Science.gov

Sample records for comparative cadaver study

  1. Nerve damage assessment following implant placement in human cadaver jaws: an ex vivo comparative study.

    PubMed

    Murat, Sema; Kamburoğlu, Kıvanç; Kılıç, Cenk; Ozen, Tuncer; Gurbuz, Ayhan

    2014-02-01

    The present study compared the use of cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) images and intra-oral radiographs in the placement of final implant drills in terms of nerve damage to cadaver mandibles. Twelve cadaver hemimandibles obtained from 6 cadavers were used. Right hemimandibles were imaged using peri-apical radiography and left hemimandibles using CBCT, and the images obtained were used in treatment planning for the placement of implant drills (22 for each modality, for a total of 44 final drills). Specimens were dissected, and the distances between the apex of the final implant drill and the inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle and incisive nerve were measured using a digital calliper. Nerves were assessed as damaged or not damaged, and the Chi-square test was used to compare nerve damage between modalities (P < 0.05). Nerve damage occurred with 7 final drills placed based on peri-apical radiography (31.8%) and 1 final drill placed using CBCT images (4.5%). The difference in nerve damage between imaging modalities was statistically significant (P = 0.023), with CBCT outperforming intraoral film in the placement of final implant drills ex vivo. In order to prevent nerve damage, CBCT is recommended as the principal imaging modality for pre-implant assessment. PMID:22150347

  2. A comparative study of vascular injection fluids in fresh-frozen and embalmed human cadaver forearms.

    PubMed

    Doomernik, D E; Kruse, R R; Reijnen, M M P J; Kozicz, T L; Kooloos, J G M

    2016-10-01

    Over the years, various vascular injection products have been developed to facilitate anatomical dissections. This study aimed to compare the most commonly used vascular injection products in fresh-frozen and formalin-embalmed cadaver specimens. An overview of the properties, advantages and limitations of each substance was given, and a comparison of vascular infusion procedures in both preservation methods was made. A literature search was performed in order to identify the most commonly used vascular injection products. Acrylic paint, latex, gelatin, silicone, Araldite F and Batson's No. 17 were selected for the study. One fresh-frozen and one embalmed cadaver forearm were infused with each injection product according to a uniform protocol. The curing time, skin- and subcutaneous tissue penetration, degree of filling of the arterial tree, extravasations, consistency of the injected vessels during dissection, and the costs of each injection fluid were noted. There was a large variation between the injection fluids in processing- and curing time, colour intensity, flexibility, fragility, elasticity, strength, toxicity and costs. All fluids were suitable for infusion. The penetration of injection fluid into the skin and subcutaneous tissue was significantly better in fresh-frozen specimens (P = 0.002 and P = 0.009, respectively), with significantly smaller branches casted (P = 0.004). Vascular infusion of fresh-frozen cadaver specimens results in a significantly better filled coloured arterial tree, enabling more detail to be achieved and smaller branches casted. The biomechanical properties of fresh-frozen soft tissues are less affected compared with formalin fixation. All the injection fluids studied are suitable for vascular infusion, but their different properties ensure that certain products and procedures are more suitable for specific study purposes. PMID:27329696

  3. A Randomized Cadaver Study Comparing First-Attempt Success Between Tibial and Humeral Intraosseous Insertions Using NIO Device by Paramedics

    PubMed Central

    Szarpak, Lukasz; Truszewski, Zenon; Smereka, Jacek; Krajewski, Paweł; Fudalej, Marcin; Adamczyk, Piotr; Czyzewski, Lukasz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Medical personnel may encounter difficulties in obtaining intravenous (IV) access during cardiac arrest. The 2015 American Heart Association guidelines and the 2015 European Resuscitation Council guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) suggest that rescuers establish intraosseous (IO) access if an IV line is not easily obtainable. The aim of the study was to compare the success rates of the IO proximal tibia and proximal humerus head access performed by paramedics using the New Intraosseous access device (NIO; Persys Medical, Houston, TX, USA) in an adult cadaver model during simulated CPR. In an interventional, randomized, crossover, single-center cadaver study, a semi-automatic spring-load driven NIO access device was investigated. In total, 84 paramedics with less than 5-year experience in Emergency Medical Service participated in the study. The trial was performed on 42 adult cadavers. In each cadaver, 2 IO accesses to the humerus head, and 2 IO accesses to the proximal tibia were obtained. The success rate of the first IO attempt was 89.3% (75/84) for tibial access, and 73.8% (62/84) for humeral access (P = 0.017). The procedure times were significantly faster for tibial access [16.8 (interquartile range, IQR, 15.1–19.9] s] than humeral access [26.7 (IQR, 22.1–30.9) s] (P < 0.001). Tibial IO access is easier and faster to put in place than humeral IO access. Humeral IO access can be an alternative method to tibial IO access. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02700867. PMID:27196493

  4. Comparing Accuracy of Cervical Pedicle Screw Placement between a Guidance System and Manual Manipulation: A Cadaver Study

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Yu; Bao, Nirong; Zhao, Jianning; Mao, Guangping

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of cervical pedicle screw placement between a three-dimensional guidance system and manual manipulation. Material/Methods Eighteen adult cadavers were randomized into group A (n=9) and group B (n=9). Ninety pedicle screws were placed into the C3-C7 under the guidance of a three-dimensional locator in group A, and 90 screws were inserted by manual manipulation in group B. The cervical spines were scanned using computed tomography (CT). Parallel and angular offsets of the screws were compared between the two placement methods. Results In group A, 90% of the screws were within the pedicles and 10% breached the pedicle cortex. In group B, 55.6% were within the pedicle and 44.4% breached the pedicle cortex. Locator guidance showed significantly lower parallel and angular offsets in axial CT images (P<0.01), and significantly lower angular offset in sagittal CT images (P<0.01) than manual manipulation. Conclusions Locator guidance is superior to manual manipulation in accuracy of cervical screw placement. Locator guidance might provide better safety than manual manipulation in placing cervical screws. PMID:26348197

  5. Stent-Protected Carotid Angioplasty Using a Membrane Stent: A Comparative Cadaver Study

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller-Huelsbeck, Stefan Guehne, Albrecht; Tsokos, Michael; Huesler, Erhard J.; Schaffner, Silvio R.; Paulsen, Friedrich; Hedderich, Juergen; Heller, Martin; Jahnke, Thomas

    2006-08-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the performance of a prototype membrane stent, MembraX, in the prevention of acute and late embolization and to quantify particle embolization during carotid stent placement in human carotid explants in a proof of concept study. Methods. Thirty human carotid cadaveric explants (mild stenoses 0-29%, n = 23; moderate stenoses 30-69%, n = 3; severe stenoses 70-99%, n = 2) that included the common, internal and external carotid arteries were integrated into a pulsatile-flow model. Three groups were formed according to the age of the donors (mean 58.8 years; sample SD 15.99 years) and randomized to three test groups: (I) MembraX, n 9; (II) Xpert bare stent, n = 10; (III) Xpert bare stent with Emboshield protection device, n = 9. Emboli liberated during stent deployment (step A), post-dilatation (step B), and late embolization (step C) were measured in 100 {mu}m effluent filters. When the Emboshield was used, embolus penetration was measured during placement (step D) and retrieval (step E). Late embolization was simulated by compressing the area of the stented vessel five times. Results. Absolute numbers of particles (median; >100 {mu}m) caught in the effluent filter were: (I) MembraX: A = 7, B = 9, C = 3; (II) bare stent: A 6.5, B = 6, C = 4.5; (III) bare stent and Emboshield: A = 7, B = 7, C.=.5, D = 8, E = 10. The data showed no statistical differences according to whether embolic load was analyzed by weight or mean particle size. When summing all procedural steps, the Emboshield caused the greatest load by weight (p 0.011) and the largest number (p = 0.054) of particles. Conclusions. On the basis of these limited data neither a membrane stent nor a protection device showed significant advantages during ex vivo carotid angioplasty. However, the membrane stent seems to have the potential for reducing the emboli responsible for supposed late embolization, whereas more emboli were observed when using a protection device. Further studies are necessary

  6. Navigated open-wedge high tibial osteotomy: advantages and disadvantages compared to the conventional technique in a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Hankemeier, S; Hufner, T; Wang, G; Kendoff, D; Zeichen, J; Zheng, G; Krettek, C

    2006-10-01

    High tibial osteotomy (HTO) is an established therapy for the treatment of symptomatic varus malaligned knees. A main reason for disappointing clinical results after HTO is the under- and overcorrection of the mechanical axis due to insufficient intraoperative visualisation. Twenty legs of fresh human cadaver were randomly assigned to navigated open-wedge HTO (n=10) or conventional HTO using the cable method (n=10). Regardless of the pre-existing alignment, the aim of all operations was to align the mechanical axis to pass through 80% of the tibial plateau (beginning with 0% at the medial edge of the tibial plateau and ending with 100% at the lateral edge). This overcorrection was chosen to ensure a sufficient amount of correction. Thus, the medial proximal tibia angle (MPTA) increased by 9.1+/-2.9 degrees (range 5.2 degrees -12.3 degrees ) on the average after navigated HTO and by 8.9+/-2.9 degrees (range 4.7 degrees -12.6 degrees ) after conventional HTO. After stabilization with a fixed angle implant, the alignment was measured by CT. After navigated HTO, the mechanical axis passed the tibial plateau through 79.7% (range 75.5-85.8%). In contrast, after conventional HTO, the average intersection of the mechanical axis was at 72.1% (range 60.4-82.4%) (P=0.020). Additionally, the variability of the mean corrections was significantly lower in the navigated group (3.3% vs. 7.2%, P=0.012). Total fluoroscopic radiation time was significantly lower in the navigated group (P=0.038) whereas the mean dose area product was not significantly different (P=0.231). The time of the operative procedure was 23 min shorter after conventional HTO (P<0.001). Navigation systems provide intraoperative 3-dimensional real time control of the frontal, sagittal, and transverse axis and may increase the accuracy of open-wedge HTO. Future studies have to analyse the clinical effects of navigation on corrective osteotomies. PMID:16501952

  7. Comparative analyses of the dynamic properties of the rectum studied by cryo-sections of human cadavers and pelvic CT scans of patients.

    PubMed

    Dale, E; Hellebust, T P; Bruland, Ø S; Olsen, D R

    2003-02-01

    Optimization of radiotherapy treatment plans based on dose-volume histograms relies on accurate organ delineation. Hollow organs, such as the rectum, are difficult and time-consuming to delineate owing to unclear visualization of the border between wall tissue and filling. Automated hollow organ delineation would be a valuable tool, but its development depends upon improved understanding of the dynamics of the rectum in response to filling. Two reasonable assumptions proposed in the literature are that (1) the rectal wall tissue along a constant length of the rectal cylinder is preserved over time and (2) the rectal wall tissue is distributed homogeneously along the cylinder. Therefore, variations in wall thickness can be explained by variable rectal filling. To investigate these assumptions, transversal cross-sectional areas enclosed by the outer contour (A(out)) and inner contour (A(in)) of the rectum were recorded from digital photographs of cadaver cryo-sections from the U.S. National Library of Medicine's Visible Human Project. In addition, A(out) and A(in) were recorded from 19 CT scans of 5 of our own patients. The transversal cross-sectional area of the wall of the rectum, A(wall)=A(out)-A(in), was calculated. The data derived both from cryo-sections and repetitive CT scans of patients, revealed that there was a significant correlation between A(wall) and A(out), in contradiction to assumption (1) stated above (male cryo-sections: p<0.001, female cryo-sections: p=0.03, repetitive CT scans p<0.001). Moreover, the mean A(wall) calculated from one CT scan differed significantly from the mean A(wall) from other CT scans and was correlated with the mean A(out), i.e. rectal filling (p<0.001). This finding was confirmed by careful analysis of another study (p=0.001) and opposes assumption (2). Hence, the amount of wall tissue within a constant length of rectum is not preserved over time, but increases with increased filling. This implies that the longitudinal

  8. Human Cadavers vs. Multimedia Simulation: A Study of Student Learning in Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltarelli, Andrew J.; Roseth, Cary J.; Saltarelli, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Multimedia and simulation programs are increasingly being used for anatomy instruction, yet it remains unclear how learning with these technologies compares with learning with actual human cadavers. Using a multilevel, quasi-experimental-control design, this study compared the effects of "Anatomy and Physiology Revealed" (APR) multimedia…

  9. Pulmonary complications of mustard gas exposure: a study on cadavers.

    PubMed

    Taghaddosinejad, Fakhreddin; Fayyaz, Amir Farshid; Behnoush, Behnam

    2011-01-01

    Sulfur mustard gas is one of the chemical warfare gases that roughly about 45000 soldiers continue to suffer long-lasting consequences of exposure during the Iran-Iraq war between 1980 and 1988. According to the common pulmonary lesions due to this gas exposure, we studied gross and microscopic pulmonary lesions in cadavers and also assessed the main causes of mortality caused by mustard gas exposure. A case-series study was performed on hospital record files of 100 cadavers that were exposed with documented sulfur mustard gas during the Iran-Iraq war from 1979 to 1988 and autopsied in legal medicine organization In Tehran between 2005 and 2007 and gross and microscopic pathological findings of autopsied organs such as hematological, pulmonary, hepatic, and renal changes were evaluated. All cases were male with the mean age of 43 years. The time interval between the gas exposure and death was almost 20years. The most frequent pulmonary complication was chronic bronchitis in 81% of autopsied cadavers. Other pulmonary findings were progressive pulmonary fibrosis (9%), pulmonary infections and tuberculosis (29%), malignant cellular infiltration (4%), and aspergilloma (1%). According to the chronic progressive lesions caused by mustard gas exposure such as pulmonary lesions and also its high mortality rate, suitable programming for protection of the gas exposed persons and prohibiting chemical warfare are recommended. PMID:21713733

  10. Inferior Phrenic Arteries and Their Branches, Their Anatomy and Possible Clinical Importance: An Experimental Cadaver Study

    PubMed Central

    Gürses, İlke Ali; Gayretli, Özcan; Kale, Ayşin; Öztürk, Adnan; Usta, Ahmet; Şahinoğlu, Kayıhan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization is a common treatment for patients with inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma. If the carcinoma is advanced or the main arterial supply, the hepatic artery, is occluded, extrahepatic collateral arteries may develop. Both, right and left inferior phrenic arteries (RIPA and LIPA) are the most frequent and important among these collaterals. However, the topographic anatomy of these arteries has not been described in detail in anatomy textbooks, atlases and most previous reports. Aims: To investigate the anatomy and branching patterns of RIPA and LIPA on cadavers and compare our results with the literature. Study Design: Descriptive study. Methods: We bilaterally dissected 24 male and 2 female cadavers aged between 49 and 88 years for this study. Results: The RIPA and LIPA originated as a common trunk in 5 cadavers. The RIPA originated from the abdominal aorta in 13 sides, the renal artery in 2 sides, the coeliac trunk in 1 side and the left gastric artery in 1 side. The LIPA originated from the abdominal aorta in 9 sides and the coeliac trunk in 6 sides. In 6 cadavers, the ascending and posterior branches of the LIPA had different sources of origin. Conclusion: As both the RIPA and LIPA represent the half of all extrahepatic arterial collaterals to hepatocellular carcinomas, their anatomy gains importance not only for anatomists but interventional radiologists as well. PMID:26167344

  11. Digital image analysis of fingernail colour in cadavers comparing carbon monoxide poisoning to controls.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Neil E I

    2010-03-01

    Carbon monoxide is a component of motor vehicle exhaust fumes, provided a functional catalytic converter is not present. This gas binds avidly to the hemoglobin molecule in red blood cells preventing its oxygen transport function, effectively poisoning the body by starving it of oxygen. In binding to hemoglobin, carbon monoxide forms carboxyhemoglobin, which has a characteristic bright pink color. It has been remarked that the fingernails of victims of carbon monoxide tend to exhibit pink color, otherwise fingernails of deceased bodies tend towards a dark red to blue color. This study sought to objectively determine by using digital image analysis if a color difference occurred between the fingernails of a group of cadavers with carbon monoxide poisoning compared to a group of controls. The fingernails of the carbon monoxide group did tend to be more red than the controls, but due to overlap between the two groups assessment of the fingernails cannot be recommended as a rapid screening test. PMID:19882310

  12. Anatomic Characteristics of Pronator Quadratus Muscle: A Cadaver Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the anatomic characteristics of the pronator quadratus (PQ) muscle and the entry zone (EZ) of the anterior interosseous nerve (AIN) to this muscle by means of cadaver dissection. Methods We examined the PQ muscle and AIN in 20 forearms from 10 fresh cadavers. After identifying the PQ muscle and the EZ of the AIN, we measured the distances from the midpoint (MidP) of the PQ muscle and EZ to the vertical line passing the tip of the ulnar styloid process (MidP_X and EZ_X, respectively) and to the medial border of the ulna (MidP_Y and EZ_Y, respectively). Forearm length (FL) and wrist width (WW) were also measured, and the ratios of MidP and EZ to FL and of MidP and EZ to WW were calculated. Results The MidP was found to be 3.0 cm proximal to the ulnar styloid process or distal 13% of the FL and 2.0 cm lateral to the medial border of the ulna or ulnar 40% side of the WW, which was similar to the location of EZ. The results reveal a more distal site than was reported in previous studies. Conclusion We suggest that the proper site for needle insertion and motor point block of the PQ muscle is 3 cm proximal to the ulnar styloid process or distal 13% of the FL and 2 cm lateral to the medial border of the ulna or ulnar 40% side of the WW. PMID:27446787

  13. "Detached Concern" of Medical Students in a Cadaver Dissection Course: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Wei-Ting; Lin, Ya-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The cadaver dissection course remains a time-honored tradition in medical education, partly because of its importance in cultivating professional attitudes in students. This study aims to investigate students' attitudes--specifically characterized as "detached concern"--in a cadaver dissection course. An interpretative phenomenological…

  14. Capsule repair may reduce dislocation following hip hemiarthroplasty through a direct lateral approach: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Hughes, A W; Clark, D; Carlino, W; Gosling, O; Spencer, R F

    2015-01-01

    Reported rates of dislocation in hip hemiarthroplasty (HA) for the treatment of intra-capsular fractures of the hip, range between 1% and 10%. HA is frequently performed through a direct lateral surgical approach. The aim of this study is to determine the contribution of the anterior capsule to the stability of a cemented HA through a direct lateral approach. A total of five whole-body cadavers were thawed at room temperature, providing ten hip joints for investigation. A Thompson HA was cemented in place via a direct lateral approach. The cadavers were then positioned supine, both knee joints were disarticulated and a digital torque wrench was attached to the femur using a circular frame with three half pins. The wrench applied an external rotation force with the hip in extension to allow the hip to dislocate anteriorly. Each hip was dislocated twice; once with a capsular repair and once without repairing the capsule. Stratified sampling ensured the order in which this was performed was alternated for the paired hips on each cadaver. Comparing peak torque force in hips with the capsule repaired and peak torque force in hips without repair of the capsule, revealed a significant difference between the 'capsule repaired' (mean 22.96 Nm, standard deviation (sd) 4.61) and the 'capsule not repaired' group (mean 5.6 Nm, sd 2.81) (p < 0.001). Capsular repair may help reduce the risk of hip dislocation following HA. PMID:25568428

  15. Neuroanatomical Study of Periprostatic Nerve Distributions Using Human Cadaver Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Wooseuk; Lee, Sun; Park, Yong-Koo

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the distribution and navigation of periprostatic nerve fibers and constructed a 3-dimensional model of nerve distribution. A total of 5 cadaver specimens were serially sectioned in a transverse direction with 0.5 cm intervals. Hematoxylineosin staining and immunohistochemical staining were then performed on whole-mount sections. Three representative slides from the base, mid-part, and apex of each prostate were subsequently divided into 4 sectors: two lateral, one ventral, and one dorsal (rectal) part. The number of nerve fibers, the distance from nerve fiber to prostate capsule, and the nerve fiber diameters were analyzed on each sector from the representative slides by microscopy. Periprostatic nerve fibers revealed a relatively even distribution in both lateral and dorsal parts of the prostate. There was no difference in the distances from the prostate capsule to nerve fibers. Nerve fibers in the ventral area were also thinner as compared to other areas. In conclusion, periprostatic nerve fibers were observed to be distributed evenly in the periprostatic area, with the exception of the ventral area. As the number of nerve fibers on the ventral part is fewer in comparison, an excessive high up incision is insignificant during the nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy. PMID:20358006

  16. Morphometric study of dentate nucleus of cerebellum in Bangladeshi cadaver.

    PubMed

    Haque, M A; Khalil, M; Sultana, S Z; Mannan, S; Uddin, M M; Hossain, M; Ara, A; Choudhury, S; Shammi, N J

    2015-01-01

    This cross sectional descriptive study was done by using nonprobability sampling technique and performed by examining 63 (sixty three) cerebellum. Out of them 40 postmortem human cerebellum collected from Bangladeshi cadavers of both sexes (male 25 and female 15) age ranging from 5 to 60 years and 23 cerebellums from caesarian section of intrauterine death cases of both sexes (male 14 and female 9) age ranging from 34 to 41 weeks of gestation. Specimens were collected from dead bodies autopsied on different dates from April' 2009 to September' 2009 at the autopsy laboratory of department of Forensic Medicine and prenatal cases from Gynaecology and Obstetrics Department of Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh. The collected specimens were grouped into three age groups like Group A (28 to 42 weeks of gestation), Group B (5 to 30 years) and Group C (31 to 60 years) and, two sex groups (male and female) and two sides (right and left). A transverse section was made at the level of horizontal fissure, and length and breadth of dentate nucleus were measured by divider and scale. The mean (±SD) length and breadth of dentate nucleus was 8.619±2.995mm and 14.770±3.604mm respectively and it was observed that length and breadth of dentate nucleus increased with age upto certain level then slightly decreased in the late age Group C. In this study, differences of the mean length of dentate nucleus on both right and left sides were statistically moderately significant between age Groups A&B. The differences of mean breadth of dentate nucleus on both right and left side were statistically highly significant between age Groups A&B and moderately significant between age Groups A&C on right side and only significant on left side. The differences between male & female were statistically insignificant in length and breadth of dentate nucleus. PMID:25725664

  17. Binostril versus mononostril approaches in endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery: clinical evaluation and cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Jens; Ayyad, Ali; Wüster, Christian; Omran, Wael; Weber, Matthias M; Konerding, Moritz A; Müller-Forell, Wibke; Giese, Alf; Oertel, Joachim

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Over the past 2 decades, endoscopy has become an integral part of the surgical repertoire for skull base procedures. The present clinical evaluation and cadaver study compare binostril and mononostril endoscopic transnasal approaches and the surgical techniques involved. METHODS Forty patients with pituitary adenomas were treated with either binostril or mononostril endoscopic surgery. Neurosurgical, endocrinological, ophthalmological, and neuroradiological examinations were performed. Ten cadaver specimens were prepared, and surgical aspects of the preparation and neuroradiological examination were documented. RESULTS In the clinical evaluation, 0° optics were optimal in the nasal and sphenoidal phase of surgery for both techniques. For detection of tumor remnants, 30° optics were superior. The binostril approach was significantly more time consuming than the mononostril technique. The nasal retractor limited maneuverability of instruments during mononostril approaches in 5 of 20 patients. Endocrinological pituitary function, control of excessive hormone secretion, ophthalmological outcome, residual tumor, and rates of adverse events, such as CSF leaks and diabetes insipidus, were similar in both groups. In the cadaver study, there was no significant difference in the time required for dissection via the binostril or mononostril technique. The panoramic view was superior in the binostril group; this was due to the possibility of wider opening of the sella in the craniocaudal and horizontal directions, but the need for removal of more of the nasal septum was disadvantageous. CONCLUSIONS Because of maneuverability of instruments and a wider view in the sphenoid sinus, the binostril technique is superior for resection of large tumors with parasellar and suprasellar expansion and tumors requiring extended approaches. The mononostril technique is preferable for tumors with limited extension in the intra- and suprasellar area. PMID:26722858

  18. "Detached concern" of medical students in a cadaver dissection course: A phenomenological study.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Wei-Ting; Lin, Ya-Ping

    2016-05-01

    The cadaver dissection course remains a time-honored tradition in medical education, partly because of its importance in cultivating professional attitudes in students. This study aims to investigate students' attitudes-specifically characterized as "detached concern"-in a cadaver dissection course. An interpretative phenomenological analysis was performed with semi-structured, focus group interviews among 12 third-year medical students from a Taiwanese medical school to reveal their perceptions and learning experiences regarding human cadaver dissection. Based on these interviews, four relevant categories of perspectives were delineated: (1) initial emotional impact, (2) human referents, (3) coping strategies, and (4) ways of perceiving cadavers. Students were divided into two groups based on these categories. Students in Group 1 developed mechanisms described as "detachment" to cope with their initial emotional reactions to cadaveric dissection, which was noted to have disruptive effects on their learning. They considered human referents to be learning obstacles and avoided contact with or thinking about the human referents while performing dissections. Some of them faced a conflict between perceiving the cadaver as a learning tool versus as a human being. This impasse could be resolved if they latently adopted a "perspective switch" between the concept of a learning tool (rational aspect) and a human being (sensitive aspect). The students in Group 2 had no obvious initial emotional reaction. For them, the human referents functioned as learning supports, and the cadavers were consistently perceived as humans. These students held the notion that "cadaver dissection is an act of love"; therefore, they did not experience any need to detach themselves from their feelings during dissection. This alternative attitude revealed that detached concern alone is not sufficient to describe the entire range of medical students' attitudes toward cadaver dissection. Anat Sci

  19. Anatomical Variations of Brachial Plexus in Adult Cadavers; A Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    Emamhadi, Mohammadreza; Chabok, Shahrokh Yousefzadeh; Samini, Fariborz; Alijani, Babak; Behzadnia, Hamid; Firozabadi, Fariborz Ayati; Reihanian, Zoheir

    2016-01-01

    Background: Variations of the brachial plexus are common and a better awareness of the variations is of crucial importance to achieve successful results in its surgical procedures. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anatomical variations of the brachial plexus in adult cadavers. Methods: Bilateral upper limbs of 32 fresh cadavers (21 males and 11 females) consecutively referred to Guilan legal medicine organization from November 2011 to September 2014, were dissected and the trunks, cords and terminal nerves were evaluated. Results: Six plexuses were prefixed in origin. The long thoracic nerve pierced the middle scalene muscle in 6 cases in the supra clavicular zone. The suprascapular nerve in 7 plexuses was formed from posterior division of the superior trunk. Five cadavers showed anastomosis between medial brachial cutaneous nerve and T1 root in the infra clavicular zone. Terminal branches variations were the highest wherein the ulnar nerve received a communicating branch from the lateral cord in 3 cases. The median nerve was formed by 2 lateral roots from lateral cord and 1 medial root from the medial cord in 6 cadavers. Some fibers from C7 root came to the musculocutaneous nerve in 8 cadavers. Conclusion: The correlation analysis between the variations and the demographic features was impossible due to the small sample size. The findings of the present study suggest a meta-analysis to assess the whole reported variations to obtain a proper approach for neurosurgeons. PMID:27517072

  20. Sonographic detection of tracheal or esophageal intubation: A cadaver study

    PubMed Central

    Tejesh, CA; Manjunath, AC; Shivakumar, S; Vinayak, PS; Yatish, B; Geetha, CR

    2016-01-01

    Background: The correct position of the endotracheal tube is confirmed by various modalities, most of which are not entirely reliable. Ultrasound is now increasingly available to anesthesiologists in the operating theater and is an attractive alternative. To investigate the usefulness of sonography in identifying the correct tracheal tube position in human cadavers. Materials and Methods: Endotracheal tubes placed randomly into trachea or esophagus was identified with a linear ultrasound probe placed transversely just above the suprasternal notch by a single anesthesiologist. Results: Of the 100 intubations performed at random, 99 were correctly identified to give a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 97.9%. Conclusion: Sonography is a useful technique to identify correct position of the tracheal tube. PMID:27375387

  1. Dilating missile trocar for primary port establishment: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Tansatit, Tanvaa; Wisawasukmongchol, Wirach; Bunyavejchevin, Suvit; Jongsakul, Teerachote; Chamsuwan, Supoj; Tansrisawad, Nat; Hoonwijit, Udomsak

    2002-06-01

    The missile trocar was developed for controllable entry force, smaller fascial defects and post-operative pain improvement. The trocar was composed of a fascial-dilating long-conical head and a handle. Accompanied with this trocar, the authors designed a rectus sheath-hooking instrument to promote negative intra-abdominal pressure during the trocar puncture. The hooking procedure allowed room air to pass through the central canal of the trocar and fill the space between the intestinal loops and the trocar tip. The abdominal access procedure succeeded in forty-five attempts in fresh cadavers. No second attempt was done. The trocar accessed into the peritoneal cavity at every attempt without intestinal penetration. The missile trocar may be an alternative device for establishment of the primary port. Its efficacy and safety still has to be proved. PMID:12188430

  2. Versatile but Temperamental: A Morphological Study of Palmaris Longus in the Cadaver

    PubMed Central

    Sukumaran, Tintu Thottiyil; Joseph, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Palmaris longus (PL) is one of the most variable muscles in our body and is vestigial functionally. Its long tendon and its superficial location make it an ideal source for tendon harvesting. Variations such as absence, duplication and reversal have far reaching clinical impact. The aim of this study is to estimate the presence, variants and nerve supply of the PL. Materials and Methods: Upper extremity of 24 cadavers was dissected and PL was examined. The results were compared to other studies on the PL and literature survey was carried out. Results: Thirty nine specimens showed normal morphology and four showed complete agenesis. Other morphological variations seen included - reversed, hybrid, fusiform, fleshy and bifurcated tendon of insertion. Conclusion: Every surgeon must be aware of the variations of the versatile but temperamental PL. Prior knowledge of the layout of the muscle helps in planning intricate surgeries to which this tendon is put use to. PMID:25859436

  3. Single-port unilateral transaxillary totally endoscopic thyroidectomy: A survival animal and cadaver feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Henrique Neubarth; Fiorelli, Rossano Kepler Alvim; Queiroz, Marcelo Rios; Oliveira, Andre Lacerda; Zorron, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Single-port unilateral axillary thyroidectomy has great potential to become a valid alternative technique for thyroid surgery. We tested the technique in a study on live animals and cadavers to evaluate the feasibility and reproducibility of the procedure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Institutional review board (IRB) approval was obtained in our university by the Council of Ethics for the study in surviving animals and cadavers. Subtotal thyroidectomy using unilateral axillary single port was performed in five dogs and five cadavers. Performing incision in the axillary fossa, a disposable single port was inserted. The dissection progressed for creating a subcutaneous tunnel to the subplatysmal region; after opening the platysma muscle and separation of the strap muscles, the thyroid gland was identified. After key anatomical landmarks were identified, the dissection was started at the upper pole towards the bottom, and to the isthmus. Specimens were extracted intact through the tunnel. Clinical and laboratorial observations of the experimental study in a 15-day follow-up and intraoperative data were documented. RESULTS: All surgeries were performed in five animals which survived 15 days without postoperative complications. In the surgeries successfully performed in five cadavers, anatomical landmarks were recognised and intraoperative dissection of recurrent nerves and parathyroid glands was performed. Mean operative time was 64 min (46-85 min) in animals and 123 min (110-140 min) in cadavers, with a good cosmetic outcome since the incision was situated in the axillary fold. CONCLUSION: The technique of single-port axillary unilateral thyroidectomy was feasible and reproducible in the cadavers and animal survival study, suggesting the procedure as an alternative to minimally invasive surgery of the neck. PMID:26917922

  4. Quantifying strain on posterior shoulder tissues during 5 simulated clinical tests: A cadaver study

    PubMed Central

    Borstad, John D.; Dashottar, Amitabh

    2011-01-01

    Study design Controlled laboratory study using a repeated measures approach. Objective To quantify the amount of strain on cadaver posterior shoulder tissues during simulated clinical tests across different tissue conditions. Background Several clinical tests are used to quantify posterior glenohumeral joint (GHJ) tissue tightness; however the ability of these tests to directly assess the flexibility or tightness of the posterior capsule has not been evaluated. Methods The middle and lower regions of the posterior shoulder tissues were instrumented with strain gauges on 8 cadaver shoulder specimens. Strain was quantified on the posterior shoulder muscles, on the native posterior GHJ capsule (baseline condition), and on the posterior GHJ capsule after it was experimentally contracted using thermal energy. Five simulated clinical tests were compared across each of the 3 conditions; humerus cross-body adduction, and GHJ internal rotation with the humerus positioned in 4 combinations of plane and elevation angle. Repeated measures ANOVA were used to compare strain measured during the 5 simulated clinical tests across the 3 conditions, and to evaluate the change in strain after contracting the posterior capsule. Results There was a statistically significant interaction between tests and conditions for the middle region of the posterior shoulder. In the experimentally contracted condition, strain was greater when GHJ internal rotation was added to humerus flexion than when GHJ internal rotation was added to humerus abduction. There was a statistically significant main effect of tests at the lower region of the posterior shoulder, with internal rotation in abduction and internal rotation in the GHJ resting position demonstrating greater strain than cross-body adduction. The percent change in strain between the baseline and contracted capsule conditions did not reach statistical significance at either region. Conclusion Strain on an experimentally contracted posterior GHJ

  5. Airway sonography in live models and cadavers.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Ban; Ip, Vivian; Walji, Anil

    2013-06-01

    Sonography using cadavers is beneficial in teaching and learning sonoanatomy, which is particularly important because imaging of the airway can be challenging due to the cartilaginous landmarks and air artifacts. In this exploratory study, we have attempted to compare the airway sonoanatomy of cadavers and live models. Our observations support the use of cadavers as teaching tools for learning airway sonoanatomy and practicing procedures involving airway structures, such as superior laryngeal nerve blocks, transtracheal injections, and needle cricothyroidotomy, before performance on patients in clinical situations. We believe this process will improve patient safety and enhance the competency of trainees and practitioners in rare procedures such as needle cricothyroidotomy. PMID:23716527

  6. Primary fit of the Lord cementless total hip. A geometric study in cadavers.

    PubMed

    Schimmel, J W; Huiskes, R

    1988-12-01

    Two Lord prostheses, bilaterally implanted in cadavers, were sectioned. The contact areas between bone and prosthesis were studied and measured using a specially developed reproducible method. Primary fixation of the femoral components appeared to be based principally on wedging of the prosthetic stem in the femoral shaft with a rather small contact surface. In both acetabuli the screw threads of the rings were only marginally in contact with the acetabular bone. PMID:3213449

  7. Epidural loss-of-resistance biomechanics: an open pilot cadaver study

    PubMed Central

    McKay, William P; Rosser, Timothy; Kriegler, Stefan; Mohamed, Adel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose We measured dynamic biomechanics of loss-of-resistance (LOR) epidural placement in prone cadavers, focussing on the period immediately following LOR, to estimate forces acting on the tissue of the epidural space. Methods An epidural syringe with 17G Hustead needle was instrumented to track force on the plunger, pressure in the chamber, and movement of barrel and plunger. Insertions were attempted in five formalin-preserved cadavers from T2–3 to L4–5, using LOR with saline or air, and confirmed with X-ray. Results Sixteen insertions were successful. Soft tissues in formalin-preserved cadavers are much harder than in living humans. With continuous pressure on the plunger, fluid thrust through the needle at the point of LOR was significantly greater (P = 0.005) with saline (mean ± standard deviation [95% confidence intervals]: 19.3 ± 14.9 [8.3 to 30.3] N); than with air (0.17 ± 0.25 [0 to 0.39] N). Stress exerted on epidural tissue was similar (air = 7792 ± 920 [6986 to 8598] Pa; saline = 7378 ± 3019 [5141 to 9614] Pa); and in both cases was greater than the stress exerted by cerebrospinal fluid pushing outwardly on the dura (4800 Pa). Conclusion Formalin-preserved cadavers are too stiff to make them an experimental model from which we can generalize to live humans, although we were successful in entering the epidural space and testing the instrumentation for further studies on live animals or humans. Continuous pressure on the plunger while advancing the epidural needle may “blow” the dura away from the needle tip and help prevent dural puncture. Better results are seen with saline rather than air. PMID:22915876

  8. Intraosseous Vascular Access through the Anterior Mandible – A Cadaver Model Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Goldschalt, Christin; Doll, Sara; Ihle, Brit; Kirsch, Joachim; Mutzbauer, Till Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Background Several insertion sites have been described for intraosseous puncture in cases of emergencies when a conventional vascular access cannot be established. This pilot study has been designed to evaluate the feasibility of the mandibular bone for the use of an intraosseous vascular access in a cadaver model. Methodology/Principal Findings 17 dentistry and 16 medical students participating in a voluntary course received a short introduction into the method and subsequently used the battery powered EZ-IO system with a 15 mm cannula for a puncture of the anterior mandible in 33 cadavers. The time needed to perform each procedure was evaluated. India ink was injected into the accesses and during the anatomy course cadavers were dissected to retrace the success or failure of the puncture. Dental students needed 25.5±18.9(mean±standard deviation)s and medical students 33±20.4 s for the procedure (p = 0.18). Floor of mouth extravasation occurred in both groups in 3 cases. Success rates were 82 and 75% (p = 0.93). Conclusions/Significance Despite floor of mouth extravasation of injected fluid into a mandibular intraosseous access might severely complicate this procedure, the anterior mandible may be helpful as an alternative to other intraosseous and intravenous insertion sites when these are not available in medical emergencies. PMID:25405476

  9. In Vivo and Cadaver Studies of the Canalicular/Lacrimal Sac Mucosal Folds

    PubMed Central

    You, Yongsheng; Cao, Jing; Zhang, Xiaogang; Wu, Wencan; Xiao, Tianlin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The study aimed to investigate canalicular/lacrimal sac mucosal folds (CLS-MFs) in vivo and in cadavers in order to explore their functional roles in the lacrimal drainage system. Method. The observations of CLS-MFs in vivo were performed on 16 patients with chronic dacryocystitis after undergoing an endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (EE-DCR). The lacrimal sacs and common canaliculi of 19 adult cadavers were dissected. The opening/closing of an orifice and mucosal fold was recorded. All of the specimens were subjected to a histological examination. Results. The upper and lower lacrimal canaliculi in all of the samples united to form a common canaliculus that opened to the lacrimal sac. CLS-MFs were observed in 10 of the 16 patients (62.5%) and 9 of the 19 cadavers (47.4%). The orifices or mucosal folds could be opened or closed when related muscles contracted or relaxed. Histological sections showed a mucosal fold at one side of an orifice. Conclusion. Common canaliculus is the most common type that the canaliculus opens to lacrimal sac. CLS-MFs exist in a certain ratio that can be opened/closed with the movement of the orifices. They may be involved in the drainage of tears or the pathogenesis of acute dacryocystitis or lacrimal sac mucocele. PMID:27242921

  10. Feasibility study of a novel intraosseous device in adult human cadavers

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sandeep; Aggarwal, Praveen; Lodha, Rakesh; Agarwal, Ramesh; Gupta, Arun Kr.; Dhingra, Renu; Karve, Jayant Sitaram; Jaggu, Srinivas Kiran; Bhargava, Balram

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Intraosseous (IO) access is an alternative to difficult intravenous (iv) access during emergency clinical situations. Existing IO solutions are expensive, require power supply and trained manpower; limiting their use in resource constrained settings. To address these limitations, a novel IO device has been developed. The objectives of this study were to evaluate functionality and safety of this device in adult human cadavers. Methods: The ability of the IO device to penetrate the proximal and/or distal tibia was evaluated in three adult cadavers. Subjective parameters of loss of resistance, stable needle hold, easy needle withdrawal and any damage to the device were evaluated during the study. The insertion time was the objective parameter measured. Four sets of radiographs per insertion confirmed the position of the needle and identified complications. Results: A single physician performed 12 IO access procedures using the same device. Penetration of proximal and/or distal tibia was achieved in all instances. It was successful in the first attempt in eight (66.7%) and during second attempt in the remaining. The mean time to insertion was 4.1 ± 3.1 sec. Appropriate insertion of needle in the intra-medullary space of bone was confirmed with radiological examination in 10 (83.3%) insertions. In two occasions after penetrating the cortical layer of bone, the device overshot the intra-medullary space, as detected by radiological examination. Device got bent during insertion in one instance. There was no evidence of needle breakage or bone fracture. The needle could be withdrawn effortlessly in all instances. Interpretation & conclusions: The novel IO device could successfully penetrate the adult cadaver bones in most cases. Further studies are needed to confirm these results on a large sample. PMID:27241639

  11. Puncture Reduction in Percutaneous Transforaminal Endoscopic Discectomy with HE’s Lumbar LOcation (HELLO) System: A Cadaver Study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qi; Hu, Annan; Zhu, Yanjie; Gu, Guangfei; Zhang, Hailong; He, Shisheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (PTED) usually requires numerous punctures under X-ray fluoroscopy. Repeated puncture will lead to more radiation exposure and reduce the beginners' confidence. Objective This cadaver study aimed to investigate the efficacy of HE’s Lumbar Location (HELLO) system in puncture reduction of PTED. Study design Cadaver study. Setting Comparative groups. Methods HELLO system consists of self-made surface locator and puncture locator. One senior surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the left side of 20 cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with the assistance of HELLO system (Group A). Additionally, the senior surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the right side of the cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with traditional methods (Group B). On the other hand, an inexperienced surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the left side of the cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with the assistance of our HELLO system (Group C). Results At L4/L5 level, there was significant difference in puncture times between Group A and Group B (P<0.001), but no significant difference was observed between Group A and Group C (P = 0.811). Similarly at L5/S1 level, there was significant difference in puncture times between Group A and Group B (P<0.001), but no significant difference was observed between Group A and Group C (P = 0.981). At L4/L5 level, there was significant difference in fluoroscopy time between Group A and Group B (P<0.001), but no significant difference was observed between Group A and Group C (P = 0.290). Similarly at L5/S1 level, there was significant difference in fluoroscopy time between Group A and Group B (P<0.001), but no significant difference was observed between Group A and Group C (P = 0.523). As for radiation exposure, HELLO system reduced 39%-45% radiation dosage when comparing Group A and Group B, but there was no significant difference in radiation exposure between Group A

  12. Technical validation of pulmonary drainage for the treatment of severe pulmonary emphysema: a cadaver-based study *

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Júlio Mott Ancona; Saad, Roberto; Dorgan, Vicente; Botter, Marcio; Gonçalves, Roberto; Rivaben, Jorge Henrique

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A cadaver-based study was carried out in order to describe the pulmonary drainage surgical technique, to determine whether the site for the insertion of the chest tube is appropriate and safe, and to determine the anatomical relationship of the chest tube with the chest wall, lungs, large blood vessels, and mediastinum. METHODS: Between May and November of 2011, 30 cadavers of both genders were dissected. The cadavers were provided by the Santa Casa de São Paulo Central Hospital Mortuary, located in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. A 7.5-cm, 24 F steel chest tube was inserted into the second intercostal space along the midclavicular line bilaterally, and we measured the distances from the tube to the main bronchi, upper lobe bronchi, subclavian vessels, pulmonary arteries, pulmonary arteries in the upper lobe, superior pulmonary vein, azygos vein, and aorta. Weight, height, and chest wall thickness, as well as laterolateral and posteroanterior diameters of the chest, were measured for each cadaver. RESULTS: Of the 30 cadavers dissected, 20 and 10 were male and female, respectively. The mean distance between the distal end of the tube and the main bronchi (right and left) was 7.2 cm (for both). CONCLUSIONS: The placement of a fixed-size chest tube in the specified position is feasible and safe, regardless of the anthropometric characteristics of the patients. PMID:23503481

  13. Morphology of the superior gluteal nerve: a study in adult human cadavers.

    PubMed

    Ray, B; D'Souza, A S; Saxena, A; Nayak, D; Sushma, R K; Shetty, P; Pugazhendi, B

    2013-01-01

    The superior gluteal nerve (SGN) arises from the sacral plexus and enters the gluteal region above the piriformis where it divides into superior and an inferior branches. Former ends in the gluteus medius and occasionally gluteus minimus whereas latter supplies gluteus medius and minimus and ends in tensor fascia latae. Variations, relations, branching pattern and length of the SGN were reported in earlier studies. The present study was conducted to establish preliminary data on the length and branching pattern of the SGN and its relations with the neighbouring bony landmarks. Twenty two lower extremities were examined in 22 male and 13 female formalin fixed cadavers. Tip of the greater trochanter was determined as the point of reference. Statistical analysis was done using student's T test. Present study will help orthopedicians performing total hip replacement through lateral and transgluteal approaches (Tab. 3, Fig. 4, Ref. 19). PMID:23822627

  14. Flexor tendon excursion and load during passive and active simulated motion: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Sapienza, A; Yoon, H K; Karia, R; Lee, S K

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the amount of tendon excursion and load experienced during simulated active and passive rehabilitation exercises. Six cadaver specimens were utilized to examine tendon excursion and load. Lateral fluoroscopic images were used to measure the excursions of metal markers placed in the flexor digitorum superficialis and profundus tendons of the index, middle, and ring fingers. Measurements were performed during ten different passive and active simulated motions. Mean tendon forces were higher in all active versus passive movements. Blocking movements placed the highest loads on the flexor tendons. Active motion resulted in higher tendon excursion than did passive motion. Simulated hook position resulted in the highest total tendon excursion and the highest inter-tendinous excursion. This knowledge may help optimize the management of the post-operative exercise therapy regimen. PMID:23221181

  15. Which device is more accurate to determine the stability/mobility of dental implants? A human cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Tözüm, T F; Bal, B T; Turkyilmaz, I; Gülay, G; Tulunoglu, I

    2010-03-01

    Non-invasive devices including resonance frequency (RF) analysis and mobility measuring (MM) damping capacity assessment are used to measure implant stability/mobility. The aims of the study were to compare the primary stability of implant inserted into extraction sockets by using RF with cable, RF wireless and new wireless MM device, to clarify the relation between these devices and to understand the correlations between peri-implant bone levels and implant stability. A total of 30 screw-type implants (3.75 x 11 and 4.2 x 11 mm) were inserted into extraction sockets of eight mandibular pre-molar regions of human cadavers. The primary stability of implants was measured by three devices after insertion. Peri-implant vertical defects were created in millimetre increments ranging between 0 and 5 mm, and stability/mobility of implants were analysed. At placement, the mean implant stability quotient of RF with cable, RF wireless and MM device values was 46 +/- 1, 57.8 +/- 9 and -5.4 +/- 1, respectively. Statistical correlations were demonstrated between these devices (P = 0.001). Statistically significant differences were presented for all peri-implant detects ranging between 0 and 5 mm for RF with cable and RF wireless at all increments. However, only a significant decrease was found between 0 and 1 mm defects, and 4 and 5 mm defects in MM device. Although RF with cable and RF wireless seem to be suitable to detect peri-implant bone loss around implants in 1 mm increments, the new MM device may not be suitable to detect the 1 mm peri-implant bone changes in human dried cadaver mandibles. PMID:20002537

  16. Percutaneous Dorsal Instrumentation of Vertebral Burst Fractures: Value of Additional Percutaneous Intravertebral Reposition—Cadaver Study

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, Antonio; Schmuck, Maya; Noriega, David C.; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Baroud, Gamal; Oberkircher, Ludwig

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The treatment of vertebral burst fractures is still controversial. The aim of the study is to evaluate the purpose of additional percutaneous intravertebral reduction when combined with dorsal instrumentation. Methods. In this biomechanical cadaver study twenty-eight spine segments (T11-L3) were used (male donors, mean age 64.9 ± 6.5 years). Burst fractures of L1 were generated using a standardised protocol. After fracture all spines were allocated to four similar groups and randomised according to surgical techniques (posterior instrumentation; posterior instrumentation + intravertebral reduction device + cement augmentation; posterior instrumentation + intravertebral reduction device without cement; and intravertebral reduction device + cement augmentation). After treatment, 100000 cycles (100–600 N, 3 Hz) were applied using a servohydraulic loading frame. Results. Overall anatomical restoration was better in all groups where the intravertebral reduction device was used (p < 0.05). In particular, it was possible to restore central endplates (p > 0.05). All techniques decreased narrowing of the spinal canal. After loading, clearance could be maintained in all groups fitted with the intravertebral reduction device. Narrowing increased in the group treated with dorsal instrumentation. Conclusions. For height and anatomical restoration, the combination of an intravertebral reduction device with dorsal instrumentation showed significantly better results than sole dorsal instrumentation. PMID:26137481

  17. da Vinci robot-assisted keyhole neurosurgery: a cadaver study on feasibility and safety.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Hani J; Hughes-Hallett, Archie; Cundy, Thomas P; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Darzi, Ara; Nandi, Dipankar

    2015-04-01

    The goal of this cadaver study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of da Vinci robot-assisted keyhole neurosurgery. Several keyhole craniotomies were fashioned including supraorbital subfrontal, retrosigmoid and supracerebellar infratentorial. In each case, a simple durotomy was performed, and the flap was retracted. The da Vinci surgical system was then used to perform arachnoid dissection towards the deep-seated intracranial cisterns. It was not possible to simultaneously pass the 12-mm endoscope and instruments through the keyhole craniotomy in any of the approaches performed, limiting visualization. The articulated instruments provided greater dexterity than existing tools, but the instrument arms could not be placed in parallel through the keyhole craniotomy and, therefore, could not be advanced to the deep cisterns without significant clashing. The da Vinci console offered considerable ergonomic advantages over the existing operating room arrangement, allowing the operating surgeon to remain non-sterile and seated comfortably throughout the procedure. However, the lack of haptic feedback was a notable limitation. In conclusion, while robotic platforms have the potential to greatly enhance the performance of transcranial approaches, there is strong justification for research into next-generation robots, better suited to keyhole neurosurgery. PMID:25516094

  18. Ultrasound-guided surgical treatment for ulnar nerve entrapment: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Poujade, T; Hanouz, N; Lecoq, B; Hulet, C; Collon, S

    2014-09-01

    Several open and endoscopic techniques for the surgical treatment of ulnar nerve entrapment at the elbow (cubital tunnel syndrome) have been described that provide decompression with or without anterior transposition. Based on our experience with US-guided decompression for carpal tunnel syndrome in our department, we developed a similar surgical technique for the decompression of the ulnar nerve at the elbow. Using sixteen cadaver upper limbs, we performed decompression of all the structures possibly responsible for ulnar nerve compression at the elbow. The structures involved were Struthers' arcade, the cubital tunnel retinaculum, Osborne's fascia and Amadio-Beckenbaugh's arcade. The procedure was followed by anatomical dissection to confirm complete sectioning of the compressive structures, absence of iatrogenic vascular or nervous injuries and absence of nerve dislocation or instability. There were no remaining compressive structures after the release procedure. There was no iatrogenic damage to the nerves and no nerve dislocation was observed during elbow flexion or extension. In 3.4% cases, a thin superficial layer of one or more of the identified structures remained but these did not appear to compress the nerve based on US imaging. Using ultrasonographic visualization of the nerve and compressive structures is easy. Each procedure can be tailored according to the nerve compression sites. Our cadaveric study shows the feasibility of an US-guided percutaneous surgical release for ulnar nerve entrapment. PMID:24981578

  19. A New Electromagnetic Navigation System for Pedicle Screws Placement: A Human Cadaver Study at the Lumbar Spine

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Patrick; Oezdemir, Semih; Komp, Martin; Giannakopoulos, Athanasios; Heikenfeld, Roderich; Kasch, Richard; Merk, Harry; Godolias, Georgios; Ruetten, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Technical developments for improving the safety and accuracy of pedicle screw placement play an increasingly important role in spine surgery. In addition to the standard techniques of free-hand placement and fluoroscopic navigation, the rate of complications is reduced by 3D fluoroscopy, cone-beam CT, intraoperative CT/MRI, and various other navigation techniques. Another important aspect that should be emphasized is the reduction of intraoperative radiation exposure for personnel and patient. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of a new navigation system for the spine based on an electromagnetic field. Material and Method Twenty pedicle screws were placed in the lumbar spine of human cadavers using EMF navigation. Navigation was based on data from a preoperative thin-slice CT scan. The cadavers were positioned on a special field generator and the system was matched using a patient tracker on the spinous process. Navigation was conducted using especially developed instruments that can be tracked in the electromagnetic field. Another thin-slice CT scan was made postoperatively to assess the result. The evaluation included the position of the screws in the direction of trajectory and any injury to the surrounding cortical bone. The results were classified in 5 groups: grade 1: ideal screw position in the center of the pedicle with no cortical bone injury; grade 2: acceptable screw position, cortical bone injury with cortical penetration ≤ 2 mm; grade 3: cortical bone injury with cortical penetration 2,1-4 mm, grad 4: cortical bone injury with cortical penetration 4,1-6 mm, grade 5: cortical bone injury with cortical penetration >6 mm. Results The initial evaluation of the system showed good accuracy for the lumbar spine (65% grade 1, 20% grade 2, 15% grade 3, 0% grade 4, 0% grade 5). A comparison of the initial results with other navigation techniques in literature (CT navigation, 2D fluoroscopic navigation) shows that the accuracy of

  20. The issue of "facial appearance and identity transfer" after mock transplantation: a cadaver study in preparation for facial allograft transplantation in humans.

    PubMed

    Siemionow, Maria; Agaoglu, Galip

    2006-07-01

    The authors have assessed the facial "appearance" of recipient cadavers after mock facial transplantation, the "appearance" of donor facial flaps following transfer to artificial head models, and the "appearance" of donor flaps after replantation back to the same cadavers. Based on the results of different types of facial flap transplantation, the issue of "identity transfer" is discussed. Ten fresh human cadavers were dissected. In eight cadavers, the entire facial/scalp flap was harvested. Two cadavers served as recipients of the donor facial flaps. Two different types of artificial head models were used as the "recipients" for the harvested facial flaps. The facial appearance of the recipient cadavers after mock transplantation was a mixture of features of both the recipient and the donor. The appearance of the facial flaps mounted on the head models was close to the framework of the head models. When harvested facial flaps were transferred back to the original cadavers, the facial appearance was nearly the same as before transplant. Based on this study, the authors will be able to discuss the variation in post-transplant appearance with potential candidates for facial transplant. The issue of correlating facial appearance with "identity transfer" will be difficult to assess until the authors' first facial transplantation is performed. PMID:16845613

  1. An image-guided femoroplasty system: development and initial cadaver studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otake, Yoshito; Armand, Mehran; Sadowsky, Ofri; Armiger, Robert S.; Kutzer, Michael D.; Mears, Simon C.; Kazanzides, Peter; Taylor, Russell H.

    2010-02-01

    This paper describes the development and initial cadaver studies using a prototype image-guided surgery system for femoroplasty, which is a potential alternative treatment for reducing fracture risk in patients with severe osteoporosis. Our goal is to develop an integrated surgical guidance system that will allow surgeons to augment the femur using patient-specific biomechanical planning and intraoperative analysis tools. This paper focuses on the intraoperative module, which provides real-time navigation of an injection device and estimates the distribution of the injected material relative to the preoperative plan. Patient registration is performed using intensity-based 2D/3D registration of X-ray images and preoperative CT data. To co-register intraoperative X-ray images and optical tracker coordinates, we integrated a custom optically-tracked fluoroscope fiducial allowing real-time visualization of the injection device with respect to the patient's femur. During the procedure, X-ray images were acquired to estimate the 3D distribution of the injected augmentation material (e.g. bone cement). Based on the injection progress, the injection plan could be adjusted if needed to achieve optimal distribution. In phantom experiments, the average target registration error at the center of the femoral head was 1.4 mm and the rotational error was 0.8 degrees when two images were used. Three cadaveric studies demonstrated efficacy of the navigation system. Our preliminary simulation study of the 3D shape reconstruction algorithm demonstrated that the 3D distribution of the augmentation material could be estimated within 12% error from six X-ray images.

  2. Topography, syntopy and morphology of the human otic ganglion: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Senger, Miriam; Stoffels, Hans-Jürgen; Angelov, Doychin N

    2014-09-01

    The human otic ganglion (OG) is not readily accessible during ordinary anatomical teaching courses because of insufficient time and severe difficulties encountered in dissection. Accordingly, most anatomical descriptions of its location, relation to neighbouring structures, size and shape are supported only by drawings, but not by photographs. The aim of this study has been to present the OG with associated roots and branches in dissected anatomic specimens. Following cumbersome dissection and precise photo-documentation, a detailed analysis of location, syntopy and morphology was performed. We carried out this study in 21 infratemporal fossae of 18 cadavers and were able to identify the OG, the mandibular-, the inferior alveolar- and the lingual nerve in all of them. We found no significant variation regarding the location of the GO in the infratemporal fossa and its syntopy to the adjacent structures. An OG resembling the classic description was found only in 90.50% of the cases. All 3 roots (parasympathetic, sympathetic and sensory) could be identified only in 82.3% of the specimens. The established presence of ganglionic branches varied from 0% (communicating rami to the meningeal branch of the mandibular nerve, to the greater petrosal nerve and to the lingual nerve) to 90% (r. communicans to n. canalis pterygoideus). We conclude that precise knowledge of this enormous variety might be very helpful not only to students of medicine and dentistry during anatomical dissection courses, but also to head and neck surgeons, ear-nose-throat specialists and neurosurgeons when treating pathology of pre- and postganglionic fibres. PMID:24973995

  3. Experimental study of Lucilia sericata (Diptera Calliphoridae) larval development on rat cadavers: Effects of climate and chemical contamination.

    PubMed

    Aubernon, Cindy; Charabidzé, Damien; Devigne, Cédric; Delannoy, Yann; Gosset, Didier

    2015-08-01

    Household products such as bleach, gasoline or hydrochloric acid have been used to mask the presence of a cadaver or to prevent the colonization of insects. These types of chemicals affect insect development and alter the forensic entomology analysis. This study was designed to test the effects of six household products (bleach, mosquito repellent, perfume, caustic soda, insecticide and unleaded gasoline) on blowfly (Lucilia sericata, Diptera: Calliphoridae) larval development. Furthermore, the effects of climate (rain or dry conditions) on larval development were analyzed. For each replication, 100 first instars were placed on a rat cadaver on which one household product was spilled. We observed a decrease in the survival rates of the larvae but no significant effect on their development times or the adult size. The same trends were observed under rainy conditions. However, the rain altered the effects of some tested household products, especially gasoline. These results demonstrate for the first time the successful development of necrophagous larvae on chemically contaminated cadavers, and provide evidence for the range of possible effects to expect. PMID:26123620

  4. Predictability in orbital reconstruction. A human cadaver study, part III: Implant-oriented navigation for optimized reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Leander; Essig, Harald; Schreurs, Ruud; Jansen, Jesper; Maal, Thomas J J; Gooris, Peter J J; Becking, Alfred G

    2015-12-01

    Navigation-assisted orbital reconstruction remains a challenge, because the surgeon focuses on a two-dimensional multiplanar view in relation to the preoperative planning. This study explored the addition of navigation markers in the implant design for three-dimensional (3D) orientation of the actual implant position relative to the preoperative planning for more fail-safe and consistent results. Pre-injury computed tomography (CT) was performed for 10 orbits in human cadavers, and complex orbital fractures (Class III/IV) were created. The orbits were reconstructed using preformed orbital mesh through a transconjunctival approach under image-guided navigation and navigation by referencing orientating markers in the implant design. Ideal implant positions were planned using preoperative CT scans. Implant placement accuracy was evaluated by comparing the planned and realized implant positions. Significantly better translation (3.53 mm vs. 1.44 mm, p = 0.001) and rotation (pitch: -1.7° vs. -2.2°, P = 0.52; yaw: 10.9° vs. 5.9°, P = 0.02; roll: -2.2° vs. -0.5°, P = 0.16) of the placed implant relative to the planned position were obtained by implant-oriented navigation. Navigation-assisted surgery can be improved by using navigational markers on the orbital implant for orientation, resulting in fail-safe reconstruction of complex orbital defects and consistent implant positioning. PMID:26454321

  5. Robot-assisted fracture reduction using three-dimensional intraoperative fracture visualization: an experimental study on human cadaver femora.

    PubMed

    Oszwald, Markus; Westphal, Ralf; Bredow, Jan; Calafi, Afshin; Hufner, Tobias; Wahl, Friedrich; Krettek, Christian; Gosling, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    Closed fracture reduction can be a challenging task. Robot-assisted reduction of the femur is a newly developed technique that could minimize potential complications and pitfalls associated with fracture reduction and fixation. We conducted an experimental study using 11 human cadaver femora with intact soft tissues. We compared robot-assisted fracture reduction using 3D visualization with manual reduction, using 2D fluoroscopy. The main outcome measure was the accuracy of reduction. The manual reductions were done by an experienced orthopedic trauma surgeon, whereas the robot-assisted reductions were done by surgeons of different experience. The robot-assisted group showed significantly less postreduction malalignment (p < 0.05) for internal/external rotation (2.9 degrees vs. 8.4 degrees ) and for varus/valgus alignment (1.1 degrees vs. 2.5 degrees ). However, the reduction time was significantly (p < 0.01) longer (6:14 min vs. 2:16 min). The higher precision associated with robot-assisted fracture reduction makes this technique attractive and further research and development worthwhile. In particular, less experienced surgeons may benefit from this new technique. PMID:20187167

  6. A pilot study on ethanol-polyethylene glycol-formalin fixation of farm animal cadavers.

    PubMed

    Janczyk, Pawel; Weigner, Janet; Luebke-Becker, Antina; Richardson, Kenneth C; Plendl, Johanna

    2011-01-01

    Most embalming of cadavers for anatomical dissection in veterinary medicine has used 6-10% formaldehyde resulting in discoloured and rigid specimens. This project produced teaching specimens of sheep, horse and calf cadavers having their musculoskeletal and visceral structures with a natural appearance using a fixation solution with lowered concentrations of formaldehyde (2% and 3%) together with ethanol and polyethylene glycols. Fixation parameters (palpable consistency, flexibility, colour, tissue hydration and odour) were assessed qualitatively by twice weekly dissections over two months for sheep and three months for horses and calf. Formaldehyde levels, measured in the breathing zone, were below the maximum allowable concentration in all specimens except for a 300 kg horse cadaver. To evaluate the effectiveness of the fixation solution in microbial inhibition, tissue samples were taken and analyzed for the presence of culturable aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, yeasts and moulds. Single colonies of Pseudomonas oryzihabitans, Chryseobacterium sp., Acinetobacter sp. were isolated from lungs, and Micrococcus sp. and Bacillus sp. were isolated from one muscle sample. PMID:22059293

  7. Anatomic variations of the pelvic floor nerves adjacent to the sacrospinous ligament: a female cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Lazarou, George; Grigorescu, Bogdan A; Olson, Todd R; Downie, Sherry A; Powers, Kenneth; Mikhail, Magdy S

    2008-05-01

    Our objective was to document variations in the topography of pelvic floor nerves (PFN) and describe a nerve-free zone adjacent to the sacrospinous ligament (SSL). Pelvic floor dissections were performed on 15 female cadavers. The course of the PFN was described in relation to the ischial spine (IS) and the SSL. The pudendal nerve (PN) passed medial to the IS and posterior to the SSL at a mean distance of 0.6 cm (SD = +/-0.4) in 80% of cadavers. In 40% of cadavers, an inferior rectal nerve (IRN) variant pierced the SSL at a distance of 1.9 cm (SD = +/-0.7) medial to the IS. The levator ani nerve (LAN), coursed over the superior surface of the SSL-coccygeus muscle complex at a mean distance of 2.5 cm (SD = +/-0.7) medial to the IS. Anatomic variations were found which challenge the classic description of PFN. A nerve-free zone is situated in the medial third of the SSL. PMID:18038107

  8. Histomorphological Study on Number of Acini of the Prostate Gland of Bangladeshi Cadaver.

    PubMed

    Epsi, E Z; Khalil, M; Sultana, S Z; Zaman, U S; Choudhury, S; Ameen, S; Sultana, R; Tabassum, R; Nawshin, N; Azam, M S; Akhter, S M

    2016-04-01

    The prostate is made up of 30 to 50 compound tubuloalveolar glands that are embedded in a framework of fibromuscular tissue and arranged in three concentric groups (mucosal, submucosal and main prostatic gland). The prostate consists of peripheral, central and transitional zone accounting for approximately 70%, 20% and 5% of the glandular substances. Benign prostatic hyperplasia affects the transitional zone and carcinoma of the prostate affects the peripheral zone. The glandular tissue consists of numerous acini with frequent internal papillae. Follicular epithelium is variable but predominantly columnar and either single-layered or pseudostratified. This cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in Department of Anatomy, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh to find out the difference in number of acini of the prostate gland of Bangladeshi people in relation to age. The present study was performed on 67 postmortem human prostate gland collected from the morgue in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College by non random purposive sampling technique. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadaver of age ranging from 10 to 80 years. All the specimens were grouped into three categories: Group A (up to 18 years), Group B (19 to 45 years) and Group C (above 45 years) according to age. Dissection was performed following standard autopsy techniques. In the present study, total 60 slides were made for histological study from both central and peripheral zone of the prostate which were examined under low power objectives. The number of the acini of the prostate gland were counted and recorded. The mean number of the acini of the prostate gland was 16.45, 43.54 and 42.45 in Group A, B and C respectively in central zone and 30.08, 51.35 and 44.16 in Group A, B and C respectively in peripheral zone of the prostate. Variance analysis shows that mean differences were highly significant between Group A & B and Group C & A and non

  9. Feasibility of using interstitial ultrasound for intradiscal thermal therapy: a study in human cadaver lumbar discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nau, William H.; Diederich, Chris J.; Shu, Richard

    2005-06-01

    Application of heat in the spine using resistive wire heating devices is currently being used clinically for minimally invasive treatment of discogenic low back pain. In this study, interstitial ultrasound was evaluated for the potential to heat intradiscal tissue more precisely by directing energy towards the posterior annular wall while avoiding vertebral bodies. Two single-element directional applicator design configurations were tested: a 1.5 mm OD direct-coupled (DC) applicator which can be implanted directly within the disc, and a catheter-cooled (CC) applicator which is inserted in a 2.4 mm OD catheter with integrated water cooling and implanted within the disc. The transducers were sectored to produce 90° spatial heating patterns for directional control. Both applicator configurations were evaluated in four human cadaver lumbar disc motion segments. Two heating protocols were employed in this study in which the temperature measured 5 mm away from the applicator was controlled to either T = 52 °C, or T > 70 °C for the treatment period. These temperatures (thermal doses) are representative of those required for thermal necrosis of in-growing nociceptor nerve fibres and disc cellularity alone, or with coagulation and restructuring of annular collagen in the high-temperature case. Steady-state temperature maps, and thermal doses (t43) were used to assess the thermal treatments. Results from these studies demonstrated the capability of controlling temperature distributions within selected regions of the disc and annular wall using interstitial ultrasound, with minimal vertebral end-plate heating. While directional heating was demonstrated with both applicator designs, the CC configuration had greater directional heating capabilities and offered better temperature control than the DC configuration, particularly during the high-temperature protocol. Further, ultrasound energy was capable of penetrating within the highly attenuating disc tissue to produce more

  10. Inversion injury biomechanics in functional ankle instability: a cadaver study of simulated gait.

    PubMed

    Konradsen, Lars; Voigt, Michael

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to test pathogenetic models for the "unprovoked" ankle inversion injuries seen in functional ankle unstable subjects. The consequence of spatial mal-alignment of the ankle/foot complex on the risk of producing an ankle inversion torque at heel-strike and during swing-phase follow through was analyzed in cadaver simulations. Heel-strike was simulated using a 5 degrees of freedom rig in a material testing machine. A set-up capable of accelerating lower limb specimens towards a support surface simulated swing-phase follow through. Joint excursions were monitored with flexible wire goniometers. The unloaded ankle/foot complex was placed in increasing positions of talar and subtalar joint excursions. The consequences of these settings on the behavior of the ankle/foot complex at heel-strike and when the lateral part of the foot "caught" the ground during swing-phase follow through were monitored. An inversion torque at heel-strike was first seen when the unloaded foot was set in positions exceeding 30 degrees of inversion combined with full plantar flexion and 10 degrees of internal tibial rotation. A collision between the lateral border of a 20 degrees inverted, but otherwise neutral ankle/foot complex and the ground surface during swing-phase follow through forced the foot into the full limit of inversion, plantar flexion and internal tibial rotation measurable in this set-up. Clinical consequence: The study showed that the foot/ankle complex exhibits a high degree of intrinsic stability at heel-strike. The foot will thus stabilize itself and move into normal eversion at the beginning of the stance-phase even though it is set to the ground in a substantial degree of mal-alignment. In contrast, the swing-phase collision model provides a link that can connect the small deficits in inversion angle awareness measured in chronic functional ankle unstable subjects with an increased risk in this group of sustaining ankle inversion injuries. PMID

  11. The effect of a low radiation CT protocol on accuracy of CT guided implant migration measurement: A cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Boettner, Friedrich; Sculco, Peter K; Lipman, Joseph; Saboeiro, Gregory; Renner, Lisa; Faschingbauer, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The current study compared the impact of low radiation CT protocols on the accuracy, repeatability, and inter- and intra-observer variability of implant migration studies in total hip arthroplasty. Two total hip replacements were performed in two human cadavers and six tantalum beads were inserted into the femur similar to radiostereometric analysis. Six different 28 mm heads (-3 mm, 0 mm, 2.5 mm, 5.0 mm, 7.5 mm, and 10 mm) were added to simulate five reproducible translations (maximum total point migration) of the center of the head. Three CT scans with varying levels of radiation were performed for each head position. The effective dose (mSv) was 3.8 mSv for Protocol A (standard protocol), 0.7 mSv for Protocol B and 1.6 mSv for Protocol C. Implant migration was measured in a 3-D analysis software (Geomagic Studio 7). The accuracy was 0.16 mm for CT Protocol A, 0.13 mm for Protocol B and 0.14 mm for Protocol C; The repeatability was 0.22 mm for CT Protocol A, 0.18 mm for Protocol B and 0.20 mm for Protocol C; ICC for inter observer reliability was 0.89, intra observer reliability was 0.95. The difference in accuracy between standard protocol A and the two low radiation protocols (B, C) was less than 0.05 mm. The accuracy, inter- and intra-observer reliability of all three CT protocols is comparable to radiostereometric analysis. Reducing the CT radiation exposure to numbers similar to an AP Pelvis radiograph (0.7 mSv protocol B) does not affect the accuracy of implant migration measurements. PMID:26425921

  12. Bleeding simulation in embalmed cadavers: bridging the gap between simulation and live surgery.

    PubMed

    Inglez de Souza, Maria C C M; Matera, Julia M

    2015-01-01

    In veterinary medicine, surgical education and training require the development of abilities that can be acquired in practical classes using currently available models such as cadaver training. Limited availability of cadavers, undesirable changes in tissue texture and the absence of bleeding are the main disadvantages of cadaver-based training compared to training in live animals. This study proposes a chemical cadaver preservation method aimed at overcoming the aforementioned limitations. Blood circulation could be reproduced in preserved cadavers, thereby enabling satisfactory simulation-based training of several surgical procedures, from incision to suture and including hemostatic techniques. The model in this study introduces a high-fidelity simulation training alternative to prepare students for the practice of surgery. In this manner, surgical interventions would be restricted to surgical cases and healthy animals would not be submitted to surgical procedures exclusively for learning purposes. PMID:25490698

  13. Dispersal pattern of injectate following CT-guided perineural infiltration in the canine thoracolumbar spine: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Kneissl, Sibylle; Breit, Sabine; Willmitzer, Florian; Thalhammer, Johann; Dengg, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    An increasing proportion of canine patients are presented with chronic thoracolumbar back pain and without compressive spinal lesions. In humans, spinal perineural infiltrations have been reported to have a favorable effect on pain control. The purpose of this prospective cadaver study was to describe the dispersal pattern of injectate following CT-guided spinal perineural infiltration in the canine thoracolumbar region. Seven fresh canine cadavers were first scanned using multislice CT and then CT-guided spinal perineural infiltration was performed at 42 sites from T13/L1 to L6/L7. The injectate for each site was a mixture of new methylene blue and iodinated contrast medium. Immediately following CT-guided injection, cadavers were frozen, cut, and dissected macro- and mesoscopically (using a magnifying glass) to identify anatomic structures that were infiltrated. In the majority of sites (64.3%), complete epidural and hypaxial staining of spinal nerve components (including the spinal ganglion, trunk, and ventral branch) was successfully achieved. However, no (11.9%) or unpredictable staining (9.5%) of nervous tissue occurred in some sites despite careful CT guidance and the application of relatively large volumes of injectate. Optimal results were achieved when the needle tip was positioned periforaminally ventral to the cranial contour of the cranial articular process. Findings from this ex vivo study indicated that CT-guided spinal perineural infiltration is feasible for testing in the canine thoracolumbar region and that successful nerve tissue infiltration would likely occur in the majority of sites. Future in vivo studies are needed to determine the safety and efficacy of this technique. PMID:25263708

  14. Effectiveness and Complications of Percutaneous Needle Tenotomy with a Large Needle for Muscle Contractures: A Cadaver Study

    PubMed Central

    Chesnel, Camille; Genêt, François; Almangour, Waleed; Denormandie, Philippe; Parratte, Bernard; Schnitzler, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Background Twenty-two percent of institutionalised elderly persons have muscle contractures. Contractures have important functional consequences, rendering hygiene and positioning in bed or in a chair difficult. Medical treatment (such as botulinum toxin injections, physiotherapy or positioning) is not very effective and surgery may be required. Surgery is carried out in the operating theatre, under local or general anaesthesia but is often not possible in fragile patients. Mini-invasive tenotomy could be a useful alternative as it can be carried out in ambulatory care, under local anaesthesia. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of percutaneous needle tenotomy and the risks of damage to adjacent structures in cadavers. Method Thirty two doctors who had never practiced the technique (physical medicine and rehabilitation specialists, geriatricians and orthopaedic surgeons) carried out 401 tenotomies on the upper and lower limbs of 8 fresh cadavers. A 16G needle was used percutaneous following location of the tendons. After each tenotomy, a neuro-orthopaedic surgeon and an anatomist dissected the area in order to evaluate the success of the tenotomy and any adjacent lesions which had occurred. Results Of the 401 tenotomies, 72% were complete, 24.9% partial and 2.7% failed. Eight adjacent lesions occurred (2%): 4 (1%) in tendons or muscles, 3 (0.7%) in nerves and 1 (0.2%) in a vessel. Conclusion This percutaneous needle technique effectively ruptured the desired tendons, with few injuries to adjacent structures. Although this study was carried out on cadavers, the results suggest it is safe to carry out on patients. PMID:26624990

  15. Construct damage and loosening around glenoid implants: A longitudinal micro-CT study of five cadaver specimens.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Gregory S; Brenza, Jacob B; Paul, Emmanuel M; Armstrong, April D

    2016-06-01

    The evolution of failure of bone and cement leading to loosening of glenoid components following shoulder arthroplasty is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to identify and visualize potential mechanisms of mechanical failure within cadavers, cemented with two types of components, and subject to cyclic loading. Five glenoid cadaver bones were implanted with either a three-pegged polyethylene component, or prototype posteriorly augmented component which addresses posterior bone loss. Specimens were loaded by constant glenohumeral compression combined with cyclic anterior-posterior displacement of the humeral head relative to the glenoid. At six time points across 100,000 cycles, implant loosening micromotions were optically measured, and specimens were imaged by micro-computed tomography. Scans were 3D registered and inspected for crack initiation and progression, and micro-CT based time-lapse movies were created. Cement cracking initiated at stress concentrations and progressed with additional cyclic loading. Failure planes within trabecular bone and the bone-cement interface were identified in four of the five specimens. Implant subsidence increased to greater than 1.0 mm in two specimens. Cemented glenoid structural failure can occur within the cement, along planes of trabecular bone, or at the bone cement interface. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1053-1060, 2016. PMID:26630205

  16. Nerves and fasciae in and around the paracolpium or paravaginal tissue: an immunohistochemical study using elderly donated cadavers.

    PubMed

    Hinata, Nobuyuki; Hieda, Keisuke; Sasaki, Hiromasa; Kurokawa, Tetsuji; Miyake, Hideaki; Fujisawa, Masato; Murakami, Gen; Fujimiya, Mineko

    2014-03-01

    The paracolpium or paravaginal tissue is surrounded by the vaginal wall, the pubocervical fascia and the rectovaginal septum (Denonvilliers' fascia). To clarify the configuration of nerves and fasciae in and around the paracolpium, we examined histological sections of 10 elderly cadavers. The paracolpium contained the distal part of the pelvic autonomic nerve plexus and its branches: the cavernous nerve, the nerves to the urethra and the nerves to the internal anal sphincter (NIAS). The NIAS ran postero-inferiorly along the superior fascia of the levator ani muscle to reach the longitudinal muscle layer of the rectum. In two nulliparous and one multiparous women, the pubocervical fascia and the rectovaginal septum were distinct and connected with the superior fascia of the levator at the tendinous arch of the pelvic fasciae. In these three cadavers, the pelvic plexus and its distal branches were distributed almost evenly in the paracolpium and sandwiched by the pubocervical and Denonvilliers' fasciae. By contrast, in five multiparous women, these nerves were divided into the anterosuperior group (bladder detrusor nerves) and the postero-inferior group (NIAS, cavernous and urethral nerves) by the well-developed venous plexus in combination with the fragmented or unclear fasciae. Although the small number of specimens was a major limitation of this study, we hypothesized that, in combination with destruction of the basic fascial architecture due to vaginal delivery and aging, the pelvic plexus is likely to change from a sheet-like configuration to several bundles. PMID:24693482

  17. Feasibility study of pre-clinical Thiel embalmed human cadaver for MR-guided focused ultrasound of the spine.

    PubMed

    Karakitsios, Ioannis; Mihcin, Senay; Saliev, Timur; Melzer, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Background Magnetic Resonance-guided Focused Ultrasound Surgery (MRgFUS) is a non-invasive treatment option based on high acoustic absorption and minimal thermal conductivity of the bone to destroy nerves and reduce pain. There is lack of a preclinical validation tool with correct human anatomy. This work introduces usage of an ex-vivo Thiel embalmed human tissue model for preclinical verification of MRgFUS on intervertebral discs or bone metastases within the spinal body. Material and methods Thiel embalmed human cadaver was subjected to FUS sonication of the vertebra (with energies 250J, 420J, 600J) and the intervertebral disc (with energies 310J, 610J, 950J) of the lumbar spine for 20s of sonication under MR guidance. Results For the vertebra, maximum temperatures were recorded as 38 °C, 58.3 °C, 69 °C. The intervertebral disc reached maximum temperatures of 23.7 °C, 54 °C, 83 °C. The temperature measurements showed that the spinal canal and adjacent organs were not heated > 0.1 °C. Conclusions A heating pattern that can induce thermal ablation was achieved in the vertebral body and the intervertebral disc. Adjacent structures and nerves were not heated in lethal levels. Thus, the Thiel embalmed human cadaver can be a safe and efficient model for preclinical study of application of MRgFUS on the upper lumbar spine. PMID:26923220

  18. Computational modeling to predict mechanical function of joints: application to the lower leg with simulation of two cadaver studies.

    PubMed

    Liacouras, Peter C; Wayne, Jennifer S

    2007-12-01

    Computational models of musculoskeletal joints and limbs can provide useful information about joint mechanics. Validated models can be used as predictive devices for understanding joint function and serve as clinical tools for predicting the outcome of surgical procedures. A new computational modeling approach was developed for simulating joint kinematics that are dictated by bone/joint anatomy, ligamentous constraints, and applied loading. Three-dimensional computational models of the lower leg were created to illustrate the application of this new approach. Model development began with generating three-dimensional surfaces of each bone from CT images and then importing into the three-dimensional solid modeling software SOLIDWORKS and motion simulation package COSMOSMOTION. Through SOLIDWORKS and COSMOSMOTION, each bone surface file was filled to create a solid object and positioned necessary components added, and simulations executed. Three-dimensional contacts were added to inhibit intersection of the bones during motion. Ligaments were represented as linear springs. Model predictions were then validated by comparison to two different cadaver studies, syndesmotic injury and repair and ankle inversion following ligament transection. The syndesmotic injury model was able to predict tibial rotation, fibular rotation, and anterior/posterior displacement. In the inversion simulation, calcaneofibular ligament extension and angles of inversion compared well. Some experimental data proved harder to simulate accurately, due to certain software limitations and lack of complete experimental data. Other parameters that could not be easily obtained experimentally can be predicted and analyzed by the computational simulations. In the syndesmotic injury study, the force generated in the tibionavicular and calcaneofibular ligaments reduced with the insertion of the staple, indicating how this repair technique changes joint function. After transection of the calcaneofibular

  19. Transformation of a cadaver population: Analysis of a South African cadaver program, 1921-2013.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Beverley; Hutchinson, Erin F

    2015-01-01

    Anatomy has served as a cornerstone in the training of various allied and clinical disciplines and has traditionally been based on dissection of the human body. Thus, to pursue this method of teaching and learning, access to cadavers is of continuing importance. Over a significant period of time unclaimed cadavers have performed an essential role in the teaching of anatomy in South Africa and in Africa. As recent cadaver numbers were declining at the School of Anatomical Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg and difficulty in procurement was being experienced, the purpose of this study was to critically evaluate the composition of our cadaver population over time so as to provide possible strategies to arrest the decline. A retrospective, quantitative analysis of cadaver records from the School of Anatomical Sciences between 1921 and 2013 was undertaken. Analysis included a comparison of Poisson counts and Fischer's exact test. A significant decrease in the number of cadavers received during the period 2000-2013 and a slow bequest program over the same period of time has led to concerns about the sustainability of teaching anatomy through dissection. Decreases in the numbers of males and cadavers of the black population group occurred between 1990 and 2013, and of bequests from 2000 to 2013. An influence on the cadaver population from a changing political climate and change in socioeconomic status of part of the population was perceived. Changes in sex and population group of the cadavers may have a long-term effect on teaching and research. PMID:25475681

  20. A Study of the Response of the Human Cadaver Head to Impact

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Warren N.; Mason, Matthew J.; Foster, Craig D.; Shah, Chirag S.; Kopacz, James M.; Yang, King H.; King, Albert I.; Bishop, Jennifer; Bey, Michael; Anderst, William; Tashman, Scott

    2008-01-01

    High-speed biplane x-ray and neutral density targets were used to examine brain displacement and deformation during impact. Relative motion, maximum principal strain, maximum shear strain, and intracranial pressure were measured in thirty-five impacts using eight human cadaver head and neck specimens. The effect of a helmet was evaluated. During impact, local brain tissue tends to keep its position and shape with respect to the inertial frame, resulting in relative motion between the brain and skull and deformation of the brain. The local brain motions tend to follow looping patterns. Similar patterns are observed for impact in different planes, with some degree of posterior-anterior and right-left symmetry. Peak coup pressure and pressure rate increase with increasing linear acceleration, but coup pressure pulse duration decreases. Peak average maximum principal strain and maximum shear are on the order of 0.09 for CFC 60 Hz data for these tests. Peak average maximum principal strain and maximum shear increase with increasing linear acceleration, coup pressure, and coup pressure rate. Linear and angular acceleration of the head are reduced with use of a helmet, but strain increases. These results can be used for the validation of finite element models of the human head. PMID:18278591

  1. Anococcygeal Raphe Revisited: A Histological Study Using Mid-Term Human Fetuses and Elderly Cadavers

    PubMed Central

    Arakawa, Takashi; Abe, Hiroshi; Abe, Shinichi; Cho, Baik Hwan; Murakami, Gen; Sugihara, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We recently demonstrated the morphology of the anococcygeal ligament. As the anococcygeal ligament and raphe are often confused, the concept of the anococcygeal raphe needs to be re-examined from the perspective of fetal development, as well as in terms of adult morphology. Materials and Methods We examined the horizontal sections of 15 fetuses as well as adult histology. From cadavers, we obtained an almost cubic tissue mass containing the dorsal wall of the anorectum, the coccyx and the covering skin. Most sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin or Masson-trichrome solution. Results The adult ligament contained both smooth and striated muscle fibers. A similar band-like structure was seen in fetuses, containing: 1) smooth muscle fibers originating from the longitudinal muscle coat of the anal canal and 2) striated muscle fibers from the external anal sphincter (EAS). However, in fetuses, the levator ani muscle did not attach to either the band or the coccyx. Along and around the anococcygeal ligament, we did not find any aponeurotic tissue with transversely oriented fibers connecting bilateral levator ani slings. Instead, in adults, a fibrous tissue mass was located at a gap between bilateral levator ani slings; this site corresponded to the dorsal side of the ligament and the EAS in the immediately deep side of the natal skin cleft. Conclusion We hypothesize that a classically described raphe corresponds to the specific subcutaneous tissue on the superficial or dorsal side of the anococcygeal ligament. PMID:22665356

  2. A comparison of an integrated suction blade versus a traditional videolaryngoscope blade in the endotracheal intubation of a hemorrhagic cadaver model - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wadman, Michael; Nicholas, Thomas A; Bernhagen, Mary A; Kuper, Gail M; Miljkovic, Nikola; Schmidt, Steven; Massignan, Jason; Boedeker, Ben H

    2012-01-01

    In this pilot study, we evaluated two types of videolaryngoscope blades (integrated suction vs. traditional) with the Storz CMAC videolaryngoscope in the intubation of a lightly embalmed hemorrhagic cadaver model. No significant differences were found between the devices in the success rates for the intubations. The study subjects indicated a preference for the integrated suction blade in hemorrhagic airway intubation. PMID:22357052

  3. The development and evaluation of individualized templates to assist transoral C2 articular mass or transpedicular screw placement in TARP-IV procedures: adult cadaver specimen study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xue-Shi; Wu, Zeng-Hui; Xia, Hong; Ma, Xiang-Yang; Ai, Fu-Zhi; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Jian-Hua; Mai, Xiao-Hong; Yin, Qing-Shui

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate system treats irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation from transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate-I to transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate-III. However, this system has demonstrated problems associated with screw loosening, atlantoaxial fixation and concealed or manifest neurovascular injuries. This study sought to design a set of individualized templates to improve the accuracy of anterior C2 screw placement in the transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate-IV procedure. METHODS: A set of individualized templates was designed according to thin-slice computed tomography data obtained from 10 human cadavers. The templates contained cubic modules and drill guides to facilitate transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate positioning and anterior C2 screw placement. We performed 2 stages of cadaveric experiments with 2 cadavers in stage one and 8 in stage two. Finally, guided C2 screw placement was evaluated by reading postoperative computed tomography images and comparing the planned and inserted screw trajectories. RESULTS: There were two cortical breaching screws in stage one and three in stage two, but only the cortical breaching screws in stage one were ranked critical. In stage two, the planned entry points and the transverse angles of the anterior C2 screws could be simulated, whereas the declination angles could not be simulated due to intraoperative blockage of the drill bit and screwdriver by the upper teeth. CONCLUSIONS: It was feasible to use individualized templates to guide transoral C2 screw placement. Thus, these drill templates combined with transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate-IV, may improve the accuracy of transoral C2 screw placement and reduce related neurovascular complications. PMID:25518033

  4. Treatment of Middle Ear Ventilation Disorders: Sheep as Animal Model for Stenting the Human Eustachian Tube – A Cadaver Study

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Felicitas; Burghard, Alice; Salcher, Rolf; Scheper, Verena; Leibold, Wolfgang; Lenarz, Thomas; Paasche, Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    Eustachian tube disorders can lead to chronic otitis media with consecutive conductive hearing loss. To improve treatment and to develop new types of implants such as stents, an adequate experimental animal model is required. As the middle ear of sheep is known to be comparable to the human middle ear, the dimensions of the Eustachian tube in two strains of sheep were investigated. The Eustachian tube and middle ear of half heads of heathland and blackface sheep were filled with silicone rubber, blended with barium sulfate to induce X-ray visibility. Images were taken by digital volume tomography. The tubes were segmented, and a three-dimensional model of every Eustachian tube was generated. The lengths, diameters and shapes were determined. Additionally, the feasibility of endoscopic stent implantation and fixation was tested in cadaver experiments. The length of the tube between ostium pharyngeum and the isthmus and the diameters were comparable to published values for the human tube. The tube was easily accessible through the nose, and then stents could be implanted and fixed at the isthmus. The sheep appears to be a promising model for testing new stent treatments for middle ear ventilation disorders. PMID:25419714

  5. Cementless anatomical prosthesis for the treatment of 3-part and 4-part proximal humerus fractures: cadaver study and prospective clinical study with minimum 2 years followup

    PubMed Central

    Obert, Laurent; Saadnia, Rachid; Loisel, François; Uhring, Julien; Adam, Antoine; Rochet, Séverin; Clappaz, Pascal; Lascar, Tristan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional and radiological outcomes of a cementless, trauma-specific locked stem for 3- and 4-part proximal humeral fractures. Materials and methods: This study consisted of two parts: a cadaver study with 22 shoulders and a multicenter prospective clinical study of 23 fracture patients evaluated at least 2 years after treatment. In the cadaver study, the locked stem (HumelockTM, FX Solutions) and its instrumentation were evaluated. In the clinical study, five senior surgeons at four different hospitals performed the surgical procedures. An independent surgeon evaluated the patients using clinical (Constant score, QuickDASH) and radiological (X-rays, CT scans) outcome measures. Results: The cadaver study allowed us to validate the height landmarks relative to the pectoralis major tendon. In the clinical study, at the review, abduction was 95° (60–160), forward flexion was 108° (70–160), external rotation (elbow at body) was 34° (0–55), the QuickDASH was 31 (4.5–59), the overall Constant score was 54 (27–75), and the weighted Constant score was 76 (31.5–109). Discussion: This preliminary study of hemiarthroplasty (HA) with a locked stem found results that were at least equivalent to published series. As all patients had at least a 2-year follow-up, integration of the locked stem did not cause any specific complications. These results suggest that it is possible to avoid using cement when hemiarthroplasty is performed for the humeral stem. This implant makes height adjustment and transosseous suturing of the tuberosities more reproducible. PMID:27194107

  6. Teaching anatomy: cadavers vs. computers?

    PubMed

    Biasutto, Susana Norma; Caussa, Lucas Ignacio; Criado del Río, Luis Esteban

    2006-03-01

    Our study was aimed to show if cadaver dissections are still important in the Anatomy Course for medical students or whether computerized resources could replace them. We followed three groups, one of them (698 students) proceeded through the Anatomy Course in a traditional way, meaning, with cadaver material enough to observe all the regions and structures; the second group (330 students) used many technological resources but not cadaver dissections; and the third group (145 students) followed the course, recently, with the same program but with both practical resources. Theoretical contents were developed in the same way and by the same professor. The traditional teaching group obtained better results than the technologically supported group, evaluated by the number of students that passed their exams. The third group results were better than the others, with regard to passed exams and marks. Even when computerized improvements have developed a new area giving students a lot of elements to facilitate their approach to imaging structures, the possibility of direct contact with tissues and anatomical elements cannot yet be replaced. We are demonstrating that the best possibility is the correct association of all these resources to complement one another. PMID:16551018

  7. Navigation of Pedicle Screws in the Thoracic Spine with a New Electromagnetic Navigation System: A Human Cadaver Study

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Patrick; Oezdemir, Semih; Komp, Martin; Giannakopoulos, Athanasios; Kasch, Richard; Merk, Harry; Liermann, Dieter; Godolias, Georgios; Ruetten, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Posterior stabilization of the spine is a standard procedure in spinal surgery. In addition to the standard techniques, several new techniques have been developed. The objective of this cadaveric study was to examine the accuracy of a new electromagnetic navigation system for instrumentation of pedicle screws in the spine. Material and Method. Forty-eight pedicle screws were inserted in the thoracic spine of human cadavers using EMF navigation and instruments developed especially for electromagnetic navigation. The screw position was assessed postoperatively by a CT scan. Results. The screws were classified into 3 groups: grade 1 = ideal position; grade 2 = cortical penetration <2 mm; grade 3 = cortical penetration ≥2 mm. The initial evaluation of the system showed satisfied positioning for the thoracic spine; 37 of 48 screws (77.1%, 95% confidence interval [62.7%, 88%]) were classified as group 1 or 2. Discussion. The screw placement was satisfactory. The initial results show that there is room for improvement with some changes needed. The ease of use and short setup times should be pointed out. Instrumentation is achieved without restricting the operator's mobility during navigation. Conclusion. The results indicate a good placement technique for pedicle screws. Big advantages are the easy handling of the system. PMID:25759814

  8. WHAT IS THE BEST RADIOGRAPHIC VIEW FOR “DIE PUNCH” DISTAL RADIUS FRACTURES? A CADAVER MODEL STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Falcochio, Diego Figueira; Crepaldi, Bruno Eiras; Trindade, Christiano Augusto; da Costa, Antonio Carlos; Chakkour, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: the aim of this study is try to show the best view for distal radius fractures so called die-punch fractures. Methods: There has been used a human cadaver radius bone from the Salvador Arena Tissue Bank. This bone was cleaned up after removing the soft tissues and osteotomies created displaced lunate fossa fractures of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 5 mm. We have fixed this fragment with adhesive tape. Then the joint deviation were significantly increased with step-offs of 1 mm. Radiographs were then taken into 5 different positions: postero-anterior view, lateral view, oblique views and tangencial view for each of the deviations. The resulting lunate fossa depression in each X-ray film was analyzed by the AutoCAD 2010® software. Results: The tangencial view was the best one to see the 1mm and 3mm bone degrees and the second one view to see the 2mm and 5 mm degrees. The pronated oblique view was the best to see the 2mm degrees and the oblique supinated view wasn't able to see the degrees between 1 and 2mm. Conclusion: The tangencial view was the best one to see the 1mm and 3mm bone degrees and the second one view to see the 2mm and 5 mm degrees. PMID:27027079

  9. Robot-assisted C7 nerve root transfer from the contralateral healthy side: A preliminary cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Su; Ichihara, Satoshi; Prunières, Guillaume; Peterson, Brett; Facca, Sybille; Xu, Wen-Dong; Liverneaux, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Patients with cerebral palsy and spastic hemiplegia may have extremely poor upper extremity function. Unfortunately, many current therapies and treatments for patients with spastic hemiplegia offer very limited improvements. One innovative technique for treating these patients is the use a contralateral C7 nerve root transfer to neurotize the C7 nerve root in the affected limb. This may result not only in less spasticity in the affected limb, but also improved control and motor function vis-a-vis the new connection to the normal cerebral hemisphere. However, contralateral C7 transfers can require large incisions and long nerve grafts. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of a contralateral C7 nerve root transfer procedure with the use of a prevertebral minimally invasive robot-assisted technique. In a cadaver, both sides of the C7 root were dissected. The right recipient C7 root was resected as proximally as possible, while the left donor C7 root was resected as distally as possible. With the use of the da Vinci (®) SI surgical robot (Intuitive Surgical ™, Sunnyvale, CA, USA), we were able to eliminate the large incision and use a much shorter nerve graft when performing contralateral C7 nerve transfer. PMID:27117122

  10. Cadaveric Spinal Surgery Simulation: A Comparison of Cadaver Types.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, James E; Yiasemidou, Marina; Watts, Anna L; Roberts, Dave J H; Timothy, Jake

    2016-06-01

    Study Design Single-blinded study. Objective To assess the suitability of three types of cadaver for simulating pedicle screw insertion and establish if there is an ideal. Methods Three types of cadaver-Thiel-embalmed, Crosado-embalmed, and formaldehyde-embalmed-were draped and the spines exposed. Experienced surgeons were asked to place pedicle screws in each cadaver and give written questionnaire feedback using a modified Likert scale. Soft tissue and bony properties were assessed, along with the role of simulation in spinal surgery training. Results The Thiel cadaver rated highest for soft tissue feel and appearance with a median score of 6 for both (range 2 to 7). The Crosado cadaver rated highest for bony feel, with a median score of 6 (range 2 to 7). The formaldehyde cadaver rated lowest for all categories with median scores of 2, 2.5, and 3.5, respectively. All surgeons felt pedicle screw insertion should be learned in a simulated setting using human cadavers. Conclusion Thiel and Crosado cadavers both offered lifelike simulation of pedicle screw insertion, with each having advantages depending on whether the focus is on soft tissue approach or technical aspects of bony screw insertion. Both cadaver types offer the advantage of long life span, unlike fresh frozen tissue, which means cadavers can be used multiple times, thus reducing the costs. PMID:27190738

  11. Posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction by means of tibial tunnel: anatomical study on cadavers for tunnel positioning☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    de Queiroz, Antônio Altenor Bessa; Janovsky, César; da Silveira Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo; Ramos, Leonardo Addêo; Granata Junior, Geraldo Sérgio Mello; Luzo, Marcos Vinicius Malheiros; Cohen, Moises

    2014-01-01

    Objective to determine the reference points for the exit of the tibial guidewire in relation to the posterior cortical bone of the tibia. Methods sixteen knees from fresh cadavers were used for this study. Using a viewing device and a guide marked out in millimeters, three guidewires were passed through the tibia at 0, 10 and 15 mm distally in relation to the posterior crest of the tibia. Dissections were performed and the region of the center of the tibial insertion of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) was determined in each knee. The distances between the center of the tibial insertion of the PCL and the posterior tibial border (CB) and between the center of the tibial insertion of the PCL and wires 1, 2 and 3 (CW1, CW2 and CW3) were measured. Results in the dissected knees, we found the center of the tibial insertion of the PCL at 1.09 ± 0.06 cm from the posterior tibial border. The distances between the wires 1, 2 and 3 and the center of the tibial insertion of the PCL were respectively 1.01 ± 0.08, 0.09 ± 0.05 and 0.5 ± 0.05 cm. Conclusion the guidewire exit point 10 mm distal in relation to the posterior crest of the tibia was the best position for attempting to reproduce the anatomical center of the PCL. PMID:26229829

  12. Cadaveric Spinal Surgery Simulation: A Comparison of Cadaver Types

    PubMed Central

    Tomlinson, James E.; Yiasemidou, Marina; Watts, Anna L.; Roberts, Dave J. H.; Timothy, Jake

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Single-blinded study. Objective To assess the suitability of three types of cadaver for simulating pedicle screw insertion and establish if there is an ideal. Methods Three types of cadaver—Thiel-embalmed, Crosado-embalmed, and formaldehyde-embalmed—were draped and the spines exposed. Experienced surgeons were asked to place pedicle screws in each cadaver and give written questionnaire feedback using a modified Likert scale. Soft tissue and bony properties were assessed, along with the role of simulation in spinal surgery training. Results The Thiel cadaver rated highest for soft tissue feel and appearance with a median score of 6 for both (range 2 to 7). The Crosado cadaver rated highest for bony feel, with a median score of 6 (range 2 to 7). The formaldehyde cadaver rated lowest for all categories with median scores of 2, 2.5, and 3.5, respectively. All surgeons felt pedicle screw insertion should be learned in a simulated setting using human cadavers. Conclusion Thiel and Crosado cadavers both offered lifelike simulation of pedicle screw insertion, with each having advantages depending on whether the focus is on soft tissue approach or technical aspects of bony screw insertion. Both cadaver types offer the advantage of long life span, unlike fresh frozen tissue, which means cadavers can be used multiple times, thus reducing the costs. PMID:27190738

  13. The arterial supply of the lesser metatarsal heads: a vascular injection study in human cadavers.

    PubMed

    Petersen, W J; Lankes, J M; Paulsen, F; Hassenpflug, J

    2002-06-01

    The possibility of avascular changes of the metatarsal heads following forefoot surgery has been previously documented. The aim of this study was to investigate the arterial supply of the lesser metatarsal heads with regard to osteotomies of these bones. We used epoxy resin injections and a modified Spalteholz technique in human cadaveric specimens to demonstrate the intraosseous and extraosseous blood supply of the lesser metatarsals. The metatarsal heads had two arterial sources: 1. The dorsal metatarsal arteries, which arose from the dorsalis pedis artery, and 2. The plantar metatarsal arteries, which are branches of the posterior tibial artery. These two vessels typically anastomosed at two sites about the metatarsal heads, forming a vascular ring and provided an extensive extraosseous arterial network around the metatarsal heads. Small arterial branches of this network run distally on the metatarsal cortex to enter the bone of the metatarsal head. The nutrient arteries traversed the cortex of the metaphysis close to the capsular and ligamentous insertions to provide multiple branches for the supply of the subchondral bone. Extensive capsular stripping during metatarsal head osteotomies results in damage to the medial and lateral head vessels. PMID:12095116

  14. The Segmental Morphometric Properties of the Horse Cervical Spinal Cord: A Study of Cadaver

    PubMed Central

    Bahar, Sadullah; Bolat, Durmus; Selcuk, Muhammet Lutfi

    2013-01-01

    Although the cervical spinal cord (CSC) of the horse has particular importance in diseases of CNS, there is very little information about its segmental morphometry. The objective of the present study was to determine the morphometric features of the CSC segments in the horse and possible relationships among the morphometric features. The segmented CSC from five mature animals was used. Length, weight, diameter, and volume measurements of the segments were performed macroscopically. Lengths and diameters of segments were measured histologically, and area and volume measurements were performed using stereological methods. The length, weight, and volume of the CSC were 61.6 ± 3.2 cm, 107.2 ± 10.4 g, and 95.5 ± 8.3 cm3, respectively. The length of the segments was increased from C1 to C3, while it decreased from C3 to C8. The gross section (GS), white matter (WM), grey matter (GM), dorsal horn (DH), and ventral horn (VH) had the largest cross-section areas at C8. The highest volume was found for the total segment and WM at C4, GM, DH, and VH at C7, and the central canal (CC) at C3. The data obtained not only contribute to the knowledge of the normal anatomy of the CSC but may also provide reference data for veterinary pathologists and clinicians. PMID:23476145

  15. Treatment of proximal phalangeal fractures with an antegrade intramedullary screw: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Borbas, P; Dreu, M; Poggetti, A; Calcagni, M; Giesen, T

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the articular cartilage defect created with two different antegrade techniques of intramedullary osteosynthesis with a headless compression screw inserted through the metacarpophalangeal joint. In 12 out of 24 fingers from six cadaveric hands, a trans-articular technique with cannulated headless compression screws (2.2 and 3.0 mm diameter) was used; whereas in the other 12 fingers, an intra-articular fixation technique was used. The areas of the articular surface and the defects created were measured with a digital image software program. All measurements were made twice by two observers. In the intra-articular technique, the average defect in the base of the articular surface of the proximal phalanx was 4.6% with the 2.2 mm headless compression screw and 8.5% with the 3.0 mm screw. In the trans-articular technique, the defect size was slightly smaller; 4.2% with the 2.2 mm screw and 8% with the 3.0 mm screw, but the differences were not statistically significant. The main advantage of the intra-articular technique was that it avoided damage to the articular surface of the metacarpal head. PMID:27056278

  16. Acromioclavicular joint reconstruction using the LockDown synthetic implant: a study with cadavers.

    PubMed

    Taranu, R; Rushton, P R P; Serrano-Pedraza, I; Holder, L; Wallace, W A; Candal-Couto, J J

    2015-12-01

    Dislocation of the acromioclavicular joint is a relatively common injury and a number of surgical interventions have been described for its treatment. Recently, a synthetic ligament device has become available and been successfully used, however, like other non-native solutions, a compromise must be reached when choosing non-anatomical locations for their placement. This cadaveric study aimed to assess the effect of different clavicular anchorage points for the Lockdown device on the reduction of acromioclavicular joint dislocations, and suggest an optimal location. We also assessed whether further stability is provided using a coracoacromial ligament transfer (a modified Neviaser technique). The acromioclavicular joint was exposed on seven fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders. The joint was reconstructed using the Lockdown implant using four different clavicular anchorage points and reduction was measured. The coracoacromial ligament was then transferred to the lateral end of the clavicle, and the joint re-assessed. If the Lockdown ligament was secured at the level of the conoid tubercle, the acromioclavicular joint could be reduced anatomically in all cases. If placed medial or 2 cm lateral, the joint was irreducible. If the Lockdown was placed 1 cm lateral to the conoid tubercle, the joint could be reduced with difficulty in four cases. Correct placement of the Lockdown device is crucial to allow anatomical joint reduction. Even when the Lockdown was placed over the conoid tubercle, anterior clavicle displacement remained but this could be controlled using a coracoacromial ligament transfer. PMID:26637681

  17. Morphology of plantar interdigital neuroma: a comparative cadaveric study of elderly Finnish and Japanese individuals.

    PubMed

    Abe, Shinichi; Nakao, Tadashi; Yamane, Shigeki; Fukuda, Masayuki; Yamamoto, Masahito; Santti, Risto; Murakami, Gen

    2013-01-01

    To examine morphological differences in Morton's interdigital neuroma between two elderly human populations, we conducted comparative study using 40 Japanese (27 males, 13 females; mean age, 81.2 years) and 21 Finnish (6 males, 15 females; mean age, 80.5 years) cadavers. We defined the neuroma as a thickening of the nerve of at least two-fold relative to the non-pathological proximal part. The incidence of this neuroma was 25% (10/40) in the Japanese and 33.3% (7/21) in the Finnish cadavers. Moderate or severe hallux valgus (with an angle of more than 20 degrees) was seen in half of the 40 Japanese cadavers (7 males, 13 females), but was absent in the Finnish cadavers. Such hallux valgus was present in 7 (5 males, 2 females) of the 10 Japanese cadavers with neuroma. Moreover, in 2 Japanese cadavers, a paper-like, specialized type of neuroma was associated with the deformity. Pathogenesis of Morton's neuroma might be different between human populations with or without hallux valgus. PMID:23883772

  18. Significant Artifact Reduction at 1.5T and 3T MRI by the Use of a Cochlear Implant with Removable Magnet: An Experimental Human Cadaver Study

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Franca; Wimmer, Wilhelm; Leidolt, Lars; Vischer, Mattheus; Weder, Stefan; Wiest, Roland; Mantokoudis, Georgios; Caversaccio, Marco D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Cochlear implants (CIs) are standard treatment for postlingually deafened individuals and prelingually deafened children. This human cadaver study evaluated diagnostic usefulness, image quality and artifacts in 1.5T and 3T magnetic resonance (MR) brain scans after CI with a removable magnet. Methods Three criteria (diagnostic usefulness, image quality, artifacts) were assessed at 1.5T and 3T in five cadaver heads with CI. The brain magnetic resonance scans were performed with and without the magnet in situ. The criteria were analyzed by two blinded neuroradiologists, with focus on image distortion and limitation of the diagnostic value of the acquired MR images. Results MR images with the magnet in situ were all compromised by artifacts caused by the CI. After removal of the magnet, MR scans showed an unequivocal artifact reduction with significant improvement of the image quality and diagnostic usefulness, both at 1.5T and 3T. Visibility of the brain stem, cerebellopontine angle, and parieto-occipital lobe ipsilateral to the CI increased significantly after magnet removal. Conclusions The results indicate the possible advantages for 1.5T and 3T MR scanning of the brain in CI carriers with removable magnets. Our findings support use of CIs with removable magnets, especially in patients with chronic intracranial pathologies. PMID:26200775

  19. Microbial Signatures of Cadaver Gravesoil During Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Finley, Sheree J; Pechal, Jennifer L; Benbow, M Eric; Robertson, B K; Javan, Gulnaz T

    2016-04-01

    Genomic studies have estimated there are approximately 10(3)-10(6) bacterial species per gram of soil. The microbial species found in soil associated with decomposing human remains (gravesoil) have been investigated and recognized as potential molecular determinants for estimates of time since death. The nascent era of high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the conserved 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene region of gravesoil microbes is allowing research to expand beyond more subjective empirical methods used in forensic microbiology. The goal of the present study was to evaluate microbial communities and identify taxonomic signatures associated with the gravesoil human cadavers. Using 16S rRNA gene amplicon-based sequencing, soil microbial communities were surveyed from 18 cadavers placed on the surface or buried that were allowed to decompose over a range of decomposition time periods (3-303 days). Surface soil microbial communities showed a decreasing trend in taxon richness, diversity, and evenness over decomposition, while buried cadaver-soil microbial communities demonstrated increasing taxon richness, consistent diversity, and decreasing evenness. The results show that ubiquitous Proteobacteria was confirmed as the most abundant phylum in all gravesoil samples. Surface cadaver-soil communities demonstrated a decrease in Acidobacteria and an increase in Firmicutes relative abundance over decomposition, while buried soil communities were consistent in their community composition throughout decomposition. Better understanding of microbial community structure and its shifts over time may be important for advancing general knowledge of decomposition soil ecology and its potential use during forensic investigations. PMID:26748499

  20. A method for ultrasonographic visualization and injection of the superior laryngeal nerve: volunteer study and cadaver simulation.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Balvindar; Tang, Raymond; Sawka, Andrew; Krebs, Claudia; Vaghadia, Himat

    2012-11-01

    Superior laryngeal nerve block is a valuable technique for provision of upper airway anesthesia. In bilateral scans of 20 volunteers, we developed a technique for ultrasonographic visualization of the superior laryngeal nerve and key anatomical structures using a hockey stick-shaped 8 to 15 MHz transducer (HST15 to 8/20 linear probe, Ultrasonix, Richmond, BC, Canada). Subsequently, we simulated superior laryngeal nerve scanning and injection in bilateral injections in 2 cadavers. Ultrasound-guided in-plane advancement of a needle toward the superior laryngeal nerve and injection of 1 mL of green dye was achieved in all 4 attempts and confirmed by a postprocedural dissection performed by an anatomist. We conclude that ultrasound-guided superior laryngeal nerve block in humans may be feasible. PMID:22822197

  1. Cadaver decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, David O.; Yellowlees, David; Tibbett, Mark

    2007-01-01

    A dead mammal (i.e. cadaver) is a high quality resource (narrow carbon:nitrogen ratio, high water content) that releases an intense, localised pulse of carbon and nutrients into the soil upon decomposition. Despite the fact that as much as 5,000 kg of cadaver can be introduced to a square kilometre of terrestrial ecosystem each year, cadaver decomposition remains a neglected microsere. Here we review the processes associated with the introduction of cadaver-derived carbon and nutrients into soil from forensic and ecological settings to show that cadaver decomposition can have a greater, albeit localised, effect on belowground ecology than plant and faecal resources. Cadaveric materials are rapidly introduced to belowground floral and faunal communities, which results in the formation of a highly concentrated island of fertility, or cadaver decomposition island (CDI). CDIs are associated with increased soil microbial biomass, microbial activity (C mineralisation) and nematode abundance. Each CDI is an ephemeral natural disturbance that, in addition to releasing energy and nutrients to the wider ecosystem, acts as a hub by receiving these materials in the form of dead insects, exuvia and puparia, faecal matter (from scavengers, grazers and predators) and feathers (from avian scavengers and predators). As such, CDIs contribute to landscape heterogeneity. Furthermore, CDIs are a specialised habitat for a number of flies, beetles and pioneer vegetation, which enhances biodiversity in terrestrial ecosystems.

  2. Comparison of 2D and 3D navigation techniques for percutaneous screw insertion into the scaphoid: results of an experimental cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Catala-Lehnen, Philip; Nüchtern, Jakob V; Briem, Daniel; Klink, Thorsten; Rueger, Johannes M; Lehmann, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Navigation in hand surgery is still in the process of development. Initial studies have demonstrated the feasibility of 2D and 3D navigation for the palmar approach in scaphoid fractures, but a comparison of the possibilities of 2D and 3D navigation for the dorsal approach is still lacking. The aim of the present work was to test navigation for the dorsal approach in the scaphoid using cadaver bones. After development of a special radiolucent resting splint for the dorsal approach, we performed 2D- and 3D-navigated scaphoid osteosynthesis in 12 fresh-frozen cadaver forearms using a headless compression screw (Synthes). The operation time, radiation time, number of trials for screw insertion, and screw positions were analyzed. In six 2D-navigated screw osteosyntheses, we found two false positions with an average radiation time of 5 ± 2 seconds. Using 3D navigation, we detected one false position. A false position indicates divergence from the ideal line of the axis of the scaphoid but without penetration of the cortex. The initial scan clearly increased overall radiation time in the 3D-navigated group, and for both navigation procedures operating time was longer than in our clinical experience without navigation. Nonetheless, 2D and 3D navigation for non-dislocated scaphoid fractures is feasible, and navigation might reduce the risk of choosing an incorrect screw length, thereby possibly avoiding injury to the subtending cortex. The 3D navigation is more difficult to interpret than 2D fluoroscopic navigation but shows greater precision. Overall, navigation is costly, and the moderate advantages it offers for osteosynthesis of scaphoid fractures must be considered critically in comparisons with conventional operating techniques. PMID:21991920

  3. Topohistology of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve fibers in branches of the pelvic plexus: an immunohistochemical study using donated elderly cadavers

    PubMed Central

    Hieda, Keisuke; Sasaki, Hiromasa; Murakami, Gen; Abe, Shinichi; Matsubara, Akio; Miyake, Hideaki; Fujisawa, Masato

    2014-01-01

    Although the pelvic autonomic plexus may be considered a mixture of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves, little information on its composite fibers is available. Using 10 donated elderly cadavers, we investigated in detail the topohistology of nerve fibers in the posterior part of the periprostatic region in males and the infero-anterior part of the paracolpium in females. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) were used as parasympathetic nerve markers, and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) was used as a marker of sympathetic nerves. In the region examined, nNOS-positive nerves (containing nNOS-positive fibers) were consistently predominant numerically. All fibers positive for these markers appeared to be thin, unmyelinated fibers. Accordingly, the pelvic plexus branches were classified into 5 types: triple-positive mixed nerves (nNOS+, VIP+, TH+, thick myelinated fibers + or -); double-positive mixed nerves (nNOS+, VIP-, TH+, thick myelinated fibers + or -); nerves in arterial walls (nNOS-, VIP+, TH+, thick myelinated fibers-); non-parasympathetic nerves (nNOS-, VIP-, TH+, thick myelinated fibers + or -); (although rare) pure sensory nerve candidates (nNOS-, VIP-, TH-, thick myelinated fibers+). Triple-positive nerves were 5-6 times more numerous in the paracolpium than in the periprostatic region. Usually, the parasympathetic nerve fibers did not occupy a specific site in a nerve, and were intermingled with sympathetic fibers. This morphology might be the result of an "incidentally" adopted nerve fiber route, rather than a target-specific pathway. PMID:24693483

  4. [Kinematic investigations of the talocrural joint in human cadaver specimens. Basic studies for the development of a hinged fixator].

    PubMed

    Schmickal, T; Biglari, B; Wentzensen, A

    2002-11-01

    To determine the specifications of a hinged fixator for the upper ankle joint, biomechanical investigations were performed on 20 human cadaver specimens and the talocrural axis was recorded by X-ray cinematography in all levels of the space. The results showed a medium variation of the axis in zero position (mean: 5.8 degrees ) from 3 degrees to 10 degrees in the anterior-posterior view. The span of the axis migration around zero position amounted to a minimum of 3 degrees and a maximum value of 10 degrees (mean: 7.2 degrees ). It could be ascertained that the axis kinetics does not move linearly in all cases. The talus rotation (the axle deviation from the sagittal plane) amounted to a minimum value of 2 degrees and a maximum value of 12 degrees (mean: 5.3 degrees ). In the transverse level, the axis kinetics was tracked by separate X-ray markings of the lateral and medial cortical of the talus in the zero point of the talocrural axis. The results were typical migration curves of the X-ray markings, demonstrating a ventral convex curve at the medial and lateral cortex. This migration of the cortex crossing point of the axis was geometrically entered in a coordinate system. The variance of the axis cortex crossing point at the medial cortical was X(M)=4.2 mm (min: 2 mm, max: 7 mm) and Y(M)=4.7 mm (2-7 mm), at the lateral cortical X(L)=3.7 mm (1-9 mm) and Y(L) =4.1 mm (1-8 mm). Regarding the clinical relevance for the development of a hinged fixator for the upper ankle joint, the results indicate that an external axis guidance of these axoids is not possible, but that an adjusted axis is necessary taking into consideration the values measured using ligamentotaxis. PMID:12436327

  5. The cadaveric perfusion and angiography as a teaching tool: imaging the intracranial vasculature in cadavers.

    PubMed

    Turkoglu, Erhan; Seckin, Hakan; Gurer, Bora; Ahmed, Azam; Uluc, Kutluay; Pulfer, Kari; Arat, Anıl; Niemann, David; Baskaya, Mustafa K

    2014-12-01

    Background and Study Aim To enhance the visualization of the intracranial vasculature of cadavers under gross examination with a combination of imaging modalities. Material and Methods A total of 20 cadaver heads were used to test two different perfusion techniques. First, fixed cadaver heads were perfused with water; second, fresh cadavers were perfused with saline and 10% formalin. Subsequently, brains were removed and fixed. The compounds used were silicone rubber, silicone rubber mixed with powdered barium sulfate, and silicone rubber mixed with tantalum dioxide prepared by the first perfusion technique and gelatin mixed with liquid barium prepared with the second technique. Conventional X-ray imaging, computed tomography (CT), dynamic computed tomography (dCT), and postprocessing three-dimensional (3D) images were used to evaluate all the heads. Results Gelatinized barium was better visualized when compared with tantalum dioxide in conventional X-ray images. The blood vessels injected with either tantalum dioxide or gelatinized barium demonstrated a higher enhancement than the surrounding soft tissues with CT or dCT. The quality of the 3D reconstruction of the intracranial vasculature was significantly better in the CT images obtained from the gelatinized barium group. Conclusions Radiologic examinations of the heads injected with gelatinized barium facilitates the 3D understanding of cerebrovascular anatomy as an important tool for neuroanatomy training. PMID:25452903

  6. The Cadaveric Perfusion and Angiography as a Teaching Tool: Imaging the Intracranial Vasculature in Cadavers

    PubMed Central

    Turkoglu, Erhan; Seckin, Hakan; Gurer, Bora; Ahmed, Azam; Uluc, Kutluay; Pulfer, Kari; Arat, Anıl; Niemann, David; Baskaya, Mustafa K.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Study Aim To enhance the visualization of the intracranial vasculature of cadavers under gross examination with a combination of imaging modalities. Material and Methods A total of 20 cadaver heads were used to test two different perfusion techniques. First, fixed cadaver heads were perfused with water; second, fresh cadavers were perfused with saline and 10% formalin. Subsequently, brains were removed and fixed. The compounds used were silicone rubber, silicone rubber mixed with powdered barium sulfate, and silicone rubber mixed with tantalum dioxide prepared by the first perfusion technique and gelatin mixed with liquid barium prepared with the second technique. Conventional X-ray imaging, computed tomography (CT), dynamic computed tomography (dCT), and postprocessing three-dimensional (3D) images were used to evaluate all the heads. Results Gelatinized barium was better visualized when compared with tantalum dioxide in conventional X-ray images. The blood vessels injected with either tantalum dioxide or gelatinized barium demonstrated a higher enhancement than the surrounding soft tissues with CT or dCT. The quality of the 3D reconstruction of the intracranial vasculature was significantly better in the CT images obtained from the gelatinized barium group. Conclusions Radiologic examinations of the heads injected with gelatinized barium facilitates the 3D understanding of cerebrovascular anatomy as an important tool for neuroanatomy training. PMID:25452903

  7. Endoscopic and histological evaluations of a newly designed inguinal hernia mesh implant: Experimental studies on porcine animal model and human cadaver

    PubMed Central

    Panaro, Fabrizio; Matos-Azevedo, Ana Maria; Fatas, José Antonio; Marin, Juan; Navarro, Francis; Zaragoza-Fernandez, Cristobal

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Conventional prostheses used for inguinal hernia repair are static and passive. This feasibility-study shows the features of a new 3D tension-free prosthesis in an experimental model. Methods This study was divided into two-phases: 1) aimed to test the physics intrinsic features and the anatomical adaptability of a new 3D designed mesh, and 2) aimed to evaluate the inflammatory reaction associated with different materials used. On phase-1 implantations were performed in pigs. During the first trial phase, the prostheses were also implanted on human cadavers. On phase-2, implantation was carried out on large swine. Follow-up was of 60-days, after which the animals were anaesthetized for laparoscopic assessment, and for sample collection of mesh implantation site for histological analysis. Results All animals showed good 3D mesh tolerance, and the follow-up period was uneventful. The laparoscopy showed no inflammatory lesions on the internal surface of the peritoneum. Macroscopic observation of implantation site revealed some local fibrosis and reorganization of tissue, no signs of infection, and no changes on original implant positioning. Histological analysis on phase-1 showed in most sample segments the deferent duct maintaining its central position and surrounded by vascular and nervous structures. On phase-2 differences in inflammatory lesion score could be found between subjects. Conclusions This new 3D mesh can be placed appropriately and from this preliminary animal study no untoward complications were noted over a 60 day period. PMID:27158482

  8. Accuracy of thoracolumbar transpedicular and vertebral body percutaneous screw placement: coupling the Rosa® Spine robot with intraoperative flat-panel CT guidance--a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Lefranc, M; Peltier, J

    2015-12-01

    The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy of a new robotic device when coupled with intraoperative flat-panel CT guidance. Screws (D8-S1) were implanted during two separate cadaver sessions by coupling the Rosa(®) Spine robot with the flat-panel CT device. Of 38 implanted screws, 37 (97.4 %) were fully contained within the pedicle. One screw breached the lateral cortical of one pedicle by <1 mm. The mean ± SD accuracy (relative to pre-operative planning) was 2.05 ± 1.2 mm for the screw head, 1.65 ± 1.11 for the middle of the pedicle and 1.57 ± 1.01 for the screw tip. When coupled with intraoperative flat-panel CT guidance, the Rosa(®) Spine robot appears to be accurate in placing pedicle screws within both pedicles and the vertebral body. Large clinical studies are mandatory to confirm this preliminary cadaveric report. PMID:26530846

  9. Comparison of Hybrid Constructs with 2-Level Artificial Disc Replacement and 2-Level Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion for Surgical Reconstruction of the Cervical Spine: A Kinematic Study in Whole Cadavers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Baoge; Zeng, Zheng; Van Hoof, Tom; Kalala, Jean Pierre; Liu, Zhenyu; Wu, Bingxuan

    2015-01-01

    Background Multi-level cervical degeneration of the spine is a common clinical pathology that is often repaired by anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). The aim of this study was to investigate the kinematics of the cervical spine after hybrid surgery compared with 2-level ACDF. Material/Methods Five freshly frozen, unembalmed whole human cadavers were used including 3 males and 2 females with a mean age of 51±8 years. After evaluating the intact spine for range of motion (ROM), sagittal alignment and instantaneous center of rotation (ICR), each cadaver underwent 4 consecutive surgeries: 2-level artificial disc replacement (ADR) from C4 to C6 (ADR surgery); 2-level ACDF from C4 to C6 (ACDF surgery); hybrid C4–5 ACDF and C5–6 ADR (ACDF+ADR surgery); and hybrid C4–5 ADR and C5–6 ACDF (ADR+ACDF surgery). The ROM and ICR of adjacent intact segments (C3–4; C6–7), and whole sagittal alignment were revaluated. Results Two-level ACDF resulted in increased ROM at C3–4 and C6–7 compared with intact spine. ROM was significantly different to intact spine using ACDF surgery at C3–C4 and C6–C7 and ROM was increased with ACDF+ADR surgery at C6–C7 (all P<0.05). No improvement in sagittal alignment was observed with any approach. The localization of the ICR shifted upwards and anteriorly at C3–C4 after reconstruction. ICR changes at C3–C4 were greatest for ADR+ACDF surgery and were significantly different to ACDF surgery (P<0.05), but not between ADR surgery and ACDF+ADR surgery. At C6–C7, the ICR was more posterior and superior than in the intact condition. The greatest change in ICR was observed in ACDF surgery at the C6–C7 level, significantly different from the other groups (P<0.05). Conclusions For 2-level reconstruction, hybrid surgery and ADR did not alter ROM and minimally changed ICR at the adjacent-level. The type of surgery had a significant impact on the ICR location. This suggests that hybrid surgery may be a viable option for 2

  10. The Translucent Cadaver: A Follow-up Study to Gauge the Efficacy of Implementing Changes Suggested by Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotzé, Sanet Henriët; Driescher, Natasha Darné; Mole, Calvin Gerald

    2013-01-01

    In a study conducted in 2011, the use of full body digital X-ray images (Lodox® Statscan®) and drawings were described for surface anatomy education during which suggestions were made by students on how to improve the method. Educational innovations should continuously be adjusted and improved to provide the best possible scenario for student…

  11. USE OF CONTRAST-ENHANCED COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY TO STUDY THE CRANIAL MIGRATION OF A LUMBOSACRAL INJECTATE IN CADAVER DOGS.

    PubMed

    Kawalilak, Lukas T; Tucker, Russell L; Greene, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Volumes used in lumbosacral epidural injections for anesthesia have remained unchanged since the 1960s. The goals of this cross-sectional observational study were to characterize the three-dimensional spread of a lumbosacral epidural injection, as well as confirm that the commonly used volume of 0.2 ml/kg injected into the lumbosacral epidural space reaches the thoracolumbar (TL) junction in the majority (≥80%) of dogs. Ten clinically normal, adult, nonpregnant, mixed-breed dogs were obtained within five minutes of euthanasia and 0.2 ml/kg of radiopaque contrast medium was injected into the lumbosacral epidural space. A computed tomography scan of the TL spine was performed immediately following the injection. Migration of contrast reached the TL junction in 8 of 10 (80%) dogs. Contrast was well visualized in all epidural planes with contrast travelling predominantly in the dorsal epidural space in 7 of 10 (70%) dogs. There was no significant difference in the weight of dogs where the epidural injectate reached the TL junction and those where it did not (P = 0.16), or in the weight of dogs where the cranial-most point of the contrast column was in the dorsal versus the ventral epidural space (P = 0.32). This preliminary study supports the use of computed tomography to characterize injectate distribution in the canine thoracolumbar epidural space and provides evidence that a 0.2-ml/kg volume is likely to reache the TL junction in most dogs. Further studies are needed in live dogs to determine if variables affecting human epidural injectate doses have similar effects in the dog. PMID:25868075

  12. "Lupara Bianca" a way to hide cadavers after Mafia homicides. A cemetery of Italian Mafia. A case study.

    PubMed

    Pomara, Cristoforo; Gianpaolo, Di Peri; Monica, Salerno; Maglietta, Francesca; Sessa, Francesco; Guglielmi, Giuseppe; Turillazzi, Emanuela

    2015-05-01

    The Gargano, also known as the 'Spur of Italy', is a sub-region of Italy which is located in North of Puglia, in the Province of Foggia. A ravine located in this area was used as a dumping ground in past. During a clearing operation, a team of speleologists discovered human skeletal remains, which led to an official investigation by the local prosecutor's office. The prosecutor called a team of forensic specialist for a scene investigation to recover and identify the human skeletal remains. Four different human skeletal remains located at four different levels of depth underground were found and were in different conditions. A complete forensic investigation was initiated and comprised of radiological imaging with DNA profiling. Three of the four human skeletal remains that were found were identified as those belonging to men who vanished mysteriously in the nineties. The studies conducted have demonstrated that the victims found were murdered and the murders were attributed to the "Mafia of Gargano". The Mafia of Gargano was officially recognized as a criminal organization dating back to 2009 and their criminal activities included the smuggling of firearms and cigarettes, human trafficking, and smuggling of undocumented immigrants. Murders in which corpses are made to disappear is common practice in criminal activities including that of the Italian Mafia. The "Lupara Bianca" is a colloquial term commonly used in Sicily to refer to concealed murders. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported study describing the discovery of one of the locations used extensively by the local Mafia as a "cemetery" for victims of "Lupara Bianca" homicides. Based on evidences collected at the site, an explanation of this homicidal modality will be provided. PMID:25579982

  13. Diet influences rates of carbon and nitrogen mineralization from decomposing grasshopper frass and cadavers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect herbivory can produce a pulse of mineral nitrogen (N) in soil from the decomposition of frass and cadavers. In this study we examined how diet quality affects rates of N and carbon (C) mineralization from grasshopper frass and cadavers. Frass was collected from grasshoppers fed natural or mer...

  14. The Reliance on Unclaimed Cadavers for Anatomical Teaching by Medical Schools in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gangata, Hope; Ntaba, Phatheka; Akol, Princess; Louw, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The study of gross Anatomy through the use of cadaveric dissections in medical schools is an essential part of the comprehensive learning of human Anatomy, and unsurprisingly, 90% of the surveyed medical schools in Africa used cadaveric dissections. Donated cadavers now make up 80% of the total cadavers in North American medical schools and all…

  15. The Wider Importance of Cadavers: Educational and Research Diversity from a Body Bequest Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornwall, Jon; Stringer, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    The debate surrounding the use of cadavers in teaching anatomy has focused almost exclusively on the pedagogic role of cadaver dissection in medical education. The aim of this study was to explore the wider aspects of a body bequest program for teaching and research into gross anatomy in a University setting. A retrospective audit was undertaken…

  16. A biomechanical comparison of composite femurs and cadaver femurs used in experiments on operated hip fractures.

    PubMed

    Basso, Trude; Klaksvik, Jomar; Syversen, Unni; Foss, Olav A

    2014-12-18

    Fourth generation composite femurs (4GCFs, models #3406 and #3403) simulate femurs of males <80 years with good bone quality. Since most hip fractures occur in old women with fragile bones, concern is raised regarding the use of standard 4GCFs in biomechanical experiments. In this study the stability of hip fracture fixations in 4GCFs was compared to human cadaver femurs (HCFs) selected to represent patients with hip fractures. Ten 4GCFs (Sawbones, Pacific Research Laboratories, Inc., Vashon, WA, USA) were compared to 24 HCFs from seven females and five males >60 years. Proximal femur anthropometric measurements were noted. Strain gauge rosettes were attached and femurs were mounted in a hip simulator applying a combined subject-specific axial load and torque. Baseline measurements of resistance to deformation were recorded. Standardized femoral neck fractures were surgically stabilized before the constructs were subjected to 20,000 load-cycles. An optical motion tracking system measured relative movements. Median (95% CI) head fragment migration was 0.8mm (0.4 to 1.1) in the 4GCF group versus 2.2mm (1.5 to 4.6) in the cadaver group (p=0.001). This difference in fracture stability could not be explained by observed differences in femoral anthropometry or potential overloading of 4GCFs. 4GCFs failed with fracture-patterns different from those observed in cadavers. To conclude, standard 4GCFs provide unrealistically stable bone-implant constructs and fail with fractures not observed in cadavers. Until a validated osteopenic or osteoporotic composite femur model is provided, standard 4GCFs should only be used when representing the biomechanical properties of young healthy femurs. PMID:25468304

  17. Veterinary science student preferences for the source of dog cadavers used in anatomy teaching.

    PubMed

    Tiplady, Catherine; Lloyd, Shan; Morton, John

    2011-10-01

    Live animals and cadavers are integral to veterinary education. In the year of this survey (2008), and in at least the five preceding years, cadavers obtained by euthanasia of healthy pound dogs and ex-racing greyhounds were dissected by students, during their veterinary anatomy classes at the University of Queensland School of Veterinary Science. Students may have ethical concerns about this. An alternative approach was to use donated dog cadavers. These are owned pet dogs that have died of natural causes or have been euthanised for medical reasons, and have been donated by their owners for the purposes of veterinary education. Veterinary students at the School were surveyed in 2008, in order to determine their preferences for cadaver source. Data from 406 questionnaires were analysed. Third-year and fifth-year veterinary students were more likely than first-year students to prefer pound-dog/greyhound cadavers over donated cadavers for anatomy dissection (p ≤ 0.002). Between 32% and 45% of the students had no preference for either source of cadaver. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that veterinary students become more accepting of the euthanasia of unwanted healthy animals for education as they progress through the veterinary programme, in contexts such as the current study. This could occur due to increased acceptance of the euthanasia of healthy animals generally, a decline in moral development, desensitisation, and/or the belief that healthy animal cadavers offer a superior learning experience. PMID:22103939

  18. Infection of Tribolium castaneum with Bacillus thuringiensis: quantification of bacterial replication within cadavers, transmission via cannibalism, and inhibition of spore germination.

    PubMed

    Milutinović, Barbara; Höfling, Christina; Futo, Momir; Scharsack, Jörn P; Kurtz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Reproduction within a host and transmission to the next host are crucial for the virulence and fitness of pathogens. Nevertheless, basic knowledge about such parameters is often missing from the literature, even for well-studied bacteria, such as Bacillus thuringiensis, an endospore-forming insect pathogen, which infects its hosts via the oral route. To characterize bacterial replication success, we made use of an experimental oral infection system for the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and developed a flow cytometric assay for the quantification of both spore ingestion by the individual beetle larvae and the resulting spore load after bacterial replication and resporulation within cadavers. On average, spore numbers increased 460-fold, showing that Bacillus thuringiensis grows and replicates successfully in insect cadavers. By inoculating cadaver-derived spores and spores from bacterial stock cultures into nutrient medium, we next investigated outgrowth characteristics of vegetative cells and found that cadaver-derived bacteria showed reduced growth compared to bacteria from the stock cultures. Interestingly, this reduced growth was a consequence of inhibited spore germination, probably originating from the host and resulting in reduced host mortality in subsequent infections by cadaver-derived spores. Nevertheless, we further showed that Bacillus thuringiensis transmission was possible via larval cannibalism when no other food was offered. These results contribute to our understanding of the ecology of Bacillus thuringiensis as an insect pathogen. PMID:26386058

  19. Infection of Tribolium castaneum with Bacillus thuringiensis: Quantification of Bacterial Replication within Cadavers, Transmission via Cannibalism, and Inhibition of Spore Germination

    PubMed Central

    Milutinović, Barbara; Höfling, Christina; Futo, Momir; Scharsack, Jörn P.

    2015-01-01

    Reproduction within a host and transmission to the next host are crucial for the virulence and fitness of pathogens. Nevertheless, basic knowledge about such parameters is often missing from the literature, even for well-studied bacteria, such as Bacillus thuringiensis, an endospore-forming insect pathogen, which infects its hosts via the oral route. To characterize bacterial replication success, we made use of an experimental oral infection system for the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and developed a flow cytometric assay for the quantification of both spore ingestion by the individual beetle larvae and the resulting spore load after bacterial replication and resporulation within cadavers. On average, spore numbers increased 460-fold, showing that Bacillus thuringiensis grows and replicates successfully in insect cadavers. By inoculating cadaver-derived spores and spores from bacterial stock cultures into nutrient medium, we next investigated outgrowth characteristics of vegetative cells and found that cadaver-derived bacteria showed reduced growth compared to bacteria from the stock cultures. Interestingly, this reduced growth was a consequence of inhibited spore germination, probably originating from the host and resulting in reduced host mortality in subsequent infections by cadaver-derived spores. Nevertheless, we further showed that Bacillus thuringiensis transmission was possible via larval cannibalism when no other food was offered. These results contribute to our understanding of the ecology of Bacillus thuringiensis as an insect pathogen. PMID:26386058

  20. Simulation of the temperature increase in porcine cadaver iris during direct illumination by femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hui; Kurtz, Ronald M.; Juhasz, Tibor

    2012-03-01

    As a model for laser exposure of the iris during femtosecond corneal surgery, we simulated the temperature rise in porcine cadaver iris during direct illumination by the femtosecond laser. The temperature increase induced by a 60 kHz iFS Advanced Femtosecond Laser (AMO Inc., Santa Ana, CA) in porcine cadaver iris was simulated using COMSOL (Comsol Inc., Burlington, MA) finite element software. Temperature increases up to 2.45 °C (corresponding to 2 μJ laser pulse energy and 24 second illumination) were observed in the porcine cadaver iris from the simulation with little variation in temperature profiles compared with specimens for the same laser energy illumination in experiment. : The commercial iFS Advanced Femtosecond Laser operating with pulse energies at approximately the lower limit of the range evaluated in this study would be expected to result in a 1.23 °C temperature increase and, therefore, does not present a safety hazard to the iris.

  1. Comparative Packaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; Antonini, David

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes a comparative packaging study for use on long duration space missions. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Deliverables; 3) Food Sample Selection; 4) Experimental Design Matrix; 5) Permeation Rate Comparison; and 6) Packaging Material Information.

  2. Anorectal Transplantation in Human Cadavers: Mock Anorectal Allotransplantation

    PubMed Central

    Araki, Jun; Nishizawa, Yuji; Sato, Tomoyuki; Naito, Munekazu; Akita, Keiichi; Tashiro, Kensuke; Iida, Takuya; Koshima, Isao

    2013-01-01

    Background Anorectal transplantation is a method for patients who have lost their anorectal function or suffer from congenital anorectal dysfunction to recover this function, and this has been investigated in experimental animal models using pigs, dogs, and rats. In this study, we performed an examination of anorectal transplantation in human cadavers to investigate whether this procedure could be performed in patients. Methods A 77-year-old woman cadaver 1 was used as the donor and a 98-year-old woman cadaver 2 was used as the recipient. Initially, abdominoperineal excision of the anus and rectum (the Miles’ operation) was performed on the recipient. Next, an anorectal graft containing the pudendal nerve (PN), pudendal artery (PA), pudendal vein (PV), inferior mesenteric artery (IMA), and inferior mesenteric vein (IMV) was harvested from the donor. The donor graft was transplanted into the recipient by intestinal anastomosis and microneurovascular anastomoses orthotopically. Results The diameters of the PN (right/left), IMA, and IMV were 2.5 mm/2.5 mm, 2.0 mm, and 1.5 mm, respectively, in cadaver 1, and 2.0 mm/2.0 mm, 2.0 mm, and 2.0 mm, respectively, in cadaver 2. The length of the PN, PA, PV, IMA, and IMV in the graft was sufficient to allow proper anastomosis. Conclusion This preliminary study indicated that human anorectal transplantation was possible anatomically and technically. We anticipate our study will aid in the potential future application of this procedure to human patients. PMID:23874833

  3. Levels of formaldehyde vapor released from embalmed cadavers in each dissection stage.

    PubMed

    Sugata, Yota; Miyaso, Hidenobu; Odaka, Yoko; Komiyama, Masatoshi; Sakamoto, Noboru; Mori, Chisato; Matsuno, Yoshiharu

    2016-08-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is an aldehyde used in antiseptics and adhesives. The World Health Organization (WHO) and other institutes have linked FA to sick building syndrome and allergic diseases. Recent studies have reported that cadavers embalmed using formalin and ethanol-based preservative solutions release FA vapor during dissection and that FA vapor may adversely affect students and lecturers in gross anatomy laboratories. However, few details have been reported correlating dissection stage with increased FA vapor release. In this study, we evaluated the vapor level of FA released in each dissection stage. Six cadavers for which consent was given for use in anatomy research and education were examined in this study. Using an active sampling method, FA vapor was collected above the thoracoabdominal region of each dissected cadaver. FA was eluted from each sampler using acetonitrile and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Our data show that FA levels significantly increase after skin incision and that the vapor level of FA released differs between male and female cadavers. We also found that subcutaneous adipose tissues of the thoracoabdominal-region release FA vapor and that female cadavers release significantly higher levels of FA per kilogram of subcutaneous adipose tissue than do male cadavers. Based on these data, we propose the methods be developed to prevent exposure to FA vapors released from cadavers. PMID:27151243

  4. The association between healed skeletal fractures indicative of interpersonal violence and alcoholic liver disease in a cadaver cohort from the Western Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Geldenhuys, Elsje-Márie; Burger, Elsie H; Alblas, Amanda; Greyling, Linda M; Kotzé, Sanet H

    2016-05-01

    Interpersonal violence (IPV) and heavy alcohol consumption are major problems in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Cranio-maxillofacial fractures, particularly nasal and zygomatic bone fractures, as well as isolated radial fractures (Colles fractures) and ulnar shaft fractures (parry fractures), are indicative of IPV, while alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the consequence of chronic alcohol abuse. We therefore aim to investigate whether a significant association exists between the prevalence of cranio-maxillofacial fractures and parry fractures and ALD in a Western Cape population. Embalmed cadavers (n = 124) used for medical students' anatomy training at the Division of Anatomy and Histology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University were studied. The cadavers were dissected according to departmental protocol. The liver of each cadaver was investigated for macroscopic pathology lesions. Tissue samples were removed, processed to wax, and sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). All soft tissue was removed from the skulls, radii, and ulnae, which were then investigated for healed skeletal trauma. The results showed 37/124 (29.8%) cadavers had healed cranio-maxillofacial fractures and 24/124 (19.4%) cadavers had morphologic features of ALD. A total of 12/124 (9.7%) cadavers showed signs of both ALD and healed cranio-maxillofacial trauma. More males were affected than females, and left-sided facial fractures were statistically more common compared to the right side. This study illustrated a significant trend between alcohol abuse and cranio-maxillofacial fractures in individuals from communities with a low socio-economic status (SES) where IPV is a major problem. PMID:27139236

  5. Dark age of sourcing cadavers in developing countries: a Nigerian survey.

    PubMed

    Anyanwu, G E; Udemezue, O O; Obikili, E N

    2011-10-01

    Throughout the history of medical science, the sourcing, storage, and management of cadavers for the study of gross anatomy have been problematic issues. As presented in this report, a study of these issues was conducted in the departments of anatomy of medical schools in Nigeria. To establish the extent and depth of the prevailing difficulties in the sourcing of cadavers, 18 (62.1%) of the Departments of Anatomy that qualified for this study were used. In sum, 94.4% of these schools reported an inadequate number of cadavers for study. The estimated ages of the cadavers were between 20 and 40 years and 85% of the schools reported more than 75% of the cadavers to be from the lower socioeconomic class. Altogether, 94.4% of the schools reported a male dominance of more than 95%. More than 72% of the schools reported that more than 90% of the cadavers were criminals that had been killed by shooting, less than 10% were unclaimed and unidentified corpses, and 0% originated from body bequest. No form of screening exercises for diseases and infective microorganisms was noted for all the schools, and there were no set standards for the acceptance or rejection of cadavers. Causative factors for the profile of available cadavers such as culture and religion were noted. This study was designed to look at various issues associated with the sourcing of cadavers for Anatomy education in typical developing African countries like Nigeria. As outlined in this report, the creation of legislation and the promotion and funding of programs highlighting the importance of body donation are crucial for improving the field of medical education. PMID:21815217

  6. "Live cadavers" for practicing airway management.

    PubMed

    Aboud, Emad T; Aboud, Ghaith; Aboud, Talal

    2015-03-01

    Human cadavers have been used successfully as training models to practice airway management, but the lack of lifelike conditions reduces the utility of this model when softness of tissue and the ability to bleed are required for training scenarios. This report describes our "live cadaver" model, which combines lifelike conditions with real human anatomy. Five human cadavers were prepared as "live cadavers". This entailed cannulating the carotid and femoral arteries and the jugular and femoral veins, and then connected them to artificial blood reservoirs. An intra-aortic balloon pump was used to provide pulsating flow through the heart and major arteries. Finally, central and peripheral lines were inserted. Multiple techniques related to airway management were practiced in setting simulating the treatment of casualties with multiple trauma to include emergency cricothyroidotomy. With this model, participants were confronted with medical situations similar to those found in traumatized live patients (e.g., blood and other body fluids filling the mouth and nose, edema of the tongue and face). With the combination of lifelike conditions and real human anatomy, our experience demonstrated that the "live cadaver" increased the training value of traditionally prepared cadaver models. PMID:25747648

  7. Lessons from the dead: the experiences of undergraduates working with cadavers.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Brent Dean; Tomaka, Ashley; Innus, Cara; Patterson, Joel; Styn, Gary

    Dissection of a human cadaver is a time-honored tradition for teaching anatomy in medical education. However, in recent years, for a variety of reasons, including costs and ethical concerns, some medical programs have ceased cadaver dissection in exchange for virtual dissection of cadavers in cyberspace. Past research suggests that students find work on a cadaver to be distressing, but also rewarding. This study analyzed journal entries from 21 undergraduate students working with a cadaver in a gross anatomy course. An empirical, phenomenological analysis of the data identified 19 common themes among the participant's journal entries. In addition, the analysis disclosed how participants usually felt a need to justify the act of dissection. Finally, the analysis identified how students differed in the varied ways they coped with the ambiguous status of the cadaver, which was sometimes viewed as a deceased person while at other times experienced as a fascinating machine. Based on the findings, the researchers offer recommendations for helping students to better cope with the experience of cadaver dissection and to use the experience pedagogically to better prepare students for the stress of the medical world, especially issues surrounding death and dying. PMID:19320291

  8. Laparoscopic training model using fresh human cadavers without the establishment of penumoperitoneum

    PubMed Central

    Imakuma, Ernesto Sasaki; Ussami, Edson Yassushi; Meyer, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Laparoscopy is a well-established alternative to open surgery for treating many diseases. Although laparoscopy has many advantages, it is also associated with disadvantages, such as slow learning curves and prolonged operation time. Fresh frozen cadavers may be an interesting resource for laparoscopic training, and many institutions have access to cadavers. One of the main obstacles for the use of cadavers as a training model is the difficulty in introducing a sufficient pneumoperitoneum to distend the abdominal wall and provide a proper working space. The purpose of this study was to describe a fresh human cadaver model for laparoscopic training without requiring a pneumoperitoneum. MATERIALS AND METHODS AND RESULTS: A fake abdominal wall device was developed to allow for laparoscopic training without requiring a pneumoperitoneum in cadavers. The device consists of a table-mounted retractor, two rail clamps, two independent frame arms, two adjustable handle and rotating features, and two frames of the abdominal wall. A handycam is fixed over a frame arm, positioned and connected through a USB connection to a television and dissector; scissors and other laparoscopic materials are positioned inside trocars. The laparoscopic procedure is thus simulated. CONCLUSION: Cadavers offer a very promising and useful model for laparoscopic training. We developed a fake abdominal wall device that solves the limitation of space when performing surgery on cadavers and removes the need to acquire more costly laparoscopic equipment. This model is easily accessible at institutions in developing countries, making it one of the most promising tools for teaching laparoscopy. PMID:27073318

  9. Estimation of postmortem interval using the data of insulin level in the cadaver׳s blood.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sachil; Verma, Anoop K

    2016-06-01

    An assessment of levels of Insulin in cadaveric fluids, to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI) was carried out. To profile postmortem changes of Insulin, it was extracted at different intervals i.e. (0, 3, 6, 12, 24 h), from the heart of 22 human cadavers. The cases included were the subjects of accidental deaths without any prior history of disease and their exact time of death was known. Immunoanalyzer Cobas e-411 instrument was used to detect the relationship between the amount of Insulin and PMI. Level of Insulin was measured in cardiac blood. Statically, significant correlations between levels of Insulin and PMI were studied and correlation coefficients were calculated. SPSS (version 12.0) was used for statistical analysis. Insulin levels in cadaver blood are correlated significantly with PMI with a p value of <0.001. When insulin level increases by 1 unit the duration decreases by 0.93 units. The least square regression line is: [Duration(Y)=22.71-0.93 Insulin level (X)]. PMID:26977436

  10. Transformation of a Cadaver Population: Analysis of a South African Cadaver Program, 1921-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Beverley; Hutchinson, Erin F.

    2015-01-01

    Anatomy has served as a cornerstone in the training of various allied and clinical disciplines and has traditionally been based on dissection of the human body. Thus, to pursue this method of teaching and learning, access to cadavers is of continuing importance. Over a significant period of time unclaimed cadavers have performed an essential role…

  11. Operations dashboard: comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramly, Noor Nashriq; Ismail, Ahmad Zuhairi; Aziz, Mohd Haris; Ahmad, Nurul Haszeli

    2011-10-01

    In this present days and age, there are increasing needs for companies to monitor application and infrastructure health. Apart from having proactive measures to secure their application and infrastructure, many see monitoring dashboards as crucial investment in disaster preparedness. As companies struggle to find the best solution to cater for their needs and interest for monitoring their application and infrastructure's health, this paper summarizes the studies made on several known off-the-shelf operations dashboard and in-house developed dashboard. A few criteria of good dashboard are collected from previous studies carried out by several researchers and rank them according to importance and business needs. The finalized criteria that will be discussed in later sections are data visualization, performance indicator, dashboard personalization, audit capability and alert/ notification. Comparative studies between several popular dashboards were then carried out to determine whether they met these criteria that we derived from the first exercise. The findings hopefully can be used to educate and provide an overview of selecting the best IT application and infrastructure operations dashboard that suit business needs, thus become the main contribution of this paper.

  12. Introducing a Fresh Cadaver Model for Ultrasound-guided Central Venous Access Training in Undergraduate Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Ryan; Ho, Hang; Ng, Vivienne; Tran, Melissa; Rappaport, Douglas; Rappaport, William J.A.; Dandorf, Stewart J.; Dunleavy, James; Viscusi, Rebecca; Amini, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Over the past decade, medical students have witnessed a decline in the opportunities to perform technical skills during their clinical years. Ultrasound-guided central venous access (USG-CVA) is a critical procedure commonly performed by emergency medicine, anesthesia, and general surgery residents, often during their first month of residency. However, the acquisition of skills required to safely perform this procedure is often deficient upon graduation from medical school. To ameliorate this lack of technical proficiency, ultrasound simulation models have been introduced into undergraduate medical education to train venous access skills. Criticisms of simulation models are the innate lack of realistic tactile qualities, as well as the lack of anatomical variances when compared to living patients. The purpose of our investigation was to design and evaluate a life-like and reproducible training model for USG-CVA using a fresh cadaver. Methods This was a cross-sectional study at an urban academic medical center. An 18-point procedural knowledge tool and an 18-point procedural skill evaluation tool were administered during a cadaver lab at the beginning and end of the surgical clerkship. During the fresh cadaver lab, procedure naïve third-year medical students were trained on how to perform ultrasound-guided central venous access of the femoral and internal jugular vessels. Preparation of the fresh cadaver model involved placement of a thin-walled latex tubing in the anatomic location of the femoral and internal jugular vein respectively. Results Fifty-six third-year medical students participated in this study during their surgical clerkship. The fresh cadaver model provided high quality and lifelike ultrasound images despite numerous cannulation attempts. Technical skill scores improved from an average score of 3 to 12 (p<0.001) and procedural knowledge scores improved from an average score of 4 to 8 (p<0.001). Conclusion The use of this novel cadaver

  13. The use of ultrasound in acquisition of the anterior pelvic plane in computer-assisted total hip replacement: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Parratte, S; Kilian, P; Pauly, V; Champsaur, P; Argenson, J-N A

    2008-02-01

    We have evaluated in vitro the accuracy of percutaneous and ultrasound registration as measured in terms of errors in rotation and version relative to the bony anterior pelvic plane in computer-assisted total hip replacement, and analysed the intra- and inter-observer reliability of manual or ultrasound registration. Four clinicians were asked to perform registration of the landmarks of the anterior pelvic plane on two cadavers. Registration was performed under four different conditions of acquisition. Errors in rotation were not significant. Version errors were significant with percutaneous methods (16.2 degrees; p < 0.001 and 19.25 degrees with surgical draping; p < 0.001), but not with the ultrasound acquisition (6.2 degrees, p = 0.13). Intra-observer repeatability was achieved for all the methods. Inter-observer analysis showed acceptable agreement in the sagittal but not in the frontal plane. Ultrasound acquisition of the anterior pelvic plane was more reliable in vitro than the cutaneous digitisation currently used. PMID:18256101

  14. Feasibility for mapping cartilage t1 relaxation times in the distal metacarpus3/metatarsus3 of thoroughbred racehorses using delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage (dGEMRIC): normal cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Carstens, Ann; Kirberger, Robert M; Velleman, Mark; Dahlberg, Leif E; Fletcher, Lizelle; Lammentausta, Eveliina

    2013-01-01

    Osteoarthritis of the metacarpo/metatarsophalangeal joints is one of the major causes of poor performance in horses. Delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage (dGEMRIC) may be a useful technique for noninvasively quantifying articular cartilage damage in horses. The purpose of this study was to describe dGEMRIC characteristics of the distal metacarpus3/metatarsus3 (Mc3/Mt3) articular cartilage in 20 cadaver specimens collected from normal Thoroughbred horses. For each specimen, T1 relaxation time was measured from scans acquired precontrast and at 30, 60, 120, and 180 min post intraarticular injection of Gd-DTPA(2-) (dGEMRIC series). For each scan, T1 relaxation times were calculated using five regions of interest (sites 1-5) in the cartilage. For all sites, a significant decrease in T1 relaxation times occurred between precontrast scans and 30, 60, 120, and 180 min scans of the dGEMRIC series (P < 0.0001). A significant increase in T1 relaxation times occurred between 60 and 180 min and between 120 and 180 min post Gd injection for all sites. For sites 1-4, a significant increase in T1 relaxation time occurred between 30 and 180 min postinjection (P < 0.05). Sites 1-5 differed significantly among one another for all times (P < 0.0001). Findings from this cadaver study indicated that dGEMRIC using intraarticular Gd-DTPA(2-) is a feasible technique for measuring and mapping changes in T1 relaxation times in equine metacarpo/metatarsophalangeal joint cartilage. Optimal times for postcontrast scans were 60-120 min. Future studies are needed to determine whether these findings are reproducible in live horses. PMID:23551282

  15. Regional differences in the density of Langerhans cells, CD8-positive T lymphocytes and CD68-positive macrophages: a preliminary study using elderly donated cadavers

    PubMed Central

    Omine, Yuya; Hinata, Nobuyuki; Kasahara, Masaaki; Matsunaga, Satoru; Murakami, Gen; Abe, Shin-ichi

    2015-01-01

    To provide a better understanding of the local immune system in the face and external genitalia, i.e., the oral floor, lower lip, palpebral conjunctiva, anus and penis, we examined the distribution and density of CD1a-positve Langerhans cells, CD8-positive suppressor T lymphocytes and CD68-positive macrophages using specimens from 8 male elderly cadavers. The density of Langerhans cells showed an individual difference of more than (or almost) 10-fold in the lip (oral floor). In the oral floor, Langerhans cells were often spherical. Submucosal or subcutaneous suppressor lymphocytes, especially rich in the oral floor and penile skin, migrated into the epithelium at 4 sites, except for the anus. In the conjunctiva, macrophage migration into the epithelium was seen in all 8 specimens. The density of suppressor lymphocytes showed a significant correlation between the oral floor and the lip (r=0.78). In contrast, the anal and penile skins showed no positive correlation in the density of all three types of immunoreactive cells examined. Overall, irrespective of the wide individual differences, the oral floor and conjunctiva seemed to be characterized by a rich content of all three cell types, whereas the penile skin was characterized by an abundance of suppressor lymphocytes. Based on the tables, as mean value, the relative abundance of three different cell types were as follows; CD1a-positive Langerhans cells (anus), CD8-positive lymphocytes (penis), and CD68-positive macrophages (lip). The present observations suggest that the local immune response is highly site-dependent, with a tendency for tolerance rather than rejection. PMID:26417477

  16. Diffusion of aniline blue injected into the thyroarytenoid muscle as a proxy for botulinum toxin injection: an experimental study in cadaver larynges

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Valéria Maria de Oliveira; Chagury, Azis Arruda; Hachiya, Adriana; Imamura, Rui; Tsuji, Domingos Hiroshi; Sennes, Luiz Ubirajara

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Endolaryngeal injection of botulinum toxin into the thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle is one of the methods for treatment of focal laryngeal dystonia. However, after treatment, there is variation in laryngeal configuration as well as the side effects reported by patients. As a consequence of the functional variability of results, it was hypothesized that botulinum toxin diffuses beyond the limits of the muscle into which it is injected. Objectives: After injection of botulinum toxin into the TA muscle for the treatment of focal laryngeal dystonia, patients differ in terms of laryngeal configuration and side effects. We hypothesized that this toxin diffuses from the target muscle to adjacent muscles. Method: The TA muscles of 18 cadaver larynges were injected with aniline blue (0.2 mL). After fixation in formaldehyde and nitric acid decalcification, the larynges were sectioned in the coronal plane and the intrinsic muscles were analyzed. Results: We found diffusion of aniline blue to the lateral cricoarytenoid muscle, cricothyroid muscle, and posterior cricoarytenoid muscle in 94.3%, 42.9%, and 8.6% of the cases, respectively. In terms of the degree of diffusion to adjacent muscles, we found no differences related to the size (height and width) of the TA muscle or to gender. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that diffusion of botulinum toxin from its injection site in the TA muscle to the lateral cricoarytenoid muscle is likely in most cases. On the other hand, diffusion to the cricothyroid muscle occurs in approximately half of cases and diffusion to the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle occurs in very few cases. PMID:25992028

  17. Human Cadaver Material in Preclinical Oral Surgery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, H. Dexter; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A University of Michigan dental school curriculum for oral surgery that uses human cadaver heads is described. Selection, preparation, and laboratory use of the materials are outlined. Faculty and students have received the sequence well and found it prepared them for clinical rotation. (MSE)

  18. Comparative Packaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Oziomek, Thomas V.

    2009-01-01

    Future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit will require the food system to remain safe, acceptable and nutritious. Development of high barrier food packaging will enable this requirement by preventing the ingress and egress of gases and moisture. New high barrier food packaging materials have been identified through a trade study. Practical application of this packaging material within a shelf life test will allow for better determination of whether this material will allow the food system to meet given requirements after the package has undergone processing. The reason to conduct shelf life testing, using a variety of packaging materials, stems from the need to preserve food used for mission durations of several years. Chemical reactions that take place during longer durations may decrease food quality to a point where crew physical or psychological well-being is compromised. This can result in a reduction or loss of mission success. The rate of chemical reactions, including oxidative rancidity and staling, can be controlled by limiting the reactants, reducing the amount of energy available to drive the reaction, and minimizing the amount of water available. Water not only acts as a media for microbial growth, but also as a reactant and means by which two reactants may come into contact with each other. The objective of this study is to evaluate three packaging materials for potential use in long duration space exploration missions.

  19. Comparative experimental biomechanical study of different types of stabilization methods of the lower cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Kalff, R; Ulrich, C; Claes, L; Wilke, H J; Grote, W

    1992-01-01

    In a comparative experimental biodynamic study using thirty-two human cervical spines of cadavers the primary stabilization effect of different types of spondylodesis was examined. Whereas in flexion stress all methods showed a sufficient stability, the rotation tests proved, that in case of a dorsal instability of the lower cervical spine, posterior interlaminar wiring or anterior plate stabilization showed no reliable stabilization effect. However, the compression clamps by ROOSEN and TRAUSCHEL as well as the hook-plates by MAGERL are suitable dorsal stabilization methods with excellent rotation stability. In case of dorsal instability of the lower cervical spine a posterior spondylodesis is necessary and sufficient. PMID:1480272

  20. Penetration of tamoxifen citrate loaded ethosomes and liposomes across human skin: a comparative study with confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sarwa, Khomendra K; Suresh, Preeti K; Rudrapal, Mithun; Verma, Vinod K

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, ethosomal and liposomal formulations containing tamoxifen citrate were prepared and evaluated for their penetration properties in human cadaver skin using Franz diffusion cell and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). The results clearly revealed that ethosomal vesicles showed a better drug permeation profile than that of liposomal vesicles. In addition, low fluorescence intensity in CLSM was recorded with liposomes as compared to ethosomes, indicating lower cumulative amount of drug permeation from liposomal vesicles. Furthermore, CLSM showed uniform fluorescence intensity across the entire depth of skin in ethosomal treatment, indicating high penetrability of ethosomal vesicles through human cadaver skin. In contrast, low penetrability of conventional liposomal vesicles was recorded as penetration was limited to the 7(th) section (i.e. upper epidermis layer) of skin as evident from visualization of intact liposomal vesicles in CLSM. PMID:24428443

  1. Factors affecting conidial production of Beauveria bassiana from fungus-killed cadavers of Rhodnius prolixus.

    PubMed

    Luz, C; Fargues, J

    1998-09-01

    The epizootic potential of Beauveria bassiana for control of the triatomine vectors of Chagas' disease was investigated by studying the effects of both biotic and abiotic factors on the recycling of a highly virulent fungal isolate from fungus-killed cadavers of Rhodnius prolixus. The conidial production of B. bassiana from mummified cadavers of R. prolixus required high RH levels of at least 96.5% RH. At 97% RH and 25 degrees C, the amount of conidia per insect ranged from 5.3 x 10(6) (on first-instar larval cadavers) to 1.7 x 10(8) (on adult cadavers) depending on the size of the different stages of development of the host. Under optimal conditions, B. bassiana sporulation from R. prolixus cadavers took place in 4 to 5 days after death. At a high humidity level (97% RH) the intensity of the conidial production from Rhodnius cadavers was little affected by temperature over a range from 15 to 25 degrees C, but it declined at 28-30 degrees C and was null at 35 degrees C. There was only a weak influence of the blood meal of nymphs and its timing on the conidial production from B. bassiana-killed cadavers. The recycling capacity of different B. bassiana isolates, selected for their pathogenic activity to R. prolixus, did not differ. From a vector control standpoint, high humidity appears to be the most crucial climatic constraint. The recycling ability of B. bassiana on fungus-killed R. prolixus might contribute to the regulation of triatomine vectors only after applications during the rainy seasons. PMID:9709008

  2. Prediction and analysis of human thoracic impact responses and injuries in cadaver impacts using a full human body finite element model.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Jesse; El-Jawahri, Raed; Chai, Li; Barbat, Saeed; Prasad, Priya

    2003-10-01

    Human thoracic dynamic responses and injuries associated with frontal impact, side impact, and belt loading were investigated and predicted using a complete human body finite element model for an average adult male. The human body model was developed to study the impact biomechanics of a vehicular occupant. Its geometry was based on the Visible Human Project (National Library of Medicine) and the topographies from human body anatomical texts. The data was then scaled to an average adult male according to available biomechanical data from the literature. The model includes details of the head, neck, ribcage, abdomen, thoracic and lumbar spine, internal organs of the chest and abdomen, pelvis, and the upper and lower extremities. The present study is focused on the dynamic response and injuries of the thorax. The model was validated at various impact speeds by comparing predicted responses with available experimental cadaver data in frontal and side pendulum impacts, as well as belt loading. Model responses were compared with similar individual cadaver tests instead of using cadaver corridors because the large differences between the upper and lower bounds of the corridors may confound the model validation. The validated model was then used to study thorax dynamic responses and injuries in various simulated impact conditions. Parameters that could induce injuries such as force, deflection, and stress were computed from model simulations and were compared with previously proposed thoracic injury criteria to assess injury potential for the thorax. It has been shown that the model exhibited speed sensitive impact characteristics, and the compressibility of the internal organs significantly influenced the overall impact response in the simulated impact conditions. This study demonstrates that the development of a validated FE human body model could be useful for injury assessment in various cadaveric impacts reported in the literature. Internal organ injuries, which are

  3. Ultrasonographic estimation of prostatic size in canine cadavers.

    PubMed

    Atalan, G; Holt, P E; Barr, F J; Brown, P J

    1999-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of transabdominal ultrasound in estimating the volume and weight of the canine prostate gland, to derive a simple formula from actual and ultrasonographic prostate measurements for estimating prostate volume and weight, and to evaluate the reproducibility of ultrasonographic measurements of linear prostate dimensions. The prostate volume and weight were measured and also calculated in 77 male canine cadavers (60 entire and 17 neutered) with the aid of statistical computer programmes using actual linear dimensions of the prostate ('actual') and those measured ultrasonographically before ('in vivo') and after ('in vitro') removal of the prostate gland. Therefore, 'in vivo', 'in vitro' and 'actual' estimations of prostate size were obtained and compared with prostatic volume and weight. The evaluation of the reproducibility of the ultrasonographic measurements made was performed in 59 of the dogs in which the prostate was imaged three times in longitudinal and three times in transverse sections. This study demonstrated that prostatic weight and volume are related to body weight and age in entire dogs but not in neutered dogs. Formulae were derived to estimate prostate weight and volume from physical and ultrasonographic measurements. There were good correlations between the ultrasonographic and physical measurements and prostate size derived from these measurements provided a good estimate of actual prostate size. 'Best subsets' analyses indicated that prostate width and length (measured physically or ultrasonographically) were the best predictors of prostatic volume and weight, both when all dogs were considered together and in entire dogs only. Statistical analyses indicated that there were no significant differences between the repeated measurements of length and depth (P>0.05). However, there was a significant difference between repeated measurements of width (P= 0.0357). PMID:10425234

  4. Terrestrial laser scanning to model sunlight irradiance on cadavers under conditions of natural decomposition.

    PubMed

    Bucheli, Sibyl Rae; Pan, Zhigang; Glennie, Craig L; Lynne, Aaron M; Haarman, Daniel P; Hill, John M

    2014-07-01

    Human decomposition is a dynamic process that is influenced by both abiotic and biotic factors. Measuring these influences, in particular abiotic factors, on the decomposition process is often a challenge for scientists. Recently, researchers have turned to the use of advanced remote sensing technologies in forensic investigations. In this study, a new methodology is described that utilizes precise 3D images captured using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) to calculate total solar irradiance on a cadaver in a partially forested environment. To test this new measurement approach under actual field conditions, three cadavers were placed in an outdoor environment to decompose. Laser scans were taken the day of placement and used to calculate the total solar irradiance at time points of 24 h, 1 week, and 1 month from placement. The results show that as time progresses, different cadavers at the field site and different areas of the same cadaver receive varying amounts of solar irradiance. The modeling based on these laser scans can be used to create predictive images of solar irradiance that may provide researchers with a new tool to help quantitatively assess the effect of solar irradiance on a cadaver ecosystem. PMID:24806951

  5. Cadaver lung donors: effect of preharvest ventilation on graft function.

    PubMed

    Ulicny, K S; Egan, T M; Lambert, C J; Reddick, R L; Wilcox, B R

    1993-05-01

    The pulmonary donor pool would increase substantially if lungs could be safely transplanted after cessation of circulation. To determine whether ventilation of cadaver lungs could improve graft function, canine donors were sacrificed and then ventilated with 100% oxygen (n = 6) or 100% nitrogen (n = 6); 6 served as nonventilated controls. Four hours after death, the lungs were flushed with modified Euro-Collins solution and harvested. Controls were ventilated with 100% oxygen only during flush and harvest. Recipients were rendered dependent on the transplanted lung by occlusion of the right pulmonary artery and bronchus 1 hour after transplantation. Ventilation was maintained at a constant inspired oxygen fraction of 0.4. Four controls died of pulmonary edema shortly after occlusion of the native lung. The mean arterial oxygen tensions in the oxygen-ventilated, nitrogen-ventilated, and control groups at the end of 8 hours were 81 mm Hg (n = 4), 88 mm Hg (n = 3), and 55 mm Hg (n = 2), respectively. Postmortem oxygen ventilation improved early recipient survival and gas exchange. Postmortem nitrogen ventilation improved early gas exchange and delayed recipient death compared with non-ventilated controls. The mechanics of ventilation appears to confer a functional advantage independent of a continued supply of oxygen. Transplantation of lungs harvested from cadavers after cessation of circulation might be feasible. PMID:8494430

  6. Pressurized Cadaver Model in Cardiothoracic Surgical Simulation.

    PubMed

    Greene, Christina L; Minneti, Michael; Sullivan, Maura E; Baker, Craig J

    2015-09-01

    Simulation is increasingly recognized as an integral aspect of thoracic surgery education. A number of simulators have been introduced to teach component cardiothoracic skills; however, no good model exists for numerous essential skills including redo sternotomy and internal mammary artery takedown. These procedures are often relegated to thoracic surgery residents but have significant negative implications if performed incorrectly. Fresh tissue dissection is recognized as the gold standard for surgical simulation, but the lack of circulating blood volume limits surgical realism. Our aim is to describe the technique of the pressurized cadaver for use in cardiothoracic surgical procedures, focusing on internal mammary artery takedown. PMID:26354651

  7. Measurement of kidney cadmium in embalmed New Zealand cadavers.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Ian C; Spencer, Emma; Lambert, Tessa; Holzenkaempfer, Meike; Gaw, Sally; Stringer, Mark

    2014-04-11

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic (carcinogenic) metal found in food because of its presence in the environment. New Zealand has elevated levels of Cd in soil due to the long term use of Cd-containing phosphate fertilisers. It is therefore likely that New Zealanders have a high Cd body burden which might have health implications. The aims of this study were to determine whether Cd levels in kidney cortex samples are affected by the embalming process and whether kidney cortex samples from embalmed cadavers (e.g. those used for medical student teaching purposes) can be used as a reliable indicator of Cd body burden. Kidney cortex samples from cadavers preserved with different embalming fluids were analysed for Cd by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A perfused pig kidney model was used to investigate the effects of embalming on kidney cortex Cd levels. We report considerable variability in Cd levels in kidney cortex samples according to the embalming fluid used; this suggests that the embalming fluid influences tissue Cd concentrations. All pig kidney model perfusions resulted in leaching of Cd from the kidney cortex. We conclude that analysis of Cd in embalmed tissues does not give a reliable indication of in-life Cd levels. PMID:24806249

  8. The Effect of Polymethyl Methacrylate Augmentation on the Primary Stability of Cannulated Bone Screws in an Anterolateral Plate in Osteoporotic Vertebrae: A Human Cadaver Study

    PubMed Central

    Rüger, Matthias; Sellei, Richard M.; Stoffel, Marcus; von Rüden, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Cohort study. Objective Expandable anterolateral plates facilitate the reduction of posttraumatic deformities of thoracolumbar spine injuries and are commonly used in cases of unstable injuries or compromised bone quality. In this in vitro study, the craniocaudal yield load of the osseous fixation of an anterior angular stable plate fixation system and the effect of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) screw augmentation on the primary stability of the screw–bone interface during kyphosis reduction was evaluated in 12 osteoporotic human thoracolumbar vertebrae. Methods The anterolateral stabilization device used for this study is comprised of two swiveling flanges and an expandable midsection. It facilitates the controlled reduction of kyphotic deformities in situ with a geared distractor. Single flanges were attached to 12 thoracolumbar vertebrae. Six specimens were augmented with PMMA by means of cannulated bone screws. The constructs were subjected to static, displacement-controlled craniocaudal loading to failure in a servohydraulic testing machine. Results The uncemented screws cut out at a mean 393 ± 66 N, whereas the cemented screws showed significantly higher yield load of 966 ± 166 N (p < 0.02). We detected no significant correlation between bone mineral density and yield load in this setting. Conclusion Our results indicate that PMMA augmentation is an effective method to increase two- to threefold the primary stability of the screw–bone interface of an anterolateral spine stabilization system in osteoporotic bone. We recommend it in cases of severely compromised bone quality to reduce the risk of screw loosening during initial kyphosis correction and to increase long-term construct stability. PMID:26835201

  9. The Effect of Polymethyl Methacrylate Augmentation on the Primary Stability of Cannulated Bone Screws in an Anterolateral Plate in Osteoporotic Vertebrae: A Human Cadaver Study.

    PubMed

    Rüger, Matthias; Sellei, Richard M; Stoffel, Marcus; von Rüden, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Study Design Cohort study. Objective Expandable anterolateral plates facilitate the reduction of posttraumatic deformities of thoracolumbar spine injuries and are commonly used in cases of unstable injuries or compromised bone quality. In this in vitro study, the craniocaudal yield load of the osseous fixation of an anterior angular stable plate fixation system and the effect of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) screw augmentation on the primary stability of the screw-bone interface during kyphosis reduction was evaluated in 12 osteoporotic human thoracolumbar vertebrae. Methods The anterolateral stabilization device used for this study is comprised of two swiveling flanges and an expandable midsection. It facilitates the controlled reduction of kyphotic deformities in situ with a geared distractor. Single flanges were attached to 12 thoracolumbar vertebrae. Six specimens were augmented with PMMA by means of cannulated bone screws. The constructs were subjected to static, displacement-controlled craniocaudal loading to failure in a servohydraulic testing machine. Results The uncemented screws cut out at a mean 393 ± 66 N, whereas the cemented screws showed significantly higher yield load of 966 ± 166 N (p < 0.02). We detected no significant correlation between bone mineral density and yield load in this setting. Conclusion Our results indicate that PMMA augmentation is an effective method to increase two- to threefold the primary stability of the screw-bone interface of an anterolateral spine stabilization system in osteoporotic bone. We recommend it in cases of severely compromised bone quality to reduce the risk of screw loosening during initial kyphosis correction and to increase long-term construct stability. PMID:26835201

  10. The role of inter-prosthetic distance, cortical thickness and bone mineral density in the development of inter-prosthetic fractures of the femur: a biomechanical cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Weiser, L; Korecki, M A; Sellenschloh, K; Fensky, F; Püschel, K; Morlock, M M; Rueger, J M; Lehmann, W

    2014-10-01

    It is becoming increasingly common for a patient to have ipsilateral hip and knee replacements. The inter-prosthetic (IP) distance, the distance between the tips of hip and knee prostheses, has been thought to be associated with an increased risk of IP fracture. Small gap distances are generally assumed to act as stress risers, although there is no real biomechanical evidence to support this. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of IP distance, cortical thickness and bone mineral density on the likelihood of an IP femoral fracture. A total of 18 human femur specimens were randomised into three groups by bone density and cortical thickness. For each group, a defined IP distance of 35 mm, 80 mm or 160 mm was created by choosing the appropriate lengths of component. The maximum fracture strength was determined using a four-point bending test. The fracture force of all three groups was similar (p = 0.498). There was a highly significant correlation between the cortical area and the fracture strength (r = 0.804, p < 0.001), whereas bone density showed no influence. This study suggests that the IP distance has little influence on fracture strength in IP femoral fractures: the thickness of the cortex seems to be the decisive factor. PMID:25274925

  11. The role of the anterolateral ligament in ACL insufficient and reconstructed knees on rotatory stability: A biomechanical study on human cadavers.

    PubMed

    Tavlo, M; Eljaja, S; Jensen, J T; Siersma, V D; Krogsgaard, M R

    2016-08-01

    Studies suggest that the anterolateral ligament (ALL) is important for knee stability. The purpose was to clarify ALL's effect on rotatory and anterior-posterior stability in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-insufficient and reconstructed knees and the effect of reconstruction of an insufficient ALL. Eighteen cadaveric knees were included. Stability was tested for intact (+ALL), detached (-ALL) and reconstructed (+ reALL) ALL, with ACL removed (-ACL) and reconstructed (+ACL) in six combinations. All were tested in 0, 30, 60, and 90 °C flexion. Anterior-posterior stability was measured with a rolimeter. Rotation with a torque of 8.85 Nm was measured photographically. The ALL was well defined in 78% of knees. ACL reconstruction had a significant effect on anterior-posterior stability. Detaching the ALL had a significant effect on internal rotatory stability and on anterior-posterior stability in ACL-insufficient knees. Reconstruction of ACL and ALL reestablished knee stability. The appearance of the ALL was not uniform. The ALL was an internal rotational stabilizer. Anatomical ALL reconstruction in combination with ACL reconstruction could reestablish stability. ALL reconstruction might be considered in patients with combined ACL and ALL tears, but the clinical effect should be established in a controlled clinical study. PMID:26247376

  12. Implant augmentation: adding bone cement to improve the treatment of osteoporotic distal femur fractures: a biomechanical study using human cadaver bones.

    PubMed

    Wähnert, Dirk; Hofmann-Fliri, Ladina; Richards, R Geoff; Gueorguiev, Boyko; Raschke, Michael J; Windolf, Markus

    2014-11-01

    The increasing problems in the field of osteoporotic fracture fixation results in specialized implants as well as new operation methods, for example, implant augmentation with bone cement. The aim of this study was to determine the biomechanical impact of augmentation in the treatment of osteoporotic distal femur fractures.Seven pairs of osteoporotic fresh frozen distal femora were randomly assigned to either an augmented or nonaugmented group. In both groups, an Orthopaedic Trauma Association 33 A3 fractures was fixed using the locking compression plate distal femur and cannulated and perforated screws. In the augmented group, additionally, 1 mL of polymethylmethacrylate cement was injected through the screw. Prior to mechanical testing, bone mineral density (BMD) and local bone strength were determined. Mechanical testing was performed by cyclic axial loading (100 N to 750 N + 0.05N/cycle) using a servo-hydraulic testing machine.As a result, the BMD as well as the axial stiffness did not significantly differ between the groups. The number of cycles to failure was significantly higher in the augmented group with the BMD as a significant covariate.In conclusion, cement augmentation can significantly improve implant anchorage in plating of osteoporotic distal femur fractures. PMID:25415673

  13. Cadaver study of the topography of the musculotendinous junction of the finger extensor muscles: applicability to tendon rupture following closed wrist trauma.

    PubMed

    Lepage, D; Tatu, L; Loisel, F; Vuillier, F; Parratte, B

    2015-09-01

    Rupture of the extensor pollicis longus (EPL) tendon in the wrist is a delayed complication that can occur after wrist injury. Several etiology-related hypotheses have been made to explain these ruptures. The one most commonly accepted is necrosis at the musculotendinous junction of the EPL, which is compressed between the extensor retinaculum and dorsal aspect of the radius. To confirm this hypothesis, we performed an anatomical study to show the close relationship between the extensor retinaculum and the musculotendinous junction of the EPL muscle. We calculated the distance between the musculotendinous junction of the various finger extensor muscles and the proximal edge of the extensor retinaculum. We were able to show that this junction is located under the extensor retinaculum for the extensor indicis (EI) and EPL muscles, but the latter is in the third extensor compartment, which is a tight, confined space. Any pressure increase in this space following trauma, for example, can bring about compartment syndrome at this musculotendinous junction, which some authors have found to be poorly vascularized. PMID:25577541

  14. Studies on drug metabolism by fungi colonizing decomposing human cadavers. Part II: biotransformation of five model drugs by fungi isolated from post-mortem material.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ramírez, Jorge A; Walther, Grit; Peters, Frank T

    2015-04-01

    The present study investigated the in vitro metabolic capacity of 28 fungal strains isolated from post-mortem material towards five model drugs: amitriptyline, metoprolol, mirtazapine, promethazine, and zolpidem. Each fungal strain was incubated at 25 °C for up to 120 h with each of the five models drugs. Cunninghamella elegans was used as positive control. Aliquots of the incubation mixture were centrifuged and 50 μL of the supernatants were diluted and directly analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with product ion scanning. The remaining mixture was analyzed by full scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after liquid-liquid extraction and acetylation. The metabolic activity was evaluated through the total number of detected metabolites (NDM) produced in each model and fungal strains and the percentage of parent drug remaining (%RPD) after up to five days of incubation. All the tested fungal strains were capable of forming mammalian phase I metabolites. Fungi from the normal fungal flora of the human body such as Candida sp., Geotrichum candidum, and Trichosporon asahii) formed up to seven metabolites at %RPD values greater than 52% but no new fungal metabolites (NFM). In contrast, some airborne fungal strains like Bjerkandera adusta, Chaetomium sp, Coriolopsis sp., Fusarium solani and Mucor plumbeus showed NDM values exceeding those of the positive control, complete metabolism of the parent drug in some models and formation of NFM. NFM (numbers in brackets) were detected in four of the five model drugs: amitriptyline (18), metoprolol (4), mirtazapine (8), and zolpidem (2). The latter NFM are potential candidates for marker substances indicating post-mortem fungal metabolism. PMID:24898183

  15. Effect of histologic processing on dimensions of skin samples obtained from cat cadavers.

    PubMed

    Jeyakumar, Sakthila; Smith, Annette N; Schleis, Stephanie E; Cattley, Russell C; Tillson, D Michael; Henderson, Ralph A

    2015-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine changes in dimensions of feline skin samples as a result of histologic processing and to identify factors that contributed to changes in dimensions of skin samples after sample collection. SAMPLE Cadavers of 12 clinically normal cats. PROCEDURES Skin samples were obtained bilaterally from 3 locations (neck, thorax, and tibia) of each cadaver; half of the thoracic samples included underlying muscle. Length, width, and depth were measured at 5 time points (before excision, after excision, after application of ink to mark tissue margins, after fixation in neutral-buffered 10% formalin for 36 hours, and after completion of histologic processing and staining with H&E stain). Measurements obtained after sample collection were compared with measurements obtained before excision. RESULTS At the final time point, tissue samples had decreased in length (mean decrease, 32.40%) and width (mean decrease, 34.21%) and increased in depth (mean increase, 54.95%). Tissue from the tibia had the most shrinkage in length and width and that from the neck had the least shrinkage. Inclusion of underlying muscle on thoracic skin samples did not affect the degree of change in dimensions. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, each step during processing from excision to formalin fixation and histologic processing induced changes in tissue dimensions, which were manifested principally as shrinkage in length and width and increase in depth. Most of the changes occured during histologic processing. Inclusion of muscle did not affect thoracic skin shrinkage. Shrinkage should be a consideration when interpreting surgical margins in clinical cases. 945). PMID:26512538

  16. Experimental study of cadaver head transmittance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lychagov, Vladislav V.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Vilensky, Maxim A.; Savchenko, Eugeny P.; Efimov, Alexander A.; Lakodina, Nina A.; De Taboada, Luis; Reznik, Boris N.

    2005-06-01

    The results of measurements of transmittance of high power laser irradiation through skull bones and scalp are presented. Dependences of transmittance on sample thickness were received. Character of transmittance was investigated and characteristics of heterogeneity of the scattering structure of the skull bones are proposed. Besides that, variation of temperature of skull and scalp surfaces under exposure of high power laser irradiation during experiments was controlled. Experimental results were verified by Monte-Carlo simulations.

  17. Evaluation of hands-on seminar for reduced port surgery using fresh porcine cadaver model

    PubMed Central

    Poudel, Saseem; Kurashima, Yo; Shichinohe, Toshiaki; Kitashiro, Shuji; Kanehira, Eiji; Hirano, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of various biological and non-biological simulators is playing an important role in training modern surgeons with laparoscopic skills. However, there have been few reports of the use of a fresh porcine cadaver model for training in laparoscopic surgical skills. The purpose of this study was to report on a surgical training seminar on reduced port surgery using a fresh cadaver porcine model and to assess its feasibility and efficacy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The hands-on seminar had 10 fresh porcine cadaver models and two dry boxes. Each table was provided with a unique access port and devices used in reduced port surgery. Each group of 2 surgeons spent 30 min at each station, performing different tasks assisted by the instructor. The questionnaire survey was done immediately after the seminar and 8 months after the seminar. RESULTS: All the tasks were completed as planned. Both instructors and participants were highly satisfied with the seminar. There was a concern about the time allocated for the seminar. In the post-seminar survey, the participants felt that the number of reduced port surgeries performed by them had increased. CONCLUSION: The fresh cadaver porcine model requires no special animal facility and can be used for training in laparoscopic procedures. PMID:27279391

  18. Early Onset of Atherosclerosis of The Carotid Bifurcation in Newborn Cadavers

    PubMed Central

    Cakmak, Yusuf Ozgur; Sehirli, Ümit; Keskinoz, Elif Nedret; Cosgun, Erdal; Arbak, Serap; Yalin, Aymelek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The anatomy of arterial bifurcations affects blood flow and has a significant role in the development of vascular disease. Therefore, it is important to know the structural characteristics of the Common Carotid Artery (CCA) and its branches for early onset of atherosclerosis in newborns. Aim The present study was conducted to evaluate the characteristics of CCA in newborn cadavers. Materials and Methods Eight carotid arteries obtained from newborn cadavers were used. The outflow to inflow area ratios was calculated to evaluate vessel diameters. Additionally, scanning electron and light microscopic investigations were conducted with tissue samples. The brachial artery of each cadaver was used as controls. Correlation between area ratios and atherosclerotic endothelial damage was determined. Results Light microscopic investigations demonstrated that control group sections showed no positivity for Oil red O staining, while carotid bifurcation regions depicted widespread occurrence of intimal lipid accumulations. Scanning electron microscopic examination of control group sections presented regular endothelial topography, while carotid bifurcation region topography exhibited numerous blood cells and separated endothelial cells. Fibrin accumulation on endothelial surface in low area ratios was another important finding in the examination of its endothelial surface degeneration. The above-mentioned morphological findings seemed to be quite parallel to outflow to inflow area ratio data favouring low area and degeneration. Conclusion The correlation between area ratios and the histological characteristic of cerebral vessels of newborn cadavers indicate that early stages of atherosclerosis began in early embryologic life. PMID:27437199

  19. How reliable is apparent age at death on cadavers?

    PubMed

    Amadasi, Alberto; Merusi, Nicolò; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-07-01

    The assessment of age at death for identification purposes is a frequent and tough challenge for forensic pathologists and anthropologists. Too frequently, visual assessment of age is performed on well-preserved corpses, a method considered subjective and full of pitfalls, but whose level of inadequacy no one has yet tested or proven. This study consisted in the visual estimation of the age of 100 cadavers performed by a total of 37 observers among those usually attending the dissection room. Cadavers were of Caucasian ethnicity, well preserved, belonging to individuals who died of natural death. All the evaluations were performed prior to autopsy. Observers assessed the age with ranges of 5 and 10 years, indicating also the body part they mainly observed for each case. Globally, the 5-year range had an accuracy of 35%, increasing to 69% with the 10-year range. The highest accuracy was in the 31-60 age category (74.7% with the 10-year range), and the skin seemed to be the most reliable age parameter (71.5% of accuracy when observed), while the face was considered most frequently, in 92.4% of cases. A simple formula with the general "mean of averages" in the range given by the observers and related standard deviations was then developed; the average values with standard deviations of 4.62 lead to age estimation with ranges of some 20 years that seem to be fairly reliable and suitable, sometimes in alignment with classic anthropological methods, in the age estimation of well-preserved corpses. PMID:24989440

  20. Comparative study of mandibular linear measurements obtained by cone beam computed tomography and digital calipers

    PubMed Central

    Tarazona-Álvarez, Pablo; Romero-Millán, Javier; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Fuster-Torres, María Á.; Tarazona, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is an innovative dental of imaging system characterized by rapid volumetric imaging with patient exposure to a single dose of radiation. The present study was carried out to compare the linear measurements obtained with CBCT and digital caliper in 20 mandibles from human cadavers. Study design: A total of 4800 linear measurements were measured between different mandibular anatomical points with CBCT and digital caliper. The real measurements were defined as those obtained with the digital caliper. Posteriorly, the mandibles were scanned to obtain the CBCT images, with software-based measurements of the distances. Results: The measurements obtained with the digital caliper were greater. The CBCT technique underestimated distances greater than 100 mm. Conclusions: CBCT allows to obtain linear mandibular anatomical measurements equivalent to those obtained with digital caliper. The differences existing between both methods were clinically acceptable. Key words:Computed tomography, cone beam CT, accuracy, reliability, digital caliper. PMID:25136429

  1. Sex work: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Bill; Benoit, Cecilia; Jansson, Mikael

    2014-10-01

    Explanations of adult involvement in sex work typically adopt one of two approaches. One perspective highlights a variety of negative experiences in childhood and adolescence, including physical and sexual abuse, family instability, poverty, associations with "pimps" and other exploiters, homelessness, and drug use. An alternative account recognizes that some of these factors may be involved, but underscores the contribution of more immediate circumstances, such as current economic needs, human capital, and employment opportunities. Prior research offers a limited assessment of these contrasting claims: most studies have focused exclusively on people working in the sex industry and they have not assessed the independent effects of life course variables central to these two perspectives. We add to this literature with an analysis that drew on insights from life course and life-span development theories and considered the contributions of factors from childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Our comparative approach examined predictors of employment in sex work relative to two other low-income service or care work occupations: food and beverage serving and barbering and hairstyling. Using data from a study of almost 600 workers from two cities, one in Canada and the other in the United States, we found that both immediate circumstances and negative experiences from early life are related to current sex work involvement: childhood poverty, abuse, and family instability were independently associated with adult sex work, as were limited education and employment experience, adult drug use, and marital status. PMID:24671729

  2. The Effects of Cadaver Orientation on the Relative Position of the Abdominal Organs

    PubMed Central

    Howes, Meghan K.; Hardy, Warren N.; Beillas, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Biplane x-ray was used to image two cadavers in upright and inverted postures, and the three-dimensional variation in the relative abdominal organ position was quantified. The abdominal organs of each surrogate were instrumented with radiopaque markers using a minimally invasive approach. Imaging was performed with a known stomach volume, with residual air removed from the abdominal cavity, and with ventilation and perfusion. Marker positions were determined in two planar x-ray perspectives using target tracking software and projected into calibrated three-dimensional coordinates. Intuitive changes in organ position were observed with the effect of gravity in the upright orientation; in the superior-inferior direction, the separation between the most cranial and caudal diaphragm and liver markers was 95 mm to 169 mm. When inverted, the abdominal organs shifted cranially and fell within 66 to 81 mm in the superior-inferior direction. The relative change in position of the diaphragm markers, determined as the vector magnitude from the upright to the inverted position, was 99 to 121 mm. These data were scaled and compared to positional MRI data from nine human subjects in seated postures and the Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) model geometry. The overall shapes and relative positions of the inverted cadaver organs compared better to the human subjects and model geometry. These results give rise to several issues for consideration when interpreting cadaver test results and comparing them to finite element simulations and their associated injury prediction abilities. PMID:24406959

  3. The attraction of virgin female hide beetles (Dermestes maculatus) to cadavers by a combination of decomposition odour and male sex pheromones

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The hide beetle Dermestes maculatus (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) feeds as an adult and larva on decomposing animal remains and can also be found on human corpses. Therefore, forensic entomological questions with regard to when and how the first receptive females appear on carcasses are important, as the developmental stages of their larvae can be used to calculate the post-mortem interval. To date, we know that freshly emerged males respond to the cadaver odour of post-bloated carcasses (approximately 9 days after death at Tmean = 27°C), being attracted by benzyl butyrate. This component occurs at its highest concentration at this stage of decay. The aim of our study was to determine the principle of attraction of virgin females to the feeding and breeding substrate. For this purpose, we tested the response of these females to headspace samples of piglet cadavers and male sex pheromones [(Z9)-unsaturated fatty acid isopropyl esters] in a Y-olfactometer. Because we expected that such an odour combination is of importance for virgin female attraction, we tested the following two questions: 1) Are virgin female hide beetles attracted by a combination of cadaver odour and male sex pheromones? 2) During which decomposition stage do the first virgin females respond to cadaver odour when combined with male sex pheromones? Results We found that young virgin females were attracted to the cadaver by a combination of cadaver odour and male sex pheromones. Neither cadaver odour alone nor male sex pheromones alone was significantly more attractive than a solvent control. Our results also gave a weak indication that the first young virgin females respond as early as the post-bloating stage to its associated decomposition odour when combined with male sex pheromones. Conclusions Our results indicate that freshly emerged males possibly respond to cadaver odour and visit carcasses before virgin females. Being attracted to cadavers when male sex pheromone is perceived as

  4. Response of forest soil euglyphid testate amoebae (Rhizaria: Cercozoa) to pig cadavers assessed by high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Seppey, Christophe V W; Fournier, Bertrand; Szelecz, Ildikò; Singer, David; Mitchell, Edward A D; Lara, Enrique

    2016-03-01

    Decomposing cadavers modify the soil environment, but the effect on soil organisms and especially on soil protists is still poorly documented. We conducted a 35-month experiment in a deciduous forest where soil samples were taken under pig cadavers, control plots and fake pigs (bags of similar volume as the pigs). We extracted total soil DNA, amplified the SSU ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene V9 region and sequenced it by Illumina technology and analysed the data for euglyphid testate amoebae (Rhizaria: Euglyphida), a common group of protozoa known to respond to micro-environmental changes. We found 51 euglyphid operational taxonomic units (OTUs), 45 of which did not match any known sequence. Most OTUs decreased in abundance underneath cadavers between days 0 and 309, but some responded positively after a time lag. We sequenced the full-length SSU rRNA gene of two common OTUs that responded positively to cadavers; a phylogenetic analysis showed that they did not belong to any known euglyphid family. This study confirmed the existence of an unknown diversity of euglyphids and that they react to cadavers. Results suggest that metabarcoding of soil euglyphids could be used as a forensic tool to estimate the post-mortem interval (PMI) particularly for long-term (>2 months) PMI, for which no reliable tool exists. PMID:25874666

  5. Femtosecond laser subsurface scleral treatment in cadaver human sclera and evaluation using two-photon and confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hui; Fan, Zhongwei; Yan, Ying; Lian, Fuqiang; Kurtz, Ron; Juhasz, Tibor

    2016-03-01

    Glaucoma is the second-leading cause of blindness worldwide and is often associated with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). Partial-thickness drainage channels can be created with femtosecond laser in the translucent sclera for the potential treatment of glaucoma. We demonstrate the creation of partial-thickness subsurface drainage channels with the femtosecond laser in the cadaver human eyeballs and describe the application of two-photon microscopy and confocal microscopy for noninvasive imaging of the femtosecond laser created partial-thickness scleral channels in cadaver human eyes. A femtosecond laser operating at a wavelength of 1700 nm was scanned along a rectangular raster pattern to create the partial thickness subsurface drainage channels in the sclera of cadaver human eyes. Analysis of the dimensions and location of these channels is important in understanding their effects. We describe the application of two-photon microscopy and confocal microscopy for noninvasive imaging of the femtosecond laser created partial-thickness scleral channels in cadaver human eyes. High-resolution images, hundreds of microns deep in the sclera, were obtained to allow determination of the shape and dimension of such partial thickness subsurface scleral channels. Our studies suggest that the confocal and two-photon microscopy can be used to investigate femtosecond-laser created partial-thickness drainage channels in the sclera of cadaver human eyes.

  6. Knotless single-row rotator cuff repair: a comparative biomechanical study of 2 knotless suture anchors.

    PubMed

    Efird, Chad; Traub, Shaun; Baldini, Todd; Rioux-Forker, Dana; Spalazzi, Jeffrey P; Davisson, Twana; Hawkins, Monica; McCarty, Eric

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the gap formation during cyclic loading, maximum repair strength, and failure mode of single-row full-thickness supraspinatus repairs performed using 2 knotless suture anchors with differing internal suture-retention mechanisms in a human cadaver model. Nine matched pairs of cadaver shoulders were used. Full-thickness tears were induced by detaching the supraspinatus tendon from the greater tuberosity. Single-row repairs were performed with either type I (Opus Magnum PI; ArthroCare, Austin, Texas) or type II (ReelX STT; Stryker, Mahwah, New Jersey) knotless suture anchors. The repaired tendon was cycled from 10 to 90 N for 500 cycles, followed by load to failure. Gap formation was measured at 5, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 cycles with a video digitizing system. Anchor type or location (anterior or posterior) had no effect on gap formation during cyclic loading regardless of position (anterior, P=.385; posterior, P=.389). Maximum load to failure was significantly greater (P=.018) for repairs performed with type II anchors (288±62 N) compared with type I anchors (179±39 N). Primary failure modes were anchor pullout and tendon tearing for type II anchors and suture slippage through the anchor for type I anchors. The internal ratcheting suture-retention mechanism of type II anchors may have helped this anchor outperform the suture-cinching mechanism of type I anchors by supporting significantly higher loads before failure and minimizing suture slippage, potentially leading to stronger repairs clinically. PMID:23937749

  7. Disease in the Society: Infectious Cadavers Result in Collapse of Ant Sub-Colonies

    PubMed Central

    Loreto, Raquel G.; Hughes, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the growing number of experimental studies on mechanisms of social immunity in ant societies, little is known about how social behavior relates to disease progression within the nests of ants. In fact, when empirically studying disease in ant societies, it is common to remove dead ants from experiments to confirm infection by the studied parasite. This unfortunately does not allow disease to progress within the nest as it may be assumed would happen under natural conditions. Therefore, the approach taken so far has resulted in a limited knowledge of diseases dynamics within the nest environment. Here we introduced a single infectious cadaver killed by the fungus Beauveria bassiana into small nests of the ant Camponotus castaneus. We then observed the natural progression of the disease by not removing the corpses of the ants that died following the first entry of the disease. Because some behaviors such as social isolation of sick individuals or the removal of cadavers by nestmates are considered social immune functions and thus adaptations at the colony level that reduce disease spread, we also experimentally confined some sub-colonies to one or two chamber nests to prevent the expression of such behaviors. Based on 51 small nests and survival studies in 1,003 ants we found that a single introduced infectious cadaver was able to transmit within the nest, and social immunity did not prevent the collapse of the small sub-colonies here tested. This was true whether ants did or did not have the option to remove the infectious cadaver. Therefore, we found no evidence that the typically studied social immunity behaviors can reduce disease spread in the conditions here tested. PMID:27529548

  8. Disease in the Society: Infectious Cadavers Result in Collapse of Ant Sub-Colonies.

    PubMed

    Loreto, Raquel G; Hughes, David P

    2016-01-01

    Despite the growing number of experimental studies on mechanisms of social immunity in ant societies, little is known about how social behavior relates to disease progression within the nests of ants. In fact, when empirically studying disease in ant societies, it is common to remove dead ants from experiments to confirm infection by the studied parasite. This unfortunately does not allow disease to progress within the nest as it may be assumed would happen under natural conditions. Therefore, the approach taken so far has resulted in a limited knowledge of diseases dynamics within the nest environment. Here we introduced a single infectious cadaver killed by the fungus Beauveria bassiana into small nests of the ant Camponotus castaneus. We then observed the natural progression of the disease by not removing the corpses of the ants that died following the first entry of the disease. Because some behaviors such as social isolation of sick individuals or the removal of cadavers by nestmates are considered social immune functions and thus adaptations at the colony level that reduce disease spread, we also experimentally confined some sub-colonies to one or two chamber nests to prevent the expression of such behaviors. Based on 51 small nests and survival studies in 1,003 ants we found that a single introduced infectious cadaver was able to transmit within the nest, and social immunity did not prevent the collapse of the small sub-colonies here tested. This was true whether ants did or did not have the option to remove the infectious cadaver. Therefore, we found no evidence that the typically studied social immunity behaviors can reduce disease spread in the conditions here tested. PMID:27529548

  9. Development and Initial Porcine and Cadaver Experience with Three-Dimensional Printing of Endoscopic and Laparoscopic Equipment

    PubMed Central

    del Junco, Michael; Okhunov, Zhamshid; Yoon, Renai; Khanipour, Ramtin; Juncal, Samuel; Abedi, Garen; Lusch, Achim

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Recent advances in three-dimensional (3D) printing technology have made it possible to print surgical devices. We report our initial experience with the printing and deployment of endoscopic and laparoscopic equipment. Materials and Methods: We created computer-aided designs for ureteral stents and laparoscopic trocars using SolidWorks. We developed three generations of stents, which were printed with an Objet500 Connex printer, and a fourth generation was printed with an EOSINT P395 printer. The trocars were printed with an Objet30 Pro printer. We deployed the printed stents and trocars in a female cadaver and in vivo porcine model. We compared the printed trocars to two standard trocars for defect area and length using a digital caliper. Paired T-tests and ANOVA were used to test for statistical difference. Results: The first two generations of stents (7F and 9F) were functional failures as their diminutive inner lumen failed to allow the passage of a 0.035 guidewire. The third generation 12F stent allowed passage of a 0.035 guidewire. The 12F diameter limited its deployment, but it was introduced in a cadaver through a ureteral access sheath. The fourth-generation 9F stents were printed and deployed in a porcine model using the standard Seldinger technique. The printed trocars were functional for the maintenance of the pneumoperitoneum and instrument passage. The printed trocars had larger superficial defect areas (p<0.001) and lengths (p=0.001) compared to Karl Storz and Ethicon trocars (29.41, 18.06, and 17.22 mm2, respectively, and 14.29, 11.39, and 12.15 mm, respectively). Conclusions: In this pilot study, 3D printing of ureteral stents and trocars is feasible, and these devices can be deployed in the porcine and cadaver models. Three-dimensional printing is rapidly advancing and may be clinically viable in the future. PMID:24983138

  10. Comparative Studies in Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazurek, Kas, Ed.; Winzer, Margret A., Ed.

    This text presents 26 case studies which examine special education provisions for children in the world today. The reports focus on the current state of special education in selected nations and major issues and controversies in the field of special education within those nations. Each case study addresses the following themes: (1) prevalence of…

  11. Comparative Studies of Acculturative Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, J. W.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Studies of acculturative stress are reported from Canada. The reduction in health status among people undergoing acculturation has psychological, somatic, and social aspects. The stress varies across types of groups and individual differences. Further study is needed to determine variations across host societies. (VM)

  12. Endovascular Placement of an Extraluminal Femoropopliteal Bypass Graft in Human Cadavers

    SciTech Connect

    Maynar, Manuel; Llorens, Rafael; Lopez-Sanchez, Carmen; Garcia-Martinez, Virginio; Qian Zhong; Lopera, Jorge; Castaneda, Wilfrido R.

    2005-04-15

    Purpose. A method to create an extraluminal femoropopliteal bypass graft using endovascular techniques was evaluated in situ on cadaver extremities in an attempt to develop a minimally invasive alternative technique for the management of infrainguinal occlusive arterial disease. Methods. The endovascular placement of an extraluminal femoropopliteal bypass graft was undertaken in 5 cadaver legs. Following percutaneous access to the popliteal artery (PA) or common femoral artery (CFA), a Rosch-Uchida needle was used to perforate the vascular wall, followed by the creation of an extraluminal tract using a looped wire and catheter. Once the desired level was reached the needle was again used to perforate the vascular wall of the proximal superficial femoral artery (SFA) or PA depending on the access used. Self-expanding expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) stent-grafts were then deployed to establish the extraluminal femoropopliteal bypass connecting the two arterial puncture sites. Following dilatation of the stent-graft, angiography was performed to assess the endoprostheses and to look for contrast leaks. Results. Technical success was achieved in all 5 legs. Procedure time varied from 15 to 30 min. The angiographic studies performed immediately after completion of the bypass procedure showed patency of the grafts with no evidence of kinking or leakage in any of the cases. Conclusion. This study has proved that the endovascular placement of an extraluminal femoropopliteal bypass graft in human cadaver legs using endovascular techniques under fluoroscopic control is technically feasible.

  13. NOTE: An anatomically shaped lower body model for CT scanning of cadaver femurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanck, Esther; Deenen, J. C. W.; Huisman, Henk Jan; Kooloos, Jan G.; Huizenga, Henk; Verdonschot, Nico

    2010-01-01

    Bone specific, CT-based finite element (FE) analyses have great potential to accurately predict the fracture risk of deteriorated bones. However, it has been shown that differences exist between FE-models of femora scanned in a water basin or scanned in situ within the human body, as caused by differences in measured bone mineral densities (BMD). In this study we hypothesized that these differences can be reduced by re-creating the patient CT-conditions by using an anatomically shaped physical model of the lower body. BMD distributions were obtained from four different femora that were scanned under three conditions: (1) in situ within the cadaver body, (2) in a water basin and (3) in the body model. The BMD of the three scanning protocols were compared at two locations: proximally, in the trabecular bone of the femoral head, and in the cortical bone of the femoral shaft. Proximally, no significant differences in BMD were found between the in situ scans and the scans in the body model, whereas the densities from the water basin scans were on average 10.8% lower than in situ. In the femoral shaft the differences between the three scanning protocols were insignificant. In conclusion, the body model better approached the in situ situation than a water basin. Future studies can use this body model to mimic patient situations and to develop protocols to improve the performance of the FE-models in actual patients.

  14. Scapholunate interosseus ligament reconstruction on a cadaver: A technique

    PubMed Central

    Arenas-Prat, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Acute rupture of the scapholunate interosseus ligament is a relatively frequent occurrence which can be repaired primarily by direct suturing. However, patients are often seen a few weeks after injury when most of the ligament fibers have degenerated. This poses a challenge because direct repair can be difficult and long term results have not been satisfying. In the present study, a technique is presented to address this problem and its possible advantages are discussed. Materials and Methods: A fresh frozen wrist cadaver specimen, thawed to room temperature, was used to carry out the procedure. The scapholunate joint was exposed through a dorsal approach and stabilized using two percutaneous Kirschner wires. Using a U shaped chisel, a groove along the scapholunate articular margin was created to accommodate a strip from the extensor retinaculum as a ligament plasty. This has been secured using six anchor sutures and several pictures taken during the procedure to expose the key steps. Results: The ligamentoplasty presented in this article preserves most of the articular surface of proximal carpus and at the same time stabilizes the scapholunate joint. However, more in vivo research should be carried out to validate this treatment. Conclusion: The technique suggests a possible way to repair a ruptured scapholunate interosseus ligament that cannot be repaired primarily. Because osteointegration of the ligament strips is not possible in the present experiment, biomechanics of the construct cannot be fully tested. PMID:25298562

  15. Interpretation of postmortem change in cadavers in Spain.

    PubMed

    Prieto, José L; Magaña, Concepción; Ubelaker, Douglas H

    2004-09-01

    Estimating time since death is especially difficult in the examination of poorly preserved cadavers and depends on the experience of the examiner and comparison with previously documented cases showing similar characteristics. The present study reports on information obtained over the past ten years through the work of the Laboratorio de Antropología y Odontología Forense (LAF) of the Instituto Anatómico Forense de Madrid, Spain, in particular evaluating how the type of fracture influences postmortem change. From the original 225 forensic cases examined between 1992 and 2002 in the LAF, a sample of 29 cases were selected from various regions of the Spanish mainland. A data collection protocol was established to reflect factors which the existing specialized literature, documenting the relation existing in the sample analyzed between time since death and the extent of postmortem change, which in the environments examined are distributed into the following phases: Phase 1 (putrefaction): one week to one month on the surface and two months in water. Phase 2 (initial skeletonization): two months on the surface and five to six months in water. Phase 3 (advanced skeltonization): six months to 1.5 years on the surface and 2.5 years buried. Phase 4 (complete skeletonization): about one year on the surface and three years buried. This paper also provide useful information on the impact of carrion insect activity, location, climate, seasonality, and predator. PMID:15461090

  16. Dynamic biaxial tissue properties of the human cadaver aorta.

    PubMed

    Shah, Chirag S; Hardy, Warren N; Mason, Matthew J; Yang, King H; Van Ee, Chris A; Morgan, Richard; Digges, Kennerly

    2006-11-01

    This study focuses on the biaxial mechanical properties of planar aorta tissue at strain rates likely to be experienced during automotive crashes. It also examines the structural response of the whole aorta to longitudinal tension. Twenty-six tissue-level tests were conducted using twelve thoracic aortas harvested from human cadavers. Cruciate samples were excised from the ascending, peri-isthmic, and descending regions. The samples were subjected to equibiaxial stretch at two nominal speed levels using a new biaxial tissue-testing device. Inertia-compensated loads were measured to facilitate calculation of true stress. High-speed videography and regional correlation analysis were used to track ink dots marked on the center of each sample to obtain strain. In a series of component-level tests, the response of the intact thoracic aorta to longitudinal stretch was obtained using seven aorta specimens. The aorta fails within the peri-isthmic region. The aorta fails in the transverse direction, and the intima fails before the media or adventitia. The aorta tissue exhibits nonlinear behavior. The aorta as complete structure can transect completely from 92 N axial load and 0.221 axial strain. Complete transection can be accompanied by intimal tears. These results have application to finite element modeling and the better understanding of traumatic rupture of the aorta. PMID:17311166

  17. Examining High School Anatomy and Physiology Teacher Experience in a Cadaver Dissection Laboratory and Impacts on Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattheis, Allison; Ingram, Debra; Jensen, Murray S.; Jackson, Jon

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the results of a study that investigated the experiences of a group of high school anatomy and physiology teachers who participated in a cadaver dissection laboratory workshop organized through a university-school partnership. Teacher feedback was collected before, during, and after the workshop through pre-arrival surveys,…

  18. A Qualitative Assessment of Human Cadavers Embalmed by Thiel's Method Used in Laparoscopic Training for Renal Resection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rai, Bhavan Prasad; Tang, Benjie; Eisma, Roos; Soames, Roger W.; Wen, Haitao; Nabi, Ghulam

    2012-01-01

    Human cadaveric tissue is the fundamental substrate for basic anatomic and surgical skills training. A qualitative assessment of the use of human cadavers preserved by Thiel's method for a British Association of Urological Surgeons--approved, advanced laparoscopic renal resection skills training course is described in the present study. Four…

  19. The human cadaver in the age of biomedical informatics.

    PubMed

    Aziz, M Ashraf; McKenzie, James C; Wilson, James S; Cowie, Robert J; Ayeni, Sylvanus A; Dunn, Barbara K

    2002-02-15

    Major national and international critiques of the medical curriculum in the 1980s noted the following significant flaws: (1) over-reliance on learning by rote memory, (2) insufficient exercise in analysis and synthesis/conceptualization, and (3) failure to connect the basic and clinical aspects of training. It was argued that the invention of computers and related imaging techniques called to question the traditional instruction based on the faculty-centered didactic lecture. In the ensuing reform, which adopted case-based, small group, problem-based learning, time allotted to anatomical instruction was severely truncated. Many programs replaced dissection with prosections and computer-based learning. We argue that cadaver dissection is still necessary for (1) establishing the primacy of the patient, (2) apprehension of the multidimensional body, (3) touch-mediated perception of the cadaver/patient, (4) anatomical variability, (5) learning the basic language of medicine, (6) competence in diagnostic imaging, (7) cadaver/patient-centered computer-assisted learning, (8) peer group learning, (9) training for the medical specialties. Cadaver-based anatomical education is a prerequisite of optimal training for the use of biomedical informatics. When connected to dissection, medical informatics can expedite and enhance preparation for a patient-based medical profession. Actual dissection is equally necessary for acquisition of scientific skills and for a communicative, moral, ethical, and humanistic approach to patient care. Anat Rec (New Anat) 269:20-32, 2002. PMID:11891622

  20. Relationship between morphological characteristics of hyoid bone and mandible in Japanese cadavers using three-dimensional computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Ichijo, Yoshifumi; Takahashi, Yusuke; Tsuchiya, Mahito; Marushita, Yoichi; Sato, Toshio; Sugawara, Hitoshi; Hayashi, Shogo; Itoh, Masahiro; Takahashi, Tsuneo

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to obtain a quantitative anatomical description of the hyoid bone and mandible using three-dimensional computed tomography. Hyoid bones were obtained from a total of 101 cadavers varying in age from 67 to 102 years. The percentage of symmetrical U-type and asymmetrical-type hyoid bones was low compared with symmetrical V type (14.9, 15.8, and 69.3 %, respectively), and no significant sex difference was observed. We found bilateral nonfusion in cadavers of advanced age at a rate of 22.7 % and bilateral complete fusion at a rate of 51.5 %. There were significant differences in metric variables (length and width) between males and females, but no significant differences in width among the different fusion types. There was no significant interaction effect of sex and degree of fusion. Strong significant associations were observed between size (length and width) of the hyoid bone and mandible in the nonfusion group, while the complete fusion group revealed a moderate correlation. We also investigated the hypothesis that the junction between the hyoid body and greater horn plays an important role in the movement of bones that have not yet ossified. However, no statistical difference was observed in the width between the two greater horns. The degree of fusion of the greater horn with the hyoid body may also affect relations of interdependencies between the hyoid bone and mandible, an important component to consider when assessing risk factors in the development of masticatory and swallowing function. PMID:26543038

  1. Patterns of radiocarpal joint articular cartilage wear in cadavers.

    PubMed

    Gorniak, Gerard C; Conrad, Will; Conrad, Erin; Decker, Bonnie

    2012-05-01

    The radiocarpal joint transmits about 80% of the compression forces crossing the wrist. However, primary osteoarthritis of this joint is surprisingly uncommon, suggesting that articular cartilage wear is not sufficient to produce arthritic symptoms. By examining the distal radius, scaphoid, and lunate in aged cadavers, wear patterns were charted and measured, allowing assessment of radiocarpal joint wear and mechanics. Bilateral radiocarpal joints of 16 females and 14 males (age 77.7 ± 14.4, N = 30) were exposed and measurements of the wear recorded microscopically. Wear locations were mapped, and X-Y loci and wear areas calculated. Gender right and sides compared. Over 95% of distal radius wear showed distinct radial-scaphoid and radial-lunate wear areas. These bilateral areas were in the palmar half of the distal radius. One main central wear area was seen in 95% of the scaphoid, and 97% of the lunate articular surfaces that were examined. Articular wear showed a circular pattern and was minimal in 95.7% of the surfaces, and the lunate showed the largest wear area. Wear patterns in males and females support the literature that for most ADLs the wrist is in slight extension and ulnar deviation. There are gender differences, but wear areas between sides were similar. Female wear indicates their wrist is positioned more often in a more extended and ulnarly deviated position than males. The wear patterns suggest rotational movements of the scaphoid and lunate during wrist motion and that the wrist is most often used in neutral flexion/extension to slight extension. PMID:22095798

  2. Measurement of the temperature increase in the porcine cadaver iris during direct illumination by femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hui; Kurtz, Ronald M.; Juhasz, Tibor

    2010-02-01

    Multiple femtosecond lasers have now been cleared for use for ophthalmic surgery, including for creation of corneal flaps in LASIK surgery. Preliminary measurements indicated that during typical surgical use, 50-60% of laser energy may pass beyond the cornea with potential effects on the iris. To further evaluate iris laser exposure during femtosecond corneal surgery, we measured the temperature increase in porcine cadaver iris in situ during direct illumination by the iFS Advanced Femtoosecond Laser (AMO Inc. Santa Ana, CA) with an infrared thermal imaging camera. To replicate the illumination geometry of the eye during the surgery, an excised porcine cadaver iris was placed 1.5 mm from the flat glass contact lens. The temperature field was observed in twenty cadaver iris at laser pulse energy levels ranging from 1 to 2 μJ (corresponding approximately to surgical energies of 2 to 4 μJ per pulse). Temperature increases up to 2.3 °C (corresponding to 2 μJ per pulse and 24 second procedure time) were observed in the cadaver iris with little variation in temperature profiles between specimens for the same laser energy illumination. For laser pulse energy and procedure time characteristic to the iFS Advanced Femtoosecond Laser the temperature increase was measured to be 1.2 °C. Our studies suggest that the magnitude of iris heating that occurs during such femtosecond laser corneal surgery is small and does not present a safety hazard to the iris.

  3. Assessment of a Human Cadaver Model for Training Emergency Medicine Residents in the Ultrasound Diagnosis of Pneumothorax

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Srikar; Zeger, Wesley; Wadman, Michael; Walker, Richard; Lomneth, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To assess a human cadaver model for training emergency medicine residents in the ultrasound diagnosis of pneumothorax. Methods. Single-blinded observational study using a human cadaveric model at an academic medical center. Three lightly embalmed cadavers were used to create three “normal lungs” and three lungs modeling a “pneumothorax.” The residents were blinded to the side and number of pneumothoraces, as well as to each other's findings. Each resident performed an ultrasound examination on all six lung models during ventilation of cadavers. They were evaluated on their ability to identify the presence or absence of the sliding-lung sign and seashore sign. Results. A total of 84 ultrasound examinations (42-“normal lung,” 42-“pneumothorax”) were performed. A sliding-lung sign was accurately identified in 39 scans, and the seashore sign was accurately identified in 34 scans. The sensitivity and specificity for the sliding-lung sign were 93% (95% CI, 85–100%) and 90% (95% CI, 81–99%), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for the seashore sign were 80% (95% CI, 68–92%) and 83% (95% CI, 72–94%), respectively. Conclusions. Lightly embalmed human cadavers may provide an excellent model for mimicking the sonographic appearance of pneumothorax. PMID:24790999

  4. Saturated salt solution method: a useful cadaver embalming for surgical skills training.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Shogo; Homma, Hiroshi; Naito, Munekazu; Oda, Jun; Nishiyama, Takahisa; Kawamoto, Atsuo; Kawata, Shinichi; Sato, Norio; Fukuhara, Tomomi; Taguchi, Hirokazu; Mashiko, Kazuki; Azuhata, Takeo; Ito, Masayuki; Kawai, Kentaro; Suzuki, Tomoya; Nishizawa, Yuji; Araki, Jun; Matsuno, Naoto; Shirai, Takayuki; Qu, Ning; Hatayama, Naoyuki; Hirai, Shuichi; Fukui, Hidekimi; Ohseto, Kiyoshige; Yukioka, Tetsuo; Itoh, Masahiro

    2014-12-01

    This article evaluates the suitability of cadavers embalmed by the saturated salt solution (SSS) method for surgical skills training (SST). SST courses using cadavers have been performed to advance a surgeon's techniques without any risk to patients. One important factor for improving SST is the suitability of specimens, which depends on the embalming method. In addition, the infectious risk and cost involved in using cadavers are problems that need to be solved. Six cadavers were embalmed by 3 methods: formalin solution, Thiel solution (TS), and SSS methods. Bacterial and fungal culture tests and measurement of ranges of motion were conducted for each cadaver. Fourteen surgeons evaluated the 3 embalming methods and 9 SST instructors (7 trauma surgeons and 2 orthopedists) operated the cadavers by 21 procedures. In addition, ultrasonography, central venous catheterization, and incision with cauterization followed by autosuture stapling were performed in some cadavers. The SSS method had a sufficient antibiotic effect and produced cadavers with flexible joints and a high tissue quality suitable for SST. The surgeons evaluated the cadavers embalmed by the SSS method to be highly equal to those embalmed by the TS method. Ultrasound images were clear in the cadavers embalmed by both the methods. Central venous catheterization could be performed in a cadaver embalmed by the SSS method and then be affirmed by x-ray. Lungs and intestines could be incised with cauterization and autosuture stapling in the cadavers embalmed by TS and SSS methods. Cadavers embalmed by the SSS method are sufficiently useful for SST. This method is simple, carries a low infectious risk, and is relatively of low cost, enabling a wider use of cadavers for SST. PMID:25501070

  5. Saturated Salt Solution Method: A Useful Cadaver Embalming for Surgical Skills Training

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Shogo; Homma, Hiroshi; Naito, Munekazu; Oda, Jun; Nishiyama, Takahisa; Kawamoto, Atsuo; Kawata, Shinichi; Sato, Norio; Fukuhara, Tomomi; Taguchi, Hirokazu; Mashiko, Kazuki; Azuhata, Takeo; Ito, Masayuki; Kawai, Kentaro; Suzuki, Tomoya; Nishizawa, Yuji; Araki, Jun; Matsuno, Naoto; Shirai, Takayuki; Qu, Ning; Hatayama, Naoyuki; Hirai, Shuichi; Fukui, Hidekimi; Ohseto, Kiyoshige; Yukioka, Tetsuo; Itoh, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This article evaluates the suitability of cadavers embalmed by the saturated salt solution (SSS) method for surgical skills training (SST). SST courses using cadavers have been performed to advance a surgeon's techniques without any risk to patients. One important factor for improving SST is the suitability of specimens, which depends on the embalming method. In addition, the infectious risk and cost involved in using cadavers are problems that need to be solved. Six cadavers were embalmed by 3 methods: formalin solution, Thiel solution (TS), and SSS methods. Bacterial and fungal culture tests and measurement of ranges of motion were conducted for each cadaver. Fourteen surgeons evaluated the 3 embalming methods and 9 SST instructors (7 trauma surgeons and 2 orthopedists) operated the cadavers by 21 procedures. In addition, ultrasonography, central venous catheterization, and incision with cauterization followed by autosuture stapling were performed in some cadavers. The SSS method had a sufficient antibiotic effect and produced cadavers with flexible joints and a high tissue quality suitable for SST. The surgeons evaluated the cadavers embalmed by the SSS method to be highly equal to those embalmed by the TS method. Ultrasound images were clear in the cadavers embalmed by both the methods. Central venous catheterization could be performed in a cadaver embalmed by the SSS method and then be affirmed by x-ray. Lungs and intestines could be incised with cauterization and autosuture stapling in the cadavers embalmed by TS and SSS methods. Cadavers embalmed by the SSS method are sufficiently useful for SST. This method is simple, carries a low infectious risk, and is relatively of low cost, enabling a wider use of cadavers for SST. PMID:25501070

  6. COMPARATIVE ANATOMICAL STUDY BETWEEN THE RIGHT AND LEFT SIDES OF THE AXILLARY NERVE IN RELATION TO DELTOPECTORAL APPROACH AND ACROMION

    PubMed Central

    Junior, Antonio Carlos Tenor; Ribeiro, Fabiano Rebouças; Filho, Rômulo Brasil; Filho, Cantídio Salvador Filardi; Lutfi, Hilton Vargas; Magri, Eduardo Angoti

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To establish anatomical parameters for the axillary nerve by measuring the distances to the acromion and the deltopectoral access, and to ascertain whether there are any differences in comparative measurements between the left and right sides. Method: An anatomical study on the path of the axillary nerve was conducted by dissecting 30 shoulders of 20 fresh adult cadavers. For comparative study, bilateral dissection was performed on 10 cadavers. Digital caliper gauges, accurate to the nearest 0.05 cm, were used to measure the distances between the lateral extremity of the acromion and the anterior and posterior branches of the axillary nerve, and between the deltopectoral space and the anterior branch of the axillary nerve. Results: The shortest distance between the acromion and the axillary nerve was 5.47 cm, and the greatest distance was 7.06 cm. The shortest distance between the deltopectoral groove and the axillary nerve was 3.94 cm. A statistically significant difference was found using Wilcoxon’s test in comparative measurements between the left and right sides for the distances between the posterior branch of the axillary nerve and the midpoint of the lateral border of the acromion (A-E), and between the anterior branch of the axillary nerve and the anterior extremity of the acromion (B-C), both of which were larger on the right side. Conclusions: The axillary nerve was situated between 5.47 and 7.06 cm distally to the acromion, and 3.94 cm laterally to the deltopectoral space. There was a statistically significant difference in the comparison between the left and right sides, and both measurements were larger on the right side. PMID:27047824

  7. Free manual of cadaver dissection modifiable by other anatomists.

    PubMed

    Chung, Beom Sun; Chung, Min Suk

    2015-06-01

    Even in the rapidly changing field of cadaver dissection, published guide books still play an important role in the anatomy lab. However, commercial manuals with lengthy volumes and inflexible copyrights have several limitations which can be complemented by open-source manuals. Recently, the authors have manufactured and distributed a free electronic dissection manual (anatomy.co.kr), where descriptions are written concisely and images are drawn schematically. Moreover, simplified signs are employed to represent the cadaver viewing angles and manner of dissection. Based on the original files of this manual, other anatomists can revise and utilize the descriptions and figures. We expect many updated versions of our manual to be shared between students all over the world. PMID:25577205

  8. Evaluation of Karl Storz CMAC Tip™ Device Versus Traditional Airway Suction in a Cadaver Model

    PubMed Central

    Lipe, Demis N.; Lindstrom, Randi; Tauferner, Dustin; Mitchell, Christopher; Moffett, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We compared the efficacy of Karl Storz CMAC Tip™ with inline suction to CMAC with traditional suction device in cadaveric models simulating difficult airways, using media mimicking pulmonary edema and vomit. Methods This was a prospective, cohort study in which we invited emergency medicine faculty and residents to participate. Each participant intubated 2 cadavers (one with simulated pulmonary edema and one with simulated vomit), using CMAC with inline suction and CMAC with traditional suction. Thirty emergency medicine providers performed 4 total intubations each in a crossover trial comparing the CMAC with inline suction and CMAC with traditional suction. Two intubations were performed with simulated vomit and two with simulated pulmonary edema. The primary outcome was time to successful intubation; and the secondary outcome was proportion of successful intubation. Results The median time to successful intubation using the CMAC with inline suction versus traditional suction in the pulmonary edema group was 29s and 30s respectively (p=0.54). In the vomit simulation, the median time to successful intubation was 40s using the CMAC with inline suction and 41s using the CMAC with traditional suction (p=0.70). There were no significant differences in time to successful intubation between the 2 devices. Similarly, the proportions of successful intubation were also not statistically significant between the 2 devices. The proportions of successful intubations using the inline suction were 96.7% and 73.3%, for the pulmonary edema and vomit groups, respectively. Additionally using the handheld suction device, the proportions for the pulmonary edema and vomit group were 100% and 66.7%, respectively. Conclusion CMAC with inline suction was no different than CMAC with traditional suction and was associated with no statistically significant differences in median time to intubation or proportion of successful intubations. PMID:25035766

  9. HDRK-Woman: whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of Korean adult female cadaver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeom, Yeon Soo; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Han, Min Cheol; Ham, Bo Kyoung; Cho, Kun Woo; Hwang, Sung Bae

    2014-07-01

    In a previous study, we constructed a male reference Korean phantom; HDRK-Man (High-Definition Reference Korean-Man), to represent Korean adult males for radiation protection purposes. In the present study, a female phantom; HDRK-Woman (High-Definition Reference Korean-Woman), was constructed to represent Korean adult females. High-resolution color photographic images obtained by serial sectioning of a 26 year-old Korean adult female cadaver were utilized. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass, and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The phantom was then compared with the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) female reference phantom in terms of calculated organ doses and organ-depth distributions. Additionally, the effective doses were calculated using both the HDRK-Man and HDRK-Woman phantoms, and the values were compared with those of the ICRP reference phantoms.

  10. Feasibility of Arthroscopic Placement of Autologous Matrix-Induced Chondrogenesis Grafts in the Cadaver Hip Joint

    PubMed Central

    Thorey, Fritz; Budde, Stefan; Ezechieli, Marco; Albrecht, Urs Vito; Ettinger, Max

    2013-01-01

    An assortment of clinical trials have been done presenting the effectiveness of autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis (AMIC) for the regeneration of chondral leasions. The purpose of the study was to underline the accessability of the acetabulum and the femoral head through the known portals and prove i) the feasibility of placing the AMIC in the different zones of the hip joint and ii) check for dislocation after joint movement. Six human cadavers underwent hip arthroscopy on both hips. Two chondral lesions were set on each femoral head and two in the acetabulum to evaluate a total of 48 defects. After microfracturing an autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis graft was placed on these lesions arthroscopically. After repeated joint movement the dislocation of the graft was checked. It was possible to place the AMIC graft in all 48 chondral lesions. The time needed for placing the graft was 8±2.9 minutes. A trend of time reduction could be detected throughout this study as the surgeon gained more experience. For the femoral head, after twenty cycles of joint movement 18/24 spots showed no displacement, 4/24 showed minor displacement (<3 mm) and 2/24 showed major displacement (>3 mm). None showed total displacement. For the acetabulum 22/24 spots showed no displacement and 2/24 showed minor displacement. A combined microfracturing and placing of an AMIC graft of focal chondral lesions of the hip joint can be done arthroscopically. Prospective randomized in vivo studies should compare the results of arthroscopilally placed AMIC grafts with microfracturing and microfracturing alone. PMID:24191186

  11. Porcine cadaver iris model for iris heating during corneal surgery with a femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hui; Fan, Zhongwei; Wang, Jiang; Yan, Ying; Juhasz, Tibor; Kurtz, Ron

    2015-03-01

    Multiple femtosecond lasers have now been cleared for use for ophthalmic surgery, including for creation of corneal flaps in LASIK surgery. Preliminary study indicated that during typical surgical use, laser energy may pass beyond the cornea with potential effects on the iris. As a model for laser exposure of the iris during femtosecond corneal surgery, we simulated the temperature rise in porcine cadaver iris during direct illumination by the femtosecond laser. Additionally, ex-vivo iris heating due to femtosecond laser irradiation was measured with an infrared thermal camera (Fluke corp. Everett, WA) as a validation of the simulation.

  12. Interfascial Spread of Injectate After Adductor Canal Injection in Fresh Human Cadavers.

    PubMed

    Goffin, Pierre; Lecoq, Jean-Pierre; Ninane, Vincent; Brichant, Jean Francois; Sala-Blanch, Xavi; Gautier, Philippe E; Bonnet, Pierre; Carlier, Alain; Hadzic, Admir

    2016-08-01

    The adductor canal block has become a common analgesic technique in patients undergoing knee arthroplasty. Dispersion of local anesthetic outside the adductor canal through interfascial layers and blockade of smaller nerves that confer innervation to the knee could contribute to the analgesic efficacy of the adductor canal block. We studied the diffusion of local anesthetic mixed with dye after injection into the adductor canal in fresh human cadavers. In all 8 legs, injectate was found in the popliteal fossa in contact with the sciatic nerve and/or popliteal blood vessels. Interfascial spread patterns were identified. PMID:27442773

  13. Soil fungal community shift evaluation as a potential cadaver decomposition indicator.

    PubMed

    Chimutsa, Monica; Olakanye, Ayodeji O; Thompson, Tim J U; Ralebitso-Senior, T Komang

    2015-12-01

    Fungi metabolise organic matter in situ and so alter both the bio-/physico-chemical properties and microbial community structure of the ecosystem. In particular, they are responsible reportedly for specific stages of decomposition. Therefore, this study aimed to extend previous bacteria-based forensic ecogenomics research by investigating soil fungal community and cadaver decomposition interactions in microcosms with garden soil (20 kg, fresh weight) and domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) carcass (5 kg, leg). Soil samples were collected at depths of 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm on days 3, 28 and 77 in the absence (control -Pg) and presence (experimental +Pg) of Sus scrofa domesticus and used for total DNA extraction and nested polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) profiling of the 18S rRNA gene. The Shannon-Wiener (H') community diversity indices were 1.25±0.21 and 1.49±0.30 for the control and experimental microcosms, respectively, while comparable Simpson species dominance (S) values were 0.65±0.109 and 0.75±0.015. Generally, and in contrast to parallel studies of the bacterial 16S rRNA and 16S rDNA profiles, statistical analysis (t-test) of the 18S dynamics showed no mathematically significant shifts in fungal community diversity (H'; p=0.142) and dominance (S; p=0.392) during carcass decomposition, necessitating further investigations. PMID:26322496

  14. Moisture can be the dominant environmental parameter governing cadaver decomposition in soil.

    PubMed

    Carter, David O; Yellowlees, David; Tibbett, Mark

    2010-07-15

    Forensic taphonomy involves the use of decomposition to estimate postmortem interval (PMI) or locate clandestine graves. Yet, cadaver decomposition remains poorly understood, particularly following burial in soil. Presently, we do not know how most edaphic and environmental parameters, including soil moisture, influence the breakdown of cadavers following burial and alter the processes that are used to estimate PMI and locate clandestine graves. To address this, we buried juvenile rat (Rattus rattus) cadavers (approximately 18 g wet weight) in three contrasting soils from tropical savanna ecosystems located in Pallarenda (sand), Wambiana (medium clay), or Yabulu (loamy sand), Queensland, Australia. These soils were sieved (2mm), weighed (500 g dry weight), calibrated to a matric potential of -0.01 megapascals (MPa), -0.05 MPa, or -0.3 MPa (wettest to driest) and incubated at 22 degrees C. Measurements of cadaver decomposition included cadaver mass loss, carbon dioxide-carbon (CO(2)-C) evolution, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), protease activity, phosphodiesterase activity, ninhydrin-reactive nitrogen (NRN) and soil pH. Cadaver burial resulted in a significant increase in CO(2)-C evolution, MBC, enzyme activities, NRN and soil pH. Cadaver decomposition in loamy sand and sandy soil was greater at lower matric potentials (wetter soil). However, optimal matric potential for cadaver decomposition in medium clay was exceeded, which resulted in a slower rate of cadaver decomposition in the wettest soil. Slower cadaver decomposition was also observed at high matric potential (-0.3 MPa). Furthermore, wet sandy soil was associated with greater cadaver decomposition than wet fine-textured soil. We conclude that gravesoil moisture content can modify the relationship between temperature and cadaver decomposition and that soil microorganisms can play a significant role in cadaver breakdown. We also conclude that soil NRN is a more reliable indicator of gravesoil than soil p

  15. Depression and self-report disclosure after live related donor and cadaver renal transplants.

    PubMed

    Schlebusch, L; Pillay, B J; Louw, J

    1989-05-20

    Important psychological reactions are associated with renal transplantation in general. Differences in psychological adjustment between recipients of kidneys from cadavers (CRs) and recipients of kidneys from live related donors (LRRs), however, have been poorly researched. In this study 10 LRRs (mean age 35,7 years; mean number of years after transplant 4,5) were compared with 30 CRs (mean age 38,6 years; mean number of years after transplant 5,3). The prevalence of depression and self-disclosed stress-inducing factors which might have affected long-term psychological adjustment after the transplant were investigated. The psychological status of each patient was assessed by means of a clinical interview, a mental status examination, the Beck Depression Inventory and a self-report questionnaire. There were found to be no long-term statistically significant differences between the LRR and CR groups in terms of the prevalence of depression, although 20% of the patients overall were depressed to varying degrees. The CR group was more concerned about the psychological and personal characteristics of the donors and their families than the LRR group, who expressed concern about the future well-being of the donors. Many members of both groups expressed having experienced both fear of graft rejection, before and immediately after the transplant, and anxiety, which decreased with time. The therapeutic value of a positive psychological climate in the renal unit and of supportive family relationships was confirmed for both groups. In comparison with their existence while on dialysis, most of the patients, irrespective of donor type, ultimately enjoyed an enhanced quality of life. PMID:2658140

  16. Teaching the Comparative Approach to American Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaberg, Stanley

    The rationale behind this book of five suggested or sample comparative units contains several elements: 1) an interdisciplinary social science approach to studying the American past, present, and future; and 2) a view of our country's history in terms of a world setting and in the light on contemporary concerns. The global comparative method…

  17. Comparative Environmental Threat Analysis: Three Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latour, J. B.; Reiling, R.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews how carrying capacity for different environmental problems is operationalized. Discusses whether it is possible to compare threats, using the exceeding of carrying capacity as a yardstick. Points out problems in comparative threat analysis using three case studies: threats to European groundwater resources, threats to ecosystems in Europe,…

  18. Cat dissection and human cadaver prosection versus sculpting human structures from clay: A comparison of alternate approaches to human anatomy laboratory education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, John R.

    Dissection and vivisection are traditional approaches to biology laboratory education. In the case of human anatomy teaching laboratories, there is a long tradition of using human and animal cadaver specimens in the classroom. In a review of the literature comparing traditional dissection and vivisection lessons to alternative lessons designed to reduce the time spent dissecting or the numbers of animals used, we conclude that it is difficult to come to any conclusion regarding the efficacy of different approaches. An analysis of the literature is confounded because many studies have very low statistical power or other methodological weaknesses, and investigators rely on a wide variety of testing instruments to measure an equally varied number of course objectives. Additional well designed studies are necessary before educators can reach any informed conclusions about the efficacy of traditional versus alternative approaches to laboratory education. In our experiments, we compared a traditional cat dissection based undergraduate human anatomy lesson to an alternative where students sculpted human muscles onto plastic human skeletons. Students in the alternative treatment performed significantly better than their peers in the traditional treatment when answering both lower and higher order human anatomy questions. In a subsequent experiment with a similar design, we concluded that the superior performance of the students in the alternative treatment on anatomy exams was likely due to the similarity between the human anatomy representation studied in lab, and the human anatomy questions asked on the exams. When the anatomy questions were presented in the context of a cat specimen, students in the traditional cat dissection treatment outperformed their peers in the alternative treatment. In a final experiment where student performance on a human anatomy exam was compared between a traditional prosected human cadaver treatment and the alternative clay sculpting

  19. Coupled Physical and Digital Cadaver Dissection Followed by a Visual Test Protocol Provides Insights into the Nature of Anatomical Knowledge and Its Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hisley, Kenneth C.; Anderson, Larry D.; Smith, Stacy E.; Kavic, Stephen M.; Tracy, J. Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    This research effort compared and contrasted two conceptually different methods for the exploration of human anatomy in the first-year dissection laboratory by accomplished students: "physical" dissection using an embalmed cadaver and "digital" dissection using three-dimensional volume modeling of whole-body CT and MRI image sets acquired using…

  20. An individualistic approach to routine cadaver organ removal.

    PubMed

    Peters, D A

    1988-09-01

    Consenting to the taking of one's organs after death is a moral duty--the duty to consent--which derives from a more general moral duty--the duty to attempt an easy rescue of an endangered person. These two duties can be justified within the framework of factual and value beliefs associated with the general intellectual orientation called "individualism," which informs the liberal democratic tradition in the spirit of John Locke. Individualists value personal liberty and would accept these two duties on the ground that personal liberty is likely to be better protected and advanced in a society that abides by them than in a society that does not. The same reasoning justifies a social policy of routine removal of cadaver organs. Individualists would find it prudent to give up their right to be buried whole and adopt a policy of routine removal of cadaver organs, with organs distributed according to some principle of fair allocation. Since they recognize that their own organs will be of no use to them after death, giving up their right to be buried whole will not be viewed as a significant sacrifice of personal liberty. Some people of basic individualistic sympathies may, however, embrace additional special values that favor their being buried whole. To accommodate such persons, two compromises on a policy of routine taking of cadaver organs are possible: Allow these persons to "opt out" of the system by signing a legally binding document prohibiting the taking of their organs after death, or require everyone to state on their driver's licenses a positive or negative decision concerning organ removal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10288934

  1. Comparative studies of gene regulatory mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Pai, Athma A; Gilad, Yoav

    2014-12-01

    It has become increasingly clear that changes in gene regulation have played an important role in adaptive evolution both between and within species. Over the past five years, comparative studies have moved beyond simple characterizations of differences in gene expression levels within and between species to studying variation in regulatory mechanisms. We still know relatively little about the precise chain of events that lead to most regulatory adaptations, but we have taken significant steps towards understanding the relative importance of changes in different mechanisms of gene regulatory evolution. In this review, we first discuss insights from comparative studies in model organisms, where the available experimental toolkit is extensive. We then focus on a few recent comparative studies in primates, where the limited feasibility of experimental manipulation dictates the approaches that can be used to study gene regulatory evolution. PMID:25215415

  2. Optimal fixation for the extended trochanteric osteotomy: a pilot study comparing 3 cables vs 2 cables.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Joseph H; Camacho, Javier; Kaufman, Kenton; Chen, Qingshan; Berry, Daniel J; Trousdale, Robert T

    2008-06-01

    The extended femoral trochanteric osteotomy allows excellent exposure of the proximal femoral canal, which facilitates resection of the canal's contents during revision total hip arthroplasty. Once the proximal femoral canal has been evacuated and a new femoral component has been placed, the osteotomy should be fixed in proper position to allow healing. The purpose of our study was to compare the fixation of an extended trochanteric osteotomy using 2 vs 3 braided cables with regard to stiffness, peak force, axial displacement, transverse displacement, and angular displacement using an in vitro biomechanical model. Nine paired cadaver femurs were loaded to failure. Movement at the osteotomy site before failure was recorded using a motion analysis system. There was no statistically significant difference between 2 vs 3 cables with regard to stiffness, peak force, or displacement in the 3 planes tested. Peak force and stiffness were both greater in the 3-cable group, whereas angular and transverse displacement were less in the 2-cable construct. PMID:18514870

  3. Human cadaver retina model for retinal heating during corneal surgery with a femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hui; Fan, Zhongwei; Yun, Jin; Zhao, Tianzhuo; Yan, Ying; Kurtz, Ron M.; Juhasz, Tibor

    2014-02-01

    Femtosecond lasers are widely used in everyday clinical procedures to perform minimally invasive corneal refractive surgery. The intralase femtosecond laser (AMO Corp. Santa Ana, CA) is a common example of such a laser. In the present study a numerical simulation was developed to quantify the temperature rise in the retina during femtosecond intracorneal surgery. Also, ex-vivo retinal heating due to laser irradiation was measured with an infrared thermal camera (Fluke Corp. Everett, WA) as a validation of the simulation. A computer simulation was developed using Comsol Multiphysics to calculate the temperature rise in the cadaver retina during femtosecond laser corneal surgery. The simulation showed a temperature rise of less than 0.3 degrees for realistic pulse energies for the various repetition rates. Human cadaver retinas were irradiated with a 150 kHz Intralase femtosecond laser and the temperature rise was measured withan infrared thermal camera. Thermal camera measurements are in agreement with the simulation. During routine femtosecond laser corneal surgery with normal clinical parameters, the temperature rise is well beneath the threshold for retina damage. The simulation predictions are in agreement with thermal measurements providing a level of experimental validation.

  4. A cadaver knee simulator to evaluate the biomechanics of rectus femoris transfer.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Michael C; Brown, Nicholas A T; Bachus, Kent N; Macwilliams, Bruce A

    2009-07-01

    A cadaver knee simulator has been developed to model surgical transfer of the rectus femoris. The simulator allows knee specimens six degrees of freedom and is capable of modeling both the swing and stance phases of human gait. Experiments were conducted using a mechanical hinge analog of the knee to verify that time, flexion angle, and knee extension force measurements recorded when using the simulator were not influenced by its design or operation. A ballistic double pendulum model was used to model the swing phase of gait, and the contributions of hip and ankle torques and hamstrings cocontraction were included when modeling the stance phase of gait. When modeling swing, range of motion and time to peak knee flexion in swing for the hinge knee were similar to those of in vivo test subjects. Measurements of hinge knee extension force when modeling stance under various biomechanical conditions matched those predicted using an analytical model. Future studies using cadaver knee specimens will apply techniques described in this paper to further our understanding of changes in knee biomechanics caused by rectus femoris transfer surgery. PMID:19403312

  5. Determination of clozapine in hair and nail: the role of keratinous biological materials in the identification of a bloated cadaver case.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hang; Xiang, Ping; Shen, Min

    2014-02-01

    Keratinous biological materials, such as hair and nails, offer a substantially longer retrospective window of detection compared to other body fluids. Little research on drug analysis in nails is currently being conducted. In this study, the hair and nails from a bloated cadaver was analyzed. The study showed that the forensic toxicology results of keratinous biological materials could provide valuable clues for solving cases. In this study, a method was developed for the extraction and analysis of clozapine from hair and nails. The keratinous bio-samples were washed and then pulverized using a freeze mill. After ultrasonic bath extraction, the supernatants were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS/MS). The method presented in this study proved to be reliable, specific, selective and sensitive with high precision and accuracy. Clozapine was found in both hair and nails from a long term user's remains, even after serious decomposition. The mean concentration of clozapine in the hair was 322.9 pg/mg and 138.3 pg/mg in the nails. Toxicological results helped police narrow the scope of the investigation and improved the efficiency of the breaking of the case. The findings of the present study demonstrated that the method can be used in forensic investigation. Toxicological results increased the efficiency of cadaver identification and the solving of the case. The study demonstrated that hair and nail analysis could provide vital clues for solving cases and showed the value of keratinous biological materials in the forensics field. PMID:24485424

  6. Effects of a novel entomopathogenic nematode-infected host formulation on cadaver integrity, nematode yield, and suppression of Diaprepes abbreviatus and Aethina tumida.

    PubMed

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Morales-Ramos, Juan A; Rojas, Maria G; Tedders, Walker L

    2010-02-01

    An alternative approach to applying entomopathogenic nematodes entails the distribution of nematodes in their infected insect hosts. Protection of the infected host from rupturing, and improving ease of handling, may be necessary to facilitate application. In this study our objective was to test the potential of a new method of formulating the infected hosts, i.e., enclosing the infected host in masking tape. Tenebrio molitor L. cadavers infected with Heterorhabditis indica Poinar, Karunakar and David or Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) were wrapped in tape using an automatic packaging machine; the machine was developed to reduce labor and to standardize the final product. The effects of the tape formulation on the ability to protect the cadavers from mechanical damage, nematode yield, and pest control efficacy were tested. After exposure to mechanical agitation at 7-d-post-infection, S. carpocapsae cadavers in tape were more resistant to rupture than cadavers without tape, yet H. indica cadavers 7-d-post-infection were not affected by mechanical agitation (with or without tape), nor was either nematode affected when 4-d-old cadavers were tested. Experiments indicated that infective juvenile yield was not affected by the tape formulation. Laboratory experiments were conducted measuring survival of the root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.), or the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida Murray, after the application of two H. indica-infected hosts with or without tape per 15 cm pot (filled with soil). A greenhouse experiment was also conducted in a similar manner measuring survival of D. abbreviatus. In all experiments, both the tape and no-tape treatments caused significant reductions in insect survival relative to the control, and no differences were detected between the nematode treatments. Fifteen days post-application, the infected host treatments caused up to 78% control in A. tumida, 91% control in D. abbreviatus in the lab, and 75% in the greenhouse. These

  7. [Present and aspects for cadaver surgical training in Japan].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Eiji

    2015-03-01

    In overseas countries the cadaver surgical training (CST) has been very common as evaluation systems for new operative method and medical devices. However, in Japan basic autopsy training is indispensable for nurturing doctors at schools of medicine, while the clinical doctors have been using cadavers for the progress and technique, or the like, of a surgery with the scope of clinical autopsy. In the consequence, in 2013 the guideline "Autopsy for clinical medicine training and research" was put in effect over a series of discussions for the purpose of society acknowledgement of CST. The subsidized project "Training for the development of practical technique of a surgery" by the Ministry of Health and Labor has been offered publicly for private organizations and expected a nationwide expansion. I review the current situation of CST in Japan and introduce CST at Ehime University School of Medicine. This editorial is based on the background of CST in Japan and referred to the outlook for the future. PMID:25743555

  8. Comparison of catheter tip migration using flexible and stimulating catheters inserted into the adductor canal in a cadaver model.

    PubMed

    Webb, Christopher A J; Kim, T Edward; Funck, Natasha; Howard, Steven K; Harrison, T Kyle; Ganaway, Toni; Keng, Heidi; Mariano, Edward R

    2015-06-01

    Use of adductor canal blocks and catheters for perioperative pain management following total knee arthroplasty is becoming increasingly common. However, the optimal equipment, timing of catheter insertion, and catheter dislodgement rate remain unknown. A previous study has suggested, but not proven, that non-tunneled stimulating catheters may be at increased risk for catheter migration and dislodgement after knee manipulation. We designed this follow-up study to directly compare tip migration of two catheter types after knee range of motion exercises. In a male unembalmed human cadaver, 30 catheter insertion trials were randomly assigned to one of two catheter types: flexible or stimulating. All catheters were inserted using an ultrasound-guided short-axis in-plane technique. Intraoperative knee manipulation similar to that performed during surgery was simulated by five sequential range of motion exercises. A blinded regional anesthesiologist performed caliper measurements on the ultrasound images before and after exercise. Changes in catheter tip to nerve distance (p = 0.547) and catheter length within the adductor canal (p = 0.498) were not different between groups. Therefore, catheter type may not affect the risk of catheter tip migration when placed prior to knee arthroplasty. PMID:25510467

  9. Species comparative studies and cognitive development.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Juan-Carlos

    2005-03-01

    The comparative study of infant development and animal cognition brings to cognitive science the promise of insights into the nature and origins of cognitive skills. In this article, I review a recent wave of comparative studies conducted with similar methodologies and similar theoretical frameworks on how two core components of human cognition--object permanence and gaze following--develop in different species. These comparative findings call for an integration of current competing accounts of developmental change. They further suggest that evolution has produced developmental devices capable at the same time of preserving core adaptive components, and opening themselves up to further adaptive change, not only in interaction with the external environment, but also in interaction with other co-developing cognitive systems. PMID:15737820

  10. A Comparative Study of Sparse Associative Memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gripon, Vincent; Heusel, Judith; Löwe, Matthias; Vermet, Franck

    2016-05-01

    We study various models of associative memories with sparse information, i.e. a pattern to be stored is a random string of 0s and 1s with about log N 1s, only. We compare different synaptic weights, architectures and retrieval mechanisms to shed light on the influence of the various parameters on the storage capacity.

  11. The Student Teaching Experience: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Judy D.

    This paper describes a 1996 study that compared the student teaching experiences of a traditional and a nontraditional student to ascertain what differences in their experiences might imply about teacher preparation. The two students kept journals that could be written in at any time of the day. They recorded their impressions of their situation…

  12. A Comparative Study of Sparse Associative Memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gripon, Vincent; Heusel, Judith; Löwe, Matthias; Vermet, Franck

    2016-07-01

    We study various models of associative memories with sparse information, i.e. a pattern to be stored is a random string of 0s and 1s with about log N 1s, only. We compare different synaptic weights, architectures and retrieval mechanisms to shed light on the influence of the various parameters on the storage capacity.

  13. Medical Students' Reactions to Anatomic Dissection and the Phenomenon of Cadaver Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Austin D.; Greenwald, Emily E.; Soricelli, Rhonda L.; DePace, Dennis M.

    2014-01-01

    The teaching of gross anatomy has, for centuries, relied on the dissection of human cadavers, and this formative experience is known to evoke strong emotional responses. The authors hypothesized that the phenomenon of cadaver naming is a coping mechanism used by medical students and that it correlates with other attitudes about dissection and body…

  14. Medical students' reactions to anatomic dissection and the phenomenon of cadaver naming.

    PubMed

    Williams, Austin D; Greenwald, Emily E; Soricelli, Rhonda L; DePace, Dennis M

    2014-01-01

    The teaching of gross anatomy has, for centuries, relied on the dissection of human cadavers, and this formative experience is known to evoke strong emotional responses. The authors hypothesized that the phenomenon of cadaver naming is a coping mechanism used by medical students and that it correlates with other attitudes about dissection and body donation. The authors developed a 33-question electronic survey to which 1,156 medical students at 12 medical schools in the United States voluntarily responded (November 2011-March 2012). They also surveyed course directors from each institution regarding their curricula and their observations of students' coping mechanisms. The majority of students (574, 67.8%) named their cadaver. Students most commonly cited the cadaver's age as the reason they chose a particular name for the cadaver. A minority of the students who did not name the cadaver reported finding the practice of naming disrespectful. Almost all students indicated that they would have liked to know more about their donor, particularly his or her medical history. Finally, students who knew the birth name of the donor used it less frequently than predicted. The authors found that the practice of naming cadavers is extremely prevalent among medical students and that inventive naming serves as a beneficial coping mechanism. The authors suggest that developing a method of providing students with more information about their cadaver while protecting the anonymity of the donor and family would be useful. PMID:23913911

  15. A Proposal for a Policy on the Ethical Care and Use of Cadavers and Their Tissues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champney, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    Recent events have occurred that indicate the need for policies on the ethical care and use of cadavers and their tissues in the United States. At present, there are policies that address the procurement, handling and disposition of cadavers, but there are no national or society sponsored policies that clearly state the ethically appropriate use…

  16. An Economical Approach to Teaching Cadaver Anatomy: A 10-Year Retrospective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Jeff S.

    2014-01-01

    Because of shrinking budgets and computerized virtual dissection programs, many large and small institutions are closing the door on traditional and expensive cadaver dissection classes. However, many health-care educators would argue there is still a place for cadaver dissection in higher education, so the continuing challenge is to provide the…

  17. Development of a desiccated cadaver delivery system to apply entomopathogenic nematodes for control of soil pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pentomopathogenic nematodes may be more capable of controlling soil pests when they are harbored by desiccated cadavers. A small-scale system was developed from a modified crop seed planter to effectively deliver desiccated nematode-infected cadavers into the soil. The system mainly consists of a me...

  18. The utilization of stable isotope analysis for the estimation of the geographic origins of unidentified cadavers.

    PubMed

    McLean, Stuart J; Ikegaya, Hiroshi; Saukko, Pekka J; Zheng, Huang Yung; Itoh, Kyoko; Fushiki, Shinji

    2014-12-01

    The number of unidentified cadavers is increasing worldwide and the effective methods which reveal their geographic origin are not well known. This study reports on the utilization of δ(18)O, δ(13)C, δ(2)H and δ(15)N ratios gained through stable isotope analysis of urine samples collected from eight locations: Chiba, Japan; Fuzhou, China; and Denpasar, Indonesia in our pilot study with data from healthy volunteers from five further locations from healthy volunteers: Melbourne and Perth, Australia; Qingdao, China; Turku, Finland and Oklahoma, USA. This study posits that the utilization of δ(18)O and δ(2)H is more feasible than δ(13)C and δ(15)N stable isotope ratios in differentiating or estimating the origin of human samples. Secondly, this study demonstrated that the δ(18)O and δ(2)H stable isotope ratios of urine samples from eight locations differed significantly. PMID:25447173

  19. Robotic replacement of the descending aorta in human cadaver.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Norihiko; Sun, You Su; Nifong, L Wiley; Ohtake, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Go; Chitwood, W Randolph

    2006-09-01

    Robot-assisted replacement of the thoracic aorta was performed in a human cadaver. Temporary shunt bypass was established by inserting a left axillary artery catheter and directing it through the aortic arch toward the right femoral artery through the abdominal aorta. The technique utilized the da Vinci surgical system inserted through the 4-cm supramammary working port and two additional thoracoscopic ports. The working port allowed the introduction of an endoscope, endoscopic instruments, and artificial graft and suture materials. The aorta was dissected using the robotic instruments and was clamped with two transthoracic clamps. After transaction of the aorta, a 20-mm polytetrafluoroethylene graft was cut and an end-to-end anastomosis was then performed with running 3-0 Prolene sutures with robotic instruments. The robotic system provides superior optics and allows for enhanced dexterity. Minimally invasive robotic replacement of the descending aorta is an effective procedure and may add benefits for both surgeon and patients. PMID:16934102

  20. Radical thoracoscopic lobectomy with lymphadenectomy in a cadaver model

    PubMed Central

    Hoksch, Beatrix; Ablaßmaier, Bernhard; Walter, Michael; Müller, Joachim M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective Because the standard thoracoscopic lobectomy in bronchial carcinoma is often criticized for assumed incomplete lymph-node dissection and oncologic radicality, thoracoscopic lymphadenectomy (TL) was investigated as one step of a scientific investigation for developing a method of complete thoracoscopic resection of bronchial carcinoma. Design A cadaver model (n = 13) was used to investigate the technique of thoracoscopic radical hilar lobectomy and mediastinal lymphadenectomy. Intervention TL followed by a large anterolateral exploratory thoracotomy to evaluate the safety and radicality of TL. Results The mean (and standard deviation) number of lymph nodes resected was 15.6 (4.3). On follow-up exploration, no residual tissue was found at the hilar stump or residual lymph nodes. No other intrathoracic lesions were found. Conclusions TL with radical hilar and mediastinal lymphadenectomy by the described tehcnique can be accomplished according to current oncologic regulations. PMID:12387546

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of juxtapapillary plaques in cadaver eyes.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, D F; Mieler, W F; Jaffe, G J; Robertson, D M; Hendrix, L

    1990-01-01

    Adequate treatment of juxtapapillary melanomas with episcleral plaque brachytherapy using lower energy radiation sources may be difficult because of uncertainties regarding the relationship of the plaque to the optic nerve and tumour base. We obtained magnetic resonance images of a dummy plaque placed in a juxtapapillary location in cadaver specimens. Although it is possible to place a plaque in close association with the optic nerve sheath, a tissue barrier exists which may prevent actual contact between the plaque and nerve. Posterior tilting of the plaque may also occur. Because of these uncertainties regarding plaque placement, juxtapapillary melanomas should be considered a distinct subgroup when evaluating the efficacy of radioactive plaque brachytherapy in the treatment of choroidal melanoma. Images PMID:2306444

  2. Evaluating synteny for improved comparative studies

    PubMed Central

    Ghiurcuta, Cristina G.; Moret, Bernard M. E.

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Comparative genomics aims to understand the structure and function of genomes by translating knowledge gained about some genomes to the object of study. Early approaches used pairwise comparisons, but today researchers are attempting to leverage the larger potential of multi-way comparisons. Comparative genomics relies on the structuring of genomes into syntenic blocks: blocks of sequence that exhibit conserved features across the genomes. Syntenic blocs are required for complex computations to scale to the billions of nucleotides present in many genomes; they enable comparisons across broad ranges of genomes because they filter out much of the individual variability; they highlight candidate regions for in-depth studies; and they facilitate whole-genome comparisons through visualization tools. However, the concept of syntenic block remains loosely defined. Tools for the identification of syntenic blocks yield quite different results, thereby preventing a systematic assessment of the next steps in an analysis. Current tools do not include measurable quality objectives and thus cannot be benchmarked against themselves. Comparisons among tools have also been neglected—what few results are given use superficial measures unrelated to quality or consistency. Results: We present a theoretical model as well as an experimental basis for comparing syntenic blocks and thus also for improving or designing tools for the identification of syntenic blocks. We illustrate the application of the model and the measures by applying them to syntenic blocks produced by three different contemporary tools (DRIMM-Synteny, i-ADHoRe and Cyntenator) on a dataset of eight yeast genomes. Our findings highlight the need for a well founded, systematic approach to the decomposition of genomes into syntenic blocks. Our experiments demonstrate widely divergent results among these tools, throwing into question the robustness of the basic approach in comparative genomics. We have taken

  3. Comminuted olecranon fracture fixation with pre-contoured plate: Comparison of composite and cadaver bones

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton Jr, David A; Reilly, Danielle; Wipf, Felix; Kamineni, Srinath

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether use of a precontoured olecranon plate provides adequate fixation to withstand supraphysiologic force in a comminuted olecranon fracture model. METHODS: Five samples of fourth generation composite bones and five samples of fresh frozen human cadaveric left ulnae were utilized for this study. The cadaveric specimens underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scanning to quantify the bone quality. The composite and cadaveric bones were prepared by creating a comminuted olecranon fracture and fixed with a pre-contoured olecranon plate with locking screws. Construct stiffness and failure load were measured by subjecting specimens to cantilever bending moments until failure. Fracture site motion was measured with differential variable resistance transducer spanning the fracture. Statistical analysis was performed with two-tailed Mann-Whitney-U test with Monte Carlo Exact test. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in fixation stiffness and strength between the composite bones and human cadaver bones. Failure modes differed in cadaveric and composite specimens. The load to failure for the composite bones (n = 5) and human cadaver bones (n = 5) specimens were 10.67 nm (range 9.40-11.91 nm) and 13.05 nm (range 12.59-15.38 nm) respectively. This difference was statistically significant (P ˂ 0.007, 97% power). Median stiffness for composite bones and human cadaver bones specimens were 5.69 nm/mm (range 4.69-6.80 nm/mm) and 7.55 nm/mm (range 6.31-7.72 nm/mm). There was a significant difference for stiffness (P ˂ 0.033, 79% power) between composite bones and cadaveric bones. No correlation was found between the DEXA results and stiffness. All cadaveric specimens withstood the physiologic load anticipated postoperatively. Catastrophic failure occurred in all composite specimens. All failures resulted from composite bone failure at the distal screw site and not hardware failure. There were no catastrophic fracture failures in the cadaveric

  4. Doxofylline and Theophylline: A Comparative Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Akram, MD Faiz; Nasiruddin, Mohammad; Ahmad, Zuber; Ali Khan, Rahat

    2012-01-01

    Objectives COPD is one of the major public health problems worldwide. Theophylline has been used in the treatment of COPD for decades. Doxofylline a new theophylline congener has been claimed to have better safety profile. The study was undertaken to compare theophylline and doxophylline at doses recommended and commonly used in clinical practice. Methods The study was conducted in patients of COPD in TB chest department of a medical college hospital. It was randomized, prospective and open label. A total of 154 patients were divided in two group .Group I was administered 400 mg theophylline SR once daily and group II was administered doxofylline 400 mg twice a day orally. Spirometric variables symptom score, and adverse effects were recorded on day 0, 7 and 21 of therapy. Data were compared and analysed using SPSS version 16. Results Results of the study showed that there was no statistically significant difference with respect to spirometric variables and symptom score in the two groups and there was no significant difference in two groups with respect to side effects (p>0.05). Conclusions It is concluded that doxophylline has no advantage over theophylline in terms of either efficacy or safety on the doses commonly used in current clinical practice. PMID:23373027

  5. Comparative study of INPIStron and spark gap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Kwang S.; Lee, Ja H.

    1993-01-01

    An inverse pinch plasma switch, INPIStron, was studied in comparison to a conventional spark gap. The INPIStron is under development for high power switching applications. The INPIStron has an inverse pinch dynamics, opposed to Z-pinch dynamics in the spark gap. The electrical, plasma dynamics and radiative properties of the closing plasmas have been studied. Recently the high-voltage pulse transfer capabilities or both the INPIStron and the spark gap were also compared. The INPIStron with a low impedance Z = 9 ohms transfers 87 percent of an input pulse with a halfwidth of 2 mu s. For the same input pulse the spark gap of Z = 100 ohms transfers 68 percent. Fast framing and streak photography, taken with an TRW image converter camera, was used to observe the discharge uniformity and closing plasma speed in both switches. In order to assess the effects of closing plasmas on erosion of electrode material, emission spectra of two switches were studied with a spectrometer-optical multi channel analyzer (OMA) system. The typical emission spectra of the closing plasmas in the INPIStron and the spark gap showed that there were comparatively weak carbon line emission in 658.7 nm and copper (electrode material) line emissions in the INPIStron, indicating low erosion of materials in the INPIStron.

  6. EFQPSK Versus CERN: A Comparative Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borah, Deva K.; Horan, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    This report presents a comparative study on Enhanced Feher's Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (EFQPSK) and Constrained Envelope Root Nyquist (CERN) techniques. These two techniques have been developed in recent times to provide high spectral and power efficiencies under nonlinear amplifier environment. The purpose of this study is to gain insights into these techniques and to help system planners and designers with an appropriate set of guidelines for using these techniques. The comparative study presented in this report relies on effective simulation models and procedures. Therefore, a significant part of this report is devoted to understanding the mathematical and simulation models of the techniques and their set-up procedures. In particular, mathematical models of EFQPSK and CERN, effects of the sampling rate in discrete time signal representation, and modeling of nonlinear amplifiers and predistorters have been considered in detail. The results of this study show that both EFQPSK and CERN signals provide spectrally efficient communications compared to filtered conventional linear modulation techniques when a nonlinear power amplifier is used. However, there are important differences. The spectral efficiency of CERN signals, with a small amount of input backoff, is significantly better than that of EFQPSK signals if the nonlinear amplifier is an ideal clipper. However, to achieve such spectral efficiencies with a practical nonlinear amplifier, CERN processing requires a predistorter which effectively translates the amplifier's characteristics close to those of an ideal clipper. Thus, the spectral performance of CERN signals strongly depends on the predistorter. EFQPSK signals, on the other hand, do not need such predistorters since their spectra are almost unaffected by the nonlinear amplifier, Ibis report discusses several receiver structures for EFQPSK signals. It is observed that optimal receiver structures can be realized for both coded and uncoded EFQPSK

  7. A Comparative Study of Mammalian Diversification Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wenhua; Xu, Junxiao; Wu, Yi; Yang, Guang

    2012-01-01

    Although mammals have long been regarded as a successful radiation, the diversification pattern among the clades is still poorly known. Higher-level phylogenies are conflicting and comprehensive comparative analyses are still lacking. Using a recently published supermatrix encompassing nearly all extant mammalian families and a novel comparative likelihood approach (MEDUSA), the diversification pattern of mammalian groups was examined. Both order- and family-level phylogenetic analyses revealed the rapid radiation of Boreoeutheria and Euaustralidelphia in the early mammalian history. The observation of a diversification burst within Boreoeutheria at approximately 100 My supports the Long Fuse model in elucidating placental diversification progress, and the rapid radiation of Euaustralidelphia suggests an important role of biogeographic dispersal events in triggering early Australian marsupial rapid radiation. Diversification analyses based on family-level diversity tree revealed seven additional clades with exceptional diversification rate shifts, six of which represent accelerations in net diversification rate as compared to the background pattern. The shifts gave origin to the clades Muridae+Cricetidae, Bovidae+Moschidae+Cervidae, Simiiformes, Echimyidae, Odontoceti (excluding Physeteridae+Kogiidae+Platanistidae), Macropodidae, and Vespertilionidae. Moderate to high extinction rates from background and boreoeutherian diversification patterns indicate the important role of turnovers in shaping the heterogeneous taxonomic richness observed among extant mammalian groups. Furthermore, the present results emphasize the key role of extinction on erasing unusual diversification signals, and suggest that further studies are needed to clarify the historical radiation of some mammalian groups for which MEDUSA did not detect exceptional diversification rates. PMID:22457604

  8. Comparative Study of Vented vs. Unvented Crawlspaces

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Kaushik; Christian, Jeffrey E; Gehl, Anthony C

    2011-10-01

    There has been a significant amount of research in the area of building energy efficiency and durability. However, well-documented quantitative information on the impact of crawlspaces on the performance of residential structures is lacking. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of two crawlspace strategies on the whole-house performance of a pair of houses in a mixed humid climate. These houses were built with advanced envelope systems to provide energy savings of 50% or more compared to traditional 2010 new construction. One crawlspace contains insulated walls and is sealed and semi-conditioned. The other is a traditional vented crawlspace with insulation in the crawlspace ceiling. The vented (traditional) crawlspace contains fiberglass batts installed in the floor chase cavities above the crawl, while the sealed and insulated crawlspace contains foil-faced polyisocyanurate foam insulation on the interior side of the masonry walls. Various sensors to measure temperatures, heat flux through crawlspace walls and ceiling, and relative humidity were installed in the two crawlspaces. Data from these sensors have been analyzed to compare the performance of the two crawlspace designs. The analysis results indicated that the sealed and insulated crawlspace design is better than the traditional vented crawlspace in the mixed humid climate.

  9. Sectioned Images and Surface Models of a Cadaver for Understanding the Dorsalis Pedis Flap.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Hyung Jun; Kim, Bong Chul

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to represent the dorsalis pedis (DP) flap on sectioned images and surface models using Visible Korean for medical education and clinical training in the field of maxillofacial reconstructive surgery. Serially sectioned images of the foot were obtained from a cadaver. The important structures in the sectioned images were outlined and stacked to create a surface model. The PDF file (53 MB) of the assembled models is accessible for free download on the Department of Anatomy at Ajou University School of Medicine Web site (http://anatomy.co.kr). In this file, the significant anatomic structures of the DP flap can be inspected in the sectioned images. All surface models and stereoscopic structures of the DP flap are described in real time. We hope that these state-of-the-art sectioned images, outlined images, and surface models will help students and trainees gain a better understanding of the DP flap anatomy. PMID:26079120

  10. Comparative study of heart sound localization algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moukadem, A.; Dieterlen, A.; Hueber, N.; Brandt, C.; Raymond, P.

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this document is to present a comparative study of five algorithms of heart sound localization, one of which, is a method based on radial basis function networks applied in a novel approach. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are evaluated according to a data base of 50 subjects in which there are 25 healthy subjects selected from the University Hospital of Strasbourg (HUS) and from theMARS500 project (Moscow) and 25 subjects with cardiac pathologies selected from the HUS. This study is made under the control of an experienced cardiologist. The performance of each method is evaluated by calculating the area under a receiver operating curve (AUC) and the robustness is shown against different levels of additive white Gaussian noise.

  11. Pairing Fluctuations Above Tc: A Comparative Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verga, Simona; Gooding, Robert J.; Marsiglio, Frank

    2003-03-01

    Although the investigation of superconductivity in High Tc Cuprates has been extensive, its microscopic origin is still under debate. An important experimental fact is the universality of many properties of the cuprates (the low dimensionality, the d-wave symmetry of the superconducting gap and the pseudogap), which must be reproduced by any competitive theory. While there is no consensus about the 'glue' that binds two electrons in a pair, one can gain insight by simply providing it, without questioning its nature. The Attractive Hubbard Model for electrons on a lattice provides the means for such an approach, but even if it simplifies the picture considerably, in the coupling regime of interest one needs to rely on approximate theories. We present a comparative study of different versions of the T-matrix approximation in the atomic limit (strong coupling), where the existence of analytical solutions enables us to test how well the approximations work. We also employ a non-perturbative approach due to Y. M. Vilk and A.-M. S. Tremblay and compare it with the T-matrix and the analytical solutions. We discuss the relevance of such a study for other coupling regimes and more realistic models.

  12. The transrectal single port laparoscopic radical prostatectomy in a cadaver model

    PubMed Central

    Akça, Oktay; Zargar, Homayoun; Autorino, Riccardo; Brandao, Luis Felipe; Gürler, Ahmet Selçuk; Avşar, Abdullah; Horuz, Rahim; Albayrak, Selami

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the feasibility of laparoscopic trans-rectal Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) radical prostatectomy in a cadaveric model and to define anatomical landmarks of this surgical route. Materials and methods: After the ethical clearance, the study was conducted in Turkish Council of Forensic Medicine. With the cadaver in an exaggerated lithotomy position, a full thickness incision was made on the anterior wall of the rectum. The anteriorly visible Denonvilliers’ fascia was incised sharply, exposing the posterior surface of the prostate. A single-port device (GelPOINT®Path) was inserted transanally passing the incision on the anterior wall of the rectum, into the bluntly created space between rectum and prostate. Three, 10 mm ports were placed through the GelPOINT®Path, at 3, 6, and 9 o’clock positions. A 5 mm, 0° degree lens was introduced at 6 o’clock position; followed by laparoscopic scissors and laparoscopic grasper. Prostatic and periprostatic anatomy was defined as encountered during each step of the procedure. Results: Exposure of the posterior surface of the prostate and seminal vesicles was easily achieved. No additional openings of the rectal wall were made. Surgical specimen was extracted keeping its integrity. Conclusion: Transrectal radical prostatectomy is technically feasible in the cadaver model, being facilitated by previous experience with perineal surgery. Anatomical observations during the present experimental study suggest that the transrectal NOTES route provides good exposure of the operative field and easy access to the posterior surface of prostate, Future experimental endeavors should focus on reproducibility of this approach and feasibility of lymph node dissection using trans-rectal route. PMID:26328206

  13. Training Medical Novices in Spinal Microsurgery: Does the Modality Matter? A Pilot Study Comparing Traditional Microscopic Surgery and a Novel Robotic Optoelectronic Visualization Tool

    PubMed Central

    Tubbs, R. Shane; Page, Jeni; Chapman, Alexandra; Burgess, Brittni; Laws, Tyler; Warren, Haylie; Oskouian, Rod J

    2016-01-01

    The operative microscope has been a staple instrument in the neurosurgical operating room over the last 50 years. With advances in optoelectronics, options such as robotically controlled high magnification have become available. Such robotically controlled optoelectronic systems may offer new opportunities in surgical technique and teaching. However, traditionally trained surgeons may find it hard to accept newer technologies due to an inherent bias emerging from their previous background. We, therefore, studied how a medically naïve population in a pilot study would meet set microsurgical goals in a cadaver experiment using either a conventional operative microscope or BrightMatter™ Servo system, ​a robotically controlled optoelectronic system (Synaptive Medical, Toronto, Ontario, Canada). We found that the relative ease in teaching medical novices with a robotically controlled optoelectronic system was more valuable when compared to using a modern-day surgical microscope. PMID:26973804

  14. Scatterometry or imaging overlay: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Simon C. C.; Pai, Yuan Chi; Chen, Charlie; Yu, Chun Chi; Hsing, Henry; Wu, Hsing-Chien; Kuo, Kelly T. L.; Amir, Nuriel

    2015-03-01

    Most fabrication facilities today use imaging overlay measurement methods, as it has been the industry's reliable workhorse for decades. In the last few years, third-generation Scatterometry Overlay (SCOL™) or Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO-1) technology was developed, along another DBO technology (DBO-2). This development led to the question of where the DBO technology should be implemented for overlay measurements. Scatterometry has been adopted for high volume production in only few cases, always with imaging as a backup, but scatterometry overlay is considered by many as the technology of the future. In this paper we compare imaging overlay and DBO technologies by means of measurements and simulations. We outline issues and sensitivities for both technologies, providing guidelines for the best implementation of each. For several of the presented cases, data from two different DBO technologies are compared as well, the first with Pupil data access (DBO-1) and the other without pupil data access (DBO-2). Key indicators of overlay measurement quality include: layer coverage, accuracy, TMU, process robustness and robustness to process changes. Measurement data from real cases across the industry are compared and the conclusions are also backed by simulations. Accuracy is benchmarked with reference OVL, and self-consistency, showing good results for Imaging and DBO-1 technology. Process sensitivity and metrology robustness are mostly simulated with MTD (Metrology Target Designer) comparing the same process variations for both technologies. The experimental data presented in this study was done on ten advanced node layers and three production node layers, for all phases of the IC fabrication process (FEOL, MEOL and BEOL). The metrology tool used for most of the study is KLA-Tencor's Archer 500LCM system (scatterometry-based and imaging-based measurement technologies on the same tool) another type of tool is used for DBO-2 measurements. Finally, we conclude that

  15. A comparative study on monitored anesthesia care

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Jayashree; Sen, Bitan

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness, hemodynamic changes and duration of sedation and analgesia between combinations of fortwin-phenergan-midazolam (FPM) and ketamine - midazolam (KM) along with local anesthesia for the surgeries done under the umbrella of monitored anesthesia care. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 patients undergoing surgeries as tympanoplasty, septoplasty, lip repair, dacrocystectomy and cataract under local anesthesia, randomly received either intravenous (IV) fortwin 0.3 mg/kg over 1 min followed by IV midazolam 0.04 mg/kg plus IV phenergan 12.5 mg (Group FPM) or IV ketamine 0.3 mg/kg over 1 min plus IV midazolam 0.04 mg/kg (Group KM). Sedation was titrated to Ramsay sedation score (RSS) of 3. Patients’ mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), saturation peripheral pulse, duration of sedation and need for intraoperative rescue sedation/analgesic were recorded and compared. Satisfaction of patients (using a 1-7 point Likert verbal rating scale) and readiness for discharge towards (time to Aldrete score of 10) were also determined. Result: Group KM had significant rise in HR (20-25%) and MAP (25-30%) from 30 min after the bolus dose given until the end of the surgery in contrast to Group FPM. The target sedation level (RSS ≥ 3) was higher in Group FPM (n = 23 [92%]) as compared with Group KM (n = 12 [48%]). Time until need for rescue sedation was 66.96 ± 17.19 min in FPM and 32.80 ± 8.90 min in KM group. The patient satisfaction (Likert scale) is more with the FPM group (6.12 ± 0.83 vs. 4.40 ± 1.20). Conclusion: We found that the combination of FPM is superior to the KM combination as per the hemodynamic changes, duration of analgesia, patients’ satisfaction and efficacy of the drugs are concerned. PMID:25886327

  16. Death, cadavers and post-mortem biomedical research: a point of view from a Christian community.

    PubMed

    Charlier, Philippe; Joly, Alain; Champagnat, Julie; Brun, Luc; de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy Lorin; Hervé, Christian

    2013-12-01

    Facing modern developments of medicine and biomedical researches, religious communities are a strong source of ethics principles and orientations. Human dignity does not disappear after life, in a context of biomedical research on cadavers. Moral, political, social and scientific aspects of research on human cadavers (mainly autopsies) have been widely discussed in biomedical publications, whereas the religious ones (which could be predominant for some) have rarely been analyzed and presented. This article will present the results of a survey carried out a French Benedictine Abbey (relative to death, cadaver's status and biomedical research) and subsequent Christian background according to canonic texts and practical cases from anthropological, historical, archeological and biomedical origin. PMID:22782433

  17. Water Ice in Comets: A Comparative Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protopapa, Silvia; Sunshine, J.; Feaga, L. M.; Kelley, M. S.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Farnham, T.; DIXI Team

    2013-06-01

    Processes involving the sublimation of volatiles dominate cometary activity and drive the release of ancient material from within the nucleus into the coma. As comets are kept cold for most of their history, they contain the least processed primordial materials that accumulated into the giant planets. In addition, comets may have delivered their ices and organics to the primitive Earth. The Deep Impact eXtended Investigation (DIXI) to comet Hartley 2 revealed a highly active comet with bright icy-rich jets. We present a detailed characterization of the composition and texture of the ices and refractories in the inner-most coma of Hartley 2, closer than a few kilometers from the surface. This analysis is conducted using laboratory measurements of optical constants of cometary analog materials. We also discuss the implications of these findings on the accretion process that led to the formation of cometary nuclei and therefore of planets. The physical makeup of the ice grains in comet Hartley 2 is compared with that of water ice in the interior, surface, and coma of other comets (e.g., 9P/Tempel 1, C/2002 T7 (LINEAR), 17P/Holmes). Through this comparative study, we investigate how ice is redistributed from the interior to the surface and ultimately into the coma of comets.

  18. Comparative Study of Airfoil Flow Separation Criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laws, Nick; Kahouli, Waad; Epps, Brenden

    2015-11-01

    Airfoil flow separation impacts a multitude of applications including turbomachinery, wind turbines, and bio-inspired micro-aerial vehicles. In order to achieve maximum performance, some devices operate near the edge of flow separation, and others use dynamic flow separation advantageously. Numerous criteria exist for predicting the onset of airfoil flow separation. This talk presents a comparative study of a number of such criteria, with emphasis paid to speed and accuracy of the calculations. We evaluate the criteria using a two-dimensional unsteady vortex lattice method, which allows for rapid analysis (on the order of seconds instead of days for a full Navier-Stokes solution) and design of optimal airfoil geometry and kinematics. Furthermore, dynamic analyses permit evaluation of dynamic stall conditions for enhanced lift via leading edge vortex shedding, commonly present in small flapping-wing flyers such as the bumblebee and hummingbird.

  19. Comparative microscopy study of Vibrio cholerae flagella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konnov, Nikolai P.; Baiburin, Vil B.; Zadnova, Svetlana P.; Volkov, Uryi P.

    1999-06-01

    A fine structure of bacteria flagella is an important problem of molecular cell biology. Bacteria flagella are the self-assembled structures that allow to use the flagellum protein in a number of biotechnological applications. However, at present, there is a little information about high resolution scanning probe microscopy study of flagellum structure, in particular, about investigation of Vibrio cholerae flagella. In our lab have been carried out the high resolution comparative investigation of V. cholerae flagella by means of various microscopes: tunneling (STM), scanning force (SFM) and electron transmission. As a scanning probe microscope is used designed in our lab versatile SPM with replaceable measuring heads. Bacteria were grown, fixed and treated according to the conventional techniques. For STM investigations samples were covered with Pt/Ir thin films by rotated vacuum evaporation, in SFM investigations were used uncovered samples. Electron microscopy of the negatively stained bacteria was used as a test procedure.

  20. Supracostal percutaneous nephrolithotomy: A prospective comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Maneesh; Krishnappa, Pramod; Subudhi, Santosh Kumar; Krishnamoorthy, Venkatesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: A widely prevalent fear of thoracic complications with the supracostal approach has led to its underutilization in percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). We frequently use the supracostal approach and compared the efficacy and thoracic complications of infracostal, supra 12th, and supra 11th punctures. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study of patients who underwent PCNL between January 2005 and December 2012. The patients were divided into three groups based on the access: infracostal, supra 12th (between the 11th and 12th ribs) and supra 11th (between the 10th and 11th ribs). Clearance rates, fall in hemoglobin levels, transfusion rates, perioperative analgesic requirements, hospital stay and thoracic complications were compared. Results: Seven hundred patients were included for analysis. There were 179 (25.5%) patients in the supra 11th group, 187 (26.7%) patients in the supra 12th group and 334 (47.8%) patients in the infracostal group. The overall clearance rate was 78% with no difference in the three groups. The postoperative analgesic requirements were significantly higher in the supracostal groups and showed a graded increase from infracostal to supra 12th to supra 11th. During the study period, only 2 patients required angioembolization (0.3%) and none required open exploration. The number of patients requiring intercostal chest drain insertion was extremely low, at 1.6% and 2.2% in the supra 12th and supra 11th groups, respectively. Conclusions: Our results confirm the feasibility of the supracostal approach including punctures above the 11th rib, albeit at the cost of an increase in thoracic complications. Staying in the line of the calyx has helped us to minimize the most dreaded complication of bleeding requiring angioembolization. PMID:26941494

  1. Using “Sub-cement” to simulate the long-term fatigue response of cemented femoral stems in a cadaver model: could a novel pre-clinical screening test have caught the Exeter matte problem?

    PubMed Central

    Race, Amos; Miller, Mark A.; Mann, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    Previously, we formulated cement with degraded fatigue properties (sub-cement) to simulate long-term fatigue in short-term cadaver tests. The present study determined the efficacy of sub-cement in a `pre-clinical' test of a design change with known clinical consequences: the “polished” to “matte” transition of the Exeter stem (revision rates were twice as high for matte stems). Contemporary stems were bead-blasted to give Ra=1micron (matte finish). Matte and polished stems were compared in cadaver pairs under stair-climbing loads (3 pairs size-1, 3 pairs size-3). Stem micromotion was monitored during loading. Post-test, transverse sections were examined for cement damage. Cyclic retroversion decreased for polished stems but increased for matte stems (p<0.0001). Implant size had a substantial effect: retroversion of (larger) size-3 stems was half that of size-1 stems and polished size-3 stems subsided 2½ times more than the others. Cement damage measures were similar and open through-cracks occurred around both stems of two pairs. Stem retroversion within the mantle resulted in stem-cement gaps of 50–150microns. Combining information on cyclic motion, cracks, and gaps, we concluded that this test `predicted' higher revision rates for matte stems (it also implied that polished size-3 stems might be superior to size-1). PMID:20476506

  2. Comparative study of pressure-flow parameters.

    PubMed

    Eri, Lars M; Wessel, Nicolai; Tysland, Ole; Berge, Viktor

    2002-01-01

    Methods for quantification of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) are still controversial. Parameters such as detrusor opening pressure (p(det.open)), maximum detrusor pressure (p(det.max)), minimum voiding pressure (p(det.min.void)), and detrusor pressure at maximum flow rate (P(det.Qmax)) separate obstructed from nonobstructed patients to some extent, but two nomograms, the Abrams-Griffiths nomogram and the linearized passive urethral resistance relation (LinPURR), are more accepted for this purpose, along with the urethral resistance algorithm. In this retrospective, methodologic study, we evaluated the properties of these parameters with regard to test-retest reproducibility and ability to detect a moderate (pharmacologic) and a pronounced (surgical) relief of bladder outlet obstruction. We studied the pressure-flow charts of 42 patients who underwent 24 weeks of androgen suppressive therapy, 42 corresponding patients who received placebo, and 30 patients who had prostate surgery. The patients performed repeat void pressure-flow examinations before and after treatment or placebo. The various parameters were compared. Among the bladder pressure parameters, P(det.Qmax) seemed to have some advantages, supporting the belief that it is the most relevant detrusor pressure parameter to include in nomograms to quantify BOO. In assessment of a large decrease in urethral resistance, such as after TURp, resistance parameters that are based on maximum flow rate as well as detrusor pressure are preferable. PMID:11948710

  3. A comparative study of depot injection techniques.

    PubMed

    Quartermaine, S; Taylor, R

    Depot injections of long-acting neuroleptic drugs, by maintaining a consistent drug regime, together with regular contact with health-care professionals, are an important factor in helping psychiatric patients who live in the community. As these injections are administered over a long period--often for years--it is important that care is taken to minimise discomfort and to reduce the incidence of problems at the injection site. Seepage of even small amounts of the medication will result in an inaccurate dose being absorbed and, owing to the irritant nature of many of these drugs, leakage into subcutaneous tissue and on to the skin surface can cause pain, irritation and lesions. This study was set up to compare two techniques of administering deep intramuscular injections to determine which best fulfilled the criteria of preventing seepage while causing as little discomfort as possible. The two methods used were the Z-track, which is standard practice in the UK, and the air bubble, which is widely taught and used in Canada and the USA. The study showed the air-bubble method to be significantly more effective at controlling seepage than the Z-track. PMID:7644369

  4. Biomechanical loading test on reconstructed mandibles with fibular, iliac crest or scapula graft: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Grohmann, Isabella; Raith, Stefan; Mücke, Thomas; Stimmer, Herbert; Rohleder, Nils; Kesting, Marco R; Hölzle, Frank; Steiner, Timm

    2015-10-01

    Advantages and disadavantages of the three most commonly-used bone grafts for mandibular reconstruction are widely known, but biomechanical experimental studies are rare. We have done loading tests on cadaveric mandibles reconstructed with fibular, iliac crest, and scapular grafts using 3 different osteosynthesis systems to detect and compare their primary stability. Loading tests were done on mandibles with grafts from the fibula and iliac crest and published previously. A 4.5cm paramedian L-type defect was reconstructed with scapula using 2 monocortical non-locking plates, 2 monocortical locking plates, or a single bicortical locking plate/fracture gap in 18 human cadaveric mandibles. These were loaded on to the "Mandibulator" test bench and the movement of fragments in 3 dimensions was assessed and quantified by a PONTOS® optical measurement system. Comparison of the osteosynthesis groups showed that the miniplate was significantly superior to the 6-hole TriLock® plate for both fibular and iliac crest grafts. The fibular graft gave greater stability than the iliac crest and scapular grafts for all 3 osteosynthesis systems. All bony specimens offered sufficient resistance to mechanical stress within the recognised range of biting forces after mandibular reconstruction, independently of the choice of bone graft and osteosynthesis system used. Anatomical and surgical advantages need to be taken into account when choosing a graft. Stability can be maximised with a fibular graft, and further optimised by enlarging the binding area by using the "double barrel" method. Computer simulated experiments could segregate factors that biased results, such as morphological differences among cadavers. PMID:26088156

  5. Periodontal files--a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Pasquini, R; Clark, S M; Baradaran, S; Adams, D F

    1995-12-01

    Periodontal files are used by many dentists for instrumentation of root surfaces as a part of periodontal treatment. The purposes of this study were: 1) to examine, evaluate, and compare several periodontal files in 3 different conditions: new, used, and used/sharpened and 2) to evaluate the efficacy of 5 sharpening devices. The main characteristics observed included: the number, shape, and interval of blades; the active, rake, and lip angles; changes induced by wear; the influence of sharpening; and the type of metal surfaces comprising the blades. There was a wide range of active angles on each individual file, from a high of 75 degrees to a low of 51 degrees. The range of active angles for all blades on all new files was even greater, from a high of 87 degrees to a low of 30 degrees. Wear, observed on some but not all blades, was not extensive and appeared either as abrasion or, occasionally, as fracture of the blade edge. Sharpness scores (5 = sharpest and 1 = dullest) for new file blades were also extremely variable and spanned the full range of values, with a majority of blades scoring 3.5 and below. Attempts to sharpen files with several devices produced inconsistent results. All 5 sharpening devices had significant shortcomings. It was concluded that the extreme ranges both in active angles and in sharpness scores probably have a significant influence on effectiveness of root instrumentation. PMID:8683416

  6. Assays for mammalian tyrosinase: a comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Jara, J.R.; Solano, F.; Lozano, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    This work describes a comparative study of the tyrosinase activity determined using three methods which are the most extensively employed; two radiometric assays using L-tyrosine as substrate (tyrosine hydroxylase and melanin formation activities) and one spectrophotometric assay using L-dopa (dopa oxidase activity). The three methods were simultaneously employed to measure the activities of the soluble, melanosomal, and microsomal tyrosinase isozymes from Harding-Passey mouse melanoma through their purification processes. The aim of this study was to find any correlation among the tyrosinase activities measured by the three different assays and to determine whether that correlation varied with the isozyme and its degree of purification. The results show that mammalian tyrosinase has a greater turnover number for L-dopa than for L-tyrosine. Thus, enzyme activity, expressed as mumol of substrate transformed per min, is higher in assays using L-dopa as substrate than those using L-tyrosine. Moreover, the percentage of hydroxylated L-tyrosine that is converted into melanin is low and is affected by several factors, apparently decreasing the tyrosinase activity measured by the melanin formation assay. Bearing these considerations in mind, average interassay factors are proposed. Their values are 10 to transform melanin formation into tyrosine hydroxylase activity, 100 to transform tyrosine hydroxylase into dopa oxidase activity, and 1,000 to transform melanin formation into dopa oxidase activity. Variations in these values due to the presence in the tyrosinase preparations of either inhibitors or regulatory factors in melanogenesis independent of tyrosinase are also discussed.

  7. Visualizing Iron Deposition in Multiple Sclerosis Cadaver Brains

    SciTech Connect

    Habib, A.C.; Zheng, W.; Haacke, E.M.; Webb, S.; Nichol, H.; /SLAC

    2012-07-17

    To visualize and validate iron deposition in two cases of multiple sclerosis using rapid scanning X-Ray Fluorescence (RS-XRF) and Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI). Two (2) coronal cadaver brain slices from patients clinically diagnosed with multiple sclerosis underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), specifically SWI to image iron content. To confirm the presence of iron deposits and the absence of zinc-rich myelin in lesions, iron and zinc were mapped using RS-XRF. MS lesions were visualized using FLAIR and correlated with the absence of zinc by XRF. XRF and SWI showed that in the first MS case, there were large iron deposits proximal to the draining vein of the caudate nucleus as well as iron deposits associated with blood vessels throughout the globus pallidus. Less iron was seen in association with lesions than in the basal ganglia. The presence of larger amounts of iron correlated reasonably well between RS-XRF and SWI. In the second case, the basal ganglia appeared normal and acute perivascular iron deposition was absent. Perivascular iron deposition is seen in some but not all MS cases, giving credence to the use of SWI to assess iron involvement in MS pathology in vivo.

  8. Visualizing Iron Deposition in Multiple Sclerosis Cadaver Brains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, Charbel A.; Zheng, Weili; Mark Haacke, E.; Webb, Sam; Nichol, Helen

    2010-07-01

    Aim: To visualize and validate iron deposition in two cases of multiple sclerosis using rapid scanning X-Ray Fluorescence (RS-XRF) and Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI). Material and Methods: Two (2) coronal cadaver brain slices from patients clinically diagnosed with multiple sclerosis underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), specifically SWI to image iron content. To confirm the presence of iron deposits and the absence of zinc-rich myelin in lesions, iron and zinc were mapped using RS-XRF. Results: MS lesions were visualized using FLAIR and correlated with the absence of zinc by XRF. XRF and SWI showed that in the first MS case, there were large iron deposits proximal to the draining vein of the caudate nucleus as well as iron deposits associated with blood vessels throughout the globus pallidus. Less iron was seen in association with lesions than in the basal ganglia. The presence of larger amounts of iron correlated reasonably well between RS-XRF and SWI. In the second case, the basal ganglia appeared normal and acute perivascular iron deposition was absent. Conclusion: Perivascular iron deposition is seen in some but not all MS cases, giving credence to the use of SWI to assess iron involvement in MS pathology in vivo.

  9. Visualizing Iron Deposition in Multiple Sclerosis Cadaver Brains

    SciTech Connect

    Habib, Charbel A.; Zheng Weili; Mark Haacke, E.; Webb, Sam; Nichol, Helen

    2010-07-23

    Aim: To visualize and validate iron deposition in two cases of multiple sclerosis using rapid scanning X-Ray Fluorescence (RS-XRF) and Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI). Material and Methods: Two (2) coronal cadaver brain slices from patients clinically diagnosed with multiple sclerosis underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), specifically SWI to image iron content. To confirm the presence of iron deposits and the absence of zinc-rich myelin in lesions, iron and zinc were mapped using RS-XRF. Results: MS lesions were visualized using FLAIR and correlated with the absence of zinc by XRF. XRF and SWI showed that in the first MS case, there were large iron deposits proximal to the draining vein of the caudate nucleus as well as iron deposits associated with blood vessels throughout the globus pallidus. Less iron was seen in association with lesions than in the basal ganglia. The presence of larger amounts of iron correlated reasonably well between RS-XRF and SWI. In the second case, the basal ganglia appeared normal and acute perivascular iron deposition was absent. Conclusion: Perivascular iron deposition is seen in some but not all MS cases, giving credence to the use of SWI to assess iron involvement in MS pathology in vivo.

  10. Ethical issues surrounding the use of images from donated cadavers in the anatomical sciences.

    PubMed

    Cornwall, Jon; Callahan, David; Wee, Richman

    2016-01-01

    Body donor programs rely on the generosity and trust of the public to facilitate the provision of cadaver resources for anatomical education and research. The uptake and adoption of emerging technologies, including those allowing the acquisition and distribution of images, are becoming more widespread, including within anatomical science education. Images of cadavers are useful for research and education, and their supply and distribution have commercial potential for textbooks and online education. It is unclear whether the utilization of images of donated cadavers are congruent with donor expectations, societal norms and boundaries of established public understanding. Presently, no global "best practices" or standards exist, nor is there a common model requiring specific image-related consent from body donors. As ongoing success of body donation programs relies upon the ethical and institutional governance of body utilization to maintain trust and a positive relationship with potential donors and the community, discussions considering the potential impact of image misuse are important. This paper discusses the subject of images of donated cadavers, commenting on images in non-specific use, education, research, and commercial applications. It explores the role and significance of such images in the context of anatomical science and society, and discusses how misuse - including unconsented use - of images has the potential to affect donor program success, suggesting that informed consent is currently necessary for all images arising from donated cadavers. Its purpose is to encourage discussion to guide responsible utilization of cadaver images, while protecting the interests of body donors and the public. PMID:26474731

  11. Endotracheal intubation with a traditional videolaryngoscope blade versus an integrated suction blade in a hemorrhagic airway cadaver model.

    PubMed

    Wadman, Michael C; Nicholas, Thomas A; Bernhagen, Mary A; Kuper, Gail M; Schmidt, Steven; Massignan, Jason; Boedeker, Ben H

    2013-01-01

    Lightly embalmed hemorrhagic cadaver models and the Storz CMAC videolaryngoscope fitted with either an integrated suction blade vs. a traditional blade were used to determine efficacy of the instruments in hemorrhagic airway intubation. Significant differences were found between the devices in intubation success rates of the viscosity saliva and frothy blood models, as well as a significant difference in intubation times in the frothy blood model. Feedback provided by the study participants indicated preference for the integrated video suction blade in hemorrhagic airway intubation. PMID:23400204

  12. Comparative Study of Two Automatic Registration Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, D.; Bethel, J.; Crawford, M.

    2013-10-01

    The Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm is prevalent for the automatic fine registration of overlapping pairs of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data. This method along with its vast number of variants, obtains the least squares parameters that are necessary to align the TLS data by minimizing some distance metric between the scans. The ICP algorithm uses a "model-data" concept in which the scans obtain differential treatment in the registration process depending on whether they were assigned to be the "model" or "data". For each of the "data" points, corresponding points from the "model" are sought. Another concept of "symmetric correspondence" was proposed in the Point-to-Plane (P2P) algorithm, where both scans are treated equally in the registration process. The P2P method establishes correspondences on both scans and minimizes the point-to-plane distances between the scans by simultaneously considering the stochastic properties of both scans. This paper studies both the ICP and P2P algorithms in terms of their consistency in registration parameters for pairs of TLS data. The question being investigated in this paper is, should scan A be registered to scan B, will the parameters be the same if scan B were registered to scan A? Experiments were conducted with eight pairs of real TLS data which were registered by the two algorithms in the forward (scan A to scan B) and backward (scan B to scan A) modes and the results were compared. The P2P algorithm was found to be more consistent than the ICP algorithm. The differences in registration accuracy between the forward and backward modes were negligible when using the P2P algorithm (mean difference of 0.03 mm). However, the ICP had a mean difference of 4.26 mm. Each scan was also transformed by the forward and backward parameters of the two algorithms and the misclosure computed. The mean misclosure for the P2P algorithm was 0.80 mm while that for the ICP algorithm was 5.39 mm. The conclusion from this study is

  13. A comparative study of articular cartilage thickness in the stifle of animal species used in human pre-clinical studies compared to articular cartilage thickness in the human knee.

    PubMed

    Frisbie, D D; Cross, M W; McIlwraith, C W

    2006-01-01

    Histological measurements of the thickness of non-calcified and calcified cartilage, as well as the subchondral bone plate in five locations on the femoral trochlea and medial femoral condyles of species were used in preclinical studies of articular cartilage and compared to those of the human knee. Cadaver specimens were obtained of six human knees, as well as six equine, six goat, six dog, six sheep and six rabbit stifle joints (the animal equivalent of the human knee). Specimens were taken from the lateral trochlear ridge, medial trochlear ridge and medial femoral condyle. After histopathological processing, the thickness of non-calcified and calcified cartilage layers, as well as the subchondral bone plate, was measured. Average articular cartilage thickness over five locations were 2.2-2.5 mm for human, 0.3 mm for rabbit, 0.4-0.5 mm for sheep, 0.6-1.3 mm for dog, 0.7-1.5 mm for goat and 1.5-2 mm for horse. The horse provides the closest approximation to humans in terms of articular cartilage thickness, and this approximation is considered relevant in pre-clinical studies of cartilage healing. PMID:16971996

  14. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF VIDEO TAPE RECORDINGS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WIENS, JACOB H.

    THE COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF PRESENTLY AVAILABLE VIDEO TAPE MACHINES IS REPORTED, FOR THE CONVENIENCE OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS PLANNING TO USE SUCH EQUIPMENT IN EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS. TESTS WERE CONDUCTED AT THE WIENS ELECTRONIC LABORATORIES. MACHINE BRANDS TESTED WERE AMPEX, CONCORD, MACHTRONICS, PRECISION, RCA, SONY, AND WOLLENSAK. A DETAILED…

  15. Flip This Classroom: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unruh, Tiffany; Peters, Michelle L.; Willis, Jana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to compare the beliefs and attitudes of teachers using the flipped versus the traditional class model. Survey and interview data were collected from a matched sample of in-service teachers representing both models from a large suburban southeastern Texas school district. The Attitude Towards Technology Scale, the…

  16. Counseling in Costa Rica: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    With one of the world's most comprehensive universal healthcare systems, medical tourism in Costa Rica has increased significantly over the past few decades. American tourists save up to 80% of comparative costs for procedures, from heart surgery to root canal treatment. Although many Costa Rican healthcare professionals receive training in North…

  17. Bacterial contamination control mats: a comparative study.

    PubMed Central

    Meddick, H. M.

    1977-01-01

    The ability of six different types of contamination control mats currently in use at the entrances to theatre suites and other clean areas to remove bacteria-carrying particles from theatre trolley wheeels was compared. Marked differences in the effectiveness of this property were obtained; and all mats showed some disadvantages. Modification of one of the mats has resulted in improved efficiency under working conditions. Images Plate 1 PMID:267665

  18. A comparison of sonography and radiography student scores in a cadaver anatomy class before and after the implementation of synchronous distance education.

    PubMed

    Bagley, Jennifer Elaine; Randall, K; Anderson, M P

    2015-02-01

    Distance education is a solution to expand medical imaging education to students who might not otherwise be able to obtain the education. It can be a mechanism to reduce the health care worker shortage in underserved areas. In some cases, distance education may be a disruptive technology, and might lower student performance. This study compares student scores in a cadaver anatomy course in the four cohorts preceding the implementation of distance education to the first three cohorts that took the course using a multiple campus design. The means and medians of the lecture exam average, the laboratory component score, and the final course score of the nondistance education cohorts were compared with those of the distance education cohorts using nonparametric statistical analysis. Scores in an anatomy course were compared by campus placement among the distance education cohorts, and the independent effect of distance education on the laboratory component, lecture examination average, and final course scores, while controlling for cumulative grade point average and site (originating/distant), was assessed. Students receiving the course in a nondistance education environment scored higher in the anatomy course than the students who took the course in a distance education environment. Students on the distant campus scored lower than students on the originating site. Distance education technology creates new opportunities for learning, but can be a disruptive technology. Programs seeking to implement distance education into their curriculum should do so with knowledge of the advantages and disadvantages. PMID:27433237

  19. A comparison of sonography and radiography student scores in a cadaver anatomy class before and after the implementation of synchronous distance education

    PubMed Central

    Randall, K; Anderson, MP

    2015-01-01

    Distance education is a solution to expand medical imaging education to students who might not otherwise be able to obtain the education. It can be a mechanism to reduce the health care worker shortage in underserved areas. In some cases, distance education may be a disruptive technology, and might lower student performance. This study compares student scores in a cadaver anatomy course in the four cohorts preceding the implementation of distance education to the first three cohorts that took the course using a multiple campus design. The means and medians of the lecture exam average, the laboratory component score, and the final course score of the nondistance education cohorts were compared with those of the distance education cohorts using nonparametric statistical analysis. Scores in an anatomy course were compared by campus placement among the distance education cohorts, and the independent effect of distance education on the laboratory component, lecture examination average, and final course scores, while controlling for cumulative grade point average and site (originating/distant), was assessed. Students receiving the course in a nondistance education environment scored higher in the anatomy course than the students who took the course in a distance education environment. Students on the distant campus scored lower than students on the originating site. Distance education technology creates new opportunities for learning, but can be a disruptive technology. Programs seeking to implement distance education into their curriculum should do so with knowledge of the advantages and disadvantages. PMID:27433237

  20. Comparative transport studies of ``1212'' superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    GAPUD,ALBERT; WU,JUDY; YAN,SHAOLIN; XIE,YI-YUAN; KANG,BYEONGWON; SIEGAL,MICHAEL P.; OVERMYER,DONALD L.

    2000-05-17

    HgBa{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 6+{delta}} (Hg-1212) thin films were fabricated by exchanging the TI cations in TlBa{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 7-{delta}} (Tl-1212) thin films with Hg cations, causing a 30-K increase in Tc. To determine how this exchange effects such a Tc increase, the irreversibility lines, temperature dependence of critical current density, and temperature dependence of Hall angle of Hg-1212 and T1-1212 thin films were measured and then compared. The results strongly suggest that the Tc shift is caused by a doubling of charge carrier density.

  1. Comparative study of some new EPR dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alzimami, K. S.; Maghraby, Ahmed M.; Bradley, D. A.

    2014-02-01

    Investigations have been made of four new radiation dosimetry EPR candidates from the same family of materials: sulfamic acid, sulfanillic acid, homotaurine, and taurine. Mass energy attenuation coefficients, mass stopping power values and the time dependence of the radiation induced radicals are compared. Also investigated are the microwave saturation behavior and the effect of applied modulation amplitude on both peak-to-peak line width (WPP) and peak-to-peak signal height (HPP). The dosimeters are characterized by simple spectra and stable radiation-induced radicals over reasonable durations, especially in taurine dosimeters. Sulfamic acid dosimeters possessed the highest sensitivity followed by taurine and homotaurine and sulfanillic.

  2. COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF HERPETOMONADS AND LEISHMANIAS

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Hideyo; Tilden, Evelyn B.

    1926-01-01

    obtained in culture, all the strains grow well on leptospira medium, as well as on blood slants. Growth takes place both at 26°C. and at 37°. The morphology of the organisms is considerably modified by cultivation. This is especially true of the plant flagellates. In the latex they have ribbon-like bodies, often twisted, and comparatively short flagella; the protoplasm is clear, almost hyaline. The flagellates seen in the gut and feces of insects are usually large, slender organisms, with flagella as long as or even longer than the body, which contains numerous volutin granules in the cytoplasm. In cultures under parallel conditions the flagellates from both these sources become shorter and thicker, the plant forms no longer appear flat and ribbon-like, and in general the organisms approach one another in morphological features. Even in the case of the least modified insect flagellates, i.e. those from flies, there is never exact correspondence between the natural and the cultivated forms. The morphological features of the cultivated flagellates vary according to the medium on which the organisms are grown and the age of the culture. The flagellates grown on the surface of blood slants are pyriform, with truncated anterior portion, and short flagellum; in the condensation water, however, the individuals are elongated and have long active flagella. On the leptospira medium the slender active forms with long flagella predominate. In the presence of fermentable carbohydrate, or in medium containing considerable acid, peculiar bifurcated or multifurcated individuals are seen. Similar forms have been seen under natural conditions. Cultures of Leishmania behave in the same way under the conditions described. There is a striking difference in rapidity of growth between the organisms isolated by us and the leishmanias, H. ctenocephali, and T. rotatorium. While the stock cultures of the group first mentioned multiply rapidly at 37°C., growth becoming visible within 24 hours, the

  3. Comparative study of five blood cardioplegia systems.

    PubMed

    Byrne, C J; Bednarski, A J; Beckley, P D

    1994-12-01

    Five blood cardioplegia delivery systems (Gish Straight Shot, Sorin BCD Advanced, Avecor MYOtherm, Baxter-Bentley HE-30, and Baxter-Bentley HE-30 Gold) were evaluated with respect to ease of rapid priming, coefficient of heat exchange, pressure drop, bubble trap capacity, and priming volume. Each system was placed in a roller pump circuit consisting of source and collection reservoirs, cardioplegia solution, and pre-post system pressure and temperature monitoring sites. A trial was performed on four units of each brand by first priming the circuit with 0.9% NaCl at 200 ml/min. Bovine blood (hematocrit 22%) was then introduced simulating use during bypass. Pressure drops across the heat exchanger were measured at flows of 200, 300, and 400 ml/min and at temperatures of 37 degrees, 19 degrees, and 4 degrees C. Coefficient of heat exchange was determined at 300 ml/min flow. Air was infused into the system to quantify the bubble trap capacity of the heat exchanger module. Priming volume of the entire system and of the heat exchanger module were determined by draining each into a graduated cylinder. The Sorin system had significantly less priming volume when compared to all others. The HE-30 units had significantly higher heat exchange coefficients compared to all other systems. Variability was noted in pressure drop at the highest flows and lowest temperatures. PMID:10150681

  4. A Comparative Study of Compression Video Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Chris A.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of compression devices used to increase the cost effectiveness of teleconferences by reducing satellite bandwidth requirements for the transmission of television pictures and accompanying audio signals. The main body of the report describes the comparison study of compression rates and their…

  5. A methodology to condition distorted acoustic emission signals to identify fracture timing from human cadaver spine impact tests.

    PubMed

    Arun, Mike W J; Yoganandan, Narayan; Stemper, Brian D; Pintar, Frank A

    2014-12-01

    While studies have used acoustic sensors to determine fracture initiation time in biomechanical studies, a systematic procedure is not established to process acoustic signals. The objective of the study was to develop a methodology to condition distorted acoustic emission data using signal processing techniques to identify fracture initiation time. The methodology was developed from testing a human cadaver lumbar spine column. Acoustic sensors were glued to all vertebrae, high-rate impact loading was applied, load-time histories were recorded (load cell), and fracture was documented using CT. Compression fracture occurred to L1 while other vertebrae were intact. FFT of raw voltage-time traces were used to determine an optimum frequency range associated with high decibel levels. Signals were bandpass filtered in this range. Bursting pattern was found in the fractured vertebra while signals from other vertebrae were silent. Bursting time was associated with time of fracture initiation. Force at fracture was determined using this time and force-time data. The methodology is independent of selecting parameters a priori such as fixing a voltage level(s), bandpass frequency and/or using force-time signal, and allows determination of force based on time identified during signal processing. The methodology can be used for different body regions in cadaver experiments. PMID:25241279

  6. The living dead: bacterial community structure of a cadaver at the onset and end of the bloat stage of decomposition.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Embriette R; Haarmann, Daniel P; Lynne, Aaron M; Bucheli, Sibyl R; Petrosino, Joseph F

    2013-01-01

    Human decomposition is a mosaic system with an intimate association between biotic and abiotic factors. Despite the integral role of bacteria in the decomposition process, few studies have catalogued bacterial biodiversity for terrestrial scenarios. To explore the microbiome of decomposition, two cadavers were placed at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science facility and allowed to decompose under natural conditions. The bloat stage of decomposition, a stage easily identified in taphonomy and readily attributed to microbial physiology, was targeted. Each cadaver was sampled at two time points, at the onset and end of the bloat stage, from various body sites including internal locations. Bacterial samples were analyzed by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Our data show a shift from aerobic bacteria to anaerobic bacteria in all body sites sampled and demonstrate variation in community structure between bodies, between sample sites within a body, and between initial and end points of the bloat stage within a sample site. These data are best not viewed as points of comparison but rather additive data sets. While some species recovered are the same as those observed in culture-based studies, many are novel. Our results are preliminary and add to a larger emerging data set; a more comprehensive study is needed to further dissect the role of bacteria in human decomposition. PMID:24204941

  7. Comparative results of 327 chemical carcinogenicity studies.

    PubMed Central

    Haseman, J K; Huff, J E; Zeiger, E; McConnell, E E

    1987-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) have carried out a number of laboratory animal carcinogenicity studies and presented the results of these experiments in a series of Technical Reports. This paper tabulates the results of the 327 NCI/NTP studies carried out to date on 308 distinct chemicals, and discusses certain issues relevant to the evaluation of carcinogenicity in these experiments. This compilation of results from NCI/NTP carcinogenicity experiments provides a large database that can be used to study structure-activity correlations, interspecies concordance, and associations between laboratory animal carcinogenicity and other toxicological effects. PMID:3691430

  8. A Comparative Study of Landmine Detection Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasban, H.; Zahran, O.; Elaraby, Sayed M.; El-Kordy, M.; Abd El-Samie, F. E.

    2010-09-01

    Several countries suffer from the existence of millions of buried landmines in their territories. These landmines have indefinite life, and may still cause horrific personal injuries and economic dislocation for decades after a war has finished. Therefore, there is a growing demand by these countries for reliable landmine inspection systems. There are several landmine detection techniques that can be used for this purpose. Each technique is suitable for detection under some conditions depending on the type of the landmine case, the explosive material, and the soil. This paper presents an overview of some of the existing landmine detection techniques. These techniques are briefly described and their merits and drawbacks are highlighted and compared. The purpose of this comparison is to shows the ideal conditions and the challenges for each technique. Furthermore, a comparison between landmine detection techniques from the points of view of cost, complexity, speed, safety, false alarm rate and effect of environmental conditions is presented.

  9. In vitro dose measurements in a human cadaver with abdomen/pelvis CT scans

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Da; Padole, Atul; Li, Xinhua; Singh, Sarabjeet; Khawaja, Ranish Deedar Ali; Lira, Diego; Liu, Tianyu; Shi, Jim Q.; Otrakji, Alexi; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; Xu, X. George; Liu, Bob

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To present a study of radiation dose measurements with a human cadaver scanned on a clinical CT scanner. Methods: Multiple point dose measurements were obtained with high-accuracy Thimble ionization chambers placed inside the stomach, liver, paravertebral gutter, ascending colon, left kidney, and urinary bladder of a human cadaver (183 cm in height and 67.5 kg in weight) whose abdomen/pelvis region was scanned repeatedly with a multidetector row CT. The flat energy response and precision of the dosimeters were verified, and the slight differences in each dosimeter's response were evaluated and corrected to attain high accuracy. In addition, skin doses were measured for radiosensitive organs outside the scanned region with OSL dosimeters: the right eye, thyroid, both nipples, and the right testicle. Three scan protocols were used, which shared most scan parameters but had different kVp and mA settings: 120-kVp automA, 120-kVp 300 mA, and 100-kVp 300 mA. For each protocol three repeated scans were performed. Results: The tube starting angle (TSA) was found to randomly vary around two major conditions, which caused large fluctuations in the repeated point dose measurements: for the 120-kVp 300 mA protocol this angle changed from approximately 110° to 290°, and caused 8% − 25% difference in the point dose measured at the stomach, liver, colon, and urinary bladder. When the fluctuations of the TSA were small (within 5°), the maximum coefficient of variance was approximately 3.3%. The soft tissue absorbed doses averaged from four locations near the center of the scanned region were 27.2 ± 3.3 and 16.5 ± 2.7 mGy for the 120 and 100-kVp fixed-mA scans, respectively. These values were consistent with the corresponding size specific dose estimates within 4%. The comparison of the per-100-mAs tissue doses from the three protocols revealed that: (1) dose levels at nonsuperficial locations in the TCM scans could not be accurately deduced by simply scaling the

  10. In vitro dose measurements in a human cadaver with abdomen/pelvis CT scans

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Da; Padole, Atul; Li, Xinhua; Singh, Sarabjeet; Khawaja, Ranish Deedar Ali; Lira, Diego; Shi, Jim Q.; Otrakji, Alexi; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; Liu, Bob; Liu, Tianyu; Xu, X. George

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: To present a study of radiation dose measurements with a human cadaver scanned on a clinical CT scanner. Methods: Multiple point dose measurements were obtained with high-accuracy Thimble ionization chambers placed inside the stomach, liver, paravertebral gutter, ascending colon, left kidney, and urinary bladder of a human cadaver (183 cm in height and 67.5 kg in weight) whose abdomen/pelvis region was scanned repeatedly with a multidetector row CT. The flat energy response and precision of the dosimeters were verified, and the slight differences in each dosimeter's response were evaluated and corrected to attain high accuracy. In addition, skin doses were measured for radiosensitive organs outside the scanned region with OSL dosimeters: the right eye, thyroid, both nipples, and the right testicle. Three scan protocols were used, which shared most scan parameters but had different kVp and mA settings: 120-kVp automA, 120-kVp 300 mA, and 100-kVp 300 mA. For each protocol three repeated scans were performed. Results: The tube starting angle (TSA) was found to randomly vary around two major conditions, which caused large fluctuations in the repeated point dose measurements: for the 120-kVp 300 mA protocol this angle changed from approximately 110° to 290°, and caused 8% − 25% difference in the point dose measured at the stomach, liver, colon, and urinary bladder. When the fluctuations of the TSA were small (within 5°), the maximum coefficient of variance was approximately 3.3%. The soft tissue absorbed doses averaged from four locations near the center of the scanned region were 27.2 ± 3.3 and 16.5 ± 2.7 mGy for the 120 and 100-kVp fixed-mA scans, respectively. These values were consistent with the corresponding size specific dose estimates within 4%. The comparison of the per-100-mAs tissue doses from the three protocols revealed that: (1) dose levels at nonsuperficial locations in the TCM scans could not be accurately deduced by simply scaling the