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Sample records for comparative linkage mapping

  1. A genetic linkage map and comparative mapping of the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) genome

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) is an emerging rodent model for investigating the genetics, evolution and molecular mechanisms of social behavior. Though a karyotype for the prairie vole has been reported and low-resolution comparative cytogenetic analyses have been done in this species, other basic genetic resources for this species, such as a genetic linkage map, are lacking. Results Here we report the construction of a genome-wide linkage map of the prairie vole. The linkage map consists of 406 markers that are spaced on average every 7 Mb and span an estimated ~90% of the genome. The sex average length of the linkage map is 1707 cM, which, like other Muroid rodent linkage maps, is on the lower end of the length distribution of linkage maps reported to date for placental mammals. Linkage groups were assigned to 19 out of the 26 prairie vole autosomes as well as the X chromosome. Comparative analyses of the prairie vole linkage map based on the location of 387 Type I markers identified 61 large blocks of synteny with the mouse genome. In addition, the results of the comparative analyses revealed a potential elevated rate of inversions in the prairie vole lineage compared to the laboratory mouse and rat. Conclusions A genetic linkage map of the prairie vole has been constructed and represents the fourth genome-wide high-resolution linkage map reported for Muroid rodents and the first for a member of the Arvicolinae sub-family. This resource will advance studies designed to dissect the genetic basis of a variety of social behaviors and other traits in the prairie vole as well as our understanding of genome evolution in the genus Microtus. PMID:21736755

  2. Construction of Genetic Linkage Maps and Comparative Genome Analysis of Catfish Using Gene-Associated Markers

    PubMed Central

    Kucuktas, Huseyin; Wang, Shaolin; Li, Ping; He, Chongbo; Xu, Peng; Sha, Zhenxia; Liu, Hong; Jiang, Yanliang; Baoprasertkul, Puttharat; Somridhivej, Benjaporn; Wang, Yaping; Abernathy, Jason; Guo, Ximing; Liu, Lei; Muir, William; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2009-01-01

    A genetic linkage map of the channel catfish genome (N = 29) was constructed using EST-based microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in an interspecific reference family. A total of 413 microsatellites and 125 SNP markers were polymorphic in the reference family. Linkage analysis using JoinMap 4.0 allowed mapping of 331 markers (259 microsatellites and 72 SNPs) to 29 linkage groups. Each linkage group contained 3–18 markers. The largest linkage group contained 18 markers and spanned 131.2 cM, while the smallest linkage group contained 14 markers and spanned only 7.9 cM. The linkage map covered a genetic distance of 1811 cM with an average marker interval of 6.0 cM. Sex-specific maps were also constructed; the recombination rate for females was 1.6 times higher than that for males. Putative conserved syntenies between catfish and zebrafish, medaka, and Tetraodon were established, but the overall levels of genome rearrangements were high among the teleost genomes. This study represents a first-generation linkage map constructed by using EST-derived microsatellites and SNPs, laying a framework for large-scale comparative genome analysis in catfish. The conserved syntenies identified here between the catfish and the three model fish species should facilitate structural genome analysis and evolutionary studies, but more importantly should facilitate functional inference of catfish genes. Given that determination of gene functions is difficult in nonmodel species such as catfish, functional genome analysis will have to rely heavily on the establishment of orthologies from model species. PMID:19171943

  3. Linkage map integration

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, A.; Teague, J.; Morton, N.E.; Keats, B.J.

    1996-08-15

    The algorithms that drive the map+ program for locus-oriented linkage mapping are presented. They depend on the enhanced location database program ldb+ to specify an initial comprehensive map that includes all loci in the summary lod file. Subsequently the map may be edited or order constrained and is automatically improved by estimating the location of each locus conditional on the remainder, beginning with the most discrepant loci. Operating characteristics permit rapid and accurate construction of linkage maps with several hundred loci. The map+ program also performs nondisjunction mapping with tests of nonstandard recombination. We have released map+ on Internet as a source program in the C language together with the location database that now includes the LODSOURCE database. 28 refs., 5 tabs.

  4. Comparative hi-density intraspecific linkage mapping using three elite populations from common parents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-density linkage maps are fundamental to contemporary organismal research and scientific approaches to genetic improvement, especially in paleopolyploids with exceptionally complex genomes, e.g., Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L., 2n=52). Using 3 full-sib intra-specific mapping populations fr...

  5. A genetic linkage map of sole (Solea solea): a tool for evolutionary and comparative analyses of exploited (flat)fishes.

    PubMed

    Diopere, Eveline; Maes, Gregory E; Komen, Hans; Volckaert, Filip A M; Groenen, Martien A M

    2014-01-01

    Linkage maps based on markers derived from genes are essential evolutionary tools for commercial marine fish to help identify genomic regions associated with complex traits and subject to selective forces at play during exploitation or selective breeding. Additionally, they allow the use of genomic information from other related species for which more detailed information is available. Sole (solea solea L.) is a commercially important flatfish species in the North Sea, subject to overexploitation and showing evidence of fisheries-induced evolutionary changes in growth- and maturation-related traits. Sole would definitely benefit from a linkage map to better understand how evolution has shaped its genome structure. This study presents a linkage map of sole based on 423 single nucleotide polymorphisms derived from expressed sequence tags and 8 neutral microsatellite markers. The total map length is 1233.8 cM and consists of 38 linkage groups with a size varying between 0 to 92.1 cM. Being derived from expressed sequence tags allowed us to align the map with the genome of four model fish species, namely medaka (Oryzias latipes), Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and green spotted pufferfish (Tetraodon nigroviridis). This comparison revealed multiple conserved syntenic regions with all four species, and suggested that the linkage groups represent 21 putative sole chromosomes. The map was also compared to the linkage map of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), another commercially important flatfish species and closely related to sole. For all putative sole chromosomes (except one) a turbot homolog was detected, confirming the even higher degree of synteny between these two flatfish species. PMID:25541971

  6. Construction and comparative analyses of highly dense linkage maps of two sweet cherry intra-specific progenies of commercial cultivars.

    PubMed

    Klagges, Carolina; Campoy, José Antonio; Quero-García, José; Guzmán, Alejandra; Mansur, Levi; Gratacós, Eduardo; Silva, Herman; Rosyara, Umesh R; Iezzoni, Amy; Meisel, Lee A; Dirlewanger, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Despite the agronomical importance and high synteny with other Prunus species, breeding improvements for cherry have been slow compared to other temperate fruits, such as apple or peach. However, the recent release of the peach genome v1.0 by the International Peach Genome Initiative and the sequencing of cherry accessions to identify Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) provide an excellent basis for the advancement of cherry genetic and genomic studies. The availability of dense genetic linkage maps in phenotyped segregating progenies would be a valuable tool for breeders and geneticists. Using two sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) intra-specific progenies derived from crosses between 'Black Tartarian' × 'Kordia' (BT×K) and 'Regina' × 'Lapins'(R×L), high-density genetic maps of the four parental lines and the two segregating populations were constructed. For BT×K and R×L, 89 and 121 F(1) plants were used for linkage mapping, respectively. A total of 5,696 SNP markers were tested in each progeny. As a result of these analyses, 723 and 687 markers were mapped into eight linkage groups (LGs) in BT×K and R×L, respectively. The resulting maps spanned 752.9 and 639.9 cM with an average distance of 1.1 and 0.9 cM between adjacent markers in BT×K and R×L, respectively. The maps displayed high synteny and co-linearity between each other, with the Prunus bin map, and with the peach genome v1.0 for all eight LGs (LG1-LG8). These maps provide a useful tool for investigating traits of interest in sweet cherry and represent a qualitative advance in the understanding of the cherry genome and its synteny with other members of the Rosaceae family. PMID:23382953

  7. Construction and Comparative Analyses of Highly Dense Linkage Maps of Two Sweet Cherry Intra-Specific Progenies of Commercial Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Quero-García, José; Guzmán, Alejandra; Mansur, Levi; Gratacós, Eduardo; Silva, Herman; Rosyara, Umesh R.; Iezzoni, Amy; Meisel, Lee A.; Dirlewanger, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Despite the agronomical importance and high synteny with other Prunus species, breeding improvements for cherry have been slow compared to other temperate fruits, such as apple or peach. However, the recent release of the peach genome v1.0 by the International Peach Genome Initiative and the sequencing of cherry accessions to identify Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) provide an excellent basis for the advancement of cherry genetic and genomic studies. The availability of dense genetic linkage maps in phenotyped segregating progenies would be a valuable tool for breeders and geneticists. Using two sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) intra-specific progenies derived from crosses between ‘Black Tartarian’ × ‘Kordia’ (BT×K) and ‘Regina’ × ‘Lapins’(R×L), high-density genetic maps of the four parental lines and the two segregating populations were constructed. For BT×K and R×L, 89 and 121 F1 plants were used for linkage mapping, respectively. A total of 5,696 SNP markers were tested in each progeny. As a result of these analyses, 723 and 687 markers were mapped into eight linkage groups (LGs) in BT×K and R×L, respectively. The resulting maps spanned 752.9 and 639.9 cM with an average distance of 1.1 and 0.9 cM between adjacent markers in BT×K and R×L, respectively. The maps displayed high synteny and co-linearity between each other, with the Prunus bin map, and with the peach genome v1.0 for all eight LGs (LG1–LG8). These maps provide a useful tool for investigating traits of interest in sweet cherry and represent a qualitative advance in the understanding of the cherry genome and its synteny with other members of the Rosaceae family. PMID:23382953

  8. A comparative genetic linkage map of eggplant (Solanum melongena) and its implications for genome evolution in the solanaceae.

    PubMed Central

    Doganlar, Sami; Frary, Anne; Daunay, Marie-Christine; Lester, Richard N; Tanksley, Steven D

    2002-01-01

    A molecular genetic linkage map based on tomato cDNA, genomic DNA, and EST markers was constructed for eggplant, Solanum melongena. The map consists of 12 linkage groups, spans 1480 cM, and contains 233 markers. Comparison of the eggplant and tomato maps revealed conservation of large tracts of colinear markers, a common feature of genome evolution in the Solanaceae and other plant families. Overall, eggplant and tomato were differentiated by 28 rearrangements, which could be explained by 23 paracentric inversions and five translocations during evolution from the species' last common ancestor. No pericentric inversions were detected. Thus, it appears that paracentric inversion has been the primary mechanism for chromosome evolution in the Solanaceae. Comparison of relative distributions of the types of rearrangements that distinguish pairs of solanaceous species also indicates that the frequency of different chromosomal structural changes was not constant over evolutionary time. On the basis of the number of chromosomal disruptions and an approximate divergence time for Solanum, approximately 0.19 rearrangements per chromosome per million years occurred during the evolution of eggplant and tomato from their last ancestor. This result suggests that genomes in Solanaceae, or at least in Solanum, are evolving at a moderate pace compared to other plant species. PMID:12196412

  9. Exploring a Nonmodel Teleost Genome Through RAD Sequencing—Linkage Mapping in Common Pandora, Pagellus erythrinus and Comparative Genomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Manousaki, Tereza; Tsakogiannis, Alexandros; Taggart, John B.; Palaiokostas, Christos; Tsaparis, Dimitris; Lagnel, Jacques; Chatziplis, Dimitrios; Magoulas, Antonios; Papandroulakis, Nikos; Mylonas, Constantinos C.; Tsigenopoulos, Costas S.

    2015-01-01

    Common pandora (Pagellus erythrinus) is a benthopelagic marine fish belonging to the teleost family Sparidae, and a newly recruited species in Mediterranean aquaculture. The paucity of genetic information relating to sparids, despite their growing economic value for aquaculture, provides the impetus for exploring the genomics of this fish group. Genomic tool development, such as genetic linkage maps provision, lays the groundwork for linking genotype to phenotype, allowing fine-mapping of loci responsible for beneficial traits. In this study, we applied ddRAD methodology to identify polymorphic markers in a full-sib family of common pandora. Employing the Illumina MiSeq platform, we sampled and sequenced a size-selected genomic fraction of 99 individuals, which led to the identification of 920 polymorphic loci. Downstream mapping analysis resulted in the construction of 24 robust linkage groups, corresponding to the karyotype of the species. The common pandora linkage map showed varying degrees of conserved synteny with four other teleost genomes, namely the European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax), Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), and medaka (Oryzias latipes), suggesting a conserved genomic evolution in Sparidae. Our work exploits the possibilities of genotyping by sequencing to gain novel insights into genome structure and evolution. Such information will boost the study of cultured species and will set the foundation for a deeper understanding of the complex evolutionary history of teleosts. PMID:26715088

  10. Structure, evolution, and comparative genomics of tetraploid cotton based on a high-density genetic linkage map

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ximei; Jin, Xin; Wang, Hantao; Zhang, Xianlong; Lin, Zhongxu

    2016-01-01

    A high-density linkage map was constructed using 1,885 newly obtained loci and 3,747 previously published loci, which included 5,152 loci with 4696.03 cM in total length and 0.91 cM in mean distance. Homology analysis in the cotton genome further confirmed the 13 expected homologous chromosome pairs and revealed an obvious inversion on Chr10 or Chr20 and repeated inversions on Chr07 or Chr16. In addition, two reciprocal translocations between Chr02 and Chr03 and between Chr04 and Chr05 were confirmed. Comparative genomics between the tetraploid cotton and the diploid cottons showed that no major structural changes exist between DT and D chromosomes but rather between AT and A chromosomes. Blast analysis between the tetraploid cotton genome and the mixed genome of two diploid cottons showed that most AD chromosomes, regardless of whether it is from the AT or DT genome, preferentially matched with the corresponding homologous chromosome in the diploid A genome, and then the corresponding homologous chromosome in the diploid D genome, indicating that the diploid D genome underwent converted evolution by the diploid A genome to form the DT genome during polyploidization. In addition, the results reflected that a series of chromosomal translocations occurred among Chr01/Chr15, Chr02/Chr14, Chr03/Chr17, Chr04/Chr22, and Chr05/Chr19. PMID:27084896

  11. Linkage map construction involving a reciprocal translocation.

    PubMed

    Farré, A; Benito, I Lacasa; Cistué, L; de Jong, J H; Romagosa, I; Jansen, J

    2011-03-01

    This paper is concerned with a novel statistical-genetic approach for the construction of linkage maps in populations obtained from reciprocal translocation heterozygotes of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Using standard linkage analysis, translocations usually lead to 'pseudo-linkage': the mixing up of markers from the chromosomes involved in the translocation into a single linkage group. Close to the translocation breakpoints recombination is severely suppressed and, as a consequence, ordering markers in those regions is not feasible. The novel strategy presented in this paper is based on (1) disentangling the "pseudo-linkage" using principal coordinate analysis, (2) separating individuals into translocated types and normal types and (3) separating markers into those close to and those more distant from the translocation breakpoints. The methods make use of a consensus map of the species involved. The final product consists of integrated linkage maps of the distal parts of the chromosomes involved in the translocation. PMID:21153624

  12. A Microsatellite Genetic Linkage Map for Xiphophorus

    PubMed Central

    Walter, R. B.; Rains, J. D.; Russell, J. E.; Guerra, T. M.; Daniels, C.; Johnston, Dennis A.; Kumar, Jay; Wheeler, A.; Kelnar, K.; Khanolkar, V. A.; Williams, E. L.; Hornecker, J. L.; Hollek, L.; Mamerow, M. M.; Pedroza, A.; Kazianis, S.

    2004-01-01

    Interspecies hybrids between distinct species of the genus Xiphophorus are often used in varied research investigations to identify genomic regions associated with the inheritance of complex traits. There are 24 described Xiphophorus species and a greater number of pedigreed strains; thus, the number of potential interspecies hybrid cross combinations is quite large. Previously, select Xiphophorus experimental crosses have been shown to exhibit differing characteristics between parental species and among the hybrid fishes derived from crossing them, such as widely differing susceptibilities to chemical or physical agents. For instance, genomic regions harboring tumor suppressor and oncogenes have been identified via linkage association of these loci with a small set of established genetic markers. The power of this experimental strategy is related to the number of genetic markers available in the Xiphophorus interspecies cross of interest. Thus, we have undertaken the task of expanding the suite of easily scored markers by characterization of Xiphophorus microsatellite sequences. Using a cross between Xiphophorus maculatus and X. andersi, we report a linkage map predominantly composed of microsatellite markers. All 24 acrocentric chromosome sets of Xiphophorus are represented in the assembled linkage map with an average intergenomic distance of 7.5 cM. Since both male and female F1 hybrids were used to produce backcross progeny, these recombination rates were compared between “male” and “female” maps. Although several genomic regions exhibit differences in map length, male- and female-derived maps are similar. Thus Xiphophorus, in contrast to zebrafish, Danio rerio, and several other vertebrate species, does not show sex-specific differences in recombination. The microsatellite markers we report can be easily adapted to any Xiphophorus interspecies and some intraspecies crosses, and thus provide a means to directly compare results derived from independent

  13. A Genetic Linkage Map for Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, M. D.; Kappes, S. M.; Keele, J. W.; Stone, R. T.; Sunden, SLF.; Hawkins, G. A.; Toldo, S. S.; Fries, R.; Grosz, M. D.; Yoo, J.; Beattie, C. W.

    1994-01-01

    We report the most extensive physically anchored linkage map for cattle produced to date. Three-hundred thirteen genetic markers ordered in 30 linkage groups, anchored to 24 autosomal chromosomes (n = 29), the X and Y chromosomes, four unanchored syntenic groups and two unassigned linkage groups spanning 2464 cM of the bovine genome are summarized. The map also assigns 19 type I loci to specific chromosomes and/or syntenic groups and four cosmid clones containing informative microsatellites to chromosomes 13, 25 and 29 anchoring syntenic groups U11, U7 and U8, respectively. This map provides the skeletal framework prerequisite to development of a comprehensive genetic map for cattle and analysis of economic trait loci (ETL). PMID:7908653

  14. Stochastic deletion-insertion algorithm to construct dense linkage maps

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jixiang; Lou, Xiang-Yang; Gonda, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we proposed a stochastic deletion-insertion (SDI) algorithm for constructing large-scale linkage maps. This SDI algorithm was compared with three published approximation approaches, the seriation (SER), neighbor mapping (NM), and unidirectional growth (UG) approaches, on the basis of simulated F2 data with different population sizes, missing genotype rates, and numbers of markers. Simulation results showed that the SDI method had a similar or higher percentage of correct linkage orders than the other three methods. This SDI algorithm was also applied to a real dataset and compared with the other three methods. The total linkage map distance (cM) obtained by the SDI method (148.08 cM) was smaller than the distance obtained by SER (225.52 cM) and two published distances (150.11 cM and 150.38 cM). Since this SDI algorithm is stochastic, a more accurate linkage order can be quickly obtained by repeating this algorithm. Thus, this SDI method, which combines the advantages of accuracy and speed, is an important addition to the current linkage mapping toolkit for constructing improved linkage maps. PMID:21927641

  15. The molecular genetic linkage map of the model legume Medicago truncatula: an essential tool for comparative legume genomics and the isolation of agronomically important genes

    PubMed Central

    Thoquet, Philippe; Ghérardi, Michele; Journet, Etienne-Pascal; Kereszt, Attila; Ané, Jean-Michel; Prosperi, Jean-Marie; Huguet, Thierry

    2002-01-01

    Background The legume Medicago truncatula has emerged as a model plant for the molecular and genetic dissection of various plant processes involved in rhizobial, mycorrhizal and pathogenic plant-microbe interactions. Aiming to develop essential tools for such genetic approaches, we have established the first genetic map of this species. Two parental homozygous lines were selected from the cultivar Jemalong and from the Algerian natural population (DZA315) on the basis of their molecular and phenotypic polymorphism. Results An F2 segregating population of 124 individuals between these two lines was obtained using an efficient manual crossing technique established for M. truncatula and was used to construct a genetic map. This map spans 1225 cM (average 470 kb/cM) and comprises 289 markers including RAPD, AFLP, known genes and isoenzymes arranged in 8 linkage groups (2n = 16). Markers are uniformly distributed throughout the map and segregation distortion is limited to only 3 linkage groups. By mapping a number of common markers, the eight linkage groups are shown to be homologous to those of diploid alfalfa (M. sativa), implying a good level of macrosynteny between the two genomes. Using this M. truncatula map and the derived F3 populations, we were able to map the Mtsym6 symbiotic gene on linkage group 8 and the SPC gene, responsible for the direction of pod coiling, on linkage group 7. Conclusions These results demonstrate that Medicago truncatula is amenable to diploid genetic analysis and they open the way to map-based cloning of symbiotic or other agronomically-important genes using this model plant. PMID:11825338

  16. Whole genome linkage disequilibrium maps in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine whole genome linkage disequilibrium maps were constructed for eight breeds of cattle. These data provide fundamental information concerning bovine genome organization which will allow the design of studies to associate genetic variation with economically important traits and also provides bac...

  17. Linkage mapping bovine EST-based SNP

    PubMed Central

    Snelling, Warren M; Casas, Eduardo; Stone, Roger T; Keele, John W; Harhay, Gregory P; Bennett, Gary L; Smith, Timothy PL

    2005-01-01

    Background Existing linkage maps of the bovine genome primarily contain anonymous microsatellite markers. These maps have proved valuable for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) to broad regions of the genome, but more closely spaced markers are needed to fine-map QTL, and markers associated with genes and annotated sequence are needed to identify genes and sequence variation that may explain QTL. Results Bovine expressed sequence tag (EST) and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)sequence data were used to develop 918 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to map genes on the bovine linkage map. DNA of sires from the MARC reference population was used to detect SNPs, and progeny and mates of heterozygous sires were genotyped. Chromosome assignments for 861 SNPs were determined by twopoint analysis, and positions for 735 SNPs were established by multipoint analyses. Linkage maps of bovine autosomes with these SNPs represent 4585 markers in 2475 positions spanning 3058 cM . Markers include 3612 microsatellites, 913 SNPs and 60 other markers. Mean separation between marker positions is 1.2 cM. New SNP markers appear in 511 positions, with mean separation of 4.7 cM. Multi-allelic markers, mostly microsatellites, had a mean (maximum) of 216 (366) informative meioses, and a mean 3-lod confidence interval of 3.6 cM Bi-allelic markers, including SNP and other marker types, had a mean (maximum) of 55 (191) informative meioses, and were placed within a mean 8.5 cM 3-lod confidence interval. Homologous human sequences were identified for 1159 markers, including 582 newly developed and mapped SNP. Conclusion Addition of these EST- and BAC-based SNPs to the bovine linkage map not only increases marker density, but provides connections to gene-rich physical maps, including annotated human sequence. The map provides a resource for fine-mapping quantitative trait loci and identification of positional candidate genes, and can be integrated with other data to guide and

  18. A genetic linkage map for the saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Genome elucidation is now in high gear for many organisms, and whilst genetic maps have been developed for a broad array of species, surprisingly, no such maps exist for a crocodilian, or indeed any other non-avian member of the Class Reptilia. Genetic linkage maps are essential tools for the mapping and dissection of complex quantitative trait loci (QTL), and in order to permit systematic genome scans for the identification of genes affecting economically important traits in farmed crocodilians, a comprehensive genetic linage map will be necessary. Results A first-generation genetic linkage map for the saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) was constructed using 203 microsatellite markers amplified across a two-generation pedigree comprising ten full-sib families from a commercial population at Darwin Crocodile Farm, Northern Territory, Australia. Linkage analyses identified fourteen linkage groups comprising a total of 180 loci, with 23 loci remaining unlinked. Markers were ordered within linkage groups employing a heuristic approach using CRIMAP v3.0 software. The estimated female and male recombination map lengths were 1824.1 and 319.0 centimorgans (cM) respectively, revealing an uncommonly large disparity in recombination map lengths between sexes (ratio of 5.7:1). Conclusion We have generated the first genetic linkage map for a crocodilian, or indeed any other non-avian reptile. The uncommonly large disparity in recombination map lengths confirms previous preliminary evidence of major differences in sex-specific recombination rates in a species that exhibits temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). However, at this point the reason for this disparity in saltwater crocodiles remains unclear. This map will be a valuable resource for crocodilian researchers, facilitating the systematic genome scans necessary for identifying genes affecting complex traits of economic importance in the crocodile industry. In addition, since many of the markers

  19. A Novel Method for Estimating Linkage Maps

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yuan-De; Fu, Yun-Xin

    2006-01-01

    The goal of linkage mapping is to find the true order of loci from a chromosome. Since the number of possible orders is large even for a modest number of loci, the problem of finding the optimal solution is known as a NP-hard problem or traveling salesman problem (TSP). Although a number of algorithms are available, many either are low in the accuracy of recovering the true order of loci or require tremendous amounts of computational resources, thus making them difficult to use for reconstructing a large-scale map. We developed in this article a novel method called unidirectional growth (UG) to help solve this problem. The UG algorithm sequentially constructs the linkage map on the basis of novel results about additive distance. It not only is fast but also has a very high accuracy in recovering the true order of loci according to our simulation studies. Since the UG method requires n − 1 cycles to estimate the ordering of n loci, it is particularly useful for estimating linkage maps consisting of hundreds or even thousands of linked codominant loci on a chromosome. PMID:16783016

  20. A male linkage map of the cattle (Bos taurus) genome.

    PubMed

    Ma, R Z; Beever, J E; Da, Y; Green, C A; Russ, I; Park, C; Heyen, D W; Everts, R E; Fisher, S R; Overton, K M; Teale, A J; Kemp, S J; Hines, H C; Guérin, G; Lewin, H A

    1996-01-01

    A male linkage map of the cattle (Bos taurus) genome was constructed using nine large half-sib families. The map consists of 269 loci, of which 249 are microsatellites and 20 are structural genes. Among the 249 microsatellites, 140 are markers selected from other maps and 98 are new assignments. Chromosome assignment were established for 35 new markers by somatic cell hybrid analysis, of which 26 were confirmed by linkage analysis. Genome coverage is 1975 cM contained within terminal markers on all 29 autosomes. The average distance between adjacent loci is 9.7 cM, with 72.1% of the map intervals < or = 15 cM and 4.9% of the intervals > or = 25 cM. The inclusion of mapped markers permitted integration and comparisons with other maps, facilitating the identification of discrepancies in chromosome assignment, gene order, and map distance. The inclusion of Type I and blood group markers in the map was useful for comparative mapping, revealing possible blood group orthologies between humans and cattle. The map generated will serve as a useful tool for comparative mapping, mapping of quantitative trait loci and marker assisted selection. PMID:8776874

  1. A Genetic Linkage Map of the Mimetic Butterfly Heliconius melpomene

    PubMed Central

    Jiggins, Chris D.; Mavarez, Jesus; Beltrán, Margarita; McMillan, W. Owen; Johnston, J. Spencer; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2005-01-01

    Heliconius melpomene is a mimetic butterfly that exhibits great geographic variation in color pattern. We present here a genetic linkage map based on analysis of genetic markers in 73 individuals from a single F2 family, offspring of a cross between H. m. cythera from western Ecuador and H. m. melpomene from French Guiana. A novel “three-step method” is described for the analysis of dominant markers in an F2 cross, using outbred parental strains and taking advantage of the lack of crossing over in female Lepidoptera. This method is likely to prove useful for future mapping studies in outbred species with crossing over restricted to one sex, such as the Lepidoptera and Drosophila. The resulting linkage map has 21 linkage groups corresponding to the 21 chromosomes of H. melpomene and includes 219 AFLP markers, 23 microsatellites, 19 single-copy nuclear genes, and the color pattern switch genes Yb and Sb. The marker density is high, averaging >1/7 cM. The total map length is 1616 cM and the average chromosome length is 77 cM. The genome size of H. melpomene was estimated to be 292 Mb, giving a relationship of physical-to-map distance of 180 kb/cM. This map forms the basis for future comparative linkage analysis of color pattern evolution in Heliconius. PMID:15489522

  2. Construction and Analysis of High-Density Linkage Map Using High-Throughput Sequencing Data

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Min; Liu, Hui; Zeng, Huaping; Deng, Dejing; Xin, Huaigen; Song, Jun; Xu, Chunhua; Sun, Xiaowen; Hou, Xilin; Wang, Xiaowu; Zheng, Hongkun

    2014-01-01

    Linkage maps enable the study of important biological questions. The construction of high-density linkage maps appears more feasible since the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS), which eases SNP discovery and high-throughput genotyping of large population. However, the marker number explosion and genotyping errors from NGS data challenge the computational efficiency and linkage map quality of linkage study methods. Here we report the HighMap method for constructing high-density linkage maps from NGS data. HighMap employs an iterative ordering and error correction strategy based on a k-nearest neighbor algorithm and a Monte Carlo multipoint maximum likelihood algorithm. Simulation study shows HighMap can create a linkage map with three times as many markers as ordering-only methods while offering more accurate marker orders and stable genetic distances. Using HighMap, we constructed a common carp linkage map with 10,004 markers. The singleton rate was less than one-ninth of that generated by JoinMap4.1. Its total map distance was 5,908 cM, consistent with reports on low-density maps. HighMap is an efficient method for constructing high-density, high-quality linkage maps from high-throughput population NGS data. It will facilitate genome assembling, comparative genomic analysis, and QTL studies. HighMap is available at http://highmap.biomarker.com.cn/. PMID:24905985

  3. Constructing Linkage Disequilibrium Map with Iterative Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ao, S. I.

    2008-05-01

    With recent advance of the genotyping single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in mass scale of high density in a candidate region of the human genome, the linkage disequilibrium analysis can offer a much higher resolution of the biological samples than the traditional linkage maps. We have formulated this LD mapping problem as a constrained unidimensional scaling problem. Our method, which is directly based on the measurement of LD among SNPs, is non-parametric. Therefore it is different from LD maps derived from the given Malecot model. We have formulated with the quadratic programming approach for solving this constrained unidimensional scaling problem. Different from the classical metric unidimensional scaling problem, the constrained problem is not an NP-hard combinatorial problem. The optimal solution is determined by using the quadratic programming solver. Nevertheless, because of the large requirement for memory during the running time that may cause the out of memory problems, and the high computational time of the quadratic programming algorithm, the iterative algorithm has been developed for solving this LD constrained unidimensional scaling problem.

  4. Microsatellite marker based genetic linkage maps of Oreochromis aureus and O. niloticus (Cichlidae): extensive linkage group segment homologies revealed.

    PubMed

    McConnell, S K; Beynon, C; Leamon, J; Skibinski, D O

    2000-06-01

    Partial genetic linkage maps, based on microsatellite markers, were constructed for two tilapia species, Oreochromis aureus and Oreochromis niloticus using an interspecific backcross population. The linkage map for O. aureus comprised 28 markers on 10 linkage groups and covered 212.8 CM. Nine markers were mapped to four linkage groups on an O. niloticus female linkage map covering 40.6 CM. Results revealed a high degree of conservation of synteny between the linkage groups defined in O. aureus and the previously published genetic linkage map of O. niloticus. PMID:10895314

  5. Appliation of rad-sequencing to linkage mapping in citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High density linkage maps can be developed for modest cost using high-throughput DNA sequencing to genotype a defined fraction (representation) of the genome. We developed linkage maps in two citrus populations using the RAD (Restriction site Associated DNA) genotyping method which involves restrict...

  6. Linear models for joint association and linkage QTL mapping

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Populational linkage disequilibrium and within-family linkage are commonly used for QTL mapping and marker assisted selection. The combination of both results in more robust and accurate locations of the QTL, but models proposed so far have been either single marker, complex in practice or well fit to a particular family structure. Results We herein present linear model theory to come up with additive effects of the QTL alleles in any member of a general pedigree, conditional to observed markers and pedigree, accounting for possible linkage disequilibrium among QTLs and markers. The model is based on association analysis in the founders; further, the additive effect of the QTLs transmitted to the descendants is a weighted (by the probabilities of transmission) average of the substitution effects of founders' haplotypes. The model allows for non-complete linkage disequilibrium QTL-markers in the founders. Two submodels are presented: a simple and easy to implement Haley-Knott type regression for half-sib families, and a general mixed (variance component) model for general pedigrees. The model can use information from all markers. The performance of the regression method is compared by simulation with a more complex IBD method by Meuwissen and Goddard. Numerical examples are provided. Conclusion The linear model theory provides a useful framework for QTL mapping with dense marker maps. Results show similar accuracies but a bias of the IBD method towards the center of the region. Computations for the linear regression model are extremely simple, in contrast with IBD methods. Extensions of the model to genomic selection and multi-QTL mapping are straightforward. PMID:19788745

  7. A microsatellite genetic linkage map of black rockfish ( Sebastes schlegeli)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Guannan; Jiang, Liming; He, Yan; Yu, Haiyang; Wang, Zhigang; Jiang, Haibin; Zhang, Quanqi

    2014-12-01

    Ovoviviparous black rockfish ( Sebastes schlegeli) is an important marine fish species for aquaculture and fisheries in China. Genetic information of this species is scarce because of the lack of microsatellite markers. In this study, a large number of microsatellite markers of black rockfish were isolated by constructing microsatellite-enriched libraries. Female- and male-specific genetic linkage maps were constructed using 435 microsatellite markers genotyped in a full-sib family of the fish species. The female linkage map contained 140 microsatellite markers, in which 23 linkage groups had a total genetic length of 1334.1 cM and average inter-marker space of 13.3 cM. The male linkage map contained 156 microsatellite markers, in which 25 linkage groups had a total genetic length of 1359.6 cM and average inter-marker distance of 12.4 cM. The genome coverage of the female and male linkage maps was 68.6% and 69.3%, respectively. The female-to-male ratio of the recombination rate was approximately 1.07:1 in adjacent microsatellite markers. This paper presents the first genetic linkage map of microsatellites in black rockfish. The collection of polymorphic markers and sex-specific linkage maps of black rockfish could be useful for further investigations on parental assignment, population genetics, quantitative trait loci mapping, and marker-assisted selection in related breeding programs.

  8. Saturation of an Intra-Gene Pool Linkage Map: Towards a Unified Consensus Linkage Map for Fine Mapping and Synteny Analysis in Common Bean

    PubMed Central

    Galeano, Carlos H.; Fernandez, Andrea C.; Franco-Herrera, Natalia; Cichy, Karen A.; McClean, Phillip E.; Vanderleyden, Jos; Blair, Matthew W.

    2011-01-01

    Map-based cloning and fine mapping to find genes of interest and marker assisted selection (MAS) requires good genetic maps with reproducible markers. In this study, we saturated the linkage map of the intra-gene pool population of common bean DOR364×BAT477 (DB) by evaluating 2,706 molecular markers including SSR, SNP, and gene-based markers. On average the polymorphism rate was 7.7% due to the narrow genetic base between the parents. The DB linkage map consisted of 291 markers with a total map length of 1,788 cM. A consensus map was built using the core mapping populations derived from inter-gene pool crosses: DOR364×G19833 (DG) and BAT93×JALO EEP558 (BJ). The consensus map consisted of a total of 1,010 markers mapped, with a total map length of 2,041 cM across 11 linkage groups. On average, each linkage group on the consensus map contained 91 markers of which 83% were single copy markers. Finally, a synteny analysis was carried out using our highly saturated consensus maps compared with the soybean pseudo-chromosome assembly. A total of 772 marker sequences were compared with the soybean genome. A total of 44 syntenic blocks were identified. The linkage group Pv6 presented the most diverse pattern of synteny with seven syntenic blocks, and Pv9 showed the most consistent relations with soybean with just two syntenic blocks. Additionally, a co-linear analysis using common bean transcript map information against soybean coding sequences (CDS) revealed the relationship with 787 soybean genes. The common bean consensus map has allowed us to map a larger number of markers, to obtain a more complete coverage of the common bean genome. Our results, combined with synteny relationships provide tools to increase marker density in selected genomic regions to identify closely linked polymorphic markers for indirect selection, fine mapping or for positional cloning. PMID:22174773

  9. [MapDraw: a microsoft excel macro for drawing genetic linkage maps based on given genetic linkage data].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ren-Hu; Meng, Jin-Ling

    2003-05-01

    MAPMAKER is one of the most widely used computer software package for constructing genetic linkage maps.However, the PC version, MAPMAKER 3.0 for PC, could not draw the genetic linkage maps that its Macintosh version, MAPMAKER 3.0 for Macintosh,was able to do. Especially in recent years, Macintosh computer is much less popular than PC. Most of the geneticists use PC to analyze their genetic linkage data. So a new computer software to draw the same genetic linkage maps on PC as the MAPMAKER for Macintosh to do on Macintosh has been crying for. Microsoft Excel,one component of Microsoft Office package, is one of the most popular software in laboratory data processing. Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) is one of the most powerful functions of Microsoft Excel. Using this program language, we can take creative control of Excel, including genetic linkage map construction, automatic data processing and more. In this paper, a Microsoft Excel macro called MapDraw is constructed to draw genetic linkage maps on PC computer based on given genetic linkage data. Use this software,you can freely construct beautiful genetic linkage map in Excel and freely edit and copy it to Word or other application. This software is just an Excel format file. You can freely copy it from ftp://211.69.140.177 or ftp://brassica.hzau.edu.cn and the source code can be found in Excel's Visual Basic Editor. PMID:15639879

  10. A genetic linkage map for tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter].

    PubMed

    Yu, Ju-Kyung; Kantety, Ramesh V; Graznak, Elizabeth; Benscher, David; Tefera, Hailu; Sorrells, Mark E

    2006-10-01

    Tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter] is the major cereal crop in Ethiopia. Tef is an allotetraploid with a base chromosome number of 10 (2n = 4x = 40) and a genome size of 730 Mbp. Ninety-four F(9) recombinant inbred lines (RIL) derived from the interspecific cross, Eragrostis tef cv. Kaye Murri x Eragrostis pilosa (accession 30-5), were mapped using restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP), simple sequence repeats derived from expressed sequence tags (EST-SSR), single nucleotide polymorphism/insertion and deletion (SNP/INDEL), intron fragment length polymorphism (IFLP) and inter-simple sequence repeat amplification (ISSR). A total of 156 loci from 121 markers was grouped into 21 linkage groups at LOD 4, and the map covered 2,081.5 cM with a mean density of 12.3 cM per locus. Three putative homoeologous groups were identified based on multi-locus markers. Sixteen percent of the loci deviated from normal segregation with a predominance of E. tef alleles, and a majority of the distorted loci were clustered on three linkage groups. This map will be useful for further genetic studies in tef including mapping of loci controlling quantitative traits (QTL), and comparative analysis with other cereal crops. PMID:16900349

  11. Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping of Meat Quality QTL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies based on linkage analysis have identified broad areas in the bovine genome associated with meat quality. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analyses have the potential to identify narrower regions and point towards candidate genes. Tenderness and marbling were chosen to be evaluated in a ...

  12. An autosomal genetic linkage map of the sheep genome

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, A.M.; Ede, A.J.; Pierson, C.A.

    1995-06-01

    We report the first extensive ovine genetic linkage map covering 2070 cM of the sheep genome. The map was generated from the linkage analysis of 246 polymorphic markers, in nine three-generation full-sib pedigrees, which make up the AgResearch International Mapping Flock. We have exploited many markers from cattle so that valuable comparisons between these two ruminant linkage maps can be made. The markers, used in the segregation analyses, comprised 86 anonymous microsatellite markers derived from the sheep genome, 126 anonymous microsatellites from cattle, one from deer, and 33 polymorphic markers of various types associated with known genes. The maximum number of informative meioses within the mapping flock was 22. The average number of informative meioses per marker was 140 (range 18-209). Linkage groups have been assigned to all 26 sheep autosomes. 102 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Second-Generation Genetic Linkage Map of Catfish and Its Integration with the BAC-Based Physical Map

    PubMed Central

    Ninwichian, Parichart; Peatman, Eric; Liu, Hong; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Somridhivej, Benjaporn; Liu, Shikai; Li, Ping; Jiang, Yanliang; Sha, Zhenxia; Kaltenboeck, Ludmilla; Abernathy, Jason W.; Wang, Wenqi; Chen, Fei; Lee, Yoona; Wong, Lilian; Wang, Shaolin; Lu, Jianguo; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2012-01-01

    Construction of high-density genetic linkage maps is crucially important for quantitative trait loci (QTL) studies, and they are more useful when integrated with physical maps. Such integrated maps are valuable genome resources for fine mapping of QTL, comparative genomics, and accurate and efficient whole-genome assembly. Previously, we established both linkage maps and a physical map for channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, the dominant aquaculture species in the United States. Here we added 2030 BAC end sequence (BES)-derived microsatellites from 1481 physical map contigs, as well as markers from singleton BES, ESTs, anonymous microsatellites, and SNPs, to construct a second-generation linkage map. Average marker density across the 29 linkage groups reached 1.4 cM/marker. The increased marker density highlighted variations in recombination rates within and among catfish chromosomes. This work effectively anchored 44.8% of the catfish BAC physical map contigs, covering ∼52.8% of the genome. The genome size was estimated to be 2546 cM on the linkage map, and the calculated physical distance per centimorgan was 393 Kb. This integrated map should enable comparative studies with teleost model species as well as provide a framework for ordering and assembling whole-genome scaffolds. PMID:23050234

  14. Recombination patterns reveal information about centromere location on linkage maps.

    PubMed

    Limborg, Morten T; McKinney, Garrett J; Seeb, Lisa W; Seeb, James E

    2016-05-01

    Linkage mapping is often used to identify genes associated with phenotypic traits and for aiding genome assemblies. Still, many emerging maps do not locate centromeres - an essential component of the genomic landscape. Here, we demonstrate that for genomes with strong chiasma interference, approximate centromere placement is possible by phasing the same data used to generate linkage maps. Assuming one obligate crossover per chromosome arm, information about centromere location can be revealed by tracking the accumulated recombination frequency along linkage groups, similar to half-tetrad analyses. We validate the method on a linkage map for sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) with known centromeric regions. Further tests suggest that the method will work well in other salmonids and other eukaryotes. However, the method performed weakly when applied to a male linkage map (rainbow trout; O. mykiss) characterized by low and unevenly distributed recombination - a general feature of male meiosis in many species. Further, a high frequency of double crossovers along chromosome arms in barley reduced resolution for locating centromeric regions on most linkage groups. Despite these limitations, our method should work well for high-density maps in species with strong recombination interference and will enrich many existing and future mapping resources. PMID:26561199

  15. Comparisons of Four Approximation Algorithms for Large-Scale Linkage Map Construction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efficient construction of large-scale linkage maps is highly desired in current gene mapping projects. To evaluate the performance of available approaches in the literature, four published methods, the insertion, seriation (SER), neighbor mapping (NM), and unidirectional growth (UG) were compared on...

  16. A GENETIC LINKAGE MAP AND A CDNA LIBRARY FOR WATERMELON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A genetic linkage map was constructed for watermelon based on a testcross population and an F2 population. The testcross map includes 312 markers (RAPD, ISSR, AFLP, SSR, and ASRP). This map covered a genetic distance of 1385 cM, and identified 11 large (50.7~155.2 cm), five intermediate (37.5-46.2...

  17. Saturation of an intra-gene pool linkage map: toward unified consensus linkage map in common bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Map-based cloning to find genes of interest and marker assisted selection (MAS) requires good genetic maps with high reproducible markers. In this study, we saturated the linkage map of the intra-gene pool population of common bean DOR364×BAT477 (DB) by evaluating 2,706 molecular markers in includin...

  18. Duck (Anas platyrhynchos) linkage mapping by AFLP fingerprinting

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chang-Wen; Cheng, Yu-Shin; Rouvier, Roger; Yang, Kuo-Tai; Wu, Chean-Ping; Huang, Hsiu-Lin; Huang, Mu-Chiou

    2009-01-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) with multicolored fluorescent molecular markers was used to analyze duck (Anas platyrhynchos) genomic DNA and to construct the first AFLP genetic linkage map. These markers were developed and genotyped in 766 F2 individuals from six families from a cross between two different selected duck lines, brown Tsaiya and Pekin. Two hundred and ninety-six polymorphic bands (64% of all bands) were detected using 18 pairs of fluorescent TaqI/EcoRI primer combinations. Each primer set produced a range of 7 to 29 fragments in the reactions, and generated on average 16.4 polymorphic bands. The AFLP linkage map included 260 co-dominant markers distributed in 32 linkage groups. Twenty-one co-dominant markers were not linked with any other marker. Each linkage group contained three to 63 molecular markers and their size ranged between 19.0 cM and 171.9 cM. This AFLP linkage map provides important information for establishing a duck chromosome map, for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping) and for breeding applications. PMID:19291328

  19. A consensus linkage map of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) based on microsatellites and SNPs

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) belongs to the family Cyprinidae which includes more than 2000 fish species. It is one of the most important freshwater food fish species in world aquaculture. A linkage map is an essential framework for mapping traits of interest and is often the first step towards understanding genome evolution. The aim of this study is to construct a first generation genetic map of grass carp using microsatellites and SNPs to generate a new resource for mapping QTL for economically important traits and to conduct a comparative mapping analysis to shed new insights into the evolution of fish genomes. Results We constructed a first generation linkage map of grass carp with a mapping panel containing two F1 families including 192 progenies. Sixteen SNPs in genes and 263 microsatellite markers were mapped to twenty-four linkage groups (LGs). The number of LGs was corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of grass carp. The sex-specific map was 1149.4 and 888.8 cM long in females and males respectively whereas the sex-averaged map spanned 1176.1 cM. The average resolution of the map was 4.2 cM/locus. BLAST searches of sequences of mapped markers of grass carp against the whole genome sequence of zebrafish revealed substantial macrosynteny relationship and extensive colinearity of markers between grass carp and zebrafish. Conclusions The linkage map of grass carp presented here is the first linkage map of a food fish species based on co-dominant markers in the family Cyprinidae. This map provides a valuable resource for mapping phenotypic variations and serves as a reference to approach comparative genomics and understand the evolution of fish genomes and could be complementary to grass carp genome sequencing project. PMID:20181260

  20. Genetic Linkage Map of a High Yielding FELDA Deli×Yangambi Oil Palm Cross

    PubMed Central

    Seng, Tzer-Ying; Mohamed Saad, Siti Hawa; Chin, Cheuk-Weng; Ting, Ngoot-Chin; Harminder Singh, Rajinder Singh; Qamaruz Zaman, Faridah; Tan, Soon-Guan; Syed Alwee, Sharifah Shahrul Rabiah

    2011-01-01

    Enroute to mapping QTLs for yield components in oil palm, we constructed the linkage map of a FELDA high yielding oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), hybrid cross. The parents of the mapping population are a Deli dura and a pisifera of Yangambi origin. The cross out-yielded the average by 8–21% in four trials all of which yielded comparably to the best current commercial planting materials. The higher yield derived from a higher fruit oil content. SSR markers in the public domain - from CIRAD and MPOB, as well as some developed in FELDA - were used for the mapping, augmented by locally-designed AFLP markers. The female parent linkage map comprised 317 marker loci and the male parent map 331 loci, both in 16 linkage groups each. The number of markers per group ranged from 8–47 in the former and 12–40 in the latter. The integrated map was 2,247.5 cM long and included 479 markers and 168 anchor points. The number of markers per linkage group was 15–57, the average being 29, and the average map density 4.7 cM. The linkage groups ranged in length from 77.5 cM to 223.7 cM, with an average of 137 cM. The map is currently being validated against a closely related population and also being expanded to include yield related QTLs. PMID:22069457

  1. Genetic linkage map of a high yielding FELDA deli×yangambi oil palm cross.

    PubMed

    Seng, Tzer-Ying; Mohamed Saad, Siti Hawa; Chin, Cheuk-Weng; Ting, Ngoot-Chin; Harminder Singh, Rajinder Singh; Qamaruz Zaman, Faridah; Tan, Soon-Guan; Syed Alwee, Sharifah Shahrul Rabiah

    2011-01-01

    Enroute to mapping QTLs for yield components in oil palm, we constructed the linkage map of a FELDA high yielding oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), hybrid cross. The parents of the mapping population are a Deli dura and a pisifera of Yangambi origin. The cross out-yielded the average by 8-21% in four trials all of which yielded comparably to the best current commercial planting materials. The higher yield derived from a higher fruit oil content. SSR markers in the public domain - from CIRAD and MPOB, as well as some developed in FELDA - were used for the mapping, augmented by locally-designed AFLP markers. The female parent linkage map comprised 317 marker loci and the male parent map 331 loci, both in 16 linkage groups each. The number of markers per group ranged from 8-47 in the former and 12-40 in the latter. The integrated map was 2,247.5 cM long and included 479 markers and 168 anchor points. The number of markers per linkage group was 15-57, the average being 29, and the average map density 4.7 cM. The linkage groups ranged in length from 77.5 cM to 223.7 cM, with an average of 137 cM. The map is currently being validated against a closely related population and also being expanded to include yield related QTLs. PMID:22069457

  2. A microsatellite linkage map of striped bass (Morone saxatilis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) is of great importance for fisheries and aquaculture in the US. To construct a linkage map of striped bass, 480 microsatellite markers were screened for polymorphism among three parents of two half-sib mapping families that shared a common dam. A total of 289 markers ...

  3. A microsatellite genetic linkage map of human chromosome 18

    SciTech Connect

    Straub, R.E.; Speer, M.C.; Luo, Ying; Ott, J.; Gilliam, T.C. ); Rojas, K.; Overhauser, J. )

    1993-01-01

    We isolated nine new microsatellite markers from chromosome 18 and further characterized and mapped eight microsatellites developed in other laboratories. We have constructed a framework linkage map of chromosome 18 that includes 14 microsatellite markers (12 dinucleotide and 2 tetranucleotide) and 2 RFLP markers. Cytogenetic localization for the microsatellites was performed by PCR amplification of IS somatic cell hybrids containing different deletions of chromosome 18. Twelve of the microsatellites and one of the RFLPs have heterozygosities greater than 70%. The average heterozygosity of the markers included in the map is 72%. In addition, we have made provisional placements of 3 more microsatellite markers and 2 more RFLP markers. The map lengths (in Kosambi centimorgans) are as follows: sex-averaged, 109.3 cM; male, 72.4 cM; female, 161.2 cM. The average distance between markers in the sex-averaged map is 7.3 cM, and the largest gap between markers is 16.7 cM. Analysis of the data for differences in the female:male map distance ratio revealed significant evidence for a constant difference in the ratio (X[sup 2]=32.25; df = 1; P < 0.001; ratio = 2.5:1). Furthermore, there was significant evidence in favor of a variable female:male map distance ratio across the chromosome compared to a constant distance ratio (X[sup 2] = 27.78; df = 14; P = 0.015). To facilitate their use in genomic screening for disease genes, all of the microsatellite markers used here can be amplified under standard PCR conditions, and most can be used in duplex PCR reactions. 36 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. SSR-based genetic linkage map of Cucurbita moschata and its synteny with Cucurbita pepo.

    PubMed

    Gong, L; Pachner, M; Kalai, K; Lelley, T

    2008-11-01

    The first SSR-based genetic linkage map of Cucurbita moschata was created by integrating the maps of two F2 populations with one common parent developed from the crosses Waltham Butternut (WB) x Nigerian Local (NL) and ZHOU (a hull-less type) x WB. The integrated C. moschata map comprises 205 SSR markers and two morphological traits (Gr and n). The map is composed of 27 linkage groups with a marker density of 7 cM. Comparing the C. moschata map with the published Cucurbita pepo map, we found a high level of macrosynteny. Seventy-two of 76 common SSR markers between C. moschata and C. pepo were located in homologous linkage groups. These markers in general have conserved orders and similar genetic distances; they represent orthologous loci. A reference map based on these SSRs was obtained. No major chromosomal rearrangement between the two species could be detected at present, although four SSR markers were mapped in nonhomologous linkage groups. The comparative alignment of SSR markers did not provide any indication of a possible ancient polyploid origin of the species. The comparative mapping of C. moschata and C. pepo reported here will be useful for further studies on Cucurbit evolution, gene isolation, and breeding work. PMID:18956020

  5. Comparison of biometrical models for joint linkage association mapping

    PubMed Central

    Würschum, T; Liu, W; Gowda, M; Maurer, H P; Fischer, S; Schechert, A; Reif, J C

    2012-01-01

    Joint linkage association mapping (JLAM) combines the advantages of linkage mapping and association mapping, and is a powerful tool to dissect the genetic architecture of complex traits. The main goal of this study was to use a cross-validation strategy, resample model averaging and empirical data analyses to compare seven different biometrical models for JLAM with regard to the correction for population structure and the quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection power. Three linear models and four linear mixed models with different approaches to control for population stratification were evaluated. Models A, B and C were linear models with either cofactors (Model-A), or cofactors and a population effect (Model-B), or a model in which the cofactors and the single-nucleotide polymorphism effect were modeled as nested within population (Model-C). The mixed models, D, E, F and G, included a random population effect (Model-D), or a random population effect with defined variance structure (Model-E), a kinship matrix defining the degree of relatedness among the genotypes (Model-F), or a kinship matrix and principal coordinates (Model-G). The tested models were conceptually different and were also found to differ in terms of power to detect QTL. Model-B with the cofactors and a population effect, effectively controlled population structure and possessed a high predictive power. The varying allele substitution effects in different populations suggest as a promising strategy for JLAM to use Model-B for the detection of QTL and then to estimate their effects by applying Model-C. PMID:21878984

  6. High Density Brassica Oleracea Linkage Map: Identification of Useful New Linkages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We constructed a 1257-marker, high-density genetic map of Brassica oleracea spanning 703cM in nine linkage groups, named LG1-LG9. It was developed in a F2 segregating population of 143 individuals obtained by crossing two double-haploid plants of broccoli Early-Big and cauliflower An-Nan Early. The...

  7. Comparisons of four approximation algorithms for large-scale linkage map construction

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Johnie N.; McCarty, Jack C.; Lou, Xiang-Yang

    2011-01-01

    Efficient construction of large-scale linkage maps is highly desired in current gene mapping projects. To evaluate the performance of available approaches in the literature, four published methods, the insertion (IN), seriation (SER), neighbor mapping (NM), and unidirectional growth (UG) were compared on the basis of simulated F2 data with various population sizes, interferences, missing genotype rates, and mis-genotyping rates. Simulation results showed that the IN method outperformed, or at least was comparable to, the other three methods. These algorithms were also applied to a real data set and results showed that the linkage order obtained by the IN algorithm was superior to the other methods. Thus, this study suggests that the IN method should be used when constructing large-scale linkage maps. PMID:21611760

  8. A SSR-based composite genetic linkage map for the cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    distorted loci tended to cluster on LG1, LG3, LG4 and LG5. There were only 15 EST-SSR markers mapped due to low polymorphism. By comparison, there were potential synteny, collinear order of some markers and conservation of collinear linkage groups among the maps and with the AA genome but not fully conservative. Conclusion A composite linkage map was constructed from three individual mapping populations with 175 SSR markers in 22 composite linkage groups. This composite genetic linkage map is among the first "true" tetraploid peanut maps produced. This map also consists of 47 SSRs that have been used in the published AA genome maps, and could be used in comparative mapping studies. The primers described in this study are PCR-based markers, which are easy to share for genetic mapping in peanuts. All 1044 primer pairs are provided as additional files and the three RIL populations will be made available to public upon request for quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis and linkage map improvement. PMID:20105299

  9. Annotated genetic linkage maps of Pinus pinaster Ait. from a Central Spain population using microsatellite and gene based markers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pinus pinaster Ait. is a major resin producing species in Spain. Genetic linkage mapping can facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS) through the identification of Quantitative Trait Loci and selection of allelic variants of interest in breeding populations. In this study, we report annotated genetic linkage maps for two individuals (C14 and C15) belonging to a breeding program aiming to increase resin production. We use different types of DNA markers, including last-generation molecular markers. Results We obtained 13 and 14 linkage groups for C14 and C15 maps, respectively. A total of 211 and 215 markers were positioned on each map and estimated genome length was between 1,870 and 2,166 cM respectively, which represents near 65% of genome coverage. Comparative mapping with previously developed genetic linkage maps for P. pinaster based on about 60 common markers enabled aligning linkage groups to this reference map. The comparison of our annotated linkage maps and linkage maps reporting QTL information revealed 11 annotated SNPs in candidate genes that co-localized with previously reported QTLs for wood properties and water use efficiency. Conclusions This study provides genetic linkage maps from a Spanish population that shows high levels of genetic divergence with French populations from which segregating progenies have been previously mapped. These genetic maps will be of interest to construct a reliable consensus linkage map for the species. The importance of developing functional genetic linkage maps is highlighted, especially when working with breeding populations for its future application in MAS for traits of interest. PMID:23036012

  10. Localization of Müllerian Mimicry Genes on a Dense Linkage Map of Heliconius erato

    PubMed Central

    Kapan, Durrell D.; Flanagan, Nicola S.; Tobler, Alex; Papa, Riccardo; Reed, Robert D.; Acevedo Gonzalez, Jenny; Ramirez Restrepo, Manuel; Martinez, Lournet; Maldonado, Karla; Ritschoff, Clare; Heckel, David G.; McMillan, W. Owen

    2006-01-01

    We report a dense genetic linkage map of Heliconius erato, a neotropical butterfly that has undergone a remarkable adaptive radiation in warningly colored mimetic wing patterns. Our study exploited natural variation segregating in a cross between H. erato etylus and H. himera to localize wing color pattern loci on a dense linkage map containing amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP), microsatellites, and single-copy nuclear loci. We unambiguously identified all 20 autosomal linkage groups and the sex chromosome (Z). The map spanned a total of 1430 Haldane cM and linkage groups varied in size from 26.3 to 97.8 cM. The average distance between markers was 5.1 cM. Within this framework, we localized two major color pattern loci to narrow regions of the genome. The first gene, D, responsible for red/orange elements, had a most likely placement in a 6.7-cM region flanked by two AFLP markers on the end of a large 87.5-cM linkage group. The second locus, Sd, affects the melanic pattern on the forewing and was found within a 6.3-cM interval between flanking AFLP loci. This study complements recent linkage analysis of H. erato's comimic, H. melpomene, and forms the basis for marker-assisted physical mapping and for studies into the comparative genetic architecture of wing-pattern mimicry in Heliconius. PMID:16489214

  11. Teaching Principles of Linkage and Gene Mapping with the Tomato.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawk, James A.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    A three-point linkage system in tomatoes is used to explain concepts of gene mapping, linking and statistical analysis. The system is designed for teaching the effective use of statistics, and the power of genetic analysis from statistical analysis of phenotypic ratios. (Author/SA)

  12. Development, linkage mapping, and utilization of microsallelites in bermudagrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic linkage maps of bermudagrass species were constructed using 118 triploid individuals derived from a cross of T89 (Cynodon dactylon, 2n= 4x= 36) and T574 (C. transvaalensis, 2n= 2x= 18). Primers were developed from 53 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) containing simple sequence repeats (SSRs) wh...

  13. Genetic Linkage Maps: Strategies, Resources and Achievements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter is for the sunflower volume in the Crop GGB (Genetics, Genomics and Breeding) Book Series. The book includes chapters covering basic information about the sunflower plant, germplasm diversity, classical genetics and traditional breeding, genome mapping, regulation of seed oil conte...

  14. Integrating the markers Pan I and haemoglobin with the genetic linkage map of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Haemoglobin (Hb) and pantophysin (Pan I) markers have been used intensively in population studies of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and in the analysis of traits such as temperature tolerance, growth characteristics and sexual maturation. We used an Illumina GoldenGate panel and the KASPar SNP genotyping system to analyse SNPs in three Atlantic cod families, one of which was polymorphic at the Hb β1 locus, and to generate a genetic linkage map integrating Pan I and multiple Hb loci. Findings Data generated allowed the mapping of nine Hb loci, the Pan I locus, and other 122 SNPs onto an existing linkage genetic map for Atlantic cod. Four Hb genes (i.e. α1, α4, β1 and β5) have been mapped on linkage group (LG) 2 while the other five (i.e. α2, α3, β2, β3 and β4) were placed on LG18. Pan I was mapped on LG 1 using a newly developed KASPar assay for a SNP variable only in Pan IA allelic variants. The new linkage genetic map presented here comprises 1046 SNPs distributed between 23 linkage groups, with a length of 1145.6 cM. A map produced by forcing additional loci, resulting in a reduced goodness-of-fit for mapped markers, allowed the mapping of a total of 1300 SNPs. Finally, we compared our genetic linkage map data with the genetic linkage map data produced by a different group and identified 29 shared SNPs distributed on 10 different linkage groups. Conclusions The genetic linkage map presented here incorporates the marker Pan I, together with multiple Hb loci, and integrates genetic linkage data produced by two different research groups. This represents a useful resource to further explore if Pan I and Hbs or other genes underlie quantitative trait loci (QTL) for temperature sensitivity/tolerance or other phenotypes. PMID:20946683

  15. Constructing a linkage-linkage disequilibrium map using dominant-segregating markers.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xuli; Dong, Leiming; Jiang, Libo; Li, Huan; Sun, Lidan; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Weiwu; Liu, Haokai; Dai, Wensheng; Zeng, Yanru; Wu, Rongling

    2016-02-01

    The relationship between linkage disequilibrium (LD) and recombination fraction can be used to infer the pattern of genetic variation and evolutionary process in humans and other systems. We described a computational framework to construct a linkage-LD map from commonly used biallelic, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for outcrossing plants by which the decline of LD is visualized with genetic distance. The framework was derived from an open-pollinated (OP) design composed of plants randomly sampled from a natural population and seeds from each sampled plant, enabling simultaneous estimation of the LD in the natural population and recombination fraction due to allelic co-segregation during meiosis. We modified the framework to infer evolutionary pasts of natural populations using those marker types that are segregating in a dominant manner, given their role in creating and maintaining population genetic diversity. A sophisticated two-level EM algorithm was implemented to estimate and retrieve the missing information of segregation characterized by dominant-segregating markers such as single methylation polymorphisms. The model was applied to study the relationship between linkage and LD for a non-model outcrossing species, a gymnosperm species, Torreya grandis, naturally distributed in mountains of the southeastern China. The linkage-LD map constructed from various types of molecular markers opens a powerful gateway for studying the history of plant evolution. PMID:26622063

  16. Linkage maps of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) genome derived from RAD sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Genetic linkage maps are useful tools for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing variation in traits of interest in a population. Genotyping-by-sequencing approaches such as Restriction-site Associated DNA sequencing (RAD-Seq) now enable the rapid discovery and genotyping of genome-wide SNP markers suitable for the development of dense SNP linkage maps, including in non-model organisms such as Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). This paper describes the development and characterisation of a high density SNP linkage map based on SbfI RAD-Seq SNP markers from two Atlantic salmon reference families. Results Approximately 6,000 SNPs were assigned to 29 linkage groups, utilising markers from known genomic locations as anchors. Linkage maps were then constructed for the four mapping parents separately. Overall map lengths were comparable between male and female parents, but the distribution of the SNPs showed sex-specific patterns with a greater degree of clustering of sire-segregating SNPs to single chromosome regions. The maps were integrated with the Atlantic salmon draft reference genome contigs, allowing the unique assignment of ~4,000 contigs to a linkage group. 112 genome contigs mapped to two or more linkage groups, highlighting regions of putative homeology within the salmon genome. A comparative genomics analysis with the stickleback reference genome identified putative genes closely linked to approximately half of the ordered SNPs and demonstrated blocks of orthology between the Atlantic salmon and stickleback genomes. A subset of 47 RAD-Seq SNPs were successfully validated using a high-throughput genotyping assay, with a correspondence of 97% between the two assays. Conclusions This Atlantic salmon RAD-Seq linkage map is a resource for salmonid genomics research as genotyping-by-sequencing becomes increasingly common. This is aided by the integration of the SbfI RAD-Seq SNPs with existing reference maps and the draft reference genome, as well

  17. A SNP Based High-Density Linkage Map of Apis cerana Reveals a High Recombination Rate Similar to Apis mellifera

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zachary Y.; Wu, Xiao Bo; Zhu, Yong Qiang; Zheng, Hua Jun; Zeng, Zhi Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Background The Eastern honey bee, Apis cerana Fabricius, is distributed in southern and eastern Asia, from India and China to Korea and Japan and southeast to the Moluccas. This species is also widely kept for honey production besides Apis mellifera. Apis cerana is also a model organism for studying social behavior, caste determination, mating biology, sexual selection, and host-parasite interactions. Few resources are available for molecular research in this species, and a linkage map was never constructed. A linkage map is a prerequisite for quantitative trait loci mapping and for analyzing genome structure. We used the Chinese honey bee, Apis cerana cerana to construct the first linkage map in the Eastern honey bee. Results F2 workers (N = 103) were genotyped for 126,990 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). After filtering low quality and those not passing the Mendel test, we obtained 3,000 SNPs, 1,535 of these were informative and used to construct a linkage map. The preliminary map contains 19 linkage groups, we then mapped the 19 linkage groups to 16 chromosomes by comparing the markers to the genome of A. mellfiera. The final map contains 16 linkage groups with a total of 1,535 markers. The total genetic distance is 3,942.7 centimorgans (cM) with the largest linkage group (180 loci) measuring 574.5 cM. Average marker interval for all markers across the 16 linkage groups is 2.6 cM. Conclusion We constructed a high density linkage map for A. c. cerana with 1,535 markers. Because the map is based on SNP markers, it will enable easier and faster genotyping assays than randomly amplified polymorphic DNA or microsatellite based maps used in A. mellifera. PMID:24130775

  18. Dinucleotide repeat loci contribute highly informative genetic markers to the human chromosome 2 linkage map

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, S. ); Sherman, S.L. ); Naylor, S.L. )

    1993-06-01

    Microsatellite repeat loci can provide informative markers for genetic linkage. Currently, the human chromosome 2 genetic linkage map has very few highly polymorphic markers. Being such a large chromosome, it will require a large number of informative markers for the dense coverage desired to allow disease genes to be mapped quickly and accurately. Dinucleotide repeat loci from two anonymous chromosome 2 genomic DNA clones were sequenced so that oligonucleotide primers could be designed for amplifying each locus using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Five sets of PCR primers were also generated from nucleotide sequences in the GenBank Database of chromosome 2 genes containing dinucleotide repeats. In addition, one PCR primer pair was made that amplifies a restriction fragment length polymorphism on the TNP1 gene. These markers were placed on the CEPH genetic linkage map by screening the CEPH reference DNA panel with each primer set, combining these data with those of other markers previously placed on the map, and analyzing the combined data set using CRI-MAP and LINKAGE. The microsatellite loci are highly informative markers and the TNP1 locus, as expected, is only moderately informative. A map was constructed with 38 ordered loci (odds [ge] 1000:1) spanning 296 cM (male) and 476 cM (female) of chromosome 2 compared with 306 cM (male) and 529 cM (female) for a previous map of 20 markers. 32 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. A second-generation genetic linkage map of the domestic dog, Canis familiaris.

    PubMed Central

    Neff, M W; Broman, K W; Mellersh, C S; Ray, K; Acland, G M; Aguirre, G D; Ziegle, J S; Ostrander, E A; Rine, J

    1999-01-01

    Purebred strains, pronounced phenotypic variation, and a high incidence of heritable disease make the domestic dog uniquely suited to complement genetic analyses in humans and mice. A comprehensive genetic linkage map would afford many opportunities in dogs, ranging from the positional cloning of disease genes to the dissection of quantitative differences in size, shape, and behavior. Here we report a canine linkage map with the number of mapped loci expanded to 276 and 10-cM coverage extended to 75-90% of the genome. Most of the 38 canine autosomes are likely represented in the collection of 39 autosomal linkage groups. Eight markers were sufficiently informative to detect linkage at distances of 10-13 cM, yet remained unlinked to any other marker. Taken together, the results suggested a genome size of about 27 M. As in other species, the genetic length varied between sexes, with the female autosomal distance being approximately 1.4-fold greater than that of male meioses. Fifteen markers anchored well-described genes on the map, thereby serving as landmarks for comparative mapping in dogs. We discuss the utility of the current map and outline steps necessary for future map improvement. PMID:9927471

  20. Integration of Two Diploid Potato Linkage Maps with the Potato Genome Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Felcher, Kimberly J.; Coombs, Joseph J.; Massa, Alicia N.; Hansey, Candice N.; Hamilton, John P.; Veilleux, Richard E.; Buell, C. Robin; Douches, David S.

    2012-01-01

    To facilitate genome-guided breeding in potato, we developed an 8303 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) marker array using potato genome and transcriptome resources. To validate the Infinium 8303 Potato Array, we developed linkage maps from two diploid populations (DRH and D84) and compared these maps with the assembled potato genome sequence. Both populations used the doubled monoploid reference genotype DM1-3 516 R44 as the female parent but had different heterozygous diploid male parents (RH89-039-16 and 84SD22). Over 4,400 markers were mapped (1,960 in DRH and 2,454 in D84, 787 in common) resulting in map sizes of 965 (DRH) and 792 (D84) cM, covering 87% (DRH) and 88% (D84) of genome sequence length. Of the mapped markers, 33.5% were in candidate genes selected for the array, 4.5% were markers from existing genetic maps, and 61% were selected based on distribution across the genome. Markers with distorted segregation ratios occurred in blocks in both linkage maps, accounting for 4% (DRH) and 9% (D84) of mapped markers. Markers with distorted segregation ratios were unique to each population with blocks on chromosomes 9 and 12 in DRH and 3, 4, 6 and 8 in D84. Chromosome assignment of markers based on linkage mapping differed from sequence alignment with the Potato Genome Sequencing Consortium (PGSC) pseudomolecules for 1% of the mapped markers with some disconcordant markers attributable to paralogs. In total, 126 (DRH) and 226 (D84) mapped markers were not anchored to the pseudomolecules and provide new scaffold anchoring data to improve the potato genome assembly. The high degree of concordance between the linkage maps and the pseudomolecules demonstrates both the quality of the potato genome sequence and the functionality of the Infinium 8303 Potato Array. The broad genome coverage of the Infinium 8303 Potato Array compared to other marker sets will enable numerous downstream applications. PMID:22558443

  1. Integration of two diploid potato linkage maps with the potato genome sequence.

    PubMed

    Felcher, Kimberly J; Coombs, Joseph J; Massa, Alicia N; Hansey, Candice N; Hamilton, John P; Veilleux, Richard E; Buell, C Robin; Douches, David S

    2012-01-01

    To facilitate genome-guided breeding in potato, we developed an 8303 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) marker array using potato genome and transcriptome resources. To validate the Infinium 8303 Potato Array, we developed linkage maps from two diploid populations (DRH and D84) and compared these maps with the assembled potato genome sequence. Both populations used the doubled monoploid reference genotype DM1-3 516 R44 as the female parent but had different heterozygous diploid male parents (RH89-039-16 and 84SD22). Over 4,400 markers were mapped (1,960 in DRH and 2,454 in D84, 787 in common) resulting in map sizes of 965 (DRH) and 792 (D84) cM, covering 87% (DRH) and 88% (D84) of genome sequence length. Of the mapped markers, 33.5% were in candidate genes selected for the array, 4.5% were markers from existing genetic maps, and 61% were selected based on distribution across the genome. Markers with distorted segregation ratios occurred in blocks in both linkage maps, accounting for 4% (DRH) and 9% (D84) of mapped markers. Markers with distorted segregation ratios were unique to each population with blocks on chromosomes 9 and 12 in DRH and 3, 4, 6 and 8 in D84. Chromosome assignment of markers based on linkage mapping differed from sequence alignment with the Potato Genome Sequencing Consortium (PGSC) pseudomolecules for 1% of the mapped markers with some disconcordant markers attributable to paralogs. In total, 126 (DRH) and 226 (D84) mapped markers were not anchored to the pseudomolecules and provide new scaffold anchoring data to improve the potato genome assembly. The high degree of concordance between the linkage maps and the pseudomolecules demonstrates both the quality of the potato genome sequence and the functionality of the Infinium 8303 Potato Array. The broad genome coverage of the Infinium 8303 Potato Array compared to other marker sets will enable numerous downstream applications. PMID:22558443

  2. The CEPH consortium linkage map of human chromosome 16

    SciTech Connect

    Kozman, H.M.; Mulley, J.C.; Keith, T.P.

    1995-01-01

    A Centre d`Etude du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) consortium map of human chromosome 16 has been constructed. The map contains 158 loci defined by 191 different probe/restriction enzyme combinations or primer pairs. The marker genotypes, contributed by 9 collaborating laboratories, originated from the CEPH families DNA. A total of 60 loci, with an average heterozygosity of 68%, have been placed on the framework genetic map. The genetic map contains 7 genes. The length of the sex-averaged map is 165 cM, with a mean genetic distance between loci of 2.8 cM; the median distance between markers is 2.0 cM. The male map length is 136 cM, and the female map length is 197 cM. The map covers virtually the entire chromosome, from D16S85, within 170 to 430 kb of the 16p telomere, to D16S303 at 16qter. The markers included in the linkage map have been physically mapped on a partial human chromosome 16 somatic cell hybrid panel, thus anchoring the genetic map to the cytogenetic-based physical map. 39 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. The CEPH consortium linkage map of human chromosome 16

    SciTech Connect

    Mulley, J.C.; Kozman, H.M.; Sutherland, G.R.

    1994-09-01

    A Centre d`Etude du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) consortium map of human chromosome 16 has been constructed. The map contains 158 loci defined by 191 different probe/restriction enzyme combinations or primer pairs. The marker genotypes, contributed by 9 collaborating laboratories, originated from the CEPH families DNA. A total of 60 loci, with an average heterozygosity of 68%, have been placed on the framework genetic map. The genetic map contains 7 genes. The length of the sex-average map is 165 cM, with a mean genetic distance between loci of 2.8 cM; the median distance between markers is 2.0 cM. The male map length is 136 cM and the female map length is 197 cM. The map virtually covers the entire chromosome, from D16S85, within 170 to 430 Kb of the 16p telomere, to D16S303 at 16qter. The markers included in the linkage map have been physically mapped on a partial human chromosome 16 somatic cell hybrid panel, thus anchoring the genetic map to the cytogenetic-based physical map.

  4. A consensus linkage map for sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) from two pedigrees, based on microsatellites and expressed sequence tags.

    PubMed Central

    Tani, Naoki; Takahashi, Tomokazu; Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Mukai, Yuzuru; Ujino-Ihara, Tokuko; Matsumoto, Asako; Yoshimura, Kensuke; Yoshimaru, Hiroshi; Murai, Masafumi; Nagasaka, Kazutoshi; Tsumura, Yoshihiko

    2003-01-01

    A consensus map for sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) was constructed by integrating linkage data from two unrelated third-generation pedigrees, one derived from a full-sib cross and the other by self-pollination of F1 individuals. The progeny segregation data of the first pedigree were derived from cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences, microsatellites, restriction fragment length polymorphisms, and single nucleotide polymorphisms. The data of the second pedigree were derived from cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences, isozyme markers, morphological traits, random amplified polymorphic DNA markers, and restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Linkage analyses were done for the first pedigree with JoinMap 3.0, using its parameter set for progeny derived by cross-pollination, and for the second pedigree with the parameter set for progeny derived from selfing of F1 individuals. The 11 chromosomes of C. japonica are represented in the consensus map. A total of 438 markers were assigned to 11 large linkage groups, 1 small linkage group, and 1 nonintegrated linkage group from the second pedigree; their total length was 1372.2 cM. On average, the consensus map showed 1 marker every 3.0 cM. PCR-based codominant DNA markers such as cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences and microsatellite markers were distributed in all linkage groups and occupied about half of mapped loci. These markers are very useful for integration of different linkage maps, QTL mapping, and comparative mapping for evolutional study, especially for species with a large genome size such as conifers. PMID:14668402

  5. The CEPH consortium linkage map of human chromosome 13

    SciTech Connect

    Bowcock, A.M.; Barnes, R.I.; Gerken, S.C.; Leppert, M.; Shiang, R.; Jabs, E.W.; Warren, A.C.; Antonarakis, S.; Retief, A.E.; Vergnaud, G.

    1993-05-01

    The CEPH consortium map of chromosome 13 is presented. This map contains 59 loci defined by genotypes generated from CEPH family DNAs with 94 different probe and restriction enzyme combinations contributed by 9 laboratories. A total of 25 loci have been placed on the map with likelihood support of at least 1000:1. The map extends from loci in the centromeric region of chromosome 13 to the terminal band of the long arm. Multipoint linkage analyses provided estimates that the male, female, and sex-averaged maps extend for 158, 203, and 178cM respectively. The largest interval is 24 cM and is between D13Z1 (alphaRI) and ATP1AL1. The mean genetic distance between the 25 uniquely placed loci is 7 cM. 76 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. The first comprehensive genetic linkage map of a marsupial: the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii).

    PubMed Central

    Zenger, Kyall R; McKenzie, Louise M; Cooper, Desmond W

    2002-01-01

    The production of a marsupial genetic linkage map is perhaps one of the most important objectives in marsupial research. This study used a total of 353 informative meioses and 64 genetic markers to construct a framework genetic linkage map for the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii). Nearly all markers (93.8%) formed a significant linkage (LOD > 3.0) with at least one other marker, indicating that the majority of the genome had been mapped. In fact, when compared with chiasmata data, >70% (828 cM) of the genome has been covered. Nine linkage groups were identified, with all but one (LG7; X-linked) allocated to the autosomes. These groups ranged in size from 15.7 to 176.5 cM and have an average distance of 16.2 cM between adjacent markers. Of the autosomal linkage groups (LGs), LG2 and LG3 were assigned to chromosome 1 and LG4 localized to chromosome 3 on the basis of physical localization of genes. Significant sex-specific distortions toward reduced female recombination rates were revealed in 22% of comparisons. When comparing the X chromosome data to closely related species it is apparent that they are conserved in both synteny and gene order. PMID:12242243

  7. A microsatellite-based linkage map for song sparrows (Melospiza melodia).

    PubMed

    Nietlisbach, Pirmin; Camenisch, Glauco; Bucher, Thomas; Slate, Jon; Keller, Lukas F; Postma, Erik

    2015-11-01

    Although linkage maps are important tools in evolutionary biology, their availability for wild populations is limited. The population of song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) on Mandarte Island, Canada, is among the more intensively studied wild animal populations. Its long-term pedigree data, together with extensive genetic sampling, have allowed the study of a range of questions in evolutionary biology and ecology. However, the availability of genetic markers has been limited. We here describe 191 new microsatellite loci, including 160 high-quality polymorphic autosomal, 7 Z-linked and 1 W-linked markers. We used these markers to construct a linkage map for song sparrows with a total sex-averaged map length of 1731 cM and covering 35 linkage groups, and hence, these markers cover most of the 38-40 chromosomes. Female and male map lengths did not differ significantly. We then bioinformatically mapped these loci to the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) genome and found that linkage groups were conserved between song sparrows and zebra finches. Compared to the zebra finch, marker order within small linkage groups was well conserved, whereas the larger linkage groups showed some intrachromosomal rearrangements. Finally, we show that as expected, recombination frequency between linked loci explained the majority of variation in gametic phase disequilibrium. Yet, there was substantial overlap in gametic phase disequilibrium between pairs of linked and unlinked loci. Given that the microsatellites described here lie on 35 of the 38-40 chromosomes, these markers will be useful for studies in this species, as well as for comparative genomics studies with other species. PMID:25865627

  8. Construction of the High-Density Genetic Linkage Map and Chromosome Map of Large Yellow Croaker (Larimichthys crocea)

    PubMed Central

    Ao, Jingqun; Li, Jia; You, Xinxin; Mu, Yinnan; Ding, Yang; Mao, Kaiqiong; Bian, Chao; Mu, Pengfei; Shi, Qiong; Chen, Xinhua

    2015-01-01

    High-density genetic maps are essential for genome assembly, comparative genomic analysis and fine mapping of complex traits. In this study, 31,191 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) evenly distributed across the large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) genome were identified using restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq). Among them, 10,150 high-confidence SNPs were assigned to 24 consensus linkage groups (LGs). The total length of the genetic linkage map was 5451.3 cM with an average distance of 0.54 cM between loci. This represents the densest genetic map currently reported for large yellow croaker. Using 2889 SNPs to target specific scaffolds, we assigned 533 scaffolds, comprising 421.44 Mb (62.04%) of the large yellow croaker assembled sequence, to the 24 linkage groups. The mapped assembly scaffolds in large yellow croaker were used for genome synteny analyses against the stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and medaka (Oryzias latipes). Greater synteny was observed between large yellow croaker and stickleback. This supports the hypothesis that large yellow croaker is more closely related to stickleback than to medaka. Moreover, 1274 immunity-related genes and 195 hypoxia-related genes were mapped to the 24 chromosomes of large yellow croaker. The integration of the high-resolution genetic map and the assembled sequence provides a valuable resource for fine mapping and positional cloning of quantitative trait loci associated with economically important traits in large yellow croaker. PMID:26540048

  9. Two-trait-locus linkage analysis: A powerful strategy for mapping complex genetic traits

    SciTech Connect

    Schork, N.J.; Boehnke, M. ); Terwilliger, J.D.; Ott, J. )

    1993-11-01

    Nearly all diseases mapped to date follow clear Mendelian, single-locus segregation patterns. In contrast, many common familial diseases such as diabetes, psoriasis, several forms of cancer, and schizophrenia are familial and appear to have a genetic component but do not exhibit simple Mendelian transmission. More complex models are required to explain the genetics of these important diseases. In this paper, the authors explore two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus linkage analysis in which two trait loci are mapped simultaneously to separate genetic markers. The authors compare the utility of this approach to standard one-trait-locus, one-marker-locus linkage analysis with and without allowance for heterogeneity. The authors also compare the utility of the two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus analysis to two-trait-locus, one-marker-locus linkage analysis. For common diseases, pedigrees are often bilineal, with disease genes entering via two or more unrelated pedigree members. Since such pedigrees often are avoided in linkage studies, the authors also investigate the relative information content of unilineal and bilineal pedigrees. For the dominant-or-recessive and threshold models that the authors consider, the authors find that two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus linkage analysis can provide substantially more linkage information, as measured by expected maximum lod score, than standard one-trait-locus, one-marker-locus methods, even allowing for heterogeneity, while, for a dominant-or-dominant generating model, one-locus models that allow for heterogeneity extract essentially as much information as the two-trait-locus methods. For these three models, the authors also find that bilineal pedigrees provide sufficient linkage information to warrant their inclusion in such studies. The authors discuss strategies for assessing the significance of the two linkages assumed in two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus models. 37 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  10. A ddRAD Based Linkage Map of the Cultivated Strawberry, Fragaria xananassa.

    PubMed

    Davik, Jahn; Sargent, Daniel James; Brurberg, May Bente; Lien, Sigbjørn; Kent, Matthew; Alsheikh, Muath

    2015-01-01

    The cultivated strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) is an allo-octoploid considered difficult to disentangle genetically due to its four relatively similar sub-genomic chromosome sets. This has been alleviated by the recent release of the strawberry IStraw90 whole genome genotyping array. However, array resolution relies on the genotypes used in the array construction and may be of limited general use. SNP detection based on reduced genomic sequencing approaches has the potential of providing better coverage in cases where the studied genotypes are only distantly related from the SNP array's construction foundation. Here we have used double digest restriction-associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD) to identify SNPs in a 145 seedling F1 hybrid population raised from the cross between the cultivars Sonata (♀) and Babette (♂). A linkage map containing 907 markers which spanned 1,581.5 cM across 31 linkage groups representing the 28 chromosomes of the species. Comparing the physical span of the SNP markers with the F. vesca genome sequence, the linkage groups resolved covered 79% of the estimated 830 Mb of the F. × ananassa genome. Here, we have developed the first linkage map for F. × ananassa using ddRAD and show that this technique and other related techniques are useful tools for linkage map development and downstream genetic studies in the octoploid strawberry. PMID:26398886

  11. A ddRAD Based Linkage Map of the Cultivated Strawberry, Fragaria xananassa

    PubMed Central

    Davik, Jahn; Sargent, Daniel James; Brurberg, May Bente; Lien, Sigbjørn; Kent, Matthew; Alsheikh, Muath

    2015-01-01

    The cultivated strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) is an allo-octoploid considered difficult to disentangle genetically due to its four relatively similar sub-genomic chromosome sets. This has been alleviated by the recent release of the strawberry IStraw90 whole genome genotyping array. However, array resolution relies on the genotypes used in the array construction and may be of limited general use. SNP detection based on reduced genomic sequencing approaches has the potential of providing better coverage in cases where the studied genotypes are only distantly related from the SNP array’s construction foundation. Here we have used double digest restriction-associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD) to identify SNPs in a 145 seedling F1 hybrid population raised from the cross between the cultivars Sonata (♀) and Babette (♂). A linkage map containing 907 markers which spanned 1,581.5 cM across 31 linkage groups representing the 28 chromosomes of the species. Comparing the physical span of the SNP markers with the F. vesca genome sequence, the linkage groups resolved covered 79% of the estimated 830 Mb of the F. ×ananassa genome. Here, we have developed the first linkage map for F. ×ananassa using ddRAD and show that this technique and other related techniques are useful tools for linkage map development and downstream genetic studies in the octoploid strawberry. PMID:26398886

  12. A SNP based linkage map of the turkey genome reveals multiple intrachromosomal rearrangements between the Turkey and Chicken genomes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) is an important agricultural species that is the second largest contributor to the world's poultry meat production. The genomic resources of turkey provide turkey breeders with tools needed for the genetic improvement of commercial breeds of turkey for economically important traits. A linkage map of turkey is essential not only for the mapping of quantitative trait loci, but also as a framework to enable the assignment of sequence contigs to specific chromosomes. Comparative genomics with chicken provides insight into mechanisms of genome evolution and helps in identifying rare genomic events such as genomic rearrangements and duplications/deletions. Results Eighteen full sib families, comprising 1008 (35 F1 and 973 F2) birds, were genotyped for 775 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Of the 775 SNPs, 570 were informative and used to construct a linkage map in turkey. The final map contains 531 markers in 28 linkage groups. The total genetic distance covered by these linkage groups is 2,324 centimorgans (cM) with the largest linkage group (81 loci) measuring 326 cM. Average marker interval for all markers across the 28 linkage groups is 4.6 cM. Comparative mapping of turkey and chicken revealed two inter-, and 57 intrachromosomal rearrangements between these two species. Conclusion Our turkey genetic map of 531 markers reveals a genome length of 2,324 cM. Our linkage map provides an improvement of previously published maps because of the more even distribution of the markers and because the map is completely based on SNP markers enabling easier and faster genotyping assays than the microsatellitemarkers used in previous linkage maps. Turkey and chicken are shown to have a highly conserved genomic structure with a relatively low number of inter-, and intrachromosomal rearrangements. PMID:21092123

  13. Construction of genetic linkage map and mapping of QTL for seed color in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Kebede, Berisso; Cheema, Kuljit; Greenshields, David L; Li, Changxi; Selvaraj, Gopalan; Rahman, Habibur

    2012-12-01

    A genetic linkage map of Brassica rapa L. was constructed using recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between yellow-seeded cultivar Sampad and a yellowish brown seeded inbred line 3-0026.027. The RILs were evaluated for seed color under three conditions: field plot, greenhouse, and controlled growth chambers. Variation for seed color in the RILs ranged from yellow, like yellow sarson, to dark brown/black even though neither parent had shown brown/black colored seeds. One major QTL (SCA9-2) and one minor QTL (SCA9-1) on linkage group (LG) A9 and two minor QTL (SCA3-1, SCA5-1) on LG A3 and LG A5, respectively, were detected. These collectively explained about 67% of the total phenotypic variance. SCA9-2 mapped in the middle of LG A9, explained about 55% phenotypic variance, and consistently expressed in all environments. The second QTL on LG A9 was ~70 cM away from SCA9-2, suggesting that independent assortment of these QTLs is possible. A digenic epistatic interaction was found between the two main effect QTL on LG A9; and the epistasis × environment interaction was nonsignificant, suggesting stability of the interaction across the environments. The QTL effect on LG A9 was validated using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from the two QTL regions of this LG on a B(1)S(1) population (F(1) backcrossed to Sampad followed by self-pollination) segregating for brown and yellow seed color, and on their self-pollinated progenies (B(1)S(2)). The SSR markers from the QTL region SCA9-2 showed a stronger linkage association with seed color as compared with the marker from SCA9-1. This suggests that the QTL SCA9-2 is the major determinant of seed color in the A genome of B. rapa. PMID:23231600

  14. A Linkage Map of Endogenous Murine Leukemia Proviruses

    PubMed Central

    Frankel, W. N.; Stoye, J. P.; Taylor, B. A.; Coffin, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    Thirty endogenous proviruses belonging to the modified polytropic (Mpmv) class of murine leukemia virus (MLV) were identified by proviral-cellular DNA junction fragment segregation in several sets of recombinant inbred mice. Twenty-six Mpmv loci were mapped to chromosomal regions by matching proviral strain distribution patterns to those of previously assigned genes. Like other endogenous nonecotropic MLVs, Mpmv loci were present on several chromosomes in all strains examined. We pooled recombinant inbred strain linkage data from 110 MLV loci and selected marker genes in order to construct a chromosomal linkage map. Every mouse chromosome was found to harbor at least one proviral insertion, and several regions contained multiple integrations. However, the overall distribution of the 110 mapped proviruses did not deviate significantly from a random distribution. Because of their polymorphism in inbred strains of mice, and the ability to score as many as 57 proviruses per strain using only three hybridization probes, the nonecotropic MLVs mapped in common strains of mice offer a significant advantage over older methods (e.g., biochemical or individual restriction fragment polymorphisms) as genetic markers. These endogenous insertion elements should also be useful for assessing strain purity, and for studying the relatedness of common and not-so-common inbred strains. PMID:2155154

  15. Linkage map of Escherichia coli K-12, edition 8.

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, B J

    1990-01-01

    The linkage map of Escherichia coli K-12 depicts the arrangement of genes on the circular chromosome of this organism. The basic units of the map are minutes, determined by the time-of-entry of markers from Hfr into F- strains in interrupted-conjugation experiments. The time-of-entry distances have been refined over the years by determination of the frequency of cotransduction of loci in transduction experiments utilizing bacteriophage P1, which transduces segments of DNA approximately 2 min in length. In recent years, the relative positions of many genes have been determined even more precisely by physical techniques, including the mapping of restriction fragments and the sequencing of many small regions of the chromosome. On the whole, the agreement between results obtained by genetic and physical methods has been remarkably good considering the different levels of accuracy to be expected of the methods used. There are now few regions of the map whose length is still in some doubt. In some regions, genetic experiments utilizing different mutant strains give different map distances. In other regions, the genetic markers available have not been close enough to give accurate cotransduction data. The chromosome is now known to contain several inserted elements apparently derived from lambdoid phages and other sources. The nature of the region in which the termination of replication of the chromosome occurs is now known to be much more complex than the picture given in the previous map. The present map is based upon the published literature through June of 1988. There are now 1,403 loci placed on the linkage group, which may represent between one-third and one-half of the genes in this organism. PMID:2194094

  16. The CEPH consortium linkage map of human chromosome 11

    SciTech Connect

    Litt, M.; Kramer, P.; Kort, E.

    1995-05-01

    The CEPH consortium framework map of chromosome 11 is presented. The map was generated from CEPH family DNAs with 181 probe/enzyme combinations contributed by 20 laboratories. Seventy-seven of the loci are defined by microsatellite polymorphisms that can be typed by the PCR. A total of 42 loci have been placed on the map with likelihood support of at least 1000:1. The female, male, and sex-average maps extend for 179.6, 110.8, and 145.3 cM, respectively. The largest interval on the sex-average map is less than 11 cM, and the average distance between uniquely placed loci is 4 cM. The genotypic data obtained for map construction have been used to identify the positions of crossovers on the chromosomes of CEPH family children, allowing the localization of new markers without computationally intensive likelihood models and providing a basis for efficient extension of the linkage map to higher resolution. 36 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Construction of a microsatellites-based linkage map for the white grouper (Epinephelus aeneus).

    PubMed

    Dor, Lior; Shirak, Andrey; Gorshkov, Sergei; Band, Mark R; Korol, Abraham; Ronin, Yefim; Curzon, Arie; Hulata, Gideon; Seroussi, Eyal; Ron, Micha

    2014-08-01

    The white grouper (Epinephelus aeneus) is a promising candidate for domestication and aquaculture due to its fast growth, excellent taste, and high market price. A linkage map is an essential framework for mapping quantitative trait loci for economic traits and the study of genome evolution. DNA of a single individual was deep-sequenced, and microsatellite markers were identified in 177 of the largest scaffolds of the sequence assembly. The success rate of developing polymorphic homologous markers was 94.9% compared with 63.1% of heterologous markers from other grouper species. Of the 12 adult mature fish present in the broodstock tank, two males and two females were identified as parents of the assigned offspring by parenthood analysis using 34 heterologous markers. A single full-sib family of 48 individuals was established for the construction of first-generation linkage maps based on genotyping data of 222 microsatellites. The markers were assigned to 24 linkage groups in accordance to the 24 chromosomal pairs. The female and male maps consisting of 203 and 202 markers spanned 1053 and 886 cM, with an average intermarker distance of 5.8 and 5.0 cM, respectively. Mapping of markers to linkage groups ends was enriched by using markers originating from scaffolds harboring telomeric repeat-containing RNA. Comparative mapping showed high synteny relationships among the white grouper, kelp grouper (E. bruneus), orange-spotted grouper (E. coioides), and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Thus, it would be useful to integrate the markers that were developed for different groupers, depending on sharing of sequence data, into a comprehensive consensus map. PMID:24902605

  18. Construction of dense linkage maps "on the fly" using early generation wheat breeding populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In plant species, construction of framework linkage maps to facilitate quantitative trait loci mapping and molecular breeding has been confined to experimental mapping populations. However, development and evaluation of these populations is detached from breeding efforts for cultivar development. In...

  19. PeanutMap: an online genome database for comparative molecular maps of peanut

    PubMed Central

    Jesubatham, Arun M; Burow, Mark D

    2006-01-01

    Background Molecular maps have been developed for many species, and are of particular importance for varietal development and comparative genomics. However, despite the existence of multiple sets of linkage maps, databases of these data are lacking for many species, including peanut. Description PeanutMap provides a web-based interface for viewing specific linkage groups of a map set. PeanutMap can display and compare multiple maps of a set based upon marker or trait correspondences, which is particularly important as cultivated peanut is a disomic tetraploid. The database can also compare linkage groups among multiple map sets, allowing identification of corresponding linkage groups from results of different research projects. Data from the two published peanut genome map sets, and also from three maps sets of phenotypic traits are present in the database. Data from PeanutMap have been incorporated into the Legume Information System website to allow peanut map data to be used for cross-species comparisons. Conclusion The utility of the database is expected to increase as several SSR-based maps are being developed currently, and expanded efforts for comparative mapping of legumes are underway. Optimal use of these data will benefit from the development of tools to facilitate comparative analysis. PMID:16904007

  20. Linkage disequilibrium interval mapping of quantitative trait loci

    PubMed Central

    Boitard, Simon; Abdallah, Jihad; de Rochambeau, Hubert; Cierco-Ayrolles, Christine; Mangin, Brigitte

    2006-01-01

    Background For many years gene mapping studies have been performed through linkage analyses based on pedigree data. Recently, linkage disequilibrium methods based on unrelated individuals have been advocated as powerful tools to refine estimates of gene location. Many strategies have been proposed to deal with simply inherited disease traits. However, locating quantitative trait loci is statistically more challenging and considerable research is needed to provide robust and computationally efficient methods. Results Under a three-locus Wright-Fisher model, we derived approximate expressions for the expected haplotype frequencies in a population. We considered haplotypes comprising one trait locus and two flanking markers. Using these theoretical expressions, we built a likelihood-maximization method, called HAPim, for estimating the location of a quantitative trait locus. For each postulated position, the method only requires information from the two flanking markers. Over a wide range of simulation scenarios it was found to be more accurate than a two-marker composite likelihood method. It also performed as well as identity by descent methods, whilst being valuable in a wider range of populations. Conclusion Our method makes efficient use of marker information, and can be valuable for fine mapping purposes. Its performance is increased if multiallelic markers are available. Several improvements can be developed to account for more complex evolution scenarios or provide robust confidence intervals for the location estimates. PMID:16542433

  1. Improving Integration Effectiveness of ID Mapping Based Biological Record Linkage.

    PubMed

    Jamil, Hasan M

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, biological objects such as genes, proteins, and pathways are represented by a convenient identifier, or ID, which is then used to cross reference, link and describe objects in biological databases. Relationships among the objects are often established using non-trivial and computationally complex ID mapping systems or converters, and are stored in authoritative databases such as UniGene, GeneCards, PIR and BioMart. Despite best efforts, such mappings are largely incomplete and riddled with false negatives. Consequently, data integration using record linkage that relies on these mappings produces poor quality of data, inadvertently leading to erroneous conclusions. In this paper, we discuss this largely ignored dimension of data integration, examine how the ubiquitous use of identifiers in biological databases is a significant barrier to knowledge fusion using distributed computational pipelines, and propose two algorithms for ad hoc and restriction free ID mapping of arbitrary types using online resources. We also propose two declarative statements for ID conversion and data integration based on ID mapping on-the-fly. PMID:26357233

  2. A Genetic Linkage Map of the Hermaphrodite Teleost Fish Sparus aurata L.

    PubMed Central

    Franch, Rafaella; Louro, Bruno; Tsalavouta, Matina; Chatziplis, Dimitris; Tsigenopoulos, Costas S.; Sarropoulou, Elena; Antonello, Jenny; Magoulas, Andonis; Mylonas, Constantinos C.; Babbucci, Massimiliano; Patarnello, Tomaso; Power, Deborah M.; Kotoulas, Giorgos; Bargelloni, Luca

    2006-01-01

    The gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) is a marine fish of great importance for fisheries and aquaculture. It has also a peculiar sex-determination system, being a protandrous hermaphrodite. Here we report the construction of a first-generation genetic linkage map for S. aurata, based on 204 microsatellite markers. Twenty-six linkage groups (LG) were found. The total map length was 1241.9 cM. The ratio between sex-specific map lengths was 1:1.2 (male:female). Comparison with a preliminary radiation hybrid (RH) map reveals a good concordance, as all markers located in a single LG are located in a single RH group, except for Ad-25 and CId-31. Comparison with the Tetraodon nigroviridis genome revealed a considerable number of evolutionary conserved regions (ECRs) between the two species. The mean size of ECRs was 182 bp (sequence identity 60–90%). Forty-one ECRs have a known chromosomal location in the pufferfish genome. Despite the limited number of anchoring points, significant syntenic relationships were found. The linkage map presented here provides a robust comparative framework for QTL analysis in S. aurata and is a step toward the identification of genetic loci involved both in the determination of economically important traits and in the individual timing of sex reversal. PMID:16951080

  3. Construction of an SSR and RAD-Marker Based Molecular Linkage Map of Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich.

    PubMed

    Marubodee, Rusama; Ogiso-Tanaka, Eri; Isemura, Takehisa; Chankaew, Sompong; Kaga, Akito; Naito, Ken; Ehara, Hiroshi; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2015-01-01

    Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich. (tuber cowpea) is an underutilized crop for consuming its tuber and mature seeds. Wild form of V. vexillata is a pan-tropical perennial herbaceous plant which has been used by local people as a food. Wild V. vexillata has also been considered as useful gene(s) source for V. unguiculata (cowpea), since it was reported to have various resistance gene(s) for insects and diseases of cowpea. To exploit the potential of V. vexillata, an SSR-based linkage map of V. vexillata was developed. A total of 874 SSR markers successfully amplified single DNA fragment in V. vexillata among 1,336 SSR markers developed from Vigna angularis (azuki bean), V. unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean). An F2 population of 300 plants derived from a cross between salt resistant (V1) and susceptible (V5) accessions was used for mapping. A genetic linkage map was constructed using 82 polymorphic SSR markers loci, which could be assigned to 11 linkage groups spanning 511.5 cM in length with a mean distance of 7.2 cM between adjacent markers. To develop higher density molecular linkage map and to confirm SSR markers position in a linkage map, RAD markers were developed and a combined SSR and RAD markers linkage map of V. vexillata was constructed. A total of 559 (84 SSR and 475 RAD) markers loci could be assigned to 11 linkage groups spanning 973.9 cM in length with a mean distance of 1.8 cM between adjacent markers. Linkage and genetic position of all SSR markers in an SSR linkage map were confirmed. When an SSR genetic linkage map of V. vexillata was compared with those of V. radiata and V. unguiculata, it was suggested that the structure of V. vexillata chromosome was considerably differentiated. This map is the first SSR and RAD marker-based V. vexillata linkage map which can be used for the mapping of useful traits. PMID:26398819

  4. Construction of an SSR and RAD-Marker Based Molecular Linkage Map of Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich

    PubMed Central

    Chankaew, Sompong; Kaga, Akito; Naito, Ken; Ehara, Hiroshi; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2015-01-01

    Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich. (tuber cowpea) is an underutilized crop for consuming its tuber and mature seeds. Wild form of V. vexillata is a pan-tropical perennial herbaceous plant which has been used by local people as a food. Wild V. vexillata has also been considered as useful gene(s) source for V. unguiculata (cowpea), since it was reported to have various resistance gene(s) for insects and diseases of cowpea. To exploit the potential of V. vexillata, an SSR-based linkage map of V. vexillata was developed. A total of 874 SSR markers successfully amplified single DNA fragment in V. vexillata among 1,336 SSR markers developed from Vigna angularis (azuki bean), V. unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean). An F2 population of 300 plants derived from a cross between salt resistant (V1) and susceptible (V5) accessions was used for mapping. A genetic linkage map was constructed using 82 polymorphic SSR markers loci, which could be assigned to 11 linkage groups spanning 511.5 cM in length with a mean distance of 7.2 cM between adjacent markers. To develop higher density molecular linkage map and to confirm SSR markers position in a linkage map, RAD markers were developed and a combined SSR and RAD markers linkage map of V. vexillata was constructed. A total of 559 (84 SSR and 475 RAD) markers loci could be assigned to 11 linkage groups spanning 973.9 cM in length with a mean distance of 1.8 cM between adjacent markers. Linkage and genetic position of all SSR markers in an SSR linkage map were confirmed. When an SSR genetic linkage map of V. vexillata was compared with those of V. radiata and V. unguiculata, it was suggested that the structure of V. vexillata chromosome was considerably differentiated. This map is the first SSR and RAD marker-based V. vexillata linkage map which can be used for the mapping of useful traits. PMID:26398819

  5. Integration of the Aedes aegypti mosquito genetic linkage and physical maps.

    PubMed

    Brown, S E; Severson, D W; Smith, L A; Knudson, D L

    2001-03-01

    Two approaches were used to correlate the Aedes aegypti genetic linkage map to the physical map. STS markers were developed for previously mapped RFLP-based genetic markers so that large genomic clones from cosmid libraries could be found and placed to the metaphase chromosome physical maps using standard FISH methods. Eight cosmids were identified that contained eight RFLP marker sequences, and these cosmids were located on the metaphase chromosomes. Twenty-one cDNAs were mapped directly to metaphase chromosomes using a FISH amplification procedure. The chromosome numbering schemes of the genetic linkage and physical maps corresponded directly and the orientations of the genetic linkage maps for chromosomes 2 and 3 were inverted relative to the physical maps. While the chromosome 2 linkage map represented essentially 100% of chromosome 2, approximately 65% of the chromosome 1 linkage map mapped to only 36% of the short p-arm and 83% of the chromosome 3 physical map contained the complete genetic linkage map. Since the genetic linkage map is a RFLP cDNA-based map, these data also provide a minimal estimate for the size of the euchromatic regions. The implications of these findings on positional cloning in A. aegypti are discussed. PMID:11238414

  6. Linkage disequilibrium in the neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) region: implications for gene mapping.

    PubMed Central

    Jorde, L B; Watkins, W S; Viskochil, D; O'Connell, P; Ward, K

    1993-01-01

    To test the usefulness of linkage disequilibrium for gene mapping, we compared physical distances and linkage disequilibrium among eight RFLPs in the neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) region. Seven of the polymorphisms span most of the NF1 gene, while the remaining polymorphism lies approximately 70 kb 3' to a stop codon in exon 49. By using Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) kindreds, 91-110 unrelated parents were genotyped. A high degree of disequilibrium is maintained among the seven intragenic polymorphisms (r > .82, P < 10(-7)), even though they are separated by as much as 340 kb. The 3' polymorphism is only 68 kb distal to the next polymorphism, but disequilibrium between the 3' polymorphism and all others is comparatively low (magnitude of 4 < .33, P values .27-.001). This result was replicated in three sets of unrelated kindreds: the Utah CEPH families, the non-Utah CEPH families, and an independent set of NF1 families. Trigenic, quadrigenic, three-locus, and four-locus disequilibrium measures were also estimated. There was little evidence of higher-order linkage disequilibrium. As expected for a disease with multiple mutations, no disequilibrium was observed between the disease gene and any of the RFLPs. The observed pattern of high disequilibrium within the gene and a loss of disequilibrium 3' to the stop codon could have implications for gene mapping studies. These are discussed, and guidelines for linkage disequilibrium studies are suggested. PMID:8105688

  7. Linkage Analysis and QTL Mapping Using SNP Dosage Data in a Tetraploid Potato Mapping Population

    PubMed Central

    Hackett, Christine A.; McLean, Karen; Bryan, Glenn J.

    2013-01-01

    New sequencing and genotyping technologies have enabled researchers to generate high density SNP genotype data for mapping populations. In polyploid species, SNP data usually contain a new type of information, the allele dosage, which is not used by current methodologies for linkage analysis and QTL mapping. Here we extend existing methodology to use dosage data on SNPs in an autotetraploid mapping population. The SNP dosages are inferred from allele intensity ratios using normal mixture models. The steps of the linkage analysis (testing for distorted segregation, clustering SNPs, calculation of recombination fractions and LOD scores, ordering of SNPs and inference of parental phase) are extended to use the dosage information. For QTL analysis, the probability of each possible offspring genotype is inferred at a grid of locations along the chromosome from the ordered parental genotypes and phases and the offspring dosages. A normal mixture model is then used to relate trait values to the offspring genotypes and to identify the most likely locations for QTLs. These methods are applied to analyse a tetraploid potato mapping population of parents and 190 offspring, genotyped using an Infinium 8300 Potato SNP Array. Linkage maps for each of the 12 chromosomes are constructed. The allele intensity ratios are mapped as quantitative traits to check that their position and phase agrees with that of the corresponding SNP. This analysis confirms most SNP positions, and eliminates some problem SNPs to give high-density maps for each chromosome, with between 74 and 152 SNPs mapped and between 100 and 300 further SNPs allocated to approximate bins. Low numbers of double reduction products were detected. Overall 3839 of the 5378 polymorphic SNPs can be assigned putative genetic locations. This methodology can be applied to construct high-density linkage maps in any autotetraploid species, and could also be extended to higher autopolyploids. PMID:23704960

  8. A microsatellite-based genetic linkage map and putative sex-determining genomic regions in Lake Victoria cichlids.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Yu; Nikaido, Masato; Kondo, Azusa; Suzuki, Hikoyu; Yoshida, Kohta; Kikuchi, Kiyoshi; Okada, Norihiro

    2015-04-15

    Cichlid fishes in East Africa have undergone extensive adaptive radiation, which has led to spectacular diversity in their morphology and ecology. To date, genetic linkage maps have been constructed for several tilapias (riverine), Astatotilapia burtoni (Lake Tanganyika), and hybrid lines of Lake Malawi cichlids to facilitate genome-wide comparative analyses. In the present study, we constructed a genetic linkage map of the hybrid line of Lake Victoria cichlids, so that maps of cichlids from all the major areas of East Africa will be available. The genetic linkage map shown here is derived from the F2 progeny of an interspecific cross between Haplochromis chilotes and Haplochromis sauvagei and is based on 184 microsatellite and two single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Most of the microsatellite markers used in the present study were originally designed for other genetic linkage maps, allowing us to directly compare each linkage group (LG) among different cichlid groups. We found 25 LGs, the total length of which was 1133.2cM with an average marker spacing of about 6.09cM. Our subsequent linkage mapping analysis identified two putative sex-determining loci in cichlids. Interestingly, one of these two loci is located on cichlid LG5, on which the female heterogametic ZW locus and several quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to adaptive evolution have been reported in Lake Malawi cichlids. We also found that V1R1 and V1R2, candidate genes for the fish pheromone receptor, are located very close to the recently detected sex-determining locus on cichlid LG5. The genetic linkage map study presented here may provide a valuable foundation for studying the chromosomal evolution of East African cichlids and the possible role of sex chromosomes in generating their genomic diversity. PMID:25639358

  9. An ultra-high density linkage map and QTL mapping for sex and growth-related traits of common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Wenzhu; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Jianxin; Dong, Chuanju; Jiang, Likun; Feng, Jingyan; Chen, Baohua; Gong, Yiwen; Chen, Lin; Xu, Peng

    2016-01-01

    High density genetic linkage maps are essential for QTL fine mapping, comparative genomics and high quality genome sequence assembly. In this study, we constructed a high-density and high-resolution genetic linkage map with 28,194 SNP markers on 14,146 distinct loci for common carp based on high-throughput genotyping with the carp 250 K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array in a mapping family. The genetic length of the consensus map was 10,595.94 cM with an average locus interval of 0.75 cM and an average marker interval of 0.38 cM. Comparative genomic analysis revealed high level of conserved syntenies between common carp and the closely related model species zebrafish and medaka. The genome scaffolds were anchored to the high-density linkage map, spanning 1,357 Mb of common carp reference genome. QTL mapping and association analysis identified 22 QTLs for growth-related traits and 7 QTLs for sex dimorphism. Candidate genes underlying growth-related traits were identified, including important regulators such as KISS2, IGF1, SMTLB, NPFFR1 and CPE. Candidate genes associated with sex dimorphism were also identified including 3KSR and DMRT2b. The high-density and high-resolution genetic linkage map provides an important tool for QTL fine mapping and positional cloning of economically important traits, and improving common carp genome assembly. PMID:27225429

  10. An ultra-high density linkage map and QTL mapping for sex and growth-related traits of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Peng, Wenzhu; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Jianxin; Dong, Chuanju; Jiang, Likun; Feng, Jingyan; Chen, Baohua; Gong, Yiwen; Chen, Lin; Xu, Peng

    2016-01-01

    High density genetic linkage maps are essential for QTL fine mapping, comparative genomics and high quality genome sequence assembly. In this study, we constructed a high-density and high-resolution genetic linkage map with 28,194 SNP markers on 14,146 distinct loci for common carp based on high-throughput genotyping with the carp 250 K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array in a mapping family. The genetic length of the consensus map was 10,595.94 cM with an average locus interval of 0.75 cM and an average marker interval of 0.38 cM. Comparative genomic analysis revealed high level of conserved syntenies between common carp and the closely related model species zebrafish and medaka. The genome scaffolds were anchored to the high-density linkage map, spanning 1,357 Mb of common carp reference genome. QTL mapping and association analysis identified 22 QTLs for growth-related traits and 7 QTLs for sex dimorphism. Candidate genes underlying growth-related traits were identified, including important regulators such as KISS2, IGF1, SMTLB, NPFFR1 and CPE. Candidate genes associated with sex dimorphism were also identified including 3KSR and DMRT2b. The high-density and high-resolution genetic linkage map provides an important tool for QTL fine mapping and positional cloning of economically important traits, and improving common carp genome assembly. PMID:27225429

  11. Quantifying the Correctness, Computational Complexity, and Security of Privacy-Preserving String Comparators for Record Linkage

    PubMed Central

    Durham, Elizabeth; Xue, Yuan; Kantarcioglu, Murat; Malin, Bradley

    2011-01-01

    Record linkage is the task of identifying records from disparate data sources that refer to the same entity. It is an integral component of data processing in distributed settings, where the integration of information from multiple sources can prevent duplication and enrich overall data quality, thus enabling more detailed and correct analysis. Privacy-preserving record linkage (PPRL) is a variant of the task in which data owners wish to perform linkage without revealing identifiers associated with the records. This task is desirable in various domains, including healthcare, where it may not be possible to reveal patient identity due to confidentiality requirements, and in business, where it could be disadvantageous to divulge customers' identities. To perform PPRL, it is necessary to apply string comparators that function in the privacy-preserving space. A number of privacy-preserving string comparators (PPSCs) have been proposed, but little research has compared them in the context of a real record linkage application. This paper performs a principled and comprehensive evaluation of six PPSCs in terms of three key properties: 1) correctness of record linkage predictions, 2) computational complexity, and 3) security. We utilize a real publicly-available dataset, derived from the North Carolina voter registration database, to evaluate the tradeoffs between the aforementioned properties. Among our results, we find that PPSCs that partition, encode, and compare strings yield highly accurate record linkage results. However, as a tradeoff, we observe that such PPSCs are less secure than those that map and compare strings in a reduced dimensional space. PMID:22904698

  12. A LCP 85-384 genetic linkage map enriched with polymorphic SSR markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) cultivars, such as Q165, R570 and LCP 85-384, have been used to construct genetic segregation populations for the development of genetic linkage maps. Based on the genetic linkage map for a selfed-progeny population of R570, the French research group at CIRAD tagge...

  13. Construction of Ultradense Linkage Maps with Lep-MAP2: Stickleback F2 Recombinant Crosses as an Example.

    PubMed

    Rastas, Pasi; Calboli, Federico C F; Guo, Baocheng; Shikano, Takahito; Merilä, Juha

    2016-01-01

    High-density linkage maps are important tools for genome biology and evolutionary genetics by quantifying the extent of recombination, linkage disequilibrium, and chromosomal rearrangements across chromosomes, sexes, and populations. They provide one of the best ways to validate and refine de novo genome assemblies, with the power to identify errors in assemblies increasing with marker density. However, assembly of high-density linkage maps is still challenging due to software limitations. We describe Lep-MAP2, a software for ultradense genome-wide linkage map construction. Lep-MAP2 can handle various family structures and can account for achiasmatic meiosis to gain linkage map accuracy. Simulations show that Lep-MAP2 outperforms other available mapping software both in computational efficiency and accuracy. When applied to two large F2-generation recombinant crosses between two nine-spined stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) populations, it produced two high-density (∼6 markers/cM) linkage maps containing 18,691 and 20,054 single nucleotide polymorphisms. The two maps showed a high degree of synteny, but female maps were 1.5-2 times longer than male maps in all linkage groups, suggesting genome-wide recombination suppression in males. Comparison with the genome sequence of the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) revealed a high degree of interspecific synteny with a low frequency (<5%) of interchromosomal rearrangements. However, a fairly large (ca. 10 Mb) translocation from autosome to sex chromosome was detected in both maps. These results illustrate the utility and novel features of Lep-MAP2 in assembling high-density linkage maps, and their usefulness in revealing evolutionarily interesting properties of genomes, such as strong genome-wide sex bias in recombination rates. PMID:26668116

  14. Construction of Ultradense Linkage Maps with Lep-MAP2: Stickleback F2 Recombinant Crosses as an Example

    PubMed Central

    Rastas, Pasi; Calboli, Federico C. F.; Guo, Baocheng; Shikano, Takahito; Merilä, Juha

    2016-01-01

    High-density linkage maps are important tools for genome biology and evolutionary genetics by quantifying the extent of recombination, linkage disequilibrium, and chromosomal rearrangements across chromosomes, sexes, and populations. They provide one of the best ways to validate and refine de novo genome assemblies, with the power to identify errors in assemblies increasing with marker density. However, assembly of high-density linkage maps is still challenging due to software limitations. We describe Lep-MAP2, a software for ultradense genome-wide linkage map construction. Lep-MAP2 can handle various family structures and can account for achiasmatic meiosis to gain linkage map accuracy. Simulations show that Lep-MAP2 outperforms other available mapping software both in computational efficiency and accuracy. When applied to two large F2-generation recombinant crosses between two nine-spined stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) populations, it produced two high-density (∼6 markers/cM) linkage maps containing 18,691 and 20,054 single nucleotide polymorphisms. The two maps showed a high degree of synteny, but female maps were 1.5–2 times longer than male maps in all linkage groups, suggesting genome-wide recombination suppression in males. Comparison with the genome sequence of the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) revealed a high degree of interspecific synteny with a low frequency (<5%) of interchromosomal rearrangements. However, a fairly large (ca. 10 Mb) translocation from autosome to sex chromosome was detected in both maps. These results illustrate the utility and novel features of Lep-MAP2 in assembling high-density linkage maps, and their usefulness in revealing evolutionarily interesting properties of genomes, such as strong genome-wide sex bias in recombination rates. PMID:26668116

  15. Genetic Linkage Map Construction and QTL Mapping of Salt Tolerance Traits in Zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica)

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hailin; Ding, Wanwen; Chen, Jingbo; Chen, Xuan; Zheng, Yiqi; Wang, Zhiyong; Liu, Jianxiu

    2014-01-01

    Zoysiagrass (Zoysia Willd.) is an important warm season turfgrass that is grown in many parts of the world. Salt tolerance is an important trait in zoysiagrass breeding programs. In this study, a genetic linkage map was constructed using sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers and random amplified polymorphic DNA markers based on an F1 population comprising 120 progeny derived from a cross between Zoysia japonica Z105 (salt-tolerant accession) and Z061 (salt-sensitive accession). The linkage map covered 1211 cM with an average marker distance of 5.0 cM and contained 24 linkage groups with 242 marker loci (217 sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers and 25 random amplified polymorphic DNA markers). Quantitative trait loci affecting the salt tolerance of zoysiagrass were identified using the constructed genetic linkage map. Two significant quantitative trait loci (qLF-1 and qLF-2) for leaf firing percentage were detected; qLF-1 at 36.3 cM on linkage group LG4 with a logarithm of odds value of 3.27, which explained 13.1% of the total variation of leaf firing and qLF-2 at 42.3 cM on LG5 with a logarithm of odds value of 2.88, which explained 29.7% of the total variation of leaf firing. A significant quantitative trait locus (qSCW-1) for reduced percentage of dry shoot clipping weight was detected at 44.1 cM on LG5 with a logarithm of odds value of 4.0, which explained 65.6% of the total variation. This study provides important information for further functional analysis of salt-tolerance genes in zoysiagrass. Molecular markers linked with quantitative trait loci for salt tolerance will be useful in zoysiagrass breeding programs using marker-assisted selection. PMID:25203715

  16. A consensus linkage map for molecular markers and quantitative trait loci associated with economically important traits in melon (Cucumis melo L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of molecular marker linkage maps have been developed for melon (Cucumis melo L.) over the last two decades. However, these maps were constructed using different marker sets, thus, making comparative analysis among maps difficult. In order to solve this problem, a consensus genetic map in ...

  17. Rapid genotyping by low-coverage resequencing to construct genetic linkage maps of fungi: a case study in Lentinula edodes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genetic linkage maps are important tools in breeding programmes and quantitative trait analyses. Traditional molecular markers used for genotyping are limited in throughput and efficiency. The advent of next-generation sequencing technologies has facilitated progeny genotyping and genetic linkage map construction in the major grains. However, the applicability of the approach remains untested in the fungal system. Findings Shiitake mushroom, Lentinula edodes, is a basidiomycetous fungus that represents one of the most popular cultivated edible mushrooms. Here, we developed a rapid genotyping method based on low-coverage (~0.5 to 1.5-fold) whole-genome resequencing. We used the approach to genotype 20 single-spore isolates derived from L. edodes strain L54 and constructed the first high-density sequence-based genetic linkage map of L. edodes. The accuracy of the proposed genotyping method was verified experimentally with results from mating compatibility tests and PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism on a few known genes. The linkage map spanned a total genetic distance of 637.1 cM and contained 13 linkage groups. Two hundred sequence-based markers were placed on the map, with an average marker spacing of 3.4 cM. The accuracy of the map was confirmed by comparing with previous maps the locations of known genes such as matA and matB. Conclusions We used the shiitake mushroom as an example to provide a proof-of-principle that low-coverage resequencing could allow rapid genotyping of basidiospore-derived progenies, which could in turn facilitate the construction of high-density genetic linkage maps of basidiomycetous fungi for quantitative trait analyses and improvement of genome assembly. PMID:23915543

  18. Using linkage maps to correct and scaffold de novo genome assemblies: methods, challenges, and computational tools

    PubMed Central

    Fierst, Janna L.

    2015-01-01

    Modern high-throughput DNA sequencing has made it possible to inexpensively produce genome sequences, but in practice many of these draft genomes are fragmented and incomplete. Genetic linkage maps based on recombination rates between physical markers have been used in biology for over 100 years and a linkage map, when paired with a de novo sequencing project, can resolve mis-assemblies and anchor chromosome-scale sequences. Here, I summarize the methodology behind integrating de novo assemblies and genetic linkage maps, outline the current challenges, review the available software tools, and discuss new mapping technologies. PMID:26150829

  19. Centromere-Linkage Analysis and Consolidation of the Zebrafish Genetic Map

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, S. L.; Gates, M. A.; Johnson, M.; Talbot, W. S.; Horne, S.; Baik, K.; Rude, S.; Wong, J. R.; Postlethwait, J. H.

    1996-01-01

    The ease of isolating mutations in zebrafish will contribute to an understanding of a variety of processes common to all vertebrates. To facilitate genetic analysis of such mutations, we have identified DNA polymorphisms closely linked to each of the 25 centromeres of zebrafish, placed centromeres on the linkage map, increased the number of mapped PCR-based markers to 652, and consolidated the number of linkage groups to the number of chromosomes. This work makes possible centromere-linkage analysis, a novel, rapid method to assign mutations to a specific linkage group using half-tetrads. PMID:8846904

  20. Development of Public Immortal Mapping Populations, Molecular Markers, and Linkage Maps for Rapid Cycling Brassica rapa and B. oleracea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Past research efforts on genetic mapping in Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa have been disconnected, utilizing separate mapping populations and different sets of molecular markers. Here we present public immortal mapping populations, molecular markers and linkage maps for rapid cycling B. rapa a...

  1. A first linkage map of pecan cultivars based on RAPD and AFLP markers.

    PubMed

    Beedanagari, Sudheer R; Dove, Sue K; Wood, Bruce W; Conner, Patrick J

    2005-04-01

    We report here the first genetic linkage maps of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch], using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Independent maps were constructed for the cultivars 'Pawnee' and 'Elliot' using the double pseudo-testcross mapping strategy and 120 F1 seedlings from a full-sib family. A total of 477 markers, including 217 RAPD, 258 AFLP, and two morphological markers were used in linkage analysis. The 'Pawnee' linkage map has 218 markers, comprising 176 testcross and 42 intercross markers placed in 16 major and 13 minor (doublets and triplets) linkage groups. The 'Pawnee' linkage map covered 2,227 cM with an average map distance of 12.7 cM between adjacent markers. The 'Elliot' linkage map has 174 markers comprising 150 testcross and 22 intercross markers placed in 17 major and nine minor linkage groups. The 'Elliot' map covered 1,698 cM with an average map distance of 11.2 cM between adjacent markers. Segregation ratios for dichogamy type and stigma color were not significantly different from 1:1, suggesting that both traits are controlled by single loci with protogyny and green stigmas dominant to protandry and red stigmas. These loci were tightly linked (1.9 cM) and were placed in 'Elliot' linkage group 16. These linkage maps are an important first step towards the detection of genes controlling horticulturally important traits such as nut size, nut maturity date, kernel quality, and disease resistance. PMID:15782296

  2. Construction of a reference genetic linkage map for carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genetic linkage maps are important tools for many genetic applications including mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs), identifying DNA markers for fingerprinting, and map-based gene cloning. Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) is an important ornamental flower worldwide. We previously reported a random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-based genetic linkage map derived from Dianthus capitatus ssp. andrezejowskianus and a simple sequence repeat (SSR)-based genetic linkage map constructed using data from intraspecific F2 populations; however, the number of markers was insufficient, and so the number of linkage groups (LGs) did not coincide with the number of chromosomes (x = 15). Therefore, we aimed to produce a high-density genetic map to improve its usefulness for breeding purposes and genetic research. Results We improved the SSR-based genetic linkage map using SSR markers derived from a genomic library, expression sequence tags, and RNA-seq data. Linkage analysis revealed that 412 SSR loci (including 234 newly developed SSR loci) could be mapped to 17 linkage groups (LGs) covering 969.6 cM. Comparison of five minor LGs covering less than 50 cM with LGs in our previous RAPD-based genetic map suggested that four LGs could be integrated into two LGs by anchoring common SSR loci. Consequently, the number of LGs corresponded to the number of chromosomes (x = 15). We added 192 new SSRs, eight RAPD, and two sequence-tagged site loci to refine the RAPD-based genetic linkage map, which comprised 15 LGs consisting of 348 loci covering 978.3 cM. The two maps had 125 SSR loci in common, and most of the positions of markers were conserved between them. We identified 635 loci in carnation using the two linkage maps. We also mapped QTLs for two traits (bacterial wilt resistance and anthocyanin pigmentation in the flower) and a phenotypic locus for flower-type by analyzing previously reported genotype and phenotype data. Conclusions The improved genetic

  3. Integration of the cytogenetic and genetic linkage maps of Brassica oleracea.

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Elaine C; Barker, Guy C; Jones, Gareth H; Kearsey, Michael J; King, Graham J; Kop, Erik P; Ryder, Carol D; Teakle, Graham R; Vicente, Joana G; Armstrong, Susan J

    2002-01-01

    We have assigned all nine linkage groups of a Brassica oleracea genetic map to each of the nine chromosomes of the karyotype derived from mitotic metaphase spreads of the B. oleracea var. alboglabra line A12DHd using FISH. The majority of probes were BACs, with A12DHd DNA inserts, which give clear, reliable FISH signals. We have added nine markers to the existing integrated linkage map, distributed over six linkage groups. BACs were definitively assigned to linkage map positions through development of locus-specific PCR assays. Integration of the cytogenetic and genetic linkage maps was achieved with 22 probes representing 19 loci. Four chromosomes (2, 4, 7, and 9) are in the same orientation as their respective linkage groups (O4, O7, O8, and O6) whereas four chromosomes (1, 3, 5, and 8) and linkage groups (O3, O9, O2, and O1) are in the opposite orientation. The remaining chromosome (6) is probably in the opposite orientation. The cytogenetic map is an important resource for locating probes with unknown genetic map positions and is also being used to analyze the relationships between genetic and cytogenetic maps. PMID:12136025

  4. Construction of a high-density linkage map and fine mapping of QTL for growth in Asian seabass

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Le; Wan, Zi Yi; Bai, Bin; Huang, Shu Qing; Chua, Elaine; Lee, May; Pang, Hong Yan; Wen, Yan Fei; Liu, Peng; Liu, Feng; Sun, Fei; Lin, Grace; Ye, Bao Qing; Yue, Gen Hua

    2015-01-01

    A high-density genetic map is essential for comparative genomic studies and fine mapping of QTL, and can also facilitate genome sequence assembly. Here, a high density genetic map of Asian seabass was constructed with 3321 SNPs generated by sequencing 144 individuals in a F2 family. The length of the map was 1577.67 cM with an average marker interval of 0.52 cM. A high level of genomic synteny among Asian seabass, European seabass, Nile tilapia and stickleback was detected. Using this map, one genome-wide significant and five suggestive QTL for growth traits were detected in six linkage groups (i.e. LG4, LG5, LG11, LG13, LG14 and LG15). These QTL explained 10.5–16.0% of phenotypic variance. A candidate gene, ACOX1 within the significant QTL on LG5 was identified. The gene was differentially expressed between fast- and slow-growing Asian seabass. The high-density SNP-based map provides an important tool for fine mapping QTL in molecular breeding and comparative genome analysis. PMID:26553309

  5. Genetic linkage map construction and QTL mapping of cadmium accumulation in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Liangju; Gong, Yiqin; Dai, Wenhao; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Xianwen; Wen, Tiancai; Liu, Liwang

    2012-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread soil pollutant and poses a significant threat to human health via the food chain. Large phenotypic variations in Cd concentration of radish roots and shoots have been observed. However, the genetic and molecular mechanisms of Cd accumulation in radish remain to be elucidated. In this study, a genetic linkage map was constructed using an F(2) mapping population derived from a cross between a high Cd-accumulating cultivar NAU-Dysx and a low Cd-accumulating cultivar NAU-Yh. The linkage map consisted of 523 SRAP, RAPD, SSR, ISSR, RAMP, and RGA markers and had a total length of 1,678.2 cM with a mean distance of 3.4 cM between two markers. All mapped markers distributed on nine linkage groups (LGs) having sizes between 134.7 and 236.8 cM. Four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for root Cd accumulation were mapped on LGs 1, 4, 6, and 9, which accounted for 9.86 to 48.64 % of all phenotypic variance. Two QTLs associated with shoot Cd accumulation were detected on LG1 and 3, which accounted for 17.08 and 29.53 % of phenotypic variance, respectively. A major-effect QTL, qRCd9 (QTL for root Cd accumulation on LG9), was identified on LG 9 flanked by NAUrp011_754 and EM5me6_286 markers with a high LOD value of 23.6, which accounted for 48.64 % of the total phenotypic variance in Cd accumulation of F(2) lines. The results indicated that qRCd9 is a novel QTL responsible for controlling root Cd accumulation in radish, and the identification of specific molecular markers tightly linked to the major QTL could be further applied for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in low-Cd content radish breeding program. PMID:22491896

  6. Integrated genome sequence and linkage map of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.), a biodiesel plant.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pingzhi; Zhou, Changpin; Cheng, Shifeng; Wu, Zhenying; Lu, Wenjia; Han, Jinli; Chen, Yanbo; Chen, Yan; Ni, Peixiang; Wang, Ying; Xu, Xun; Huang, Ying; Song, Chi; Wang, Zhiwen; Shi, Nan; Zhang, Xudong; Fang, Xiaohua; Yang, Qing; Jiang, Huawu; Chen, Yaping; Li, Meiru; Wang, Ying; Chen, Fan; Wang, Jun; Wu, Guojiang

    2015-03-01

    The family Euphorbiaceae includes some of the most efficient biomass accumulators. Whole genome sequencing and the development of genetic maps of these species are important components in molecular breeding and genetic improvement. Here we report the draft genome of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.), a biodiesel plant. The assembled genome has a total length of 320.5 Mbp and contains 27,172 putative protein-coding genes. We established a linkage map containing 1208 markers and anchored the genome assembly (81.7%) to this map to produce 11 pseudochromosomes. After gene family clustering, 15,268 families were identified, of which 13,887 existed in the castor bean genome. Analysis of the genome highlighted specific expansion and contraction of a number of gene families during the evolution of this species, including the ribosome-inactivating proteins and oil biosynthesis pathway enzymes. The genomic sequence and linkage map provide a valuable resource not only for fundamental and applied research on physic nut but also for evolutionary and comparative genomics analysis, particularly in the Euphorbiaceae. PMID:25603894

  7. A microsatellite linkage map of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) reveals conserved synteny with the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Sixin; Rexroad, Caird E; Couch, Charlene R; Cordes, Jan F; Reece, Kimberly S; Sullivan, Craig V

    2012-04-01

    The striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and its relatives (genus Morone) are of great importance to fisheries and aquaculture in North America. As part of a collaborative effort to employ molecular genetics technologies in striped bass breeding programs, we previously developed nearly 500 microsatellite markers. The objectives of this study were to construct a microsatellite linkage map of striped bass and to examine conserved synteny between striped bass and three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Of 480 microsatellite markers screened for polymorphism, 289 informative markers were identified and used to genotype two half-sib mapping families. Twenty-six linkage groups were assembled, and only two markers remain unlinked. The sex-averaged map spans 1,623.8 cM with an average marker density of 5.78 cM per marker. Among 287 striped bass microsatellite markers assigned to linkage groups, 169 (58.9%) showed homology to sequences on stickleback chromosomes or scaffolds. Comparison between the stickleback genome and the striped bass linkage map revealed conserved synteny between these two species. This is the first linkage map for any of the Morone species. This map will be useful for molecular mapping and marker-assisted selection of genes of interest in striped bass breeding programs. The conserved synteny between striped bass and stickleback will facilitate fine mapping of genome regions of interest and will serve as a new resource for comparative mapping with other Perciform fishes such as European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), and tilapia (Oreochromis ssp.). PMID:21968826

  8. Genetic Linkage Map Construction and QTL Analysis of Two Interspecific Reproductive Isolation Traits in Sponge Gourd.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haibin; He, Xiaoli; Gong, Hao; Luo, Shaobo; Li, Mingzhu; Chen, Junqiu; Zhang, Changyuan; Yu, Ting; Huang, Wangping; Luo, Jianning

    2016-01-01

    The hybrids between Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb. and L.cylindrica (L.) Roem. have strong heterosis effects. However, some reproductive isolation traits hindered their normal hybridization and fructification, which was mainly caused by the flowering time and hybrid pollen sterility. In order to study the genetic basis of two interspecific reproductive isolation traits, we constructed a genetic linkage map using an F2 population derived from a cross between S1174 [L. acutangula (L.) Roxb.] and 93075 [L. cylindrica (L.) Roem.]. The map spans 1436.12 CentiMorgans (cM), with an average of 8.11 cM among markers, and consists of 177 EST-SSR markers distributed in 14 linkage groups (LG) with an average of 102.58 cM per LG. Meanwhile, we conducted colinearity analysis between the sequences of EST-SSR markers and the genomic sequences of cucumber, melon and watermelon. On the basis of genetic linkage map, we conducted QTL mapping of two reproductive isolation traits in sponge gourd, which were the flowering time and hybrid male sterility. Two putative QTLs associated with flowering time (FT) were both detected on LG 1. The accumulated contribution of these two QTLs explained 38.07% of the total phenotypic variance (PV), and each QTL explained 15.36 and 22.71% of the PV respectively. Four QTLs for pollen fertility (PF) were identified on LG 1 (qPF1.1 and qPF1.2), LG 3 (qPF3) and LG 7 (qPF7), respectively. The percentage of PF explained by these QTLs varied from 2.91 to 16.79%, and all together the four QTLs accounted for 39.98% of the total PV. Our newly developed EST-SSR markers and linkage map are very useful for gene mapping, comparative genomics and molecular marker-assisted breeding. These QTLs for interspecific reproductive isolation will also contribute to the cloning of genes relating to interspecific reproductive isolation and the utilization of interspecific heterosis in sponge gourd in further studies. PMID:27458467

  9. Genetic Linkage Map Construction and QTL Analysis of Two Interspecific Reproductive Isolation Traits in Sponge Gourd

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Haibin; He, Xiaoli; Gong, Hao; Luo, Shaobo; Li, Mingzhu; Chen, Junqiu; Zhang, Changyuan; Yu, Ting; Huang, Wangping; Luo, Jianning

    2016-01-01

    The hybrids between Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb. and L.cylindrica (L.) Roem. have strong heterosis effects. However, some reproductive isolation traits hindered their normal hybridization and fructification, which was mainly caused by the flowering time and hybrid pollen sterility. In order to study the genetic basis of two interspecific reproductive isolation traits, we constructed a genetic linkage map using an F2 population derived from a cross between S1174 [L. acutangula (L.) Roxb.] and 93075 [L. cylindrica (L.) Roem.]. The map spans 1436.12 CentiMorgans (cM), with an average of 8.11 cM among markers, and consists of 177 EST-SSR markers distributed in 14 linkage groups (LG) with an average of 102.58 cM per LG. Meanwhile, we conducted colinearity analysis between the sequences of EST-SSR markers and the genomic sequences of cucumber, melon and watermelon. On the basis of genetic linkage map, we conducted QTL mapping of two reproductive isolation traits in sponge gourd, which were the flowering time and hybrid male sterility. Two putative QTLs associated with flowering time (FT) were both detected on LG 1. The accumulated contribution of these two QTLs explained 38.07% of the total phenotypic variance (PV), and each QTL explained 15.36 and 22.71% of the PV respectively. Four QTLs for pollen fertility (PF) were identified on LG 1 (qPF1.1 and qPF1.2), LG 3 (qPF3) and LG 7 (qPF7), respectively. The percentage of PF explained by these QTLs varied from 2.91 to 16.79%, and all together the four QTLs accounted for 39.98% of the total PV. Our newly developed EST-SSR markers and linkage map are very useful for gene mapping, comparative genomics and molecular marker-assisted breeding. These QTLs for interspecific reproductive isolation will also contribute to the cloning of genes relating to interspecific reproductive isolation and the utilization of interspecific heterosis in sponge gourd in further studies. PMID:27458467

  10. GENETIC LINKAGE MAP FOR WATERMELON: SEGREGATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF DNA MARKERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic linkage map is being constructed for watermelon based on a testcross population and an F2 population. About 51.0% and 31.8% of the markers in the testcross and F2 populations are skewed from the expected segregation ratios. AFLP markers appeared to be clustered on linkage regions, while IS...

  11. Generation of a Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Linkage Map for Toxoplasma Gondii

    PubMed Central

    Sibley, L. D.; LeBlanc, A. J.; Pfefferkorn, E. R.; Boothroyd, J. C.

    1992-01-01

    We have constructed a genetic linkage map for the parasitic protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii, using randomly selected low copy number DNA markers that define restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). The inheritance patterns of 64 RFLP markers and two phenotypic markers were analyzed among 19 recombinant haploid progeny selected from two parallel genetic crosses between PLK and CEP strains. In these first successful interstrain crosses, these RFLP markers segregated into 11 distinct genetic linkage groups that showed close correlation with physical linkage groups previously defined by molecular karyotype. Separate linkage maps, constructed for each of the 11 chromosomes, indicated recombination frequencies range from approximately 100 to 300 kb per centimorgan. Preliminary linkage assignments were made for the loci regulating sinefungin resistance (snf-1) on chromosome IX and adenine arabinoside (ara-1) on chromosome V by linkage to RFLP markers. Despite random segregation of separate chromosomes, the majority of chromosomes failed to demonstrate internal recombination events and in 3/19 recombinant progeny no intramolecular recombination events were detected. The relatively low rate of intrachromosomal recombination predicts that tight linkage for unknown genes can be established with a relatively small set of markers. This genetic linkage map should prove useful in mapping genes that regulate drug resistance and other biological phenotypes in this important opportunistic pathogen. PMID:1360931

  12. Insight Into Genomic Changes Accompanying Divergence: Genetic Linkage Maps and Synteny of Lucania goodei and L. parva Reveal a Robertsonian Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Berdan, Emma L.; Kozak, Genevieve M.; Ming, Ray; Rayburn, A. Lane; Kiehart, Ryan; Fuller, Rebecca C.

    2014-01-01

    Linkage maps are important tools in evolutionary genetics and in studies of speciation. We performed a karyotyping study and constructed high-density linkage maps for two closely related killifish species, Lucania parva and L. goodei, that differ in salinity tolerance and still hybridize in their contact zone in Florida. Using SNPs from orthologous EST contigs, we compared synteny between the two species to determine how genomic architecture has shifted with divergence. Karyotyping revealed that L. goodei possesses 24 acrocentric chromosomes (1N) whereas L. parva possesses 23 chromosomes (1N), one of which is a large metacentric chromosome. Likewise, high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism−based linkage maps indicated 24 linkage groups for L. goodei and 23 linkage groups for L. parva. Synteny mapping revealed two linkage groups in L. goodei that were highly syntenic with the largest linkage group in L. parva. Together, this evidence points to the largest linkage group in L. parva being the result of a chromosomal fusion. We further compared synteny between Lucania with the genome of a more distant teleost relative medaka (Oryzias latipes) and found good conservation of synteny at the chromosomal level. Each Lucania LG had a single best match with each medaka chromosome. These results provide the groundwork for future studies on the genetic architecture of reproductive isolation and salinity tolerance in Lucania and other Fundulidae. PMID:24898707

  13. A genetic linkage map of a cichlid fish, the tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed Central

    Kocher, T D; Lee, W J; Sobolewska, H; Penman, D; McAndrew, B

    1998-01-01

    We have constructed a genetic map for a tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, using DNA markers. The segregation of 62 microsatellite and 112 anonymous fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) was studied in 41 haploid embryos derived from a single female. We have identified linkages among 162 (93.1%) of these markers. 95% of the microsatellites and 92% of the AFLPs were linked in the final map. The map spans 704 Kosambi cM in 30 linkage groups covering the 22 chromosomes of this species. Twenty-four of these linkage groups contain at least one microsatellite polymorphism. From the number of markers 15 or fewer cM apart, we estimate a total map length of approximately 1000-1200 cM. High levels of interference are observed, consistent with measurements in other fish species. This map is a starting point for the mapping of single loci and quantitative traits in cichlid fishes. PMID:9539437

  14. A genetic linkage map of a cichlid fish, the tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Kocher, T D; Lee, W J; Sobolewska, H; Penman, D; McAndrew, B

    1998-03-01

    We have constructed a genetic map for a tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, using DNA markers. The segregation of 62 microsatellite and 112 anonymous fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) was studied in 41 haploid embryos derived from a single female. We have identified linkages among 162 (93.1%) of these markers. 95% of the microsatellites and 92% of the AFLPs were linked in the final map. The map spans 704 Kosambi cM in 30 linkage groups covering the 22 chromosomes of this species. Twenty-four of these linkage groups contain at least one microsatellite polymorphism. From the number of markers 15 or fewer cM apart, we estimate a total map length of approximately 1000-1200 cM. High levels of interference are observed, consistent with measurements in other fish species. This map is a starting point for the mapping of single loci and quantitative traits in cichlid fishes. PMID:9539437

  15. An AFLP genetic linkage map of pacific abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Li; Yanhong, Xu; Ruihai, Yu; Akihiro, Kijima

    2007-07-01

    A genetic linkage map of Pacific abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai) was constructed using AFLP markers based on a two-way pseudo-testeross strategy in a full-sib family. With 33 primer combinations, a total of 455 markers (225 from the female parent and 230 from the male parent) segregated in a 1:1 ratio, corresponding to DNA polymorphism: heterozygous in one parent and null in the other. The female framework map consisted of 174 markers distributed in 18 linkage groups, equivalent to the H. discus hannai haploid chromosome number, and spanning a total length of 2031.4 cM, with an average interval of 13.0 cM between adjacent markers. The male framework map consisted of 195 markers mapped on 19 linkage groups, spanning a total length of 2273.4 cM, with an average spacing of 12.9 cM between adjacent markers. The estimated coverage for the framework linkage maps was 81.2% for the female and 82.1% for the male, on the basis of two estimates of genome length. Fifty-two markers (11.4%) remained unlinked. The level of segregation distortion observed in this cross was 20.4%. These linkage maps will serve as a starting point for linkage studies in the Pacific abalone with potential application for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs.

  16. A genetic linkage map of the model legume Lotus japonicus and strategies for fast mapping of new loci.

    PubMed Central

    Sandal, Niels; Krusell, Lene; Radutoiu, Simona; Olbryt, Magdalena; Pedrosa, Andrea; Stracke, Silke; Sato, Shusei; Kato, Tomohiko; Tabata, Satoshi; Parniske, Martin; Bachmair, Andreas; Ketelsen, Tina; Stougaard, Jens

    2002-01-01

    A genetic map for the model legume Lotus japonicus has been developed. The F(2) mapping population was established from an interspecific cross between L. japonicus and L. filicaulis. A high level of DNA polymorphism between these parents was the source of markers for linkage analysis and the map is based on a framework of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Additional markers were generated by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequence-specific PCR. A total of 524 AFLP markers, 3 RAPD markers, 39 gene-specific markers, 33 microsatellite markers, and six recessive symbiotic mutant loci were mapped. This genetic map consists of six linkage groups corresponding to the six chromosomes in L. japonicus. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with selected markers aligned the linkage groups to chromosomes as described in the accompanying article by Pedrosa et al. 2002(this issue). The length of the linkage map is 367 cM and the average marker distance is 0.6 cM. Distorted segregation of markers was found in certain sections of the map and linkage group I could be assembled only by combining colormapping and cytogenetics (FISH). A fast method to position genetic loci employing three AFLP primer combinations yielding 89 markers was developed and evaluated by mapping three symbiotic loci, Ljsym1, Ljsym5, and Ljhar1-3. PMID:12196410

  17. EST-derived SSR markers used as anchor loci for the construction of a consensus linkage map in ryegrass (Lolium spp.)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Genetic markers and linkage mapping are basic prerequisites for marker-assisted selection and map-based cloning. In the case of the key grassland species Lolium spp., numerous mapping populations have been developed and characterised for various traits. Although some genetic linkage maps of these populations have been aligned with each other using publicly available DNA markers, the number of common markers among genetic maps is still low, limiting the ability to compare candidate gene and QTL locations across germplasm. Results A set of 204 expressed sequence tag (EST)-derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers has been assigned to map positions using eight different ryegrass mapping populations. Marker properties of a subset of 64 EST-SSRs were assessed in six to eight individuals of each mapping population and revealed 83% of the markers to be polymorphic in at least one population and an average number of alleles of 4.88. EST-SSR markers polymorphic in multiple populations served as anchor markers and allowed the construction of the first comprehensive consensus map for ryegrass. The integrated map was complemented with 97 SSRs from previously published linkage maps and finally contained 284 EST-derived and genomic SSR markers. The total map length was 742 centiMorgan (cM), ranging for individual chromosomes from 70 cM of linkage group (LG) 6 to 171 cM of LG 2. Conclusions The consensus linkage map for ryegrass based on eight mapping populations and constructed using a large set of publicly available Lolium EST-SSRs mapped for the first time together with previously mapped SSR markers will allow for consolidating existing mapping and QTL information in ryegrass. Map and markers presented here will prove to be an asset in the development for both molecular breeding of ryegrass as well as comparative genetics and genomics within grass species. PMID:20712870

  18. A high-density integrated genetic linkage and radiation hybrid map of the laboratory rat.

    PubMed

    Steen, R G; Kwitek-Black, A E; Glenn, C; Gullings-Handley, J; Van Etten, W; Atkinson, O S; Appel, D; Twigger, S; Muir, M; Mull, T; Granados, M; Kissebah, M; Russo, K; Crane, R; Popp, M; Peden, M; Matise, T; Brown, D M; Lu, J; Kingsmore, S; Tonellato, P J; Rozen, S; Slonim, D; Young, P; Jacob, H J

    1999-06-01

    The laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus) is a key animal model for biomedical research. However, the genetic infrastructure required for connecting phenotype and genotype in the rat is currently incomplete. Here, we report the construction and integration of two genomic maps: a dense genetic linkage map of the rat and the first radiation hybrid (RH) map of the rat. The genetic map was constructed in two F2 intercrosses (SHRSP x BN and FHH x ACI), containing a total of 4736 simple sequence length polymorphism (SSLP) markers. Allele sizes for 4328 of the genetic markers were characterized in 48 of the most commonly used inbred strains. The RH map is a lod >/= 3 framework map, including 983 SSLPs, thereby allowing integration with markers on various genetic maps and with markers mapped on the RH panel. Together, the maps provide an integrated reference to >3000 genes and ESTs and >8500 genetic markers (5211 of our SSLPs and >3500 SSLPs developed by other groups). [Bihoreau et al. (1997); James and Tanigami, RHdb (http:www.ebi.ac.uk/RHdb/index.html); Wilder (http://www.nih.gov/niams/scientific/ratgbase); Serikawa et al. (1992); RATMAP server (http://ratmap.gen.gu.se)] RH maps (v. 2.0) have been posted on our web sites at http://goliath.ifrc.mcw.edu/LGR/index.html or http://curatools.curagen.com/ratmap. Both web sites provide an RH mapping server where investigators can localize their own RH vectors relative to this map. The raw data have been deposited in the RHdb database. Taken together, these maps provide the basic tools for rat genomics. The RH map provides the means to rapidly localize genetic markers, genes, and ESTs within the rat genome. These maps provide the basic tools for rat genomics. They will facilitate studies of multifactorial disease and functional genomics, allow construction of physical maps, and provide a scaffold for both directed and large-scale sequencing efforts and comparative genomics in this important experimental organism. PMID:10400928

  19. Linkage Maps of Microsatellite DNA Markers for the Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas

    PubMed Central

    Hubert, Sophie; Hedgecock, Dennis

    2004-01-01

    We constructed male and female consensus linkage maps for the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, using a total of 102 microsatellite DNA markers typed in 11-day-old larvae from three families. We identified 11 and 12 linkage groups in the male and female consensus maps, respectively. Alignment of these separate maps, however, suggests 10 linkage groups, which agrees with the haploid chromosome number. The male linkage map comprises 88 loci and spans 616.1 cM, while the female map comprises 86 loci and spans 770.5 cM. The male and the female maps share 74 loci; 2 markers remain unlinked. The estimated coverages for the consensus linkage maps are 79% for the male and 70–75% for the female, on the basis of two estimates of genome length. Ninety-five percent of the genome is expected to lie within 16 and 21 cM of markers on the male and female maps, respectively, while 95% of simulated minimum distances to the male and female maps are within 10.1 and 13.6 cM, respectively. Females have significantly more recombination than males, across 118 pairs of linked markers in common to the parents of the three families. Significant differences in recombination and orders of markers are also evident among same-sex parents of different families as well as sibling parents of opposite sex. These observations suggest that polymorphism for chromosomal rearrangements may exist in natural populations, which could have profound implications for interpreting the evolutionary genetics of the oyster. These are the first linkage maps for a bivalve mollusc that use microsatellite DNA markers, which should enable them to be transferred to other families and to be useful for further genetic analyses such as QTL mapping. PMID:15454548

  20. A linkage and physical map of chromosome 22, and some applications to gene mapping.

    PubMed

    Julier, C; Lathrop, G M; Reghis, A; Szajnert, M F; Lalouel, J M; Kaplan, J C

    1988-02-01

    A genetic map of human chromosome 22 has been derived from physical assignments and multilocus linkage analysis. It consists of the loci for the immunoglobulin lambda light-chain variable (IGLV) and immunoglobulin lambda light-chain constant (IGLC) regions, myoglobin (MB), the sis proto-oncogene (SIS), and an arbitrary probe (D22S1). The first RFLPs at the loci for SIS, IGLV, and MB are described. The most likely gene order on the basis of multilocus analysis was cen-(IGLV-IGLC)-D22S1-MB-SIS. This map provides further evidence for localization of the P1 polymorphism of the P blood group to chromosome 22, close to the SIS locus. Analysis of families segregating recessive congenital methemoglobinemia (RCM), a disease in which the cytochrome b5 reductase is defective, as well as of families with cases of hereditary low levels of cytochrome b5 reductase activity, confirmed that the locus responsible for RCM is on chromosome 22. Biochemical studies had already suggested that mutation at the cytochrome b5 reductase locus (DIA1) is responsible for RCM. We found no evidence of genetic heterogeneity between the families segregating RCM and the families exhibiting cases of low cytochrome b5 reductase activity. Linkage analysis indicated that the most probable location of DIA1 lies between MB and SIS. PMID:2893546

  1. Mapping autism risk loci using genetic linkage and chromosomal rearrangements

    PubMed Central

    Szatmari, Peter; Paterson, Andrew; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Roberts, Wendy; Brian, Jessica; Liu, Xiao-Qing; Vincent, John; Skaug, Jennifer; Thompson, Ann; Senman, Lili; Feuk, Lars; Qian, Cheng; Bryson, Susan; Jones, Marshall; Marshall, Christian; Scherer, Stephen; Vieland, Veronica; Bartlett, Christopher; Mangin, La Vonne; Goedken, Rhinda; Segre, Alberto; Pericak-Vance, Margaret; Cuccaro, Michael; Gilbert, John; Wright, Harry; Abramson, Ruth; Betancur, Catalina; Bourgeron, Thomas; Gillberg, Christopher; Leboyer, Marion; Buxbaum, Joseph; Davis, Kenneth; Hollander, Eric; Silverman, Jeremy; Hallmayer, Joachim; Lotspeich, Linda; Sutcliffe, James; Haines, Jonathan; Folstein, Susan; Piven, Joseph; Wassink, Thomas; Sheffield, Val; Geschwind, Daniel; Bucan, Maja; Brown, Ted; Cantor, Rita; Constantino, John; Gilliam, Conrad; Herbert, Martha; Lajonchere, Clara; Ledbetter, David; Lese-Martin, Christa; Miller, Janet; Nelson, Stan; Samango-Sprouse, Carol; Spence, Sarah; State, Matthew; Tanzi, Rudolph; Coon, Hilary; Dawson, Geraldine; Devlin, Bernie; Estes, Annette; Flodman, Pamela; Klei, Lambertus; Mcmahon, William; Minshew, Nancy; Munson, Jeff; Korvatska, Elena; Rodier, Patricia; Schellenberg, Gerard; Smith, Moyra; Spence, Anne; Stodgell, Chris; Tepper, Ping Guo; Wijsman, Ellen; Yu, Chang-En; Rogé, Bernadette; Mantoulan, Carine; Wittemeyer, Kerstin; Poustka, Annemarie; Felder, Bärbel; Klauck, Sabine; Schuster, Claudia; Poustka, Fritz; Bölte, Sven; Feineis-Matthews, Sabine; Herbrecht, Evelyn; Schmötzer, Gabi; Tsiantis, John; Papanikolaou, Katerina; Maestrini, Elena; Bacchelli, Elena; Blasi, Francesca; Carone, Simona; Toma, Claudio; Van Engeland, Herman; De Jonge, Maretha; Kemner, Chantal; Koop, Frederieke; Langemeijer, Marjolein; Hijmans, Channa; Staal, Wouter; Baird, Gillian; Bolton, Patrick; Rutter, Michael; Weisblatt, Emma; Green, Jonathan; Aldred, Catherine; Wilkinson, Julie-Anne; Pickles, Andrew; Le Couteur, Ann; Berney, Tom; Mcconachie, Helen; Bailey, Anthony; Francis, Kostas; Honeyman, Gemma; Hutchinson, Aislinn; Parr, Jeremy; Wallace, Simon; Monaco, Anthony; Barnby, Gabrielle; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Lamb, Janine; Sousa, Ines; Sykes, Nuala; Cook, Edwin; Guter, Stephen; Leventhal, Bennett; Salt, Jeff; Lord, Catherine; Corsello, Christina; Hus, Vanessa; Weeks, Daniel; Volkmar, Fred; Tauber, Maïté; Fombonne, Eric; Shih, Andy; Meyer, Kacie

    2007-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are common, heritable neurodevelopmental conditions. The genetic architecture of ASD is complex, requiring large samples to overcome heterogeneity. Here we broaden coverage and sample size relative to other studies of ASD by using Affymetrix 10K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays and 1168 families with ≥ 2 affected individuals to perform the largest linkage scan to date, while also analyzing copy number variation (CNV) in these families. Linkage and CNV analyses implicate chromosome 11p12-p13 and neurexins, respectively, amongst other candidate loci. Neurexins team with previously-implicated neuroligins for glutamatergic synaptogenesis, highlighting glutamate-related genes as promising candidates for ASD. PMID:17322880

  2. A consensus linkage map of oil palm and a major QTL for stem height

    PubMed Central

    Lee, May; Xia, Jun Hong; Zou, Zhongwei; Ye, Jian; Rahmadsyah; Alfiko, Yuzer; Jin, Jingjing; Lieando, Jessica Virginia; Purnamasari, Maria Indah; Lim, Chin Huat; Suwanto, Antonius; Wong, Limsoon; Chua, Nam-Hai; Yue, Gen Hua

    2015-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guinensis Jacquin) is the most important source of vegetable oil and fat. Several linkage maps had been constructed using dominant and co-dominant markers to facilitate mapping of QTL. However, dominant markers are not easily transferable among different laboratories. We constructed a consensus linkage map for oil palm using co-dominant markers (i.e. microsatellite and SNPs) and two F1 breeding populations generated by crossing Dura and Pisifera individuals. Four hundreds and forty-four microsatellites and 36 SNPs were mapped onto 16 linkage groups. The map length was 1565.6 cM, with an average marker space of 3.72 cM. A genome-wide scan of QTL identified a major QTL for stem height on the linkage group 5, which explained 51% of the phenotypic variation. Genes in the QTL were predicted using the palm genome sequence and bioinformatic tools. The linkage map supplies a base for mapping QTL for accelerating the genetic improvement, and will be also useful in the improvement of the assembly of the genome sequences. Markers linked to the QTL may be used in selecting dwarf trees. Genes within the QTL will be characterized to understand the mechanisms underlying dwarfing. PMID:25648560

  3. A linkage map for the B-genome of Arachis (Fabaceae) and its synteny to the A-genome

    PubMed Central

    Moretzsohn, Márcio C; Barbosa, Andrea VG; Alves-Freitas, Dione MT; Teixeira, Cristiane; Leal-Bertioli, Soraya CM; Guimarães, Patrícia M; Pereira, Rinaldo W; Lopes, Catalina R; Cavallari, Marcelo M; Valls, José FM; Bertioli, David J; Gimenes, Marcos A

    2009-01-01

    Background Arachis hypogaea (peanut) is an important crop worldwide, being mostly used for edible oil production, direct consumption and animal feed. Cultivated peanut is an allotetraploid species with two different genome components, A and B. Genetic linkage maps can greatly assist molecular breeding and genomic studies. However, the development of linkage maps for A. hypogaea is difficult because it has very low levels of polymorphism. This can be overcome by the utilization of wild species of Arachis, which present the A- and B-genomes in the diploid state, and show high levels of genetic variability. Results In this work, we constructed a B-genome linkage map, which will complement the previously published map for the A-genome of Arachis, and produced an entire framework for the tetraploid genome. This map is based on an F2 population of 93 individuals obtained from the cross between the diploid A. ipaënsis (K30076) and the closely related A. magna (K30097), the former species being the most probable B genome donor to cultivated peanut. In spite of being classified as different species, the parents showed high crossability and relatively low polymorphism (22.3%), compared to other interspecific crosses. The map has 10 linkage groups, with 149 loci spanning a total map distance of 1,294 cM. The microsatellite markers utilized, developed for other Arachis species, showed high transferability (81.7%). Segregation distortion was 21.5%. This B-genome map was compared to the A-genome map using 51 common markers, revealing a high degree of synteny between both genomes. Conclusion The development of genetic maps for Arachis diploid wild species with A- and B-genomes effectively provides a genetic map for the tetraploid cultivated peanut in two separate diploid components and is a significant advance towards the construction of a transferable reference map for Arachis. Additionally, we were able to identify affinities of some Arachis linkage groups with Medicago

  4. A Simple Sequence Repeat- and Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism-Based Genetic Linkage Map of the Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens

    PubMed Central

    Jairin, Jirapong; Kobayashi, Tetsuya; Yamagata, Yoshiyuki; Sanada-Morimura, Sachiyo; Mori, Kazuki; Tashiro, Kosuke; Kuhara, Satoru; Kuwazaki, Seigo; Urio, Masahiro; Suetsugu, Yoshitaka; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Matsumura, Masaya; Yasui, Hideshi

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we developed the first genetic linkage map for the major rice insect pest, the brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens). The linkage map was constructed by integrating linkage data from two backcross populations derived from three inbred BPH strains. The consensus map consists of 474 simple sequence repeats, 43 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and 1 sequence-tagged site, for a total of 518 markers at 472 unique positions in 17 linkage groups. The linkage groups cover 1093.9 cM, with an average distance of 2.3 cM between loci. The average number of marker loci per linkage group was 27.8. The sex-linkage group was identified by exploiting X-linked and Y-specific markers. Our linkage map and the newly developed markers used to create it constitute an essential resource and a useful framework for future genetic analyses in BPH. PMID:23204257

  5. A Consensus Genetic Map for Pinus taeda and Pinus elliottii and Extent of Linkage Disequilibrium in Two Genotype-Phenotype Discovery Populations of Pinus taeda.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, Jared W; Chhatre, Vikram E; Wu, Le-Shin; Chamala, Srikar; Neves, Leandro Gomide; Muñoz, Patricio; Martínez-García, Pedro J; Neale, David B; Kirst, Matias; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Nelson, C Dana; Peter, Gary F; Davis, John M; Echt, Craig S

    2015-08-01

    A consensus genetic map for Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) and Pinus elliottii (slash pine) was constructed by merging three previously published P. taeda maps with a map from a pseudo-backcross between P. elliottii and P. taeda. The consensus map positioned 3856 markers via genotyping of 1251 individuals from four pedigrees. It is the densest linkage map for a conifer to date. Average marker spacing was 0.6 cM and total map length was 2305 cM. Functional predictions of mapped genes were improved by aligning expressed sequence tags used for marker discovery to full-length P. taeda transcripts. Alignments to the P. taeda genome mapped 3305 scaffold sequences onto 12 linkage groups. The consensus genetic map was used to compare the genome-wide linkage disequilibrium in a population of distantly related P. taeda individuals (ADEPT2) used for association genetic studies and a multiple-family pedigree used for genomic selection (CCLONES). The prevalence and extent of LD was greater in CCLONES as compared to ADEPT2; however, extended LD with LGs or between LGs was rare in both populations. The average squared correlations, r(2), between SNP alleles less than 1 cM apart were less than 0.05 in both populations and r(2) did not decay substantially with genetic distance. The consensus map and analysis of linkage disequilibrium establish a foundation for comparative association mapping and genomic selection in P. taeda and P. elliottii. PMID:26068575

  6. A Consensus Genetic Map for Pinus taeda and Pinus elliottii and Extent of Linkage Disequilibrium in Two Genotype-Phenotype Discovery Populations of Pinus taeda

    PubMed Central

    Westbrook, Jared W.; Chhatre, Vikram E.; Wu, Le-Shin; Chamala, Srikar; Neves, Leandro Gomide; Muñoz, Patricio; Martínez-García, Pedro J.; Neale, David B.; Kirst, Matias; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Nelson, C. Dana; Peter, Gary F.; Echt, Craig S.

    2015-01-01

    A consensus genetic map for Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) and Pinus elliottii (slash pine) was constructed by merging three previously published P. taeda maps with a map from a pseudo-backcross between P. elliottii and P. taeda. The consensus map positioned 3856 markers via genotyping of 1251 individuals from four pedigrees. It is the densest linkage map for a conifer to date. Average marker spacing was 0.6 cM and total map length was 2305 cM. Functional predictions of mapped genes were improved by aligning expressed sequence tags used for marker discovery to full-length P. taeda transcripts. Alignments to the P. taeda genome mapped 3305 scaffold sequences onto 12 linkage groups. The consensus genetic map was used to compare the genome-wide linkage disequilibrium in a population of distantly related P. taeda individuals (ADEPT2) used for association genetic studies and a multiple-family pedigree used for genomic selection (CCLONES). The prevalence and extent of LD was greater in CCLONES as compared to ADEPT2; however, extended LD with LGs or between LGs was rare in both populations. The average squared correlations, r2, between SNP alleles less than 1 cM apart were less than 0.05 in both populations and r2 did not decay substantially with genetic distance. The consensus map and analysis of linkage disequilibrium establish a foundation for comparative association mapping and genomic selection in P. taeda and P. elliottii. PMID:26068575

  7. Linkage disequilibrium fine mapping of quantitative trait loci: A simulation study

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Jihad M; Goffinet, Bruno; Cierco-Ayrolles, Christine; Pérez-Enciso, Miguel

    2003-01-01

    Recently, the use of linkage disequilibrium (LD) to locate genes which affect quantitative traits (QTL) has received an increasing interest, but the plausibility of fine mapping using linkage disequilibrium techniques for QTL has not been well studied. The main objectives of this work were to (1) measure the extent and pattern of LD between a putative QTL and nearby markers in finite populations and (2) investigate the usefulness of LD in fine mapping QTL in simulated populations using a dense map of multiallelic or biallelic marker loci. The test of association between a marker and QTL and the power of the test were calculated based on single-marker regression analysis. The results show the presence of substantial linkage disequilibrium with closely linked marker loci after 100 to 200 generations of random mating. Although the power to test the association with a frequent QTL of large effect was satisfactory, the power was low for the QTL with a small effect and/or low frequency. More powerful, multi-locus methods may be required to map low frequent QTL with small genetic effects, as well as combining both linkage and linkage disequilibrium information. The results also showed that multiallelic markers are more useful than biallelic markers to detect linkage disequilibrium and association at an equal distance. PMID:12939203

  8. Linkage Disequilibrium and Genome-Wide Association Mapping in Tetraploid Wheat (Triticum turgidum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Laidò, Giovanni; Marone, Daniela; Russo, Maria A.; Colecchia, Salvatore A.; Mastrangelo, Anna M.; De Vita, Pasquale; Papa, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Association mapping is a powerful tool for the identification of quantitative trait loci through the exploitation of the differential decay of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between marker loci and genes of interest in natural and domesticated populations. Using a sample of 230 tetraploid wheat lines (Triticum turgidum ssp), which included naked and hulled accessions, we analysed the pattern of LD considering 26 simple sequence repeats and 970 mostly mapped diversity array technology loci. In addition, to validate the potential for association mapping in durum wheat, we evaluated the same genotypes for plant height, heading date, protein content, and thousand-kernel weight. Molecular and phenotypic data were used to: (i) investigate the genetic and phenotypic diversity; (ii) study the dynamics of LD across the durum wheat genome, by investigating the patterns of LD decay; and (iii) test the potential of our panel to identify marker–trait associations through the analysis of four quantitative traits of major agronomic importance. Moreover, we compared and validated the association mapping results with outlier detection analysis based on population divergence. Overall, in tetraploid wheat, the pattern of LD is extremely population dependent and is related to the domestication and breeding history of durum wheat. Comparing our data with several other studies in wheat, we confirm the position of many major genes and quantitative trait loci for the traits considered. Finally, the analysis of the selection signature represents a very useful complement to validate marker–trait associations. PMID:24759998

  9. Development of Public Immortal Mapping Populations, Molecular Markers and Linkage Maps for Rapid Cycling Brassica rapa and B. oleracea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study we describe public immortal mapping populations of self-compatible lines, molecular markers, and linkage maps for Brassica rapa and B. oleracea. We propose that these resources are valuable reference tools for the Brassica community. The B. rapa population consists of 150 recombinant...

  10. Use of linkage disequilibrium approaches to map genes for bipolar disorder in the Costa Rican population

    SciTech Connect

    Escamilla, M.A.; Reus, V.I.; Smith, L.B.; Freimer, N.B.

    1996-05-31

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis provides a powerful means for screening the genome to map the location of disease genes, such as those for bipolar disorder (BP). As described in this paper, the population of the Central Valley of Costa Rica, which is descended from a small number of founders, should be suitable for LD mapping; this assertion is supported by reconstruction of extended haplotypes shared by distantly related individuals in this population suffering low-frequency hearing loss (LFHL1), which has previously been mapped by linkage analysis. A sampling strategy is described for applying LD methods to map genes for BP, and clinical and demographic characteristics of an initially collected sample are discussed. This sample will provide a complement to a previously collected set of Costa Rican BP families which is under investigation using standard linkage analysis. 42 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Linkage mapping and QTL analysis of agronomic traits in tetraploid potato (Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L) is one of the world’s most important food crops. Using a tetraploid population, we developed a linkage map using AFLP and SSR markers, and searched for QTL via interval mapping and single-marker ANOVA. QTL were detected for flower color, foliage maturity, tuber skin te...

  12. A linkage map of an F2 hybrid population of Antirrhinum majus and A. molle.

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz-Sommer, Zsuzsanna; de Andrade Silva, Eugenia; Berndtgen, Rita; Lönnig, Wolf-Ekkehard; Müller, Andreas; Nindl, Ingo; Stüber, Kurt; Wunder, Jörg; Saedler, Heinz; Gübitz, Thomas; Borking, Amanda; Golz, John F; Ritter, Enrique; Hudson, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    To increase the utility of Antirrhinum for genetic and evolutionary studies, we constructed a molecular linkage map for an interspecific hybrid A. majus x A. molle. An F(2) population (n = 92) was genotyped at a minimum of 243 individual loci. Although distorted transmission ratios were observed at marker loci throughout the genome, a mapping strategy based on a fixed framework of codominant markers allowed the loci to be placed into eight robust linkage groups consistent with the haploid chromosome number of Antirrhinum. The mapped loci included 164 protein-coding genes and a similar number of unknown sequences mapped as AFLP, RFLP, ISTR, and ISSR markers. Inclusion of sequences from mutant loci allowed provisional alignment of classical and molecular linkage groups. The total map length was 613 cM with an average interval of 2.5 cM, but most of the loci were aggregated into clusters reducing the effective distance between markers. Potential causes of transmission ratio distortion and its effects on map construction were investigated. This first molecular linkage map for Antirrhinum should facilitate further mapping of mutations, major QTL, and other coding sequences in this model genus. PMID:12618407

  13. Joint QTL linkage mapping for multiple-cross mating design sharing one common parent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nested association mapping (NAM) is a novel genetic mating design that combines the advantages of linkage analysis and association mapping. This design provides opportunities to study the inheritance of complex traits, but also requires more advanced statistical methods. In this paper, we present th...

  14. Using a Linkage Mapping Approach to Identify QTL for Day-Neutrality in the Octoploid Strawberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A linkage mapping approach was used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with day-neutrality in the commercial strawberry, Fragaria ×ananassa (Duch ex Rozier). Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphic (AFLP) markers were used to build a genetic map with a population of 127 lines develo...

  15. Construction of a SNP and SSR linkage map in autotetraploid blueberry using genotyping by sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A mapping population developed from a cross between two key highbush blueberry cultivars, Draper × Jewel (Vaccinium corymbosum), segregating for a number of important phenotypic traits, has been utilized to produce a genetic linkage map. Data on 233 single sequence repeat (SSR) markers and 1794 sing...

  16. Strategies to build high-density linkage maps of the porcine 60k SNP chip

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We present here two different strategies to compute high-density linkage maps based on the porcine 60k SNP chip that was genotyped on 4 different pedigrees with a total of 5600 animals. The first strategy uses the draft sequence as a reference order, the SNP being first mapped to it. The second stra...

  17. A high-density linkage map for Astyanax mexicanus using genotyping-by-sequencing technology.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Brian M; Onusko, Samuel W; Gross, Joshua B

    2015-02-01

    The Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus, is a unique model system consisting of cave-adapted and surface-dwelling morphotypes that diverged >1 million years (My) ago. This remarkable natural experiment has enabled powerful genetic analyses of cave adaptation. Here, we describe the application of next-generation sequencing technology to the creation of a high-density linkage map. Our map comprises more than 2200 markers populating 25 linkage groups constructed from genotypic data generated from a single genotyping-by-sequencing project. We leveraged emergent genomic and transcriptomic resources to anchor hundreds of anonymous Astyanax markers to the genome of the zebrafish (Danio rerio), the most closely related model organism to our study species. This facilitated the identification of 784 distinct connections between our linkage map and the Danio rerio genome, highlighting several regions of conserved genomic architecture between the two species despite ~150 My of divergence. Using a Mendelian cave-associated trait as a proof-of-principle, we successfully recovered the genomic position of the albinism locus near the gene Oca2. Further, our map successfully informed the positions of unplaced Astyanax genomic scaffolds within particular linkage groups. This ability to identify the relative location, orientation, and linear order of unaligned genomic scaffolds will facilitate ongoing efforts to improve on the current early draft and assemble future versions of the Astyanax physical genome. Moreover, this improved linkage map will enable higher-resolution genetic analyses and catalyze the discovery of the genetic basis for cave-associated phenotypes. PMID:25520037

  18. The Genetic Linkage Map of the Medicinal Mushroom Agaricus subrufescens Reveals Highly Conserved Macrosynteny with the Congeneric Species Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Rocha de Brito, Manuela; Cabannes, Delphine; Clément, Aurélien; Spataro, Cathy; Moinard, Magalie; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Callac, Philippe; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    Comparative linkage mapping can rapidly facilitate the transfer of genetic information from model species to orphan species. This macrosynteny analysis approach has been extensively used in plant species, but few example are available in fungi, and even fewer in mushroom crop species. Among the latter, the Agaricus genus comprises the most cultivable or potentially cultivable species. Agaricus bisporus, the button mushroom, is the model for edible and cultivable mushrooms. We have developed the first genetic linkage map for the basidiomycete A. subrufescens, an emerging mushroom crop known for its therapeutic properties and potential medicinal applications. The map includes 202 markers distributed over 16 linkage groups (LG), and covers a total length of 1701 cM, with an average marker spacing of 8.2 cM. Using 96 homologous loci, we also demonstrated the high level of macrosynteny with the genome of A. bisporus The 13 main LG of A. subrufescens were syntenic to the 13 A. bisporus chromosomes. A disrupted synteny was observed for the three remaining A. subrufescens LG. Electronic mapping of a collection of A. subrufescens expressed sequence tags on A. bisporus genome showed that the homologous loci were evenly spread, with the exception of a few local hot or cold spots of homology. Our results were discussed in the light of Agaricus species evolution process. The map provides a framework for future genetic or genomic studies of the medicinal mushroom A. subrufescens. PMID:26921302

  19. The Genetic Linkage Map of the Medicinal Mushroom Agaricus subrufescens Reveals Highly Conserved Macrosynteny with the Congeneric Species Agaricus bisporus

    PubMed Central

    Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Rocha de Brito, Manuela; Cabannes, Delphine; Clément, Aurélien; Spataro, Cathy; Moinard, Magalie; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Callac, Philippe; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    Comparative linkage mapping can rapidly facilitate the transfer of genetic information from model species to orphan species. This macrosynteny analysis approach has been extensively used in plant species, but few example are available in fungi, and even fewer in mushroom crop species. Among the latter, the Agaricus genus comprises the most cultivable or potentially cultivable species. Agaricus bisporus, the button mushroom, is the model for edible and cultivable mushrooms. We have developed the first genetic linkage map for the basidiomycete A. subrufescens, an emerging mushroom crop known for its therapeutic properties and potential medicinal applications. The map includes 202 markers distributed over 16 linkage groups (LG), and covers a total length of 1701 cM, with an average marker spacing of 8.2 cM. Using 96 homologous loci, we also demonstrated the high level of macrosynteny with the genome of A. bisporus. The 13 main LG of A. subrufescens were syntenic to the 13 A. bisporus chromosomes. A disrupted synteny was observed for the three remaining A. subrufescens LG. Electronic mapping of a collection of A. subrufescens expressed sequence tags on A. bisporus genome showed that the homologous loci were evenly spread, with the exception of a few local hot or cold spots of homology. Our results were discussed in the light of Agaricus species evolution process. The map provides a framework for future genetic or genomic studies of the medicinal mushroom A. subrufescens. PMID:26921302

  20. Genetic Linkage Maps of Eucalyptus Grandis and Eucalyptus Urophylla Using a Pseudo-Testcross: Mapping Strategy and Rapd Markers

    PubMed Central

    Grattapaglia, D.; Sederoff, R.

    1994-01-01

    We have used a ``two-way pseudo-testcross'' mapping strategy in combination with the random amplified polymorhic DNA (RAPD) assay to construct two moderate density genetic linkage maps for species of Eucalyptus. In the cross between two heterozygous individuals many single-dose RAPD markers will be heterozygous in one parent, null in the other and therefore segregate 1:1 in their F(1) progeny following a testcross configuration. Meiosis and gametic segregation in each individual can be directly and efficiently analyzed using RAPD markers. We screened 305 primers of arbitrary sequence, and selected 151 to amplify a total of 558 markers. These markers were grouped at LOD 5.0, θ = 0.25, resulting in the maternal Eucalyptus grandis map having a total of 240 markers into 14 linkage groups (1552 cM) and the paternal Eucalyptus urophylla map with 251 markers in 11 linkage groups (1101 cM) (n = 11 in Eucalyptus). Framework maps ordered with a likelihood support >/=1000:1 were assembled covering 95% of the estimated genome size in both individuals. Characterization of genome complexity of a sample of 48 mapped random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers indicate that 53% amplify from low copy regions. These are the first reported high coverage linkage maps for any species of Eucalyptus and among the first for any hardwood tree species. We propose the combined use of RAPD markers and the pseudo-testcross configuration as a general strategy for the construction of single individual genetic linkage maps in outbred forest trees as well as in any highly heterozygous sexually reproducing living organism. A survey of the occurrence of RAPD markers in different individuals suggests that the pseudo-testcross/RAPD mapping strategy should also be efficient at the intraspecific level and increasingly so with crosses of genetically divergent individuals. The ability to quickly construct single-tree genetic linkage maps in any forest species opens the way for a shift from the

  1. A PCR-based genetic linkage map of human chromosome 16

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Y.; Kozman, H.M.; Thompson, A.

    1994-07-01

    A high-resolution cytogenetic-based physical map and a genetic linkage map of human chromosome 16 have been developed based on 79 PCR-typable genetic markers and 2 Southern-based RFLP markers. The PCR-based markers were previously-characterized polymorphic (AC){sub n} repeats. Two approaches have led to the characterization of 47 highly informative genetic markers spread along chromosome 16, some of which are closely linked to disease loci. In addition, 22 markers (D16S401-423) previously genetically mapped were also physically mapped. Ten markers characterized by other laboratories were physically mapped and genotyped on the CEPH families. These 32 markers were incorporated into the PCR-based map. Seventy-two markers have heterozygosities >0.50 and 51 of these markers >0.70. By multipoint linkage analysis a framework genetic map and a comprehensive genetic map were constructed. The length of the sex-averaged framework genetic map if 152.1 cM. The average distance and the median distance between markers on this map are 3.2 and 2.7 cM, respectively, and the largest gap is 15.9 cM. These maps were anchored to the high-resolution cytogenetic map (on average 1.5 Mb per interval). Together these integrated genetic and physical maps of human chromosome 16 provide the basis for the localization and ultimately the isolation of disease genes that map to this chromosome. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  2. Comparative Genome Mapping of Sorghum and Maize

    PubMed Central

    Whitkus, R.; Doebley, J.; Lee, M.

    1992-01-01

    Linkage relationships were determined among 85 maize low copy number nuclear DNA probes and seven isozyme loci in an F(2) population derived from a cross of Sorghum bicolor ssp. bicolor X S. bicolor ssp. arundinaceum. Thirteen linkage groups were defined, three more than the 10 chromosomes of sorghum. Use of maize DNA probes to produce the sorghum linkage map allowed us to make several inferences concerning processes involved in the evolutionary divergence of the maize and sorghum genomes. The results show that many linkage groups are conserved between these two genomes and that the amount of recombination in these conserved linkage groups is roughly equivalent in maize and sorghum. Estimates of the proportions of duplicated loci suggest that a larger proportion of the loci are duplicated in the maize genome than in the sorghum genome. This result concurs with a prior estimate that the nuclear DNA content of maize is three to four times greater than that of sorghum. The pattern of conserved linkages between maize and sorghum is such that most sorghum linkage groups are composed of loci that map to two maize chromosomes. This pattern is consistent with the hypothesized ancient polyploid origin of maize and sorghum. There are nine cases in which locus order within shared linkage groups is inverted in sorghum relative to maize. These may have arisen from either inversions or intrachromosomal translocations. We found no evidence for large interchromosomal translocations. Overall, the data suggest that the primary processes involved in divergence of the maize and sorghum genomes were duplications (either by polyploidy or segmental duplication) and inversions or intrachromosomal translocations. PMID:1360933

  3. Linkage mapping in sheep and deer identifies a conserved pecora ruminant linkage group orthologous to two regions of HSA16 and a portion of HSA7Q

    SciTech Connect

    Broom, J.E.; Tate, M.L.; Dodds, K.G.

    1996-05-01

    Two orthologous linkage groups have been mapped in sheep and deer. Seven loci have been mapped in deer, and 12 in sheep. The sheep linkage group is assigned of ovine chromosome 24. The linkage groups consist of loci from the short arm of human chromosome 16, spanning the region containing the human Batten disease locus, and from human chromosome 7. One locus from the long arm of human chromosome 16 is also present, demonstrating a previously unknown rearrangement between human and ruminant chromosomes. There is no significant difference in marker order and distances between the two linkage groups, implying that this linkage pattern was present in the genome of the common ancestor of the pecora ruminants. 35 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  4. A sequencing-based linkage map of cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic maps are important tools for molecular breeding, gene cloning, and study of meiotic recombination. In cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), the marker density, resolution and genome coverage of previously developed genetic maps using PCR-based molecular markers are relatively low. In this study we ...

  5. A gene-based SNP resource and linkage map for the copepod Tigriopus californicus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background As yet, few genomic resources have been developed in crustaceans. This lack is particularly evident in Copepoda, given the extraordinary numerical abundance, and taxonomic and ecological diversity of this group. Tigriopus californicus is ideally suited to serve as a genetic model copepod and has been the subject of extensive work in environmental stress and reproductive isolation. Accordingly, we set out to develop a broadly-useful panel of genetic markers and to construct a linkage map dense enough for quantitative trait locus detection in an interval mapping framework for T. californicus--a first for copepods. Results One hundred and ninety Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) were used to genotype our mapping population of 250 F2 larvae. We were able to construct a linkage map with an average intermarker distance of 1.8 cM, and a maximum intermarker distance of 10.3 cM. All markers were assembled into linkage groups, and the 12 linkage groups corresponded to the 12 known chromosomes of T. californicus. We estimate a total genome size of 401.0 cM, and a total coverage of 73.7%. Seventy five percent of the mapped markers were detected in 9 additional populations of T. californicus. Of available model arthropod genomes, we were able to show more colocalized pairs of homologues between T. californicus and the honeybee Apis mellifera, than expected by chance, suggesting preserved macrosynteny between Hymenoptera and Copepoda. Conclusions Our study provides an abundance of linked markers spanning all chromosomes. Many of these markers are also found in multiple populations of T. californicus, and in two other species in the genus. The genomic resource we have developed will enable mapping throughout the geographical range of this species and in closely related species. This linkage map will facilitate genome sequencing, mapping and assembly in an ecologically and taxonomically interesting group for which genomic resources are currently under development

  6. Linkage map of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, based on RAPD markers

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, G.J.; Page, R.E. Jr.

    1995-03-01

    A linkage map was constructed for the honey bee based on the segregation of 365 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers in haploid male progeny of a single female bee. The X locus for sex determination and genes for black body color and malate dehydrogenase were mapped to separate linkage groups. RAPD markers were very efficient for mapping, with an average of about 2.8 loci mapped for each 10-nucleotide primer that was used in polymerase chain reactions. The mean interval size between markers on the map was 9.1 cM. The map covered 3110 cM of linked markers on 26 linkage groups. We estimate the total genome size to be {approximately}3450 cM. The size of the map indicated a very high recombination rate for the honey bee. The relationship of physical to genetic distance was estimated at 52 kb/cM, suggesting that map-based cloning of genes will be feasible for this species. 71 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. An intervarietal genetic linkage map of Indian bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and QTL maps for some metric traits.

    PubMed

    Nalini, E; Bhagwat, S G; Jawali, N

    2007-06-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) exhibits very narrow genetic diversity and hence there is high relatedness among cultivated varieties. However, a population generated from an intervarietal cross, with the parents differing in a large number of traits, could lead to the generation of QTL maps which will be useful in practice. In this report a genetic linkage map of wheat is constructed using a cross between two Indian bread wheat varieties: Sonalika and Kalyansona. The linkage map consisted of 236 markers and spanned a distance of 3639 cM, with 1211.2 cM for the A genome, 1669.2 cM for the B genome, 192.4 cM for the D genome and 566.2 cM for unassigned groups. Linkage analysis defined 37 linkage groups of which 24 were assigned to 17 chromosomes. The genetic map was used to identify QTLs by composite internal mapping (CIM) for three metric traits, viz. culm length (CL), flag leaf length (FLL) and flag leaf breadth (FLB). Of 25 QTLs identified in this study, 15 have not been reported previously. Multitrait CIM (MCIM) analysis was carried out for traits that were significantly correlated such as FLB-FLL and CL-FLB-FLL. Detection of a large number of QTLs for the three traits analysed suggests that in parent cultivars that are not too diverse, the differences at genetic level detected as polymorphisms may be mostly associated with QTLs for the observed differences. PMID:17894910

  8. First genetic linkage map for the mud crab (Scylla paramamosain) constructed using microsatellite and AFLP markers.

    PubMed

    Ma, H Y; Li, S J; Feng, N N; Ma, C Y; Wang, W; Chen, W; Ma, L B

    2016-01-01

    The mud crab (Scylla paramamosain) is of economic importance for the fisheries and aquaculture industry in China. In this study, we constructed the first genetic linkage map for this species using microsatellite and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. The map consisted of 65 linkage groups, including 34 triplets and 9 doublets. A total of 212 molecular markers were mapped, including 60 microsatellites and 152 AFLP markers. The linkage groups ranged from 7 to 102.5 cM and covered 2746.4 cM in length. The mean length was 42.3 cM per linkage group, and the mean spacing was 18.68 cM. The genome size was estimated to be 5539.62 cM, with 50% coverage by the present map. Moreover, we reported 5 transcriptome-derived polymorphic microsatellite markers and characterized their polymorphism in a first-generation family. This study will facilitate studies on high-density maps and molecular marker-assisted selection in S. paramamosain and related crustacean species. PMID:27323059

  9. Fine-scale genetic mapping based on linkage disequilibrium: theory and applications.

    PubMed

    Xiong, M; Guo, S W

    1997-06-01

    Linkage-disequilibrium mapping (LDM) recently has been hailed as a powerful statistical method for fine-scale mapping of disease genes. After reviewing its historical background and methodological development, we present a general, mathematical, and conceptually coherent framework for LDM that incorporates multilocus and multiallelic markers and mutational processes at the marker and disease loci. With this framework, we address several issues relevant to fine-scale mapping and propose some efficient computational methods for LDM. We implement various LDM methods that incorporate population growth, recurrent mutation, and marker mutations, on the basis of a general framework. We demonstrate these methods by applying them to published data on cystic fibrosis, Huntington disease, Friedreich ataxia, and progressive myoclonus epilepsy. Since the genes responsible for these diseases all have been cloned, we can evaluate the performance of our methods and can compare ours with that of other methods. Using the proposed methods, we successfully and accurately predicted the locations of genes responsible for these diseases, on the basis of published data only. PMID:9199574

  10. Genetic analysis of diabetic nephropathy on chromosome 18 in African Americans: linkage analysis and dense SNP mapping.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Caitrin W; Bostrom, Meredith A; Lu, Lingyi; Hicks, Pamela J; Langefeld, Carl D; Divers, Jasmin; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C; Freedman, Barry I; Bowden, Donald W

    2009-12-01

    Genetic studies in Turkish, Native American, European American, and African American (AA) families have linked chromosome 18q21.1-23 to susceptibility for diabetes-associated nephropathy. In this study, we have carried out fine linkage mapping in the 18q region previously linked to diabetic nephropathy in AAs by genotyping both microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for linkage analysis in an expanded set of 223 AA families multiplexed for type 2 diabetes associated ESRD (T2DM-ESRD). Several approaches were used to evaluate evidence of linkage with the strongest evidence for linkage in ordered subset analysis with an earlier age of T2DM diagnosis compared to the remaining pedigrees (LOD 3.9 at 90.1 cM, ΔP = 0.0161, NPL P value = 0.00002). Overall, the maximum LODs and LOD-1 intervals vary in magnitude and location depending upon analysis. The linkage mapping was followed up by performing a dense SNP map, genotyping 2,814 SNPs in the refined LOD-1 region in 1,029 AA T2DM-ESRD cases and 1,027 AA controls. Of the top 25 most associated SNPs, 10 resided within genic regions. Two candidate genes stood out: NEDD4L and SERPINB7. SNP rs512099, located in intron 1 of NEDD4L, was associated under a dominant model of inheritance [P value = 0.0006; Odds ratio (95% Confidence Interval) OR (95% CI) = 0.70 (0.57-0.86)]. SNP rs1720843, located in intron 2 of SERPINB7, was associated under a recessive model of inheritance [P value = 0.0017; OR (95% CI) = 0.65 (0.50-0.85)]. Collectively, these results suggest that multiple genes in this region may influence diabetic nephropathy susceptibility in AAs. PMID:19690890

  11. Construction of the first high-density genetic linkage map of Salvia miltiorrhiza using specific length amplified fragment (SLAF) sequencing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tian; Guo, Linlin; Pan, Yuling; Zhao, Qi; Wang, Jianhua; Song, Zhenqiao

    2016-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza is an important medicinal crop in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Knowledge of its genetic foundation is limited because sufficient molecular markers have not been developed, and therefore a high-density genetic linkage map is incomplete. Specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) is a recently developed high-throughput strategy for large-scale SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) discovery and genotyping based on next generation sequencing (NGS). In this study, genomic DNA extracted from two parents and their 96 F1 individuals was subjected to high-throughput sequencing and SLAF library construction. A total of 155.96 Mb of data containing 155,958,181 pair-end reads were obtained after preprocessing. The average coverage of each SLAF marker was 83.43-fold for the parents compared with 10.36-fold for the F1 offspring. The final linkage map consists of 5,164 SLAFs in 8 linkage groups (LGs) and spans 1,516.43 cM, with an average distance of 0.29 cM between adjacent markers. The results will not only provide a platform for mapping quantitative trait loci but also offer a critical new tool for S. miltiorrhiza biotechnology and comparative genomics as well as a valuable reference for TCM studies. PMID:27040179

  12. Construction of the first high-density genetic linkage map of Salvia miltiorrhiza using specific length amplified fragment (SLAF) sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tian; Guo, Linlin; Pan, Yuling; Zhao, Qi; Wang , Jianhua; Song, Zhenqiao

    2016-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza is an important medicinal crop in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Knowledge of its genetic foundation is limited because sufficient molecular markers have not been developed, and therefore a high-density genetic linkage map is incomplete. Specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) is a recently developed high-throughput strategy for large-scale SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) discovery and genotyping based on next generation sequencing (NGS). In this study, genomic DNA extracted from two parents and their 96 F1 individuals was subjected to high-throughput sequencing and SLAF library construction. A total of 155.96 Mb of data containing 155,958,181 pair-end reads were obtained after preprocessing. The average coverage of each SLAF marker was 83.43-fold for the parents compared with 10.36-fold for the F1 offspring. The final linkage map consists of 5,164 SLAFs in 8 linkage groups (LGs) and spans 1,516.43 cM, with an average distance of 0.29 cM between adjacent markers. The results will not only provide a platform for mapping quantitative trait loci but also offer a critical new tool for S. miltiorrhiza biotechnology and comparative genomics as well as a valuable reference for TCM studies. PMID:27040179

  13. SSR and SRAP marker-based linkage map of Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yinshan; Lin, Hong; Liu, Zhendong; Zhao, Yuhui; Guo, Xiuwu; Li, Kun

    2014-01-01

    An F1 population was created by the cross ‘87-1’ × ‘9-22’. The female parent ‘87-1’ was an extremely early maturing cultivar with strong flavour. The male parent was an excellent breeding line producing large berries maturing late. The mapping population included 149 randomly chosen individuals. Molecular genetic map for each parent and the consensus map were constructed using simple sequence repeat and sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers by software JoinMap 3.0. The ‘87-1’ map covers a total length of 1272.9 cM distributed in 21 linkage groups and consists of 163 molecular markers with an average distance between adjacent markers of 8.9 cM. The ‘9-22’ map covers a total length of 1267.4 cM distributed in 20 linkage groups and consists of 158 molecular markers with an average distance between adjacent markers of 9.1 cM. The consensus map covers a total length of 1537.1 cM distributed in 21 linkage groups and one doublet and consists of 217 molecular markers with an average distance of 7.8 cM between adjacent markers. The length of the linkage groups is 69.8 cM on average. The map covers the 19 chromosomes of the Vitis genome and can lay a solid foundation for further studies such as quantative trait loci (QTL) mapping of correlated traits and marker-assisted selection. PMID:26019507

  14. Filling gaps with construction of a genetic linkage map in tetraploid roses

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chao; Luo, Le; Pan, Huitang; Guo, Xuelian; Wan, Huihua; Zhang, Qixiang

    2015-01-01

    Rose (Rosa sp.) is one of the most economically important ornamental crops worldwide. The present work contains a genetic linkage map for tetraploid roses that was constructed from an F1 segregation population using AFLPs and SSRs on 189 individuals. The preliminary ‘Yunzheng Xiawei’ and ‘Sun City’ maps consisted of 298 and 255 markers arranged into 26 and 32 linkage groups, respectively. The recombined parental maps covered 737 and 752 cM of the genome, respectively. The integrated linkage map was composed of 295 polymorphic markers that spanned 874 cM, and it had a mean intermarker distance of 2.9 cM. In addition, a set of newly developed EST-SSRs that are distributed evenly throughout the mapping population were released. The work identified 67 anchoring points that came from 43 common SSRs. The results that were produced from a large number of individuals (189) and polymorphic SSRs (242) will enhance the ability to construct higher density consensus maps with the available diploid level rose maps, and they will definitely serve as a tool for accurate QTL detection and marker assisted selection. PMID:25628638

  15. Linkage mapping in the oilseed crop Jatropha curcas L. reveals a locus controlling the biosynthesis of phorbol esters which cause seed toxicity.

    PubMed

    King, Andrew J; Montes, Luis R; Clarke, Jasper G; Affleck, Julie; Li, Yi; Witsenboer, Hanneke; van der Vossen, Edwin; van der Linde, Piet; Tripathi, Yogendra; Tavares, Evanilda; Shukla, Parul; Rajasekaran, Thirunavukkarasu; van Loo, Eibertus N; Graham, Ian A

    2013-10-01

    Current efforts to grow the tropical oilseed crop Jatropha curcas L. economically are hampered by the lack of cultivars and the presence of toxic phorbol esters (PE) within the seeds of most provenances. These PE restrict the conversion of seed cake into animal feed, although naturally occurring 'nontoxic' provenances exist which produce seed lacking PE. As an important step towards the development of genetically improved varieties of J. curcas, we constructed a linkage map from four F₂ mapping populations. The consensus linkage map contains 502 codominant markers, distributed over 11 linkage groups, with a mean marker density of 1.8 cM per unique locus. Analysis of the inheritance of PE biosynthesis indicated that this is a maternally controlled dominant monogenic trait. This maternal control is due to biosynthesis of the PE occurring only within maternal tissues. The trait segregated 3 : 1 within seeds collected from F₂ plants, and QTL analysis revealed that a locus on linkage group 8 was responsible for phorbol ester biosynthesis. By taking advantage of the draft genome assemblies of J. curcas and Ricinus communis (castor), a comparative mapping approach was used to develop additional markers to fine map this mutation within 2.3 cM. The linkage map provides a framework for the dissection of agronomic traits in J. curcas, and the development of improved varieties by marker-assisted breeding. The identification of the locus responsible for PE biosynthesis means that it is now possible to rapidly breed new nontoxic varieties. PMID:23898859

  16. An integrated resource for barley linkage map and malting quality QTL alignment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare) is an economically important model plant for genetics research that is currently served by a comprehensive set of tools for genetic analysis. High density genetic linkage maps constructed from the inheritance of robust gene-based Single Nucleotide Polymorphism...

  17. Linkage disequilibrium based association mapping of fiber quality traits in G. hirsutum L. variety germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is the world’s leading cash crop, but it lags behind other major crops for marker-assisted breeding due to limited polymorphisms and a genetic bottleneck through historic domestication. Linkage disequilibrium (LD)-mapping using nonrandom associations of loci in haplotypes is a powerful high-r...

  18. Inheritance and linkage map positions of genes conferring resistance to stemphylium blight in lentil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stemphylium blight (caused by Stemphylium botryosum Wallr.) is one of the major diseases of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) in South Asia and North America. The objective of the study was to identify linkage map position of the genes conferring resistance to stemphylium blight and the markers linked ...

  19. A Linkage Map for Flowering Dogwood (Cornus florida L.) Based on Microsatellite Markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A genetic linkage map of flowering dogwood (C. florida L.) was constructed using 94 individuals derived from a cross of two F1 trees designated 97-6 and 97-7, which were originally from a cross between ‘Appalachian Spring’ and ‘Cherokee Brave’. Out of approximately 800 SSR loci examined, 271 were po...

  20. A SSR-based genetic linkage map of cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to construct a molecular linkage map of cultivated tetraploid peanut using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers derived primarily from peanut genomic sequences, expressed sequence tags (ESTs), and by "data mining" sequences released in GenBank. Three recombinant inbre...

  1. Fine mapping of the congenital chloride diarrhea gene by linkage disequilibrium

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeglund, P.; de la Chapelle, A.; Kere, J.

    1995-07-01

    Congenital chloride diarrhea is a recessively inherited intestinal disorder affecting electrolyte transportation. The clinical presentation is a life-threatening watery diarrhea with a high chloride content. Recently, the congenital chloride diarrhea gene (CLD) was assigned to chromosome 7 by linkage in eight Finnish families. In the present study, refined mapping of CLD was performed by studying linkage and linkage disequilibrium in 24 Finnish and 4 Swedish families. Recombination mapping assigned CLD to an {approximately}10-cM region flanked by D7S515 and D7S799. Linkage disequilibrium was detected over this large genetic region, with the strongest allelic association at D7S496. Application of the Luria and Delbrueck-derived analysis allowed for a further narrowing of the CLD region to {approximately}.37 cM from the marker D7S496. Haplotype analysis placed CLD unequivocally between D7S501 and D7S692, very close to D7S496 and most likely on the distal side of D7S496. This combined analytical approach allowed highly accurate mapping of CLD, each component adding complementary and consistent mapping information. 32 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. A Genetic Linkage Map of Mycosphaerella Fijiensis, using SSR and DArT Markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the causal agent of black leaf streak or Black Sigatoka disease in bananas. This pathogen threatens global banana production as the main export Cavendish cultivars are highly susceptible. Previously a genetic linkage map was generated predominantly using anonymous AFLP ma...

  3. Construction of Commercial Sweet Cherry Linkage Maps and QTL Analysis for Trunk Diameter

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Kaichun; Zhang, Xiaoming; Yan, Guohua; Zhou, Yu; Feng, Laibao; Ni, Yang; Duan, Xuwei

    2015-01-01

    A cross between the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivars ‘Wanhongzhu’ and ‘Lapins’ was performed to create a mapping population suitable for the construction of a linkage map. The specific-locus amplified fragment (SLAF) sequencing technique used as a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery platform and generated 701 informative genotypic assays; these, along with 16 microsatellites (SSRs) and the incompatibility (S) gene, were used to build a map which comprised 8 linkage groups (LGs) and covered a genetic distance of 849.0 cM. The mean inter-marker distance was 1.18 cM and there were few gaps > 5 cM in length. Marker collinearity was maintained with the established peach genomic sequence. The map was used to show that trunk diameter (TD) is under the control of 4 loci, mapping to 3 different LGs. Different locus influenced TD at a varying stage of the tree’s development. The high density ‘W×L’ genetic linkage map has the potential to enable high-resolution identification of QTLs of agronomically relevant traits, and accelerate sweet cherry breeding. PMID:26516760

  4. Construction of Commercial Sweet Cherry Linkage Maps and QTL Analysis for Trunk Diameter.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Kaichun; Zhang, Xiaoming; Yan, Guohua; Zhou, Yu; Feng, Laibao; Ni, Yang; Duan, Xuwei

    2015-01-01

    A cross between the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivars 'Wanhongzhu' and 'Lapins' was performed to create a mapping population suitable for the construction of a linkage map. The specific-locus amplified fragment (SLAF) sequencing technique used as a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery platform and generated 701 informative genotypic assays; these, along with 16 microsatellites (SSRs) and the incompatibility (S) gene, were used to build a map which comprised 8 linkage groups (LGs) and covered a genetic distance of 849.0 cM. The mean inter-marker distance was 1.18 cM and there were few gaps > 5 cM in length. Marker collinearity was maintained with the established peach genomic sequence. The map was used to show that trunk diameter (TD) is under the control of 4 loci, mapping to 3 different LGs. Different locus influenced TD at a varying stage of the tree's development. The high density 'W×L' genetic linkage map has the potential to enable high-resolution identification of QTLs of agronomically relevant traits, and accelerate sweet cherry breeding. PMID:26516760

  5. A genetic linkage map of Brassica carinata constructed with a doubled haploid population.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shaomin; Zou, Jun; Li, Ruiyan; Long, Yan; Chen, Sheng; Meng, Jinling

    2012-10-01

    Brassica carinata is an important oilseed crop with unique favourable traits that are desirable for other Brassica crops. However, given the limited research into genetic resources in B. carinata, knowledge of the genetic structure of this species is relatively poor. Nine homozygous, genetically distinct accessions of B. carinata were obtained via microspore culture, from which two divergent doubled haploid (DH) lines were used to develop a DH mapping population that consisted of 183 lines. The mapping population showed segregation of multiple traits of interest. A genetic map was constructed with PCR-based markers, and a total of 212 loci, which covered 1,703 cM, were assigned to eight linkage groups in the B genome and nine linkage groups in the C genome, which allowed comparison with genetic maps of other important Brassica species that contain the B/C genome(s). Loci for two Mendelian-inherited traits related to pigmentation (petal and anther tip colour) and one quantitative trait (seed coat colour) were identified using the linkage map. The significance of the mapping population in the context of genetic improvement of Brassica crops is discussed. PMID:22669300

  6. A detailed linkage map of rainbow trout produced using doubled haploids.

    PubMed Central

    Young, W P; Wheeler, P A; Coryell, V H; Keim, P; Thorgaard, G H

    1998-01-01

    We report the first detailed genetic linkage map of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The segregation analysis was performed using 76 doubled haploid rainbow trout produced by androgenesis from a hybrid between the "OSU" and "Arlee" androgenetically derived homozygous lines. Four hundred and seventy-six markers segregated into 31 major linkage groups and 11 small groups (< 5 markers/group). The minimum genome size is estimated to be 2627.5 cM in length. The sex-determining locus segregated to a distal position on one of the linkage groups. We analyzed the chromosomal distribution of three classes of markers: (1) amplified fragment length polymorphisms, (2) variable number of tandem repeats, and (3) markers obtained using probes homologous to the 5' or 3' end of salmonid-specific small interspersed nuclear elements. Many of the first class of markers were clustered in regions that appear to correspond to centromeres. The second class of markers were more telomeric in distribution, and the third class were intermediate. Tetrasomic inheritance, apparently related to the tetraploid ancestry of salmonid fishes, was detected at one simple sequence repeat locus and suggested by the presence of one extremely large linkage group that appeared to consist of two smaller groups linked at their tips. The double haploid rainbow trout lines and linkage map present a foundation for further genomic studies. PMID:9504929

  7. A microsatellite-based genetic linkage map for channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus.

    PubMed Central

    Waldbieser, G C; Bosworth, B G; Nonneman, D J; Wolters, W R

    2001-01-01

    Microsatellite loci were identified in channel catfish gene sequences or random clones from a small insert genomic DNA library. Outbred populations of channel catfish contained an average of eight alleles per locus and an average heterozygosity of 0.70. A genetic linkage map of the channel catfish genome (N = 29) was constructed from two reference families. A total of 293 microsatellite loci were polymorphic in one or both families, with an average of 171 informative meioses per locus. Nineteen type I loci, 243 type II loci, and one EST were placed in 32 multipoint linkage groups covering 1958 cM. Nine more type II loci were contained in three two-point linkage groups covering 24.5 cM. Twenty-two type II loci remained unlinked. Multipoint linkage groups ranged in size from 11.9 to 110.5 cM with an average intermarker distance of 8.7 cM. Seven microsatellite loci were closely linked with the sex-determining locus. The microsatellite loci and genetic linkage map will increase the efficiency of selective breeding programs for channel catfish. PMID:11404336

  8. Construction of the first genetic linkage map of Japanese gentian (Gentianaceae)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Japanese gentians (Gentiana triflora and Gentiana scabra) are amongst the most popular floricultural plants in Japan. However, genomic resources for Japanese gentians have not yet been developed, mainly because of the heterozygous genome structure conserved by outcrossing, the long juvenile period, and limited knowledge about the inheritance of important traits. In this study, we developed a genetic linkage map to improve breeding programs of Japanese gentians. Results Enriched simple sequence repeat (SSR) libraries from a G. triflora double haploid line yielded almost 20,000 clones using 454 pyrosequencing technology, 6.7% of which could be used to design SSR markers. To increase the number of molecular markers, we identified three putative long terminal repeat (LTR) sequences using the recently developed inter-primer binding site (iPBS) method. We also developed retrotransposon microsatellite amplified polymorphism (REMAP) markers combining retrotransposon and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. In addition to SSR and REMAP markers, modified amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and random amplification polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were developed. Using 93 BC1 progeny from G. scabra backcrossed with a G. triflora double haploid line, 19 linkage groups were constructed with a total of 263 markers (97 SSR, 97 AFLP, 39 RAPD, and 30 REMAP markers). One phenotypic trait (stem color) and 10 functional markers related to genes controlling flower color, flowering time and cold tolerance were assigned to the linkage map, confirming its utility. Conclusions This is the first reported genetic linkage map for Japanese gentians and for any species belonging to the family Gentianaceae. As demonstrated by mapping of functional markers and the stem color trait, our results will help to explain the genetic basis of agronomic important traits, and will be useful for marker-assisted selection in gentian breeding programs. Our map will also be an

  9. Genetic linkage mapping of multiple epiphyseal dysplasia to the pericentromeric region of chromosome 19.

    PubMed Central

    Oehlmann, R.; Summerville, G. P.; Yeh, G.; Weaver, E. J.; Jimenez, S. A.; Knowlton, R. G.

    1994-01-01

    Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED) is an inherited chondrodystrophy that results in deformity of articular surfaces and in subsequent degenerative joint disease. The disease is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with high penetrance. An MED mutation has been mapped by genetic linkage analysis of DNA polymorphisms in a single large pedigree. Close linkage of MED to 130 tested chromosomal markers was ruled out by discordant inheritance patterns. However, strong evidence for linkage of MED to markers in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 19 was obtained. The most closely linked marker was D19S215, with a maximum LOD score of 6.37 at theta = .05. Multipoint linkage analysis indicated that MED is located between D19S212 and D19S215, a map interval of 1.7 cM. Discovery of the map location of MED in this family will facilitate identification of the mutant gene. The closely linked DNA polymorphisms will also provide the means to determine whether other inherited chondrodystrophies have underlying defects in the same gene. PMID:8279467

  10. Identification, mapping and linkage analysis of randomly amplified DNA polymorphisms in Tetrahymena thermophila

    SciTech Connect

    Brickner, J.H.; Lynch, T.J.; Zeilinger, D.; Orias, E.

    1996-06-01

    Using the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique and exploiting the unique genetics of Tetrahymena thermophila, we have identified and characterized 40 DNA polymorphisms occurring between two inbred strains (B and C3) of this ciliated protozoan. These RAPD markers permit the PCR amplification of a DNA species using template DNA from SB1969 (B strain) but fail to do so using DNA from C3-368-5 (C3 strain). Polymorphisms were mapped to chromosomes using a panel of monosomic strains constructed by crossing B strain-derived nullisomic strains to inbred strain C3. They map to all five chromosomes and appear to be evenly distributed throughout the genome. Chromosomal groups were then analyzed for linkage using meiotic segregants; four linkage groups were identified in chromosomes 1R, 2L, 3 and 5. The RAPD method appears useful for the construction of a genetic map of the Tetrahymena genome based on DNA polymorphisms. 37 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. High-density linkage mapping and distribution of segregation distortion regions in the oak genome.

    PubMed

    Bodénès, Catherine; Chancerel, Emilie; Ehrenmann, François; Kremer, Antoine; Plomion, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    We developed the densest single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based linkage genetic map to date for the genus Quercus An 8k gene-based SNP array was used to genotype more than 1,000 full-sibs from two intraspecific and two interspecific full-sib families of Quercus petraea and Quercus robur A high degree of collinearity was observed between the eight parental maps of the two species. A composite map was then established with 4,261 SNP markers spanning 742 cM over the 12 linkage groups (LGs) of the oak genome. Nine genomic regions from six LGs displayed highly significant distortions of segregation. Two main hypotheses concerning the mechanisms underlying segregation distortion are discussed: genetic load vs. reproductive barriers. Our findings suggest a predominance of pre-zygotic to post-zygotic barriers. PMID:27013549

  12. High-density linkage mapping and distribution of segregation distortion regions in the oak genome

    PubMed Central

    Bodénès, Catherine; Chancerel, Emilie; Ehrenmann, François; Kremer, Antoine; Plomion, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    We developed the densest single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based linkage genetic map to date for the genus Quercus. An 8k gene-based SNP array was used to genotype more than 1,000 full-sibs from two intraspecific and two interspecific full-sib families of Quercus petraea and Quercus robur. A high degree of collinearity was observed between the eight parental maps of the two species. A composite map was then established with 4,261 SNP markers spanning 742 cM over the 12 linkage groups (LGs) of the oak genome. Nine genomic regions from six LGs displayed highly significant distortions of segregation. Two main hypotheses concerning the mechanisms underlying segregation distortion are discussed: genetic load vs. reproductive barriers. Our findings suggest a predominance of pre-zygotic to post-zygotic barriers. PMID:27013549

  13. Toward an Integrated Linkage Map of Common Bean. III. Mapping Genetic Factors Controlling Host-Bacteria Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Nodari, R. O.; Tsai, S. M.; Guzman, P.; Gilbertson, R. L.; Gepts, P.

    1993-01-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-based genetic linkage maps allow us to dissect the genetic control of quantitative traits (QT) by locating individual quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on the linkage map and determining their type of gene action and the magnitude of their contribution to the phenotype of the QT. We have performed such an analysis for two traits in common bean, involving interactions between the plant host and bacteria, namely Rhizobium nodule number (NN) and resistance to common bacterial blight (CBB) caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli. Analyses were conducted in the progeny of a cross between BAT93 (fewer nodules; moderately resistant to CBB) and Jalo EEP558 (more nodules; susceptible to CBB). An RFLP-based linkage map for common bean based on 152 markers had previously been derived in the F(2) of this cross. Seventy F(2)-derived F(3) families were inoculated in separate greenhouse experiments with Rhizobium tropici strain UMR1899 or X. c. pv. phaseoli isolate isolate W18. Regression and interval mapping analyses were used to identify genomic regions involved in the genetic control of these traits. These two methods identified the same genomic regions for each trait, with a few exceptions. For each trait, at least four putative QTLs were identified, which accounted for approximately 50% and 75% of the phenotypic variation in NN and CBB resistance, respectively. A chromosome region on linkage group D7 carried factor(s) influencing both traits. In all other cases, the putative QTLs affecting NN and CBB were located in different linkage groups or in the same linkage group, but far apart (more than 50 cM). Both BAT93 and Jalo EEP558 contributed alleles associated with higher NN, whereas CBB resistance was always associated with BAT93 alleles. Further investigations are needed to determine whether the QTLs for NN and CBB on linkage group D7 represent linked genes or the same gene with pleiotropic effects. Identification of the

  14. A haplotype-based algorithm for multilocus linkage disequilibrium mapping of quantitative trait loci with epistasis.

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Xiang-Yang; Casella, George; Littell, Ramon C; Yang, Mark C K; Johnson, Julie A; Wu, Rongling

    2003-01-01

    For tightly linked loci, cosegregation may lead to nonrandom associations between alleles in a population. Because of its evolutionary relationship with linkage, this phenomenon is called linkage disequilibrium. Today, linkage disequilibrium-based mapping has become a major focus of recent genome research into mapping complex traits. In this article, we present a new statistical method for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) of additive, dominant, and epistatic effects in equilibrium natural populations. Our method is based on haplotype analysis of multilocus linkage disequilibrium and exhibits two significant advantages over current disequilibrium mapping methods. First, we have derived closed-form solutions for estimating the marker-QTL haplotype frequencies within the maximum-likelihood framework implemented by the EM algorithm. The allele frequencies of putative QTL and their linkage disequilibria with the markers are estimated by solving a system of regular equations. This procedure has significantly improved the computational efficiency and the precision of parameter estimation. Second, our method can detect marker-QTL disequilibria of different orders and QTL epistatic interactions of various kinds on the basis of a multilocus analysis. This can not only enhance the precision of parameter estimation, but also make it possible to perform whole-genome association studies. We carried out extensive simulation studies to examine the robustness and statistical performance of our method. The application of the new method was validated using a case study from humans, in which we successfully detected significant QTL affecting human body heights. Finally, we discuss the implications of our method for genome projects and its extension to a broader circumstance. The computer program for the method proposed in this article is available at the webpage http://www.ifasstat.ufl.edu/genome/~LD. PMID:12702696

  15. An Integrated Linkage, Chromosome, and Genome Map for the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Timoshevskiy, Vladimir A.; Severson, David W.; deBruyn, Becky S.; Black, William C.; Sharakhov, Igor V.; Sharakhova, Maria V.

    2013-01-01

    Background Aedes aegypti, the yellow fever mosquito, is an efficient vector of arboviruses and a convenient model system for laboratory research. Extensive linkage mapping of morphological and molecular markers localized a number of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to the mosquito's ability to transmit various pathogens. However, linking the QTLs to Ae. aegypti chromosomes and genomic sequences has been challenging because of the poor quality of polytene chromosomes and the highly fragmented genome assembly for this species. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on the approach developed in our previous study, we constructed idiograms for mitotic chromosomes of Ae. aegypti based on their banding patterns at early metaphase. These idiograms represent the first cytogenetic map developed for mitotic chromosomes of Ae. aegypti. One hundred bacterial artificial chromosome clones carrying major genetic markers were hybridized to the chromosomes using fluorescent in situ hybridization. As a result, QTLs related to the transmission of the filarioid nematode Brugia malayi, the avian malaria parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum, and the dengue virus, as well as sex determination locus and 183 Mbp of genomic sequences were anchored to the exact positions on Ae. aegypti chromosomes. A linear regression analysis demonstrated a good correlation between positions of the markers on the physical and linkage maps. As a result of the recombination rate variation along the chromosomes, 12 QTLs on the linkage map were combined into five major clusters of QTLs on the chromosome map. Conclusion This study developed an integrated linkage, chromosome, and genome map—iMap—for the yellow fever mosquito. Our discovery of the localization of multiple QTLs in a few major chromosome clusters suggests a possibility that the transmission of various pathogens is controlled by the same genomic loci. Thus, the iMap will facilitate the identification of genomic determinants of traits responsible

  16. A comparison of genetic map distance and linkage disequilibrium between 15 polymorphic dinucleotide repeat loci in two populations

    SciTech Connect

    Urbanek, M.; Goldman, D.; Long, J.C.

    1994-09-01

    Linkage disequilibrium has recently been used to map the diastrophic dysplasia gene in a Finnish sample. One advantage of this method is that the large pedigrees required by some other methods are unnecessary. Another advantage is that linkage disequilibrium mapping capitalizes on the cumulative history of recombination events, rather than those occurring within the sampled individuals. A potential limitation of linkage disequilibrium mapping is that linkage equilibrium is likely to prevail in all but the most isolated populations, e.g., those which have recently experienced founder effects or severe population bottlenecks. In order to test the method`s generality, we examined patterns of linkage disequilibrium between pairs of loci within a known genetic map. Two populations were analyzed. The first population, Navajo Indians (N=45), is an isolate that experienced a severe bottleneck in the 1860`s. The second population, Maryland Caucasians (N=45), is cosmopolitan. We expected the Navajo sample to display more linkage disequilibrium than the Caucasian sample, and possibly that the Navajo disequilibrium pattern would reflect the genetic map. Linkage disequilibrium coefficients were estimated between pairs of alleles at different loci using maximum likelihood. The genetic isolate structure of Navajo Indians is confirmed by the DNA typings. Heterozygosity is lower than in the Caucasians, and fewer different alleles are observed. However, a relationship between genetic map distance and linkage disequilibrium could be discerned in neither the Navajo nor the Maryland samples. Slightly more linkage disequilibrium was observed in the Navajos, but both data sets were characterized by very low disequilibrium levels. We tentatively conclude that linkage disequilibrium mapping with dinucleotide repeats will only be useful with close linkage between markers and diseases, even in very isolated populations.

  17. Linkage Maps of the dwarf and Normal Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) Species Complex and Their Hybrids Reveal the Genetic Architecture of Population Divergence

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, S. M.; Isabel, N.; Bernatchez, L.

    2007-01-01

    Elucidating the genetic architecture of population divergence may reveal the evolution of reproductive barriers and the genomic regions implicated in the process. We assembled genetic linkage maps for the dwarf and Normal lake whitefish species complex and their hybrids. A total of 877 AFLP loci and 30 microsatellites were positioned. The homology of mapped loci between families supported the existence of 34 linkage groups (of 40n expected) exhibiting 83% colinearity among linked loci between these two families. Classes of AFLP markers were not randomly distributed among linkage groups. Both AFLP and microsatellites exhibited deviations from Mendelian expectations, with 30.4% exhibiting significant segregation distortion across 28 linkage groups of the four linkage maps in both families (P < 0.00001). Eight loci distributed over seven homologous linkage groups were significantly distorted in both families and the level of distortion, when comparing homologous loci of the same phase between families, was correlated (Spearman R = 0.378, P = 0.0021). These results suggest that substantial divergence incurred during allopatric glacial separation and subsequent sympatric ecological specialization has resulted in several genomic regions that are no longer complementary between dwarf and Normal populations issued from different evolutionary glacial lineages. PMID:17110497

  18. SNP marker discovery, linkage map construction and identification of QTLs for enhanced salinity tolerance in field pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) is a self-pollinating, diploid, cool-season food legume. Crop production is constrained by multiple biotic and abiotic stress factors, including salinity, that cause reduced growth and yield. Recent advances in genomics have permitted the development of low-cost high-throughput genotyping systems, allowing the construction of saturated genetic linkage maps for identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with traits of interest. Genetic markers in close linkage with the relevant genomic regions may then be implemented in varietal improvement programs. Results In this study, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers associated with expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were developed and used to generate comprehensive linkage maps for field pea. From a set of 36,188 variant nucleotide positions detected through in silico analysis, 768 were selected for genotyping of a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. A total of 705 SNPs (91.7%) successfully detected segregating polymorphisms. In addition to SNPs, genomic and EST-derived simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were assigned to the genetic map in order to obtain an evenly distributed genome-wide coverage. Sequences associated with the mapped molecular markers were used for comparative genomic analysis with other legume species. Higher levels of conserved synteny were observed with the genomes of Medicago truncatula Gaertn. and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) than with soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.), Lotus japonicus L. and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan [L.] Millsp.). Parents and RIL progeny were screened at the seedling growth stage for responses to salinity stress, imposed by addition of NaCl in the watering solution at a concentration of 18 dS m-1. Salinity-induced symptoms showed normal distribution, and the severity of the symptoms increased over time. QTLs for salinity tolerance were identified on linkage groups Ps III and VII, with flanking SNP markers suitable for

  19. SNP Discovery by GBS in Olive and the Construction of a High-Density Genetic Linkage Map.

    PubMed

    İpek, Ahmet; Yılmaz, Kübra; Sıkıcı, Pelin; Tangu, Nesrin Aktepe; Öz, Ayşe Tülin; Bayraktar, Murat; İpek, Meryem; Gülen, Hatice

    2016-06-01

    Genetic linkage maps are valuable tools for genetic, genomic, and crop breeding studies. Several genetic linkage maps were constructed for the olive (Olea europaea L.) genome, mainly using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. However, AFLPs and SSR markers were not enough to develop a high-density olive linkage map. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), a recently developed single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identification methodology based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, has been demonstrated to be useful for the identification of a high number of SNP markers and the construction of high-density genetic linkage maps. In the present study, we identified a total of 10,941 SNPs from a cross between the olive cultivars 'Gemlik' and 'Edincik Su' using GBS and de novo SNP discovery implemented in the computer program "Stacks." A high-density genetic linkage map for the olive genome was constructed using 121 cross-pollinated full-sib F1 progeny and 5643 markers (21 SSRs, 203 AFLPs, and 5736 SNPs). This linkage map was composed of 25 linkage groups, covering 3049 cM of the olive genome, and the mean distance between the flanking markers was 0.53 cM. To the best of our knowledge, this map is the most saturated genetic linkage map in olive to date. We demonstrated that GBS is a valuable tool for the identification of thousands of SNPs for the construction of a saturated genetic linkage map in olive. The high-density genetic map developed in this study is a useful tool for locating quantitative trait loci and other economically important traits in the olive genome. PMID:26902470

  20. Anchoring linkage groups of the Rosa genetic map to physical chromosomes with tyramide-FISH and EST-SNP markers.

    PubMed

    Kirov, Ilya; Van Laere, Katrijn; De Riek, Jan; De Keyser, Ellen; Van Roy, Nadine; Khrustaleva, Ludmila

    2014-01-01

    In order to anchor Rosa linkage groups to physical chromosomes, a combination of the Tyramide-FISH technology and the modern molecular marker system based on High Resolution Melting (HRM) is an efficient approach. Although, Tyramide-FISH is a very promising technique for the visualization of short DNA probes, it is very challenging for plant species with small chromosomes such as Rosa. In this study, we successfully applied the Tyramide-FISH technique for Rosa and compared different detection systems. An indirect detection system exploiting biotinylated tyramides was shown to be the most suitable technique for reliable signal detection. Three gene fragments with a size of 1100 pb-1700 bp (Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase, Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Synthase and Orcinol O-Methyl Transferase) have been physically mapped on chromosomes 7, 4 and 1, respectively, of Rosa wichurana. The signal frequency was between 25% and 40%. HRM markers of these 3 gene fragments were used to include the gene fragments on the existing genetic linkage map of Rosa wichurana. As a result, three linkage groups could be anchored to their physical chromosomes. The information was used to check for synteny between the Rosa chromosomes and Fragaria. PMID:24755945

  1. Anchoring Linkage Groups of the Rosa Genetic Map to Physical Chromosomes with Tyramide-FISH and EST-SNP Markers

    PubMed Central

    Kirov, Ilya; Van Laere, Katrijn; De Riek, Jan; De Keyser, Ellen; Van Roy, Nadine; Khrustaleva, Ludmila

    2014-01-01

    In order to anchor Rosa linkage groups to physical chromosomes, a combination of the Tyramide-FISH technology and the modern molecular marker system based on High Resolution Melting (HRM) is an efficient approach. Although, Tyramide-FISH is a very promising technique for the visualization of short DNA probes, it is very challenging for plant species with small chromosomes such as Rosa. In this study, we successfully applied the Tyramide-FISH technique for Rosa and compared different detection systems. An indirect detection system exploiting biotinylated tyramides was shown to be the most suitable technique for reliable signal detection. Three gene fragments with a size of 1100 pb–1700 bp (Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase, Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Synthase and Orcinol O-Methyl Transferase) have been physically mapped on chromosomes 7, 4 and 1, respectively, of Rosa wichurana. The signal frequency was between 25% and 40%. HRM markers of these 3 gene fragments were used to include the gene fragments on the existing genetic linkage map of Rosa wichurana. As a result, three linkage groups could be anchored to their physical chromosomes. The information was used to check for synteny between the Rosa chromosomes and Fragaria. PMID:24755945

  2. Efficient and Accurate Construction of Genetic Linkage Maps from the Minimum Spanning Tree of a Graph

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yonghui; Bhat, Prasanna R.; Close, Timothy J.; Lonardi, Stefano

    2008-01-01

    Genetic linkage maps are cornerstones of a wide spectrum of biotechnology applications, including map-assisted breeding, association genetics, and map-assisted gene cloning. During the past several years, the adoption of high-throughput genotyping technologies has been paralleled by a substantial increase in the density and diversity of genetic markers. New genetic mapping algorithms are needed in order to efficiently process these large datasets and accurately construct high-density genetic maps. In this paper, we introduce a novel algorithm to order markers on a genetic linkage map. Our method is based on a simple yet fundamental mathematical property that we prove under rather general assumptions. The validity of this property allows one to determine efficiently the correct order of markers by computing the minimum spanning tree of an associated graph. Our empirical studies obtained on genotyping data for three mapping populations of barley (Hordeum vulgare), as well as extensive simulations on synthetic data, show that our algorithm consistently outperforms the best available methods in the literature, particularly when the input data are noisy or incomplete. The software implementing our algorithm is available in the public domain as a web tool under the name MSTmap. PMID:18846212

  3. Mapping of plumage colour and blood protein loci on the microsatellite linkage map of the Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Miwa, M; Inoue-Murayama, M; Kayang, B B; Vignal, A; Minvielle, F; Monvoisin, J L; Takahashi, H; Ito, S

    2005-10-01

    The objective of this work was to map classical markers (plumage colours and blood proteins) on the microsatellite linkage map of the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). The segregation data on two plumage colours and three blood proteins were obtained from 25 three-generation families (193 F2 birds). Linkage analysis was carried out for these five classical markers and 80 microsatellite markers. A total of 15 linkage groups that included the five classical loci and 69 of the 80 microsatellite markers were constructed. Using the BLAST homology search against the chicken genome sequence, three quail linkage groups, QL8, QL10 and QL13, were suggested to be homologous to chicken chromosomes GGA9, GGA20 and GGA24, respectively. Two plumage colour loci, black at hatch (Bh) and yellow (Y), and the three blood protein loci, transferrin (Tf), haemoglobin (Hb-1) and prealbumin-1 (Pa-1), were assigned to CJA01, QL10, QL8, CJA14 and QL13, respectively. PMID:16167982

  4. High-resolution linkage-disequilibrium mapping of the cartilage-hair hypoplasia gene

    SciTech Connect

    Sulisalo, T.; Klockars, J.; Chapelle, A. de la; Kaitila, I. |; Maekitie, O.; Sistonen, P.; Francomano, C.A.

    1994-11-01

    We recently assigned the gene for an autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia, cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH), to 9p21-p13 in Finnish and Amish families. An association was observed between CHH and alleles at D9S163 in both family series, suggesting that these loci are in linkage disequilibrium and close to each other. Here we extended these studies by exploiting the linkage-disequilibrium information that can be obtained from families with a single affected child, and we studied 66 Finnish CHH families with seven microsatellite markers. The analysis based on the Luria and Delbrueck (1943) method and adapted to the study of human founder populations suggests that the distance between CHH and D9S163 is {approximately}0.3 cM. An eight-point linkage analysis modified to take advantage of all possible information in 15 Finnish and 17 Amish families was capable of narrowing the likely location of CHH to within an interval of 1.7 cM on a male map. The peak lod score of 54.92 was attained 0.03 and 0.1 cM proximal to D9S163 on the male and female maps, respectively. These results confirm the power of genetic resolution, that lies in the study of linkage disequilibrium in well-defined founder populations with one major ancestral disease mutation. 21 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Genetic mapping of X-linked ocular albinism: Linkage analysis in a large Newfoundland kindred

    SciTech Connect

    Charles, S.J.; Moore, A.T.; Barton, D.E.; Yates, J.R.W. ); Green, J.S. )

    1993-04-01

    Genetic linkage studies in a large Newfoundland family affected by X-linked ocular albinism (OA1) showed linkage to markers from Xp22.3. One recombinant mapped the disease proximal to DXS143 (dic56) and two recombinants mapped the disease distal to DXS85 (782). Combining the data with that from 16 British families previously published confirmed close linkage between OA1 and DXS143 (dic56; Z[sub max] = 21.96 at [theta] = 0.01, confidence interval (CI) 0.0005--0.05) and linkage to DXS85 (782; Z[sub max] = 17.60 at [theta] = 0.07, CI = 0.03--0.13) and DXS237 (GMGX9; Z[sub max] = 15.20 at [theta] = 0.08, CI = 0.03--0.15). Multipoint analysis (LINKMAP) gave the most likely order as Xpter-XG-DXS237-DXS143-OA1-DXS85, with odds of 48:1 over the order Xpter-XG-DXS237-OA1-DXS143-DXS85, and odds exceeding 10[sup 10]:1 over other locations for the disease locus. 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. X-linkage in bipolar affective illness. Perspectives on genetic heterogeneity, pedigree analysis and the X-chromosome map.

    PubMed

    Baron, M; Rainer, J D; Risch, N

    1981-06-01

    The search for genetic markers is a powerful strategy in psychiatric genetics. The present article examines four areas relevant to discrepancies among X-linkage studies in bipolar affective disorder. These are questions of ascertainment, analytic methods, the X-chromosome map and genetic heterogeneity. The following conclusions are reached: (a) Positive linkage findings cannot be attributed to ascertainment bias or association between affective illness and colorblindness. (b) The possibility that falsely positive linkage results were obtained by using inappropriate analytic methods is ruled out. (c) Reported linkages of bipolar illness to colorblind and G6PD loci are compatible with known map distances between X-chromosome loci. Linkage to the Xg antigen remains uncertain. (d) The discrepancy among the various data sets on affective illness and colorblindness is best explained by significant linkage heterogeneity among pedigrees informative for the two traits. PMID:6454708

  7. A MOLECULAR MARKER LINKAGE MAP OF SNAP BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bush Blue Lake (BBL) snap beans are grown in the Willamette Valley of Oregon for canning and freezing. While they have desirable processing and production traits compared to other snap beans, plant architecture, seed production traits, and white mold resistance need improvement. Previous breeding ...

  8. High-density linkage map construction and mapping of seed trait QTLs in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) using Genotyping-by-Sequencing (GBS)

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Subodh; Gupta, Shefali; Bandhiwal, Nitesh; Kumar, Tapan; Bharadwaj, Chellapilla; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2015-01-01

    This study reports the use of Genotyping-by-Sequencing (GBS) for large-scale SNP discovery and simultaneous genotyping of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of an intra-specific mapping population of chickpea contrasting for seed traits. A total of 119,672 raw SNPs were discovered, which after stringent filtering revealed 3,977 high quality SNPs of which 39.5% were present in genic regions. Comparative analysis using physically mapped marker loci revealed a higher degree of synteny with Medicago in comparison to soybean. The SNP genotyping data was utilized to construct one of the most saturated intra-specific genetic linkage maps of chickpea having 3,363 mapped positions including 3,228 SNPs on 8 linkage groups spanning 1006.98 cM at an average inter marker distance of 0.33 cM. The map was utilized to identify 20 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with seed traits accounting for phenotypic variations ranging from 9.97% to 29.71%. Analysis of the genomic sequence corresponding to five robust QTLs led to the identification of 684 putative candidate genes whose expression profiling revealed that 101 genes exhibited seed specific expression. The integrated approach utilizing the identified QTLs along with the available genome and transcriptome could serve as a platform for candidate gene identification for molecular breeding of chickpea. PMID:26631981

  9. High-density linkage map construction and mapping of seed trait QTLs in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) using Genotyping-by-Sequencing (GBS).

    PubMed

    Verma, Subodh; Gupta, Shefali; Bandhiwal, Nitesh; Kumar, Tapan; Bharadwaj, Chellapilla; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2015-01-01

    This study reports the use of Genotyping-by-Sequencing (GBS) for large-scale SNP discovery and simultaneous genotyping of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of an intra-specific mapping population of chickpea contrasting for seed traits. A total of 119,672 raw SNPs were discovered, which after stringent filtering revealed 3,977 high quality SNPs of which 39.5% were present in genic regions. Comparative analysis using physically mapped marker loci revealed a higher degree of synteny with Medicago in comparison to soybean. The SNP genotyping data was utilized to construct one of the most saturated intra-specific genetic linkage maps of chickpea having 3,363 mapped positions including 3,228 SNPs on 8 linkage groups spanning 1006.98 cM at an average inter marker distance of 0.33 cM. The map was utilized to identify 20 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with seed traits accounting for phenotypic variations ranging from 9.97% to 29.71%. Analysis of the genomic sequence corresponding to five robust QTLs led to the identification of 684 putative candidate genes whose expression profiling revealed that 101 genes exhibited seed specific expression. The integrated approach utilizing the identified QTLs along with the available genome and transcriptome could serve as a platform for candidate gene identification for molecular breeding of chickpea. PMID:26631981

  10. Saturated linkage map construction in Rubus idaeus using genotyping by sequencing and genome-independent imputation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rapid development of highly saturated genetic maps aids molecular breeding, which can accelerate gain per breeding cycle in woody perennial plants such as Rubus idaeus (red raspberry). Recently, robust genotyping methods based on high-throughput sequencing were developed, which provide high marker density, but result in some genotype errors and a large number of missing genotype values. Imputation can reduce the number of missing values and can correct genotyping errors, but current methods of imputation require a reference genome and thus are not an option for most species. Results Genotyping by Sequencing (GBS) was used to produce highly saturated maps for a R. idaeus pseudo-testcross progeny. While low coverage and high variance in sequencing resulted in a large number of missing values for some individuals, a novel method of imputation based on maximum likelihood marker ordering from initial marker segregation overcame the challenge of missing values, and made map construction computationally tractable. The two resulting parental maps contained 4521 and 2391 molecular markers spanning 462.7 and 376.6 cM respectively over seven linkage groups. Detection of precise genomic regions with segregation distortion was possible because of map saturation. Microsatellites (SSRs) linked these results to published maps for cross-validation and map comparison. Conclusions GBS together with genome-independent imputation provides a rapid method for genetic map construction in any pseudo-testcross progeny. Our method of imputation estimates the correct genotype call of missing values and corrects genotyping errors that lead to inflated map size and reduced precision in marker placement. Comparison of SSRs to published R. idaeus maps showed that the linkage maps constructed with GBS and our method of imputation were robust, and marker positioning reliable. The high marker density allowed identification of genomic regions with segregation distortion in R. idaeus, which

  11. A genetic linkage map of Cryptococcus neoformans variety neoformans serotype D (Filobasidiella neoformans).

    PubMed Central

    Marra, Robert E; Huang, Johnny C; Fung, Eula; Nielsen, Kirsten; Heitman, Joseph; Vilgalys, Rytas; Mitchell, Thomas G

    2004-01-01

    To construct a genetic linkage map of the heterothallic yeast, Cryptococcus neoformans (Filobasidiella neoformans), we crossed two mating-compatible strains and analyzed 94 progeny for the segregation of 301 polymorphic markers, consisting of 228 restriction site polymorphisms, 63 microsatellites, two indels, and eight mating-type (MAT)-associated markers. All but six markers showed no significant (P < 0.05) segregation distortion. At a minimum LOD score of 6.0 and a maximum recombination frequency of 0.30, 20 linkage groups were resolved, resulting in a map length of approximately 1500 cM. Average marker density is 5.4 cM (range 1-28.7 cM). Hybridization of selected markers to blots of electrophoretic karyotypes unambiguously assigned all linkage groups to chromosomes and led us to conclude that the C. neoformans genome is approximately 20.2 Mb, comprising 14 chromosomes ranging in size from 0.8 to 2.3 Mb, with a ratio of approximately 13.2 kb/cM averaged across the genome. However, only 2 of 12 ungrouped markers hybridized to chromosome 10. The hybridizations revealed at least one possible reciprocal translocation involving chromosomes 8, 9, and 12. This map has been critical to genome sequence assembly and will be essential for future studies of quantitative trait inheritance. PMID:15238516

  12. Linkage mapping of putative regulator genes of barley grain development characterized by expression profiling

    PubMed Central

    Pietsch, Christof; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Wobus, Ulrich; Röder, Marion S

    2009-01-01

    Background Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seed development is a highly regulated process with fine-tuned interaction of various tissues controlling distinct physiological events during prestorage, storage and dessication phase. As potential regulators involved within this process we studied 172 transcription factors and 204 kinases for their expression behaviour and anchored a subset of them to the barley linkage map to promote marker-assisted studies on barley grains. Results By a hierachical clustering of the expression profiles of 376 potential regulatory genes expressed in 37 different tissues, we found 50 regulators preferentially expressed in one of the three grain tissue fractions pericarp, endosperm and embryo during seed development. In addition, 27 regulators found to be expressed during both seed development and germination and 32 additional regulators are characteristically expressed in multiple tissues undergoing cell differentiation events during barley plant ontogeny. Another 96 regulators were, beside in the developing seed, ubiquitously expressed among all tissues of germinating seedlings as well as in reproductive tissues. SNP-marker development for those regulators resulted in anchoring 61 markers on the genetic linkage map of barley and the chromosomal assignment of another 12 loci by using wheat-barley addition lines. The SNP frequency ranged from 0.5 to 1.0 SNP/kb in the parents of the various mapping populations and was 2.3 SNP/kb over all eight lines tested. Exploration of macrosynteny to rice revealed that the chromosomal orders of the mapped putative regulatory factors were predominantly conserved during evolution. Conclusion We identified expression patterns of major transcription factors and signaling related genes expressed during barley ontogeny and further assigned possible functions based on likely orthologs functionally well characterized in model plant species. The combined linkage map and reference expression map of regulators

  13. A microsatellite-based linkage map of the honeybee, Apis mellifera L.

    PubMed Central

    Solignac, Michel; Vautrin, Dominique; Baudry, Emmanuelle; Mougel, Florence; Loiseau, Anne; Cornuet, Jean-Marie

    2004-01-01

    A linkage map for the honeybee (Apis mellifera) was constructed mainly from the progeny of two hybrid queens (A. m. ligustica x A. m. mellifera). A total of 541 loci were mapped; 474 were microsatellite loci; a few were additional bands produced during PCRs, one of the two rDNA loci (using ITS), the MDH locus, and three sex-linked markers (Q and FB loci and one RAPD band). Twenty-four linkage groups were estimated of which 5 were minute (between 7.1 and 22.8 cM) and 19 were major groups (>76.5 cM). The number of major linkage groups exceeded by three the number of chromosomes of the complement (n = 16). The sum of the lengths of all linkage groups amounts to 4061 cM to which must be added at least 320 cM to link groups in excess, making a total of at least 4381 cM. The length of the largest linkage group I was 630 cM. The average density of markers was 7.5 cM and the average resolution was about one marker every 300 kb. For most of the large groups, the centromeric region was determined genetically, as described in (accompanying article in this issue), using half-tetrad analysis of thelytokous parthenogens in which diploid restoration occurs through central fusion. Several cases of segregation distortion that appreared to result from deleterious recessives were discovered. A low positive interference was also detected. PMID:15166152

  14. Evidence of Allopolyploidy in Urochloa humidicola Based on Cytological Analysis and Genetic Linkage Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Vigna, Bianca B. Z.; Santos, Jean C. S.; Jungmann, Leticia; do Valle, Cacilda B.; Mollinari, Marcelo; Pastina, Maria M.; Garcia, Antonio A. F.

    2016-01-01

    The African species Urochloa humidicola (Rendle) Morrone & Zuloaga (syn. Brachiaria humidicola (Rendle) Schweick.) is an important perennial forage grass found throughout the tropics. This species is polyploid, ranging from tetra to nonaploid, and apomictic, which makes genetic studies challenging; therefore, the number of currently available genetic resources is limited. The genomic architecture and evolution of U. humidicola and the molecular markers linked to apomixis were investigated in a full-sib F1 population obtained by crossing the sexual accession H031 and the apomictic cultivar U. humidicola cv. BRS Tupi, both of which are hexaploid. A simple sequence repeat (SSR)-based linkage map was constructed for the species from 102 polymorphic and specific SSR markers based on simplex and double-simplex markers. The map consisted of 49 linkage groups (LGs) and had a total length of 1702.82 cM, with 89 microsatellite loci and an average map density of 10.6 cM. Eight homology groups (HGs) were formed, comprising 22 LGs, and the other LGs remained ungrouped. The locus that controls apospory (apo-locus) was mapped in LG02 and was located 19.4 cM from the locus Bh027.c.D2. In the cytological analyses of some hybrids, bi- to hexavalents at diakinesis were observed, as well as two nucleoli in some meiocytes, smaller chromosomes with preferential allocation within the first metaphase plate and asynchronous chromosome migration to the poles during anaphase. The linkage map and the meiocyte analyses confirm previous reports of hybridization and suggest an allopolyploid origin of the hexaploid U. humidicola. This is the first linkage map of an Urochloa species, and it will be useful for future quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis after saturation of the map and for genome assembly and evolutionary studies in Urochloa spp. Moreover, the results of the apomixis mapping are consistent with previous reports and confirm the need for additional studies to search for a co

  15. Evidence of Allopolyploidy in Urochloa humidicola Based on Cytological Analysis and Genetic Linkage Mapping.

    PubMed

    Vigna, Bianca B Z; Santos, Jean C S; Jungmann, Leticia; do Valle, Cacilda B; Mollinari, Marcelo; Pastina, Maria M; Pagliarini, Maria Suely; Garcia, Antonio A F; Souza, Anete P

    2016-01-01

    The African species Urochloa humidicola (Rendle) Morrone & Zuloaga (syn. Brachiaria humidicola (Rendle) Schweick.) is an important perennial forage grass found throughout the tropics. This species is polyploid, ranging from tetra to nonaploid, and apomictic, which makes genetic studies challenging; therefore, the number of currently available genetic resources is limited. The genomic architecture and evolution of U. humidicola and the molecular markers linked to apomixis were investigated in a full-sib F1 population obtained by crossing the sexual accession H031 and the apomictic cultivar U. humidicola cv. BRS Tupi, both of which are hexaploid. A simple sequence repeat (SSR)-based linkage map was constructed for the species from 102 polymorphic and specific SSR markers based on simplex and double-simplex markers. The map consisted of 49 linkage groups (LGs) and had a total length of 1702.82 cM, with 89 microsatellite loci and an average map density of 10.6 cM. Eight homology groups (HGs) were formed, comprising 22 LGs, and the other LGs remained ungrouped. The locus that controls apospory (apo-locus) was mapped in LG02 and was located 19.4 cM from the locus Bh027.c.D2. In the cytological analyses of some hybrids, bi- to hexavalents at diakinesis were observed, as well as two nucleoli in some meiocytes, smaller chromosomes with preferential allocation within the first metaphase plate and asynchronous chromosome migration to the poles during anaphase. The linkage map and the meiocyte analyses confirm previous reports of hybridization and suggest an allopolyploid origin of the hexaploid U. humidicola. This is the first linkage map of an Urochloa species, and it will be useful for future quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis after saturation of the map and for genome assembly and evolutionary studies in Urochloa spp. Moreover, the results of the apomixis mapping are consistent with previous reports and confirm the need for additional studies to search for a co

  16. Genome-wide patterns of segregation and linkage disequilibrium: the construction of a linkage genetic map of the poplar rust fungus Melampsora larici-populina

    PubMed Central

    Pernaci, Michaël; De Mita, Stéphane; Andrieux, Axelle; Pétrowski, Jérémy; Halkett, Fabien; Duplessis, Sébastien; Frey, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    The poplar rust fungus Melampsora larici-populina causes significant yield reduction and severe economic losses in commercial poplar plantations. After several decades of breeding for qualitative resistance and subsequent breakdown of the released resistance genes, breeders now focus on quantitative resistance, perceived to be more durable. But quantitative resistance also can be challenged by an increase of aggressiveness in the pathogen. Thus, it is of primary importance to better understand the genetic architecture of aggressiveness traits. To this aim, our goal is to build a genetic linkage map for M. larici-populina in order to map quantitative trait loci related to aggressiveness. First, a large progeny of M. larici-populina was generated through selfing of the reference strain 98AG31 (which genome sequence is available) on larch plants, the alternate host of the poplar rust fungus. The progeny's meiotic origin was validated through a segregation analysis of 115 offspring with 14 polymorphic microsatellite markers, of which 12 segregated in the expected 1:2:1 Mendelian ratio. A microsatellite-based linkage disequilibrium analysis allowed us to identify one potential linkage group comprising two scaffolds. The whole genome of a subset of 47 offspring was resequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 technology at a mean sequencing depth of 6X. The reads were mapped onto the reference genome of the parental strain and 144,566 SNPs were identified across the genome. Analysis of distribution and polymorphism of the SNPs along the genome led to the identification of 2580 recombination blocks. A second linkage disequilibrium analysis, using the recombination blocks as markers, allowed us to group 81 scaffolds into 23 potential linkage groups. These preliminary results showed that a high-density linkage map could be constructed by using high-quality SNPs based on low-coverage resequencing of a larger number of M. larici-populina offspring. PMID:25309554

  17. Chromosome-Specific Single-Locus FISH Probes Allow Anchorage of an 1800-Marker Integrated Radiation-Hybrid/Linkage Map of the Domestic Dog Genome to All Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Breen, Matthew; Jouquand, Sophie; Renier, Corinne; Mellersh, Cathryn S.; Hitte, Christophe; Holmes, Nigel G.; Chéron, Angélique; Suter, Nicola; Vignaux, Françoise; Bristow, Anna E.; Priat, Catherine; McCann, E.; André, Catherine; Boundy, Sam; Gitsham, Paul; Thomas, Rachael; Bridge, Wendy L.; Spriggs, Helen F.; Ryder, Ed J.; Curson, Alistair; Sampson, Jeff; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Binns, Matthew M.; Galibert, Francis

    2001-01-01

    We present here the first fully integrated, comprehensive map of the canine genome, incorporating detailed cytogenetic, radiation hybrid (RH), and meiotic information. We have mapped a collection of 266 chromosome-specific cosmid clones, each containing a microsatellite marker, to all 38 canine autosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). A 1500-marker RH map, comprising 1078 microsatellites, 320 dog gene markers, and 102 chromosome-specific markers, has been constructed using the RHDF5000-2 whole-genome radiation hybrid panel. Meiotic linkage analysis was performed, with at least one microsatellite marker from each dog autosome on a panel of reference families, allowing one meiotic linkage group to be anchored to all 38 dog autosomes. We present a karyotype in which each chromosome is identified by one meiotic linkage group and one or more RH groups. This updated integrated map, containing a total of 1800 markers, covers >90% of the dog genome. Positional selection of anchor clones enabled us, for the first time, to orientate nearly all of the integrated groups on each chromosome and to evaluate the extent of individual chromosome coverage in the integrated genome map. Finally, the inclusion of 320 dog genes into this integrated map enhances existing comparative mapping data between human and dog, and the 1000 mapped microsatellite markers constitute an invaluable tool with which to perform genome scanning studies on pedigrees of interest. PMID:11591656

  18. Second-Generation Linkage Maps for the Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas Reveal Errors in Assembly of Genome Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Hedgecock, Dennis; Shin, Grace; Gracey, Andrew Y.; Den Berg, David Van; Samanta, Manoj P.

    2015-01-01

    The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, a widely cultivated marine bivalve mollusc, is becoming a genetically and genomically enabled model for highly fecund marine metazoans with complex life-histories. A genome sequence is available for the Pacific oyster, as are first-generation, low-density, linkage and gene-centromere maps mostly constructed from microsatellite DNA markers. Here, higher density, second-generation, linkage maps are constructed from more than 1100 coding (exonic) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), as well as 66 previously mapped microsatellite DNA markers, all typed in five families of Pacific oysters (nearly 172,000 genotypes). The map comprises 10 linkage groups, as expected, has an average total length of 588 cM, an average marker-spacing of 1.0 cM, and covers 86% of a genome estimated to be 616 cM. All but seven of the mapped SNPs map to 618 genome scaffolds; 260 scaffolds contain two or more mapped SNPs, but for 100 of these scaffolds (38.5%), the contained SNPs map to different linkage groups, suggesting widespread errors in scaffold assemblies. The 100 misassembled scaffolds are significantly longer than those that map to a single linkage group. On the genetic maps, marker orders and intermarker distances vary across families and mapping methods, owing to an abundance of markers segregating from only one parent, to widespread distortions of segregation ratios caused by early mortality, as previously observed for oysters, and to genotyping errors. Maps made from framework markers provide stronger support for marker orders and reasonable map lengths and are used to produce a consensus high-density linkage map containing 656 markers. PMID:26248981

  19. Development of SSR markers and construction of a linkage map in jute.

    PubMed

    Das, Moumita; Banerjee, Sumana; Dhariwal, Raman; Vyas, Shailendra; Mir, Reyazul R; Topdar, Niladri; Kundu, Avijit; Khurana, Jitendra P; Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Sarkar, Debabrata; Sinha, Mohit K; Balyan, Harindra S; Gupta, Pushpendra K

    2012-01-01

    Jute is an important natural fibre crop, which is only second to cotton in its importance at the global level. It is mostly grown in Indian subcontinent and has been recently used for the development of genomics resources.We recently initiated a programme to develop simple sequence repeat markers and reported a set of 2469 SSR that were developed using four SSR-enriched libraries (Mir et al. 2009). In this communication, we report an additional set of 607 novel SSR in 393 SSR containing sequences. However, primers could be designed for only 417 potentially useful SSR. Polymorphism survey was carried out for 374 primer pairs using two parental genotypes (JRO 524 and PPO4) of a mapping population developed for fibre fineness; only 66 SSR were polymorphic. Owing to a low level of polymorphism between the parental genotypes and a high degree of segregation distortion in recombinant inbred lines, genotypic data of only 53 polymorphic SSR on the mapping population consisting of 120 RIL could be used for the construction of a linkage map; 36 SSR loci were mapped on six linkage groups that covered a total genetic distance of 784.3 cM. Hopefully, this map will be enriched with more SSR loci in future and will prove useful for identification of quantitative trait loci/genes for molecular breeding involving improvement of fibre fineness and other related traits in jute. PMID:22546823

  20. Markers for Mapping by Admixture Linkage Disequilibrium in African American and Hispanic Populations

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michael W.; Lautenberger, James A.; Shin, Hyoung Doo; Chretien, Jean-Paul; Shrestha, Sadeep; Gilbert, Dennis A.; O’Brien, Stephen J.

    2001-01-01

    Population linkage disequilibrium occurs as a consequence of mutation, selection, genetic drift, and population substructure produced by admixture of genetically distinct ethnic populations. African American and Hispanic ethnic groups have a history of significant gene flow among parent groups, which can be of value in affecting genome scans for disease-gene discovery in the case-control and transmission/disequilibrium test designs. Disease-gene discovery using mapping by admixture linkage disequilibrium (MALD) requires a map of polymorphic markers that differentiate between the founding populations, along with differences in disease-gene allele frequencies. We describe markers appropriate for MALD mapping by assessing allele frequencies of 744 short tandem repeats (STRs) in African Americans, Hispanics, European Americans, and Asians, by choosing STR markers that have large differences in composite δ, log-likelihood ratios, and/or I*(2) for MALD. Additional markers can be added to this MALD map by utilization of the rapidly growing single-nucleotide–polymorphism databases and the literature, to achieve a 3–10-cM scanning scale. The map will be useful for studies of diseases, including prostate and breast cancer, diabetes, hypertension, and end-stage renal disease, that have large differences in incidence between the founding populations of either Hispanics or African Americans. PMID:11590548

  1. High-density linkage mapping revealed suppression of recombination at the sex determination locus in papaya.

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hao; Moore, Paul H; Liu, Zhiyong; Kim, Minna S; Yu, Qingyi; Fitch, Maureen M M; Sekioka, Terry; Paterson, Andrew H; Ming, Ray

    2004-01-01

    A high-density genetic map of papaya (Carica papaya L.) was constructed using 54 F(2) plants derived from cultivars Kapoho and SunUp with 1501 markers, including 1498 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers, the papaya ringspot virus coat protein marker, morphological sex type, and fruit flesh color. These markers were mapped into 12 linkage groups at a LOD score of 5.0 and recombination frequency of 0.25. The 12 major linkage groups covered a total length of 3294.2 cM, with an average distance of 2.2 cM between adjacent markers. This map revealed severe suppression of recombination around the sex determination locus with a total of 225 markers cosegregating with sex types. The cytosine bases were highly methylated in this region on the basis of the distribution of methylation-sensitive and -insensitive markers. This high-density genetic map is essential for cloning of specific genes of interest such as the sex determination gene and for the integration of genetic and physical maps of papaya. PMID:15020433

  2. GLM: A relational database system for linkage mapping on PC compatibles

    SciTech Connect

    Lucek, P.; Ott, J.

    1994-09-01

    Collection and management of family data, phenotypes, genotypes and the creation of a catalog of available and potential genetic markers can easily become overwhelming. The General Linkage Mapping (GLM) database and analysis system is designed to be an easy to use program with an intuitive interface for managing the data required for input and the resulting data output from two point linkage mapping analysis programs such as LINKAGE, MLINK, and ILINK. A comprehensive context-sensitive help system in integrated into the program along with data transfer and data backup capabilities. The relational databases managed by the GLM program are structured such that each project/disease can have multiple families, and marker, genotype, and result databases. Family data includes father/mother relationships; twin relationships, sex, age, date of birth/death, availability for typing, laboratory ID, and up to 50 phenotypes or diagnostic criteria, with corresponding liability classes and ages of onset. The liability classes can be entered manually or can be calculated from the individual`s age or age of disease onset. Phenotype data can either be quantitative, binary or of the affection status type. Genotype data, cross-referenced by laboratory ID, can be entered using any unique identification for each allele (e.g. size of dinucleotide repeats). Marker information includes marker name, chromosome, sex-ratio, allele identifications and frequencies. The GLM program creates all of the ASCII output files required by LINKAGE, MLINK and ILINK for input. Multiple or single families can be run. Upon execution of these programs, the GLM program imports the results of the analysis and keeps a database family, marker, date of analysis, and LOD scores. Future versions will include two-point exclusion mapping capabilities and output files for multipoint analysis.

  3. First-generation linkage map of the gray, short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica, reveals genome-wide reduction in female recombination rates.

    PubMed Central

    Samollow, Paul B; Kammerer, Candace M; Mahaney, Susan M; Schneider, Jennifer L; Westenberger, Scott J; VandeBerg, John L; Robinson, Edward S

    2004-01-01

    The gray, short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica, is the most extensively used, laboratory-bred marsupial resource for basic biologic and biomedical research worldwide. To enhance the research utility of this species, we are building a linkage map, using both anonymous markers and functional gene loci, that will enable the localization of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and provide comparative information regarding the evolution of mammalian and other vertebrate genomes. The current map is composed of 83 loci distributed among eight autosomal linkage groups and the X chromosome. The autosomal linkage groups appear to encompass a very large portion of the genome, yet span a sex-average distance of only 633.0 cM, making this the most compact linkage map known among vertebrates. Most surprising, the male map is much larger than the female map (884.6 cM vs. 443.1 cM), a pattern contrary to that in eutherian mammals and other vertebrates. The finding of genome-wide reduction in female recombination in M. domestica, coupled with recombination data from two other, distantly related marsupial species, suggests that reduced female recombination might be a widespread metatherian attribute. We discuss possible explanations for reduced female recombination in marsupials as a consequence of the metatherian characteristic of determinate paternal X chromosome inactivation. PMID:15020427

  4. Rapid multipoint linkage analysis of recessive traits in nuclear families, including homozygosity mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Kruglyak, L.; Daly, M.J.; Lander, E.S. |

    1995-02-01

    Homozygosity mapping is a powerful strategy for mapping rare recessive traits in children of consanguineous marriages. Practical applications of this strategy are currently limited by the inability of conventional linkage analysis software to compute, in reasonable time, multipoint LOD scores for pedigrees with inbreeding loops. We have developed a new algorithm for rapid multipoint likelihood calculations in small pedigrees, including those with inbreeding loops. The running time of the algorithm grows, at most, linearly with the number of loci considered simultaneously. The running time is not sensitive to the presence of inbreeding loops, missing genotype information, and highly polymorphic loci. We have incorporated this algorithm into a software package, MAPMAKER/HOMOZ, that allows very rapid multipoint mapping of disease genes in nuclear families, including homozygosity mapping. Multipoint analysis with dozens of markers can be carried out in minutes on a personal workstation. 23 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. A continuous linkage map of 22 short tandem repeat polymorphisms on human chromosome 12

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, E.; Shaikh, S.; Powell, J.F.; Gill, M. ); Weber, J.L.; Wang, Z. ); Weissenbach, J. )

    1993-07-01

    A continuous linkage map consisting of 22 short tandem repeat polymorphisms has been constructed for human chromosome 12 using 23 non-CEPH pedigrees. The markers were distributed at an average distance of 9.35 cM (3.1-33.9 cM). Eighteen of the markers could be positioned uniquely with a likelihood of >1000:1. The physical locations of some of the markers suggest that the map covers 85-95% of the chromosome. This framework map of 18 markers has a female length of 213 cM and a male length of 131 cM. Female recombination frequencies were greater than male recombination frequencies except in the distal portion of the short arm. The map provides confirmatory evidence for orders established previously on CEPH pedigrees and uniquely positions 4 additional markers (CD4, ATPSB, D12S56, PLA2). 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. A High-Density SNP-Based Linkage Map of the Chicken Genome Reveals Sequence Features Correlated With Recombination Rate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The resolution of the widely used chicken consensus linkage map was highly enlarged by genotyping a total of 12,945 SNPs on the three existing mapping populations in chicken; the Wageningen (WU), East Lansing (EL) and Uppsala (UPP) mapping populations. A total of 8608 SNPs could be included on the m...

  7. Development of a genetic linkage map for Louisiana sugarcane: New microsatellite (SSR) DNA markers identified for LCP 85-384

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of the recently developed genetic linkage map of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) cultivar LCP 85-384 has been limited due to the small number of DNA markers, in particular microsatellite (SSR) DNA markers, on the map. Adding DNA markers to the map improves its usefulness in identifying assoc...

  8. Map-based molecular diversity, linkage disequilibrium and association mapping of fruit traits in melon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wide phenotypic diversity, in melon fruits, is the result of consumer preferences combined with genotype fitness to the different agro-climatic zones. There is no sufficient information with respect to the extent of genetic divergence, population structure and linkage disequilibrium (LD) in mel...

  9. A High-Resolution SNP Array-Based Linkage Map Anchors a New Domestic Cat Draft Genome Assembly and Provides Detailed Patterns of Recombination.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Hillier, LaDeana W; Grahn, Robert A; Zimin, Aleksey V; David, Victor A; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Middleton, Rondo; Hannah, Steven; Hendrickson, Sher; Makunin, Alex; O'Brien, Stephen J; Minx, Pat; Wilson, Richard K; Lyons, Leslie A; Warren, Wesley C; Murphy, William J

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution genetic and physical maps are invaluable tools for building accurate genome assemblies, and interpreting results of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Previous genetic and physical maps anchored good quality draft assemblies of the domestic cat genome, enabling the discovery of numerous genes underlying hereditary disease and phenotypes of interest to the biomedical science and breeding communities. However, these maps lacked sufficient marker density to order thousands of shorter scaffolds in earlier assemblies, which instead relied heavily on comparative mapping with related species. A high-resolution map would aid in validating and ordering chromosome scaffolds from existing and new genome assemblies. Here, we describe a high-resolution genetic linkage map of the domestic cat genome based on genotyping 453 domestic cats from several multi-generational pedigrees on the Illumina 63K SNP array. The final maps include 58,055 SNP markers placed relative to 6637 markers with unique positions, distributed across all autosomes and the X chromosome. Our final sex-averaged maps span a total autosomal length of 4464 cM, the longest described linkage map for any mammal, confirming length estimates from a previous microsatellite-based map. The linkage map was used to order and orient the scaffolds from a substantially more contiguous domestic cat genome assembly (Felis catus v8.0), which incorporated ∼20 × coverage of Illumina fragment reads. The new genome assembly shows substantial improvements in contiguity, with a nearly fourfold increase in N50 scaffold size to 18 Mb. We use this map to report probable structural errors in previous maps and assemblies, and to describe features of the recombination landscape, including a massive (∼50 Mb) recombination desert (of virtually zero recombination) on the X chromosome that parallels a similar desert on the porcine X chromosome in both size and physical location. PMID:27172201

  10. A High-Resolution SNP Array-Based Linkage Map Anchors a New Domestic Cat Draft Genome Assembly and Provides Detailed Patterns of Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Hillier, LaDeana W.; Grahn, Robert A.; Zimin, Aleksey V.; David, Victor A.; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Middleton, Rondo; Hannah, Steven; Hendrickson, Sher; Makunin, Alex; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Minx, Pat; Wilson, Richard K.; Lyons, Leslie A.; Warren, Wesley C.; Murphy, William J.

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution genetic and physical maps are invaluable tools for building accurate genome assemblies, and interpreting results of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Previous genetic and physical maps anchored good quality draft assemblies of the domestic cat genome, enabling the discovery of numerous genes underlying hereditary disease and phenotypes of interest to the biomedical science and breeding communities. However, these maps lacked sufficient marker density to order thousands of shorter scaffolds in earlier assemblies, which instead relied heavily on comparative mapping with related species. A high-resolution map would aid in validating and ordering chromosome scaffolds from existing and new genome assemblies. Here, we describe a high-resolution genetic linkage map of the domestic cat genome based on genotyping 453 domestic cats from several multi-generational pedigrees on the Illumina 63K SNP array. The final maps include 58,055 SNP markers placed relative to 6637 markers with unique positions, distributed across all autosomes and the X chromosome. Our final sex-averaged maps span a total autosomal length of 4464 cM, the longest described linkage map for any mammal, confirming length estimates from a previous microsatellite-based map. The linkage map was used to order and orient the scaffolds from a substantially more contiguous domestic cat genome assembly (Felis catus v8.0), which incorporated ∼20 × coverage of Illumina fragment reads. The new genome assembly shows substantial improvements in contiguity, with a nearly fourfold increase in N50 scaffold size to 18 Mb. We use this map to report probable structural errors in previous maps and assemblies, and to describe features of the recombination landscape, including a massive (∼50 Mb) recombination desert (of virtually zero recombination) on the X chromosome that parallels a similar desert on the porcine X chromosome in both size and physical location. PMID:27172201

  11. Diversity array technology markers: genetic diversity analyses and linkage map construction in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Raman, Harsh; Raman, Rosy; Nelson, Matthew N; Aslam, M N; Rajasekaran, Ravikesavan; Wratten, Neil; Cowling, Wallace A; Kilian, A; Sharpe, Andrew G; Schondelmaier, Joerg

    2012-01-01

    We developed Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers for application in genetic studies of Brassica napus and other Brassica species with A or C genomes. Genomic representation from 107 diverse genotypes of B. napus L. var. oleifera (rapeseed, AACC genomes) and B. rapa (AA genome) was used to develop a DArT array comprising 11 520 clones generated using PstI/BanII and PstI/BstN1 complexity reduction methods. In total, 1547 polymorphic DArT markers of high technical quality were identified and used to assess molecular diversity among 89 accessions of B. napus, B. rapa, B. juncea, and B. carinata collected from different parts of the world. Hierarchical cluster and principal component analyses based on genetic distance matrices identified distinct populations clustering mainly according to their origin/pedigrees. DArT markers were also mapped in a new doubled haploid population comprising 131 lines from a cross between spring rapeseed lines 'Lynx-037DH' and 'Monty-028DH'. Linkage groups were assigned on the basis of previously mapped simple sequence repeat (SSRs), intron polymorphism (IP), and gene-based markers. The map consisted of 437 DArT, 135 SSR, 6 IP, and 6 gene-based markers and spanned 2288 cM. Our results demonstrate that DArT markers are suitable for genetic diversity analysis and linkage map construction in rapeseed. PMID:22193366

  12. Diversity Array Technology Markers: Genetic Diversity Analyses and Linkage Map Construction in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Harsh; Raman, Rosy; Nelson, Matthew N.; Aslam, M.N.; Rajasekaran, Ravikesavan; Wratten, Neil; Cowling, Wallace A.; Kilian, A.; Sharpe, Andrew G.; Schondelmaier, Joerg

    2012-01-01

    We developed Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers for application in genetic studies of Brassica napus and other Brassica species with A or C genomes. Genomic representation from 107 diverse genotypes of B. napus L. var. oleifera (rapeseed, AACC genomes) and B. rapa (AA genome) was used to develop a DArT array comprising 11 520 clones generated using PstI/BanII and PstI/BstN1 complexity reduction methods. In total, 1547 polymorphic DArT markers of high technical quality were identified and used to assess molecular diversity among 89 accessions of B. napus, B. rapa, B. juncea, and B. carinata collected from different parts of the world. Hierarchical cluster and principal component analyses based on genetic distance matrices identified distinct populations clustering mainly according to their origin/pedigrees. DArT markers were also mapped in a new doubled haploid population comprising 131 lines from a cross between spring rapeseed lines ‘Lynx-037DH’ and ‘Monty-028DH’. Linkage groups were assigned on the basis of previously mapped simple sequence repeat (SSRs), intron polymorphism (IP), and gene-based markers. The map consisted of 437 DArT, 135 SSR, 6 IP, and 6 gene-based markers and spanned 2288 cM. Our results demonstrate that DArT markers are suitable for genetic diversity analysis and linkage map construction in rapeseed. PMID:22193366

  13. Genomewide linkage disequilibrium mapping of severe bipolar disorder in a population isolate.

    PubMed

    Ophoff, Roel A; Escamilla, Michael A; Service, Susan K; Spesny, Mitzi; Meshi, Dar B; Poon, Wingman; Molina, Julio; Fournier, Eduardo; Gallegos, Alvaro; Mathews, Carol; Neylan, Thomas; Batki, Steven L; Roche, Erin; Ramirez, Margarita; Silva, Sandra; De Mille, Melissa C; Dong, Penny; Leon, Pedro E; Reus, Victor I; Sandkuijl, Lodewijk A; Freimer, Nelson B

    2002-09-01

    Genomewide association studies may offer the best promise for genetic mapping of complex traits. Such studies in outbred populations require very densely spaced single-nucleotide polymorphisms. In recently founded population isolates, however, extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD) may make these studies feasible with currently available sets of short tandem repeat markers, spaced at intervals as large as a few centimorgans. We report the results of a genomewide association study of severe bipolar disorder (BP-I), using patients from the isolated population of the central valley of Costa Rica. We observed LD with BP-I on several chromosomes; the most striking results were in proximal 8p, a region that has previously shown linkage to schizophrenia. This region could be important for severe psychiatric disorders, rather than for a specific phenotype. PMID:12119601

  14. Multiple Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping Methods to Validate Additive Quantitative Trait Loci in Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo).

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2015-07-01

    The efficiency of genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) depends on power of detection for quantitative trait loci (QTL) and precision for QTL mapping. In this study, three different strategies for GWAS were applied to detect QTL for carcass quality traits in the Korean cattle, Hanwoo; a linkage disequilibrium single locus regression method (LDRM), a combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium analysis (LDLA) and a BayesCπ approach. The phenotypes of 486 steers were collected for weaning weight (WWT), yearling weight (YWT), carcass weight (CWT), backfat thickness (BFT), longissimus dorsi muscle area, and marbling score (Marb). Also the genotype data for the steers and their sires were scored with the Illumina bovine 50K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips. For the two former GWAS methods, threshold values were set at false discovery rate <0.01 on a chromosome-wide level, while a cut-off threshold value was set in the latter model, such that the top five windows, each of which comprised 10 adjacent SNPs, were chosen with significant variation for the phenotype. Four major additive QTL from these three methods had high concordance found in 64.1 to 64.9Mb for Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 7 for WWT, 24.3 to 25.4Mb for BTA14 for CWT, 0.5 to 1.5Mb for BTA6 for BFT and 26.3 to 33.4Mb for BTA29 for BFT. Several candidate genes (i.e. glutamate receptor, ionotropic, ampa 1 [GRIA1], family with sequence similarity 110, member B [FAM110B], and thymocyte selection-associated high mobility group box [TOX]) may be identified close to these QTL. Our result suggests that the use of different linkage disequilibrium mapping approaches can provide more reliable chromosome regions to further pinpoint DNA makers or causative genes in these regions. PMID:26104396

  15. Multiple Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping Methods to Validate Additive Quantitative Trait Loci in Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) depends on power of detection for quantitative trait loci (QTL) and precision for QTL mapping. In this study, three different strategies for GWAS were applied to detect QTL for carcass quality traits in the Korean cattle, Hanwoo; a linkage disequilibrium single locus regression method (LDRM), a combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium analysis (LDLA) and a BayesCπ approach. The phenotypes of 486 steers were collected for weaning weight (WWT), yearling weight (YWT), carcass weight (CWT), backfat thickness (BFT), longissimus dorsi muscle area, and marbling score (Marb). Also the genotype data for the steers and their sires were scored with the Illumina bovine 50K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips. For the two former GWAS methods, threshold values were set at false discovery rate <0.01 on a chromosome-wide level, while a cut-off threshold value was set in the latter model, such that the top five windows, each of which comprised 10 adjacent SNPs, were chosen with significant variation for the phenotype. Four major additive QTL from these three methods had high concordance found in 64.1 to 64.9Mb for Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 7 for WWT, 24.3 to 25.4Mb for BTA14 for CWT, 0.5 to 1.5Mb for BTA6 for BFT and 26.3 to 33.4Mb for BTA29 for BFT. Several candidate genes (i.e. glutamate receptor, ionotropic, ampa 1 [GRIA1], family with sequence similarity 110, member B [FAM110B], and thymocyte selection-associated high mobility group box [TOX]) may be identified close to these QTL. Our result suggests that the use of different linkage disequilibrium mapping approaches can provide more reliable chromosome regions to further pinpoint DNA makers or causative genes in these regions. PMID:26104396

  16. Power of QTL mapping experiments in commercial Atlantic salmon populations, exploiting linkage and linkage disequilibrium and effect of limited recombination in males.

    PubMed

    Hayes, B J; Gjuvsland, A; Omholt, S

    2006-07-01

    Whereas detection and positioning of genes that affect quantitative traits (quantitative trait loci (QTL)) using linkage mapping uses only information from recombinants in the genotyped generations, linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping uses historical recombinants. Thus, whereas linkage mapping requires large family sizes to detect and accurately position QTL, LD mapping is more dependent on the number of families sampled from the population. In commercial Atlantic salmon breeding programmes, only a small number of individuals per family are routinely phenotyped for traits such as disease resistance and meat colour. In this paper, we assess the power and accuracy of combined linkage disequilibrium linkage analysis (LDLA) to detect QTL in the commercial population using simulation. When 15 half-sib sire families (each sire mated to 30 dams, each dam with 10 progeny) were sampled from the population for genotyping, we were able to detect a QTL explaining 10% of the phenotypic variance in 85% of replicates and position this QTL within 3 cM of the true position in 70% of replicates. When recombination was absent in males, a feature of the salmon genome, power to detect QTL increased; however, the accuracy of positioning the QTL was decreased. By increasing the number of sire families sampled from the population to be genotyped to 30, we were able to increase both the proportion of QTL detected and correctly positioned (even with no recombination in males). QTL with much smaller effect could also be detected. The results suggest that even with the existing recording structure in commercial salmon breeding programmes, there is considerable power to detect and accurately position QTL using LDLA. PMID:16685283

  17. The Development of a High Density Linkage Map for Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon) Based on cSNPs

    PubMed Central

    Baranski, Matthew; Gopikrishna, Gopalapillay; Robinson, Nicholas A.; Katneni, Vinaya Kumar; Shekhar, Mudagandur S.; Shanmugakarthik, Jayakani; Jothivel, Sarangapani; Gopal, Chavali; Ravichandran, Pitchaiyappan; Kent, Matthew; Arnyasi, Mariann; Ponniah, Alphis G.

    2014-01-01

    Transcriptome sequencing using Illumina RNA-seq was performed on populations of black tiger shrimp from India. Samples were collected from (i) four landing centres around the east coastline (EC) of India, (ii) survivors of a severe WSSV infection during pond culture (SUR) and (iii) the Andaman Islands (AI) in the Bay of Bengal. Equal quantities of purified total RNA from homogenates of hepatopancreas, muscle, nervous tissue, intestinal tract, heart, gonad, gills, pleopod and lymphoid organs were combined to create AI, EC and SUR pools for RNA sequencing. De novo transcriptome assembly resulted in 136,223 contigs (minimum size 100 base pairs, bp) with a total length 61 Mb, an average length of 446 bp and an average coverage of 163× across all pools. Approximately 16% of contigs were annotated with BLAST hit information and gene ontology annotations. A total of 473,620 putative SNPs/indels were identified. An Illumina iSelect genotyping array containing 6,000 SNPs was developed and used to genotype 1024 offspring belonging to seven full-sibling families. A total of 3959 SNPs were mapped to 44 linkage groups. The linkage groups consisted of between 16–129 and 13–130 markers, of length between 139–10.8 and 109.1–10.5 cM and with intervals averaging between 1.2 and 0.9 cM for the female and male maps respectively. The female map was 28% longer than the male map (4060 and 2917 cM respectively) with a 1.6 higher recombination rate observed for female compared to male meioses. This approach has substantially increased expressed sequence and DNA marker resources for tiger shrimp and is a useful resource for QTL mapping and association studies for evolutionarily and commercially important traits. PMID:24465553

  18. Identification of quantitative trait locus (QTL) linked to dorsal fin length from preliminary linkage map of molly fish, Poecilia sp.

    PubMed

    Keong, Bun Poh; Siraj, Siti Shapor; Daud, Siti Khalijah; Panandam, Jothi Malar; Rahman, Arina Nadia Abdul

    2014-02-15

    A preliminary linkage map was constructed by applying backcross and testcross strategy using microsatellite (SSR) markers developed for Xiphophorus and Poecilia reticulata in ornamental fish, molly Poecilia sp. The linkage map having 18 SSR loci consisted of four linkage groups that spanned a map size of 516.1cM. Association between genotypes and phenotypes was tested in a random fashion and QTL for dorsal fin length was found to be linked to locus Msb069 on linkage group 2. Coincidentally, locus Msb069 was also reported as putative homologue primer pairs containing SSRs repeat motif which encoded hSMP-1, a sex determining locus. Dorsal fin length particularly in males of Poecilia latipinna is an important feature during courtship display. Therefore, we speculate that both dorsal fin length and putative hSMP-1 gene formed a close proximity to male sexual characteristics. PMID:24333858

  19. Linkage mapping in the oilseed crop Jatropha curcas L. reveals a locus controlling the biosynthesis of phorbol esters which cause seed toxicity

    PubMed Central

    King, Andrew J; Montes, Luis R; Clarke, Jasper G; Affleck, Julie; Li, Yi; Witsenboer, Hanneke; van der Vossen, Edwin; van der Linde, Piet; Tripathi, Yogendra; Tavares, Evanilda; Shukla, Parul; Rajasekaran, Thirunavukkarasu; van Loo, Eibertus N; Graham, Ian A

    2013-01-01

    Current efforts to grow the tropical oilseed crop Jatropha curcas L. economically are hampered by the lack of cultivars and the presence of toxic phorbol esters (PE) within the seeds of most provenances. These PE restrict the conversion of seed cake into animal feed, although naturally occurring ‘nontoxic’ provenances exist which produce seed lacking PE. As an important step towards the development of genetically improved varieties of J. curcas, we constructed a linkage map from four F2 mapping populations. The consensus linkage map contains 502 codominant markers, distributed over 11 linkage groups, with a mean marker density of 1.8 cM per unique locus. Analysis of the inheritance of PE biosynthesis indicated that this is a maternally controlled dominant monogenic trait. This maternal control is due to biosynthesis of the PE occurring only within maternal tissues. The trait segregated 3 : 1 within seeds collected from F2 plants, and QTL analysis revealed that a locus on linkage group 8 was responsible for phorbol ester biosynthesis. By taking advantage of the draft genome assemblies of J. curcas and Ricinus communis (castor), a comparative mapping approach was used to develop additional markers to fine map this mutation within 2.3 cM. The linkage map provides a framework for the dissection of agronomic traits in J. curcas, and the development of improved varieties by marker-assisted breeding. The identification of the locus responsible for PE biosynthesis means that it is now possible to rapidly breed new nontoxic varieties. PMID:23898859

  20. Construction of High-Density Linkage Maps of Populus deltoides × P. simonii Using Restriction-Site Associated DNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Chunfa; Li, Huogen; Wang, Ying; Li, Xuran; Ou, Jiajia; Wang, Deyuan; Xu, Houxi; Ma, Chao; Lang, Xianye; Liu, Guangxin; Zhang, Bo; Shi, Jisen

    2016-01-01

    Although numerous linkage maps have been constructed in the genus Populus, they are typically sparse and thus have limited applications due to low throughput of traditional molecular markers. Restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RADSeq) technology allows us to identify a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) across genomes of many individuals in a fast and cost-effective way, and makes it possible to construct high-density genetic linkage maps. We performed RADSeq for 299 progeny and their two parents in an F1 hybrid population generated by crossing the female Populus deltoides ‘I-69’ and male Populus simonii ‘L3’. A total of 2,545 high quality SNP markers were obtained and two parent-specific linkage maps were constructed. The female genetic map contained 1601 SNPs and 20 linkage groups, spanning 4,249.12 cM of the genome with an average distance of 2.69 cM between adjacent markers, while the male map consisted of 940 SNPs and also 20 linkage groups with a total length of 3,816.24 cM and an average marker interval distance of 4.15 cM. Finally, our analysis revealed that synteny and collinearity are highly conserved between the parental linkage maps and the reference genome of P. trichocarpa. We demonstrated that RAD sequencing is a powerful technique capable of rapidly generating a large number of SNPs for constructing genetic maps in outbred forest trees. The high-quality linkage maps constructed here provided reliable genetic resources to facilitate locating quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control growth and wood quality traits in the hybrid population. PMID:26964097

  1. Genetic linkage mapping and transmission ratio distortion in a three-generation four-founder population of Panicum virgatum (L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Guifen; Serba, Desalegn D; Saha, Malay C; Bouton, Joseph H; Lanzatella, Christina L; Tobias, Christian M

    2014-05-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a warm season, C4, perennial grass, is one of the predominant grass species of the North American tall grass prairies. It is viewed as a high-potential bioenergy feedstock species because it can produce large amounts of lignocellulosic material with relatively few inputs. The objectives of this project were to develop an advanced switchgrass population and use it for the construction of genetic linkage maps and trait characterization. A three-generation, four-founder population was created and a total of 182 progeny of this advanced population were genotyped, including a mixture of self-pollinated and hybrid individuals. The female map integrated both subpopulations and covered 1629 cM of the switchgrass genome, with an average map length of 91 cM per linkage group. The male map of the hybrid progeny covered 1462 cM, with an average map length of 81 cM per linkage group. Average marker density of the female and male maps was 3.9 and 3.5 cM per marker interval, respectively. Based on the parental maps, the genome length of switchgrass was estimated to be 1776 cM and 1596 cM for the female map and male map, respectively. The proportion of the genome within 5 cM of a mapped locus was estimated to be 92% and 93% for the female map and male map, respectively. Thus, the linkage maps have covered most of the switchgrass genome. The assessment of marker transmission ratio distortion found that 26% of the genotyped markers were distorted from either 1:1 or 3:1 ratios expected for segregation of single dose markers in one or both parents, respectively. Several regions affected by transmission ratio distortion were found, with linkage groups Ib-m and VIIIa-f most affected. PMID:24637352

  2. Genetic Linkage Mapping and Transmission Ratio Distortion in a Three-Generation Four-Founder Population of Panicum virgatum (L.)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guifen; Serba, Desalegn D.; Saha, Malay C.; Bouton, Joseph H.; Lanzatella, Christina L.; Tobias, Christian M.

    2014-01-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a warm season, C4, perennial grass, is one of the predominant grass species of the North American tall grass prairies. It is viewed as a high-potential bioenergy feedstock species because it can produce large amounts of lignocellulosic material with relatively few inputs. The objectives of this project were to develop an advanced switchgrass population and use it for the construction of genetic linkage maps and trait characterization. A three-generation, four-founder population was created and a total of 182 progeny of this advanced population were genotyped, including a mixture of self-pollinated and hybrid individuals. The female map integrated both subpopulations and covered 1629 cM of the switchgrass genome, with an average map length of 91 cM per linkage group. The male map of the hybrid progeny covered 1462 cM, with an average map length of 81 cM per linkage group. Average marker density of the female and male maps was 3.9 and 3.5 cM per marker interval, respectively. Based on the parental maps, the genome length of switchgrass was estimated to be 1776 cM and 1596 cM for the female map and male map, respectively. The proportion of the genome within 5 cM of a mapped locus was estimated to be 92% and 93% for the female map and male map, respectively. Thus, the linkage maps have covered most of the switchgrass genome. The assessment of marker transmission ratio distortion found that 26% of the genotyped markers were distorted from either 1:1 or 3:1 ratios expected for segregation of single dose markers in one or both parents, respectively. Several regions affected by transmission ratio distortion were found, with linkage groups Ib-m and VIIIa-f most affected. PMID:24637352

  3. Construction of a genetic linkage map and QTL analysis in bambara groundnut.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nariman Salih; Redjeki, Endah Sri; Ho, Wai Kuan; Aliyu, Siise; Mayes, Katie; Massawe, Festo; Kilian, Andrzej; Mayes, Sean

    2016-07-01

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) is an indigenous underutilized legume that has the potential to improve food security in semi-arid Africa. So far, there are a lack of reports of controlled breeding populations that could be used for variety development and genetic studies. We report here the construction of the first genetic linkage map of bambara groundnut using a F3 population derived from a "narrow" cross between two domesticated landraces (Tiga Nicuru and DipC) with marked divergence in phenotypic traits. The map consists of 238 DArT array and SSR based markers in 21 linkage groups with a total genetic distance of 608.3 cM. In addition, phenotypic traits were evaluated for a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis over two generations. A total of 36 significant QTLs were detected for 19 traits. The phenotypic effect explained by a single QTL ranged from 11.6% to 49.9%. Two stable QTLs were mapped for internode length and growth habit. The identified QTLs could be useful for marker-assisted selection in bambara groundnut breeding programmes. PMID:27253730

  4. Genetic mapping of the gene for Usher syndrome: Linkage analysis in a large Samaritan kindred

    SciTech Connect

    Bonne-Tamir, B.; Korostishevsky, M.; Kalinsky, H.; Seroussi, E.; Beker, R.; Weiss, S. ); Godel, V. )

    1994-03-01

    Usher syndrome is a group of autosomal recessive disorders associated with congenital sensorineural deafness and progressive visual loss due to retinitis pigmentosa. Sixteen members of the small inbred Samaritan isolate with autosomal recessive deafness from 59 individuals including parents and affected and nonaffected sibs were typed for markers on chromosomes 1q and 11q for which linkage has recently been established for Usher syndrome types II and I. Statistically significant linkage was observed with four markers on 11q (D11S533, D11S527, OMP, and INT2) with a maximum six-point location score of 11.61 at the D11S533 locus. Analysis of haplotypes supports the notion that the mutation arose only once in an ancestral chromosome carrying a specific haplotype. The availability of markers closely linked to the disease locus allows indirect genotype analysis and identifies all carriers of the gene within the community. Furthermore, the detection of complete linkage disequilibrium between the D11S533 marker and the Usher gene suggests that these loci are either identical or adjacent and narrows the critical region to which physical mapping efforts are currently directed. 35 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Mapping by admixture linkage disequilibrium in human populations: limits and guidelines.

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, J. C.; Briscoe, D.; O'Brien, S. J.

    1994-01-01

    Certain human hereditary conditions, notably those with low penetrance and those which require an environmental event such as infectious disease exposure, are difficult to localize in pedigree analysis, because of uncertainty in the phenotype of an affected patient's relatives. An approach to locating these genes in human cohort studies would be to use association analysis, which depends on linkage disequilibrium of flanking polymorphic DNA markers. In theory, a high degree of linkage disequilibrium between genes separated by 10-20 cM will be generated and persist in populations that have a history of recent (3-20 generations ago) admixture between genetically differentiated racial groups, such as has occurred in African Americans and Hispanic populations. We have conducted analytic and computer simulations to quantify the effect of genetic, genomic, and population parameters that affect the amount and ascertainment of linkage disequilibrium in populations with a history of genetic admixture. Our goal is to thoroughly explore the ranges of all relevant parameters or factors (e.g., sample size and degree of genetic differentiation between populations) that may be involved in gene localization studies, in hopes of prescribing guidelines for an efficient mapping strategy. The results provide reasonable limits on sample size (200-300 patients), marker number (200-300 in 20-cM intervals), and allele differentiation (loci with allele frequency difference of > or = .3 between admixed parent populations) to produce an efficient approach (> 95% ascertainment) for locating genes not easily tracked in human pedigrees. PMID:7942858

  6. Genetic linkage map of Chinese native variety faba bean (Vicia faba L.) based on simple sequence repeat markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker is a powerful tool for construction of genetic linkage map which can be applied for locating quantitative trait loci (QTL) and marker-assisted selection (MAS). In this study, a genetic map of faba bean was constructed with SSR markers using a population of 129 F2 ...

  7. A first AFLP-Based Genetic Linkage Map for Brine Shrimp Artemia franciscana and Its Application in Mapping the Sex Locus

    PubMed Central

    De Vos, Stephanie; Bossier, Peter; Van Stappen, Gilbert; Vercauteren, Ilse; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Vuylsteke, Marnik

    2013-01-01

    We report on the construction of sex-specific linkage maps, the identification of sex-linked markers and the genome size estimation for the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. Overall, from the analysis of 433 AFLP markers segregating in a 112 full-sib family we identified 21 male and 22 female linkage groups (2n = 42), covering 1,041 and 1,313 cM respectively. Fifteen putatively homologous linkage groups, including the sex linkage groups, were identified between the female and male linkage map. Eight sex-linked AFLP marker alleles were inherited from the female parent, supporting the hypothesis of a WZ–ZZ sex-determining system. The haploid Artemia genome size was estimated to 0.93 Gb by flow cytometry. The produced Artemia linkage maps provide the basis for further fine mapping and exploring of the sex-determining region and are a possible marker resource for mapping genomic loci underlying phenotypic differences among Artemia species. PMID:23469207

  8. Mapping Aboveground Biomass in the Amazon Basin: Exploring Sensors, Scales, and Strategies for Optimal Data Linkage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, W. S.; Baccini, A.

    2013-05-01

    Information on the distribution and density of carbon in tropical forests is critical to decision-making on a host of globally significant issues ranging from climate stabilization and biodiversity conservation to poverty reduction and human health. Encouraged by recent progress at both the international and jurisdictional levels on the design of incentive-based policy mechanisms to compensate tropical nations for maintaining their forests intact, governments throughout the tropics are moving with urgency to implement robust national and sub-national forest monitoring systems for operationally tracking and reporting on changes in forest cover and associated carbon stocks. Monitoring systems will be required to produce results that are accurate, consistent, complete, transparent, and comparable at sub-national to pantropical scales, and satellite-based remote sensing supported by field observations is widely-accepted as the most objective and cost-effective solution. The effectiveness of any system for large-area forest monitoring will necessarily depend on the capacity of current and near-future Earth observation satellites to provide information that meets the requirements of developing monitoring protocols. However, important questions remain regarding the role that spatially explicit maps of aboveground biomass and carbon can play in IPCC-compliant forest monitoring systems, with the majority of these questions stemming from doubts about the inherit sensitivity of satellite data to aboveground forest biomass, confusion about the relationship between accuracy and resolution, and a general lack of guidance on optimal strategies for linking field reference and remote sensing data sources. Here we demonstrate the ability of a state-of-the-art satellite radar sensor, the Japanese ALOS/PALSAR, and a venerable optical platform, Landsat 5, to support large-area mapping of aboveground tropical woody biomass across a 153,000-km2 region in the southwestern Amazon

  9. Rapid genotyping with DNA micro-arrays for high-density linkage mapping and QTL mapping in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench)

    PubMed Central

    Yabe, Shiori; Hara, Takashi; Ueno, Mariko; Enoki, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Tatsuro; Nishimura, Satoru; Yasui, Yasuo; Ohsawa, Ryo; Iwata, Hiroyoshi

    2014-01-01

    For genetic studies and genomics-assisted breeding, particularly of minor crops, a genotyping system that does not require a priori genomic information is preferable. Here, we demonstrated the potential of a novel array-based genotyping system for the rapid construction of high-density linkage map and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping. By using the system, we successfully constructed an accurate, high-density linkage map for common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench); the map was composed of 756 loci and included 8,884 markers. The number of linkage groups converged to eight, which is the basic number of chromosomes in common buckwheat. The sizes of the linkage groups of the P1 and P2 maps were 773.8 and 800.4 cM, respectively. The average interval between adjacent loci was 2.13 cM. The linkage map constructed here will be useful for the analysis of other common buckwheat populations. We also performed QTL mapping for main stem length and detected four QTL. It took 37 days to process 178 samples from DNA extraction to genotyping, indicating the system enables genotyping of genome-wide markers for a few hundred buckwheat plants before the plants mature. The novel system will be useful for genomics-assisted breeding in minor crops without a priori genomic information. PMID:25914583

  10. Rapid genotyping with DNA micro-arrays for high-density linkage mapping and QTL mapping in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench).

    PubMed

    Yabe, Shiori; Hara, Takashi; Ueno, Mariko; Enoki, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Tatsuro; Nishimura, Satoru; Yasui, Yasuo; Ohsawa, Ryo; Iwata, Hiroyoshi

    2014-12-01

    For genetic studies and genomics-assisted breeding, particularly of minor crops, a genotyping system that does not require a priori genomic information is preferable. Here, we demonstrated the potential of a novel array-based genotyping system for the rapid construction of high-density linkage map and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping. By using the system, we successfully constructed an accurate, high-density linkage map for common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench); the map was composed of 756 loci and included 8,884 markers. The number of linkage groups converged to eight, which is the basic number of chromosomes in common buckwheat. The sizes of the linkage groups of the P1 and P2 maps were 773.8 and 800.4 cM, respectively. The average interval between adjacent loci was 2.13 cM. The linkage map constructed here will be useful for the analysis of other common buckwheat populations. We also performed QTL mapping for main stem length and detected four QTL. It took 37 days to process 178 samples from DNA extraction to genotyping, indicating the system enables genotyping of genome-wide markers for a few hundred buckwheat plants before the plants mature. The novel system will be useful for genomics-assisted breeding in minor crops without a priori genomic information. PMID:25914583

  11. An improved consensus linkage map of barley based on flow-sorted chromosomes and SNP markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent advances in high-throughput genotyping have made it easier to combine information from different mapping populations into consensus genetic maps, which provide increased marker density and genome coverage compared to individual maps. Previously, a SNP-based genotyping platform was developed a...

  12. Linkage Map of Escherichia coli K-12, Edition 10: The Traditional Map

    PubMed Central

    Berlyn, Mary K. B.

    1998-01-01

    This map is an update of the edition 9 map by Berlyn et al. (M. K. B. Berlyn, K. B. Low, and K. E. Rudd, p. 1715–1902, in F. C. Neidhardt et al., ed., Escherichia coli and Salmonella: cellular and molecular biology, 2nd ed., vol. 2, 1996). It uses coordinates established by the completed sequence, expressed as 100 minutes for the entire circular map, and adds new genes discovered and established since 1996 and eliminates those shown to correspond to other known genes. The latter are included as synonyms. An alphabetical list of genes showing map location, synonyms, the protein or RNA product of the gene, phenotypes of mutants, and reference citations is provided. In addition to genes known to correspond to gene sequences, other genes, often older, that are described by phenotype and older mapping techniques and that have not been correlated with sequences are included. PMID:9729611

  13. Construction of high-density genetic linkage map and identification of flowering-time QTLs in orchardgrass using SSRs and SLAF-seq.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xinxin; Huang, Linkai; Zhang, Xinquan; Wang, Jianping; Yan, Defei; Li, Ji; Tang, Lu; Li, Xiaolong; Shi, Tongwei

    2016-01-01

    Orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) is one of the most economically important perennial, cool-season forage species grown and pastured worldwide. High-density genetic linkage mapping is a valuable and effective method for exploring complex quantitative traits. In this study, we developed 447,177 markers based on SLAF-seq and used them to perform a comparative genomics analysis. Perennial ryegrass sequences were the most similar (5.02%) to orchardgrass sequences. A high-density linkage map of orchardgrass was constructed using 2,467 SLAF markers and 43 SSRs, which were distributed on seven linkage groups spanning 715.77 cM. The average distance between adjacent markers was 0.37 cM. Based on phenotyping in four environments, 11 potentially significant quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for two target traits-heading date (HD) and flowering time (FT)-were identified and positioned on linkage groups LG1, LG3, and LG5. Significant QTLs explained 8.20-27.00% of the total phenotypic variation, with the LOD ranging from 3.85-12.21. Marker167780 and Marker139469 were associated with FT and HD at the same location (Ya'an) over two different years. The utility of SLAF markers for rapid generation of genetic maps and QTL analysis has been demonstrated for heading date and flowering time in a global forage grass. PMID:27389619

  14. Construction of high-density genetic linkage map and identification of flowering-time QTLs in orchardgrass using SSRs and SLAF-seq

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xinxin; Huang, Linkai; Zhang, Xinquan; Wang, Jianping; Yan, Defei; Li, Ji; Tang, Lu; Li, Xiaolong; Shi, Tongwei

    2016-01-01

    Orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) is one of the most economically important perennial, cool-season forage species grown and pastured worldwide. High-density genetic linkage mapping is a valuable and effective method for exploring complex quantitative traits. In this study, we developed 447,177 markers based on SLAF-seq and used them to perform a comparative genomics analysis. Perennial ryegrass sequences were the most similar (5.02%) to orchardgrass sequences. A high-density linkage map of orchardgrass was constructed using 2,467 SLAF markers and 43 SSRs, which were distributed on seven linkage groups spanning 715.77 cM. The average distance between adjacent markers was 0.37 cM. Based on phenotyping in four environments, 11 potentially significant quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for two target traits–heading date (HD) and flowering time (FT)–were identified and positioned on linkage groups LG1, LG3, and LG5. Significant QTLs explained 8.20–27.00% of the total phenotypic variation, with the LOD ranging from 3.85–12.21. Marker167780 and Marker139469 were associated with FT and HD at the same location (Ya’an) over two different years. The utility of SLAF markers for rapid generation of genetic maps and QTL analysis has been demonstrated for heading date and flowering time in a global forage grass. PMID:27389619

  15. Constructing a linkage–linkage disequilibrium map using dominant-segregating markers

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xuli; Dong, Leiming; Jiang, Libo; Li, Huan; Sun, Lidan; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Weiwu; Liu, Haokai; Dai, Wensheng; Zeng, Yanru; Wu, Rongling

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between linkage disequilibrium (LD) and recombination fraction can be used to infer the pattern of genetic variation and evolutionary process in humans and other systems. We described a computational framework to construct a linkage–LD map from commonly used biallelic, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for outcrossing plants by which the decline of LD is visualized with genetic distance. The framework was derived from an open-pollinated (OP) design composed of plants randomly sampled from a natural population and seeds from each sampled plant, enabling simultaneous estimation of the LD in the natural population and recombination fraction due to allelic co-segregation during meiosis. We modified the framework to infer evolutionary pasts of natural populations using those marker types that are segregating in a dominant manner, given their role in creating and maintaining population genetic diversity. A sophisticated two-level EM algorithm was implemented to estimate and retrieve the missing information of segregation characterized by dominant-segregating markers such as single methylation polymorphisms. The model was applied to study the relationship between linkage and LD for a non-model outcrossing species, a gymnosperm species, Torreya grandis, naturally distributed in mountains of the southeastern China. The linkage–LD map constructed from various types of molecular markers opens a powerful gateway for studying the history of plant evolution. PMID:26622063

  16. Refined linkage map of chromosome 5 in the region of the spinal muscular atrophy gene

    SciTech Connect

    Melki, J.; Burlet, P.; Clermont, O.; Pascal, F.; Paul, B.; Abdelhak, S.; Munnich, A. ); Sherrington, R.; Gurling, H. Middlesex School of Medicine, London ); Nakamura, Yusuke ); Weissenbach, J. Genethon, Evry ); Lathrop, M. )

    1993-03-01

    The genetic map in the region of human chromosome 5 that harbors the gene for autosomal recessive forms of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) has been refined by a multilocus linkage study in 50 SMA-segregating families. Among six markers spanning 8 cM for combined sexes, four were shown to be tightly linked to the SMA locus. Multipoing linkage analysis was used to establish the best estimate of the SMA gene location. The data suggest that the most likely location for the SMA locus is between blocks AFM114ye7 (D5S465)/EF5.15 (D5S125) and MAP-1B/JK53 (D5S112) at a sex-combined genetic distance of 2.4 and 1.7 cM, respectively. Thus the SMA gene lies in the 4-cM region between these two blocks. This information is of primary importance for designing strategies for isolating the SMA gene. 16 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Genetic linkage maps for Asian and American lotus constructed using novel SSR markers derived from the genome of sequenced cultivar

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The genus Nelumbo Adans. comprises two living species, N. nucifera Gaertan. (Asian lotus) and N. lutea Pers. (American lotus). A genetic linkage map is an essential resource for plant genetic studies and crop improvement but has not been generated for Nelumbo. We aimed to develop genomic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from the genome sequence and construct two genetic maps for Nelumbo to assist genome assembly and integration of a genetic map with the genome sequence. Results A total of 86,089 SSR motifs were identified from the genome sequences. Di- and tri-nucleotide repeat motifs were the most abundant, and accounted for 60.73% and 31.66% of all SSRs, respectively. AG/GA repeats constituted 51.17% of dinucleotide repeat motifs, followed by AT/TA (44.29%). Of 500 SSR primers tested, 386 (77.20%) produced scorable alleles with an average of 2.59 per primer, and 185 (37.00%) showed polymorphism among two parental genotypes, N. nucifera ‘Chinese Antique’ and N. lutea ‘AL1’, and six progenies of their F1 population. The normally segregating markers, which comprised 268 newly developed SSRs, 37 previously published SSRs and 53 sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers, were used for genetic map construction. The map for Asian lotus was 365.67 cM with 47 markers distributed in seven linkage groups. The map for American lotus was 524.51 cM, and contained 177 markers distributed in 11 genetic linkage groups. The number of markers per linkage group ranged from three to 34 with an average genetic distance of 3.97 cM between adjacent markers. Moreover, 171 SSR markers contained in linkage groups were anchored to 97 genomic DNA sequence contigs of ‘Chinese Antique’. The 97 contigs were merged into 60 scaffolds. Conclusion Genetic mapping of SSR markers derived from sequenced contigs in Nelumbo enabled the associated contigs to be anchored in the linkage map and facilitated assembly of the genome sequences of ‘Chinese Antique’. The

  18. Toward a marker-dense meiotic map of the potato genome: lessons from linkage group I.

    PubMed Central

    Isidore, Edwige; van Os, Hans; Andrzejewski, Sandra; Bakker, Jaap; Barrena, Imanol; Bryan, Glenn J; Caromel, Bernard; van Eck, Herman; Ghareeb, Bilal; de Jong, Walter; van Koert, Paul; Lefebvre, Véronique; Milbourne, Dan; Ritter, Enrique; van der Voort, Jeroen Rouppe; Rousselle-Bourgeois, Françoise; van Vliet, Joke; Waugh, Robbie

    2003-01-01

    Segregation data were obtained for 1260 potato linkage group I-specific AFLP loci from a heterozygous diploid potato population. Analytical tools that identified potential typing errors and/or inconsistencies in the data and that assembled cosegregating markers into bins were applied. Bins contain multiple-marker data sets with an identical segregation pattern, which is defined as the bin signature. The bin signatures were used to construct a skeleton bin map that was based solely on observed recombination events. Markers that did not match any of the bin signatures exactly (and that were excluded from the calculation of the skeleton bin map) were placed on the map by maximum likelihood. The resulting maternal and paternal maps consisted of 95 and 101 bins, respectively. Markers derived from EcoRI/MseI, PstI/MseI, and SacI/MseI primer combinations showed different genetic distributions. Approximately three-fourths of the markers placed into a bin were considered to fit well on the basis of an estimated residual "error rate" of 0-3%. However, twice as many PstI-based markers fit badly, suggesting that parental PstI-site methylation patterns had changed in the population. Recombination frequencies were highly variable across the map. Inert, presumably centromeric, regions caused extensive marker clustering while recombination hotspots (or regions identical by descent) resulted in empty bins, despite the level of marker saturation. PMID:14704190

  19. An autotetraploid linkage map of rose (Rosa hybrida) validated using the strawberry (Fragaria vesca) genome sequence.

    PubMed

    Gar, Oron; Sargent, Daniel J; Tsai, Ching-Jung; Pleban, Tzili; Shalev, Gil; Byrne, David H; Zamir, Dani

    2011-01-01

    Polyploidy is a pivotal process in plant evolution as it increase gene redundancy and morphological intricacy but due to the complexity of polysomic inheritance we have only few genetic maps of autopolyploid organisms. A robust mapping framework is particularly important in polyploid crop species, rose included (2n = 4x = 28), where the objective is to study multiallelic interactions that control traits of value for plant breeding. From a cross between the garden, peach red and fragrant cultivar Fragrant Cloud (FC) and a cut-rose yellow cultivar Golden Gate (GG), we generated an autotetraploid GGFC mapping population consisting of 132 individuals. For the map we used 128 sequence-based markers, 141 AFLP, 86 SSR and three morphological markers. Seven linkage groups were resolved for FC (Total 632 cM) and GG (616 cM) which were validated by markers that segregated in both parents as well as the diploid integrated consensus map.The release of the Fragaria vesca genome, which also belongs to the Rosoideae, allowed us to place 70 rose sequenced markers on the seven strawberry pseudo-chromosomes. Synteny between Rosa and Fragaria was high with an estimated four major translocations and six inversions required to place the 17 non-collinear markers in the same order. Based on a verified linear order of the rose markers, we could further partition each of the parents into its four homologous groups, thus providing an essential framework to aid the sequencing of an autotetraploid genome. PMID:21647382

  20. Half-tetrad analysis in zebrafish: Mapping the ros mutation and the centromere of linkage Group 1

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, S.L.; Africa, D.; Horne, S.

    1995-04-01

    Analysis of meiotic tetrads is routinely used to determine genetic linkage in various fungi. Here we apply tetrad analysis to the study of genetic linkage in a vertebrate. The half-treated genotypes of gynogenesis diploid zebrafish produced by early-pressure (EP) treatment were used to investigate the linkage relationships of two recessive pigment pattern mutations, leopard (leo) and rose (ros). The results showed that ros is tightly linked to its centromere and leo maps 31 cM from its centromere. Analysis of half-tetrads segregating for ros and leo in repulsion revealed no homozygous ros individuals among 32 homozygous leo half-tetrads - i.e., a parental ditype (PD) to nonparental ditype (NPD) ratio of 32:0. This result shows that ros is linked to leo, a mutation previously mapped to Linkage Group I. Investigation of PCR-base DNA polymorphisms on Linkage Group I confirmed the location of ros near the centromere of this linkage group. We propose an efficient, generally useful method to assign new mutations to a linkage group in zebrafish by determining which of 25 polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based centromere markers show a significant excess of PD to NPD in half-tetrad fish. 27 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Identification and Replication of Three Novel Myopia Common Susceptibility Gene Loci on Chromosome 3q26 using Linkage and Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Carbonaro, Francis; Liew, S. H. Melissa; Lau, Winston; Spector, Tim D.; Hammond, Christopher J.

    2008-01-01

    Refractive error is a highly heritable quantitative trait responsible for considerable morbidity. Following an initial genome-wide linkage study using microsatellite markers, we confirmed evidence for linkage to chromosome 3q26 and then conducted fine-scale association mapping using high-resolution linkage disequilibrium unit (LDU) maps. We used a preliminary discovery marker set across the 30-Mb region with an average SNP density of 1 SNP/15 kb (Map 1). Map 1 was divided into 51 LDU windows and additional SNPs were genotyped for six regions (Map 2) that showed preliminary evidence of multi-marker association using composite likelihood. A total of 575 cases and controls selected from the tails of the trait distribution were genotyped for the discovery sample. Malecot model estimates indicate three loci with putative common functional variants centred on MFN1 (180,566 kb; 95% confidence interval 180,505–180, 655 kb), approximately 156 kb upstream from alternate-splicing SOX2OT (182,595 kb; 95% CI 182,533–182,688 kb) and PSARL (184,386 kb; 95% CI 184,356–184,411 kb), with the loci showing modest to strong evidence of association for the Map 2 discovery samples (p<10−7, p<10−10, and p = 0.01, respectively). Using an unselected independent sample of 1,430 individuals, results replicated for the MFN1 (p = 0.006), SOX2OT (p = 0.0002), and PSARL (p = 0.0005) gene regions. MFN1 and PSARL both interact with OPA1 to regulate mitochondrial fusion and the inhibition of mitochondrial-led apoptosis, respectively. That two mitochondrial regulatory processes in the retina are implicated in the aetiology of myopia is surprising and is likely to provide novel insight into the molecular genetic basis of common myopia. PMID:18846214

  2. High-density sex-specific linkage maps of a European tree frog (Hyla arborea) identify the sex chromosome without information on offspring sex.

    PubMed

    Brelsford, A; Dufresnes, C; Perrin, N

    2016-02-01

    Identifying homology between sex chromosomes of different species is essential to understanding the evolution of sex determination. Here, we show that the identity of a homomorphic sex chromosome pair can be established using a linkage map, without information on offspring sex. By comparing sex-specific maps of the European tree frog Hyla arborea, we find that the sex chromosome (linkage group 1) shows a threefold difference in marker number between the male and female maps. In contrast, the number of markers on each autosome is similar between the two maps. We also find strongly conserved synteny between H. arborea and Xenopus tropicalis across 200 million years of evolution, suggesting that the rate of chromosomal rearrangement in anurans is low. Finally, we show that recombination in males is greatly reduced at the centers of large chromosomes, consistent with previous cytogenetic findings. Our research shows the importance of high-density linkage maps for studies of recombination, chromosomal rearrangement and the genetic architecture of ecologically or economically important traits. PMID:26374238

  3. High-resolution genome-wide linkage mapping identifies susceptibility loci for BMI in the Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Li, Shuxia; Thomassen, Mads; Wang, Shaojie; Jiang, Wengjie; Hjelmborg, Jacob v B; Kruse, Torben A; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Christensen, Kaare; Tan, Qihua

    2012-04-01

    The genetic loci affecting the commonly used BMI have been intensively investigated using linkage approaches in multiple populations. This study aims at performing the first genome-wide linkage scan on BMI in the Chinese population in mainland China with hypothesis that heterogeneity in genetic linkage could exist in different ethnic populations. BMI was measured from 126 dizygotic twins in Qingdao municipality who were genotyped using high-resolution Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP arrays containing about 1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Nonparametric linkage analysis was performed with Merlin software package for linkage analysis using variance components approach for quantitative trait loci mapping. We identified a strong linkage peak at the end of chromosome 7 (7q36 at 186 cM) with a lod score of 4.06 which overlaps with that reported by a large multicenter study in western countries. Multiple loci showing suggestive linkage were found on chromosome 1 (lod score 2.38 at 242 cM), chromosome 8 (2.48 at 95 cM), and chromosome 14 (2.2 at 89.4 cM). The strong linkage identified in the Chinese subjects that is consistent with that found in populations of European origin could suggest the existence of evolutionarily preserved genetic mechanisms for BMI whereas the multiple suggestive loci could represent genetic effect from gene-environment interaction as a result of population-specific environmental adaptation. PMID:21273998

  4. Development of a SNP resource and a genetic linkage map for Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is a species with increasing economic significance for the aquaculture industry. The genetic improvement of cod will play a critical role in achieving successful large-scale aquaculture. While many microsatellite markers have been developed in cod, the number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is currently limited. Here we report the identification of SNPs from sequence data generated by a large-scale expressed sequence tag (EST) program, focusing on fish originating from Canadian waters. Results A total of 97976 ESTs were assembled to generate 13448 contigs. We detected 4753 SNPs that met our selection criteria (depth of coverage ≥ 4 reads; minor allele frequency > 25%). 3072 SNPs were selected for testing. The percentage of successful assays was 75%, with 2291 SNPs amplifying correctly. Of these, 607 (26%) SNPs were monomorphic for all populations tested. In total, 64 (4%) of SNPs are likely to represent duplicated genes or highly similar members of gene families, rather than alternative alleles of the same gene, since they showed a high frequency of heterozygosity. The remaining polymorphic SNPs (1620) were categorised as validated SNPs. The mean minor allele frequency of the validated loci was 0.258 (± 0.141). Of the 1514 contigs from which validated SNPs were selected, 31% have a significant blast hit. For the SNPs predicted to occur in coding regions (141), we determined that 36% (51) are non-synonymous. Many loci (1033 SNPs; 64%) are polymorphic in all populations tested. However a small number of SNPs (184) that are polymorphic in the Western Atlantic were monomorphic in fish tested from three European populations. A preliminary linkage map has been constructed with 23 major linkage groups and 924 mapped SNPs. Conclusions These SNPs represent powerful tools to accelerate the genetic improvement of cod aquaculture. They have been used to build a genetic linkage map that can be applied to quantitative trait

  5. Precision of distances and ordering of microsatellite markers in consensus linkage maps of chromosomes 1, 3 and 4 from two reciprocal chicken populations using bootstrap sampling.

    PubMed

    Rosário, M F; Margarido, G R A; Boschiero, C; Moura, A S A M T; Ledur, M C; Coutinho, L L; Garcia, A A F

    2010-01-01

    Some factors complicate comparisons between linkage maps from different studies. This problem can be resolved if measures of precision, such as confidence intervals and frequency distributions, are associated with markers. We examined the precision of distances and ordering of microsatellite markers in the consensus linkage maps of chromosomes 1, 3 and 4 from two F(2) reciprocal Brazilian chicken populations, using bootstrap sampling. Single and consensus maps were constructed. The consensus map was compared with the International Consensus Linkage Map and with the whole genome sequence. Some loci showed segregation distortion and missing data, but this did not affect the analyses negatively. Several inversions and position shifts were detected, based on 95% confidence intervals and frequency distributions of loci. Some discrepancies in distances between loci and in ordering were due to chance, whereas others could be attributed to other effects, including reciprocal crosses, sampling error of the founder animals from the two populations, F(2) population structure, number of and distance between microsatellite markers, number of informative meioses, loci segregation patterns, and sex. In the Brazilian consensus GGA1, locus LEI1038 was in a position closer to the true genome sequence than in the International Consensus Map, whereas for GGA3 and GGA4, no such differences were found. Extending these analyses to the remaining chromosomes should facilitate comparisons and the integration of several available genetic maps, allowing meta-analyses for map construction and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping. The precision of the estimates of QTL positions and their effects would be increased with such information. PMID:20645260

  6. Construction and Annotation of a High Density SNP Linkage Map of the Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Genome

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Hsin Y.; Robledo, Diego; Lowe, Natalie R.; Bekaert, Michael; Taggart, John B.; Bron, James E.; Houston, Ross D.

    2016-01-01

    High density linkage maps are useful tools for fine-scale mapping of quantitative trait loci, and characterization of the recombination landscape of a species’ genome. Genomic resources for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) include a well-assembled reference genome, and high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. Our aim was to create a high density linkage map, and to align it with the reference genome assembly. Over 96,000 SNPs were mapped and ordered on the 29 salmon linkage groups using a pedigreed population comprising 622 fish from 60 nuclear families, all genotyped with the ‘ssalar01’ high density SNP array. The number of SNPs per group showed a high positive correlation with physical chromosome length (r = 0.95). While the order of markers on the genetic and physical maps was generally consistent, areas of discrepancy were identified. Approximately 6.5% of the previously unmapped reference genome sequence was assigned to chromosomes using the linkage map. Male recombination rate was lower than females across the vast majority of the genome, but with a notable peak in subtelomeric regions. Finally, using RNA-Seq data to annotate the reference genome, the mapped SNPs were categorized according to their predicted function, including annotation of ∼2500 putative nonsynonymous variants. The highest density SNP linkage map for any salmonid species has been created, annotated, and integrated with the Atlantic salmon reference genome assembly. This map highlights the marked heterochiasmy of salmon, and provides a useful resource for salmonid genetics and genomics research. PMID:27194803

  7. Construction and Annotation of a High Density SNP Linkage Map of the Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Genome.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hsin Y; Robledo, Diego; Lowe, Natalie R; Bekaert, Michael; Taggart, John B; Bron, James E; Houston, Ross D

    2016-01-01

    High density linkage maps are useful tools for fine-scale mapping of quantitative trait loci, and characterization of the recombination landscape of a species' genome. Genomic resources for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) include a well-assembled reference genome, and high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. Our aim was to create a high density linkage map, and to align it with the reference genome assembly. Over 96,000 SNPs were mapped and ordered on the 29 salmon linkage groups using a pedigreed population comprising 622 fish from 60 nuclear families, all genotyped with the 'ssalar01' high density SNP array. The number of SNPs per group showed a high positive correlation with physical chromosome length (r = 0.95). While the order of markers on the genetic and physical maps was generally consistent, areas of discrepancy were identified. Approximately 6.5% of the previously unmapped reference genome sequence was assigned to chromosomes using the linkage map. Male recombination rate was lower than females across the vast majority of the genome, but with a notable peak in subtelomeric regions. Finally, using RNA-Seq data to annotate the reference genome, the mapped SNPs were categorized according to their predicted function, including annotation of ∼2500 putative nonsynonymous variants. The highest density SNP linkage map for any salmonid species has been created, annotated, and integrated with the Atlantic salmon reference genome assembly. This map highlights the marked heterochiasmy of salmon, and provides a useful resource for salmonid genetics and genomics research. PMID:27194803

  8. A reference genetic linkage map of apomictic Hieracium species based on expressed markers derived from developing ovule transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Shirasawa, Kenta; Hand, Melanie L.; Henderson, Steven T.; Okada, Takashi; Johnson, Susan D.; Taylor, Jennifer M.; Spriggs, Andrew; Siddons, Hayley; Hirakawa, Hideki; Isobe, Sachiko; Tabata, Satoshi; Koltunow, Anna M. G.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Apomixis in plants generates clonal progeny with a maternal genotype through asexual seed formation. Hieracium subgenus Pilosella (Asteraceae) contains polyploid, highly heterozygous apomictic and sexual species. Within apomictic Hieracium, dominant genetic loci independently regulate the qualitative developmental components of apomixis. In H. praealtum, LOSS OF APOMEIOSIS (LOA) enables formation of embryo sacs without meiosis and LOSS OF PARTHENOGENESIS (LOP) enables fertilization-independent seed formation. A locus required for fertilization-independent endosperm formation (AutE) has been identified in H. piloselloides. Additional quantitative loci appear to influence the penetrance of the qualitative loci, although the controlling genes remain unknown. This study aimed to develop the first genetic linkage maps for sexual and apomictic Hieracium species using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers derived from expressed transcripts within the developing ovaries. Methods RNA from microdissected Hieracium ovule cell types and ovaries was sequenced and SSRs were identified. Two different F1 mapping populations were created to overcome difficulties associated with genome complexity and asexual reproduction. SSR markers were analysed within each mapping population to generate draft linkage maps for apomictic and sexual Hieracium species. Key Results A collection of 14 684 Hieracium expressed SSR markers were developed and linkage maps were constructed for Hieracium species using a subset of the SSR markers. Both the LOA and LOP loci were successfully assigned to linkage groups; however, AutE could not be mapped using the current populations. Comparisons with lettuce (Lactuca sativa) revealed partial macrosynteny between the two Asteraceae species. Conclusions A collection of SSR markers and draft linkage maps were developed for two apomictic and one sexual Hieracium species. These maps will support cloning of controlling genes at LOA and LOP loci

  9. Fine mapping QTL for resistance to VNN disease using a high-density linkage map in Asian seabass

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peng; Wang, Le; Wong, Sek-Man; Yue, Gen Hua

    2016-01-01

    Asian seabass has suffered from viral nervous necrosis (VNN) disease. Our previous study has mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to VNN disease. To fine map these QTL and identify causative genes, we identified 6425 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 85 dead and 94 surviving individuals. Combined with 155 microsatellites, we constructed a genetic map consisting of 24 linkage groups (LGs) containing 3000 markers, with an average interval of 1.27 cM. We mapped one significant and three suggestive QTL with phenotypic variation explained (PVE) of 8.3 to 11.0%, two significant and two suggestive QTL with PVE of 7.8 to 10.9%, for resistance in three LGs and survival time in four LGs, respectively. Further analysis one QTL with the largest effect identified protocadherin alpha-C 2-like (Pcdhac2) as the possible candidate gene. Association study in 43 families with 1127 individuals revealed a 6 bp insertion-deletion was significantly associated with disease resistance. qRT-PCR showed the expression of Pcdhac2 was significantly induced in the brain, muscle and skin after nervous necrosis virus (NNV) infection. Our results could facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS) for resistance to NNV in Asian seabass and set up the basis for functional analysis of the potential causative gene for resistance. PMID:27555039

  10. Fine mapping QTL for resistance to VNN disease using a high-density linkage map in Asian seabass.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Wang, Le; Wong, Sek-Man; Yue, Gen Hua

    2016-01-01

    Asian seabass has suffered from viral nervous necrosis (VNN) disease. Our previous study has mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to VNN disease. To fine map these QTL and identify causative genes, we identified 6425 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 85 dead and 94 surviving individuals. Combined with 155 microsatellites, we constructed a genetic map consisting of 24 linkage groups (LGs) containing 3000 markers, with an average interval of 1.27 cM. We mapped one significant and three suggestive QTL with phenotypic variation explained (PVE) of 8.3 to 11.0%, two significant and two suggestive QTL with PVE of 7.8 to 10.9%, for resistance in three LGs and survival time in four LGs, respectively. Further analysis one QTL with the largest effect identified protocadherin alpha-C 2-like (Pcdhac2) as the possible candidate gene. Association study in 43 families with 1127 individuals revealed a 6 bp insertion-deletion was significantly associated with disease resistance. qRT-PCR showed the expression of Pcdhac2 was significantly induced in the brain, muscle and skin after nervous necrosis virus (NNV) infection. Our results could facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS) for resistance to NNV in Asian seabass and set up the basis for functional analysis of the potential causative gene for resistance. PMID:27555039