting the final stained tissue section and all these procedures if not performed properly have the potential to give rise to erroneous picture on the slide. Simple errors in judgments can lead to wrong diagnosis and unwarranted treatment. Such mistakes can put us at risk for Medico-Legal problems. The subject of Medico-Legal issues and practice of pathology has been neglected and amount of information available to the practicing professional in India is scarce. This paper focuses on standardized procedures for the various histopathology laboratory exercises. The paper highlights the importance of proper record maintenance with reporting protocols. A list of do's and don'ts for an Oral Pathologist is provided to help him/her in reducing the probable Medico-Legal issues. It does not in any way address the issue of individual competence and diagnostic abilities: That is an aspect for each individual to introspect upon and take remedial action. PMID:24250085

  20. [Post-traumatic anosmia: description of a clinical case, proposal of a standardized protocol and medico-legal comments].

    PubMed

    Miani, C; Bracale, A M Bergamin; Moreschi, C; Codarini, M; Ortolani, F

    2002-06-01

    Man's olfactory perception is considerably limited compared to that of other animals; this sense is, however, extremely important in our social lives: it helps us to "savour" our food, it enables us to appreciate perfumes and, even more important, to pick up smells that signal a danger, such as a gas leak or a fire. We describe the clinical case of a patient with anosmia and hypogeusia that appeared immediately after suffering a concussive head injury. We go through the diagnostic protocol for medico-legal assessment of hypoanosmias previously described in the literature, which includes a clinical and an imaging section. In 9% of all anosmic patients, a traumatic event precedes the onset of the disorder, with repercussions on the olfactory channels and centres of the peripherical and/or central nervous system. The overall rate of anosmia following head injury is estimated to be around 7.5%. Among the principal causes of anosmia, those of medico-legal interest constitute 35% of the total. On the basis of our personal experience and of clinical studies conducted by other Authors, we propose that a bioptic investigation of the olfactory mucosa be added to the existing protocol. The olfactory neuroepithelium of patients suffering from post-traumatic anosmia, in fact, evidences some characteristic degenerative aspects. In conclusion, we report several comments regarding the quantification of the reduction of the olfactory function in different areas of medico-legal interest. PMID:12173284

  1. Humans in Space: Summarizing the Medico-Biological Results of the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Risin, Diana; Stepaniak, P. C.; Grounds, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    As we celebrate the 50th anniversary of Gagarin's flight that opened the era of Humans in Space we also commemorate the 30th anniversary of the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) which was triumphantly completed by the flight of STS-135 on July 21, 2011. These were great milestones in the history of Human Space Exploration. Many important questions regarding the ability of humans to adapt and function in space were answered for the past 50 years and many lessons have been learned. Significant contribution to answering these questions was made by the SSP. To ensure the availability of the Shuttle Program experiences to the international space community NASA has made a decision to summarize the medico-biological results of the SSP in a fundamental edition that is scheduled to be completed by the end of 2011 beginning 2012. The goal of this edition is to define the normal responses of the major physiological systems to short-duration space flights and provide a comprehensive source of information for planning, ensuring successful operational activities and for management of potential medical problems that might arise during future long-term space missions. The book includes the following sections: 1. History of Shuttle Biomedical Research and Operations; 2. Medical Operations Overview Systems, Monitoring, and Care; 3. Biomedical Research Overview; 4. System-specific Adaptations/Responses, Issues, and Countermeasures; 5. Multisystem Issues and Countermeasures. In addition, selected operational documents will be presented in the appendices. The chapters are written by well-recognized experts in appropriate fields, peer reviewed, and edited by physicians and scientists with extensive expertise in space medical operations and space-related biomedical research. As Space Exploration continues the major question whether humans are capable of adapting to long term presence and adequate functioning in space habitats remains to be answered We expect that the comprehensive review of

  2. Medico-historical study of "aśvattha" (sacred fig tree).

    PubMed

    Prasad, P V V; Subhaktha, P K J P; Narayana, Ala; Rao, M Mruthyumjaya

    2006-01-01

    Aśvattha (Ficus religiosa Linn.) is a tree which has got mythological, religious and medicinal importance in Indian culture since ancient times. As per Vedic Index Aśvattha means horse stand, a place or site or an object where or under which horses stand. Aśvattha is also known as Pipal and Bodhidrma. This tree is the oldest depicted tree in India. In Vedic times it was used to make fire by friction and considered sacred. Atharvavĕda associates it with the third heaven. It discusses medicinal properties of Aśvattha along with Soma and Kuştha. Aśvattha is associated with the triad of Gods-Brahma, vişņu and siva. Reference to Aśvattha is found in Rămăyaņa, Mahăbhărata, Bhagavadgĭta, Buddhistic literature, Arthaśăstra, Purănăs, Upanişads etc. non-medical literature also. According to Ayurvĕda it has several synonyms. Most of them symbolize its sacredness. Aśvattha is useful in various ailments like consumption, vomiting, ulcers in oral cavity, burns, gynaecological problems etc. Thus its medico-historical importance, regional nomenclature, morphological features in brief etc. are being presented in this article with few illustrations. PMID:18175640

  3. The medico-legal evaluation of injuries from falls in pediatric age groups.

    PubMed

    Kafadar, Safiye; Kafadar, Hüseyin

    2015-04-01

    Blunt trauma from accidental falls or intentional jumping from great heights occurs frequently in forensic medicine. The goal of this study was to investigate injuries due to falls in children under 19 years of age. Injuries from falls are the leading cause of visits to emergency departments and to deaths due to injuries. Various methods are used in the classification of falls. In this study, we have classified falls as "high-level" (≥ 5 m), "low-level" (<5 m) and "ground-level". We have retrospectively evaluated 814 boys (61.18%) and 512 girls (38.62%), making up a total of 1326 children (under 19 years old) with the mean age of 7.85 ± 3.46, that were admitted to State Hospital between January 2009 and December 2013 due to falls from heights and falls on ground-level. Falls were low-level in 738 cases, high-level in 176 cases, and ground-level in 412 cases. Cases were categorized by gender, age, age group, fall height, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), injured body part(s), mortality rate, and distribution according to months. In conclusion, falls merit attention because of their high risk of mortality and morbidity, as well as their burden on medical budgets. If the medico-legal aspects of falls were evaluated with regard to preventive event or death, the importance of the topic could be better understood. PMID:25735785

  4. Urologia: aspetti medico-legali. Cosa l'urologo non può non sapere.

    PubMed

    Rizzotto, Antonio

    2014-12-01

    Medico-legal notes in urologyIn recent years, claims for damages for medical liability have significantly increased. This implies that urologists need to know at least some basic concepts and updates regarding Forensic Medicine. Hence it is mandatory that, beyond the requirements of the law, every physician is covered by insurance liability for medical professionals. With the aim to protect and help the urologist in response to a claim for damages, the Italian Society of Urology has established and activated a "urological first aid", which any member can turn to in a moment of need. In the case of an accident, urologists can contact the "urological first aid" otherwise they can send a letter within 3 days to his/her insurance company, which will analyze the complaint and prepare a brief statement of defence and choose a civil lawyer specializing in medical professional liability. In this paper we will deal with some concepts of forensic medicine, distinguishing between public-liability and penal setting. PMID:25451877

  5. Risk Factors and Medico-Economic Effect of Pancreatic Fistula after Pancreaticoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Renping; Liu, Bing; Chen, Hua; Bai, Xuewei; Kong, Rui; Wang, Gang; Wang, Yongwei; Sun, Bei; Guan, Yinghui

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to uncover the risk factors for the new defined pancreatic fistula (PF) and clinical related PF (CR-PF) after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) surgery and to evaluate the medico-economic effect of patients. A total of 412 patients were classified into two groups according to different criteria, PF and NOPF according to PF occurrence: CR-PF (grades B and C) and NOCR-PF (grade A) based on PF severity. A total of 28 factors were evaluated by univariate and multivariate logistic regression test. Hospital charges and stays of these patients were assessed. The results showed that more hospital stages and charges are needed for patients in PF and CR-PF groups than in NOPF and NOCR-PF groups (P < 0.05). The excessive drinking, soft remnant pancreas, preoperative albumin, and intraoperative blood transfusion are risk factors affecting both PF and CR-PF incidence. More professional surgeons can effectively reduce the PF and CR-PF incidence. Patients with PF and CR-PF need more hospital costs and stages than that in NOPF and NOCR-PF groups. It is critical that surgeons know the risk factors related to PF and CR-PF so as to take corresponding therapeutic regimens for each patient. PMID:25788941

  6. [Medico-legal opinionating in cases of medical errors in declaration of death].

    PubMed

    Jurek, Tomasz; Swiatek, Barbara; Drozd, Radosław

    2007-01-01

    Declaration of death is a diagnosis and it has legal consequences. While declaring death, there is a possibility of committing a medical error. The majority of irregularities in declaring an individual dead occur in emergency situations. When a physician declares death, he is released from the professional obligation of saving the individual's life. The studies were based on the results of medico-legal evaluations in criminal cases in medical errors. In case death is erroneously declared, we may face a situation of squandering the chance of saving the life of a human being. Exposure to loss of life or to severe detriment to health are possible charges here, along with failure to offer medical assistance, although a deliberate character of the offence according to article 162 of the Polish penal code renders such a legal qualification dubious in case of medical errors. In both cases verification is needed whether an interest protected by law was still in existence, i.e. whether the individual was still alive when the physician incorrectly declared him dead. PMID:18432142

  7. A profile of abdominal and pelvic injuries in medico-legal autopsy.

    PubMed

    Subedi, Nuwadatta; Yadav, B N; Jha, Shivendra; Paudel, Ishwari Sharma; Regmi, Rajendra

    2013-08-01

    Abdomino-pelvic region is vulnerable to injury in various forms of trauma. This study was undertaken with objectives to study the pattern and type of external and internal abdominal and pelvic injuries and to identify the risk organs in abdomen and pelvis susceptible to trauma among the medico-legal autopsies at the mortuary of a referral centre in eastern Nepal during the period of one year (n = 80). Males constituted 80% of the cases and the mean age of the victims was 30.76 years. The cause of trauma was Road Traffic Accident in 82.5%. The manner of death was accidental in 87.5% and homicidal in 11.25% cases. Liver (57.5%) was the most common organ injured followed by spleen in 37.5% cases. Multiple organs injury was seen in 67.5% and absence of any external injuries was noted in 31.25% cases. Autopsy can play a role in establishing the missed injuries and be helpful to widen the knowledge of the medical faculty in early diagnosis and management of such injuries. PMID:23910883

  8. Medico-Legal Findings, Legal Case Progression, and Outcomes in South African Rape Cases: Retrospective Review

    PubMed Central

    Jewkes, Rachel; Christofides, Nicola; Vetten, Lisa; Jina, Ruxana; Sigsworth, Romi; Loots, Lizle

    2009-01-01

    Background Health services for victims of rape are recognised as a particularly neglected area of the health sector internationally. Efforts to strengthen these services need to be guided by clinical research. Expert medical evidence is widely used in rape cases, but its contribution to the progress of legal cases is unclear. Only three studies have found an association between documented bodily injuries and convictions in rape cases. This article aims to describe the processing of rape cases by South African police and courts, and the association between documented injuries and DNA and case progression through the criminal justice system. Methods and Findings We analysed a provincially representative sample of 2,068 attempted and completed rape cases reported to 70 randomly selected Gauteng province police stations in 2003. Data sheets were completed from the police dockets and available medical examination forms were copied. 1,547 cases of rape had medical examinations and available forms and were analysed, which was at least 85% of the proportion of the sample having a medical examination. We present logistic regression models of the association between whether a trial started and whether the accused was found guilty and the medico-legal findings for adult and child rapes. Half the suspects were arrested (n = 771), 14% (209) of cases went to trial, and in 3% (31) of adults and 7% (44) of children there was a conviction. A report on DNA was available in 1.4% (22) of cases, but the presence or absence of injuries were documented in all cases. Documented injuries were not associated with arrest, but they were associated with children's cases (but not adult's) going to trial (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for having genital and nongenital injuries 5.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.87–18.13, p = 0.003). In adult cases a conviction was more likely if there were documented injuries, whether nongenital injuries alone AOR 6.25 (95% CI 1.14–34.3, p = 0

  9. The woman who gave birth to a dog Monstrosity and bestiality in Quaestiones Medico-Legales by Paolo Zacchia.

    PubMed

    De Ceglia, Francesco Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The Italian Paolo Zacchia (1584-1659) is considered one of the fathers of forensic medicine. From a letter sent by the physician and botanist Pietro Castelli, the article seeks to reconstruct the opinions that Zacchia expressed about monsters in his monumental Quaestiones Medico-Legales. Although he did not seem too sure about the possibility that a hybrid could be born from the union of a man and a beast, he believed that God intervened, allowing the birth so that the abomination could be discovered. The opinion of Zacchia is related to the image that people had at the time of the relationship between humans and animals. PMID:25702383

  10. The medico-legal observation of an aggressive urogenital fibromatosis with isolated development not related to any traumatic event.

    PubMed

    Muccino, Enrico; Gentile, Guendalina; Mantero, Stefano; Marchesi, Matteo; Rancati, Alessandra; Zoja, Riccardo

    2016-03-01

    Desmoid tumor is a fibroproliferative neoplasm with an intermediate malignancy and it can be localized in every bodily district: some locations are considered exceptional, like the urogenital localization. The Author point out a rare case of giant idiopathic scrotal fibromatosis that was found during an autopsy. A widower, that lived alone in poor hygienic conditions, was found dead in his house. The Judicial Authority ordered the autopsy, that was performed two days later at the Medico-Legal Section of Milan University. External examinations revealed only the considerable dimension of the scrotum (cm 24 × 41). The cause of death was fixed in a cardiac tamponade due to a natural heart laceration localized in correspondence of a transmural infarction. The toxicological exam resulted negative, while the histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis qualify the scrotal mass as a desmoids tumor. Due to the absence of predisposing conditions and of fibroproliferative infiltration in bladder and retroperitoneal space, the neoplasm was configured as an idiopathic desmoid tumor. The presented case gives the reason for the discussion concerning medico-legal aspects that are typical of rare neoplasms. PMID:26786144

  11. Das DNA-Puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, Stefan

    Im Jahre 1953 wurde von James Watson und Francis Crick erstmalig der strukturelle Aufbau der sogenannten DNA (Desoxyribonukleinsäure) beschrieben, welche das Erbgut jedes Lebewesens enthält. Der wesentliche Teil des Erbguts wird dabei durch eine sehr lange Folge der vier Basen Adenin (A), Cytosin (C), Guanin (G) und Thymin (T) codiert. Seit einigen Jahren ist es möglich, die Folge der vier Basen zu einer gegebenen DNA zu bestimmen. Biologen bezeichnen diesen Vorgang als Sequenzierung.

  12. Medico-economic evaluation of health products in the context of the Social Security Financing Act for 2012.

    PubMed

    Dervaux, Benoît; Baseilhac, Eric; Fagon, Jean-Yves; Ameye, Véronique; Angot, Pierre; Audry, Antoine; Becquemont, Laurent; Borel, Thomas; Cazeneuve, Béatrice; Courtois, Jocelyn; Detournay, Bruno; Favre, Pascal; Granger, Muriel; Josseran, Anne; Lassale, Catherine; Louvet, Olivier; Pinson, Jean; de Pouvourville, Gérard; Rochaix, Lise; Rumeau-Pichon, Catherine; de Saab, Rima; Schwarzinger, Mickaël; Sun, Aristide

    2013-01-01

    The participants in round table 6 of the Giens Workshops 2012 drafted recommendations based on the collective interpretation of important elements of the decree concerning the medico-economic evaluation of health products published a few days earlier (02 October 2012). The medico-economic evaluation (MEE), becomes an additional determinant for fixing the prices of health products by the Health products economic committee (Comité économique des produits de santé, CEPS) via the hierarchisation of treatment strategies, and thus modifies the market access conditions. Limiting the analysis to medicinal products and medical devices for which a major, important or moderate improvement in the medical service rendered (ASMR) or of the expected service (ASA) has been requested and presenting a significant budget impact on the Social Security expenses, excludes health products with ASMR or ASA with a lower level requested which often create complex price fixing problems and often have a major budget impact. This latter concept remains to be defined in detail. The MEE envisaged for the first registration must include the need to confirm or refute the initial hypotheses especially concerning the actual position in the therapeutic strategy at the time of renewal of the registration. For the first registration, the conventional reference to European prices guaranteeing a minimum price to innovative medicinal products, the medico-economic models submitted by the industry to the French Drug Authority (Haute autorité de santé, HAS) must be used to guide the compilation of new data to be requested at the time of the registration renewal and to negotiate the level of the discounts in the framework of a price-volume agreement, if applicable. The MEE will allow comparing the result of the analysis to the model hypothesis at the time of the renewal of the registration, which may contribute to the renegotiation (either up or down) of the price of health goods. The costs related to

  13. Drug-related deaths with evidences of body packing: Two case reports and medico-legal issues.

    PubMed

    Cappelletti, Simone; Aromatario, Mariarosaria; Bottoni, Edoardo; Fiore, Paola Antonella; Straccamore, Marco; Umani Ronchi, Federica; De Mari, Guido Maria; Ciallella, Costantino

    2016-05-01

    Body packing is a general term used to indicate the internal transportation of drug packages, mainly cocaine, heroin, amphetamines, and methamphetamine, within the gastrointestinal tract. We described two cases of accidental drug intoxication, observed over the last year period, with evidence of intracorporeal drug concealment. The first case concerned a body packer transporting 69 drug packages of heroin adulterated with piracetam. The second body packer transported 16 drug packages of cocaine adulterated with levamisole. For both cases, forensic examination and toxicological analysis of drug packages and biological samples were carried out. Authors also wants to highlight the main medico-legal issues that commonly arise in cases of suspected or ascertained body packers. PMID:27161917

  14. Risk management in clinical practice. Part 6b. Identifying and avoiding medico-legal risks in removable dentures.

    PubMed

    Stilwell, C

    2010-10-01

    The most likely cause of complaint with prosthodontics is a denture that in some way fails to be accepted. A denture that does not perform as the patient expects can give rise to great disappointment and anger. The problem is that acceptance of a denture is not just a technical issue. Success depends on the individual's ability to tolerate and adapt to the denture. It is therefore essential to make the right assessment for the patient from the outset. This includes discovering the patient's priorities and establishing realistic expectations. With the aim of assisting the dental profession in identifying and avoiding medico-legal risks in removable dentures, this article sets out a systematic, diagnostic and collaborative approach to complete and partial denture assessment and treatment. PMID:20930774

  15. Visualizing sexual assault: an exploration of the use of optical technologies in the medico-legal context.

    PubMed

    White, Deborah; Du Mont, Janice

    2009-01-01

    This article is an exploration of the visualization of sexual assault in the context of adult women. In investigating the production of visual evidence, we outline the evolution of the specialized knowledge of medico-legal experts and describe the optical technologies involved in medical forensic examinations. We theorize that the principles and practices characterizing medicine, science and the law are mirrored in the medico-legal response to sexual assault. More specifically, we suggest that the demand for visual proof underpins the positivist approach taken in the pursuit of legal truth and that the generation of such evidence is based on producing discrete and decontextualized empirical facts through what are perceived to be objective technologies. Drawing on interview and focus group data with 14 sexual assault nurse examiners (SANEs) in Ontario, Canada, we examine perceptions and experiences of the role of the visual in sexual assault. Certain of their comments appear to lend support to our theoretical assumptions, indicating a sense of the institutional overemphasis placed on physical damage to sexually assaulted women's bodies and the drive towards the increased technologization of visual evidence documentation. They also noted that physical injuries are frequently absent and that those observed through more refined tools of microvisualization such as colposcopes may be explained away as having resulted from either vigorous consensual sex or a "trivial" sexual assault. Concerns were expressed regarding the possibly problematic ways in which either the lack or particular nature of visual evidence may play out in the legal context. The process of documenting external and internal injuries created for some an uncomfortable sense of fragmenting and objectifying the bodies of those women they must simultaneously care for. We point to the need for further research to enhance our understanding of this issue. PMID:18952339

  16. Connecting the Dots in DAS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    Many institutions implement a distributed antenna system (DAS) as part of a holistic approach to providing better wireless coverage and capacity on campus. A DAS provides wireless service within a particular area or structure via a network of separate antenna nodes that are connected to a common source through fiber or coaxial cable. Because DAS…

  17. Padova Charter on personal injury and damage under civil-tort law : Medico-legal guidelines on methods of ascertainment and criteria of evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Santo Davide; Baccino, Eric; Boscolo-Berto, Rafael; Comandè, Giovanni; Domenici, Ranieri; Hernandez-Cueto, Claudio; Gulmen, Mete Korkut; Mendelson, George; Montisci, Massimo; Norelli, Gian Aristide; Pinchi, Vilma; Ranavaya, Mohammed; Shokry, Dina A; Sterzik, Vera; Vermylen, Yvo; Vieira, Duarte Nuno; Viel, Guido; Zoja, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Compensation for personal damage, defined as any pecuniary or non-pecuniary loss causally related to a personal injury under civil-tort law, is strictly based on the local jurisdiction and therefore varies significantly across the world. This manuscript presents the first "International Guidelines on Medico-Legal Methods of Ascertainment and Criteria of Evaluation of Personal Injury and Damage under Civil-Tort Law". This consensus document, which includes a step-by-step illustrated explanation of flow charts articulated in eight sequential steps and a comprehensive description of the ascertainment methodology and the criteria of evaluation, has been developed by an International Working Group composed of juridical and medico-legal experts and adopted as Guidelines by the International Academy of Legal Medicine (IALM). PMID:26342285

  18. [Pelvic and genital injuries in children. Sexual injuries of young girls. Management in a medico-legal context].

    PubMed

    Soutoul, J H; Robert, M; Pierre, F

    1988-01-01

    In the emergency care of a young girl presumed to be a victim of sexual assault and the treatment of the lesions discovered in the perineum and vulvo-vaginal tract, the paediatric surgeon must take into consideration the medico-legal aspects of the file right from the first approach to this young victim. It would actually be damaging to her if a paediatric surgeon reconstituted the perineal tissues, vulva and vagina "ad integrum" without carefully describing the lesions observed and without, whenever possible, taking good quality photographs to be kept in the case file to support the evidence of sexual assault, if a criminal procedure is filed. Similarly, as a complement to this assessment of the initial lesions, the surgeon must be able to establish an anatomical and functional assessment of the vulvo-vaginal tract after healing, to enable the experts appointed by the court to determine the basis for compensation of bodily damages related to the sexual assault and the expenses entailed by further plastic operations required by the sequelae of the genital lesions. The bases for a pretium doloris, future aesthetic, sexual and obstetric damages should also be indicated in any certificate given to the patient's family or to the court experts. Thus, if the surgeon participates indirectly in demonstrating evidence of the crime subject to penal sanction, he can help the victim in her parallel civil court action for compensation of her bodily damages before the repressive jurisdiction. PMID:3168089

  19. Trends in domestic animal medico-legal pathology cases submitted to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory 1998-2010.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Beverly J

    2012-09-01

    Pathologists at veterinary diagnostic laboratories receive medico-legal cases from a variety of animal species for postmortem examination. A search of computerized records of the Animal Health Laboratory, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada from 1998 to 2010 identified 1706 medicolegal cases. These were categorized according to the history as criminal investigations, anesthetic-related deaths, insurance, litigation, malpractice cases, and regulatory cases. Statistically significant linear trends in the proportion of medicolegal cases for all animals and criminal cases for companion animals were identified over the 12 year period. Companion animals had significantly greater odds of being a medicolegal case in all categories except for insurance and regulatory cases, compared to noncompanion animals. Based on pathology reports for the 271 criminal cases, 43.1% were consistent with neglect, 29.2% were compatible with non-accidental injury, 4.80% were poisonings, 10.7% were deemed to be due to natural disease, and 11.43% were inconclusive. PMID:22458814

  20. The medico-legal aspects of road traffic deaths in children under 5 years of age.

    PubMed

    Terranova, Claudio

    2015-11-01

    The family tragedy that results from a child who dies in a road traffic accident may be exacerbated by judicial consequences for the adult/parent driving the vehicle, carrying the child, or responsible for properly immobilising the child in the safety device that was used. The author presents two court cases of the road traffic accident deaths of two children under the age of five years. The two cases are presented using a methodological approach, which integrates competencies in other fields into the medico-legal aspects. An analysis of the two cases provides the opportunity to discuss the driver's responsibility to properly use child safety seat and to analyse and evaluate the efficacy and limits of child restraint systems. In the two cases, the responsibility for the application of a child safety device was excluded. It was confirmed that child protective devices are not always sufficient to avoid lesions or death in road accidents that occur with significant speed or other specific dynamics. PMID:26462201

  1. Resins and Gums in Historical Iatrosophia Texts from Cyprus – A Botanical and Medico-pharmacological Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lardos, Andreas; Prieto-Garcia, José; Heinrich, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This study explores historical iatrosophia texts from Cyprus from a botanical and medico-pharmacological point of view focusing on remedies containing resins and gums. The iatrosophia are a genre of Greek medical literature of Byzantine origin and can be described as medicine handbooks which serve as therapeutic repositories containing recipes or advice. To extract and analyze information on plant usage in such sources – which are largely unedited texts and so far have not been translated – we investigate (i) the relationship of the iatrosophia to Dioscorides’ De Materia Medica as well as historic pharmaceutical books or standard texts on modern phytotherapy and (ii) the validity of the remedies by comparing them to modern scientific data on reported biological activities. In the six texts investigated 27 substances incorporating plant exudates are mentioned. They are obtained from over 43 taxa of higher plants and in particular are used to treat dermatological, gastrointestinal, and respiratory tract conditions. The comparison to historic pharmaceutical books and phytotherapy texts reflects the gradual decline of the use of plant exudates in Western medicine. While remarkable parallels to Dioscorides’ text exist, the non-Dioscoridean influence suggests a complex pattern of knowledge exchange. Overall, this resulted in an integration of knowledge from so far poorly understood sources. The comparison with bioscientific data reveals a fragmentary picture and highlights the potential of these unexplored substances and their uses. Where relevant bioscientific data are available, we generally found a confirmation. This points to a largely rational use of the associated remedies. Taken together, the iatrosophia are a valuable resource for ethnopharmacological and natural product research. Most importantly they contribute to the understanding of the development of herbal medicines in the (Eastern) Mediterranean and Europe. PMID:21772820

  2. [Opium alcaloids in toxicological medico-legal practice of Department of Forensic Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College].

    PubMed

    Kłys, Małgorzata; Rojek, Sebastian; Maciów-Głab, Martyna; Kula, Karol

    2013-01-01

    Most likely, opium was the first narcotic substance discovered at the dawn of mankind. Contemporary drug abuse predominantly poses a social and clinical problem and encompasses among other aspects emergency procedures in cases of intoxication and treatment of addictions. On the other hand, this is also a problem of the judicial system, which implements the rule of apt punishment in criminal cases (rapes, robberies, drivers, production and trade in narcotic substances) and of the necessity of monitoring drug-associates deaths. In all drug-associated cases, investigative capabilities have increased with the introduction of extremely sensitive and specific analytical methods (GC-MS, LC/MS, HPLC/DAD) allowing for detection and identification of multi-component mixtures of xenobiotics found at low concentration levels in complex biological matrices. The history of the Krakow Department of Forensic Medicine dates back to the year 1877, since archival materials have been kept since that time. Isolated deaths resulting from morphine poisoning, mostly involving individuals employed in the health care sector, constituted the subject of medico-legal expert opinions starting at the beginning of the 20th century, but only the eighties did bring the need for multidirectional toxicological examinations of opiates and their metabolites in diversified biological and non-biological materials. The present report, in addition to the historical background of opiate addiction, discusses selected problems derived from published by Department reports on opiates, including cases of fatal intoxication, hair analysis of drug addicts in its various aspects, interactions in cases of poisoning and others. PMID:24847643

  3. Interpersonal violence in road rage. Cases from the Medico-Legal Center for Victims of Violence in Hamburg.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Joost-Levin; Pueschel, Klaus; Seifert, Dragana

    2016-04-01

    Aggressive behavior in traffic is a widespread phenomenon. Up to 90% of the population are involved in mild forms such as shouting or gesturing. More dramatic cases with injury to individuals affect at least 1100 people in the US annually. Certain factors such as a male sex, a young age and an urban residency have been identified to contribute to the likelihood of road rage. Central to this analysis is the determination of specific features regarding the conflicting parties, the crime scene and the injury pattern in violent offenses related to traffic. In a retrospective study spanning 10 years, cases of road rage-linked injuries were identified amongst patients at the Medico-Legal Center of the Institute of Legal Medicine in Hamburg, Germany. The data were digitized and then analyzed using descriptive statistics via SPSS. There are disproportionately large numbers of males (85.7%) and motorists (61.2%) amongst road rage perpetrators. Usually the conflicting parties have no prior relationship (89.7%). In 68.1% of the cases, the violence applied was exclusively physical. Objects were utilized in 31.0% of all cases, and in more than half (55.6%) of these cases the vehicle was used as a weapon. The resulting trauma in road rage is mostly blunt and applied to the face and the extremities. There are characteristic features regarding the demographics, time and place of incident, as well as severity and pattern of injury in road rage associated offenses. Identifying these factors may lead to appropriate measures in the reduction of road rage. PMID:26817969

  4. Comparison of injuries due to lethal weapons during and after civil strife in Sri Lanka: A medico-legal study

    PubMed Central

    Vidanapathirana, Muditha; Ruwanpura, Rohan P; Amararatne, Sriyantha RRG; Ratnaweera, Ajith RHI

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: “Injuries due to lethal weapons” has emerged as a subject of public discussion in Sri Lanka. This study was conducted to describe the nature and characteristics of injuries due to lethal weapons during civil strife and to compare those with injuries after civil strife. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on patients reported with injuries caused by lethal weapons from 2004 to 2014. Periods before and after May 19, 2009 were considered as during and after civil strife periods, respectively. A total of 21,210 medico-legal examination forms were studied. Results: There were 358 (1.7%) injuries caused by lethal weapons. Of them, 41% (n = 148) were during and 59% (n = 210) were after the civil strife. During civil strife, 63% occurred during daytime (P < 0.05). Types of lethal weapons that caused injuries were sharp weapons (n = 282), explosives (n = 49), and firearms (n = 27). Of them, 32% of during and 01% of after civil strife were explosive injuries (P < 0.01). Regarding severity, 73% of during and 57% of after civil strife injuries were severe (P < 0.05). During civil strife, 34% injuries were in lower limbs (P < 0.01) and after civil strife, 37% were in upper limbs (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The presence of many similarities indicated that both groups learnt their basis in a society that breeds violence. During civil strife, more injuries occurred during daytime, to lower limbs by explosive weapons and after the civil strife during nighttime, to upper limbs by nonexplosive weapons. Nonexplosive lethal weapon use after civil strife needs further investigation to develop evidence-based interventions. PMID:27127743

  5. A contextual analysis of nervous force in medico-scientific and literary writings in English of the nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries.

    PubMed

    Lazar, J Wayne

    2015-01-01

    This study concerns the context of use of the term "nervous force," as it appears in scientific and literary publications in English over the course of the nineteenth century and the first two decades of the twentieth century. The context of use, loss, or waste of nervous force and the context of nervous force as an expression of an attribute are analyzed in 189 scientific and 105 literary writings. Both contexts appeared in literary writings, where nervous force expresses the attributes of strength, forcefulness, vigor, or energy and use, loss or waste of nervous force explains such nonmorbid conditions as why someone is tired or needs rest. Only the context of use-loss-waste appeared in the medico-scientific literature, but here it explained both nonmorbid conditions (for example, effects of old age) and morbid conditions (like epilepsy). Changes in the number of these references give insights into the medico-scientific and the literary disciplines. Discussions include why nervous force is associated with explanation of disease, the persistence of its use in this capacity, and its influence on a similar use in literary writings. PMID:25297565

  6. From stack-firing to pyromania: medico-legal concepts of insane arson in British, US and European contexts, c.1800–1913. Part 2

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    The second part of this paper1 explores deepening doubts about pyromania as a special insanity, British debates post-1890, and pyromania’s supplanting with the broader diagnostic category of insane incendiarism. It assesses the conceptual importance of revenge and morbid-motivations for arson, and the relationship of Victorian and Edwardian concepts of arson to more modern psychiatric research. The main objective is to ascertain the extent to which Victorian and Edwardian medico-psychologists and medical legists arrived at meaningful and workable definitions of criminal insanity linked to arson. It concludes by emphasizing the limitations, contentiousness and inconsistencies in the use of technical terms such as ‘pyromania’, contrasted with the qualified success of authorities in arriving at more viable and broadly acceptable explanations of insane firesetting. PMID:21877418

  7. Medico-economic evaluation of healthcare products. Methodology for defining a significant impact on French health insurance costs and selection of benchmarks for interpreting results.

    PubMed

    Dervaux, Benoît; Baseilhac, Eric; Fagon, Jean-Yves; Biot, Claire; Blachier, Corinne; Braun, Eric; Debroucker, Frédérique; Detournay, Bruno; Ferretti, Carine; Granger, Muriel; Jouan-Flahault, Chrystel; Lussier, Marie-Dominique; Meyer, Arlette; Muller, Sophie; Pigeon, Martine; De Sahb, Rima; Sannié, Thomas; Sapède, Claudine; Vray, Muriel

    2014-01-01

    Decree No. 2012-1116 of 2 October 2012 on medico-economic assignments of the French National Authority for Health (Haute autorité de santé, HAS) significantly alters the conditions for accessing the health products market in France. This paper presents a theoretical framework for interpreting the results of the economic evaluation of health technologies and summarises the facts available in France for developing benchmarks that will be used to interpret incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. This literature review shows that it is difficult to determine a threshold value but it is also difficult to interpret then incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) results without a threshold value. In this context, round table participants favour a pragmatic approach based on "benchmarks" as opposed to a threshold value, based on an interpretative and normative perspective, i.e. benchmarks that can change over time based on feedback. PMID:25230355

  8. Medico-Artistic Complicities on Swedish Stages: The Boys in the Band and the Regulation of Gay Male Representation in the Welfare State.

    PubMed

    Gindt, Dirk

    2016-05-01

    Seeking to understand the highly unfavorable conditions for the development of gay male theater in Sweden, this essay engages in a historical study of the national opening of Mart Crowley's The Boys in the Band at Malmö City Theatre in 1970. Propelled by a Foucauldian-inspired theoretical approach, it identifies the subtle, yet highly effective, measures of control that the, at the time, social democratic welfare state exercised over representations of homosexuality on stage. State representatives, who complied with the official political and medical doctrine that homosexuality was a mental illness and posed a potential threat to social stability, interfered at various levels of the production, including the rehearsal process and post-performance talks between cast members and audiences. This alliance between Swedish theaters and members of the medical, psychological, and sexological professions constituted a medico-artistic complicity that supervised and regulated early attempts of gay representation on stage. PMID:26565769

  9. Social isolation and delayed discovery of bodies in houses: the value of forensic pathology, anthropology, odontology and entomology in the medico-legal investigation.

    PubMed

    Archer, M S; Bassed, R B; Briggs, C A; Lynch, M J

    2005-07-16

    The bodies of socially isolated people may remain undiscovered in their own houses for prolonged periods. Occasionally the body is in situ for sufficient time to become skeletonised, or partially so. Medico-legal investigation of these cases is complicated by degradation and contamination of evidence. Thus, a multidisciplinary forensic investigation is recommended. The potential contributions of forensic pathology, anthropology, odontology and entomology are outlined here with reference to two cases that occurred in Victoria, Australia, in 2003. Forensic pathologists are often unable to determine the cause of death in skeletonised bodies, however, they may find evidence to support either a natural or unnatural mode of death, and they may describe skeletal pathology or trauma, and identify skeletal features to support radiological identification of the deceased. Anthropologists can provide supplementary evidence of skeletal trauma. Additionally, they can assess age, sex, stature and racial affiliation from skeletal remains. Odontologists can identify individuals through comparison with ante-mortem dental records; however, potential difficulties exist in identifying the treating dentist of a socially isolated person. Odontologists may also examine the teeth and oro-facial skeleton for trauma. Entomologists may estimate minimum death time and/or season of death. Entomological examination of insect remains may also confirm that a body has lain in situ for a considerable period. PMID:15939160

  10. [Permanent essential defacement--remarks on the possibilities of verification of the accepted criteria in medico-legal certification in criminal and civil law proceedings].

    PubMed

    Chowaniec, Czesław; Nowak, Agnieszka; Jabłoński, Christian; Neniczka, Stanisława

    2007-01-01

    Despite the fact that some criteria of medico-legal certification in criminal and civil proceedings have been established, there are still some topics which are controversial and thus require modification. This is also true of the notion of "permanent essential defacement". In the opinion of the authors, changes in social conventions that are occurring nowadays, as well as a highly diversified, subjective perception of esthetic values indicate the need for discussing a possible modification of the presently obligatory criteria. Apart from the assessment of posttraumatic changes, an important problem is posed by defining the notion of "a part of the body customarily open to the view ". Additionally, the authors bring up for discussion the issue of experts taking into consideration the age and sex of the victims while assessing damages. A separate problem lies in difficulties in assessing the degree of detriment to health because of defacement due to the fact that official tables for evaluating permanent or long-term detriment to health do not include relevant information. PMID:17571513

  11. Dasty3, a WEB framework for DAS

    PubMed Central

    Villaveces, Jose M.; Jimenez, Rafael C.; Garcia, Leyla J.; Salazar, Gustavo A.; Gel, Bernat; Mulder, Nicola; Martin, Maria; Garcia, Alexander; Hermjakob, Henning

    2011-01-01

    Motivation: Dasty3 is a highly interactive and extensible Web-based framework. It provides a rich Application Programming Interface upon which it is possible to develop specialized clients capable of retrieving information from DAS sources as well as from data providers not using the DAS protocol. Dasty3 provides significant improvements on previous Web-based frameworks and is implemented using the 1.6 DAS specification. Availability: Dasty3 is an open-source tool freely available at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/dasty/ under the terms of the GNU General public license. Source and documentation can be found at http://code.google.com/p/dasty/. Contact: hhe@ebi.ac.uk PMID:21798964

  12. Selective culturing and genus-specific PCR detection for identification of Aeromonas in tissue samples to assist the medico-legal diagnosis of death by drowning.

    PubMed

    Huys, Geert; Coopman, Vera; Van Varenbergh, Dirk; Cordonnier, Jan

    2012-09-10

    The detection of autochthonous aquatic bacteria in tissue samples from drowning cases is increasingly considered as an alternative approach to assist the medico-legal diagnosis of death by drowning. Bacteria belonging to the genus Aeromonas may be suitable candidates for this application as they are ubiquitous in natural aquatic environments but are generally not part of the human microbiota. The research aims of this study were (i) to develop a sensitive, specific and rapid screening and confirmation method for Aeromonas species in tissue samples and (ii) to evaluate aseptic sternal puncture as a post-mortem sample technique and bone marrow as an alternative matrix to provide evidence of death by drowning. The presence of Aeromonas in tissue samples was verified by cultivation using the selective media Ampicillin Dextrin Agar (ADA) and Ryan's Aeromonas Medium. The use of ADA medium was found most optimal for the sensitive, inexpensive and quick detection of aeromonads in human tissue samples. Positive culture plates were confirmed by harvesting all colonies for DNA extraction and subsequent PCR amplification using Aeromonas genus-specific primers. Aeromonads were detected in lung swab, blood and bone marrow of drowned bodies (n=3), but were negative in these three matrices for all negative controls (n=90) tested. Bone marrow proved to be a suitable alternative matrix and can be sampled post-mortem by an aseptic sternal puncture. In conclusion, this study confirms previous indications that aeromonads in cultures from blood of water bodies can be considered a potential marker for drowning. Given the fact that the number of immersed bodies (drowned and non-drowned) included in this study is statistically not significant, however, more tissue samples need to be investigated to confirm the validity of these methods to aid the diagnosis of death by wet drowning. PMID:22497704

  13. [Werner Leibbrand, Annemarie Wettley and controversies on "euthanasia" the background of medico-historical and ethical debates in the Post World War II era].

    PubMed

    Wiesinger, Christine; Frewer, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatrists and medical historians Werner Leibbrand (1896 - 1974) and Annemarie Wettley (1913 - 1996) are amongst the most striking figures in the field of history of medicine. Leibbrand was appointed director of the "Heil- und Pflegeanstalt" in Erlangen shortly after the war. Fuelled by his own experiences of suppression and persecution during the Nazi era he promised to unearth the crimes and atrocities which had happened under watch of the Nazi regime. He was joined by Annemarie Wettley, who worked as a physician at the hospital and had developed an increasing interest in the history of medicine. In 1946 they published "Um die Menschenrechte der Geisteskranken" ("Human Rights of the Mentally Ill") about the "euthanasia" campaign of the Nazi regime. Although a number of substantial works followed, Leibbrand and Wettley failed to inform in more depth on crimes and atrocities, for instance killings of patients and forced malnutrition. Doubts and charges against Wettley regarding her role in dietary programmes at the Erlangen hospital and against Leibbrand regarding special expert's reports--both had a short-term arrest warrant--might have contributed to stagnation in their efforts. In 1953 Leibbrand accepted the offer of a chair at the University in Munich, Wettley followed and habilitated in history of medicine; in the year 1962 they married. Contacts and exchange amongst medico-historical experts shed light on developments during the post-war era; still, a critical and fundamental review of the crimes within the medical system of the Nazi regime did not take place during this time. PMID:25980306

  14. For mothers and sisters: care of the reproductive female body in the medico-ritual world of early and medieval Japan.

    PubMed

    Triplett, Katja

    2014-01-01

    While married female members of the Japanese aristocracy followed the ideal of bearing children, female Buddhist novices and ordained women, often belonging to the aristocracy themselves, had to abstain from sexual activity and reproduction in accordance with the ordination rules. Infertility was considered with disdain by the first group, whereas not bearing children was the utmost expression of leading a virtuous life for the second group. However, both groups were concerned with keeping their physical bodies healthy: some to become mothers, the others to live as nuns or religious sisters. Focusing on the early medieval period, this paper examines various sources to illuminate the ways in which women were cared for and the kind of views and ideas that informed this care. Instead of looking at the ancient methods of treatment through a modern "scientific" lens and sorting them into "proto-scientific" and "superstitious" categories, medico-ritual and religious views on the female body are explored as facets of the worldview prevalent in the period under consideration. Special attention is paid to relevant chapters of the first medical work produced in Japan, the Ishinpō, compiled by a court physician, Tanba no Yasuyori, in the late 10th century CE. The investigation of other sources, such as Buddhist legends and doctrinal texts, suggests that women were recommended to seek to overcome their femaleness altogether by transforming their female bodies into male bodies in order to reach ultimate "healing" in terms of salvation. In lay circles, however, the Buddhist divinities and other powerful deities were worshipped to ensure this-worldly "healing" in terms of successful procreation and continuation of the family line. PMID:25481966

  15. For mothers and sisters: care of the reproductive female body in the medico-ritual world of early and medieval Japan.

    PubMed

    Triplett, Katja

    2014-01-01

    While married female members of the Japanese aristocracy followed the ideal of bearing children, female Buddhist novices and ordained women, often belonging to the aristocracy themselves, had to abstain from sexual activity and reproduction in accordance with the ordination rules. Infertility was considered with disdain by the first group, whereas not bearing children was the utmost expression of leading a virtuous life for the second group. However, both groups were concerned with keeping their physical bodies healthy: some to become mothers, the others to live as nuns or religious sisters. Focusing on the early medieval period, this paper examines various sources to illuminate the ways in which women were cared for and the kind of views and ideas that informed this care. Instead of looking at the ancient methods of treatment through a modern "scientific" lens and sorting them into "proto-scientific" and "superstitious" categories, medico-ritual and religious views on the female body are explored as facets of the worldview prevalent in the period under consideration. Special attention is paid to relevant chapters of the first medical work produced in Japan, the Ishinpō, compiled by a court physician, Tanba no Yasuyori, in the late 10th century CE. The investigation of other sources, such as Buddhist legends and doctrinal texts, suggests that women were recommended to seek to overcome their femaleness altogether by transforming their female bodies into male bodies in order to reach ultimate "healing" in terms of salvation. In lay circles, however, the Buddhist divinities and other powerful deities were worshipped to ensure this-worldly "healing" in terms of successful procreation and continuation of the family line. PMID:25508818

  16. Physik gestern und heute Das Eiskalorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heering, P.

    2003-07-01

    Kalorimetrische Messungen gehören heute zum experimentellen Standardrepertoire im Bereich der Thermodynamik und der physikalischen Chemie. Das erste Gerät für derartige Messungen entwickelten Ende des 18. Jahrhunderts die französischen Wissenschaftler Antoine Laurent Lavoisier und Pierre Simon de Laplace.

  17. GHRSST-14 DAS-TAG Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Edward; Piolle, Jean Francois

    2013-01-01

    The DAS-TAG provides the informatics and data management expertise in emerging information technologies for the GHRSST community. It provides expertise in data and metadata formats and standards, fosters improvements for GHRSST data curation, experiments with new data processing paradigms, and evaluates services and tools for data usage. It provides a forum for producer and distributor data management issues and coordination.

  18. Moisture Forecast Bias Correction in GEOS DAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dee, D.

    1999-01-01

    Data assimilation methods rely on numerous assumptions about the errors involved in measuring and forecasting atmospheric fields. One of the more disturbing of these is that short-term model forecasts are assumed to be unbiased. In case of atmospheric moisture, for example, observational evidence shows that the systematic component of errors in forecasts and analyses is often of the same order of magnitude as the random component. we have implemented a sequential algorithm for estimating forecast moisture bias from rawinsonde data in the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS). The algorithm is designed to remove the systematic component of analysis errors and can be easily incorporated in an existing statistical data assimilation system. We will present results of initial experiments that show a significant reduction of bias in the GEOS DAS moisture analyses.

  19. Das morgendliche Brückenritual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sander, Oliver

    Es wäre für Mediziner sehr interessant zu wissen, was für Kräfte genau in den menschlichen Knien wirken. Klar ist, dass sie recht groß sein müssen. Das Gewicht eines erwachsenen Mannes beträgt ca. 80 kg. Wenn davon je die Hälfte auf einem Bein ruht hat man schon mindestens 400 Newton pro Knie, beim Laufen, Springen, oder Treppensteigen noch viel mehr. Man will es aber noch viel genauer wissen. Die Kondylen, das sind die Kontaktflächen in den Knien, sind nicht eben. Es gibt dort Unregelmäßigkeiten, und die Kräfte konzentrieren sich dort. An einzelnen Stellen können die Kräfte dann noch viel höher sein.

  20. Tuberculosis: medico-legal aspects.

    PubMed

    Vetrugno, G; De-Giorgio, F; D'Alessandro, F; Scafetta, I; Berloco, F; Buonsenso, D; Abbate, F; Scalise, G; Pascali, V L; Valentini, P

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a diffusive infectious disease whose typical behaviour differentiates it from other infectious diseases spread by human-to-human transmission (flu, chicken pox, cholera, etc.) that follow a classic epidemic pattern. Indeed, in the presence of a known source of Koch bacilli that is capable of spreading the bacteria by air, not all exposed individuals inhale the bacteria, not all those who inhale them absorb them, not all those who absorb the bacteria are unable to eliminate them, not all who are able to eliminate them do so using delayed hypersensitivity, not all those who react with delayed hypersensitivity suffer lasting tissue damage (among other things, minor), not all who suffer tissue damage have anatomical sequelae, and not all those who have anatomical sequelae, however minimal, become carriers of bacilli in the latent period. The vast majority (90-95%) of the latter - which are in any case a portion, not the totality of those exposed - remain asymptomatic throughout their lives and never develop active tuberculosis. Based on these biological characteristics and the legal concepts of "epidemic" and "disease," it becomes highly problematic, if not impossible, to assert both that tuberculosis can cause events of sufficient magnitude to be associated with the crime of "epidemic," and that the mere diagnosis of a latent tuberculosis infection is sufficient to assume the presence of an illness legally prosecutable in criminal proceedings or a disability prosecutable in civil proceedings. Furthermore, clinically apparent tuberculosis is a temporarily-and in some cases permanently-disabling condition, and in certain work environments, even with the difficulties caused by the lack of available effective diagnostic tools and the insidious behaviour of the disease in the early stages, targeted monitoring to identify other persons who may become ill is appropriate. PMID:24804006

  1. "Das Konkrete ist das Abstrakte, an das man sich schließlich gewöhnt hat." (Laurent Schwartz) Über den Ablauf des mathematischen Verstehens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowsky, Martin

    Die im Titel genannte Aussage findet sich in den Lebenserinnerungen von Laurent Schwartz (1915-2002), einem der fruchtbarsten Mathematiker, Mitglied der Gruppe Bourbaki. Im Original lautet die Aussage: "un objet concret est un objet abstrait auquel on a fini par s'habituer." Schwartz erläutert sie am Beispiel des Integrals über {e^{-1/2{x^2}}} , das den Wert Wurzel aus 2π hat und in dem sich also die Zahlen e und π verknüpfen. Was Schwartz aber vor allem ausdrücken will, ist dies: Das mathematische Verständnisd geht langsam vor sich und es bedarf der Anstrengung. "Es ist eine Frage der Zeit und der Energie", sagt Schwartz, und gerade dies mache es so schwer, die höhere Mathematik unter das Volk zu bringen. Das Lernen und Lehren von Mathematik laufe eben mühevoll und langsam ab.

  2. Pedagogical Basis of DAS Formalism in Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiltunen, J.; Heikkinen, E.-P.; Jaako, J.; Ahola, J.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a new approach for a bachelor-level curriculum structure in engineering. The approach is called DAS formalism according to its three phases: description, analysis and synthesis. Although developed specifically for process and environmental engineering, DAS formalism has a generic nature and it could also be used in other…

  3. DAS: A Data Management System for Instrument Tests and Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frailis, M.; Sartor, S.; Zacchei, A.; Lodi, M.; Cirami, R.; Pasian, F.; Trifoglio, M.; Bulgarelli, A.; Gianotti, F.; Franceschi, E.; Nicastro, L.; Conforti, V.; Zoli, A.; Smart, R.; Morbidelli, R.; Dadina, M.

    2014-05-01

    The Data Access System (DAS) is a and data management software system, providing a reusable solution for the storage of data acquired both from telescopes and auxiliary data sources during the instrument development phases and operations. It is part of the Customizable Instrument WorkStation system (CIWS-FW), a framework for the storage, processing and quick-look at the data acquired from scientific instruments. The DAS provides a data access layer mainly targeted to software applications: quick-look displays, pre-processing pipelines and scientific workflows. It is logically organized in three main components: an intuitive and compact Data Definition Language (DAS DDL) in XML format, aimed for user-defined data types; an Application Programming Interface (DAS API), automatically adding classes and methods supporting the DDL data types, and providing an object-oriented query language; a data management component, which maps the metadata of the DDL data types in a relational Data Base Management System (DBMS), and stores the data in a shared (network) file system. With the DAS DDL, developers define the data model for a particular project, specifying for each data type the metadata attributes, the data format and layout (if applicable), and named references to related or aggregated data types. Together with the DDL user-defined data types, the DAS API acts as the only interface to store, query and retrieve the metadata and data in the DAS system, providing both an abstract interface and a data model specific one in C, C++ and Python. The mapping of metadata in the back-end database is automatic and supports several relational DBMSs, including MySQL, Oracle and PostgreSQL.

  4. Pedagogical basis of DAS formalism in engineering education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiltunen, J.; Heikkinen, E.-P.; Jaako, J.; Ahola, J.

    2011-03-01

    The paper presents a new approach for a bachelor-level curriculum structure in engineering. The approach is called DAS formalism according to its three phases: description, analysis and synthesis. Although developed specifically for process and environmental engineering, DAS formalism has a generic nature and it could also be used in other engineering fields. The motivation for this new curriculum structure originates from the urge to solve the problems that engineering education has faced during the past decades, e.g. student recruitment problems and dissatisfactory learning outcomes. The focus of this paper is on the structure of the curriculum but the content is also discussed when it has an effect on the structure and its implementation. The presented structure, i.e. DAS formalism, builds upon the ideas of some classical pedagogical theories, which have regularly been applied at course level but seldom used to solve curriculum-level issues.

  5. Was hat das Universum mit uns zu tun?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesch, Harald

    Was hat das Universum mit uns zu tun? Da der Mensch ein Teil des Universums ist, muss er etwas mit dem Universum zu tun haben. Das Universum stellt ja ganz allgemein den größten Ursache-Wirkung-Zusammenhang dar, über den hinaus zwar noch gedacht und gerechnet, aber nichts mehr beobachtet oder gemessen werden kann. Es definiert also nicht nur die Möglichkeiten materiell-energetischer Seinsformen sondern auch deren Grenzen. Leben, bzw. menschliches Leben stellt im Universum dann zwar eine spezielle Form, aber eben nur eine Form materieller Daseinsstruktur dar. Neben Galaxien, Gas, Sternen, Planeten, Asteroiden und anderen Formen unbelebter Materie gibt es eben auch noch Lebewesen. Das klingt nach Inventur, nach Aufzählung ohne Unterschied. Diese einfache erste Betrachtung liefert vielleicht die ein oder andere Anregung für ein weiteres Suchen nach Substanzen, aber ein wesentliches Moment geht hier verloren. Ich meine die empirische, sehr gut abgesicherte Tatsache, dass das Universum, wie alles was es enthält, eine Entwicklung durchlaufen hat und auch weiterhin durchläuft - nennen wir diese Entwicklung die kosmische Evolution.

  6. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of influenza virus mutants selected with the sialidase fusion protein DAS181

    PubMed Central

    Triana-Baltzer, Gallen B.; Sanders, Rebecca L.; Hedlund, Maria; Jensen, Kellie A.; Aschenbrenner, Laura M.; Larson, Jeffrey L.; Fang, Fang

    2011-01-01

    Background Influenza viruses (IFVs) frequently achieve resistance to antiviral drugs, necessitating the development of compounds with novel mechanisms of action. DAS181 (Fludase®), a sialidase fusion protein, may have a reduced potential for generating drug resistance due to its novel host-targeting mechanism of action. Methods IFV strains B/Maryland/1/59 and A/Victoria/3/75 (H3N2) were subjected to >30 passages under increasing selective pressure with DAS181. The DAS181-selected IFV isolates were characterized in vitro and in mice. Results Despite extensive passaging, DAS181-selected viruses exhibited a very low level of resistance to DAS181, which ranged between 3- and 18-fold increase in EC50. DAS181-selected viruses displayed an attenuated phenotype in vitro, as exhibited by slower growth, smaller plaque size and increased particle to pfu ratios relative to wild-type virus. Further, the DAS181 resistance phenotype was unstable and was substantially reversed over time upon DAS181 withdrawal. In mice, the DAS181-selected viruses exhibited no greater virulence than their wild-type counterparts. Genotypic and phenotypic analysis of DAS181-selected viruses revealed mutations in the haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) molecules and also changes in HA and NA function. Conclusions Results indicate that resistance to DAS181 is minimal and unstable. The DAS181-selected IFV isolates exhibit reduced fitness in vitro, likely due to altered HA and NA functions. PMID:21097900

  7. The medico historical perspective of vitiligo (Switra).

    PubMed

    Panda, Ashok Kumar

    2005-01-01

    The history of Switra is as old as the human civilization. The earliest medical literature has given the description of Switra in rgavĕda and Atharvavĕda. Switra is also narrated in Mahăbhărat and in Vinayapĭţika. A Roman physician known as Celsus first introduced the term Vitiligo in the second century A.D. Vitiligo is also known as Leucoderma. The history of psychosocial repercussion was described in Vedic literature and it is also found in our society. A population-based study was presented to understand the social implication of this disease. The detailed description of etiological factors and modalities of treatment is found in all ayurvĕdic classics. Bakuci (Psoralia cordifolia) is still continuing as a photosensitizing drug in the treatment of Switra from the time of Caraka. PMID:17333661

  8. Medico-legal issues in cardiology.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Ryan; Cohen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to educate physicians about the current litigation climate in cardiology and cardiac surgery, with a focus on the most frequently litigated areas of practice, including failure to diagnose and treat myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass graft surgery, percutaneous coronary intervention, and the use of tissue plasminogen activator. Empirical research on cardiology malpractice is presented, along with a sampling of up-to-date cases designed to illustrate common issues and important themes. The principles for reducing legal liability are also discussed, including the informed consent process, spoliation of records, and the role of documentation. Finally, practical recommendations are provided for cardiologists and cardiac surgeons to limit their legal liability. PMID:23422021

  9. [Surgery for dysgnathia: medico-legal aspects].

    PubMed

    Mangoni, E D

    1990-01-01

    Recent developments in surgical treatments of dentofacial deformities, regarding the modern and far-reaching views of health protection, are taken into account by the Author. He refers to the normative provisions revealing the interest of the legal health system in this pathology. He asserts the rightfulness of the treatment and the hypotheses of unlawfulness; he mentions aspects of personal identification of a patient surgically treated whose physiognomy is modified, in the light of identification regulations. Special profiles of the patient's consent and participation in options on alternative treatments are outlined; basic deontological rules are recalled as well (risks/benefits proportion, technical ability of dentist and auxiliaries, fitness of place, accurate anaesthesiological planning). PMID:2291707

  10. Das menschliche Gehör und Grundlagen der Psychoakustik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genuit, Klaus; Sottek, Roland

    Das menschliche Gehör ist ein äußerst komplexes Empfangs- und Signalverarbeitungssystem. Es ist als Schallanalysator in Leistungsfähigkeit und Vielseitigkeit von technisch-analytischen Verfahren nach wie vor unerreicht. Die Signalverarbeitung läuft auf Grundlage komplexer Prozesse ab, die in ihrer Gesamtheit bislang nicht vollständig erfasst sind. Verschiedene Modelle zur gehörgerechten Zeit- und Frequenzanalyse ahmen jene komplexen Prozesse und Verarbeitungsmechanismen nach, die im menschlichen Gehör vollzogen werden.

  11. Discrepancies in assessment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and secondary Sjögren's syndrome by DAS28-ESR and DAS28-CRP

    PubMed Central

    Olesińska, Marzena; Paradowska-Gorycka, Agnieszka; Mańczak, Małgorzata; Felis-Giemza, Anna; Wojdasiewicz, Piotr; Szukiewicz, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether a difference exists between DAS28 from CRP and DAS28 from ESR in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and secondary Sjögren's syndrome (sSS). Material and methods One group comprised patients with RA and sSS, the control group comprised patients with RA. The inclusion criteria for the RA and sSS group have been specified as follows: presence of at least one symptom of dryness, and also presence of anti-SS-A and anti-SS-B or at least focus score of one in biopsy. Results The disease activity score 28 (DAS28) was assessed using both ESR and CRP in 60 patients with RA and sSS and 59 patients with RA alone. However, concordance between these two methods was good (Cohen's κ coefficient κ = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.45-0.75 in the first group and κ = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.56-0.86 in the control group). In the group with RA and sSS, the mean value of DAS28-ESR = 5.2, whereas the mean value of DAS28-CRP = 4.7 (p < 0.0001). In the group with RA alone, mean DAS28-ESR = 4.7 while mean DAS28-CRP = 4.6; no significant difference was identified. Moreover, in RA patients with sSS, mean ESR = 39 mm/h compared with mean CRP at 25 mg/l. 79% of all patients demonstrated dysproteinaemia. There were connections between higher ESR and dysproteinaemia. In the control group there was no statistically significant difference between CRP and ESR. Conclusions Both DAS28-ESR and DAS28-CRP are useful outcome measures in RA. However, in patients with RA and sSS, DAS28 should be evaluated based on CRP. PMID:27536205

  12. Homo sapiens und das 21. Jahrhundert - evolutionsbiologische Betrachtungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oehler, Jochen

    Was meinen wir, wenn wir vom 21. Jahrhundert sprechen? Es ist ein Zeitraum, der sich durch die Festlegung des Menschen ergibt, die nach Christi Geburt verstrichene Zeit in Jahren zu zählen. Eine kulturelle Leistung, die primär auf der Fähigkeit beruht, das Phänomen Zeit a priori wahrnehmen zu können. Die Antizipation der Zeit ist in der Welt der Organismen ein weit verbreitetes Prinzip. Entsprechend existieren auf zellulären bis zu zentralnervösen Ebenen verschiedenste Mechanismen, die dies ermöglichen. So basiert die Zeitwahrnehmung des Menschen auf zentralnervösen Strukturen und Prozessen phylogenetisch älterer Hirnstrukturen, die ihrerseits die Körperfunktionen von der zellulären bis zur Verhaltensebene steuern und regeln und sie damit an exogene Zeitregime, wie z. B. den Tag-Nacht-Rhythmus (circadianer Rhythmus), anpassen. Die Chronobiologie weist nach, welch große adaptive Bedeutung zeitantizipierende Mechanismen für die Organismen haben, das heißt Fitness fördernd sind (Piechulla 1999; Spork 2004). Die für verschiedene Kulturen des Menschen maßgebliche Zeitrechnung basiert auf der quantitativen Erfassung kosmisch oder irdisch regelmäßig wiederkehrender Ereignisse.

  13. Einfluss des Internets auf das Informations-, Einkaufs- und Verkehrsverhalten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerlich, Mark R.; Schiffner, Felix; Vogt, Walter

    Mit Daten aus eigenen Erhebungen können das einkaufsbezogene Informations- und Einkaufsverhalten im Zusammenhang mit den verkehrlichen Aspekten (Distanzen, Verkehrsmittel, Wegekopplungen) dargestellt werden. Die Differenzierung in die drei Produktkategorien des täglichen, mittelfristigen und des langfristigen Bedarfs berücksichtigt in erster Linie die Wertigkeit eines Gutes, die seine Erwerbshäufigkeit unmittelbar bestimmt. Der Einsatz moderner IKT wie das Internet eröffnet dem Endverbraucher neue Möglichkeiten bei Information und Einkauf. Die verkehrliche Relevanz von Online-Shopping wird deutlich, wenn man berücksichtigt, dass im Mittel rund 17% aller Online-Einkäufe, die die Probanden durchgeführt haben, Einkäufe in Ladengeschäften ersetzen. Dies gilt in verstärktem Maße für Online-Informationen: etwa die Hälfte hätte alternativ im stationären Einzelhandel stattgefunden. Da der Erwerb von Gütern des täglichen Bedarfs häufig nahräumlich und in relevantem Anteil nicht-motorisiert erfolgen kann, sind in diesem Segment - im Gegensatz zum mittel- und langfristigen Bedarf - nur geringe Substitutionseffekte zu beobachten.

  14. Statistical Quality Control of Moisture Data in GEOS DAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dee, D. P.; Rukhovets, L.; Todling, R.

    1999-01-01

    A new statistical quality control algorithm was recently implemented in the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS). The final step in the algorithm consists of an adaptive buddy check that either accepts or rejects outlier observations based on a local statistical analysis of nearby data. A basic assumption in any such test is that the observed field is spatially coherent, in the sense that nearby data can be expected to confirm each other. However, the buddy check resulted in excessive rejection of moisture data, especially during the Northern Hemisphere summer. The analysis moisture variable in GEOS DAS is water vapor mixing ratio. Observational evidence shows that the distribution of mixing ratio errors is far from normal. Furthermore, spatial correlations among mixing ratio errors are highly anisotropic and difficult to identify. Both factors contribute to the poor performance of the statistical quality control algorithm. To alleviate the problem, we applied the buddy check to relative humidity data instead. This variable explicitly depends on temperature and therefore exhibits a much greater spatial coherence. As a result, reject rates of moisture data are much more reasonable and homogeneous in time and space.

  15. M-DAS: System for multispectral data analysis. [in Saginaw Bay, Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    M-DAS is a ground data processing system designed for analysis of multispectral data. M-DAS operates on multispectral data from LANDSAT, S-192, M2S and other sources in CCT form. Interactive training by operator-investigators using a variable cursor on a color display was used to derive optimum processing coefficients and data on cluster separability. An advanced multivariate normal-maximum likelihood processing algorithm was used to produce output in various formats: color-coded film images, geometrically corrected map overlays, moving displays of scene sections, coverage tabulations and categorized CCTs. The analysis procedure for M-DAS involves three phases: (1) screening and training, (2) analysis of training data to compute performance predictions and processing coefficients, and (3) processing of multichannel input data into categorized results. Typical M-DAS applications involve iteration between each of these phases. A series of photographs of the M-DAS display are used to illustrate M-DAS operation.

  16. Psychometric Properties of the Disability Assessment Schedule (DAS) for Behavior Problems: An Independent Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsakanikos, Elias; Underwood, Lisa; Sturmey, Peter; Bouras, Nick; McCarthy, Jane

    2011-01-01

    The present study employed the Disability Assessment Schedule (DAS) to assess problem behaviors in a large sample of adults with ID (N = 568) and evaluate the psychometric properties of this instrument. Although the DAS problem behaviors were found to be internally consistent (Cronbach's [alpha] = 0.87), item analysis revealed one weak item…

  17. Das Programm Oder 2006. Hochwasserschutz in Polen im Zuge der EU-Osterweiterung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühne, Olaf

    Hochwasser ist ein natürliches Ereignis: Seit jeher sind die Menschen mit Hochwasser und seinen Auswirkungen konfrontiert. Das Ausmaß von Hochwasser reicht dabei von Straßenüberschwemmungen bis zur Überflutung ganzer Landesteile. Auch im Oderflußsystem waren und sind Überschwemmungen keine Seltenheit, in den letzten 200 Jahren ereigneten sie sich in den Jahren 1813, 1838, 1854, 1870, 1903, 1958, 1965, 1970, 1972, 1977, 1981, 1985 und 1997. Das Hochwasser von 1997 war jedoch das schwerste im genannten Zeitraum. Als Reaktion auf das Hochwasser von 1997 wurde in der betroffenen Region das Programm 〝Oder 2006`` entwickelt. Mit seiner Hilfe sollen die Auswirkungen künftiger Hochwasserereignisse abgeschwächt werden.

  18. Development of Ga-67 labeled DFO-DAS-fibrinogen conjugate as a thrombus imaging agent.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, S

    1987-01-01

    A cluster method developed for labeling large molecular proteins with radioactive metal was applied for 67Ga-labeled fibrinogen. A large number of deferoxamine (DFO) was introduced to human fibrinogen using dialdehyde strarch (DAS) as a spacer-functional polymer. The synthesized DFO-DAS-fibrinogen mentioned above was easily labeled with GaCl3 (67Ga) solution (2 mCi/5 mg). The basic investigations found that 67Ga-DFO-DAS-fibrinogen was applicable to the diagnosis of thrombus, and clinical trials were carried out under the physician-sponsored IND. In our further investigation, improvement of the 67Ga-DFO-DAS-fibrinogen reagent was attempted to obtain high specific radioactivity. This was accomplished with the more familiar 67Ga citrate. From the results of a series of experiments, 67Ga-DFO-DAS-fibrinogen of a new composition labeled using 67Ga citrate with high specific radioactivity (2 mCi/3 mg) was prepared, and both reagents were evaluated as thrombus imaging agents from the chemical and biological aspects. The labeling efficiency and clottability of both 67Ga-DFO-DAS-fibrinogen conjugates were satisfactorily high, more than 95% and 80%, respectively. The biodistribution in rats showed that both 67Ga-DFO-DAS-fibrinogen conjugates were essentially the same. These results suggest that there are no significant differences between reagents. At present, the improved reagents are being supplied for the second clinical trials under physician-sponsored IND. PMID:3438481

  19. Crosslinking effect of dialdehyde starch (DAS) on decellularized porcine aortas for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Gu, Zhipeng; Qin, Huanhuan; Li, Li; Yang, Xu; Yu, Xixun

    2015-08-01

    Biological tissue-derived biomaterials must be chemically modified to avoid immediate degradation and immune response before being implanted in human body to replace malfunctioning organs. DAS with active aldehyde groups was employed to replace glutaraldehyde (GA), a most common synthetic crosslinking reagent in clinical practice, to fix bioprostheses for lower cytotoxicity. The aim of this research was to evaluate fixation effect of DAS. The tensile strength, crosslinking stability, cytotoxicity especially the anti-calcification capability of DAS-fixed tissues were investigated. The tensile strength and resistance to enzymatic degradation of samples were increased after DAS fixation, the values maintained stably in D-Hanks solution for several days. Meanwhile, ultrastructure of samples preserved well and the anti-calcification capability of samples were improved, the amount of positive staining points in the whole visual field of 15% DAS-fixed samples was only 0.576 times to GA-fixed ones. Moreover, both unreacted DAS and its hydrolytic products were nontoxic in cytotoxicity study. The results demonstrated DAS might be an effective crosslinking reagent to fix biological tissue-derived biomaterials in tissue engineering. PMID:26038106

  20. A Safety Evaluation of DAS181, a Sialidase Fusion Protein, in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Jeffrey L.; Kang, Seong-Kwi; Choi, Bo In; Hedlund, Maria; Aschenbrenner, Laura M.; Cecil, Beth; Machado, GloriaMay; Nieder, Matthew; Fang, Fang

    2011-01-01

    DAS181 is a novel inhaled drug candidate blocking influenza virus (IFV) and parainfluenza virus (PIV) infections through removal of sialic acid receptors from epithelial surface of the respiratory tract. To support clinical development, a 28-day Good Laboratory Practices inhalation toxicology study was conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats. In this study, achieved average daily doses based on exposure concentrations were 0.47, 0.90, 1.55, and 3.00 mg/kg/day of DAS181 in a dry powder formulation. DAS181 was well tolerated at all dose levels, and there were no significant toxicological findings. DAS181 administration did not affect animal body weight, food consumption, clinical signs, ophthalmology, respiratory parameters, or organ weight. Gross pathology evaluations were unremarkable. Histological examination of the lungs was devoid of pulmonary tissue damage, and findings were limited to mild and transient changes indicative of exposure and clearance of a foreign protein. DAS181 did not show any cytotoxic effects on human and animal primary cells, including hepatocytes, skeletal muscle cells, osteoblasts, or respiratory epithelial cells. DAS181 did not cause direct or indirect hemolysis. A laboratory abnormality observed in the 28-day toxicology study was mild and transient anemia in male rats at the 3.00 mg/kg dose, which is an expected outcome of enhanced clearance of desialylated red blood cells resulting from systemic exposure with DAS181. Another laboratory observation was a transient dose-dependent elevation in alkaline phosphatase (ALP), which can be attributed to reduced ALP clearance resulting from increased protein desialylation due to DAS181 systemic exposure. These laboratory parameters returned to normal at the end of the recovery period. PMID:21572096

  1. Phase 1 clinical trials of DAS181, an inhaled sialidase, in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Zenilman, Jonathan M; Fuchs, Edward J; Hendrix, Craig W; Radebaugh, Christine; Jurao, Robert; Nayak, Seema U; Hamilton, Robert G; McLeod Griffiss, J

    2015-11-01

    DAS181, (study drug, Fludase®) was developed for treatment of influenza and parainfluenza infections. Delivered by inhalation, DAS181 cleaves sialic acid receptors from respiratory epithelial cells. Treatment of influenza for three days with DAS181 reduced viral shedding. To increase deposition in the upper airways and decrease systemic absorption, the particle size was increased to 10μm. We conducted two Phase I trials with three cohorts, randomized 2:1, active drug to placebo. The initial cohort got a single 20mg dose of DAS181, or placebo; the second, 20mg DAS181 or placebo for 10days, and the third got 20mg of DAS181 or placebo for 3days. Formulations differed slightly in their excipients. Subjects in the 1- and 3-day cohorts completed dosing without serious adverse events. Two subjects in the 10-day cohort stopped at Day 9 after developing respiratory and systemic symptoms, and a third experienced a decrease in FEV1 (Forced Expiratory Volume in 1s) after the 9th dose and a further decline after the 10th dose. Plasma DAS181, in the 10-day cohort, peaked and began falling before the last dose. Antibodies, predominately IgG with neutralizing activity, were detected in 15/18 subjects by Day 30. The highest IgG concentrations were in the 10-day cohort. The respiratory adverse events occurring after seven days and rapid drug clearance during continued dosing are consistent with the induction of DAS181 antibodies. This could preclude use of this medication for longer than seven days or for repeated courses. (These studies have been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration Nos. NCT 00527865 and NCT 01651494.). PMID:26391974

  2. VIIRS ocean color data visualization and processing with IDL-based NOAA-SeaDAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaolong; Liu, Xiaoming; Jiang, Lide; Wang, Menghua; Sun, Junqiang

    2014-11-01

    The NOAA Sea-viewing Data Analysis System (NOAA-SeaDAS) is an Interactive Data Language (IDL)-based satellite data visualization, analysis, and processing system based on the version 6.4 of the NASA's Sea-viewing Wide Field-ofview (SeaWiFS) Data Analysis System (SeaDAS) released in 2012. NOAA-SeaDAS inherited all the original functionalities of SeaDAS 6.4 and was upgraded with many new functions and new sensor supports, particularly the support of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (SNPP). The main goal of the NOAA-SeaDAS development is primarily in support of NOAA ocean color team's calibration and validation activities. The current version of NOAA-SeaDAS can visualize, analyze, and process VIIRS Sensor Data Records (SDR or Level-1B data) produced by the NOAA Interface Data Processing System (IDPS), ocean color Environmental Data Records (EDR or Level-2 data) produced by the NOAA Multi-Sensor Level-1 to Level- 2 (MSL12) ocean color data processing system, and Level-3 data binned or mapped from Level-2 data produced by NOAA-MSL12. NOAA-SeaDAS is currently serving an active IDL user group at NOAA and will serve other institutions and universities in the future. The goal is to allow various scientific users to visualize, analyze, and process VIIRS data from Level-1B through Level-2 and Level-3. In addition, NOAA-SeaDAS can also visualize satellite images from the Korean Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), as well as many other satellite ocean color sensors, e.g., SeaWiFS, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), etc. NOAA-SeaDAS is under constant development to create new system functionalities and enhance user experience. With constantly increasing volume in the global ocean color data archive, NOAA-SeaDAS will play an important role in support of global marine environment data analysis and various scientific applications.

  3. BOOK REVIEW: Geheimnisvolles Universum - Europas Astronomen entschleiern das Weltall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Lorenzen, D. H.

    2002-12-01

    The 25th birthday of ESO, in 1987, was celebrated by the publication of an illustrated popular book, "Exploring the Southern Sky" (Springer-Verlag 1987), which also saw editions in Danish, English, French, German, and Spanish. Written and illustrated by the ESO staff members Svend Laustsen, Claus Madsen and Richard M. West, its many pictures were mainly taken with the ESO 3.6m and Schmidt telescopes. The structure of the book - perhaps at that time somewhat unusual - started with things far away (Universe and galaxies), zoomed in to the Milky Way, and finally reached the Solar System (with a concluding chapter dealing with the La Silla observatory). Now, with the 4 units of the Very Large Telescope in full operation, and on the occasion of ESO's 40th birthday, another jubilee book has appeared: "Geheimnisvolles Universum: Europas Astronomen entschleiern das Weltall", written by the science journalist Dirk H. Lorenzen, of Hamburg, Germany, and prefaced by Catherine Cesarsky, Director General of ESO. Presumably, this book will also soon become available in more languages spoken in ESO member countries. Thus it may be worthwhile to review the first edition, although some readers may like to wait for more easily accessible editions. Before going into details, let me first mention that I find this a very impressing book, great to look at and refreshing to read. With ESO seen through the eyes of a visitor, things gain a perspective that is quite different from that of the previous book, and at least as attractive. It comes as no surprise that the book starts with a visit of ESO's showcase, the Paranal Observatory, and the writer not only notes down his own impressions, but also cites statements of some of the many people that keep Paranal going - technicians and staff astronomers. This mixture of texts provides a good impression of the operations at a large observatory for the general reader. The two more 'astronomical' parts that follow deal with star and planet

  4. Amerikas Einschätzung der deutschen Atomforschung: Das deutsche Uranprojekt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Mark

    2002-07-01

    Die amerikanischen Wissenschaftler und ihre emigrierten Kollegen, die am Bau der Atombombe beteiligt waren, verfügten über sehr widersprüchliche und großteils falsche Informationen über den Fortschritt des deutschen Uranprogramms. Noch nach Kriegsende lässt sich dies an Aussagen des Leiters der amerikanischen Alsos-Mission, Samuel Goudsmit, festmachen. Tatsächlich war das deutsche Programm hinsichtlich seiner wissenschaftlichen Grundlagen und des Managements nicht so unterlegen, wie vielfach behauptet wurde. Aber die deutschen Behörden waren nicht in der Lage, Geld und Ressourcen in gleichem Maße in das Uranprojekt zu investieren, wie etwa in das Peenemünder Raketenprojekt.

  5. Bottom characterization of Lagoa das Furnas on São Miguel, Azores archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Tommy; Hermelin, Otto; Skelton, Alasdair; Jakobsson, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Lagoa das Furnas is a crater lake located in an area exposed to geohazards from earthquakes and volcanic activity on the island of São Miguel in the Azores Archipelago. Geophysical mapping of Lagoa das Furnas reveals a previously undiscovered volcanic dome. This dome is comprised largely of subaquatic pyroclastic debris of trachytic composition. Sedimentological, petrological, geochemical and geochronological studies of pyroclastic deposits from the dome link it to the historically documented "Furnas 1630" eruption. The chemistry of glass and crystal fragments sampled from the dome suggests that it is comprised of more evolved magma than that of the main Furnas 1630 dome located 1400 m away. This suggests that the dome was formed during a final phase of the 1630 eruption in the Lagoa das Furnas area.

  6. Anbindung des SISIS-SunRise-Bibliothekssystems an das zentrale Identitätsmanagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebner, Ralf; Pretz, Edwin

    Wir berichten über Konzepte und Implementierungen zur Datenprovisionierung aus den Personenverwaltungssystemen der Technischen Universität München (TUM) über das zentrale Metadirectory am Leibniz-Rechenzentrum (LRZ) in das SISIS-SunRise-Bibliothekssystem der Universitätsbibliothek der TUM (TUB). Es werden drei Implementierungsvarianten diskutiert, angefangen von der Generierung und Übertragung einfacher CSV-Dateien über ein OpenLDAP-basiertes Konzept als Backend für die SISIS-Datenbank bis zur endgültigen Implementierung mit dem OCLC IDM Connector.

  7. An exploratory analysis of the factor structure of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale-Form A (DAS).

    PubMed

    Moore, Michael T; Fresco, David M; Segal, Zindel V; Brown, Timothy A

    2014-10-01

    A number of studies have attempted to identify the factor structure of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS). However, no studies have done so using a clinical sample of outpatients likely to generalize to the clinical trials in which the DAS is commonly used. The current investigation utilized exploratory structural equation modeling in an outpatient sample (N = 982) and found support for a one-factor solution (composed of 19 items). This solution was largely confirmed in a second outpatient sample (N = 301). Construct validity was demonstrated in correlations with measures of depression, social interaction anxiety, and symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder. PMID:24577308

  8. Das Lob der Sternkunst. Astronomie in der deutschen Aufklärung.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baasner, R.

    Contents: 1. Einleitung. 2. Die Astronomie im Rahmen der Aufklärungs-Physik. 3. Das Lob der Sternkunst. 4. Ein Blick auf die Sternwarten. 5. Allgemeine Darstellungen der Sternkunde. 6. Schleppende Rezeption: Das kopernikanische Weltbild. 7. Himmelsphysik: Die Debatte um die causa gravitatis. 8. Theorie der Himmelskörper. 9. Die Erde als Gegenstand der Astronomie. 10. Die Sonne. 11. Der Mond. 12. Die Planeten. 13. Die Kometen. 14. Die Fixsterne. 15. Die Entstehung der Welt. 16. Beiträge der Astrotheologie. 17. Der Kampf gegen die Astrologen.

  9. The Great War and Remembrance in Jose Leon Machado's "Memoria das Estrelas sem Brilho"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azevedo, Milton M.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes Jose Leon Machado's novel, "Memoria das Estrelas sem Brilho," as a multilayered historical novel in which a war story provides a background for comments on aspects of early twentieth-century Portuguese society, such as male bonding, religion, sexual mores, and social stratification. (Contains 11 notes.)

  10. 50 CFR 648.10 - VMS and DAS requirements for vessel owners/operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... multispecies Category A or B DAS, or catches regulated species or ocean pout while on a sector trip; or a... an ocean quahog (OQ 6) open access permit; (6) Effective January 1, 2009, a vessel issued a Maine... multispecies limited access permit, a valid surfclam and ocean quahog permit specified at § 648.4(a)(4), or...

  11. MiDAS: the field guide to the microbes of activated sludge.

    PubMed

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Saunders, Aaron Marc; Albertsen, Mads; Nierychlo, Marta; McIlroy, Bianca; Hansen, Aviaja Anna; Karst, Søren Michael; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2015-01-01

    The Microbial Database for Activated Sludge (MiDAS) field guide is a freely available online resource linking the identity of abundant and process critical microorganisms in activated sludge wastewater treatment systems to available data related to their functional importance. Phenotypic properties of some of these genera are described, but most are known only from sequence data. The MiDAS taxonomy is a manual curation of the SILVA taxonomy that proposes a name for all genus-level taxa observed to be abundant by large-scale 16 S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of full-scale activated sludge communities. The taxonomy can be used to classify unknown sequences, and the online MiDAS field guide links the identity to the available information about their morphology, diversity, physiology and distribution. The use of a common taxonomy across the field will provide a solid foundation for the study of microbial ecology of the activated sludge process and related treatment processes. The online MiDAS field guide is a collaborative workspace intended to facilitate a better understanding of the ecology of activated sludge and related treatment processes--knowledge that will be an invaluable resource for the optimal design and operation of these systems. PMID:26120139

  12. PoroTomo Project - Subatask 6.2: Deploy and Operate DAS and DTS arrays

    DOE Data Explorer

    Dante Fratta

    2016-03-31

    This metadata submission includes the coordinates of the DAS and DTS surface and borehole arrays, the list of file names, and the list of recorded files during testing at the PoroTomo Natural Laboratory at Brady Hot Spring in Nevada. Testing was completed during March 2016.

  13. A Brief History of the J.P. Das Developmental Disabilities Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobsey, Dick

    2008-01-01

    The J.P. Das Developmental Disabilities Centre celebrated its 40th anniversary on September 1, 2007, followed by The University of Alberta's 100th anniversary in 2008. The year 2008 also brought the appointment of a new Director for the Centre. As the immediate past Director of the Centre, the author recounts some of the history of the J.P. Das…

  14. Repeatability of Surface Wave Velocity Estimates from Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsey, N.; Wagner, A. M.; Dou, S.; Martin, E. R.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Daley, T. M.; Robertson, M.; Freifeld, B. M.; Bjella, K.; Ulrich, C.

    2015-12-01

    The repeatability of surface wave velocity estimates from local ambient noise hinges on the stability of the crosscorrelation function for the receiver pair in the presence of a variable noise field, assuming near-surface soil properties are invariant over the duration of the surveys. Distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) data recorded on a linear trenched fiber optic cable sensor can accurately sample surface waves in a near continuous fashion (>1 kHz) with high spatial resolution (>1 receiver/m) and long range (10's of km). DAS recordings of ambient noise represent a unique means to explore the practical reliability of field-scale seismic property estimation from seismic interferometry. We test this hypothesis using continuous DAS field recordings from a shallow trench experiment near a busy road with diurnally-variable traffic patterns. Continuous records are processed using a modified ambient noise workflow consisting of receiver pair crosscorrelation, signal stacking, dispersion analysis, and a Monte Carlo search procedure to determine a best-fitting Vs model. The same processing flow is also applied to campaign data acquired with geophones to determine the repeatability benefit of trenched DAS deployment.

  15. MiDAS: the field guide to the microbes of activated sludge

    PubMed Central

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Saunders, Aaron Marc; Albertsen, Mads; Nierychlo, Marta; McIlroy, Bianca; Hansen, Aviaja Anna; Karst, Søren Michael; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2015-01-01

    The Microbial Database for Activated Sludge (MiDAS) field guide is a freely available online resource linking the identity of abundant and process critical microorganisms in activated sludge wastewater treatment systems to available data related to their functional importance. Phenotypic properties of some of these genera are described, but most are known only from sequence data. The MiDAS taxonomy is a manual curation of the SILVA taxonomy that proposes a name for all genus-level taxa observed to be abundant by large-scale 16 S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of full-scale activated sludge communities. The taxonomy can be used to classify unknown sequences, and the online MiDAS field guide links the identity to the available information about their morphology, diversity, physiology and distribution. The use of a common taxonomy across the field will provide a solid foundation for the study of microbial ecology of the activated sludge process and related treatment processes. The online MiDAS field guide is a collaborative workspace intended to facilitate a better understanding of the ecology of activated sludge and related treatment processes—knowledge that will be an invaluable resource for the optimal design and operation of these systems. Database URL: http://www.midasfieldguide.org PMID:26120139

  16. Incorporating Parallel Computing into the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Jay W.

    1998-01-01

    Atmospheric data assimilation is a method of combining actual observations with model forecasts to produce a more accurate description of the earth system than the observations or forecast alone can provide. The output of data assimilation, sometimes called the analysis, are regular, gridded datasets of observed and unobserved variables. Analysis plays a key role in numerical weather prediction and is becoming increasingly important for climate research. These applications, and the need for timely validation of scientific enhancements to the data assimilation system pose computational demands that are best met by distributed parallel software. The mission of the NASA Data Assimilation Office (DAO) is to provide datasets for climate research and to support NASA satellite and aircraft missions. The system used to create these datasets is the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS). The core components of the the GEOS DAS are: the GEOS General Circulation Model (GCM), the Physical-space Statistical Analysis System (PSAS), the Observer, the on-line Quality Control (QC) system, the Coupler (which feeds analysis increments back to the GCM), and an I/O package for processing the large amounts of data the system produces (which will be described in another presentation in this session). The discussion will center on the following issues: the computational complexity for the whole GEOS DAS, assessment of the performance of the individual elements of GEOS DAS, and parallelization strategy for some of the components of the system.

  17. Flashbacks: Reminiscences from 40 Years with the J.P. Das Developmental Disabilities Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Das, J. P.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author reminisces about his 40 years with the J.P. Das Developmental Disabilities Centre. He begins by recalling his early years with the Centre. He follows it up with his middle years, as well as his later years with the Centre. The author ends his flashback by "bragging" about some of the extraordinary scholars who have…

  18. A 90 day chronic toxicity study of Nigerian herbal preparation DAS-77 in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The herbal preparation DAS-77, used for the treatment of various ailments in Nigeria, contains the milled bark of Mangifera indica L. and root of Carica papaya L. Toxicological assessment of the preparation was carried out in this study. Methods In the acute toxicity study, DAS-77 was administered to mice p.o. up to 20 g/kg in divided doses and i.p. at 250–3000 mg/kg. Mortality within 24 h was recorded. In the chronic toxicity study, rats were treated p.o. for 90 days at doses of 80, 400 (therapeutic dose, TD) and 2000 mg/kg. By 90 days, animals were sacrificed and blood samples collected for hematological and biochemical analysis. Organs were harvested for weight determination, antioxidants and histopathological assessments. Results DAS-77 did not produce any lethality administered p.o. up to 20 g/kg in divided doses but the i.p. LD50 was 1122.0 mg/kg. At TD, DAS-77 produced significant (p < 0.05) reductions in body weight, food intake and K+, and increases in ovary weight, neutrophils and HDL, which were reversible. Histopathological presentations were generally normal. Effects at the other doses were comparable to those at TD except for reversible increases in antioxidants in the liver, kidney and testes, and sperm abnormality, and reductions in liver enzymes, sperm motility and count. Conclusions Findings in this study revealed that DAS-77 is relatively safe with the potential for enhancing in vivo antioxidant activity. However, possibly reversible side-effects include electrolyte imbalance and sterility in males. PMID:22892317

  19. Annotation and visualization of endogenous retroviral sequences using the Distributed Annotation System (DAS) and eBioX

    PubMed Central

    Martínez Barrio, Álvaro; Lagercrantz, Erik; Sperber, Göran O; Blomberg, Jonas; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Background The Distributed Annotation System (DAS) is a widely used network protocol for sharing biological information. The distributed aspects of the protocol enable the use of various reference and annotation servers for connecting biological sequence data to pertinent annotations in order to depict an integrated view of the data for the final user. Results An annotation server has been devised to provide information about the endogenous retroviruses detected and annotated by a specialized in silico tool called RetroTector. We describe the procedure to implement the DAS 1.5 protocol commands necessary for constructing the DAS annotation server. We use our server to exemplify those steps. Data distribution is kept separated from visualization which is carried out by eBioX, an easy to use open source program incorporating multiple bioinformatics utilities. Some well characterized endogenous retroviruses are shown in two different DAS clients. A rapid analysis of areas free from retroviral insertions could be facilitated by our annotations. Conclusion The DAS protocol has shown to be advantageous in the distribution of endogenous retrovirus data. The distributed nature of the protocol is also found to aid in combining annotation and visualization along a genome in order to enhance the understanding of ERV contribution to its evolution. Reference and annotation servers are conjointly used by eBioX to provide visualization of ERV annotations as well as other data sources. Our DAS data source can be found in the central public DAS service repository, , or at . PMID:19534743

  20. A Letter to the Parent(s) of a Child with Developmental Apraxia of Speech. Part II: The Nature and Causes of DAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Penelope K.

    2000-01-01

    One of a series of letters to parents of children with developmental apraxia of speech (DAS), this letter discusses issues and current thinking about the nature and causes of the disorder. These include the idea that DAS is a disorder of overall language development or that DAS is a problem of the "motor-programming" system for speech. An…

  1. Proposal of adaptive wireless cell configuration for RoF-DAS over WDM-PON system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwakuni, Tatsuhiko; Miyamoto, Kenji; Higashino, Takeshi; Tsukamoto, Katsutoshi; Komaki, Shozo; Tashiro, Takayoshi; Fukada, Youichi; Kani, Jun-ichi; Yoshimoto, Naoto; Iwatsuki, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    Radio on fiber (RoF) - distributed antenna system (DAS) over wavelength division multiplexing - passive optical network (WDM-PON) with multiple - input multiple - output (MIMO) has been proposed as a next generation radio access network (RAN). This system employs optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) over one WDM channel to multiplex and transmit various types of wireless interfaces such as 3.9G, Wireless LAN and WiMAX. A combination of star and bus topologies has employed to cover a wider service area. The optical transmission loss is caused notably at remote base stations (RBSs) quipped on a WDM bus link. The loss is relatively small, but at the RBS far from the center station (CS), the RBS suffers the large accumulated loss, so the reduction of cell size provides the increasing of the number of RBSs, causes the degradation of the SNR of RoF link. This paper addresses this trade-off problem, and considers the application to the actual service area by the channel capacity investigation of RoF-DAS over WDM-PON with computer simulation. Then, this paper focuses on the flexibility of RoF-DAS over WDM-PON, considers the adaptive wireless cell configuration according to population fluctuations of day and night, or densely populated areas and sparsely populated areas, respectively.

  2. pH modulates arsenic toxicity in Bacillus licheniformis DAS-2.

    PubMed

    Tripti, K; Shardendu

    2016-08-01

    The toxic characteristics of arsenic species, As(V) and As(III) result in ecological risks. Arsenic tolerant bacterium was isolated and identified as the Bacillus licheniformis DAS-2 through 16SrDNA sequencing. B. licheniformis DAS-2 was efficient to tolerate and remove both the As(V)[MIC 8mM] and As(III)[MIC 6mM] from the growth medium. The potential for the removal/uptake of arsenic from the 3, 5 and 7mM As(V) enriched growth media was 100%, 60% and 35% respectively and from the 1, 3 and 5mM As(III) enrichment it was 100%, 99% and 58% respectively at neutral pH. 80% of uptake As(V) was reduced to As(III) in 3mM As(V) enrichment which was gradually decreased to only 17% at 7mM As(V) enrichment at neutral pH. The arsenic toxicity in B. licheniformis DAS-2 was found modulated by pH and was examined through alteration in growth, uptake/removal, reduction and measurement of chemical toxicity. PMID:27135959

  3. DAS Boot!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chretien, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    The residential services group is lobbying to dump its aging hard-wired phone system because students don't use it. The town and campus public safety officials are demanding that their portable two-way radios operate well not only outdoors, but within campus buildings. Students are now expecting text messaging and WiFi service to work everywhere…

  4. I/O Parallelization for the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchesi, R.; Sawyer, W.; Takacs, L. L.; Lyster, P.; Zero, J.

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Data Assimilation Office (DAO) at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has developed the GEOS DAS, a data assimilation system that provides production support for NASA missions and will support NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) in the coming years. The DAO's support of the EOS project along with the requirement of producing long-term reanalysis datasets with an unvarying system levy a large I/O burden on the future system. The DAO has been involved in prototyping parallel implementations of the GEOS DAS for a number of years and is now converting the production version from shared-memory parallelism to distributed-memory parallelism using the portable Message-Passing Interface (MPI). If the MPI-based GEOS DAS is to meet these production requirements, we must make I/O from the parallel system efficient. We have designed a scheme that allows efficient I/O processing while retaining portability, reducing the need for post-processing, and producing data formats that are required by our users, both internal and external. The first phase of the GEOS DAS Parallel I/O System (GPIOS) will expand upon the common method of gathering global data to a Single PE for output. Instead of using a PE also tasked with primary computation, a number of PEs will be dedicated to I/O and its related tasks. This allows the data transformations and formatting required prior to output to take place asynchronously with respect to the GEOS DAS assimilation cycle, improving performance and generating output data sets in a format convenient for our users. I/O PEs can be added as needed to handle larger data volumes or to meet user file specifications. We will show I/O performance results from a prototype MPI GCM integrated with GPIOS. Phase two of GPIOS development will examine ways of integrating new software technologies to further improve performance and build scalability into the system. The maturing of MPI-IO implementations and

  5. DAS28 score vs. ultrasound examination for assessment of rheumatoid arthritis disease activity: comparison and discussion of pros and cons

    PubMed Central

    Dura, Marta; Blumfield, Einat; Węgierska, Małgorzata; Żuchowski, Pawel; Wilińska-Jankowska, Arnika; Jeka, Sławomir

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic connective tissue disease which is characterized by symetrical multiple joints involvement and extra-articular symptoms. Current EULAR diagnostic criteria for RA include disease activity parameters, such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP), which are used to calculate disease activity scores, including DAS and DAS28. Recently attempts have been made to assess disease activity using imaging diagnostic modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography (US). Due to significant progress in therapy effectiveness and early RA diagnosis possibility, imaging modalities become increasingly meaningful and many clinical trials confirm their usefulness. However, there are no consistent criteria for objective assessment of therapy effectiveness based on US. Moreover, it is not US availability that limits its common use, but rather significant variability between operators. This is why US remains only an additional tool to assess therapy efficacy with regard to DAS/DAS28 index.

  6. The WHO-DAS II: psychometric properties in the measurement of functional health status in adults with acquired hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Chisolm, Theresa H; Abrams, Harvey B; McArdle, Rachel; Wilson, Richard H; Doyle, Patrick J

    2005-01-01

    The World Health Organization's (WHO) Disability Assessment Scale II (WHO-DAS II) is a generic health-status instrument firmly grounded in the WHO's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (WHO-ICF). As such, it assesses functioning for six domains: communication, mobility, self-care, interpersonal, life activities, and participation. Domain scores aggregate to a total score. Because the WHO-DAS II contains questions relevant to hearing and communication, it has good face validity for use as an outcome measure for audiologic intervention. The purpose of the present study was to determine the psychometric properties of the WHO-DAS II on a sample of individuals with adult-onset hearing loss, including convergent validity, internal consistency, and test-retest stability. Convergent validity was established by examining correlations between the WHO-DAS II (domain and total scores) and the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB) and the Hearing Aid Handicap for the Elderly (HHIE), two disease-specific measures, as well as with the Short Form-36 for veterans (SF-36V), a second generic measure. Data on all four measures were collected from 380 older individuals with adult-onset hearing loss who were not hearing aid users. The results of the convergent validity analysis revealed that the WHODAS II communication domain score was moderately and significantly correlated with scores on the APHAB and the HHIE. WHO-DAS II interpersonal and participation domain scores and the total scores were also moderately and significantly correlated with HHIE scores. These findings support the validity of using the WHO-DAS II for assessing activity limitations and participation restrictions of adult-onset hearing loss. Several WHO-DAS II domain scores and the total score were also significantly and moderately-markedly correlated with scores from the SF-36V. These findings support the validity of the WHO-DAS II as a generic health-status instrument

  7. Risk Management and Medico-Legal Issues in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ward, Charles J; Green, Victoria L

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer is a leading source of malpractice claims for radiologists and gynecologists. Delay in or failure to diagnosis was the second most common cause for allegations of malpractice and failure to diagnosis breast cancer accounted for the majority of these claims. The amount paid in indemnity for such claims was only second to claims paid for neurologically impaired newborns. Issues involved in documentation and communication are reviewed with a focus on specific medical legal cases. Obstetrician gynecologists must remain cognizant of the potential for liability. PMID:27101242

  8. Basic rules of Ramadan: A medico-religious perspective.

    PubMed

    Laway, Bashir Ahmad; Ashraf, Hamid

    2015-05-01

    Fasting during the month of Ramadan is obligatory for all adult Muslims with few exceptions. The person observing a fast does not eat, drink, and smoke from dawn to dusk. Google and Medline search was undertaken for the articles related to basic rules of fasting-religious and medical perspectives in the previous 24 years using following key words: Islamic fasting, fasting and diabetes, fasting and endocrine system. There are clear cut guidelines regarding fasting in healthy people and exemptions have been emphasized. Some alterations in pulmonary, cardiac, gastrointestinal and neuropsychiatric systems are observed which do not harm a normal person. A risk strategy has been devised for people with diabetes regarding management during Ramadan fasting. Rules regarding adherence to fasting and concessions during the month of Ramadan are clear. Minor alterations in different body systems are observed in normal people during Ramadan. PMID:26013776

  9. India's Medico-Pharmaceutical Inheritance from the Colonial Period.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harkishan

    2014-01-01

    The development of pharmacy in India did not make sufficient headway during the British colonial period. The status of the pharmaceutical inheritance from the colonial era may be summarized as follows: There were around one hundred qualified pharmacists. The Health Survey and Development Committee (1943-45) put the number at 75. The number of compounders was nearly 27,000. They were inadequately qualified and were not counted as pharmacists. A large number of them worked in governmental hospitals. But for some missionary hospitals there was hardly any institutionalized pharmacy else-where. The drug distribution was in the hands of chemists and druggists who were not professionally qualified. The provision of drugs largely remained a trade. The drug industry was in its infancy. The yearly turnover was just 100 million rupees for a country as vast as India. The Drugs Rules 1945 under the Drug Act 1940 had been formulated but their implementation was yet to be effected. Some groundwork had been done on legislation for the control of pharmacy but the bill had yet to be enacted. There were three pharmacy degree-awarding institutions. The Banaras Hindu University and the Panjab University had instituted B. Pharm. courses in 1937 and 1944, with yearly intake of 20 and 5 students, respectively. The L. M. College of Pharmacy at Ahmedabad, then with the Bombay University, had their first admissions in 1947. Two diploma-level pharmacy courses existed at the Madras Medical College and the Medical College, Vishakapatnam, in the Madras Presidency; the yearly intake was very small. The country's entire pharmaceutical legacy from the colonial rule portrays the poor state of pharmacy practice that came with independence. The higher status of pharmacy as seen today is the result of sustained efforts made over the last fifty years. The chemists and druggists of the earlier period were not a qualified group--they were more concerned with protecting their trade interests and lacked the professional component. Thus the development of the profession constituted a formidable task. Once it became evident that inadequate attention had been paid to the pharmaceutical component of the new health care system during the colonial period--within pharmaceutical circles during the early part of the twentieth century--change began to take place, with the establishment of the Drugs Enquiry Committee recognized as the most significant event of the time. The Report was submitted by the Committee in 1931, laying the foundation of the drugs and pharmacy statutes and development of the pharmacy profession in general. It was a coincidence that the year 1931 also witnessed an occurrence of potential significance; that was, the entry of Mahadeva Lal Schroff, a man with an indomitable spirit, into the pharmaceutical arena to lead and direct the making of modern pharmacy in India. PMID:27416656

  10. Ethnobiology in Mizoram state: folklore medico-zoology.

    PubMed

    Lalramnghinglova, H

    1999-07-01

    Studies in ethnobotany and ethnozoology under the umbrella of Ethnobiology seem imbalanced in the sense that enormous publications have accumulated in case of the former but only little information has been disseminated in case of the latter. While 7500 wild plant species are known to be used by tribals in medicine, only 76 species of animals have been shown as medicinal resources (Anonymous, 1994). The present paper is the first-hand information of folklore medicine and animals in Mizoram. The animals enumerated comprise of 25 vertebrates and 31 invertebrates and are used for treatment of over 40 kinds of diseases or ailments, including jaundice, tuberculosis, hepatitis, cancer, asthma and veterinary disease. The author, however, does not recommend destruction of wild animals, be it for food or medicine. PMID:12585311

  11. Eugenic Sterilization: Medico-Legal and Sociological Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Felipe C.; Robinson, Shirley W.; Williams, Loretta J.

    1979-01-01

    The court-ordered sterilization of a normal 18-year-old black female in North Carolina focused attention on the unfortunate impact of eugenic statutes that allow sterilization as a method of social control. The existence of these laws in many states allows misapplication and abuse of authority which, not infrequently, is directed liberally to blacks and other minority groups. Eugenic sterilization is, at this time, a legally accepted form of “medical treatment.” The justification of such sterilization is the vague concept that the presumed “mentally deficient” individual is probably a potential parent of socially inadequate offspring who would likewise be socially inadequate. Since there never has been factual substantiation of whether the sterilization of these individuals will diminish the incidence of mental retardation, it is necessary to focus attention on the concept of eugenic sterilization and point out its many fallacies. PMID:480398

  12. Postoperative Analgesia in Abdominal Surgery: a Medico-economic Study

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-08-13

    Extended Ileal Resection Under Laparotomy; Total Proctocolectomy Under Laparotomy; Colectomy Left/Right/Total Under Laparotomy; Rectosigmoidal Resection Under Laparotomy; Anterior Resection of Rectum Under Laparotomy; Abdomino-perineal Amputation Under Laparotomy

  13. [Marriage in old age groups (medico-social aspects)].

    PubMed

    Galkin, R A; Hechtt, I A; Larionov, Iu K; Pavlov, V V

    2001-01-01

    Recently married elderly people change attitude to hospital treatment and living in asylums; they prefer care rendered at home and hospital-substituting forms of care; hospitalization and ambulance care are less needed and permanent social workers are required less. All this promotes rational utilization of the potentialities of therapeutic institutions and saving of public health and social protection resources. PMID:11400537

  14. [Medico-legal certificates in dentistry-oral medicine].

    PubMed

    Razik, H; Benyaich, H; Aghjdam, I; Louahlia, S

    2003-12-01

    Certificates are acts meant to note facts of medical order. They constitute the proof of the bodily damage in a file of repair request. Only a doctor in medicine can write such a paper. The disciplinary, penal and civilian responsibility is committed every time that the doctor agrees to write a medical certificate. The medical secret must be respected when writing such a medical certificate. The document must be handed the patient. The dentist can establish certificates of different nature when he is asked by his patients, since the noted facts are part of his expertise. The certificate must be written after exam of the patient. The description of the lesions must be precise and complete. Under pain of nothing, the medical certificate must include: the identity of the doctor, the patient's one, the date of writing and the signature of the editor. The ITT show on the medical certificate is of great importance because it determines jurisdictions related to voluntary and involuntary violence. PMID:15074072

  15. [Use of local anesthetics in dentistry: medico-legal aspects].

    PubMed

    Martini, P; Fineschi, V

    1990-01-01

    The Authors consider the problem of the clinical use of local anaesthetics in dentistry with a view to establishing possible adverse reactions, of which they provide a schematic analysis and an up to date pathogenetic survey; they thus make their observations on case historics taken from the sector of forensic medicine in Siena, and in conclusion make a jurisprudential digression in the form of a discussion on the responsibility of the practitioner in the strait of anaesthesiology, emphasizing by the same, an ever increasingly harmonizing evolution with regular judicial procedure in common law countries. PMID:2079235

  16. Validation of Land-Surface Mosaic Heterogeneity in the GEOS DAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Molod, Andrea; Houser, Paul R.; Schubert, Siegfried

    1999-01-01

    The Mosaic Land-surface Model (LSM) has been included into the current GEOS Data Assimilation System (DAS). The LSM uses a more advanced representation of physical processes than previous versions of the GEOS DAS, including the representation of sub-grid heterogeneity of the land-surface through the Mosaic approach. As a first approximation, Mosaic assumes that all similar surface types within a grid-cell can be lumped together as a single'tile'. Within one GCM grid-cell, there might be 1 - 5 different tiles or surface types. All tiles are subjected to the grid-scale forcing (radiation, air temperature and specific humidity, and precipitation), and the sub-grid variability is a function of the tile characteristics. In this paper, we validate the LSM sub-grid scale variability (tiles) using a variety of surface observing stations from the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. One of the primary goals of SGP ARM is to study the variability of atmospheric radiation within a G,CM grid-cell. Enough surface data has been collected by ARM to extend this goal to sub-grid variability of the land-surface energy and water budgets. The time period of this study is the Summer of 1998 (June I - September 1). The ARM site data consists of surface meteorology, energy flux (eddy correlation and bowen ratio), soil water observations spread over an area similar to the size of a G-CM grid-cell. Various ARM stations are described as wheat and alfalfa crops, pasture and range land. The LSM tiles considered at the grid-space (2 x 2.5) nearest the ARM site include, grassland, deciduous forests, bare soil and dwarf trees. Surface energy and water balances for each tile type are compared with observations. Furthermore, we will discuss the land-surface sub-grid variability of both the ARM observations and the DAS.

  17. The S2 VLBI Systems: DAS, RT/PT and Correlator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrachenko, William T.; Bujold, Marc; Cannon, Wayne H.; Carlson, Brent R.; Dewdney, Peter E.; Feil, Georg H.; Newby, Paul; Novikov, Alexander; Popelar, Josef; Wietfeldt, Richard D.

    2000-01-01

    The S2 VLBI system synthesizes wide IF bandwidths by rapidly switching the local oscillator (LO) frequency in a small (1-4) number of baseband converters (BBC's). Data are recorded on video cassettes using an array of 8 VHS transports. Characteristics of the S2 Data Acquisition System (DAS), the S2 Record and Playback Terminals (RT and PT) and the S2 Correlator are summarized. The bandwidth synthesis (BWS) frequency switching sequence used in a series of system validation experiments is presented.

  18. Das Neutron, der Kosmos und die Kräfte: Neutronen in der Teilchenphysik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldner, Torsten

    2003-05-01

    Das Neutron besitzt eine einzigartige Kombination von Eigenschaften. Sie ermöglicht die Untersuchung aller vier elementaren Kräfte. Dabei wurden beeindruckende Resultate erzielt, wie die Präzisionsmessungen der elektrischen Ladung des Neutrons oder der Feinstrukturkonstante zeigen. Die genaue Bestimmung der schwachen Wechselwirkungsstärke der Nukleonen liefert der Astrophysik wichtige Daten. Die Messung eines von Null verschiedenen elektrischen Dipolmoments des Neutrons könnte einen entscheidenden Hinweis über die Physik jenseits des Standardmodells der Teilchenphysik geben. Doch auch zur Aufklärung von Unsicherheiten innerhalb des Standardmodells selbst tragen Neutronen bei.

  19. Datta-and-Das spin transistor controlled by a high-frequency electromagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheremet, A. S.; Kibis, O. V.; Kavokin, A. V.; Shelykh, I. A.

    2016-04-01

    We developed the theory of spin dependent transport through a spin-modulator device (so-called Datta-and-Das spin transistor) in the presence of a high-frequency electromagnetic field (dressing field). Solving the Schrödinger problem for dressed electrons, we demonstrated that the field drastically modifies the spin transport. In particular, the dressing field leads to renormalization of spin-orbit coupling constants that varies conductivity of the spin transistor. The present effect paves the way for controlling the spin-polarized electron transport with light in prospective spin-optronic devices.

  20. Ländliche Entwicklung durch erneuerbare Energien - Das Beispiel Photovoltaik in Niederbayern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zink, Roland

    2013-09-01

    Der Ausbau erneuerbarer Energien ist in Deutschland eine zentrale und politisch konsensfähige Forderung, um die Energieversorgung klimafreundlich und nachhaltig zu gestalten. Speziell ländliche Regionen rücken dabei in den Fokus, bieten sie doch aufgrund ihrer hohen Flächenverfügbarkeit große Potenziale für die flächenintensiven dezentralen Energieformen. Folglich erkennen Kommunen zunehmend das Entwicklungspotenzial dieser Technologien und sehen sie auch als Chance, neue wirtschaftliche Impulse vor Ort zu setzen. Der Beitrag skizziert die rasante Entwicklung der Photovoltaik im Regierungsbezirk Niederbayern und diskutiert anhand des Beispiels die Folgen für eine nachhaltige Regionalentwicklung.

  1. Genome-Wide Analysis of In Vivo Binding of the Master Regulator DasR in Streptomyces coelicolor Identifies Novel Non-Canonical Targets

    PubMed Central

    Świątek-Połatyńska, Magdalena A.; Bucca, Giselda; Laing, Emma; Gubbens, Jacob; Titgemeyer, Fritz; Smith, Colin P.; Rigali, Sébastien; van Wezel, Gilles P.

    2015-01-01

    Streptomycetes produce a wealth of natural products, including over half of all known antibiotics. It was previously demonstrated that N-acetylglucosamine and secondary metabolism are closely entwined in streptomycetes. Here we show that DNA recognition by the N-acetylglucosamine-responsive regulator DasR is growth-phase dependent, and that DasR can bind to sites in the S. coelicolor genome that have no obvious resemblance to previously identified DasR-responsive elements. Thus, the regulon of DasR extends well beyond what was previously predicted and includes a large number of genes with functions far removed from N-acetylglucosamine metabolism, such as genes for small RNAs and DNA transposases. Conversely, the DasR regulon during vegetative growth largely correlates to the presence of canonical DasR-responsive elements. The changes in DasR binding in vivo following N-acetylglucosamine induction were studied in detail and a possible molecular mechanism by which the influence of DasR is extended is discussed. Discussion of DasR binding was further informed by a parallel transcriptome analysis of the respective cultures. Evidence is provided that DasR binds directly to the promoters of all genes encoding pathway-specific regulators of antibiotic production in S. coelicolor, thereby providing an exquisitely simple link between nutritional control and secondary metabolism. PMID:25875084

  2. The development of Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS)

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Orii; Orrell, Martin; Ridder, Hanne Mette

    2015-01-01

    There is a need to develop an outcome measure specific to music therapy in dementia that reflects a holistic picture of the therapy process and outcome. This study aimed to develop a clinically relevant and scientifically robust music therapy outcome measure incorporating the values and views of people with dementia. Focus groups and interviews were conducted to obtain qualitative data on what music meant to people with dementia and the observed effects of music. Expert and peer consultations were conducted at each stage of the measure development to maximise its content validity. The new measure was field-tested by clinicians in a care home. Feedback from the clinicians and music therapy experts were incorporated during the review and refinement process of the measure. A review of the existing literature, the experiential results and the consensus process enabled the development of the new outcome measure “Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS)”. Analysis of the qualitative data identified five key areas of the impact of music on people with dementia and they were transformed as the five Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) items: levels of Interest, Response, Initiation, Involvement and Enjoyment. MiDAS comprises the five VAS items and a supplementary checklist of notable positive and negative reactions from the individual. This study demonstrates that it is possible to design and develop an easy to apply and rigorous quantitative outcome measure which has a high level of clinical relevance for people with dementia, care home staff and music therapists. PMID:26246670

  3. Hermann Cohen's Das Princip der Infinitesimal-Methode: The history of an unsuccessful book.

    PubMed

    Giovanelli, Marco

    2016-08-01

    This paper offers an introduction to Hermann Cohen's Das Princip der Infinitesimal-Methode (1883), and recounts the history of its controversial reception by Cohen's early sympathizers, who would become the so-called 'Marburg school' of Neo-Kantianism, as well as the reactions it provoked outside this group. By dissecting the ambiguous attitudes of the best-known representatives of the school (Paul Natorp and Ernst Cassirer), as well as those of several minor figures (August Stadler, Kurd Lasswitz, Dimitry Gawronsky, etc.), this paper shows that Das Princip der Infinitesimal-Methode is a unicum in the history of philosophy: it represents a strange case of an unsuccessful book's enduring influence. The "puzzle of Cohen's Infinitesimalmethode," as we will call it, can be solved by looking beyond the scholarly results of the book, and instead focusing on the style of philosophy it exemplified. Moreover, the paper shows that Cohen never supported, but instead explicitly opposed, the doctrine of the centrality of the 'concept of function', with which Marburg Neo-Kantianism is usually associated. PMID:27474182

  4. Ocean Color Measurements from Landsat-8 OLI using SeaDAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franz, Bryan Alden; Bailey, Sean W.; Kuring, Norman; Werdell, P. Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    The Operational Land Imager (OLI) is a multi-spectral radiometer hosted on the recently launched Landsat-8 satellite. OLI includes a suite of relatively narrow spectral bands at 30-meter spatial resolution in the visible to shortwave infrared that make it a potential tool for ocean color radiometry: measurement of the reflected spectral radiance upwelling from beneath the ocean surface that carries information on the biogeochemical constituents of the upper ocean euphotic zone. To evaluate the potential of OLI to measure ocean color, processing support was implemented in SeaDAS, which is an open-source software package distributed by NASA for processing, analysis, and display of ocean remote sensing measurements from a variety of satellite-based multi-spectral radiometers. Here we describe the implementation of OLI processing capabilities within SeaDAS, including support for various methods of atmospheric correction to remove the effects of atmospheric scattering and absorption and retrieve the spectral remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs; sr exp 1). The quality of the retrieved Rrs imagery will be assessed, as will the derived water column constituents such as the concentration of the phytoplankton pigment chlorophyll a.

  5. Trends and variability of climate and river flow in the region of Costa das Baleias, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Genz, F; Tanajura, C A S

    2013-01-01

    There is an ongoing effort by the scientific community to regionalize climate studies to support local development plans. The area of interest is the Costa das Baleias on the east coast of northeast Brazil. It is located in a transition region of precipitation trends, and so assessing the local signal and magnitude is necessary. A series of annual anomalies of surface air temperature, precipitation and river discharge were analyzed from 1946 to 2010. The modified Mann-Kendall test was applied to detect trends. Temperature anomalies showed a consistent positive trend since 1950. Precipitation anomalies tended to decrease, though not significantly. River discharge rates showed a consistent positive trend. However, from the 1980s onwards, both the precipitation and the river discharge anomalies had the same decreasing tendency. The precipitation and discharge behavior are likely due to the combined effect of human interventions in the river basins including local, synoptic and global climate effects. The inter-annual variability was characterized by spectral analysis. Cycles were identified for the precipitation and the river discharge with periods of 2-3 years, 3-4 years, 7-8 years and 11-12 years. The decadal frequency is consistent with the South Atlantic and El Niño indices. This work strongly indicates that climate is changing in Costa das Baleias and further work is needed to investigate the mechanisms that link local to large-scale variability. PMID:23128620

  6. A causa das estações do ano: modelos mentais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Campos, J. A. S.; de Araujo, J. F. S.

    2003-08-01

    A década de 70 do século passado foi marcada pelo estudo das concepções alternativas que os alunos trazem para a sala de aula. A identificação destas concepções foi o ponto de partida para promover a mudança conceitual, onde as pré-concepções seriam trocadas pelas concepções científicas. Na década seguinte, surgiram muitas propostas de estratégias educacionais para facilitar esta troca, na sua maioria baseadas na idéia do conflito cognitivo, proposta por Piaget. Entretanto, os resultados pouco animadores conduziram à percepção de que a mudança conceitual é um processo mais complexo. Pelas idéias da Ciência Cognitiva, a mudança conceitual é uma mudança progressiva dos modelos mentais que o aluno tem sobre o mundo físico, através de enriquecimento e revisão. A causa das Estações do Ano é um tópico sobre o qual a maioria dos estudantes apresenta concepções alternativas. Os autores fizeram um levantamento sobre as pré-concepções encontradas em trabalhos sobre o tema (16 referências), procurando encontrar elementos comuns que indicassem a presença de modelos mentais específicos. As pré-concepções encontradas na literatura foram obtidas usando-se diversas metodologias (desde entrevistas clínicas até questionários de múltipla escolha) e envolvendo alunos e professores de diferentes regiões geográficas. A partir de uma análise aprofundada de cada trabalho, e utilizando-se a técnica das Redes Sistêmicas, chegou-se a conclusão que as diversas pré-concepções identificadas (em torno de 50), poderiam ser representadas por 6 modelos mentais, onde a explicação da causa das estações do ano tem um mecanismo causal responsável. Os mecanismos causais identificados foram: a dependência da distância, a dependência da orientação, a dependência conjunta da distância e orientação, a dependência da obstrução, a dependência da velocidade e a dependência da inclinação dos raios solares. Foram ainda identificadas

  7. Measuring Primary Teachers' Attitudes Toward Teaching Science: Development of the Dimensions of Attitude Toward Science (DAS) Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Aalderen-Smeets, Sandra; Walma van der Molen, Juliette

    2013-03-01

    In this article, we present a valid and reliable instrument which measures the attitude of in-service and pre-service primary teachers toward teaching science, called the Dimensions of Attitude Toward Science (DAS) Instrument. Attention to the attitudes of primary teachers toward teaching science is of fundamental importance to the professionalization of these teachers in the field of primary science education. With the development of this instrument, we sought to fulfill the need for a statistically and theoretically valid and reliable instrument to measure pre-service and in-service teachers' attitudes. The DAS Instrument is based on a comprehensive theoretical framework for attitude toward (teaching) science. After pilot testing, the DAS was revised and subsequently validated using a large group of respondents (pre-service and in-service primary teachers) (N = 556). The theoretical underpinning of the DAS combined with the statistical data indicate that the DAS possesses good construct validity and that it proves to be a promising instrument that can be utilized for research purposes, and also as a teacher training and coaching tool. This instrument can therefore make a valuable contribution to progress within the field of science education.

  8. Establishment of feeder-free culture system for human induced pluripotent stem cell on DAS nanocrystalline graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyunah; Nam, Donggyu; Choi, Jae-Kyung; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J.; Kwon, Soon-Yong; Zaehres, Holm; Lee, Taehee; Park, Chan Young; Kang, Hyun-Wook; Schöler, Hans R.; Kim, Jeong Beom

    2016-02-01

    The maintenance of undifferentiated human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) under xeno-free condition requires the use of human feeder cells or extracellular matrix (ECM) coating. However, human-derived sources may cause human pathogen contamination by viral or non-viral agents to the patients. Here we demonstrate feeder-free and xeno-free culture system for hPSC expansion using diffusion assisted synthesis-grown nanocrystalline graphene (DAS-NG), a synthetic non-biological nanomaterial which completely rule out the concern of human pathogen contamination. DAS-NG exhibited advanced biocompatibilities including surface nanoroughness, oxygen containing functional groups and hydrophilicity. hPSC cultured on DAS-NG could maintain pluripotency in vitro and in vivo, and especially cell adhesion-related gene expression profile was comparable to those of cultured on feeders, while hPSC cultured without DAS-NG differentiated spontaneously with high expression of somatic cell-enriched adhesion genes. This feeder-free and xeno-free culture method using DAS-NG will facilitate the generation of clinical-grade hPSC.

  9. Establishment of feeder-free culture system for human induced pluripotent stem cell on DAS nanocrystalline graphene.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunah; Nam, Donggyu; Choi, Jae-Kyung; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J; Kwon, Soon-Yong; Zaehres, Holm; Lee, Taehee; Park, Chan Young; Kang, Hyun-Wook; Schöler, Hans R; Kim, Jeong Beom

    2016-01-01

    The maintenance of undifferentiated human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) under xeno-free condition requires the use of human feeder cells or extracellular matrix (ECM) coating. However, human-derived sources may cause human pathogen contamination by viral or non-viral agents to the patients. Here we demonstrate feeder-free and xeno-free culture system for hPSC expansion using diffusion assisted synthesis-grown nanocrystalline graphene (DAS-NG), a synthetic non-biological nanomaterial which completely rule out the concern of human pathogen contamination. DAS-NG exhibited advanced biocompatibilities including surface nanoroughness, oxygen containing functional groups and hydrophilicity. hPSC cultured on DAS-NG could maintain pluripotency in vitro and in vivo, and especially cell adhesion-related gene expression profile was comparable to those of cultured on feeders, while hPSC cultured without DAS-NG differentiated spontaneously with high expression of somatic cell-enriched adhesion genes. This feeder-free and xeno-free culture method using DAS-NG will facilitate the generation of clinical-grade hPSC. PMID:26846167

  10. Establishment of feeder-free culture system for human induced pluripotent stem cell on DAS nanocrystalline graphene

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyunah; Nam, Donggyu; Choi, Jae-Kyung; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J.; Kwon, Soon-Yong; Zaehres, Holm; Lee, Taehee; Park, Chan Young; Kang, Hyun-Wook; Schöler, Hans R.; Kim, Jeong Beom

    2016-01-01

    The maintenance of undifferentiated human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) under xeno-free condition requires the use of human feeder cells or extracellular matrix (ECM) coating. However, human-derived sources may cause human pathogen contamination by viral or non-viral agents to the patients. Here we demonstrate feeder-free and xeno-free culture system for hPSC expansion using diffusion assisted synthesis-grown nanocrystalline graphene (DAS-NG), a synthetic non-biological nanomaterial which completely rule out the concern of human pathogen contamination. DAS-NG exhibited advanced biocompatibilities including surface nanoroughness, oxygen containing functional groups and hydrophilicity. hPSC cultured on DAS-NG could maintain pluripotency in vitro and in vivo, and especially cell adhesion-related gene expression profile was comparable to those of cultured on feeders, while hPSC cultured without DAS-NG differentiated spontaneously with high expression of somatic cell-enriched adhesion genes. This feeder-free and xeno-free culture method using DAS-NG will facilitate the generation of clinical-grade hPSC. PMID:26846167

  11. DasPy – Open Source Multivariate Land Data Assimilation Framework with High Performance Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xujun; Li, Xin; Montzka, Carsten; Kollet, Stefan; Vereecken, Harry; Hendricks Franssen, Harrie-Jan

    2015-04-01

    Data assimilation has become a popular method to integrate observations from multiple sources with land surface models to improve predictions of the water and energy cycles of the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. In recent years, several land data assimilation systems have been developed in different research agencies. Because of the software availability or adaptability, these systems are not easy to apply for the purpose of multivariate land data assimilation research. Multivariate data assimilation refers to the simultaneous assimilation of observation data for multiple model state variables into a simulation model. Our main motivation was to develop an open source multivariate land data assimilation framework (DasPy) which is implemented using the Python script language mixed with C++ and Fortran language. This system has been evaluated in several soil moisture, L-band brightness temperature and land surface temperature assimilation studies. The implementation allows also parameter estimation (soil properties and/or leaf area index) on the basis of the joint state and parameter estimation approach. LETKF (Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter) is implemented as the main data assimilation algorithm, and uncertainties in the data assimilation can be represented by perturbed atmospheric forcings, perturbed soil and vegetation properties and model initial conditions. The CLM4.5 (Community Land Model) was integrated as the model operator. The CMEM (Community Microwave Emission Modelling Platform), COSMIC (COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Interaction Code) and the two source formulation were integrated as observation operators for assimilation of L-band passive microwave, cosmic-ray soil moisture probe and land surface temperature measurements, respectively. DasPy is parallelized using the hybrid MPI (Message Passing Interface) and OpenMP (Open Multi-Processing) techniques. All the input and output data flow is organized efficiently using the commonly used NetCDF file

  12. Taxonomic notes and distribution extension of Durga Das's leaf-nosed bat Hipposiderosdurgadasi Khajuria, 1970 (Chiroptera: Hipposideridae) from south India.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Harpreet; Chelmala, Srinivasulu; Srinivasulu, Bhargavi; Shah, Tariq Ahmed; Devender, Gundena; Srinivasulu, Aditya

    2014-01-01

    Durga Das's leaf-nosed bat Hipposiderosdurgadasi Khajuria, 1970 is endemic to India, and was known only from Katanga, Katangi, and Richhai villages, in Jabalpur district, Madhya Pradesh. During surveys conducted in Kolar district, Karnataka, India, we successfully mist-netted a few individuals belonging to the bicolor species group which, upon detailed external, craniodental and bacular studies were identified as Durga Das's leaf-nosed bat. This paper reports the presence of this species in southern India, extending its distribution range by almost 1300 km. We also provide a detailed morphological description for this species. PMID:25535483

  13. Event DAS-444Ø6-6 soybean grown in Brazil is compositionally equivalent to non-transgenic soybean.

    PubMed

    Fast, Brandon J; Galan, Maria P; Schafer, Ariane C

    2016-04-01

    Soybean event DAS-444Ø6-6 is tolerant to the herbicides 2,4-D, glyphosate, and glufosinate. An investigation of potential unintended adverse compositional changes in a genetically modified crop is required to meet government regulatory requirements in various geographies. A study to meet these requirements in Brazil was completed demonstrating compositional equivalency between DAS-444Ø6-6 and non-transgenic soybean. This study supplements the extensive literature supporting transgenesis as less disruptive of crop composition compared with traditional breeding methods. PMID:27248569

  14. Planning Ability across Ranges of Intellectual Ability: An Examination of the Luria-Das Information-Processing Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallum, R. Steve; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Based on Luria-Das information processing theory, hypothesized that 26 educable mentally retarded children would score significantly less well on relatively pure measures of planning ability than would 13 younger average ability students after students were matched on cognitive processing ability. Hypothesis was not supported by study. (Author/NB)

  15. Latent Factor Structure of the Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis in a Chinese Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Ci-ping; Liu, Ming; Wei, Wei; Chan, Raymond C. K.; Das, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to measure the psychometric properties of the Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System (D-N CAS) and to determine its clinical utility in a Chinese context. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to examine the construct validity of the Chinese version of the D-N CAS among a group of 567, normally developed children.…

  16. Test Review: Naglieri, J. A., Das, J. P., & Goldstein, S. (2014). Cognitive Assessment System-Second Edition (2nd Ed.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill, Ryan J.

    2015-01-01

    The Cognitive Assessment System-Second Edition (CAS2) is an individually administered measure of cognitive ability designed for children and adolescents ages 5 through 18 years. The measure, authored by Jack A. Naglieri, J. P. Das, and Sam Goldstein, was published by Pro-Ed in 2014 and is the first revision of the Cognitive Assessment System (CAS;…

  17. Concurrent Validity of the WISC-IV and DAS-II in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuriakose, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive assessments are used for a variety of research and clinical purposes in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study establishes concurrent validity of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-fourth edition (WISC-IV) and Differential Ability Scales-second edition (DAS-II) in a sample of children with ASD with a broad…

  18. DAS181 Treatment of Severe Parainfluenza Virus 3 Pneumonia in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients Requiring Mechanical Ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Dhakal, B.; D'Souza, A.; Pasquini, M.; Saber, W.; Fenske, T. S.; Moss, R. B.; Drobyski, W. R.; Hari, P.; Abidi, M. Z.

    2016-01-01

    Parainfluenza virus (PIV) may cause life-threatening pneumonia in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. Currently, there are no proven effective therapies. We report the use of inhaled DAS181, a novel sialidase fusion protein, for treatment of PIV type 3 pneumonia in two allogeneic hematopoietic SCT recipients with respiratory failure. PMID:26941799

  19. Measuring Primary Teachers' Attitudes toward Teaching Science: Development of the Dimensions of Attitude toward Science (DAS) Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Aalderen-Smeets, Sandra; Walma van der Molen, Juliette

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we present a valid and reliable instrument which measures the attitude of in-service and pre-service primary teachers toward teaching science, called the Dimensions of Attitude Toward Science (DAS) Instrument. Attention to the attitudes of primary teachers toward teaching science is of fundamental importance to the…

  20. Elevated Background in DAS-I ELISA for the Detection of Citrus Tristeza Virus in Mandarin Varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Healthy tissue extracts from mandarin orange varieties occasionally resulted in elevated absorbance which can exceed twice that of healthy sweet orange tissue extracts in DAS-I-ELISA detection with an expressed coat protein polyclonal antiserum of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV). This problem occurs se...

  1. Crystal Structures of the Global Regulator DasR from Streptomyces coelicolor: Implications for the Allosteric Regulation of GntR/HutC Repressors

    PubMed Central

    Fillenberg, Simon B.; Friess, Mario D.; Körner, Samuel; Böckmann, Rainer A.; Muller, Yves A.

    2016-01-01

    Small molecule effectors regulate gene transcription in bacteria by altering the DNA-binding affinities of specific repressor proteins. Although the GntR proteins represent a large family of bacterial repressors, only little is known about the allosteric mechanism that enables their function. DasR from Streptomyces coelicolor belongs to the GntR/HutC subfamily and specifically recognises operators termed DasR-responsive elements (dre-sites). Its DNA-binding properties are modulated by phosphorylated sugars. Here, we present several crystal structures of DasR, namely of dimeric full-length DasR in the absence of any effector and of only the effector-binding domain (EBD) of DasR without effector or in complex with glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN-6-P) and N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcNAc-6-P). Together with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and a comparison with other GntR/HutC family members these data allowed for a structural characterisation of the different functional states of DasR. Allostery in DasR and possibly in many other GntR/HutC family members is best described by a conformational selection model. In ligand-free DasR, an increased flexibility in the EBDs enables the attached DNA-binding domains (DBD) to sample a variety of different orientations and among these also a DNA-binding competent conformation. Effector binding to the EBDs of DasR significantly reorganises the atomic structure of the latter. However, rather than locking the orientation of the DBDs, the effector-induced formation of β-strand β* in the DBD-EBD-linker segment merely appears to take the DBDs ‘on a shorter leash’ thereby impeding the ‘downwards’ positioning of the DBDs that is necessary for a concerted binding of two DBDs of DasR to operator DNA. PMID:27337024

  2. Parallel Proportion Fair Scheduling in DAS with Partial Channel State Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhanjun; Wu, Jiang; Wang, Dongming; You, Xiaohu

    A parallel multiplexing scheduling (PMS) scheme is proposed for distributed antenna systems (DAS), which greatly improves average system throughput due to multi-user diversity and multi-user multiplexing. However, PMS has poor fairness because of the use of the “best channel selection” criteria in the scheduler. Thus we present a parallel proportional fair scheduling (PPFS) scheme, which combines PMS with proportional fair scheduling (PFS) to achieve a tradeoff between average throughput and fairness. In PPFS, the “relative signal to noise ratio (SNR)” is employed as a metric to select the user instead of the “relative throughput” in the original PFS. And only partial channel state information (CSI) is fed back to the base station (BS) in PPFS. Moreover, there are multiple users selected to transmit simultaneously at each slot in PPFS, while only one user occupies all channel resources at each slot in PFS. Consequently, PPFS improves fairness performance of PMS greatly with a relatively small loss of average throughput compared to PFS.

  3. Common Data Acquisition Systems (DAS) Software Development for Rocket Propulsion Test (RPT) Test Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebert, Phillip W., Sr.; Davis, Dawn M.; Turowski, Mark P.; Holladay, Wendy T.; Hughes, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    The advent of the commercial space launch industry and NASA's more recent resumption of operation of Stennis Space Center's large test facilities after thirty years of contractor control resulted in a need for a non-proprietary data acquisition systems (DAS) software to support government and commercial testing. The software is designed for modularity and adaptability to minimize the software development effort for current and future data systems. An additional benefit of the software's architecture is its ability to easily migrate to other testing facilities thus providing future commonality across Stennis. Adapting the software to other Rocket Propulsion Test (RPT) Centers such as MSFC, White Sands, and Plumbrook Station would provide additional commonality and help reduce testing costs for NASA. Ultimately, the software provides the government with unlimited rights and guarantees privacy of data to commercial entities. The project engaged all RPT Centers and NASA's Independent Verification & Validation facility to enhance product quality. The design consists of a translation layer which provides the transparency of the software application layers to underlying hardware regardless of test facility location and a flexible and easily accessible database. This presentation addresses system technical design, issues encountered, and the status of Stennis development and deployment.

  4. Die grünende IT - Wie die Computerindustrie das Energiesparen neu erfand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Greiner, Wilhelm

    Die IT-Branche hat ihr grünes Gewissen entdeckt. In der jetzigen Verbreitung und Intensität ist dieses Phänomen noch recht neu - lange Zeit schien die Informationstechnik in puncto Umweltverträglichkeit und Energieverbrauch eine "weiße Weste" zu haben. Schließlich läuft ein PC mit Strom und nicht mit - sagen wir mal - einem Dieselmotor: Beim Booten eines Computers schießt nicht erst eine dunkelgraue Rauchwolke aus dem Auspuff, die Lärmerzeugung beschränkt sich auf das Surren des Lüfters, zum Tanken fahren muss man mit ihm auch nicht, und die Produktion der Komponenten erfolgt… ja, wo eigentlich? Irgendwo in der "dritten Welt", in Fernost oder in Mexiko. So sind die umweltschädlichen Aspekte der Produktion von Leiterplatten und sonstigen Bauteilen aus den Augen, aus dem Sinn und bestenfalls sporadisch Gegenstand eines kritischen Greenpeace-Berichts1, der im Überangebot der Medienlandschaft untergeht.

  5. An initial test of an Intelligent Distributed Acoustic Sensing (iDAS) in the ice in Lake Mendota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castongia, E.; Fratta, D.; Wang, H. F.; Mondanos, M.; Chalari, A.

    2013-12-01

    A Distributed Acoustic Sensor (DAS) was deployed to assess wave propagation detection in ice using fiber-optic cable. The acoustic field is sensed continuously along an optical fiber cable by interrogating it with pulses of light. The Sensor (iDAS manufactured by Silixa) samples the coupled medium as to the fiber, as waves travel through the medium, at several kilohertz along every meter of the cable. In March 2012 measurements were carried out along a triangular shaped array on the frozen surface of Lake Mendota. The purpose of the test was to assess the applicability of DAS to determine near surface geophysical properties from its unique way of measuring acoustic fields. We constructed an equilateral triangle array with a side length of 30 meters by freezing optical fiber cables into the sub surface layer of the ice which ranged in thickness between 15 to 20 cm. The fiber cables were frozen to a depth of about 10 cm to achieve uniform cable-ice coupling. The cable sensor was continuous and was looped about 4 times around to get multiple readings at each sampling location, and resulted in a total cable length of about 445 meters. Two different cable constructions were tested. The first type was of tight-buffered central stainless steel capillary tube and the second type of steel-reinforced central stainless steel loose tube. Seismic shots were generated using a sledge hammer and steel plate. Various shot sequences were taken along three different directions to assess the response and sensitivity of the system. A vertical geophone array was also deployed for a reference measurement every 5 meters along each of the sides of the triangle. Every 10 meters, the vertical geophones were complemented by two horizontal geophones. Analysis of the data showed that wavefronts of first arrivals were clearly visible from even the furthest shot location which enabled calculations of properties of the ice as the wavefronts traveled through it. Differences in sign in the recorded

  6. MiDas: Automatic Extraction of a Common Domain of Discourse in Sleep Medicine for Multi-center Data Integration

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Satya S.; Ogbuji, Chimezie; Luo, Lingyun; Dong, Xiao; Cui, Licong; Redline, Susan S.; Zhang, Guo-Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Clinical studies often use data dictionaries with controlled sets of terms to facilitate data collection, limited interoperability and sharing at a local site. Multi-center retrospective clinical studies require that these data dictionaries, originating from individual participating centers, be harmonized in preparation for the integration of the corresponding clinical research data. Domain ontologies are often used to facilitate multi-center data integration by modeling terms from data dictionaries in a logic-based language, but interoperability among domain ontologies (using automated techniques) is an unresolved issue. Although many upper-level reference ontologies have been proposed to address this challenge, our experience in integrating multi-center sleep medicine data highlights the need for an upper level ontology that models a common set of terms at multiple-levels of abstraction, which is not covered by the existing upper-level ontologies. We introduce a methodology underpinned by a Minimal Domain of Discourse (MiDas) algorithm to automatically extract a minimal common domain of discourse (upper-domain ontology) from an existing domain ontology. Using the Multi-Modality, Multi-Resource Environment for Physiological and Clinical Research (Physio-MIMI) multi-center project in sleep medicine as a use case, we demonstrate the use of MiDas in extracting a minimal domain of discourse for sleep medicine, from Physio-MIMI’s Sleep Domain Ontology (SDO). We then extend the resulting domain of discourse with terms from the data dictionary of the Sleep Heart and Health Study (SHHS) to validate MiDas. To illustrate the wider applicability of MiDas, we automatically extract the respective domains of discourse from 6 sample domain ontologies from the National Center for Biomedical Ontologies (NCBO) and the OBO Foundry. PMID:22195180

  7. MiDas: automatic extraction of a common domain of discourse in sleep medicine for multi-center data integration.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Satya S; Ogbuji, Chimezie; Luo, Lingyun; Dong, Xiao; Cui, Licong; Redline, Susan S; Zhang, Guo-Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Clinical studies often use data dictionaries with controlled sets of terms to facilitate data collection, limited interoperability and sharing at a local site. Multi-center retrospective clinical studies require that these data dictionaries, originating from individual participating centers, be harmonized in preparation for the integration of the corresponding clinical research data. Domain ontologies are often used to facilitate multi-center data integration by modeling terms from data dictionaries in a logic-based language, but interoperability among domain ontologies (using automated techniques) is an unresolved issue. Although many upper-level reference ontologies have been proposed to address this challenge, our experience in integrating multi-center sleep medicine data highlights the need for an upper level ontology that models a common set of terms at multiple-levels of abstraction, which is not covered by the existing upper-level ontologies. We introduce a methodology underpinned by a Minimal Domain of Discourse (MiDas) algorithm to automatically extract a minimal common domain of discourse (upper-domain ontology) from an existing domain ontology. Using the Multi-Modality, Multi-Resource Environment for Physiological and Clinical Research (Physio-MIMI) multi-center project in sleep medicine as a use case, we demonstrate the use of MiDas in extracting a minimal domain of discourse for sleep medicine, from Physio-MIMI's Sleep Domain Ontology (SDO). We then extend the resulting domain of discourse with terms from the data dictionary of the Sleep Heart and Health Study (SHHS) to validate MiDas. To illustrate the wider applicability of MiDas, we automatically extract the respective domains of discourse from 6 sample domain ontologies from the National Center for Biomedical Ontologies (NCBO) and the OBO Foundry. PMID:22195180

  8. Sensitivity of Global Modeling Initiative CTM predictions of Antarctic ozone recovery to GCM and DAS generated meteorological fields

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, D; Bergmann, D

    2003-12-04

    We use the Global Modeling Initiative chemistry and transport model to simulate the evolution of stratospheric ozone between 1995 and 2030, using boundary conditions consistent with the recent World Meteorological Organization ozone assessment. We compare the Antarctic ozone recovery predictions of two simulations, one driven by meteorological data from a general circulation model (GCM), the other using the output of a data assimilation system (DAS), to examine the sensitivity of Antarctic ozone recovery predictions to the characteristic dynamical differences between GCM and DAS-generated meteorological data. Although the age of air in the Antarctic lower stratosphere differs by a factor of 2 between the simulations, we find little sensitivity of the 1995-2030 Antarctic ozone recovery between 350 K and 650 K to the differing meteorological fields, particularly when the recovery is specified in mixing ratio units. Relative changes are smaller in the DAS-driven simulation compared to the GCM-driven simulation due to a surplus of Antarctic ozone in the DAS-driven simulation which is not consistent with observations. The peak ozone change between 1995 and 2030 in both simulations is {approx}20% lower than photochemical expectations, indicating that changes in ozone transport at 450 K between 1995 and 2030 constitute a small negative feedback. Total winter/spring ozone loss during the base year (1995) of both simulations and the rate of ozone loss during August and September is somewhat weaker than observed. This appears to be due to underestimates of Antarctic Cl{sub y} at the 450 K potential temperature level.

  9. Verknüpfung von DQ-Indikatoren mit KPIs und Auswirkungen auf das Return on Investment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, Frank

    Häufig ist nicht klar, welche Beziehungen zwischen Datenqualitätsindikatoren (DQI, Definition folgt weiter unten) und Key Performance Indicators (KPI, s. Abschnitt 1.3 für weitere Details) eines Unternehmens oder einer Organisation bestehen. Dies ist insbesondere deshalb von Bedeutung, da die Kenntnis dieser Beziehungen maßgeblich die Ausprägung eines Datenqualitätsprojekts beeinflusst. Sie ist als Entscheidungsgrundlage unabdingbar und gibt Antworten auf folgende Fragen: Was kostet unserem Unternehmen/unserer Organisation1 schlechte Datenqualität? Können wir uns das leisten?

  10. Efficacy of Soybean's Event DAS-81419-2 Expressing Cry1F and Cry1Ac to Manage Key Tropical Lepidopteran Pests Under Field Conditions in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marques, L H; Castro, B A; Rossetto, J; Silva, O A B N; Moscardini, V F; Zobiole, L H S; Santos, A C; Valverde-Garcia, P; Babcock, J M; Rule, D M; Fernandes, O A

    2016-08-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) event DAS-81419-2 (Conkesta technology) in soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, expresses Cry1F and Cry1Ac proteins to provide protection from feeding by several lepidopteran pests. A total of 27 field experiments across nine locations were conducted from 2011 to 2015 in southern and central Brazil to characterize the efficacy of DAS-81419-2 soybean infested with Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), Chrysodeixis includens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Heliothis virescens (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) during vegetative (V4) and reproductive (R2 and R4) crop developmental stages. The efficacy of DAS-81419-2 was compared to that of a non-Bt isogenic variety managed with or without applications of commercial foliar insecticides for lepidopteran control. DAS-81419-2 soybean consistently experienced defoliation levels of 0.5% or less (compared with 20.05-56.74% in the non-Bt, nonsprayed treatment) and larval survival of < 0.1% in all four species across the vegetative and reproductive plant stages evaluated. The efficacy of DAS-81419-2 was significantly higher than commercial foliar insecticides applied to the non-Bt variety. DAS-81419-2 soybeans containing two highly effective Bt proteins are expected to be a more robust IRM tool compared to single-trait Bt technologies. The consistent efficacy of DAS-81419-2 soybeans across years, locations, and crop stages suggests that it will be a valuable product for management of hard-to-control key lepidopteran pests in South American soybean production. PMID:27401112

  11. Insect-Protected Event DAS-81419-2 Soybean (Glycine max L.) Grown in the United States and Brazil Is Compositionally Equivalent to Nontransgenic Soybean

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The transgenic soybean event DAS-81419-2 contains genes that encode the Cry1F, Cry1Ac, and PAT proteins. Cry1F and Cry1Ac provide protection against key lepidopteran insect pests, while PAT confers tolerance to the herbicide glufosinate. To satisfy regulatory requirements for the safety evaluation of transgenic crops, studies were conducted in the United States and Brazil to evaluate the nutrient and antinutrient composition of event DAS-81419-2 soybean. On the basis of the results of these studies, event DAS-81419-2 soybean is compositionally equivalent to nontransgenic soybean. This conclusion concurs with numerous other published studies in soybean and other crops where compositional equivalence between the transgenic crop and its nontransgenic comparator has been demonstrated. PMID:25641393

  12. Insect-protected event DAS-81419-2 soybean (Glycine max L.) grown in the United States and Brazil is compositionally equivalent to nontransgenic soybean.

    PubMed

    Fast, Brandon J; Schafer, Ariane C; Johnson, Tempest Y; Potts, Brian L; Herman, Rod A

    2015-02-25

    The transgenic soybean event DAS-81419-2 contains genes that encode the Cry1F, Cry1Ac, and PAT proteins. Cry1F and Cry1Ac provide protection against key lepidopteran insect pests, while PAT confers tolerance to the herbicide glufosinate. To satisfy regulatory requirements for the safety evaluation of transgenic crops, studies were conducted in the United States and Brazil to evaluate the nutrient and antinutrient composition of event DAS-81419-2 soybean. On the basis of the results of these studies, event DAS-81419-2 soybean is compositionally equivalent to nontransgenic soybean. This conclusion concurs with numerous other published studies in soybean and other crops where compositional equivalence between the transgenic crop and its nontransgenic comparator has been demonstrated. PMID:25641393

  13. Properties of Noise Cross Correlation Functions Obtained from a Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) Array at Garner Valley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, X.; Lancelle, C.; Thurber, C. H.; Fratta, D.; Wang, H. F.; Chalari, A.; Clarke, A.

    2015-12-01

    The field test of Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) conducted at Garner Valley, California on September 11-12, 2013 provided a continuous overnight record of ambient noise. The DAS array recorded ground motions every one meter of optical cable that was arranged approximately in the shape of a rectangle with dimensions of 160 m by 80 m. The long dimension of the array was adjacent to a state highway. Three hours of record were used to compute noise cross-correlation functions (NCFs) in one-minute windows. The trace from each sensor channel was pre-processed by downsampling to 200 Hz, followed by normalization in the time-domain and bandpass filtering between 2 and 20 Hz (Bensen et al., 2007). The one-minute NCFs were then stacked using the time-frequency domain phase-weighted stacking method (Schimmel & Gallart, 2007). The NCFs between channels were asymmetrical reflecting the direction of traffic noise. The group velocities were found using the frequency-time analysis method. The energy was concentrated between 5 and 15 Hz, which falls into the typical traffic noise frequency band. The resulting velocities were between 100 and 300 m/s for frequencies between 10 and 20 Hz, which are in the same range as described in the results for surface-wave dispersion obtained using an active source for the same site (Lancelle et al., 2015). The group velocity starts to decrease for frequencies greater than ~10 Hz, which was expected on the basis of a previous shear-wave velocity model (Steidl et al., 1996). Then, the phase velocity was calculated using the multichannel analysis of surface wave technique (MASW - Park et al., 1999) with 114 NCFs spaced one meter apart. The resulting dispersion curve between 5 and 15 Hz gave phase velocities that ranged from approximately 170 m/s at 15 Hz to 250 m/s at 5 Hz. These results are consistent with other results of active-source DAS and seismometer records obtained at the Garner Valley site (e.g., Stokoe et al. 2004). This analysis is

  14. Variações nos períodos de pulsação das estrelas PG 1159-035 e G117-B15-A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, J. E. S.; Kepler, S. O.

    2003-08-01

    A medida que uma estrela evolui, sua trajetória no diagrama-HR passa pelas chamadas "faixas de instabilidade" podendo tornar-se uma variável. Ao longo da seqüência das anãs brancas existem três faixas de instabilidade, contando com a faixa das pré-anãs brancas (DOs). Estrelas nestas faixas podem apresentar pulsações não-radiais com períodos bastante estáveis, ente 100 e 1000 segundos. Os períodos de pulsação sofrem variações com a evolução da estrela, podendo aumentar ou diminuir. As DOs, por serem mais quentes evoluem mais rapidamente e isto faz com que as variações em seus períodos de pulsação sejam maiores (em magnitude) do que as variações que ocorrem nos períodos de pulsação de anãs brancas pulsantes mais frias como as DBs e as DAs. Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados das medidas das variações de períodos de pulsação de duas estrelas: a PG 1159-035 e a G117-B15-A. Essas duas estrelas estão nos extremos da seqüência das anãs brancas: a PG 1159-035 é uma pré-anã branca (DO) e seus períodos de pulsação variam na ordem de 1 segundo a cada 3000 anos. Já a G117-B15-A é uma DA e seus períodos de pulsação variam cerca de 1 segundo a cada 30 milhões de anos.

  15. Das Märchen vom Zauberer im weißen Kittel: Mythen um berühmte Experimente und Experimentatoren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentschel, Klaus

    2003-09-01

    Um berühmte Experimentatoren und Experimente ranken sich ebenso Mythen wie um geniale Theoretiker. Sie sind in populärwissenschaftlichen Büchern, Lehrbüchern und sogar in wissenschaftshistorischen Texten verbreitet. Die durch die Aufklärung etablierte Kultur des eleganten Schauexperiments vermittelt ein schiefes Bild vom mühsamen Weg vieler Experimentatoren zum dargestellten Ergebnis. Auch der Mythos des einsamen, genialen Experimentators ohne Helfer widerspricht dem historischen Befund. Gleiches gilt für das experimentum crucis, das eine Theorie als entscheidendes Experiment belegen soll. Die historische Forschung zeigt, dass es eine lange, eigenständige Tradition der experimentellen und instrumentellen Arbeit gibt.

  16. Compositional equivalence of DAS-444Ø6-6 (AAD-12 + 2mEPSPS + PAT) herbicide-tolerant soybean and nontransgenic soybean.

    PubMed

    Lepping, Miles D; Herman, Rod A; Potts, Brian L

    2013-11-20

    Soybeans from transgenic event DAS-444Ø6-6 are the first to express three proteins that provide tolerance to broad-spectrum herbicides. DAS-444Ø6-6 soybean expresses the aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase-12 (AAD-12) enzyme from the soil bacterium Delftia acidovorans , which provides tolerance to the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D); the double-mutant 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (2mEPSPS) enzyme encoded by a modified version of the epsps gene from maize ( Zea mays ), which provides tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate; and the phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) enzyme from Streptomyces viridochromogenes , which provides tolerance to the herbicide glufosinate. The purpose of this study was to determine if the nutrient and antinutrient composition of forage and grain from DAS-444Ø6-6 soybean are similar to those of nontransgenic soybean. Forage was analyzed for proximates, fiber, and minerals; grain analyses further included vitamins, amino acid and fatty acid profiles, and antinutrients and bioactive components (lectin, phytic acid, raffinose, stachyose, trypsin inhibitor, and isoflavones). Results indicate that DAS-444Ø6-6 soybean is compositionally equivalent to nontransgenic soybean. Findings are consistent with similar studies for other input traits, as endogenous plant metabolic pathways that influence composition are expected to be less affected by transgenesis compared with traditional plant-breeding methods. PMID:24191699

  17. Development and evaluation of a DAS-ELISA for rapid detection of Tembusu virus using monoclonal antibodies against the envelope protein.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Ou, Quanbin; Tang, Yi; Gao, Xuhui; Wu, Lili; Xue, Cong; Yu, Chunmei; Cui, Jingteng; Diao, Youxiang

    2014-01-01

    Since April 2010, Tembusu virus (TMUV) which is a contagious pathogen of waterfowls, causing symptoms of high fever, loss of appetite and fall in egg production, has been reported in east of China. A double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) which detects for TMUV was developed, using two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the TMUV envelope (E) protein. BALB/c mice were immunized with purified recombinant E protein expressed in E. coli. Three hybridoma cell lines designated as 12B1, 10C6 and 2D2, were screened by cell fusion and indirect ELISA for their ability to recognize different linear epitopes on the E protein, and were characterized subsequently. High-affinity mAbs 12B1 and 2D2 were used as capture and detection antibodies, respectively. The reaction conditions for the DAS-ELISA were optimized for TMUV detection. The cross-reactivity of the DAS-ELISA was determined using TMUV, duck plague virus, avian influenza virus subtype H9, Newcastle disease virus, duck hepatitis A virus type 1 and duck reovirus samples. A total of 191 homogenized tissues of field samples were simultaneously detected by DAS-ELISA and by RT-PCR. The former was found to have a high specificity of 99.1% and a sensitivity of 93.1%. These results reveal a positive coincidence between DAS-ELISA and RT-PCR at a coincidence rate of 95.8%. The method developed in this study can be used for the diagnosis of TMUV infection of duck origin. PMID:24797141

  18. Development and Evaluation of a DAS-ELISA for Rapid Detection of Tembusu Virus Using Monoclonal Antibodies against the Envelope Protein

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hao; Ou, Quanbin; Tang, Yi; Gao, Xuhui; Wu, Lili; Xue, Cong; Yu, Chunmei; Cui, Jingteng; Diao, Youxiang

    2014-01-01

    Since April 2010, Tembusu virus (TMUV) which is a contagious pathogen of waterfowls, causing symptoms of high fever, loss of appetite and fall in egg production, has been reported in east of China. A double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) which detects for TMUV was developed, using two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the TMUV envelope (E) protein. BALB/c mice were immunized with purified recombinant E protein expressed in E. coli. Three hybridoma cell lines designated as 12B1, 10C6 and 2D2, were screened by cell fusion and indirect ELISA for their ability to recognize different linear epitopes on the E protein, and were characterized subsequently. High-affinity mAbs 12B1 and 2D2 were used as capture and detection antibodies, respectively. The reaction conditions for the DAS-ELISA were optimized for TMUV detection. The cross-reactivity of the DAS-ELISA was determined using TMUV, duck plague virus, avian influenza virus subtype H9, Newcastle disease virus, duck hepatitis A virus type 1 and duck reovirus samples. A total of 191 homogenized tissues of field samples were simultaneously detected by DAS-ELISA and by RT-PCR. The former was found to have a high specificity of 99.1% and a sensitivity of 93.1%. These results reveal a positive coincidence between DAS-ELISA and RT-PCR at a coincidence rate of 95.8%. The method developed in this study can be used for the diagnosis of TMUV infection of duck origin. PMID:24797141

  19. Simulation of the single-vibronic-level emission spectra of HAsO and DAsO.

    PubMed

    Mok, Daniel K W; Lee, Edmond P F; Dyke, John M

    2016-05-14

    The single-vibronic-level (SVL) emission spectra of HAsO and DAsO have been simulated by electronic structure/Franck-Condon factor calculations to confirm the spectral molecular carrier and to investigate the electronic states involved. Various multi-reference (MR) methods, namely, NEVPT2 (n-electron valence state second order perturbation theory), RSPT2-F12 (explicitly correlated Rayleigh-Schrodinger second order perturbation theory), and MRCI-F12 (explicitly correlated multi-reference configuration interaction) were employed to compute the geometries and relative electronic energies for the X̃(1)A(') and Ã(1)A(″) states of HAsO. These are the highest level calculations on these states yet reported. The MRCI-F12 method gives computed T0 (adiabatic transition energy including zero-point energy correction) values, which agree well with the available experimental T0 value much better than previously computed values and values computed with other MR methods in this work. In addition, the potential energy surfaces of the X̃(1)A(') and Ã(1)A(″) states of HAsO were computed using the MRCI-F12 method. Franck-Condon factors between the two states, which include anharmonicity and Duschinsky rotation, were then computed and used to simulate the recently reported SVL emission spectra of HAsO and DAsO [R. Grimminger and D. J. Clouthier, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 184308 (2011)]. Our simulated SVL emission spectra confirm the assignments of the molecular carrier, the electronic states involved, and the vibrational structures observed in the SVL emission spectra but suggest a loss of intensity in the reported experimental spectra at the low emission energy region almost certainly due to a loss of responsivity near the cutoff region (∼800 nm) of the detector used. Computed and experimentally derived re (equilibrium) and/or r0 {the (0,0,0) vibrational level} geometries of the two states of HAsO are discussed. PMID:27179480

  20. Simulation of the single-vibronic-level emission spectra of HAsO and DAsO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mok, Daniel K. W.; Lee, Edmond P. F.; Dyke, John M.

    2016-05-01

    The single-vibronic-level (SVL) emission spectra of HAsO and DAsO have been simulated by electronic structure/Franck-Condon factor calculations to confirm the spectral molecular carrier and to investigate the electronic states involved. Various multi-reference (MR) methods, namely, NEVPT2 (n-electron valence state second order perturbation theory), RSPT2-F12 (explicitly correlated Rayleigh-Schrodinger second order perturbation theory), and MRCI-F12 (explicitly correlated multi-reference configuration interaction) were employed to compute the geometries and relative electronic energies for the X ˜ 1 A ' and A ˜ 1 A ″ states of HAsO. These are the highest level calculations on these states yet reported. The MRCI-F12 method gives computed T0 (adiabatic transition energy including zero-point energy correction) values, which agree well with the available experimental T0 value much better than previously computed values and values computed with other MR methods in this work. In addition, the potential energy surfaces of the X ˜ 1 A ' and A ˜ 1 A ″ states of HAsO were computed using the MRCI-F12 method. Franck-Condon factors between the two states, which include anharmonicity and Duschinsky rotation, were then computed and used to simulate the recently reported SVL emission spectra of HAsO and DAsO [R. Grimminger and D. J. Clouthier, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 184308 (2011)]. Our simulated SVL emission spectra confirm the assignments of the molecular carrier, the electronic states involved, and the vibrational structures observed in the SVL emission spectra but suggest a loss of intensity in the reported experimental spectra at the low emission energy region almost certainly due to a loss of responsivity near the cutoff region (˜800 nm) of the detector used. Computed and experimentally derived re (equilibrium) and/or r0 {the (0,0,0) vibrational level} geometries of the two states of HAsO are discussed.

  1. Common Data Acquisition Systems (DAS) Software Development for Rocket Propulsion Test (RPT) Test Facilities - A General Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebert, Phillip W., Sr.; Hughes, Mark S.; Davis, Dawn M.; Turowski, Mark P.; Holladay, Wendy T.; Marshall, PeggL.; Duncan, Michael E.; Morris, Jon A.; Franzl, Richard W.

    2012-01-01

    The advent of the commercial space launch industry and NASA's more recent resumption of operation of Stennis Space Center's large test facilities after thirty years of contractor control resulted in a need for a non-proprietary data acquisition system (DAS) software to support government and commercial testing. The software is designed for modularity and adaptability to minimize the software development effort for current and future data systems. An additional benefit of the software's architecture is its ability to easily migrate to other testing facilities thus providing future commonality across Stennis. Adapting the software to other Rocket Propulsion Test (RPT) Centers such as MSFC, White Sands, and Plumbrook Station would provide additional commonality and help reduce testing costs for NASA. Ultimately, the software provides the government with unlimited rights and guarantees privacy of data to commercial entities. The project engaged all RPT Centers and NASA's Independent Verification & Validation facility to enhance product quality. The design consists of a translation layer which provides the transparency of the software application layers to underlying hardware regardless of test facility location and a flexible and easily accessible database. This presentation addresses system technical design, issues encountered, and the status of Stennis' development and deployment.

  2. Das Lektin aus der Erbse Pisum sativum : Bindungsstudien, Monomer-Dimer-Gleichgewicht und Rückfaltung aus Fragmenten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küster, Frank

    2002-11-01

    Das Lektin aus Pisum sativum, der Gartenerbse, ist Teil der Familie der Leguminosenlektine. Diese Proteine haben untereinander eine hohe Sequenzhomologie, und die Struktur ihrer Monomere, ein all-ß-Motiv, ist hoch konserviert. Dagegen gibt es innerhalb der Familie eine große Vielfalt an unterschiedlichen Quartärstrukturen, die Gegenstand kristallographischer und theoretischer Arbeiten waren. Das Erbsenlektin ist ein dimeres Leguminosenlektin mit einer Besonderheit in seiner Struktur: Nach der Faltung in der Zelle wird aus einem Loop eine kurze Aminosäuresequenz herausgeschnitten, so dass sich in jeder Untereinheit zwei unabhängige Polypeptidketten befinden. Beide Ketten sind aber stark miteinander verschränkt und bilden eine gemeinsame strukturelle Domäne. Wie alle Lektine bindet Erbsenlektin komplexe Oligosaccharide, doch sind seine physiologische Rolle und der natürliche Ligand unbekannt. In dieser Arbeit wurden Versuche zur Entwicklung eines Funktionstests für Erbsenlektin durchgeführt und seine Faltung, Stabilität und Monomer-Dimer-Gleichgewicht charakterisiert. Um die spezifische Rolle der Prozessierung für Stabilität und Faltung zu untersuchen, wurde ein unprozessiertes Konstrukt in E. coli exprimiert und mit der prozessierten Form verglichen. Beide Proteine zeigen die gleiche kinetische Stabilität gegenüber chemischer Denaturierung. Sie denaturieren extrem langsam, weil nur die isolierten Untereinheiten entfalten können und das Monomer-Dimer-Gleichgewicht bei mittleren Konzentrationen an Denaturierungsmittel auf der Seite der Dimere liegt. Durch die extrem langsame Entfaltung zeigen beide Proteine eine apparente Hysterese im Gleichgewichtsübergang, und es ist nicht möglich, die thermodynamische Stabilität zu bestimmen. Die Stabilität und die Geschwindigkeit der Assoziation und Dissoziation in die prozessierten bzw. nichtprozessierten Untereinheiten sind für beide Proteine gleich. Darüber hinaus konnte gezeigt werden, dass auch unter

  3. Free convection in a parallelogrammic porous cavity filled with a nanofluid using Tiwari and Das' nanofluid model.

    PubMed

    Ghalambaz, Mohammad; Sheremet, Mikhail A; Pop, Ioan

    2015-01-01

    The free convection heat transfer of Cu-water nanofluids in a parallelogrammic enclosure filled with porous media is numerically analyzed. The bottom and top of the enclosure are insulated while the sidewalls are subject to limited temperature difference. The Darcy flow and the Tiwari and Das' nanofluid models are considered. The governing dimensionless partial differential equations are numerically solved using a finite difference code. The results are reported for isotherms and streamlines as well as Nusselt number as a function of the volume fraction of nanoparticles, porosity, types of the porous matrix, inclination angle, aspect ratio and different Rayleigh numbers. It is found that the presence of the nanoparticles inside the enclosure deteriorates the heat transfer rate, which is caused due to the increase of dynamic viscosity by the presence of nanoparticles. Therefore, in applications in which the nanofluids are used for their advantages, such as enhanced dielectric properties or antibacterial properties, more caution for the heat transfer design of the enclosure is necessary. PMID:25993540

  4. Código para imageamento indireto de estrelas em sistemas binarios: simulação de variações elipsoidais e do perfil das linhas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, T. R.; Baptista, R.

    2003-08-01

    As estrelas secundárias em variáveis cataclí smicas (VCs) e binárias-x de baixa massa (BXBMs) são cruciais para o entendimento da origem, evolução e comportamento destas binárias interagentes. Elas são estrelas magneticamente ativas submetidas a condições ambientais extremas [e.g., estão muito próximas de uma fonte quente e irradiante; têm rotação extremamente rápida e forma distorcida; estão perdendo massa a taxas de 10-8-10-10 M¤/ano] que contribuem para que suas propriedades sejam distintas das de estrelas de mesma massa na seqüência principal. Por outro lado, o padrão de irradiação na face da secundária fornece informação sobre a geometria das estruturas de acréscimo em torno da estrela primária. Assim, a obtenção de imagens da superfície destas estrelas é de grande interesse astrofísico. A Tomografia Roche usa as variações no perfil das linhas de emissão/absorção da estrela secundária em função da fase orbital para mapear a distribuição de brilho em sua superfície. Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados iniciais do desenvolvimento de um programa para o mapeamento da distribuição de brilho na superfí cie das estrelas secundárias em VCs e BXBMs com técnicas de astro-tomografia. Presentemente temos em operação um código que simula as variações no perfil das linhas em conseqüência de efeito Doppler resultante da combinação de rotação e translação de uma estrela em forma de lobo de Roche em torno do centro de massa da binária, em função da distribuição de brilho na superfície desta estrela. O código igualmente produz a curva de luz resultante das variações de aspecto da estrela em função da fase orbital (variações elipsoidais).

  5. Variation of the anthropic vulnerability in Ribeirão das Pedras watershed in Campinas/SP - Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damame, Desirée; Longo, Regina; Ribeiro, Admilson; Fengler, Felipe

    2015-04-01

    The human actions has caused over the years profound changes in environmental quality in urban ecosystems suffering losses in the quality of air, soil , water and vegetation also the quality of life of the population that inhabit these areas . The study area is characterized by being a highly urbanized watershed, with about 43 % of its area covered by buildings, houses , and commercial and industrial establishments . Called the Ribeirão das Pedras Basin, located in Campinas / SP - Brazil and is bounded by coordinates 22˚47'10 '' and 22˚52'20 '' S , and 47˚ 07'15 '' and 46˚ 02 ' 15' ' . Has an average temperature of 22.4 ° C and average annual rainfall of 1424.5 mm . It has an area of about 42 km² . This is located two universities and a large mall. It also demands a strong agriculture , which occupies about 30 % of the area . It has also been part of two major forest reserves of the municipality, the Forest Santa Geneva and the Forest of Quilombo , both added to other small fragments overlying only about 6% of the total basin area . Avalição to environmental quality , the analysis of the vulnerability of urban watershed becomes an important environmental management tool. The vulnerability can be defined by susceptibility to changes of environment in its initial state , a current tax status by human intervention , and is almost always associated with risk , and the intensity at which such projects in one place, person or structure. In this context , this study aimed to assess environmental vulnerability in an urban watershed coming under increasing human pressures , especially in recent years . For this analysis were prepared soil graphics, slope , elevation and land use and land cover for the years 2009 and 2014 , generating with these , comparative anthropic vulnerability maps of the past five years. Crafting vulnerability maps is a sensitivity in order to enable appropriate management of biotic systems. With the results can be seen that the variation of

  6. Latent factor structure of the Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System: a confirmatory factor analysis in a Chinese setting.

    PubMed

    Deng, Ci-ping; Liu, Ming; Wei, Wei; Chan, Raymond C K; Das, J P

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to measure the psychometric properties of the Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System (D-N CAS) and to determine its clinical utility in a Chinese context. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to examine the construct validity of the Chinese version of the D-N CAS among a group of 567, normally developed children. Test-retest reliability was examined in a random subsample of 30 children at a five-week interval. The clinical discrimination of the D-N CAS was also examined by comparing children with and without ADHD (18 children in each group) and by comparing children with and without Chinese reading disabilities (18 children in each group). The current Chinese sample demonstrated a four-factor solution for cognitive performance among children with normal development: Planning, Attention, Simultaneous processing and Successive processing (χ2(48)=91.90, p=.000; χ2/df=1.92, RMSEA=.050, GFI=.966, CFI=.954). Moreover, all subtests of the battery demonstrated acceptable test-retest reliability (r=.72-.90, p<.01) at a five-week interval among the subjects of the small subsample. Children with ADHD performed significantly worse than normal children on the Attention factor (p<.001) and the Planning factor (p<.05) of the D-N CAS, and children with Chinese reading disabilities performed significantly worse than normal children on the Simultaneous processing factor (p<.01), the Successive processing factor (p<.001) and the Planning factor (p<.05) of the D-N CAS. These findings suggested that the current four-factor structure of the D-N CAS was similar to the original factor structure of the test. The latent factor of the D-N CAS was fairly stable across the cultures. Moreover, the D-N CAS can distinguish between children with ADHD or Chinese reading disabilities and normally developed children. PMID:21571501

  7. Ventos em supergigantes B[e] das nuvens de Magalhães e da Galáxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Araújo, F. X.; Pilling, D. A.; Pereira, C. B.; Fernandes, M. B.

    2003-08-01

    As Supergigantes B[e] apresentam as seguintes características: (i) alta luminosidade; (ii) espectro típico de estrelas de tipo B; (iii) linhas permitidas e proibidas em emissão de metais de baixa ionização, especialmente FeII; (iv) linhas de Balmer, e por vêzes também dos ions HeI e FeII, com perfis tipo P Cygni indicativos de altas taxas de perda de massa. Atualmente estamos desenvolvendo um projeto que visa comparar as propriedades fisicas (principalmente e v¥) dos ventos destes objetos nas Nuvens de Magalhães e na Galaxia. O objetivo é estudar a influência da metalicidade. No presente painel apresentamos uma determinação das velocidades terminais de 11 estrelas, sendo 4 na GNM (Hen S111, 66, R126 e Hen S93), 4 na PNM (Hen S18, S23, S65 e R4) e 3 na Galaxia (CPD-529243, MWC 300 e GG Car). Nossos dados são espectros de alta resolução obtidos no telescópio 1.52m do ESO com o espectrógrafo FEROS. Para determinar as velocidades terminais usamos as linhas Hd e HeI 3888 Å cujas componentes em absorção costumam estar livres de "blends" e estruturas. Nossos resultados sugerem que as velocidades de expansão na GNM são maiores (ainda que apenas ligeiramente) do que aquelas da PNM, como esperado. No entanto, os objetos da Galaxia não parecem seguir a mesma tendência.

  8. Ultrasound Findings in Hand Joints Involvement in Patients with Psoriatic Arthritis and Its Correlation with Clinical DAS28 Score

    PubMed Central

    Naranje, Priyanka; Prakash, Mahesh; Sharma, Aman; Dogra, Sunil; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine the frequency of the various ultrasound findings in hand joints in patients with psoriatic arthritis and correlate grayscale and Power Doppler ultrasonography findings with Disease Activity Score 28. Methods. This prospective study was performed in 30 patients. Ultrasound evaluation of 28 joints of both hands was undertaken and various findings were recorded including synovial hypertrophy, Power Doppler abnormality, soft tissue thickening, tendonitis, joint effusion, periosteal reaction, and erosions. Composite ultrasound scores and Disease Activity Score 28 were calculated and compared. Spearman correlation was used to see relationship between the ultrasound and DAS28 scores. Results. Ultrasound detected more abnormalities in the hand joints than did clinical examination. The frequency of various ultrasound abnormalities was as follows: Synovial hypertrophy was seen in 100%, Power Doppler abnormality suggesting hypervascularity was seen in 36.7%, soft tissue thickening was seen in 66.7%, periosteal reaction was seen in 33.3%, erosions were seen in 30% (mostly in DIP and PIP joints), and flexor tendonitis was seen in 6.7% of patients. Significant correlation was found between Disease Activity Score 28 and grayscale joint score (GSJS) (Spearman's ρ: 0.499; P: 0.005), grayscale joint count (GSJC) (ρ: 0.398; P: 0.029), and Power Doppler joint score (PDJS) (ρ: 0.367; P: 0.046). There was a statistically significant difference between remission and low disease activity group and moderate disease activity group in terms of GSJC, GSJS, PDJC, and PDJS (P < 0.05). These ultrasound measures were higher in moderate disease activity zone patients. Conclusion. Ultrasound is a useful modality for the objective assessment of psoriatic arthritis. Ultrasound including Power Doppler can be used as a modality for assessment of severity of psoriatic arthritis as it correlates with the clinical scoring. PMID:26858846

  9. Soil gas Rn monitoring at Chã das Caldeiras prior the 2014-15 Fogo eruption, Cape Verde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, Germán; Barrancos, José; Dionis, Samara; Fernandes, Paulo; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Sagiya, Takeshi; Padrón, Eleazar; Melián, Gladys V.; Hernández, Pedro A.; Silva, Sónia; Pereira, José Manuel; Rodríguez, Fátima; Asensio-Ramos, María; Calvo, David; Semedo, Helio

    2015-04-01

    Since 2007 the ITER-INVOLCAN/UNICV-OVCV/SNPC research team has implemented a geochemical program for the volcanic surveillance of Fogo volcano by means of applying different geochemical methods in a regularly basis (diffuse degassing surveys, fumarole gas sampling, etc.). This program was improved by setting up a geochemical permanent station (CHA01) to perform continuous measurements of soil gas radon (222Rn) and thoron (220Rn) activities at Chã das Caldeiras, more specific in Portela village, since April 20, 2013. Both gases are characterized to ascend towards the surface mainly through cracks or faults via diffusion and/or advection mechanisms dependent of both soil porosity and permeability, which in turn vary as a function of the stress/strain changes at depth. Measurements of 222Rn and 220Rn activities were performed by an alpha-spectrometer after pumping the soil gas from a thermally isolated PVC pipe inserted 1m in the ground. Even though during the study period the recorded data did not show high 222Rn activity values, a change in the temporal evolution of soil gas 222Rn activity was observed. During the first six months, from April to October, 2013, recorded time series of 222Rn and 220Rn activities showed normal background levels with values of 80.5 and 55.2 Bqm-3, respectively. However, from October, 2013, to February, 2014, 222Rn time series showed an increase trend reaching peak values of 396 Bqm-3 and having an average activity of 134 Bqm-3 until the removal of the station on November 25, 2014 due to the potential danger of being destroyed by the lava flows. The observed increase in the soil gas 222Rn activity from October 2013 to February 2014 occurs almost at the same time of slight observed changes in the vertical displacements detected by the geodetic network installed at the Fogo Island by the ITER-INVOLCAN/UNICV-OVCV/SNPC/Nagoya University research team. Since seismic data are not available, we cannot conclude if the observed changes in soil

  10. Desenvolvimento das câmeras de raios-X duros do satélite MIRAX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, J.; Rothschild, R.; Staubert, R.; Heise, J.; Remillard, R.; D'Amico, F.; Jablonski, F.; Mejía, J.; Carvalho, H.; Heindl, B.; Matteson, J.; Kendziorra, E.; Wilms, J.; in't Zand, J.; Kuulkers, E.

    2003-08-01

    O MIRAX (Monitor e Imageador de RAios-X) é um projeto de desenvolvimento de um pequeno satélite astronômico de raios-X (~200 kg, ~240 W). A estratégia básica da missão será observar continuamente (~9 meses por ano) a região central (~1000 graus2) do plano Galáctico e realizar estudos espectroscópicos de banda larga (2-200 keV) e alta sensibilidade de um grande conjunto de fontes através de imagens com resolução de ~6'. Isso proporcionará uma cobertura inédita do "espaço de descobertas" através da detecção, localização, identificação e estudo detalhado de fenômenos imprevisíveis, tais como transientes fracos de raios-X, novas rápidas de raios-X e bursts de raios gama, assim como o estudo de fontes com emissão persistente. Neste trabalho apresentamos o projeto das duas câmeras de raios-X duros (CXDs) do MIRAX, que irão operar na faixa de 10 a 200 keV. Cada CXD consistirá de um plano de detectores CZT (Cd0,9Zn0,1Te) de 0,5 mm de resolução espacial e 370 cm2 de área total, e de uma máscara codificada com elementos quadrados de 1,3 mm de lado e 0,5 cm de espessura. A máscara terá dimensões de 315 cm ´ 275 cm e será montada a 700 cm de distância dos detectores. Com essa configuração as CXDs terão 6' de resolução angular e, quando colocadas a um ângulo de 29° entre si, as duas câmeras propiciam um campo totalmente codificado de 39° ´ 6°12' e um campo total de 76° ´ 44°. Serão apresentadas simulações de observações da região do plano Galáctico com o conjunto formado pelas duas CXDs.

  11. Newer implications of medico-legal and consent issues in plastic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Atulkumar K.

    2014-01-01

    The social impact of entire cadre of medical graduates admitted through donation and management seats is yet to arrive. What has arrived are the burdens of complying with various acts and facing legal challengesduring medical practice. This article deals with some recent legal requirements for catering to plastic and cosmetic surgery patients. PMID:25190914

  12. [Effectiveness of comprehensive medico-prophylactic measures in pre-school facilities].

    PubMed

    Khalmetov, R Kh; Kamilova, R T; Borovkov, K G; Beketova, L M; Faĭzieva, D Kh

    1993-06-01

    The study of health state of children visiting preschool institutions of the town of Tashkent showed that 80% them belonged to 2nd and 3rd health groups. Breathing exercises, point treating massage, therapeutic electrophoresis, galvanization, d'arsonvalization and others measures reduced disease incidence in children by half. PMID:8406083

  13. Legal update: a roadmap of the recent changes to the medico-legal landscape.

    PubMed

    Plotzker, S R

    2001-01-01

    This article provides an overview of recent changes to federal law that physicians should be aware of The Final Compliance Program Guidance for Individual and Small Group Practices, the HIPAA privacy regulations, and the Fraud and Abuse Safe Harbors are discussed specifically. Also addressed are miscellaneous tax changes and the lapse of the Advisory Opinions. PMID:11497313

  14. Survey of medico-legal investigation of homicide in the region of Epirus (Northwest Greece).

    PubMed

    Fragkouli, Kleio; Boumba, Vassiliki; Vougiouklakis, Theodore

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the forensic features of homicides in North-West Greece (Epirus) from 1998 to 2013, a borderland area between Greece and Albania. Although Greece is critically influenced by both the increasing flow of refugees and the current socioeconomic crisis, very little information has been published regarding the patterns of homicide in the country. Fifty-eight autopsied victims (36 males; 22 females) were investigated. The median age was 37 years old. The average annual homicide rate was 0.85 per 100,000 inhabitants and showed remarkable fluctuation, with largest increase during Greek financial downturn. Sixteen victims were not Greek citizens. The most common method of commitment was the use of firearm (40%). The main motives were economical causes (26%) and passion (14%). Four cases were categorized as matricide (7%), 3 as homicide-suicide (5%), 2 as patricide (3%) and 1 as infanticide (2%). Toxicological analysis proved negative for ethanol and other psychotropic substances in the majority of the victims (50%). There is an urgent need for public actions both in Epirus and in Greece, with the application of effective strategies against criminality. PMID:26580723

  15. Medico-legal implications of mobbing. A false accusation of psychological harassment at the workplace.

    PubMed

    Jarreta, Begoña Martínez; García-Campayo, Javier; Gascón, Santiago; Bolea, Miguel

    2004-12-01

    Mobbing, or psychological harassment at the workplace, is usually defined as a situation in which a person or a group of people engage in extreme psychological violence against another person. In Spain, the number of reports for mobbing has increased extraordinarily in the last years. The reports are increasing dramatically not only before the Labour Courts, but also before the Civil Courts, with claims for damages, and before the Penal Court for offences causing physical or moral injury, etc., since at the present time this figure is not typified as an offence in the Spanish Penal Code. The high degree of complexity of this situation has given rise to frequent misuse of the term and to a number of false accusations of mobbing. A recent European Parliament Resolution on harassment at the workplace addressed the devastating consequences of false accusations. In this paper we present a case in which the "false" victim was mentally ill (paranoia) but succeed in generating an extreme dangerous environment of great harassment against the "false" assailants that were "falsely" accused of mobbing. Forensic diagnosis of the psychiatric disorder suffered by the "false" victim was essential to clarify the issue at the Penal Court. PMID:15639569

  16. Medico-botanical study of Yercaud hills in the eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Parthipan, M; Aravindhan, V; Rajendran, A

    2011-04-01

    The study reports medicinal plant survey was conceded in Yercaud hills ranges of Eastern Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. The study primarily based on field surveys conducted throughout the hills, where dwellers provided information on plant species used as medicine, plant parts used to prepare the remedies and ailments to which the remedies were prescribed. The study resulted about 48- plant species belonging to 45- genera and 29- families of medicinal plants related to folk medicine used by the local people. Among them the most common plants viz., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Cissus quadrangularis L., Gymnema sylvestre R. Br., Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br., Justisia adhatoda L., Ocimum sanctum L., Phyllanthes amarus Schum. & Thonn., Piper nigrum L., Solanum nigrum L., Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers, Tridax procumbens L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe which are used in their daily life to cure various ailments. PMID:22557438

  17. Occupational death due to bilateral carotid artery occlusion - a medico-legal case report.

    PubMed

    Das, Siddhartha; Patra, Ambika Prasad; Shaha, Kusa Kumar; Sukumar, Sanjay; Chaudhari, Vinod Ashok; Rahman, Nisreen Abdul

    2015-05-01

    Occupational deaths are work-related deaths and usually occur in the work place of an individual. A case of occupational death in a female factory worker has been described, where the saree she was wearing accidentally got entangled in the moving belt and caused ligature strangulation. She was unconscious throughout indicating bilateral occlusion of the carotids and died a day after the incident. The authors have described the correlation between the distribution of the injuries on the body and the manner a saree is worn. Investigation of the workplace revealed that the place where she was standing was located between two machines, and the space was inadequate for normal movement. Some suggestions have been offered which may decrease the incidences of occupational ligature strangulation due to entanglement of dress materials in the moving machineries. PMID:25882146

  18. Quality of health care and the role of relationships: bridging the medico-legal divide.

    PubMed

    Mor, Sagit; Einy, Orna Rabinovich

    2012-01-01

    This Article focuses on an often overlooked barrier to efforts to enhance the quality of health care: the relationship crisis that currently exists between physicians and patients. This state of affairs has resulted from the divide between the medical and legal worlds. The medical arena has understandably tended to view the doctor-patient relationship as a purely medical issue, ignoring the law's impact in generating and sustaining problematic relationship patterns. The legal world has yet to fully recognize this state of affairs, and the law's role in its evolution and persistence. We offer a relational approach to health-care law as a means of bridging the divide between the two disciplines. In the malpractice context, this would entail adopting a no-fault compensation scheme, which is committed to strengthening collaborative doctor-patient relations, enhancing patient safety and systemic learning, while providing adequate compensation. PMID:22616544

  19. [Radiation risk, health and quality of life: the medico-psychological and social-ecological aspects].

    PubMed

    Davydov, B I; Ponomarenko, V A; Baluev, O T; Ushakov, I B

    1993-01-01

    Complexity and contradictoriness of the triplet life quality-health-risk gain particular acuity owing to the extensive and intensive nature of radiation and non-radiation risks in the modern technological society. Improvement of life standards issue new risks. Unavoidability of existing risks, emergence of new ones, and necessity of qualitative, first of all energetic, life maintenance come into conflict with the principles of ecological stability. The concept of life quality is in many respects irrational and in the future will largely hinge on traditions, ideological and religious maxims. PMID:8012301

  20. Medico-historical review of Nyagrŏdha (Ficus bengalensis Linn.).

    PubMed

    Varanasi, Subhose; Narayana, A

    2007-01-01

    Nyagrŏdha the Banyan tree (Ficus bengalensis Linn.) is a sacred medicinal plant since Vedic times. The English name Banyan is given by the Britishers to this tree because under the tree Banias i.e., the Hindu merchants used to assemble for business. The triad Ganges, the Himalayas and the Banyan tree are symbolise the images of India, hence it is considered as National Tree. Ficus means fig and bengalensis means belonging to or is of Bengal. To the most of Indians it is Sacred and symbolizes all three Gods of Hindus. The bark represents Lord Visnu, Brahma the roots and Siva the branches. Since Vedic times its small branches are used in Yajña (a sacrificial rite) and known for its giant structure. Alexander the Great is said to have camped under a banyan tree, which was big enough to shelter his whole army of 7,000 men. As per Vĕda it checks the environmental pollution and one of the source of Lăksă (Lac). Its medicinal importance is well documented in Ayurvĕda literature. However, more research needs for understanding the medicinal properties of this symbolic tree. PMID:19580111

  1. [Pre-hospital treatment of an anterior shoulder dislocation: medico-legal concerns].

    PubMed

    Möhler, A; Arikan, H; Gris, M

    2015-01-01

    A man of 23 years, diabetic of type 1, shows a functional handicap of the right upper limb following a convulsion in the context of hypoglycemia. On arrival of the "S.A.M.U.", the physician diagnoses an anterior shoulder dislocation that he decides to reduce on the spot after analgesic treatment. The X-ray examination at the emergency shows a reduction of the dislocation as well as a fracture of the greater tuberosity. Has the fracture followed the convulsion or the reduction movement ? The absence of an X-ray examination before the reduction movement presents a forensic medical problem. Certain criteria mentioned in several studies would allow the reduction without X-ray before. However, these studies remain controversial. PMID:26749634

  2. Medico legal and epidemiological aspects of femicide in a judicial district of north eastern Italy.

    PubMed

    Moreschi, Carlo; Da Broi, Ugo; Zamai, Valentina; Palese, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    Femicide is the intentional killing of a woman because she is female, and often occurs when there are pre-existing relations, intimate or otherwise, between the victim and the murderer. A retrospective epidemiological study was made of 34 female homicides recorded in a university departmental register of post-mortems, pertaining to a judicial district of about 700,000 inhabitants in north eastern Italy, during a 21-year period from January 1st 1993 to December 31st 2013. The temporal trend, the socio-demographic characteristics of victims and perpetrators, the circumstances surrounding the crime and the risk factors for femicide were studied with the aim of identifying and developing preventive strategies. PMID:26854852

  3. [The art of improvising. The practice of medico-legal autopsies in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Menenteau, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Murder is perpetrated, suicide is committed and lethal accidents happen everywhere, even in the heart of the French country. In the 19th century, law often appealed to the lights of experts. During criminal investigation, improvisation and men's adaptation were important, although forensic autopsy was official and necessary. Sometimes the magistrates appealed to young people, not used to that kind of reports, who could only remind some bits of the forensic courses they had followed when they were students. As for the specialists, the circumstances often led them to examine--as Baudelaire would say--the "decaying carcass," in a dark and suffocating ruined house, on the kitchen table, and with a simple scapel. PMID:23038869

  4. HANNIBAL REVISITED: ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY DISORDER VERSUS PSYCHOPATHY--MEDICO-LEGAL PERSPECTIVES FROM SOUTH AFRICA.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Philip

    2014-07-01

    Psychopathy and its relation to criminal behaviour has been the focus of clinical research for many years. Within the context of South African criminal law, the impact of psychopathy on criminal liability has been addressed in numerous decisions with varying outcomes all indicative of the reality that psychopathy will at most serve as a factor in mitigation of sentence, but will not exonerate an accused of criminal responsibility. In this contribution, the author reflects on the diagnostic entities of psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder against the backdrop of South African criminal law cases in terms of which either of these entities were raised in support of mitigation of sentence and/or as extenuating circumstances. PMID:27359011

  5. Los torturadores medicos: medical collusion with human rights abuses in Argentina, 1976-1983.

    PubMed

    Perechocky, Andrew

    2014-12-01

    Medical collaboration with authoritarian regimes historically has served to facilitate the use of torture as a tool of repression and to justify atrocities with the language of public health. Because scholarship on medicalized killing and biomedicalist rhetoric and ideology is heavily focused on Nazi Germany, this article seeks to expand the discourse to include other periods in which medicalized torture occurred, specifically in Argentina from 1976 to 1983, when the country was ruled by the Proceso de Reorganización Nacional military regime. The extent to which medical personnel embedded themselves within the Proceso regime's killing apparatus has escaped full recognition by both scholars and human rights activists. This article reconstructs the narrative of the Proceso's human rights abuses to argue that health professionals knowingly and often enthusiastically facilitated, oversaw, and participated in every phase of the "disappearance," torture, and mass murder process. PMID:24996628

  6. Nobel Prize for Physical Therapy? Rise, Fall, and Revival of Medico-Mechanical Institutes.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Nils; Ottosson, Anders

    2015-08-01

    This historical vignette explores the considerations of the Nobel Prize Committee for Physiology or Medicine by vetting the Nobel Prize chances of Dr Gustaf Zander (1835-1920). His way to stardom started 150 years ago when he began mechanizing the passive and active movements that physical therapists manually used to treat diseases. A glance at his machines shows that they parallel surprisingly well what can be found in modern fitness studios. By combining files from the Nobel Prize Archive and sources from the first physical therapists, this vignette pieces together why Zander was considered one of the best candidates for the Nobel Prize in 1916. By providing this glimpse of history, questions about the origin of physical therapy concepts and the profession of the physical therapist are raised. PMID:25655882

  7. Whiplash-Associated Disorders : Clinical and medico-legal guidelines on the methods of ascertainment.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, S D; Ananian, V; Baccino, E; Banczerowski, P; Bordignon, D; Boscolo-Berto, R; Domenici, R; Gorriz Quevedo, J; Graw, M; Hell, W; Hernandez Cueto, C; Knudsen, P J T; Masiero, S; Montisci, M; Norelli, G A; Pinchi, V; Raudys, R; Raul, J S; Sterzik, V; Tessitore, E; Tuusov, J; Vanezis, P; Vermylen, Y; Vieira, D N; Viel, G; Viero, A; Villanueva, E; Zoia, R

    2016-01-01

    The manuscript presents the International Guidelines developed by the Working Group on Personal Injury and Damage under the patronage of the International Academy of Legal Medicine (IALM) regarding the Methods of Ascertainment of any suspected Whiplash-Associated Disorders (WAD).The document includes a detailed description of the logical and methodological steps of the ascertainment process as well as a synoptic diagram in the form of Flow Chart. PMID:26342284

  8. Detectability and medico-legal value of the gunshot residues in the intracorporeal channel.

    PubMed

    Migliorini, Arnaldo Stanislao; Andreola, Salvatore; Battistini, Alessio; Gentile, Guendalina; Muccino, Enrico; Vancheri, Giulia; Zoja, Riccardo

    2015-11-01

    The application of the histochemical stain of sodium rhodizonate to the entrance wound for the detection of the lead (Pb) residues coming from the gunshot may be affected by false positive cases due to the contamination of the environmental Pb. The aim of the Authors is to histochemically search the Pb of GSR in a region which should be more protected by the contamination: the intracorporeal channel. Two hundreds and eighteen serial histological specimens of the intracorporeal channels coming from 25 subjects (dead due to gunshots and being autopsied at the Section of Legal Medicine of the Milan University, in the years 2013-2014) were stained with the sodium rhodizonate and sodium rhodizonate in acid environment (HCl 5%), and then observed by the microscope. The sodium rhodizonate showed a positivity for the Pb residues in the intracorporeal channel, with the detection of the particles within the first 2 cm beyond the entrance wound in 6 cases over the total number of 25 (24%). Victims were characterized by common features: short-barreled weapon; contact shots or short-distance shots; involvement of regions that were not covered by clothing; preservation of the microscopic structure of organs interested by the intracorporeal channel. The searching of GSR in the intracorporeal channel, even in conditions securing a high sensitivity, could represent an important test for the discrimination between an environmental contamination of Pb and the presence of Pb residues by GSR: once confirmed the presence of GSR in the intracorporeal channel by the histochemical analysis, the diagnostic process should require the application of the SEM-EDX for the confirmation of the results. Although not yet studied, this combination could be applied to cadavers exposed to the environment, with advanced post-mortal phenomena permitting at least the suspects of the existence of gunshot wounds at the macroscopic autopsy evaluation. Indeed, in some cases, the putrefaction is so advanced that no suspect of gunshot injuries could be derived from the soft tissue. PMID:26320004

  9. Intimate partner violence against women in Spain: A medico-legal and criminological study.

    PubMed

    Regueira-Diéguez, Antía; Pérez-Rivas, Natalia; Muñoz-Barús, José Ignacio; Vázquez-Portomeñe, Fernando; Rodríguez-Calvo, María Sol

    2015-08-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant worldwide problem whose magnitude and risk factors vary across different settings and cultures. Nowadays, it is a priority to improve the knowledge on this issue in order to formulate better evidence-based policy responses. This study aims to contribute to a better understanding of non-fatal IPV against women in Spain. A retrospective analysis of IPV cases with a final judicial decision was carried out. The period under study extended from January 2005 to December 2012, with a total of 582 files included in the investigation. Most IPV victims were young adult women of Spanish origin, either married or single, with children, unemployed and with a low family income level. The majority of alleged perpetrators were young adults, employed, with a middle-low income level, a history of alcohol consumption/abuse, but no criminal records. Most victims had previous history of IPV, were engaged in a long-term relationship with their abuser and lived with him at the time of assault. The combination of psychological and physical abuse was the most frequent form of violence. The most common mechanisms of assault consisted in minor acts of physical violence, which resulted in mild injuries, most of them in the upper limbs and face. Nearly half of women sought medical care, but physician's injury report was only made in about a quarter of these cases, even though it is mandatory for health professionals. The majority of criminal proceedings were initiated by the victim's report and ended in conviction, most of them being considered occasional mistreatment. This study confirms the heterogeneity of the phenomenon of intimate partner violence. The importance of adopting standard IPV concepts and promoting the recognition and assessment of this form of violence amongst health care professionals, criminal investigators and forensic personnel is emphasized. PMID:26165670

  10. [Accounting failures in public officials or notaries. Medico-legal approach].

    PubMed

    Baize, P; Duflot, J P; Fellion, G

    1987-07-01

    Considering 11 cases of psychiatric expert reports in criminal cases, the author's aim is to describe the criminological aspects of offences by notaries, mainly swindle and breach of trust. It appears that can be found in this professional category, personality types already described for "closely acquainted", or business crooks, as well as four obviously pathological cases, coming within the provisions of article 64 of the criminal code. Beyond the fact that there is a specific pre-criminal situation: dealing with contracts, assets, funds etc... the authors notices in several cases a discrepancy between the weak and immature personality of some notaries and the importance of the office with which they are entrusted. Thus the requirement of ability and sufficient professional qualification was not always met. The authors would be interested in further similar observations, to confirm or infirm their conclusions. PMID:3674627

  11. [Legal and medico-legal assessment of medical errors in obstetrics].

    PubMed

    Jurek, Tomasz; Swiatek, Barbara; Rorat, Marta; Drozd, Radosław

    2011-01-01

    The authors review the doctrine of criminal law and the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court in search of a starting point for the legal protection of human life and health. In cases of medical errors in obstetrics concerning a fetus, an act of a perpetrator can be classified as manslaughter or exposure to direct danger of loss of life or great bodily injury depending on whether the fetus is recognized as "a human being". The authors criticize the doctrinal criteria of the beginning of legal protection: spatial, physiological, obstetric, and developmental, pointing to the possibilities of decriminalization of medical errors of omission. A solution to this situation is the presented evolution of the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court. It moves towards establishing the beginning of legal and criminal protection of life and health at the "moment of emergence of objective grounds to necessitate delivery". PMID:22715678

  12. [Medico-social aspects of sexual and reproductive behavior of young people].

    PubMed

    Konovalov, O E

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the negative aftereffects of sexual and reproductive behavior of modern young people. Special attention is paid to medicosocial aspects, such as increased incidence of sexually-transmitted diseases, undesired pregnancies, induced abortions and deliveries in adolescents. The effect of natural birth on the health status and development of a child is demonstrated. A conclusion is made on the necessity of more intensive work aimed at preparing young people to marriage and childbirth. PMID:9244582

  13. A case of stillbirth: the importance of placental investigation in medico-legal practice.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Daniela; Belviso, Maura; Fulcheri, Ezio

    2009-03-01

    The authors present a case of stillbirth in which histologic examination of the placenta provides the opportunity to make a definitive diagnosis of a death due to fetal thrombotic vasculopathy (FTV). Establishing the etiology in cases of stillbirth may avoid medical malpractice litigation. The better knowledge of the cause of stillbirths also helped obstetricians to recognize factors that could have prejudiced future pregnancies. PMID:19237859

  14. [Traumatic lesions of the pregnant uterus and its contents: medico-legal aspects].

    PubMed

    Vendittelli, F; Manciet-Labarchede, C; Tabaste, J L; Malinas, Y

    1994-01-01

    Pregnant women are not free of the risk of trauma and any abnormality of pregnancy or the child is easily attributed to an accident occurring during the preceding days, weeks or ... months. This study reviews the traumatic complication of pregnancy and methods which can be used to attribute pathological events to the accident deemed responsible. Particularly stressed is the essential need for a meticulous and accurate approach when drafting the initial certificate, the only document available to an expert medical witness called upon to assist the judicial process in case of litigation. PMID:7973339

  15. Reduced punishment in Israel in the case of murder: bridging the medico-legal gap.

    PubMed

    Roe, David; Ronen, Ya'ir; Lereya, Jossef; Fennig, Shmuel; Fennig, Silvana

    2005-01-01

    The psychiatrist's assessment of criminal responsibility of an accused in court for an act of crime has always been a matter of great difficulty. In 1997, clause 300a was incorporated into the Penal Code of Israel, thereby permitting a more lenient punishment for murder than mandatory life imprisonment. The clause includes the definition of what is meant by "severe mental disorder" and "significantly restricted capacity" by the defendant to understand the criminal nature of his or her act and to refrain from committing it. Usage of the concepts "disorder" and "significantly restricted capacity" in addressing the issue of diminished responsibility of the mentally ill is new to the Israeli legal code. The emergence and evolvement of the above concepts are presented through a historical review of the Israeli encoded law concerning mental illness, analyzed from a psychiatric perspective. PMID:15921741

  16. Paranormal experience in a medico-swimming rescue: a case study.

    PubMed

    Avramidis, Stathis

    2013-06-01

    This study looks at the case of a 20-year-old fisherman, who was speared in the head, the spear entering at his jaw and protruding from the top of his scull, while he was swimming unaccompanied; he was rescued, admitted to the intensive care unit for an operation, remained in a coma for a few days and then had a full recovery. About 10 days before the rescue, he had visited a monk who, intuited and functioning as channel of the divine spirit, had told him that he 'should not be afraid of anything', rubbing the top of his scull and his jaw exactly at the points through which the 40-inch spear passed. After the incident, the monk prescience again the exact day on which he would recover from the coma. It is concluded that the survival of the fisherman can be attributed to a paranormal event. The monk's prescience permit the assumption that a divine spirit was pervasive throughout the universe and present in this life-threatening situation, endeavouring to assist the lifeguard, the neurosurgeons and the young fisherman. PMID:21424176

  17. Medico-Science and School Hygiene: A Contribution to a History of the Senses in Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milewski, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    This article takes as its inspiration Ian Grosvenor's conjectural essay presented for the symposium "Historiography of the Future: Looking Back to the Future" held at the International Standing Conference for History of Education (ISCHE) 33 in July 2011 in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. It contributes to a sensory history of schooling by…

  18. A study of elderly unnatural deaths in medico-legal autopsies at Lucknow locality.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Verma, A K

    2014-07-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine the causes and epidemiological aspects of unnatural deaths in the elderly. Data were collected on 4405 male and female victims of unnatural deaths aged 50 years or more from the total number of 21,235 autopsies performed in King George's Medical University, Lucknow, India over a 5-year period, from 2008 to 2012. There were 3165 male victims and 1240 female victims. Unnatural deaths were higher in rural (64%) than in urban (37%) areas. Accidental deaths were the most common manner of unnatural deaths (59%), followed by suicidal deaths (34%) and homicidal deaths (7%). Traumas were the most common cause of unnatural death (77.3%), followed by undetermined causes (16.6%) and toxicological causes (6.1%). The most common causes of traumatic deaths were blunt head injuries (34%) followed by stab in the chest (6%), burn (16%), blunt injuries in abdomen and chest (10%), firearm injuries in the head and trunk (9%), strangulation (3%), stab in the abdomen (4%), smothering (4%), cut throat (3%), throttling (1%) and hanging (10%). Carbamate poisoning was the most common cause of toxicological deaths (44%) followed by organophosphorous poisoning (33%), ethyl alcohol poisoning (12%), barbiturate poisoning (3%) and zinc phosphide poisoning (8%). PMID:24166690

  19. [Medico-criminal examination of damages to clothes in flight accidents].

    PubMed

    Zviagin, V N; Alpatov, I M

    2005-01-01

    Examination of cloths is a permanent sphere in the practice of forensic-medical expert and an indispensable expertise stage providing for decision-making on the key issues set before the expert. Although, the examination of cloth in forensic-medical expertise has been productive, research in this field slowed down during the recent decades; definition of new sets of evident informative signs has been also suspended. The methodological potentialities of examination of cloths items were demonstrated by examples of aviation incidents because such incidents reflect the principle variations of impacts, i.e. blow, explosion, fire, compression and chemical factors etc., which are subject to examination in the forensic-medical practice. Identification of mechanism causing damage and other signs on cloths helps a lot the forensic-medical expert in solving quite a number of issues related with circumstances of an incident and with a nature of an impact encountered by a person. PMID:15881138

  20. Accidental strangulation by a hot belt: an occupational medico-legal case report.

    PubMed

    Arun, M; Kumar, R G Hemanth; Kumar, G N Pramod; Chandrakanth, H V; Nagesh, K R; Menezes, Ritesh G

    2013-01-01

    Death due to strangulation is generally considered homicidal unless proved otherwise. Here a case of accidental strangulation by a faulty machine is presented and discussed where the deceased was strangled by a heated rubber belt of a rice mill machine. The ligature mark was an assortment of abrasion and dermo-epidermal burns. The term "thermal ligature strangulation" is proposed for such an occurrence. PMID:24057313

  1. [Medico-surgical treatment of Pott's disease. Our attitude in Gabon].

    PubMed

    Loembe, P M

    1994-11-01

    Twenty-six of 95 adults treated for tuberculous spondylitis, between 1982 and 1993, underwent surgery. Twenty-one exhibited neurological deficits: radicular deficits: 4, and progressive spinal cord syndromes: 17 (incomplete, 13, complete, of acute onset: 4). Vertebral body compression fracture was the most prominent finding. Indications for surgery were neurologic: 11, mechanical: 1, etiologic: 1, and mixed: 13. Twelve patients had vertebrectomies, 3 laminotomies and 11 laminectomies. The average follow-up was 23 months. The neurological recovery was complete in 16 cases, partial in 4 cases and unchanged in one case. Bony consolidation occurred after 3-5 months. The medicosurgical treatment produced a very high cure rate, so rapidly, that it became the treatment of choice in our setting. Moreover, that allows to specify the diagnosis. Anterior decompression and fusion is recommended in the cervical and lumbar spine. In the thoracic segment, significant kyphosis is infrequent, so that surgical correction is rarely necessary. Laminotomy may occasionally be indicated for posterior decompression for abscess. Laminectomy is now preferred for uncommon cases of thoracolumbar posterior compression by tuberculous arachnoiditis or associated posterior vertebral tuberculosis. Indications for open biopsy are discussed. PMID:7874618

  2. Medico-legal autopsies as a source of information to improve patient safety.

    PubMed

    Madea, Burkhard

    2009-04-01

    Clear data on the epidemiology of medical malpractice are missing, at least for Germany. Especially data on the frequency of malpractice claims in penal and civil law are not available. However, from epidemiological and healthcare research some data on the frequency of adverse events (AE), preventable adverse events (PAE) and negligent adverse events (NAE) are available. According to a review of the German Alliance of Patient Safety adverse events can be expected in 5-10%, preventable adverse events in 2-4%, negligent adverse events in about 1% and lethal outcome in about 0.1% of hospitalized patients. However, these data are not compatible with figures from civil and penal law and there seems to be a great "litigation gap". Data on malpractice cases are available from the files of the arbitration committees on medical malpractice, files of liability insurance companies and files of the institutes of forensic medicine. However, these files are not complete and data sources may have some interferences. The arbitration committees are, however, mainly dealing with living patients. Lethal cases are a special subgroup and the best available data source are the files of the institutes of forensic medicine. This subgroup is of special importance since death is the most severe outcome of medical malpractice and the reproach to have caused the death of a patient by medical negligence is the most severe malpractice claim. From a retrospective multicentre study on autopsies performed in cases of medical malpractice claims (altogether 101.358 autopsies, 4450 due to medical malpractice claims) the most important data will be presented (disciplines concerned, cause of accusation, classification of accusation, causes of preliminary proceedings, occupational group and number of approved medical malpractice, outcome of medical malpractice proceedings). However, these data are not only of a descriptive value but have utmost importance also for risk analysis and to increase patient safety. A thorough evaluation of serious incidences, although less sophisticated than a root cause analysis, produces far more information than the usual hospital reporting system. Identification and evaluation of errors as well as reporting of errors may also contribute to the prevention of errors which is among other medical disciplines also a task of forensic medicine. PMID:19289305

  3. [Oocyte and embryo donation and surrogacy. Religious, medico-social, ethical, financial and legal problems].

    PubMed

    Kozovski, I; Kovachev, M; Angelova, K; Alexandrov, K; Kozovski, G; Markova, V

    2010-01-01

    The authors quote and discuss the postulates of the Orthodox, Jewish, Catholic and Islamic religions towards ART as well as worldwide legislations and standards and the attitude of female students of medicine in Varna. Indications of oocyte and embryo donation and surrogacy are proposed but all kinds or surrogacy should be permitted. The ART legislation and standards in Bulgaria should be thoroughly revised. PMID:20734677

  4. [The medico-social problem of rheumatic valve disease in Sicily].

    PubMed

    Mangiameli, S; Circo, A; Lombardo, D; Galassi, A

    1977-09-30

    The incidence of rheumatism and rheumatic valvulopathy in Sicily is assessed and the sites most commonly involved in the first and second attacks described. The medical aspects of te question are examined from several points of view: prophylaxis of sites, medical treatment personal and ambient hygiene, gradual defectiveness of the pump, associated diseases, etc. The concept of invalidity is viewed in terms of direct and associated anatomical damage and frank and potential invalidity (absolute or relative), the weight or assistance attributable to the family and the incidence of the local social environment in the question of finding work, etc. The basic criteria for surgery are noted. Care must be taken to preserve the few remaining structures. Mortality is still high and the incidence of heart disease is higher among rheumatic Sicilian children. Not enough is known about overcrowding, the schools attended by the poor, and the higher incidence in low-income classes. Failure to affront some of these features, determined as much by action (or its postponement) by government as by income, results in meaningless medicine, divorced from social reform and true the scientific spirit, a cover for special interests and a demonstration of profit factors wherein the commercialising relationship is increasingly evident. PMID:917336

  5. THE MEDICO-SCIENTIFIC MARGINALISATION OF HOMEOPATHY: INTERNATIONAL LEGAL AND REGULATORY DEVELOPMENTS.

    PubMed

    Freckelton, Ian

    2015-09-01

    The 2010 report of the United Kingdom Science and Technology Committee of the House of Commons and the 2015 report of the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council have overtaken in significance the uncritical Swiss report of 2012 and have gone a long way to changing the environment of tolerance toward proselytising claims of efficacy in respect of homeopathy. The inquiry being undertaken in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration during 2015 may accelerate this trend. An outcome of the reports and inquiries has been a series of decisions from advertising regulators and by courts rejecting medically unjustifiable claims in respect of the efficacy of homeopathy. Class actions have also been initiated in North America against manufacturers of homeopathic products. The changing legal and regulatory environment is generating an increasingly scientifically marginalised existence for homeopathy. That new environment is starting to provide effective inhibition of assertions on behalf of homeopathy and other health modalities whose claims to therapeutic efficacy cannot be justified by reference to the principles of evidence-based health care. This has the potential to reduce the financial support that is provided by insurers and governments toward homeopathy and to result in serious liability exposure for practitioners, manufacturers and those who purvey homeopathic products, potentially including pharmacists. In addition, it may give a fillip to a form of regulation of homeopaths if law reform to regulate unregistered health practitioners gathers momentum, as is taking place in Australia. PMID:26554194

  6. MEDICO-BOTANY OF ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR ISLANDS – III AYURVEDIC DRUGS – I

    PubMed Central

    Nair, K.V.; Yoganarasimhan, S.N.; Murthy, K.R. Kesava; Shantha, T.R.

    1984-01-01

    Ayurveda is not exploited to the maximum extent in the islands. In order to provide a basic data for establishing Ayurvedic and allied pharmaceutical based industries, information of on fortyfour drugs available in the islands are provided in this first paper of the series PMID:22557452

  7. MEDICO – BOTANY OF ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR ISLANDS – IV (AYURVEDIC DRUGS – 2)

    PubMed Central

    Nair, K. Vasudevan; Gopakumar, K.; Yoganarasimhan, S. N.; Shantha, T. R.; Keshavamurthy, K. R.

    1986-01-01

    Details on 33 plants / drugs belonging to 30 genera and 22 families are provided in this paper; ayurvedic drug name, botanical sources in the island, short description of the species occurring in the islands, chemical constituents, ayurvedic preparations and therapeutic properties are elucidated. PMID:22557524

  8. The Microbial Database for Danish wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal (MiDas-DK) - a tool for understanding activated sludge population dynamics and community stability.

    PubMed

    Mielczarek, A T; Saunders, A M; Larsen, P; Albertsen, M; Stevenson, M; Nielsen, J L; Nielsen, P H

    2013-01-01

    Since 2006 more than 50 Danish full-scale wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal have been investigated in a project called 'The Microbial Database for Danish Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment Plants with Nutrient Removal (MiDas-DK)'. Comprehensive sets of samples have been collected, analyzed and associated with extensive operational data from the plants. The community composition was analyzed by quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) supported by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and deep metagenomics. MiDas-DK has been a powerful tool to study the complex activated sludge ecosystems, and, besides many scientific articles on fundamental issues on mixed communities encompassing nitrifiers, denitrifiers, bacteria involved in P-removal, hydrolysis, fermentation, and foaming, the project has provided results that can be used to optimize the operation of full-scale plants and carry out trouble-shooting. A core microbial community has been defined comprising the majority of microorganisms present in the plants. Time series have been established, providing an overview of temporal variations in the different plants. Interestingly, although most microorganisms were present in all plants, there seemed to be plant-specific factors that controlled the population composition thereby keeping it unique in each plant over time. Statistical analyses of FISH and operational data revealed some correlations, but less than expected. MiDas-DK (www.midasdk.dk) will continue over the next years and we hope the approach can inspire others to make similar projects in other parts of the world to get a more comprehensive understanding of microbial communities in wastewater engineering. PMID:23752384

  9. Data Integration Acquired from Micro-Uav and Terrestrial Laser Scanner for the 3d Mapping of Jesuit Ruins of São Miguel das Missões

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, M. L. L.; da Rocha, R. S.; Ferraz, R. S.; Cruz, V. C.; Morador, L. Q.; Yamawaki, M. K.; Rodrigues, E. L. S.; Cole, J. O.; Mezzomo, W.

    2016-06-01

    The Jesuit Missions the Guaranis were one of the great examples of cultural, social, and scientific of the eighteenth century, which had its decline from successive wars that followed the exchange of territories domain occupied by Portugal and Spain with the Madrid Treaty of January 13, 1750. One of the great examples of this development is materialized in the ruins of 30 churches and villages that remain in a territory that now comprises part of Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay. These Churches, São Miguel das Missões is among the Brazilian ruins, the best preserved. The ruins of São Miguel das Missões were declared a UNESCO World Cultural Heritage in 1983 and the Institute of National Historical Heritage (IPHAN) is the Brazilian Federal agency that manages and maintains this heritage. In order to produce a geographic database to assist the IPHAN in the management of the Ruins of São Miguel das Missões it was proposed a three-dimensional mapping of these ruins never performed in this location before. The proposal is integrated data acquired from multiple sensors: two micro-UAV, an Asctec Falcon 8 (rotary wing) and a Sensefly e-Bee (fixed wing); photos from terrestrial cameras; two terrestrial LIDAR sensors, one Faro Focus 3D S-120 and Optec 3D-HD ILRIS. With this abundance of sensors has been possible to perform comparisons and integration of the acquired data, and produce a 3D reconstruction of the church with high completeness and accuracy (better than 25 mm), as can be seen in the presentation of this work.

  10. Challenges for bathing in rivers in terms of compliance with coliform standards. Case study in a large urbanized basin (das Velhas River, Brazil).

    PubMed

    von Sperling, Marcos; von Sperling, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a case study on the prospects of bathing in a large water course (das Velhas River, Brazil), which crosses the important metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte (25 municipalities), receiving several point and diffuse discharges. The studies were carried out based on a mathematical simulation of thermotolerant coliforms over 227 km of the river, using an adaptation of the Qual2E model (model Qual-UFMG). Simulations of intervention scenarios were made for the current conditions, with three reference flows for the das Velhas River, tributaries and direct contribution: Q7,10 (representative of low-flow conditions), Q50 (average conditions) and Q10 (rainy season). The intervention scenarios simulated were: (a) current conditions without intervention; (b) scenario with effluent disinfection in the two largest wastewater treatment plants in the basin (around 2.4 million inhabitants); (c) scenario with 95% sewage collection and treatment, with disinfection in all municipalities of the study area; (d) scenario with the calculation of values required for the coverage of sewage treatment and coliform removal efficiencies based on a mathematical optimization process. The monitoring data and results of all simulations indicated improvement in coliform concentration as the river flows downstream. However, results suggested that disinfection per se is not enough. Even under hypothetical conditions of excellent sanitary infrastructure for a developing country, coverage of collection and treatment of 95% of the generated sewage, and treatment with disinfection at all wastewater treatment plants, concentrations of thermotolerant coliforms in das Velhas River are likely to be above the maximum allowable of 1,000 MPN/100 mL for bathing purposes. The mathematical optimization indicated the need for very high percentages of sewage treatment coverage (near 100%, i.e. universality of collection and treatment) and implementation of disinfection in most treatment plants

  11. Data Integration Acquired from Micro-Uav and Terrestrial Laser Scanner for the 3d Mapping of Jesuit Ruins of SÃO Miguel das MISSÕES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, M. L. L.; da Rocha, R. S.; Ferraz, R. S.; Cruz, V. C.; Morador, L. Q.; Yamawaki, M. K.; Rodrigues, E. L. S.; Cole, J. O.; Mezzomo, W.

    2016-06-01

    The Jesuit Missions the Guaranis were one of the great examples of cultural, social, and scientific of the eighteenth century, which had its decline from successive wars that followed the exchange of territories domain occupied by Portugal and Spain with the Madrid Treaty of January 13, 1750. One of the great examples of this development is materialized in the ruins of 30 churches and villages that remain in a territory that now comprises part of Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay. These Churches, São Miguel das Missões is among the Brazilian ruins, the best preserved. The ruins of São Miguel das Missões were declared a UNESCO World Cultural Heritage in 1983 and the Institute of National Historical Heritage (IPHAN) is the Brazilian Federal agency that manages and maintains this heritage. In order to produce a geographic database to assist the IPHAN in the management of the Ruins of São Miguel das Missões it was proposed a three-dimensional mapping of these ruins never performed in this location before. The proposal is integrated data acquired from multiple sensors: two micro-UAV, an Asctec Falcon 8 (rotary wing) and a Sensefly e-Bee (fixed wing); photos from terrestrial cameras; two terrestrial LIDAR sensors, one Faro Focus 3D S-120 and Optec 3D-HD ILRIS. With this abundance of sensors has been possible to perform comparisons and integration of the acquired data, and produce a 3D reconstruction of the church with high completeness and accuracy (better than 25 mm), as can be seen in the presentation of this work.

  12. [Spanish version of the new World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS-II): initial phase of development and pilot study. Cantabria disability work group].

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Barquero, J L; Vázquez Bourgón, E; Herrera Castanedo, S; Saiz, J; Uriarte, M; Morales, F; Gaite, L; Herrán, A; Ustün, T B

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to present the initial phases of the development of the Spanish version of the "World Health Organization Disablement Assessment Schedule II" WHO-DAS-II and also to describe the quantitative and qualitative methodological strategies used in the elaboration process of an instrument: i) compatible with the new International Classification of Functioning and Disability -ICIDH-2- of the World Health Organisation; ii) with criteria of cross-cultural applicability and; iii) to allow us to assess the disability in all its dimensions. PMID:10937388

  13. DasPy 1.0 - the Open Source Multivariate Land Data Assimilation Framework in combination with the Community Land Model 4.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, X.; Li, X.; He, G.; Kumbhar, P.; Montzka, C.; Kollet, S.; Miyoshi, T.; Rosolem, R.; Zhang, Y.; Vereecken, H.; Franssen, H.-J. H.

    2015-08-01

    Data assimilation has become a popular method to integrate observations from multiple sources with land surface models to improve predictions of the water and energy cycles of the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. Multivariate data assimilation refers to the simultaneous assimilation of observation data from multiple model state variables into a simulation model. In recent years, several land data assimilation systems have been developed in different research agencies. Because of the software availability or adaptability, these systems are not easy to apply for the purpose of multivariate land data assimilation research. We developed an open source multivariate land data assimilation framework (DasPy) which is implemented using the Python script language mixed with the C++ and Fortran programming languages. LETKF (Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter) is implemented as the main data assimilation algorithm, and uncertainties in the data assimilation can be introduced by perturbed atmospheric forcing data, and represented by perturbed soil and vegetation parameters and model initial conditions. The Community Land Model (CLM) was integrated as the model operator. The implementation allows also parameter estimation (soil properties and/or leaf area index) on the basis of the joint state and parameter estimation approach. The Community Microwave Emission Modelling platform (CMEM), COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Interaction Code (COSMIC) and the Two-Source Formulation (TSF) were integrated as observation operators for the assimilation of L-band passive microwave, cosmic-ray soil moisture probe and land surface temperature measurements, respectively. DasPy has been evaluated in several assimilation studies of neutron count intensity (soil moisture), L-band brightness temperature and land surface temperature. DasPy is parallelized using the hybrid Message Passing Interface and Open Multi-Processing techniques. All the input and output data flows are organized efficiently

  14. Impact of climate change on snow distribution in Japan estimated using data from the remote weather stations (AMeDAS) and Spot VGT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kominami, Y.; Asaoka, Y.; Tsuyama, I.; Tanaka, N.

    2010-12-01

    Change of the amount of snow by climate change is possibly remarkable in Japan, because air temperature is relatively high as snowy area in the world. And the change of the amount of snow cover highly depends on the supply form of precipitation (rain or snow) in winter corresponding to the change of the temperature in addition to the change of precipitation. And vegetation distribution of Japan is highly affected by snow conditions (snow duration and snow accumulation). To evaluate the change of snow condition in Japan climate change, daily change of SWE of 1km mesh was estimated using daily precipitation and air temperature of AMeDAS(Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System) data. And using this model, changes of SWE and snow cover period were estimated in condition of global warming. Daily air temperature and precipitation on 1km mesh were estimated over all of Japan by interpolation of the AMeDAS data. AMeDAS is a system that observes the temperature and precipitation, etc. per hour automatically in about 1,300 places (about 17km spacing) in Japan. And daily change of SWE of each point was calculated using degree-day method and threshold temperature for the distinction between snow and rain using these data. We used precipitation and air temperature data of AMeDAS for 23 years from 1980 to 2002. Snow melt coefficient and elevation dependency of winter precipitation of each grid were optimized by snow duration estimated using satellite data (S3 index of Spot VGT) from 1990 to 2000 To estimate the change in the snow accumulation for the years from 2031 to 2051 and from 2081 to 2100, we used the climate change scenario of a high-resolution Regional Climate Model with a 20-km mesh size (RCM20) developed at the Meteorological Research Institute based on the Special Report for Emission Scenario (SRES)-A2. Estimated snow duration was evaluated in 10 points of mountainous snow measurement stations. Averaged error was about 4 days from 1980 to 1999. And estimated

  15. Development of multiplex PCR method for simultaneous detection of four events of genetically modified maize: DAS-59122-7, MIR604, MON863 and MON88017.

    PubMed

    Oguchi, Taichi; Onishi, Mari; Mano, Junichi; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Futo, Satoshi; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2010-01-01

    A novel multiplex PCR method was developed for simultaneous event-specific detection of four events of GM maize, i.e., DAS-59122-7, MIR604, MON88017, and MON863. The single laboratory examination of analytical performance using simulated DNA mixtures containing GM DNA at various concentrations in non-GM DNA suggested that the limits of detection (LOD) of the multiplex PCR method were 0.16% for MON863, MIR604, and MON88017, and 0.078% for DAS-59122-7. We previously developed a nonaplex (9plex) PCR method for eight events of GM maize, i.e., Bt11, Bt176, GA21, MON810, MON863, NK603, T25, and TC1507. Together with the nonaplex PCR method, the newly developed method enabled the detection and identification of eleven GM maize events that are frequently included in commercial GM seed used in Japan. In addition, this combinational analysis may be useful for the identification of combined event products of GM maize. PMID:20595789

  16. Feeling Normal? Long-Term Follow-up of Patients with a Cleft Lip-Palate after Rhinoplasty with the Derriford Appearance Scale (DAS-59).

    PubMed

    Albers, Andreas E; Reichelt, Andreas C; Nolst-Trenité, Gilbert J; Menger, Dirk Jan

    2016-04-01

    The stigma of nasal deformity due to a congenital cleft lip-palate has an undeniable influence on the affected patient's life. It is therefore of interest to investigate if efforts to reduce esthetic and functional impairments by rhinoplasty (single or multiple) can result in an increased satisfaction with appearance and a self-perception similar to the noncleft population. Retrospective scoring before and after rhinoplasty using the validated Derriford Appearance Scale (DAS-59) and subsequent statistical evaluation and comparison to datasets available in the literature for further classification was used. Of the 61 patients who underwent at least one rhinoplasty, 26 responded to all questions. The mean age of responders was approximately 30 years of age and the male:female ratio was 1:1.2. The scale showed a significant overall improvement after surgery. The full scale and all subscale scores of the DAS-59 were significantly reduced after surgery demonstrating an improvement in the respective categories. Most importantly, if postoperative results were compared with a population concerned and unconcerned about appearance, no difference "facial self-consciousness" of appearance was apparent. Also postoperative subscores for "general self-consciousness" (GSC) and "social self-consciousness" of appearance (SSC) showed no difference from those obtained from the population concerned about appearance. The postoperative subscore for "sexual and bodily self-consciousness" of appearance (SBSC) indicated improvement beyond the level found in the concerned control population. Due to only a low improvement in the difference compared with the subscore representing a "negative self-concept," a statistically significant difference to the concerned population remained, possibly indicating that therapy beyond surgery is needed for improvement. After rhinoplasty, the investigated group of cleft lip-palate patients with nasal deformities showed an improvement in their self

  17. Short-term monitoring of a gas seep field in the Katakolo bay (Western Greece) using Raman spectra DTS and DAS fibre-optic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalari, A.; Mondanos, M.; Finfer, D.; Christodoulou, D.; Kordella, S.; Papatheodorou, G.; Geraga, M.; Ferentinos, G.

    2012-12-01

    A wide submarine seep of thermogenic gas in the Katakolo bay, Western Greece, was monitored passively using the intelligent Distributed Acoustic Sensor (iDAS) and Ultima Raman spectra Distributed Temperature Sensor (DTS), in order to study the thermal and noise signal of the bubble plumes released from the seafloor. Katakolo is one one of the most prolific thermogenic gas seepage zones in Europe and the biggest methane seep ever reported in Greece. Very detailed repetitive offshore gas surveys, including marine remote sensing (sub-bottom profiling, side scan sonar), underwater exploration by a towed instrumented system (MEDUSA), long-term monitoring benthic station (GMM), compositional and isotopic analyses, and flux measurements of gas, showed that: (a) gas seepage takes place over an extended area in the Katakolo harbour and along two main normal faults off the harbour; (b) at least 823 gas bubble ( 10-20 cm in diameter) plumes escaping over an area of 94,200 m2, at depths ranging from 5.5 to 16 m; (c) the gas consists mainly of methane and has H2S levels of hundreds to thousands ppmv, and shows significant amounts of other light hydrocarbons like ethane, propane, iso-butane and C6 alkanes, (d) offshore and onshore seeps release the same type of thermogenic gas; (e) due to the shallow depth, more than 90 % of CH4 released at the seabed enters the atmosphere, and (f) the gas seeps may produce severe geohazards for people, buildings and construction facilities due to the explosive and toxicological properties of methane and hydrogen sulfide, respectively. For the short-term monitoring, the deployment took place on a site located inside the harbour of Katakolo within a thermogenic gas seepage area where active faults are intersected. The iDAS system makes it possible to observe the acoustical signal along the entire length of an unmodified optical cable without introducing any form of point sensors such as Bragg gratings. When the bubble plumes are released by the

  18. Effect of thermal stratification on free convection in a square porous cavity filled with a nanofluid using Tiwari and Das' nanofluid model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheremet, M. A.; Dinarvand, S.; Pop, I.

    2015-05-01

    Natural convection in a square porous cavity filled with a nanofluid in conditions of thermal stratification has been numerically studied. The mathematical model has been formulated in terms of the dimensionless stream function and temperature using the Darcy-Boussinesq approximation and Tiwari and Das' nanofluid model with new more realistic empirical correlations for the physical properties of the nanofluids. Formulated partial differential equations along with the corresponding boundary conditions have been solved by the finite difference method. Particular efforts have been focused on the effects of the Rayleigh number, thermal stratification parameter, porosity of the porous medium, solid volume fraction parameter of nanoparticles, and the solid matrix of the porous medium (glass balls and aluminum foam) on the local and average Nusselt numbers, streamlines and isotherms. It has been observed an essential effect of thermal stratification parameter on heat and fluid flow fields.

  19. Dating human occupation at Toca do Serrote das Moendas, São Raimundo Nonato, Piauí-Brasil by electron spin resonance and optically stimulated luminescence.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Angela; Skinner, Anne R; Guidon, Niede; Ignacio, Elaine; Felice, Gisele Daltrini; Buco, Cristiane de A; Tatumi, Sonia; Yee, Márcio; Figueiredo, Ana Maria Graciano; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2014-12-01

    Excavation of Toca do Serrote das Moendas, in Piauí state, Brazil revealed a great quantity of fossil wild fauna associated with human remains. In particular, fossils of a cervid (Blastocerus dichotomus) were found, an animal frequently pictured in ancient rock wall paintings. In a well-defined stratum, two loose teeth of this species were found in close proximity to human bones. The teeth were independently dated by electron spin resonance (ESR) in two laboratories. The ages obtained for the teeth were 29 ± 3 ka (thousands of years) and 24 ± 1 ka. The concretion layer capping this stratum was dated by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of the quartz grains to 21 ± 3 ka. As these values were derived independently in three different laboratories, using different methods and equipment, these results are compelling evidence of early habitation in this area. PMID:25456825

  20. Evaluation of two evidence-based knowledge transfer interventions for physicians. A cluster randomized controlled factorial design trial: the CardioDAS Study.

    PubMed

    Amsallem, Emmanuel; Kasparian, Christelle; Cucherat, Michel; Chabaud, Sylvie; Haugh, Margaret; Boissel, Jean-Pierre; Nony, Patrice

    2007-12-01

    To investigate the potential benefits of two modes of evidence-based knowledge transfer ('active' and 'passive' modes) in terms of improvement of intention of prescription, knowledge, and real prescription in practice, we performed an open randomized controlled trial (CardioDAS) using a factorial design (two tested interventions: 'active' and 'passive' knowledge transfer) and a hierarchical structure (cluster of physicians for each department level). The participants were cardiologists working in French public hospitals. In the 'passive' transfer group, cardiologists received evidence-based knowledge material (available on Internet) every week for a duration of 1 year. In the 'active' transfer group, two knowledge brokers (EA, PN) visited the participating departments (every 2 months for 1 year, 2 h per visit). The primary outcome consisted in the adjusted absolute mean variation of score (difference between post- and pre-study session) of answers to simulated cases assessing the intention to prescribe. Secondary outcomes were the variation of answers to a multiple-choice questionnaire (MCQ) assessing knowledge and of the conformity of real prescriptions to evidence-based reference assessing the behavioral change. Twenty-two French units (departments) of cardiology were randomized (72 participating cardiologists). In the 'active' transfer group, the primary outcome was more improved than that in the control (P = 0.031 at the department level, absolute mean improvement of 5 points/100). The change in knowledge transfer (MCQ) was also significant (P = 0.039 at the department level, absolute mean improvement of 6 points/100). However, no benefit was shown in terms of prescription conformity to evidence. For the 'passive' mode of knowledge transfer and for the three outcomes considered, no improvement was identified. CardioDAS findings confirm that 'active' knowledge transfer has some impact on participants' intent to prescribe and knowledge, but no effect on

  1. Application of a Fibre Optic Distributed Acoustic Sensor (DAS) for Shallow Seismic Investigations of a Fractured Dolostone Aquifer in Guelph, Ontario.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munn, J. D.; Parker, B. L.; Coleman, T. I.; Mondanos, M.; Chalari, A.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding groundwater flow and contaminant transport in fractured bedrock aquifers requires detailed characterization of the discrete features that control flow, as well as the properties of the rock matrix. This requires multiple, high-resolution, depth discrete datasets that provide different, but complementary information. Distributed fibre optic sensing is a relatively new technology used to continuously monitor properties along the entire length of an optical fibre. Technological advances over the past few years have brought the sensitivity and spatial resolution to the point where shallow (<200m) borehole applications are practicable. Recent studies using fibre optic distributed temperature sensors (DTS) have shown excellent application of DTS for characterizing groundwater flow in both continuously sealed and open boreholes. This presentation highlights the results of a field trial at the Bedrock Aquifer Research Station on the University of Guelph campus (Ontario, Canada) where a single fibre optic cable was interrogated by both a DTS (Ultima-DTS) and a Distributed Acoustic Sensor (iDAS). DAS is a relatively recent development that allows an optical fibre to be used as a receiver for seismic imaging. These seismic images are produced by sending an optical pulse down the fibre and analyzing the effects of seismic waves on the propagating light. Numerous vertical seismic profiles were collected and the effects of different fibre optic cable structures and coupling techniques were examined. The seismic profiles will help delineate structural features and lithological contacts away from the borehole wall, and will assist in correlating other geophysical, hydraulic, or geological logs collected in the boreholes across the site. Preliminary results show promise for shallow seismic imaging and continued field trials will allow refinement of the technique.

  2. Simultaneous functions of the installed DAS/DAK formaldehyde-assimilation pathway and the original formaldehyde metabolic pathways enhance the ability of transgenic geranium to purify gaseous formaldehyde polluted environment.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shengen; Xiao, Sunqin; Xuan, Xiuxia; Sun, Zhen; Li, Kunzhi; Chen, Limei

    2015-04-01

    The overexpression of dihydroxyacetone synthase (DAS) and dihydroxyacetone kinase (DAK) from methylotrophic yeasts in chloroplasts created a photosynthetic formaldehyde (HCHO)-assimilation pathway (DAS/DAK pathway) in transgenic tobacco. Geranium has abilities to absorb and metabolize HCHO. Results of this study showed that the installed DAS/DAK pathway functioning in chloroplasts greatly enhanced the role of the Calvin cycle in transgenic geranium under high concentrations of gaseous HCHO stress. Consequently, the yield of sugars from HCHO-assimilation increased approximately 6-fold in transgenic geranium leaves, and concomitantly, the role of three original HCHO metabolic pathways reduced, leading to a significant decrease in formic acid, citrate and glycine production from HCHO metabolism. Although the role of three metabolic pathways reduced in transgenic plants under high concentrations of gaseous HCHO stress, the installed DAS/DAK pathway could still function together with the original HCHO metabolic pathways. Consequently, the gaseous HCHO-resistance of transgenic plants was significantly improved, and the generation of H2O2 in the transgenic geranium leaves was significantly less than that in the wild type (WT) leaves. Under environmental-polluted gaseous HCHO stress for a long duration, the stomata conductance of transgenic plants remained approximately 2-fold higher than that of the WT, thereby increasing its ability to purify gaseous HCHO polluted environment. PMID:25698666

  3. Further evidence of 777 Ma subduction-related continental arc magmatism in Eastern Dom Feliciano Belt, southern Brazil: The Chácara das Pedras Orthogneiss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koester, E.; Porcher, C. C.; Pimentel, M. M.; Fernandes, L. A. D.; Vignol-Lelarge, M. L.; Oliveira, L. D.; Ramos, R. C.

    2016-07-01

    In this study new SHRIMP U-Pb zircon data for the Chácara das Pedras Gneiss in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil are presented. They represent a small exposure of the crust which was intruded by a large volume of orogenic to anorogenic granitoids at ca. 618-562 m.y. in the Eastern Domain of the Dom Feliciano Belt. The Chácara das Pedras tonalitic orthogneiss has geochemical similarities with subduction-related magmatic rocks of continental arcs. They present high Sr initial ratios (∼0.712), negative ɛNd(t = 777) values (∼-6), TDM varying from 1.8 to 2.0 Ga. The igneous protoliths of these orthogneisses were previously considered to be Paleoproterozoic based on an upper intercept age of discordant zircon analyses. In the present study these orthogneisses were re-sampled and re-analyzed in an attempt to obtain more concordant analytical data. The U-Pb zircon analyses were carried out using the SHRIMP IIe at the Laboratório de Geocronologia de Alta Resolução of the Universidade de São Paulo. The U-Pb concordia age obtained for igneous textural domains of the zircon grains is 777 ± 4 Ma. A few analyses on zircon overgrowths give poorly defined late Cryogenian ages of ca. 650 Ma. Older ages, mostly discordant, were obtained in a few zircon cores, showing an upper intercept age of ca. 1.9 Ga. One sample of the Três Figueiras Granodiorite, which crosscut the orthogneiss in the same outcrop, was also investigated. The zircons of this granodiorite are, however, mostly metamitic, preventing the determination of a reliable age. Some concordant analyses from a few grains define ages ranging in the interval between ca. 603 and 1022 Ma. The youngest (ca. 603 Ma) may represent a maximum age for the granodiorite crystallization. Older ages, with discordance <10%, are of 745, 777, 836 and 1022 Ma. The 777 ± 4 Ma age obtained for the Chácara das Pedras orthogneiss is the first Early Cryogenian magmatic age determined for granitoids in the Porto Alegre region, although

  4. Water Quality-Quantity Evaluation of the Ribeirão das Posses Watershed, Brazil, applying the AgES-W model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, T. R.; Cruz, P. P. N. D.; Figueiredo, R. D. O.; Camargo, P. B. D.; Santos, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    Southeastern Brazil is under a period of drought that has impacted the conservation of watersheds and the management of water quality and quantity for agricultural and urban demands. In this context agro-hydrological modeling tools can generate information of water response over time in response to climate and landuse changes. A 12-km2 watershed which has suffered from anthropogenic activities is the Ribeirão das Posses watershed that is located in the extreme south of Minas Gerais State and is a headwater catchment of the Jaguari river, one of the contributing rivers of the Cantareira Reservoir Complex in the state of São Paulo. This watershed had its landscape changed over the last century from native forests to more homogeneous vegetation for pastures and small crops and some forest plantations fragments with eucalyptus. Currently, the Conservative Waters project has planted some small areas with vegetation of native species, especially where there are springs and at the top of the hills, in order to recover degraded areas and improve the hydrogeochemistry in this study basin. In this context, the AgroEcoSystem-Watershed (AgES-W) model is presented to simulate the water movement and storage in agricultural watersheds with different spatial resolutions of land areas or hydrological responses units. The objectives are to evaluate the quality and quantity of water in Ribeirão das Posses Basin using measured data, then simulate these responses in space and time to test the AgES-W model. The period chosen for research was from 2011 to 2015, because the water quality data were collected during this period. The answers that we hope to find out are: How well does the AgES-W model simulate this Brazilian watershed in the tropics? What are the future prospects of the quality and quantity of water in this basin? The results will help to guide hydrological simulations in similar tropical environments in Brazil in this and other agricultural watersheds with AgES-W.

  5. Using a multi-user desktop-based virtual reality system to recreate the São Miguel das Missões ruins.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Selan R; Fraga, Letícia S

    2002-10-01

    This paper presents a project initiated back in 1999, in which Virtual Reality is applied in order to create a virtual community over the Internet. The desktop-based multi-user virtual reality system recreates a three-dimensional environment based on photogrammetric maps from the São Miguel das Missões church ruins. The ruins correspond to one of the Jesuit Mission (settlement) which was active in the south of Brazil in the 17th and 18th centuries. It has a great importance to the local region in terms of cultural, historic, and tourist aspects. It has also been inscribed in the UNESCO's world heritage list since 1983. This electronic mock-up allows several interactive operations such as community chats, electronic message exchanging, message boards, walking-through, discussion groups, and embedding of other media such as movies, sound, and html pages. The only requirement necessary to access the community is a web browser powered with any Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) plug-in freely available over the Internet. It is expected that such a solution improves the conservation and dissemination of the Brazilian historic patrimony, congregating history, art, and tourist information in one place on the Internet. PMID:12448784

  6. Dating of fossil human teeth and shells from Toca do Enoque site at Serra das Confusões National Park, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Angela; Sullasi, Henry L; Asfora, Viviane K; Azevedo, Renata L; Guzzo, Pedro; Guidon, Niede; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G; Khoury, Helen; Pessis, Anne-Marie; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2016-06-01

    This work reports the dating of a fossil human tooth and shell found at the archaeological site Toca do Enoque located in Serra das Confusões National Park (Piauí, Brazil). Many prehistoric paintings have been found at this site. An archaeological excavation unearthed three sepulchers with human skeletons and some shells. Two Brazilian laboratories, in Ribeirão Preto (USP) and Recife (UFPE), independently performed Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) measurements to date the tooth and the shell and obtain the equivalent dose received by each sample. The laboratories determined similar ages for the tooth and the shell (~4.8 kyBP). The results agreed with C-14 dating of the shell and other samples (charcoal) collected in the same sepulcher. Therefore, this work provides a valid inter-comparison of results by two independent ESR-dating laboratories and between two dating methods; i.e., C-14 and ESR, showing the validity of ESR dating for this range of ages. PMID:27276381

  7. Change in CD3 positive T-cell expression in psoriatic arthritis synovium correlates with change in DAS28 and magnetic resonance imaging synovitis scores following initiation of biologic therapy - a single centre, open-label study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction With the development of increasing numbers of potential therapeutic agents in inflammatory disease comes the need for effective biomarkers to help screen for drug efficacy and optimal dosing regimens early in the clinical trial process. This need has been recognized by the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Clinical Trials (OMERACT) group, which has established guidelines for biomarker validation. To seek a candidate synovial biomarker of treatment response in psoriatic arthritis (PsA), we determined whether changes in immunohistochemical markers of synovial inflammation correlate with changes in disease activity scores assessing 28 joints (ΔDAS28) or magnetic resonance imaging synovitis scores (ΔMRI) in patients with PsA treated with a biologic agent. Methods Twenty-five consecutive patients with PsA underwent arthroscopic synovial biopsies and MRI scans of an inflamed knee joint at baseline and 12 weeks after starting treatment with either anakinra (first 10 patients) or etanercept (subsequent 15 patients) in two sequential studies of identical design. DAS28 scores were measured at both time points. Immunohistochemical staining for CD3, CD68 and Factor VIII (FVIII) was performed on synovial samples and scored by digital image analysis (DIA). MRI scans performed at baseline and at 12 weeks were scored for synovitis semi-quantitatively. The ΔDAS28 of the European League Against Rheumatism good response definition (>1.2) was chosen to divide patients into responder and non-responder groups. Differences between groups (Mann Whitney U test) and correlations between ΔDAS28 with change in immunohistochemical and MRI synovitis scores (Spearman's rho test) were calculated. Results Paired synovial samples and MRI scans were available for 21 patients (8 anakinra, 13 etanercept) and 23 patients (8 anakinra, 15 etanercept) respectively. Change in CD3 (ΔCD3) and CD68 expression in the synovial sublining layer (ΔCD68sl) was significantly greater in the disease

  8. Guidelines on Management of Human Infection with the Novel Virus Influenza A (H1N1) – A Report from the Hospital das Clínicas of the University of São Paulo

    PubMed Central

    Hajjar, Ludhmila Abrahao; Schout, Denise; Galas, Filomena Regina Barbosa Gomes; Uip, David Everson; Levin, Anna Sara Shafferman; Filho, Helio Hehl Caiaffa; Sakane, Pedro Takanori; Suslik, Carlos Alberto; de Camargo Teixeira, Jose Manoel; Bonfa, Eloisa; Barone, Antonio Alci; de Arruda Martins, Milton; Boulos, Marcos; Auler, Jose Otavio Costa

    2009-01-01

    The pandemic novel influenza A (H1N1) infection was considered widespread in Brazil on July, 2009. Since then, 9.249 cases were confirmed in Brazil, most of them concentrated in São Paulo. The Hospital das Clínicas of the University of São Paulo is a reference center for H1N1 cases in São Paulo. The purpose of this review is to analyze the evidence concerning diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of novel influenza A (H1N1) infection. In addition, we propose guidelines for the management of this pandemic emphasizing Hospital das Clínicas “bundles” for the control of the pandemic novel influenza A (H1N1). PMID:19841710

  9. Observações das explosões cósmicas de raios gama GRB021004 e GRB021211 com o satélite HETE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, J.; Ricker, G.; Hurley, K.; Lamb, D.; Grew, G.; et al.

    2003-08-01

    O High Energy Transient Explorer (HETE) é o primeiro satélite inteiramente dedicado ao estudo das explosões cósmicas de raios gama (ECRGs). Lançado em 9 de outubro de 2000, o HETE possui instrumentação capaz de observar as ECRGs desde o UV até raios gama e localizá-las com precisão de ~ 1-10 minutos de arco. As localizações das ECRGs detectadas são disseminadas rapidamente (em alguns segundos) pela Internet através de uma rede de estações de recepção ao longo do equador. A participação brasileira nesse projeto se dá através da montagem e operação de uma estação de recepção em Natal, RN, e da participação na equipe científica da missão. Neste trabalho são apresentados resultados da observação pelo HETE de duas ECRGs: GRB 021004 e GRB 021211. A GRB021004 foi detectada em raios gama pelo HETE em 4 de outubro de 2002 e localizada em raios-X em apenas 48 s, quando a emissão de raios gama ainda estava se processando. A explosão, relativamente brilhante e longa, durou aproximadamente 100 s. Um transiente óptico de magnitude 15 foi detectado no local da explosão nove minutos após o evento, e observações realizadas após 7 horas determinaram um desvio para o vermelho de absorção de 1,6. O GRB021004 foi o burst mais bem observado até o momento e suas observações em vários comprimentos de onda têm sido fundamentais para o aprimoramento dos modelos de ECRGs. O GRB21211, um burst brilhante e rico em raios-X, foi detectado em 11 de dezembro de 2002 e localizado em raios-X em 22 s após o início do evento. A duração do burst foi de 2,3 s em altas energias (85 a 400 keV) e de 8,5 s em baixas energias (2 a 10 keV). Caso essa explosão não tivesse sido rapidamente localizada pelo HETE, ela teria sido classificada como "opticamente escura", já que o transiente óptico decaiu rapidamente de R < 14 a R»19 dentro dos primeiros 20 minutos e já estava mais fraco do que R»23 depois de 24 horas da ocorrência do burst. Ser

  10. Thirteen week feeding study with transgenic maize grain containing event DAS-Ø15Ø7-1 in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Susan A; Lamb, Ian; Schmidt, Jean; Deege, Lora; Morrisey, Michael J; Harper, Marc; Layton, Raymond J; Prochaska, Lee M; Sanders, Craig; Locke, Mary; Mattsson, Joel L; Fuentes, Angel; Delaney, Bryan

    2007-04-01

    Maize line 1507, containing event DAS-Ø15Ø7-1 (1507), is a genetically modified (GM) maize plant that expresses the cry1F gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) sbsp. aizawai and the phosphinothricin-N-acetyltransferase (pat) gene from Streptomyces viridochromogenes throughout the plant including in the grain expression of the Cry1F protein confers in planta resistance to the European corn borer (ECB; Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner: Crambidae) and other lepidopteran pests. Expression of the PAT protein confers tolerance to the herbicidal active ingredient glufosinate-ammonium. The current study evaluated the nutritional performance of rats fed diets containing 1507 maize grain in a subchronic rodent feeding study. The grains in this study, 1507, its near-isogenic control (33P66), and a non-GM commercial hybrid (33J56) contained similar amounts of proximates, amino acids, minerals, anti-nutrients, and secondary metabolites. The subchronic feeding study compared standard toxicology response variables in rats fed diets containing 1507 maize grain with those in rats fed diets containing non-GM maize grains. All diets were prepared according to the specifications of PMI Nutrition International, LLC Certified Rodent LabDiet 5002 (PMI) 5002). Diets were fed ad libitum to Sprague-Dawley rats for approximately 90 days. In-life response variables included indicators of dietary performance and weekly evaluations for clinical signs of toxicity. No toxicologically significant differences were observed in the nutritional performance variables, clinical and neurobehavioral signs, ophthalmology, clinical pathology (hematology, clinical chemistry, coagulation, and urinalysis), organ weights, and gross and microscopic pathology between any pair of treatment groups. These results demonstrate that 1507 maize grain is as safe and as nutritious as non-GM maize grain. PMID:17097206