Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2010-10-20
The "Monte Carlo Benchmark" (MCB) is intended to model the computatiional performance of Monte Carlo algorithms on parallel architectures. It models the solution of a simple heuristic transport equation using a Monte Carlo technique. The MCB employs typical features of Monte Carlo algorithms such as particle creation, particle tracking, tallying particle information, and particle destruction. Particles are also traded among processors using MPI calls.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2006-05-09
The Monte Carlo example programs VARHATOM and DMCATOM are two small, simple FORTRAN programs that illustrate the use of the Monte Carlo Mathematical technique for calculating the ground state energy of the hydrogen atom.
Accuracy of Monte Carlo simulations compared to in-vivo MDCT dosimetry
Bostani, Maryam McMillan, Kyle; Cagnon, Chris H.; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.; Mueller, Jonathon W.; Cody, Dianna D.; DeMarco, John J.
2015-02-15
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of a Monte Carlo simulation-based method for estimating radiation dose from multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) by comparing simulated doses in ten patients to in-vivo dose measurements. Methods: MD Anderson Cancer Center Institutional Review Board approved the acquisition of in-vivo rectal dose measurements in a pilot study of ten patients undergoing virtual colonoscopy. The dose measurements were obtained by affixing TLD capsules to the inner lumen of rectal catheters. Voxelized patient models were generated from the MDCT images of the ten patients, and the dose to the TLD for all exposures was estimated using Monte Carlo based simulations. The Monte Carlo simulation results were compared to the in-vivo dose measurements to determine accuracy. Results: The calculated mean percent difference between TLD measurements and Monte Carlo simulations was −4.9% with standard deviation of 8.7% and a range of −22.7% to 5.7%. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate very good agreement between simulated and measured doses in-vivo. Taken together with previous validation efforts, this work demonstrates that the Monte Carlo simulation methods can provide accurate estimates of radiation dose in patients undergoing CT examinations.
Brown, F.B.; Sutton, T.M.
1996-02-01
This report is composed of the lecture notes from the first half of a 32-hour graduate-level course on Monte Carlo methods offered at KAPL. These notes, prepared by two of the principle developers of KAPL`s RACER Monte Carlo code, cover the fundamental theory, concepts, and practices for Monte Carlo analysis. In particular, a thorough grounding in the basic fundamentals of Monte Carlo methods is presented, including random number generation, random sampling, the Monte Carlo approach to solving transport problems, computational geometry, collision physics, tallies, and eigenvalue calculations. Furthermore, modern computational algorithms for vector and parallel approaches to Monte Carlo calculations are covered in detail, including fundamental parallel and vector concepts, the event-based algorithm, master/slave schemes, parallel scaling laws, and portability issues.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dytman, Steven
2011-10-01
Every neutrino experiment requires a Monte Carlo event generator for various purposes. Historically, each series of experiments developed their own code which tuned to their needs. Modern experiments would benefit from a universal code (e.g. PYTHIA) which would allow more direct comparison between experiments. GENIE attempts to be that code. This paper compares most commonly used codes and provides some details of GENIE.
X-ray dosimetry: comparing Monte Carlo simulations and experimental data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stichelbaut, F.; Bol, J.-L.; Lundhal, B.; Martin, F.; Rose, G.; Schlecht, J.; Smith, R.
2004-09-01
IBA is operating an X-ray irradiation facility located in Bridgeport, New Jersey. This facility is equipped with a Rhodotron ® TT300 and three separated beam lines delivering high-intensity electron beams with 5, 7, and 10 MeV energy. X-ray targets are mounted on the 5 and 7 MeV beam lines to produce high-intensity X-ray fields. During the installation, operation, and process qualifications of the X-ray irradiation system, use has been made of the GEANT Monte Carlo simulation toolkit to predict the results from these tests. These Monte Carlo predictions are compared to the experimental data measured in the various qualification phases.
Cramer, S.N.
1984-01-01
The MORSE code is a large general-use multigroup Monte Carlo code system. Although no claims can be made regarding its superiority in either theoretical details or Monte Carlo techniques, MORSE has been, since its inception at ORNL in the late 1960s, the most widely used Monte Carlo radiation transport code. The principal reason for this popularity is that MORSE is relatively easy to use, independent of any installation or distribution center, and it can be easily customized to fit almost any specific need. Features of the MORSE code are described.
Comparing analytical and Monte Carlo optical diffusion models in phosphor-based X-ray detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalyvas, N.; Liaparinos, P.
2014-03-01
Luminescent materials are employed as radiation to light converters in detectors of medical imaging systems, often referred to as phosphor screens. Several processes affect the light transfer properties of phosphors. Amongst the most important is the interaction of light. Light attenuation (absorption and scattering) can be described either through "diffusion" theory in theoretical models or "quantum" theory in Monte Carlo methods. Although analytical methods, based on photon diffusion equations, have been preferentially employed to investigate optical diffusion in the past, Monte Carlo simulation models can overcome several of the analytical modelling assumptions. The present study aimed to compare both methodologies and investigate the dependence of the analytical model optical parameters as a function of particle size. It was found that the optical photon attenuation coefficients calculated by analytical modeling are decreased with respect to the particle size (in the region 1- 12 μm). In addition, for particles sizes smaller than 6μm there is no simultaneous agreement between the theoretical modulation transfer function and light escape values with respect to the Monte Carlo data.
Monte Carlo variance reduction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Byrn, N. R.
1980-01-01
Computer program incorporates technique that reduces variance of forward Monte Carlo method for given amount of computer time in determining radiation environment in complex organic and inorganic systems exposed to significant amounts of radiation.
von Ferber, C; Holovatch, Yu
2002-04-01
We analyze the scaling laws for a set of two different species of long flexible polymer chains joined together at one of their extremities (copolymer stars) in space dimension D=2. We use a formerly constructed field-theoretic description and compare our perturbative results for the scaling exponents with recent conjectures for exact conformal scaling dimensions derived by a conformal invariance technique in the context of D=2 quantum gravity. A simple Monte Carlo simulation brings about reasonable agreement with both approaches. We analyze the remarkable multifractal properties of the spectrum of scaling exponents. PMID:12005898
Mignon, David; Simonson, Thomas
2016-07-15
Computational protein design depends on an energy function and an algorithm to search the sequence/conformation space. We compare three stochastic search algorithms: a heuristic, Monte Carlo (MC), and a Replica Exchange Monte Carlo method (REMC). The heuristic performs a steepest-descent minimization starting from thousands of random starting points. The methods are applied to nine test proteins from three structural families, with a fixed backbone structure, a molecular mechanics energy function, and with 1, 5, 10, 20, 30, or all amino acids allowed to mutate. Results are compared to an exact, "Cost Function Network" method that identifies the global minimum energy conformation (GMEC) in favorable cases. The designed sequences accurately reproduce experimental sequences in the hydrophobic core. The heuristic and REMC agree closely and reproduce the GMEC when it is known, with a few exceptions. Plain MC performs well for most cases, occasionally departing from the GMEC by 3-4 kcal/mol. With REMC, the diversity of the sequences sampled agrees with exact enumeration where the latter is possible: up to 2 kcal/mol above the GMEC. Beyond, room temperature replicas sample sequences up to 10 kcal/mol above the GMEC, providing thermal averages and a solution to the inverse protein folding problem. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27197555
Morokoff, W.J.; Caflisch, R.E.
1995-12-01
The standard Monte Carlo approach to evaluating multidimensional integrals using (pseudo)-random integration nodes is frequently used when quadrature methods are too difficult or expensive to implement. As an alternative to the random methods, it has been suggested that lower error and improved convergence may be obtained by replacing the pseudo-random sequences with more uniformly distributed sequences known as quasi-random. In this paper quasi-random (Halton, Sobol`, and Faure) and pseudo-random sequences are compared in computational experiments designed to determine the effects on convergence of certain properties of the integrand, including variance, variation, smoothness, and dimension. The results show that variation, which plays an important role in the theoretical upper bound given by the Koksma-Hlawka inequality, does not affect convergence, while variance, the determining factor in random Monte Carlo, is shown to provide a rough upper bound, but does not accurately predict performance. In general, quasi-Monte Carlo methods are superior to random Monte Carlo, but the advantage may be slight, particularly in high dimensions or for integrands that are not smooth. For discontinuous integrands, we derive a bound which shows that the exponent for algebraic decay of the integration error from quasi-Monte Carlo is only slightly larger than {1/2} in high dimensions. 21 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morokoff, William J.; Caflisch, Russel E.
1995-12-01
The standard Monte Carlo approach to evaluating multidimensional integrals using (pseudo)-random integration nodes is frequently used when quadrature methods are too difficult or expensive to implement. As an alternative to the random methods, it has been suggested that lower error and improved convergence may be obtained by replacing the pseudo-random sequences with more uniformly distributed sequences known as quasi-random. In this paper quasi-random (Halton, Sobol', and Faure) and pseudo-random sequences are compared in computational experiments designed to determine the effects on convergence of certain properties of the integrand, including variance, variation, smoothness, and dimension. The results show that variation, which plays an important role in the theoretical upper bound given by the Koksma-Hlawka inequality, does not affect convergence, while variance, the determining factor in random Monte Carlo, is shown to provide a rough upper bound, but does not accurately predict performance. In general, quasi-Monte Carlo methods are superior to random Monte Carlo, but the advantage may be slight, particularly in high dimensions or for integrands that are not smooth. For discontinuous integrands, we derive a bound which shows that the exponent for algebraic decay of the integration error from quasi-Monte Carlo is only slightly larger than {1}/{2} in high dimensions.
Reflection of polarized light by rough surfaces: Monte Carlo modeling compared to measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guirado, Daniel; Marcos Sanz, Juan; María Saiz, José; Muñoz, Olga; Stam, Daphne M.
2013-04-01
A Monte Carlo model of light scattering in a dense medium was developed in order to simulate the reflection of polarized light by rough surfaces [1]. This model calculates all four Stokes parameters of light scattered in all directions by a surface made of any material. Although multiple scattering is allowed, there is a limitation in the packing density of the medium, as independent scattering is assumed. The model can be applied to the study of light scattering by fluffy icy/dusty surfaces, e.g., various types of planetary or lunar regolith-type surfaces, icy moons or comets. The main goal of this work is to test the model by comparing scattering matrix elements calculated with the Monte Carlo model to experimentally measured scattering matrix elements as functions of the phase angle. We use a Sahara sand surface for this. The experimental scattering matrix is measured at the new apparatus developed at the University of Cantabria (Spain) [2]. Sample surfaces are prepared by putting together dust grains with a water-diluted glue coating. A surface's top layer was made with pure sand, to preserve the air-sand refractive index ratio. Calibration measurements have already been carried out successfully by using Spectralon as a Lambertian surface. After calibration, measurements of a surface made of Sahara sand were performed. In such measurements, deviations from Lambertian behavior were found, as well as a very prominent forward peak in the (1,1)-element of the matrix for grazing illumination angles. The values of I and -Q/I calculated by the model for the vertical scattering plane and non-polarized incident light were compared to the measured F11 and -F21/F11 elements for several incident directions. A good agreement between measurements and calculations was achieved. The forward-scattering peak of the (1,1)-element can be interpreted as a result of single scattering of horizontally incident light by the small features of the non-flat surface. In this case, light
Polyakov, Evgeny A; Vorontsov-Velyaminov, Pavel N
2014-08-28
Properties of ferrofluid bilayer (modeled as a system of two planar layers separated by a distance h and each layer carrying a soft sphere dipolar liquid) are calculated in the framework of inhomogeneous Ornstein-Zernike equations with reference hypernetted chain closure (RHNC). The bridge functions are taken from a soft sphere (1/r(12)) reference system in the pressure-consistent closure approximation. In order to make the RHNC problem tractable, the angular dependence of the correlation functions is expanded into special orthogonal polynomials according to Lado. The resulting equations are solved using the Newton-GRMES algorithm as implemented in the public-domain solver NITSOL. Orientational densities and pair distribution functions of dipoles are compared with Monte Carlo simulation results. A numerical algorithm for the Fourier-Hankel transform of any positive integer order on a uniform grid is presented. PMID:25173007
Chin, P.W. . E-mail: mary.chin@physics.org
2005-10-15
This project developed a solution for verifying external photon beam radiotherapy. The solution is based on a calibration chain for deriving portal dose maps from acquired portal images, and a calculation framework for predicting portal dose maps. Quantitative comparison between acquired and predicted portal dose maps accomplishes both geometric (patient positioning with respect to the beam) and dosimetric (two-dimensional fluence distribution of the beam) verifications. A disagreement would indicate that beam delivery had not been according to plan. The solution addresses the clinical need for verifying radiotherapy both pretreatment (without the patient in the beam) and on treatment (with the patient in the beam). Medical linear accelerators mounted with electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) were used to acquire portal images. Two types of EPIDs were investigated: the amorphous silicon (a-Si) and the scanning liquid ion chamber (SLIC). The EGSnrc family of Monte Carlo codes were used to predict portal dose maps by computer simulation of radiation transport in the beam-phantom-EPID configuration. Monte Carlo simulations have been implemented on several levels of high throughput computing (HTC), including the grid, to reduce computation time. The solution has been tested across the entire clinical range of gantry angle, beam size (5 cmx5 cm to 20 cmx20 cm), and beam-patient and patient-EPID separations (4 to 38 cm). In these tests of known beam-phantom-EPID configurations, agreement between acquired and predicted portal dose profiles was consistently within 2% of the central axis value. This Monte Carlo portal dosimetry solution therefore achieved combined versatility, accuracy, and speed not readily achievable by other techniques.
Monte Carlo and quasi-Monte Carlo methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caflisch, Russel E.
Monte Carlo is one of the most versatile and widely used numerical methods. Its convergence rate, O(N-1/2), is independent of dimension, which shows Monte Carlo to be very robust but also slow. This article presents an introduction to Monte Carlo methods for integration problems, including convergence theory, sampling methods and variance reduction techniques. Accelerated convergence for Monte Carlo quadrature is attained using quasi-random (also called low-discrepancy) sequences, which are a deterministic alternative to random or pseudo-random sequences. The points in a quasi-random sequence are correlated to provide greater uniformity. The resulting quadrature method, called quasi-Monte Carlo, has a convergence rate of approximately O((logN)kN-1). For quasi-Monte Carlo, both theoretical error estimates and practical limitations are presented. Although the emphasis in this article is on integration, Monte Carlo simulation of rarefied gas dynamics is also discussed. In the limit of small mean free path (that is, the fluid dynamic limit), Monte Carlo loses its effectiveness because the collisional distance is much less than the fluid dynamic length scale. Computational examples are presented throughout the text to illustrate the theory. A number of open problems are described.
Marcus, Ryan C.
2012-07-25
MCMini is a proof of concept that demonstrates the possibility for Monte Carlo neutron transport using OpenCL with a focus on performance. This implementation, written in C, shows that tracing particles and calculating reactions on a 3D mesh can be done in a highly scalable fashion. These results demonstrate a potential path forward for MCNP or other Monte Carlo codes.
Parallelizing Monte Carlo with PMC
Rathkopf, J.A.; Jones, T.R.; Nessett, D.M.; Stanberry, L.C.
1994-11-01
PMC (Parallel Monte Carlo) is a system of generic interface routines that allows easy porting of Monte Carlo packages of large-scale physics simulation codes to Massively Parallel Processor (MPP) computers. By loading various versions of PMC, simulation code developers can configure their codes to run in several modes: serial, Monte Carlo runs on the same processor as the rest of the code; parallel, Monte Carlo runs in parallel across many processors of the MPP with the rest of the code running on other MPP processor(s); distributed, Monte Carlo runs in parallel across many processors of the MPP with the rest of the code running on a different machine. This multi-mode approach allows maintenance of a single simulation code source regardless of the target machine. PMC handles passing of messages between nodes on the MPP, passing of messages between a different machine and the MPP, distributing work between nodes, and providing independent, reproducible sequences of random numbers. Several production codes have been parallelized under the PMC system. Excellent parallel efficiency in both the distributed and parallel modes results if sufficient workload is available per processor. Experiences with a Monte Carlo photonics demonstration code and a Monte Carlo neutronics package are described.
Wormhole Hamiltonian Monte Carlo
Lan, Shiwei; Streets, Jeffrey; Shahbaba, Babak
2015-01-01
In machine learning and statistics, probabilistic inference involving multimodal distributions is quite difficult. This is especially true in high dimensional problems, where most existing algorithms cannot easily move from one mode to another. To address this issue, we propose a novel Bayesian inference approach based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo. Our method can effectively sample from multimodal distributions, especially when the dimension is high and the modes are isolated. To this end, it exploits and modifies the Riemannian geometric properties of the target distribution to create wormholes connecting modes in order to facilitate moving between them. Further, our proposed method uses the regeneration technique in order to adapt the algorithm by identifying new modes and updating the network of wormholes without affecting the stationary distribution. To find new modes, as opposed to redis-covering those previously identified, we employ a novel mode searching algorithm that explores a residual energy function obtained by subtracting an approximate Gaussian mixture density (based on previously discovered modes) from the target density function. PMID:25861551
Isotropic Monte Carlo Grain Growth
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2013-04-25
IMCGG performs Monte Carlo simulations of normal grain growth in metals on a hexagonal grid in two dimensions with periodic boundary conditions. This may be performed with either an isotropic or a misorientation - and incliantion-dependent grain boundary energy.
Díaz-González, Lorena; Quiroz-Ruiz, Alfredo
2014-01-01
Using highly precise and accurate Monte Carlo simulations of 20,000,000 replications and 102 independent simulation experiments with extremely low simulation errors and total uncertainties, we evaluated the performance of four single outlier discordancy tests (Grubbs test N2, Dixon test N8, skewness test N14, and kurtosis test N15) for normal samples of sizes 5 to 20. Statistical contaminations of a single observation resulting from parameters called δ from ±0.1 up to ±20 for modeling the slippage of central tendency or ε from ±1.1 up to ±200 for slippage of dispersion, as well as no contamination (δ = 0 and ε = ±1), were simulated. Because of the use of precise and accurate random and normally distributed simulated data, very large replications, and a large number of independent experiments, this paper presents a novel approach for precise and accurate estimations of power functions of four popular discordancy tests and, therefore, should not be considered as a simple simulation exercise unrelated to probability and statistics. From both criteria of the Power of Test proposed by Hayes and Kinsella and the Test Performance Criterion of Barnett and Lewis, Dixon test N8 performs less well than the other three tests. The overall performance of these four tests could be summarized as N2≅N15 > N14 > N8. PMID:24737992
Verma, Surendra P; Díaz-González, Lorena; Rosales-Rivera, Mauricio; Quiroz-Ruiz, Alfredo
2014-01-01
Using highly precise and accurate Monte Carlo simulations of 20,000,000 replications and 102 independent simulation experiments with extremely low simulation errors and total uncertainties, we evaluated the performance of four single outlier discordancy tests (Grubbs test N2, Dixon test N8, skewness test N14, and kurtosis test N15) for normal samples of sizes 5 to 20. Statistical contaminations of a single observation resulting from parameters called δ from ±0.1 up to ±20 for modeling the slippage of central tendency or ε from ±1.1 up to ±200 for slippage of dispersion, as well as no contamination (δ = 0 and ε = ±1), were simulated. Because of the use of precise and accurate random and normally distributed simulated data, very large replications, and a large number of independent experiments, this paper presents a novel approach for precise and accurate estimations of power functions of four popular discordancy tests and, therefore, should not be considered as a simple simulation exercise unrelated to probability and statistics. From both criteria of the Power of Test proposed by Hayes and Kinsella and the Test Performance Criterion of Barnett and Lewis, Dixon test N8 performs less well than the other three tests. The overall performance of these four tests could be summarized as N2≅N15 > N14 > N8. PMID:24737992
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doumas, A.; Smith, G. C.
2009-12-01
Various neutron detectors are being developed for the next generation user facilities, which incorporate new as well as existing approaches for the detection of thermal neutrons. Improvements in neutron detector efficiency, detector size and position resolution have occurred over the last three decades and further advances are expected in the next ten years. Since gas detectors are expected to continue in a key role for future thermal neutron experiments, it is advantageous to review some of the criteria for the choice of proton/triton stopping gases for gas-based detectors. Monte Carlo simulations, using the group of programs "Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter", have been run to determine key performance characteristics for neutron detectors which utilize the reaction 3He(n,p)t. This paper will focus on investigating the use of three common hydrocarbons and CF 4 as stopping gases for thermal neutron detectors. A discussion of these gases will include their behavior in terms of proton and triton range, ion distribution and straggle.
Monte Carlo surface flux tallies
Favorite, Jeffrey A
2010-11-19
Particle fluxes on surfaces are difficult to calculate with Monte Carlo codes because the score requires a division by the surface-crossing angle cosine, and grazing angles lead to inaccuracies. We revisit the standard practice of dividing by half of a cosine 'cutoff' for particles whose surface-crossing cosines are below the cutoff. The theory behind this approximation is sound, but the application of the theory to all possible situations does not account for two implicit assumptions: (1) the grazing band must be symmetric about 0, and (2) a single linear expansion for the angular flux must be applied in the entire grazing band. These assumptions are violated in common circumstances; for example, for separate in-going and out-going flux tallies on internal surfaces, and for out-going flux tallies on external surfaces. In some situations, dividing by two-thirds of the cosine cutoff is more appropriate. If users were able to control both the cosine cutoff and the substitute value, they could use these parameters to make accurate surface flux tallies. The procedure is demonstrated in a test problem in which Monte Carlo surface fluxes in cosine bins are converted to angular fluxes and compared with the results of a discrete ordinates calculation.
Ng, Yee-Hong; Bettens, Ryan P A
2016-03-01
Using the method of modified Shepard's interpolation to construct potential energy surfaces of the H2O, O3, and HCOOH molecules, we compute vibrationally averaged isotropic nuclear shielding constants ⟨σ⟩ of the three molecules via quantum diffusion Monte Carlo (QDMC). The QDMC results are compared to that of second-order perturbation theory (PT), to see if second-order PT is adequate for obtaining accurate values of nuclear shielding constants of molecules with large amplitude motions. ⟨σ⟩ computed by the two approaches differ for the hydrogens and carbonyl oxygen of HCOOH, suggesting that for certain molecules such as HCOOH where big displacements away from equilibrium happen (internal OH rotation), ⟨σ⟩ of experimental quality may only be obtainable with the use of more sophisticated and accurate methods, such as quantum diffusion Monte Carlo. The approach of modified Shepard's interpolation is also extended to construct shielding constants σ surfaces of the three molecules. By using a σ surface with the equilibrium geometry as a single data point to compute isotropic nuclear shielding constants for each descendant in the QDMC ensemble representing the ground state wave function, we reproduce the results obtained through ab initio computed σ to within statistical noise. Development of such an approach could thereby alleviate the need for any future costly ab initio σ calculations. PMID:26835785
Proton Upset Monte Carlo Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
O'Neill, Patrick M.; Kouba, Coy K.; Foster, Charles C.
2009-01-01
The Proton Upset Monte Carlo Simulation (PROPSET) program calculates the frequency of on-orbit upsets in computer chips (for given orbits such as Low Earth Orbit, Lunar Orbit, and the like) from proton bombardment based on the results of heavy ion testing alone. The software simulates the bombardment of modern microelectronic components (computer chips) with high-energy (.200 MeV) protons. The nuclear interaction of the proton with the silicon of the chip is modeled and nuclear fragments from this interaction are tracked using Monte Carlo techniques to produce statistically accurate predictions.
Campbell, C L; Wood, K; Brown, C T A; Moseley, H
2016-07-01
We explore the effects of three dimensional (3D) tumour structures on depth dependent fluence rates, photodynamic doses (PDD) and fluorescence images through Monte Carlo radiation transfer modelling of photodynamic therapy. The aim with this work was to compare the commonly used uniform tumour densities with non-uniform densities to determine the importance of including 3D models in theoretical investigations. It was found that fractal 3D models resulted in deeper penetration on average of therapeutic radiation and higher PDD. An increase in effective treatment depth of 1 mm was observed for one of the investigated fractal structures, when comparing to the equivalent smooth model. Wide field fluorescence images were simulated, revealing information about the relationship between tumour structure and the appearance of the fluorescence intensity. Our models indicate that the 3D tumour structure strongly affects the spatial distribution of therapeutic light, the PDD and the wide field appearance of surface fluorescence images. PMID:27273196
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campbell, C. L.; Wood, K.; Brown, C. T. A.; Moseley, H.
2016-07-01
We explore the effects of three dimensional (3D) tumour structures on depth dependent fluence rates, photodynamic doses (PDD) and fluorescence images through Monte Carlo radiation transfer modelling of photodynamic therapy. The aim with this work was to compare the commonly used uniform tumour densities with non-uniform densities to determine the importance of including 3D models in theoretical investigations. It was found that fractal 3D models resulted in deeper penetration on average of therapeutic radiation and higher PDD. An increase in effective treatment depth of 1 mm was observed for one of the investigated fractal structures, when comparing to the equivalent smooth model. Wide field fluorescence images were simulated, revealing information about the relationship between tumour structure and the appearance of the fluorescence intensity. Our models indicate that the 3D tumour structure strongly affects the spatial distribution of therapeutic light, the PDD and the wide field appearance of surface fluorescence images.
Monte Carlo simulation of neutron scattering instruments
Seeger, P.A.
1995-12-31
A library of Monte Carlo subroutines has been developed for the purpose of design of neutron scattering instruments. Using small-angle scattering as an example, the philosophy and structure of the library are described and the programs are used to compare instruments at continuous wave (CW) and long-pulse spallation source (LPSS) neutron facilities. The Monte Carlo results give a count-rate gain of a factor between 2 and 4 using time-of-flight analysis. This is comparable to scaling arguments based on the ratio of wavelength bandwidth to resolution width.
Monte Carlo calculations of nuclei
Pieper, S.C.
1997-10-01
Nuclear many-body calculations have the complication of strong spin- and isospin-dependent potentials. In these lectures the author discusses the variational and Green`s function Monte Carlo techniques that have been developed to address this complication, and presents a few results.
Multilevel sequential Monte Carlo samplers
Beskos, Alexandros; Jasra, Ajay; Law, Kody; Tempone, Raul; Zhou, Yan
2016-08-24
Here, we study the approximation of expectations w.r.t. probability distributions associated to the solution of partial differential equations (PDEs); this scenario appears routinely in Bayesian inverse problems. In practice, one often has to solve the associated PDE numerically, using, for instance finite element methods and leading to a discretisation bias, with the step-size level hL. In addition, the expectation cannot be computed analytically and one often resorts to Monte Carlo methods. In the context of this problem, it is known that the introduction of the multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method can reduce the amount of computational effort to estimate expectations, for a given level of error. This is achieved via a telescoping identity associated to a Monte Carlo approximation of a sequence of probability distributions with discretisation levelsmore » $${\\infty}$$ >h0>h1 ...>hL. In many practical problems of interest, one cannot achieve an i.i.d. sampling of the associated sequence of probability distributions. A sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) version of the MLMC method is introduced to deal with this problem. In conclusion, it is shown that under appropriate assumptions, the attractive property of a reduction of the amount of computational effort to estimate expectations, for a given level of error, can be maintained within the SMC context.« less
Synchronous Parallel Kinetic Monte Carlo
Mart?nez, E; Marian, J; Kalos, M H
2006-12-14
A novel parallel kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) algorithm formulated on the basis of perfect time synchronicity is presented. The algorithm provides an exact generalization of any standard serial kMC model and is trivially implemented in parallel architectures. We demonstrate the mathematical validity and parallel performance of the method by solving several well-understood problems in diffusion.
Comparative Dosimetric Estimates of a 25 keV Electron Micro-beam with three Monte Carlo Codes
Mainardi, Enrico; Donahue, Richard J.; Blakely, Eleanor A.
2002-09-11
The calculations presented compare the different performances of the three Monte Carlo codes PENELOPE-1999, MCNP-4C and PITS, for the evaluation of Dose profiles from a 25 keV electron micro-beam traversing individual cells. The overall model of a cell is a water cylinder equivalent for the three codes but with a different internal scoring geometry: hollow cylinders for PENELOPE and MCNP, whereas spheres are used for the PITS code. A cylindrical cell geometry with scoring volumes with the shape of hollow cylinders was initially selected for PENELOPE and MCNP because of its superior simulation of the actual shape and dimensions of a cell and for its improved computer-time efficiency if compared to spherical internal volumes. Some of the transfer points and energy transfer that constitute a radiation track may actually fall in the space between spheres, that would be outside the spherical scoring volume. This internal geometry, along with the PENELOPE algorithm, drastically reduced the computer time when using this code if comparing with event-by-event Monte Carlo codes like PITS. This preliminary work has been important to address dosimetric estimates at low electron energies. It demonstrates that codes like PENELOPE can be used for Dose evaluation, even with such small geometries and energies involved, which are far below the normal use for which the code was created. Further work (initiated in Summer 2002) is still needed however, to create a user-code for PENELOPE that allows uniform comparison of exact cell geometries, integral volumes and also microdosimetric scoring quantities, a field where track-structure codes like PITS, written for this purpose, are believed to be superior.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Devienne, A.; Aymerich, N.; García-Fusté, M. J.; Queralt, X.
2015-11-01
ALBA is the Spanish synchrotron facility formed with a 3 GeV electron synchrotron accelerator generating bright beams of synchrotron radiation, located in Cerdanyola del Vallès (Spain). The aim of this work is to study the origin of the radiation produced inside and outside the optical hutch of BOREAS beamline, an experimental station dedicated to study the resonant absorption and scattering of the photons. The objective is to characterize the radiation at the beamline, evaluating in particular the solid bremsstrahlung component of the radiation. The results are obtained after comparing radiation monitors detectors data with Monte Carlo modeling (FLUKA), giving the characteristics of the shielding required to consider the outside of the hutch as a public zone.
Spatial Correlations in Monte Carlo Criticality Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dumonteil, E.; Malvagi, F.; Zoia, A.; Mazzolo, A.; Artusio, D.; Dieudonné, C.; De Mulatier, C.
2014-06-01
Temporal correlations arising in Monte Carlo criticality codes have focused the attention of both developers and practitioners for a long time. Those correlations affects the evaluation of tallies of loosely coupled systems, where the system's typical size is very large compared to the diffusion/absorption length scale of the neutrons. These time correlations are closely related to spatial correlations, both variables being linked by the transport equation. Therefore this paper addresses the question of diagnosing spatial correlations in Monte Carlo criticality simulations. In that aim, we will propose a spatial correlation function well suited to Monte Carlo simulations, and show its use while simulating a fuel pin-cell. The results will be discussed, modeled and interpreted using the tools of branching processes of statistical mechanics. A mechanism called "neutron clustering", affecting simulations, will be discussed in this frame.
Interaction picture density matrix quantum Monte Carlo
Malone, Fionn D. Lee, D. K. K.; Foulkes, W. M. C.; Blunt, N. S.; Shepherd, James J.; Spencer, J. S.
2015-07-28
The recently developed density matrix quantum Monte Carlo (DMQMC) algorithm stochastically samples the N-body thermal density matrix and hence provides access to exact properties of many-particle quantum systems at arbitrary temperatures. We demonstrate that moving to the interaction picture provides substantial benefits when applying DMQMC to interacting fermions. In this first study, we focus on a system of much recent interest: the uniform electron gas in the warm dense regime. The basis set incompleteness error at finite temperature is investigated and extrapolated via a simple Monte Carlo sampling procedure. Finally, we provide benchmark calculations for a four-electron system, comparing our results to previous work where possible.
Monte Carlo Simulation for Perusal and Practice.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brooks, Gordon P.; Barcikowski, Robert S.; Robey, Randall R.
The meaningful investigation of many problems in statistics can be solved through Monte Carlo methods. Monte Carlo studies can help solve problems that are mathematically intractable through the analysis of random samples from populations whose characteristics are known to the researcher. Using Monte Carlo simulation, the values of a statistic are…
Structural Reliability and Monte Carlo Simulation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Laumakis, P. J.; Harlow, G.
2002-01-01
Analyzes a simple boom structure and assesses its reliability using elementary engineering mechanics. Demonstrates the power and utility of Monte-Carlo simulation by showing that such a simulation can be implemented more readily with results that compare favorably to the theoretical calculations. (Author/MM)
Zimmerman, G.B.
1997-06-24
Monte Carlo methods appropriate to simulate the transport of x-rays, neutrons, ion and electrons in Inertial Confinement Fusion targets are described and analyzed. The Implicit Monte Carlo method of x-ray transport handles symmetry within indirect drive ICF hohlraums well, but can be improved 50X in efficiency by angular biasing the x-rays towards the fuel capsule. Accurate simulation of thermonuclear burns nd burn diagnostics involves detailed particle source spectra, charged particle ranges, inflight reaction kinematics, corrections for bulk and thermal Doppler effects and variance reduction to obtain adequate statistics for rare events. It is found that the effects of angular Coulomb scattering must be included in models of charged particle transport through heterogeneous materials.
Shell model Monte Carlo methods
Koonin, S.E.; Dean, D.J.
1996-10-01
We review quantum Monte Carlo methods for dealing with large shell model problems. These methods reduce the imaginary-time many-body evolution operator to a coherent superposition of one-body evolutions in fluctuating one-body fields; resultant path integral is evaluated stochastically. We first discuss the motivation, formalism, and implementation of such Shell Model Monte Carlo methods. There then follows a sampler of results and insights obtained from a number of applications. These include the ground state and thermal properties of pf-shell nuclei, thermal behavior of {gamma}-soft nuclei, and calculation of double beta-decay matrix elements. Finally, prospects for further progress in such calculations are discussed. 87 refs.
Womersley, J. . Dept. of Physics)
1992-10-01
The D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron began its first data taking run in May 1992. For analysis of the expected 25 pb[sup [minus]1] data sample, roughly half a million simulated events will be needed. The GEANT-based Monte Carlo program used to generate these events is described, together with comparisons to test beam data. Some novel techniques used to speed up execution and simplify geometrical input are described.
Extending canonical Monte Carlo methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Velazquez, L.; Curilef, S.
2010-02-01
In this paper, we discuss the implications of a recently obtained equilibrium fluctuation-dissipation relation for the extension of the available Monte Carlo methods on the basis of the consideration of the Gibbs canonical ensemble to account for the existence of an anomalous regime with negative heat capacities C < 0. The resulting framework appears to be a suitable generalization of the methodology associated with the so-called dynamical ensemble, which is applied to the extension of two well-known Monte Carlo methods: the Metropolis importance sampling and the Swendsen-Wang cluster algorithm. These Monte Carlo algorithms are employed to study the anomalous thermodynamic behavior of the Potts models with many spin states q defined on a d-dimensional hypercubic lattice with periodic boundary conditions, which successfully reduce the exponential divergence of the decorrelation time τ with increase of the system size N to a weak power-law divergence \\tau \\propto N^{\\alpha } with α≈0.2 for the particular case of the 2D ten-state Potts model.
Compressible generalized hybrid Monte Carlo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, Youhan; Sanz-Serna, J. M.; Skeel, Robert D.
2014-05-01
One of the most demanding calculations is to generate random samples from a specified probability distribution (usually with an unknown normalizing prefactor) in a high-dimensional configuration space. One often has to resort to using a Markov chain Monte Carlo method, which converges only in the limit to the prescribed distribution. Such methods typically inch through configuration space step by step, with acceptance of a step based on a Metropolis(-Hastings) criterion. An acceptance rate of 100% is possible in principle by embedding configuration space in a higher dimensional phase space and using ordinary differential equations. In practice, numerical integrators must be used, lowering the acceptance rate. This is the essence of hybrid Monte Carlo methods. Presented is a general framework for constructing such methods under relaxed conditions: the only geometric property needed is (weakened) reversibility; volume preservation is not needed. The possibilities are illustrated by deriving a couple of explicit hybrid Monte Carlo methods, one based on barrier-lowering variable-metric dynamics and another based on isokinetic dynamics.
Song, Jin Ho; Kang, Ki Mun; Choi, Hoon-Sik; Jeong, Hojin; Ha, In Bong; Lee, Jong Deog; Kim, Ho Cheol; Jeong, Yi Yeong; Cho, Yu Ji; Lee, Seung Jun; Kim, Sung Hwan; Jang, In-Seok; Jeong, Bae Kwon
2016-01-01
Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes between the groups using Ray-Tracing (RAT) and Monte-Carlo (MC) calculation algorithms for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of lung tumors. Materials and Methods Thirty-five patients received SBRT with CyberKnife for 47 primary or metastatic lung tumors. RAT was used for 22 targets in 12 patients, and MC for 25 targets in 23 patients. Total dose of 48 to 60 Gy was prescribed in 3 to 5 fractions on median 80% isodose line. The response rate, local control rate, and toxicities were compared between RAT and MC groups. Results The response rate was lower in the RAT group (77.3%) compared to the MC group (100%) (p = 0.008). The response rates showed an association with the mean dose to the gross tumor volume, which the doses were re-calculated with MC algorithm in both groups. However, the local control rate and toxicities did not differ between the groups. Conclusions The clinical outcome and toxicity of lung SBRT between the RAT and MC groups were similar except for the response rate when the same apparent doses were prescribed. The lower response rate in the RAT group, however, did not compromise the local control rates. As such, reducing the prescription dose for MC algorithm may be performed but done with caution. PMID:26544622
A Comparative Study of Exact versus Propensity Matching Techniques Using Monte Carlo Simulation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Itang'ata, Mukaria J. J.
2013-01-01
Often researchers face situations where comparative studies between two or more programs are necessary to make causal inferences for informed policy decision-making. Experimental designs employing randomization provide the strongest evidence for causal inferences. However, many pragmatic and ethical challenges may preclude the use of randomized…
Factor Analysis with Ordinal Indicators: A Monte Carlo Study Comparing DWLS and ULS Estimation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Forero, Carlos G.; Maydeu-Olivares, Alberto; Gallardo-Pujol, David
2009-01-01
Factor analysis models with ordinal indicators are often estimated using a 3-stage procedure where the last stage involves obtaining parameter estimates by least squares from the sample polychoric correlations. A simulation study involving 324 conditions (1,000 replications per condition) was performed to compare the performance of diagonally…
Multidimensional stochastic approximation Monte Carlo.
Zablotskiy, Sergey V; Ivanov, Victor A; Paul, Wolfgang
2016-06-01
Stochastic Approximation Monte Carlo (SAMC) has been established as a mathematically founded powerful flat-histogram Monte Carlo method, used to determine the density of states, g(E), of a model system. We show here how it can be generalized for the determination of multidimensional probability distributions (or equivalently densities of states) of macroscopic or mesoscopic variables defined on the space of microstates of a statistical mechanical system. This establishes this method as a systematic way for coarse graining a model system, or, in other words, for performing a renormalization group step on a model. We discuss the formulation of the Kadanoff block spin transformation and the coarse-graining procedure for polymer models in this language. We also apply it to a standard case in the literature of two-dimensional densities of states, where two competing energetic effects are present g(E_{1},E_{2}). We show when and why care has to be exercised when obtaining the microcanonical density of states g(E_{1}+E_{2}) from g(E_{1},E_{2}). PMID:27415383
Multidimensional stochastic approximation Monte Carlo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zablotskiy, Sergey V.; Ivanov, Victor A.; Paul, Wolfgang
2016-06-01
Stochastic Approximation Monte Carlo (SAMC) has been established as a mathematically founded powerful flat-histogram Monte Carlo method, used to determine the density of states, g (E ) , of a model system. We show here how it can be generalized for the determination of multidimensional probability distributions (or equivalently densities of states) of macroscopic or mesoscopic variables defined on the space of microstates of a statistical mechanical system. This establishes this method as a systematic way for coarse graining a model system, or, in other words, for performing a renormalization group step on a model. We discuss the formulation of the Kadanoff block spin transformation and the coarse-graining procedure for polymer models in this language. We also apply it to a standard case in the literature of two-dimensional densities of states, where two competing energetic effects are present g (E1,E2) . We show when and why care has to be exercised when obtaining the microcanonical density of states g (E1+E2) from g (E1,E2) .
1-D EQUILIBRIUM DISCRETE DIFFUSION MONTE CARLO
T. EVANS; ET AL
2000-08-01
We present a new hybrid Monte Carlo method for 1-D equilibrium diffusion problems in which the radiation field coexists with matter in local thermodynamic equilibrium. This method, the Equilibrium Discrete Diffusion Monte Carlo (EqDDMC) method, combines Monte Carlo particles with spatially discrete diffusion solutions. We verify the EqDDMC method with computational results from three slab problems. The EqDDMC method represents an incremental step toward applying this hybrid methodology to non-equilibrium diffusion, where it could be simultaneously coupled to Monte Carlo transport.
Monte Carlo dose mapping on deforming anatomy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhong, Hualiang; Siebers, Jeffrey V.
2009-10-01
This paper proposes a Monte Carlo-based energy and mass congruent mapping (EMCM) method to calculate the dose on deforming anatomy. Different from dose interpolation methods, EMCM separately maps each voxel's deposited energy and mass from a source image to a reference image with a displacement vector field (DVF) generated by deformable image registration (DIR). EMCM was compared with other dose mapping methods: energy-based dose interpolation (EBDI) and trilinear dose interpolation (TDI). These methods were implemented in EGSnrc/DOSXYZnrc, validated using a numerical deformable phantom and compared for clinical CT images. On the numerical phantom with an analytically invertible deformation map, EMCM mapped the dose exactly the same as its analytic solution, while EBDI and TDI had average dose errors of 2.5% and 6.0%. For a lung patient's IMRT treatment plan, EBDI and TDI differed from EMCM by 1.96% and 7.3% in the lung patient's entire dose region, respectively. As a 4D Monte Carlo dose calculation technique, EMCM is accurate and its speed is comparable to 3D Monte Carlo simulation. This method may serve as a valuable tool for accurate dose accumulation as well as for 4D dosimetry QA.
Gentile, N A
2000-10-01
We present a method for accelerating time dependent Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations by using a discretization of the diffusion equation to calculate probabilities that are used to advance particles in regions with small mean free path. The method is demonstrated on problems with on 1 and 2 dimensional orthogonal grids. It results in decreases in run time of more than an order of magnitude on these problems, while producing answers with accuracy comparable to pure IMC simulations. We call the method Implicit Monte Carlo Diffusion, which we abbreviate IMD.
Interaction picture density matrix quantum Monte Carlo.
Malone, Fionn D; Blunt, N S; Shepherd, James J; Lee, D K K; Spencer, J S; Foulkes, W M C
2015-07-28
The recently developed density matrix quantum Monte Carlo (DMQMC) algorithm stochastically samples the N-body thermal density matrix and hence provides access to exact properties of many-particle quantum systems at arbitrary temperatures. We demonstrate that moving to the interaction picture provides substantial benefits when applying DMQMC to interacting fermions. In this first study, we focus on a system of much recent interest: the uniform electron gas in the warm dense regime. The basis set incompleteness error at finite temperature is investigated and extrapolated via a simple Monte Carlo sampling procedure. Finally, we provide benchmark calculations for a four-electron system, comparing our results to previous work where possible. PMID:26233116
Monte Carlo modeling of exospheric bodies - Mercury
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, G. R.; Broadfoot, A. L.; Wallace, L.; Shemansky, D. E.
1978-01-01
In order to study the interaction with the surface, a Monte Carlo program is developed to determine the distribution with altitude as well as the global distribution of density at the surface in a single operation. The analysis presented shows that the appropriate source distribution should be Maxwell-Boltzmann flux if the particles in the distribution are to be treated as components of flux. Monte Carlo calculations with a Maxwell-Boltzmann flux source are compared with Mariner 10 UV spectrometer data. Results indicate that the presently operating models are not capable of fitting the observed Mercury exosphere. It is suggested that an atmosphere calculated with a barometric source distribution is suitable for more realistic future exospheric models.
Numerical reproducibility for implicit Monte Carlo simulations
Cleveland, M.; Brunner, T.; Gentile, N.
2013-07-01
We describe and compare different approaches for achieving numerical reproducibility in photon Monte Carlo simulations. Reproducibility is desirable for code verification, testing, and debugging. Parallelism creates a unique problem for achieving reproducibility in Monte Carlo simulations because it changes the order in which values are summed. This is a numerical problem because double precision arithmetic is not associative. In [1], a way of eliminating this roundoff error using integer tallies was described. This approach successfully achieves reproducibility at the cost of lost accuracy by rounding double precision numbers to fewer significant digits. This integer approach, and other extended reproducibility techniques, are described and compared in this work. Increased precision alone is not enough to ensure reproducibility of photon Monte Carlo simulations. A non-arbitrary precision approaches required a varying degree of rounding to achieve reproducibility. For the problems investigated in this work double precision global accuracy was achievable by using 100 bits of precision or greater on all unordered sums which where subsequently rounded to double precision at the end of every time-step. (authors)
Debbarma, Rousan; Malani, Ateeque
2016-02-01
Clay minerals are used in variety of applications ranging from composites to electronic devices. For their efficient use in such areas, understanding the effect of surface-active agents on interfacial properties is essential. We investigated the role of surface ions in the adsorption of water molecules by using a muscovite mica surface populated with two different, H(+) and K(+), surface ions. A series of grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations at various relative vapor pressures (p/p0) were performed to obtain the water structure and adsorption isotherm on the H(+)-exposed mica (H-mica) surface. The obtained results were compared to the recent simulation data of water adsorption on the K(+)-exposed mica (K-mica) surface reported by Malani and Ayyappa (Malani, A.; Ayappa, K. G. J. Phys. Chem. B 2009, 113, 1058-1067). Water molecules formed two prominent layers adjacent to the H-mica surface, whereas molecular layering was observed adjacent to the K-mica surface. The adsorption isotherm of water on the K-mica surface was characterized by three stages that corresponded to rapid adsorption in the initial regime below p/p0 = 0.1, followed by a linear development regime for p/p0 = 0.1-0.7 and rapid film thickening for p/p0 ≥ 0.7, whereas only latter two regimes were observed in the H-mica system. In addition, the film thickness of adsorbed water molecules for p/p0 < 0.7 was lower as compared to that for the K-mica surface and comparable beyond. The film thickness obtained from the MC simulations was in excellent agreement with the interferometry experimental data of Balmer et al. (Balmer, T. E.; Christenson, H. K.; Spencer, N. D.; Heuberger, M. Langmuir 2008, 24, 1566-1569). It was observed that the hydration behaviors of the two ions were completely different and depended on the size of their hydration shell and their ability to form hydrogen bonds. The behavior of water adsorption between these two cases was illustrated using the water density distribution
Hayakawa, Carole K; Spanier, Jerome; Venugopalan, Vasan
2014-02-01
We examine the relative error of Monte Carlo simulations of radiative transport that employ two commonly used estimators that account for absorption differently, either discretely, at interaction points, or continuously, between interaction points. We provide a rigorous derivation of these discrete and continuous absorption weighting estimators within a stochastic model that we show to be equivalent to an analytic model, based on the radiative transport equation (RTE). We establish that both absorption weighting estimators are unbiased and, therefore, converge to the solution of the RTE. An analysis of spatially resolved reflectance predictions provided by these two estimators reveals no advantage to either in cases of highly scattering and highly anisotropic media. However, for moderate to highly absorbing media or isotropically scattering media, the discrete estimator provides smaller errors at proximal source locations while the continuous estimator provides smaller errors at distal locations. The origin of these differing variance characteristics can be understood through examination of the distribution of exiting photon weights. PMID:24562029
Hayakawa, Carole K.; Spanier, Jerome; Venugopalan, Vasan
2014-01-01
We examine the relative error of Monte Carlo simulations of radiative transport that employ two commonly used estimators that account for absorption differently, either discretely, at interaction points, or continuously, between interaction points. We provide a rigorous derivation of these discrete and continuous absorption weighting estimators within a stochastic model that we show to be equivalent to an analytic model, based on the radiative transport equation (RTE). We establish that both absorption weighting estimators are unbiased and, therefore, converge to the solution of the RTE. An analysis of spatially resolved reflectance predictions provided by these two estimators reveals no advantage to either in cases of highly scattering and highly anisotropic media. However, for moderate to highly absorbing media or isotropically scattering media, the discrete estimator provides smaller errors at proximal source locations while the continuous estimator provides smaller errors at distal locations. The origin of these differing variance characteristics can be understood through examination of the distribution of exiting photon weights. PMID:24562029
Monte Carlo Shower Counter Studies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Snyder, H. David
1991-01-01
Activities and accomplishments related to the Monte Carlo shower counter studies are summarized. A tape of the VMS version of the GEANT software was obtained and installed on the central computer at Gallaudet University. Due to difficulties encountered in updating this VMS version, a decision was made to switch to the UNIX version of the package. This version was installed and used to generate the set of data files currently accessed by various analysis programs. The GEANT software was used to write files of data for positron and proton showers. Showers were simulated for a detector consisting of 50 alternating layers of lead and scintillator. Each file consisted of 1000 events at each of the following energies: 0.1, 0.5, 2.0, 10, 44, and 200 GeV. Data analysis activities related to clustering, chi square, and likelihood analyses are summarized. Source code for the GEANT user subprograms and data analysis programs are provided along with example data plots.
Improved Monte Carlo Renormalization Group Method
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Gupta, R.; Wilson, K. G.; Umrigar, C.
1985-01-01
An extensive program to analyze critical systems using an Improved Monte Carlo Renormalization Group Method (IMCRG) being undertaken at LANL and Cornell is described. Here we first briefly review the method and then list some of the topics being investigated.
Monte Carlo Ion Transport Analysis Code.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2009-04-15
Version: 00 TRIPOS is a versatile Monte Carlo ion transport analysis code. It has been applied to the treatment of both surface and bulk radiation effects. The media considered is composed of multilayer polyatomic materials.
Monte Carlo Transport for Electron Thermal Transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chenhall, Jeffrey; Cao, Duc; Moses, Gregory
2015-11-01
The iSNB (implicit Schurtz Nicolai Busquet multigroup electron thermal transport method of Cao et al. is adapted into a Monte Carlo transport method in order to better model the effects of non-local behavior. The end goal is a hybrid transport-diffusion method that combines Monte Carlo Transport with a discrete diffusion Monte Carlo (DDMC). The hybrid method will combine the efficiency of a diffusion method in short mean free path regions with the accuracy of a transport method in long mean free path regions. The Monte Carlo nature of the approach allows the algorithm to be massively parallelized. Work to date on the method will be presented. This work was supported by Sandia National Laboratory - Albuquerque and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics.
Extra Chance Generalized Hybrid Monte Carlo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campos, Cédric M.; Sanz-Serna, J. M.
2015-01-01
We study a method, Extra Chance Generalized Hybrid Monte Carlo, to avoid rejections in the Hybrid Monte Carlo method and related algorithms. In the spirit of delayed rejection, whenever a rejection would occur, extra work is done to find a fresh proposal that, hopefully, may be accepted. We present experiments that clearly indicate that the additional work per sample carried out in the extra chance approach clearly pays in terms of the quality of the samples generated.
Fission Matrix Capability for MCNP Monte Carlo
Carney, Sean E.; Brown, Forrest B.; Kiedrowski, Brian C.; Martin, William R.
2012-09-05
spatially low-order kernel, the fundamental eigenvector of which should converge faster than that of continuous kernel. We can then redistribute the fission bank to match the fundamental fission matrix eigenvector, effectively eliminating all higher modes. For all computations here biasing is not used, with the intention of comparing the unaltered, conventional Monte Carlo process with the fission matrix results. The source convergence of standard Monte Carlo criticality calculations are, to some extent, always subject to the characteristics of the problem. This method seeks to partially eliminate this problem-dependence by directly calculating the spatial coupling. The primary cost of this, which has prevented widespread use since its inception [2,3,4], is the extra storage required. To account for the coupling of all N spatial regions to every other region requires storing N{sup 2} values. For realistic problems, where a fine resolution is required for the suppression of discretization error, the storage becomes inordinate. Two factors lead to a renewed interest here: the larger memory available on modern computers and the development of a better storage scheme based on physical intuition. When the distance between source and fission events is short compared with the size of the entire system, saving memory by accounting for only local coupling introduces little extra error. We can gain other information from directly tallying the fission kernel: higher eigenmodes and eigenvalues. Conventional Monte Carlo cannot calculate this data - here we have a way to get new information for multiplying systems. In Ref. [5], higher mode eigenfunctions are analyzed for a three-region 1-dimensional problem and 2-dimensional homogenous problem. We analyze higher modes for more realistic problems. There is also the question of practical use of this information; here we examine a way of using eigenmode information to address the negative confidence interval bias due to inter
Shift: A Massively Parallel Monte Carlo Radiation Transport Package
Pandya, Tara M; Johnson, Seth R; Davidson, Gregory G; Evans, Thomas M; Hamilton, Steven P
2015-01-01
This paper discusses the massively-parallel Monte Carlo radiation transport package, Shift, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It reviews the capabilities, implementation, and parallel performance of this code package. Scaling results demonstrate very good strong and weak scaling behavior of the implemented algorithms. Benchmark results from various reactor problems show that Shift results compare well to other contemporary Monte Carlo codes and experimental results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Lili; Wang, Lu; Zhao, Jijun; Yan, Tianying
2012-06-01
The adsorption properties of H2, CO, NO, and NO2 in several typical nanoporous materials (covalent organic framework (COF)-105, COF-108, metal-organic framework (MOF)-5, and MOF-177) at 298 K were investigated by grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations. Good agreement between simulated results and experimental data has been achieved for H2 adsorption on MOF-5 and MOF-177, indicating the reliability of the theoretical approach. The simulated adsorption isotherms for these four gases show analogical trend, i.e., increasing nearly linearly with pressure. Among the four host materials, COF-108 exhibits the highest hydrogen uptake (˜0.89 wt. % at 100 bars) owing to its low densities and high surface area. The adsorption amounts of NO2 in these materials are higher than those of the other three gases because of the stronger gas-sorbent interaction. In particular, NO2 adsorption amount in MOF-177 can reach as high as 10.7 mmol/g at 298 K and 10 bars. The interaction between the four gases (H2, CO, NO, and NO2) and the COF/MOF adsorbents is further discussed in terms of the isosteric heat.
Combinatorial geometry domain decomposition strategies for Monte Carlo simulations
Li, G.; Zhang, B.; Deng, L.; Mo, Z.; Liu, Z.; Shangguan, D.; Ma, Y.; Li, S.; Hu, Z.
2013-07-01
Analysis and modeling of nuclear reactors can lead to memory overload for a single core processor when it comes to refined modeling. A method to solve this problem is called 'domain decomposition'. In the current work, domain decomposition algorithms for a combinatorial geometry Monte Carlo transport code are developed on the JCOGIN (J Combinatorial Geometry Monte Carlo transport INfrastructure). Tree-based decomposition and asynchronous communication of particle information between domains are described in the paper. Combination of domain decomposition and domain replication (particle parallelism) is demonstrated and compared with that of MERCURY code. A full-core reactor model is simulated to verify the domain decomposition algorithms using the Monte Carlo particle transport code JMCT (J Monte Carlo Transport Code), which has being developed on the JCOGIN infrastructure. Besides, influences of the domain decomposition algorithms to tally variances are discussed. (authors)
COMPARISON OF MONTE CARLO METHODS FOR NONLINEAR RADIATION TRANSPORT
W. R. MARTIN; F. B. BROWN
2001-03-01
Five Monte Carlo methods for solving the nonlinear thermal radiation transport equations are compared. The methods include the well-known Implicit Monte Carlo method (IMC) developed by Fleck and Cummings, an alternative to IMC developed by Carter and Forest, an ''exact'' method recently developed by Ahrens and Larsen, and two methods recently proposed by Martin and Brown. The five Monte Carlo methods are developed and applied to the radiation transport equation in a medium assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium. Conservation of energy is derived and used to define appropriate material energy update equations for each of the methods. Details of the Monte Carlo implementation are presented, both for the random walk simulation and the material energy update. Simulation results for all five methods are obtained for two infinite medium test problems and a 1-D test problem, all of which have analytical solutions. Conclusions regarding the relative merits of the various schemes are presented.
Chemical application of diffusion quantum Monte Carlo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reynolds, P. J.; Lester, W. A., Jr.
1983-10-01
The diffusion quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) method gives a stochastic solution to the Schroedinger equation. As an example the singlet-triplet splitting of the energy of the methylene molecule CH2 is given. The QMC algorithm was implemented on the CYBER 205, first as a direct transcription of the algorithm running on our VAX 11/780, and second by explicitly writing vector code for all loops longer than a crossover length C. The speed of the codes relative to one another as a function of C, and relative to the VAX is discussed. Since CH2 has only eight electrons, most of the loops in this application are fairly short. The longest inner loops run over the set of atomic basis functions. The CPU time dependence obtained versus the number of basis functions is discussed and compared with that obtained from traditional quantum chemistry codes and that obtained from traditional computer architectures. Finally, preliminary work on restructuring the algorithm to compute the separate Monte Carlo realizations in parallel is discussed.
Discrete range clustering using Monte Carlo methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chatterji, G. B.; Sridhar, B.
1993-01-01
For automatic obstacle avoidance guidance during rotorcraft low altitude flight, a reliable model of the nearby environment is needed. Such a model may be constructed by applying surface fitting techniques to the dense range map obtained by active sensing using radars. However, for covertness, passive sensing techniques using electro-optic sensors are desirable. As opposed to the dense range map obtained via active sensing, passive sensing algorithms produce reliable range at sparse locations, and therefore, surface fitting techniques to fill the gaps in the range measurement are not directly applicable. Both for automatic guidance and as a display for aiding the pilot, these discrete ranges need to be grouped into sets which correspond to objects in the nearby environment. The focus of this paper is on using Monte Carlo methods for clustering range points into meaningful groups. One of the aims of the paper is to explore whether simulated annealing methods offer significant advantage over the basic Monte Carlo method for this class of problems. We compare three different approaches and present application results of these algorithms to a laboratory image sequence and a helicopter flight sequence.
Monte Carlo methods in lattice gauge theories
Otto, S.W.
1983-01-01
The mass of the O/sup +/ glueball for SU(2) gauge theory in 4 dimensions is calculated. This computation was done on a prototype parallel processor and the implementation of gauge theories on this system is described in detail. Using an action of the purely Wilson form (tract of plaquette in the fundamental representation), results with high statistics are obtained. These results are not consistent with scaling according to the continuum renormalization group. Using actions containing higher representations of the group, a search is made for one which is closer to the continuum limit. The choice is based upon the phase structure of these extended theories and also upon the Migdal-Kadanoff approximation to the renormalizaiton group on the lattice. The mass of the O/sup +/ glueball for this improved action is obtained and the mass divided by the square root of the string tension is a constant as the lattice spacing is varied. The other topic studied is the inclusion of dynamical fermions into Monte Carlo calculations via the pseudo fermion technique. Monte Carlo results obtained with this method are compared with those from an exact algorithm based on Gauss-Seidel inversion. First applied were the methods to the Schwinger model and SU(3) theory.
Approaching chemical accuracy with quantum Monte Carlo.
Petruzielo, F R; Toulouse, Julien; Umrigar, C J
2012-03-28
A quantum Monte Carlo study of the atomization energies for the G2 set of molecules is presented. Basis size dependence of diffusion Monte Carlo atomization energies is studied with a single determinant Slater-Jastrow trial wavefunction formed from Hartree-Fock orbitals. With the largest basis set, the mean absolute deviation from experimental atomization energies for the G2 set is 3.0 kcal/mol. Optimizing the orbitals within variational Monte Carlo improves the agreement between diffusion Monte Carlo and experiment, reducing the mean absolute deviation to 2.1 kcal/mol. Moving beyond a single determinant Slater-Jastrow trial wavefunction, diffusion Monte Carlo with a small complete active space Slater-Jastrow trial wavefunction results in near chemical accuracy. In this case, the mean absolute deviation from experimental atomization energies is 1.2 kcal/mol. It is shown from calculations on systems containing phosphorus that the accuracy can be further improved by employing a larger active space. PMID:22462844
Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of light nuclei
Pieper, S.C.
1998-12-01
Quantum Monte Carlo calculations using realistic two- and three-nucleon interactions are presented for nuclei with up to eight nucleons. We have computed the ground and a few excited states of all such nuclei with Greens function Monte Carlo (GFMC) and all of the experimentally known excited states using variational Monte Carlo (VMC). The GFMC calculations show that for a given Hamiltonian, the VMC calculations of excitation spectra are reliable, but the VMC ground-state energies are significantly above the exact values. We find that the Hamiltonian we are using (which was developed based on {sup 3}H,{sup 4}He, and nuclear matter calculations) underpredicts the binding energy of p-shell nuclei. However our results for excitation spectra are very good and one can see both shell-model and collective spectra resulting from fundamental many-nucleon calculations. Possible improvements in the three-nucleon potential are also be discussed. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}
Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of light nuclei
Pieper, Steven C.
1998-12-21
Quantum Monte Carlo calculations using realistic two- and three-nucleon interactions are presented for nuclei with up to eight nucleons. We have computed the ground and a few excited states of all such nuclei with Greens function Monte Carlo (GFMC) and all of the experimentally known excited states using variational Monte Carlo (VMC). The GFMC calculations show that for a given Hamiltonian, the VMC calculations of excitation spectra are reliable, but the VMC ground-state energies are significantly above the exact values. We find that the Hamiltonian we are using (which was developed based on {sup 3}H,{sup 4}He, and nuclear matter calculations) underpredicts the binding energy of p-shell nuclei. However our results for excitation spectra are very good and one can see both shell-model and collective spectra resulting from fundamental many-nucleon calculations. Possible improvements in the three-nucleon potential are also be discussed.
Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of light nuclei.
Pieper, S. C.
1998-08-25
Quantum Monte Carlo calculations using realistic two- and three-nucleon interactions are presented for nuclei with up to eight nucleons. We have computed the ground and a few excited states of all such nuclei with Greens function Monte Carlo (GFMC) and all of the experimentally known excited states using variational Monte Carlo (VMC). The GFMC calculations show that for a given Hamiltonian, the VMC calculations of excitation spectra are reliable, but the VMC ground-state energies are significantly above the exact values. We find that the Hamiltonian we are using (which was developed based on {sup 3}H, {sup 4}He, and nuclear matter calculations) underpredicts the binding energy of p-shell nuclei. However our results for excitation spectra are very good and one can see both shell-model and collective spectra resulting from fundamental many-nucleon calculations. Possible improvements in the three-nucleon potential are also be discussed.
Quantum speedup of Monte Carlo methods
Montanaro, Ashley
2015-01-01
Monte Carlo methods use random sampling to estimate numerical quantities which are hard to compute deterministically. One important example is the use in statistical physics of rapidly mixing Markov chains to approximately compute partition functions. In this work, we describe a quantum algorithm which can accelerate Monte Carlo methods in a very general setting. The algorithm estimates the expected output value of an arbitrary randomized or quantum subroutine with bounded variance, achieving a near-quadratic speedup over the best possible classical algorithm. Combining the algorithm with the use of quantum walks gives a quantum speedup of the fastest known classical algorithms with rigorous performance bounds for computing partition functions, which use multiple-stage Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques. The quantum algorithm can also be used to estimate the total variation distance between probability distributions efficiently. PMID:26528079
Fast quantum Monte Carlo on a GPU
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lutsyshyn, Y.
2015-02-01
We present a scheme for the parallelization of quantum Monte Carlo method on graphical processing units, focusing on variational Monte Carlo simulation of bosonic systems. We use asynchronous execution schemes with shared memory persistence, and obtain an excellent utilization of the accelerator. The CUDA code is provided along with a package that simulates liquid helium-4. The program was benchmarked on several models of Nvidia GPU, including Fermi GTX560 and M2090, and the Kepler architecture K20 GPU. Special optimization was developed for the Kepler cards, including placement of data structures in the register space of the Kepler GPUs. Kepler-specific optimization is discussed.
Geodesic Monte Carlo on Embedded Manifolds.
Byrne, Simon; Girolami, Mark
2013-12-01
Markov chain Monte Carlo methods explicitly defined on the manifold of probability distributions have recently been established. These methods are constructed from diffusions across the manifold and the solution of the equations describing geodesic flows in the Hamilton-Jacobi representation. This paper takes the differential geometric basis of Markov chain Monte Carlo further by considering methods to simulate from probability distributions that themselves are defined on a manifold, with common examples being classes of distributions describing directional statistics. Proposal mechanisms are developed based on the geodesic flows over the manifolds of support for the distributions, and illustrative examples are provided for the hypersphere and Stiefel manifold of orthonormal matrices. PMID:25309024
Monte Carlo dose computation for IMRT optimization*
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laub, W.; Alber, M.; Birkner, M.; Nüsslin, F.
2000-07-01
A method which combines the accuracy of Monte Carlo dose calculation with a finite size pencil-beam based intensity modulation optimization is presented. The pencil-beam algorithm is employed to compute the fluence element updates for a converging sequence of Monte Carlo dose distributions. The combination is shown to improve results over the pencil-beam based optimization in a lung tumour case and a head and neck case. Inhomogeneity effects like a broader penumbra and dose build-up regions can be compensated for by intensity modulation.
Monte Carlo simulation of an expanding gas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boyd, Iain D.
1989-01-01
By application of simple computer graphics techniques, the statistical performance of two Monte Carlo methods used in the simulation of rarefied gas flows are assessed. Specifically, two direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) methods developed by Bird and Nanbu are considered. The graphics techniques are found to be of great benefit in the reduction and interpretation of the large volume of data generated, thus enabling important conclusions to be drawn about the simulation results. Hence, it is discovered that the method of Nanbu suffers from increased statistical fluctuations, thereby prohibiting its use in the solution of practical problems.
Geodesic Monte Carlo on Embedded Manifolds
Byrne, Simon; Girolami, Mark
2013-01-01
Markov chain Monte Carlo methods explicitly defined on the manifold of probability distributions have recently been established. These methods are constructed from diffusions across the manifold and the solution of the equations describing geodesic flows in the Hamilton–Jacobi representation. This paper takes the differential geometric basis of Markov chain Monte Carlo further by considering methods to simulate from probability distributions that themselves are defined on a manifold, with common examples being classes of distributions describing directional statistics. Proposal mechanisms are developed based on the geodesic flows over the manifolds of support for the distributions, and illustrative examples are provided for the hypersphere and Stiefel manifold of orthonormal matrices. PMID:25309024
Chemical application of diffusion quantum Monte Carlo
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reynolds, P. J.; Lester, W. A., Jr.
1984-01-01
The diffusion quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) method gives a stochastic solution to the Schroedinger equation. This approach is receiving increasing attention in chemical applications as a result of its high accuracy. However, reducing statistical uncertainty remains a priority because chemical effects are often obtained as small differences of large numbers. As an example, the single-triplet splitting of the energy of the methylene molecule CH sub 2 is given. The QMC algorithm was implemented on the CYBER 205, first as a direct transcription of the algorithm running on the VAX 11/780, and second by explicitly writing vector code for all loops longer than a crossover length C. The speed of the codes relative to one another as a function of C, and relative to the VAX, are discussed. The computational time dependence obtained versus the number of basis functions is discussed and this is compared with that obtained from traditional quantum chemistry codes and that obtained from traditional computer architectures.
Theory and Applications of Quantum Monte Carlo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deible, Michael John
With the development of peta-scale computers and exa-scale only a few years away, the quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) method, with favorable scaling and inherent parrallelizability, is poised to increase its impact on the electronic structure community. The most widely used variation of QMC is the diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) method. The accuracy of the DMC method is only limited by the trial wave function that it employs. The effect of the trial wave function is studied here by initially developing correlation-consistent Gaussian basis sets for use in DMC calculations. These basis sets give a low variance in variance Monte Carlo calculations and improved convergence in DMC. The orbital type used in the trial wave function is then investigated, and it is shown that Brueckner orbitals result in a DMC energy comparable to a DMC energy with orbitals from density functional theory and significantly lower than orbitals from Hartree-Fock theory. Three large weakly interacting systems are then studied; a water-16 isomer, a methane clathrate, and a carbon dioxide clathrate. The DMC method is seen to be in good agreement with MP2 calculations and provides reliable benchmarks. Several strongly correlated systems are then studied. An H4 model system that allows for a fine tuning of the multi-configurational character of the wave function shows when the accuracy of the DMC method with a single Slater-determinant trial function begins to deviate from multi-reference benchmarks. The weakly interacting face-to-face ethylene dimer is studied with and without a rotation around the pi bond, which is used to increase the multi-configurational nature of the wave function. This test shows that the effect of a multi-configurational wave function in weakly interacting systems causes DMC with a single Slater-determinant to be unable to achieve sub-chemical accuracy. The beryllium dimer is studied, and it is shown that a very large determinant expansion is required for DMC to predict a binding
A quasi-Monte Carlo Metropolis algorithm
Owen, Art B.; Tribble, Seth D.
2005-01-01
This work presents a version of the Metropolis–Hastings algorithm using quasi-Monte Carlo inputs. We prove that the method yields consistent estimates in some problems with finite state spaces and completely uniformly distributed inputs. In some numerical examples, the proposed method is much more accurate than ordinary Metropolis–Hastings sampling. PMID:15956207
Monte Carlo methods in genetic analysis
Lin, Shili
1996-12-31
Many genetic analyses require computation of probabilities and likelihoods of pedigree data. With more and more genetic marker data deriving from new DNA technologies becoming available to researchers, exact computations are often formidable with standard statistical methods and computational algorithms. The desire to utilize as much available data as possible, coupled with complexities of realistic genetic models, push traditional approaches to their limits. These methods encounter severe methodological and computational challenges, even with the aid of advanced computing technology. Monte Carlo methods are therefore increasingly being explored as practical techniques for estimating these probabilities and likelihoods. This paper reviews the basic elements of the Markov chain Monte Carlo method and the method of sequential imputation, with an emphasis upon their applicability to genetic analysis. Three areas of applications are presented to demonstrate the versatility of Markov chain Monte Carlo for different types of genetic problems. A multilocus linkage analysis example is also presented to illustrate the sequential imputation method. Finally, important statistical issues of Markov chain Monte Carlo and sequential imputation, some of which are unique to genetic data, are discussed, and current solutions are outlined. 72 refs.
MCMAC: Monte Carlo Merger Analysis Code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dawson, William A.
2014-07-01
Monte Carlo Merger Analysis Code (MCMAC) aids in the study of merging clusters. It takes observed priors on each subcluster's mass, radial velocity, and projected separation, draws randomly from those priors, and uses them in a analytic model to get posterior PDF's for merger dynamic properties of interest (e.g. collision velocity, time since collision).
A comparison of Monte Carlo generators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golan, Tomasz
2015-05-01
A comparison of GENIE, NEUT, NUANCE, and NuWro Monte Carlo neutrino event generators is presented using a set of four observables: protons multiplicity, total visible energy, most energetic proton momentum, and π+ two-dimensional energy vs cosine distribution.
Monte Carlo simulations of lattice gauge theories
Rebbi, C
1980-02-01
Monte Carlo simulations done for four-dimensional lattice gauge systems are described, where the gauge group is one of the following: U(1); SU(2); Z/sub N/, i.e., the subgroup of U(1) consisting of the elements e 2..pi..in/N with integer n and N; the eight-element group of quaternions, Q; the 24- and 48-element subgroups of SU(2), denoted by T and O, which reduce to the rotation groups of the tetrahedron and the octahedron when their centers Z/sub 2/, are factored out. All of these groups can be considered subgroups of SU(2) and a common normalization was used for the action. The following types of Monte Carlo experiments are considered: simulations of a thermal cycle, where the temperature of the system is varied slightly every few Monte Carlo iterations and the internal energy is measured; mixed-phase runs, where several Monte Carlo iterations are done at a few temperatures near a phase transition starting with a lattice which is half ordered and half disordered; measurements of averages of Wilson factors for loops of different shape. 5 figures, 1 table. (RWR)
A comparison of Monte Carlo generators
Golan, Tomasz
2015-05-15
A comparison of GENIE, NEUT, NUANCE, and NuWro Monte Carlo neutrino event generators is presented using a set of four observables: protons multiplicity, total visible energy, most energetic proton momentum, and π{sup +} two-dimensional energy vs cosine distribution.
Scalable Domain Decomposed Monte Carlo Particle Transport
O'Brien, Matthew Joseph
2013-12-05
In this dissertation, we present the parallel algorithms necessary to run domain decomposed Monte Carlo particle transport on large numbers of processors (millions of processors). Previous algorithms were not scalable, and the parallel overhead became more computationally costly than the numerical simulation.
Frequency domain optical tomography using a Monte Carlo perturbation method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Sakamoto, Hiroki
2016-04-01
A frequency domain Monte Carlo method is applied to near-infrared optical tomography, where an intensity-modulated light source with a given modulation frequency is used to reconstruct optical properties. The frequency domain reconstruction technique allows for better separation between the scattering and absorption properties of inclusions, even for ill-posed inverse problems, due to cross-talk between the scattering and absorption reconstructions. The frequency domain Monte Carlo calculation for light transport in an absorbing and scattering medium has thus far been analyzed mostly for the reconstruction of optical properties in simple layered tissues. This study applies a Monte Carlo calculation algorithm, which can handle complex-valued particle weights for solving a frequency domain transport equation, to optical tomography in two-dimensional heterogeneous tissues. The Jacobian matrix that is needed to reconstruct the optical properties is obtained by a first-order "differential operator" technique, which involves less variance than the conventional "correlated sampling" technique. The numerical examples in this paper indicate that the newly proposed Monte Carlo method provides reconstructed results for the scattering and absorption coefficients that compare favorably with the results obtained from conventional deterministic or Monte Carlo methods.
Quantum Monte Carlo simulations of tunneling in quantum adiabatic optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brady, Lucas T.; van Dam, Wim
2016-03-01
We explore to what extent path-integral quantum Monte Carlo methods can efficiently simulate quantum adiabatic optimization algorithms during a quantum tunneling process. Specifically we look at symmetric cost functions defined over n bits with a single potential barrier that a successful quantum adiabatic optimization algorithm will have to tunnel through. The height and width of this barrier depend on n , and by tuning these dependencies, we can make the optimization algorithm succeed or fail in polynomial time. In this article we compare the strength of quantum adiabatic tunneling with that of path-integral quantum Monte Carlo methods. We find numerical evidence that quantum Monte Carlo algorithms will succeed in the same regimes where quantum adiabatic optimization succeeds.
Monte Carlo simulations of phosphate polyhedron connectivity in glasses
ALAM,TODD M.
2000-01-01
Monte Carlo simulations of phosphate tetrahedron connectivity distributions in alkali and alkaline earth phosphate glasses are reported. By utilizing a discrete bond model, the distribution of next-nearest neighbor connectivities between phosphate polyhedron for random, alternating and clustering bonding scenarios was evaluated as a function of the relative bond energy difference. The simulated distributions are compared to experimentally observed connectivities reported for solid-state two-dimensional exchange and double-quantum NMR experiments of phosphate glasses. These Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that the polyhedron connectivity is best described by a random distribution in lithium phosphate and calcium phosphate glasses.
Monte Carlo Simulations of Phosphate Polyhedron Connectivity in Glasses
ALAM,TODD M.
1999-12-21
Monte Carlo simulations of phosphate tetrahedron connectivity distributions in alkali and alkaline earth phosphate glasses are reported. By utilizing a discrete bond model, the distribution of next-nearest neighbor connectivities between phosphate polyhedron for random, alternating and clustering bonding scenarios was evaluated as a function of the relative bond energy difference. The simulated distributions are compared to experimentally observed connectivities reported for solid-state two-dimensional exchange and double-quantum NMR experiments of phosphate glasses. These Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that the polyhedron connectivity is best described by a random distribution in lithium phosphate and calcium phosphate glasses.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nettelbeck, H.; Takacs, G. J.; Rosenfeld, A. B.
2008-09-01
The application of a strong transverse magnetic field to a volume undergoing irradiation by a photon beam can produce localized regions of dose enhancement and dose reduction. This study uses the PENELOPE Monte Carlo code to investigate the effect of a slice of uniform transverse magnetic field on a photon beam using different magnetic field strengths and photon beam energies. The maximum and minimum dose yields obtained in the regions of dose enhancement and dose reduction are compared to those obtained with the EGS4 Monte Carlo code in a study by Li et al (2001), who investigated the effect of a slice of uniform transverse magnetic field (1 to 20 Tesla) applied to high-energy photon beams. PENELOPE simulations yielded maximum dose enhancements and dose reductions as much as 111% and 77%, respectively, where most results were within 6% of the EGS4 result. Further PENELOPE simulations were performed with the Sheikh-Bagheri and Rogers (2002) input spectra for 6, 10 and 15 MV photon beams, yielding results within 4% of those obtained with the Mohan et al (1985) spectra. Small discrepancies between a few of the EGS4 and PENELOPE results prompted an investigation into the influence of the PENELOPE elastic scattering parameters C1 and C2 and low-energy electron and photon transport cut-offs. Repeating the simulations with smaller scoring bins improved the resolution of the regions of dose enhancement and dose reduction, especially near the magnetic field boundaries where the dose deposition can abruptly increase or decrease. This study also investigates the effect of a magnetic field on the low-energy electron spectrum that may correspond to a change in the radiobiological effectiveness (RBE). Simulations show that the increase in dose is achieved predominantly through the lower energy electron population.
Microbial contamination in poultry chillers estimated by Monte Carlo simulations
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The risk of microbial contamination during poultry processing may be reduced by the operating characteristics of the chiller. The performance of air chillers and immersion chillers were compared in terms of pre-chill and post-chill contamination using Monte Carlo simulations. Three parameters were u...
Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of light nuclei.
Pieper, S. C.; Physics
2008-01-01
Variational Monte Carlo and Green's function Monte Carlo are powerful tools for cal- culations of properties of light nuclei using realistic two-nucleon (NN) and three-nucleon (NNN) potentials. Recently the GFMC method has been extended to multiple states with the same quantum numbers. The combination of the Argonne v18 two-nucleon and Illinois-2 three-nucleon potentials gives a good prediction of many energies of nuclei up to 12 C. A number of other recent results are presented: comparison of binding energies with those obtained by the no-core shell model; the incompatibility of modern nuclear Hamiltonians with a bound tetra-neutron; difficulties in computing RMS radii of very weakly bound nuclei, such as 6He; center-of-mass effects on spectroscopic factors; and the possible use of an artificial external well in calculations of neutron-rich isotopes.
Status of Monte Carlo at Los Alamos
Thompson, W.L.; Cashwell, E.D.
1980-01-01
At Los Alamos the early work of Fermi, von Neumann, and Ulam has been developed and supplemented by many followers, notably Cashwell and Everett, and the main product today is the continuous-energy, general-purpose, generalized-geometry, time-dependent, coupled neutron-photon transport code called MCNP. The Los Alamos Monte Carlo research and development effort is concentrated in Group X-6. MCNP treats an arbitrary three-dimensional configuration of arbitrary materials in geometric cells bounded by first- and second-degree surfaces and some fourth-degree surfaces (elliptical tori). Monte Carlo has evolved into perhaps the main method for radiation transport calculations at Los Alamos. MCNP is used in every technical division at the Laboratory by over 130 users about 600 times a month accounting for nearly 200 hours of CDC-7600 time.
An enhanced Monte Carlo outlier detection method.
Zhang, Liangxiao; Li, Peiwu; Mao, Jin; Ma, Fei; Ding, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Qi
2015-09-30
Outlier detection is crucial in building a highly predictive model. In this study, we proposed an enhanced Monte Carlo outlier detection method by establishing cross-prediction models based on determinate normal samples and analyzing the distribution of prediction errors individually for dubious samples. One simulated and three real datasets were used to illustrate and validate the performance of our method, and the results indicated that this method outperformed Monte Carlo outlier detection in outlier diagnosis. After these outliers were removed, the value of validation by Kovats retention indices and the root mean square error of prediction decreased from 3.195 to 1.655, and the average cross-validation prediction error decreased from 2.0341 to 1.2780. This method helps establish a good model by eliminating outliers. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26226927
Quantum Monte Carlo calculations for carbon nanotubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luu, Thomas; Lähde, Timo A.
2016-04-01
We show how lattice quantum Monte Carlo can be applied to the electronic properties of carbon nanotubes in the presence of strong electron-electron correlations. We employ the path-integral formalism and use methods developed within the lattice QCD community for our numerical work. Our lattice Hamiltonian is closely related to the hexagonal Hubbard model augmented by a long-range electron-electron interaction. We apply our method to the single-quasiparticle spectrum of the (3,3) armchair nanotube configuration, and consider the effects of strong electron-electron correlations. Our approach is equally applicable to other nanotubes, as well as to other carbon nanostructures. We benchmark our Monte Carlo calculations against the two- and four-site Hubbard models, where a direct numerical solution is feasible.
Status of Monte Carlo at Los Alamos
Thompson, W.L.; Cashwell, E.D.; Godfrey, T.N.K.; Schrandt, R.G.; Deutsch, O.L.; Booth, T.E.
1980-05-01
Four papers were presented by Group X-6 on April 22, 1980, at the Oak Ridge Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC) Seminar-Workshop on Theory and Applications of Monte Carlo Methods. These papers are combined into one report for convenience and because they are related to each other. The first paper (by Thompson and Cashwell) is a general survey about X-6 and MCNP and is an introduction to the other three papers. It can also serve as a resume of X-6. The second paper (by Godfrey) explains some of the details of geometry specification in MCNP. The third paper (by Cashwell and Schrandt) illustrates calculating flux at a point with MCNP; in particular, the once-more-collided flux estimator is demonstrated. Finally, the fourth paper (by Thompson, Deutsch, and Booth) is a tutorial on some variance-reduction techniques. It should be required for a fledging Monte Carlo practitioner.
Monte Carlo Methods in the Physical Sciences
Kalos, M H
2007-06-06
I will review the role that Monte Carlo methods play in the physical sciences. They are very widely used for a number of reasons: they permit the rapid and faithful transformation of a natural or model stochastic process into a computer code. They are powerful numerical methods for treating the many-dimensional problems that derive from important physical systems. Finally, many of the methods naturally permit the use of modern parallel computers in efficient ways. In the presentation, I will emphasize four aspects of the computations: whether or not the computation derives from a natural or model stochastic process; whether the system under study is highly idealized or realistic; whether the Monte Carlo methodology is straightforward or mathematically sophisticated; and finally, the scientific role of the computation.
Fast Lattice Monte Carlo Simulations of Polymers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Pengfei
2014-03-01
The recently proposed fast lattice Monte Carlo (FLMC) simulations (with multiple occupancy of lattice sites (MOLS) and Kronecker δ-function interactions) give much faster/better sampling of configuration space than both off-lattice molecular simulations (with pair-potential calculations) and conventional lattice Monte Carlo simulations (with self- and mutual-avoiding walk and nearest-neighbor interactions) of polymers.[1] Quantitative coarse-graining of polymeric systems can also be performed using lattice models with MOLS.[2] Here we use several model systems, including polymer melts, solutions, blends, as well as confined and/or grafted polymers, to demonstrate the great advantages of FLMC simulations in the study of equilibrium properties of polymers.
Monte-Carlo Opening Books for Amazons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kloetzer, Julien
Automatically creating opening books is a natural step towards the building of strong game-playing programs, especially when there is little available knowledge about the game. However, while recent popular Monte-Carlo Tree-Search programs showed strong results for various games, we show here that programs based on such methods cannot efficiently use opening books created using algorithms based on minimax. To overcome this issue, we propose to use an MCTS-based technique, Meta-MCTS, to create such opening books. This method, while requiring some tuning to arrive at the best opening book possible, shows promising results to create an opening book for the game of the Amazons, even if this is at the cost of removing its Monte-Carlo part.
Inhomogeneous Monte Carlo simulations of dermoscopic spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gareau, Daniel S.; Li, Ting; Jacques, Steven; Krueger, James
2012-03-01
Clinical skin-lesion diagnosis uses dermoscopy: 10X epiluminescence microscopy. Skin appearance ranges from black to white with shades of blue, red, gray and orange. Color is an important diagnostic criteria for diseases including melanoma. Melanin and blood content and distribution impact the diffuse spectral remittance (300-1000nm). Skin layers: immersion medium, stratum corneum, spinous epidermis, basal epidermis and dermis as well as laterally asymmetric features (eg. melanocytic invasion) were modeled in an inhomogeneous Monte Carlo model.
Monte Carlo simulation of Alaska wolf survival
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feingold, S. J.
1996-02-01
Alaskan wolves live in a harsh climate and are hunted intensively. Penna's biological aging code, using Monte Carlo methods, has been adapted to simulate wolf survival. It was run on the case in which hunting causes the disruption of wolves' social structure. Social disruption was shown to increase the number of deaths occurring at a given level of hunting. For high levels of social disruption, the population did not survive.
Linear-scaling quantum Monte Carlo calculations.
Williamson, A J; Hood, R Q; Grossman, J C
2001-12-10
A method is presented for using truncated, maximally localized Wannier functions to introduce sparsity into the Slater determinant part of the trial wave function in quantum Monte Carlo calculations. When combined with an efficient numerical evaluation of these localized orbitals, the dominant cost in the calculation, namely, the evaluation of the Slater determinant, scales linearly with system size. This technique is applied to accurate total energy calculation of hydrogenated silicon clusters and carbon fullerenes containing 20-1000 valence electrons. PMID:11736525
Applications of Maxent to quantum Monte Carlo
Silver, R.N.; Sivia, D.S.; Gubernatis, J.E. ); Jarrell, M. . Dept. of Physics)
1990-01-01
We consider the application of maximum entropy methods to the analysis of data produced by computer simulations. The focus is the calculation of the dynamical properties of quantum many-body systems by Monte Carlo methods, which is termed the Analytical Continuation Problem.'' For the Anderson model of dilute magnetic impurities in metals, we obtain spectral functions and transport coefficients which obey Kondo Universality.'' 24 refs., 7 figs.
Monte Carlo calculation of monitor unit for electron arc therapy
Chow, James C. L.; Jiang Runqing
2010-04-15
Purpose: Monitor unit (MU) calculations for electron arc therapy were carried out using Monte Carlo simulations and verified by measurements. Variations in the dwell factor (DF), source-to-surface distance (SSD), and treatment arc angle ({alpha}) were studied. Moreover, the possibility of measuring the DF, which requires gantry rotation, using a solid water rectangular, instead of cylindrical, phantom was investigated. Methods: A phase space file based on the 9 MeV electron beam with rectangular cutout (physical size=2.6x21 cm{sup 2}) attached to the block tray holder of a Varian 21 EX linear accelerator (linac) was generated using the EGSnrc-based Monte Carlo code and verified by measurement. The relative output factor (ROF), SSD offset, and DF, needed in the MU calculation, were determined using measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. An ionization chamber, a radiographic film, a solid water rectangular phantom, and a cylindrical phantom made of polystyrene were used in dosimetry measurements. Results: Percentage deviations of ROF, SSD offset, and DF between measured and Monte Carlo results were 1.2%, 0.18%, and 1.5%, respectively. It was found that the DF decreased with an increase in {alpha}, and such a decrease in DF was more significant in the {alpha} range of 0 deg. - 60 deg. than 60 deg. - 120 deg. Moreover, for a fixed {alpha}, the DF increased with an increase in SSD. Comparing the DF determined using the rectangular and cylindrical phantom through measurements and Monte Carlo simulations, it was found that the DF determined by the rectangular phantom agreed well with that by the cylindrical one within {+-}1.2%. It shows that a simple setup of a solid water rectangular phantom was sufficient to replace the cylindrical phantom using our specific cutout to determine the DF associated with the electron arc. Conclusions: By verifying using dosimetry measurements, Monte Carlo simulations proved to be an alternative way to perform MU calculations effectively
jTracker and Monte Carlo Comparison
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Selensky, Lauren; SeaQuest/E906 Collaboration
2015-10-01
SeaQuest is designed to observe the characteristics and behavior of `sea-quarks' in a proton by reconstructing them from the subatomic particles produced in a collision. The 120 GeV beam from the main injector collides with a fixed target and then passes through a series of detectors which records information about the particles produced in the collision. However, this data becomes meaningful only after it has been processed, stored, analyzed, and interpreted. Several programs are involved in this process. jTracker (sqerp) reads wire or hodoscope hits and reconstructs the tracks of potential dimuon pairs from a run, and Geant4 Monte Carlo simulates dimuon production and background noise from the beam. During track reconstruction, an event must meet the criteria set by the tracker to be considered a viable dimuon pair; this ensures that relevant data is retained. As a check, a comparison between a new version of jTracker and Monte Carlo was made in order to see how accurately jTracker could reconstruct the events created by Monte Carlo. In this presentation, the results of the inquest and their potential effects on the programming will be shown. This work is supported by U.S. DOE MENP Grant DE-FG02-03ER41243.
Path Integral Monte Carlo Methods for Fermions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ethan, Ethan; Dubois, Jonathan; Ceperley, David
2014-03-01
In general, Quantum Monte Carlo methods suffer from a sign problem when simulating fermionic systems. This causes the efficiency of a simulation to decrease exponentially with the number of particles and inverse temperature. To circumvent this issue, a nodal constraint is often implemented, restricting the Monte Carlo procedure from sampling paths that cause the many-body density matrix to change sign. Unfortunately, this high-dimensional nodal surface is not a priori known unless the system is exactly solvable, resulting in uncontrolled errors. We will discuss two possible routes to extend the applicability of finite-temperatue path integral Monte Carlo. First we extend the regime where signful simulations are possible through a novel permutation sampling scheme. Afterwards, we discuss a method to variationally improve the nodal surface by minimizing a free energy during simulation. Applications of these methods will include both free and interacting electron gases, concluding with discussion concerning extension to inhomogeneous systems. Support from DOE DE-FG52-09NA29456, DE-AC52-07NA27344, LLNL LDRD 10- ERD-058, and the Lawrence Scholar program.
Ahmad, I.; Back, B.B.; Betts, R.R.
1995-08-01
An essential component in the assessment of the significance of the results from APEX is a demonstrated understanding of the acceptance and response of the apparatus. This requires detailed simulations which can be compared to the results of various source and in-beam measurements. These simulations were carried out using the computer codes EGS and GEANT, both specifically designed for this purpose. As far as is possible, all details of the geometry of APEX were included. We compared the results of these simulations with measurements using electron conversion sources, positron sources and pair sources. The overall agreement is quite acceptable and some of the details are still being worked on. The simulation codes were also used to compare the results of measurements of in-beam positron and conversion electrons with expectations based on known physics or other methods. Again, satisfactory agreement is achieved. We are currently working on the simulation of various pair-producing scenarios such as the decay of a neutral object in the mass range 1.5-2.0 MeV and also the emission of internal pairs from nuclear transitions in the colliding ions. These results are essential input to the final results from APEX on cross section limits for various, previously proposed, sharp-line producing scenarios.
Improved method for implicit Monte Carlo
Brown, F. B.; Martin, W. R.
2001-01-01
The Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) method has been used for over 30 years to analyze radiative transfer problems, such as those encountered in stellar atmospheres or inertial confinement fusion. Reference [2] provided an exact error analysis of IMC for 0-D problems and demonstrated that IMC can exhibit substantial errors when timesteps are large. These temporal errors are inherent in the method and are in addition to spatial discretization errors and approximations that address nonlinearities (due to variation of physical constants). In Reference [3], IMC and four other methods were analyzed in detail and compared on both theoretical grounds and the accuracy of numerical tests. As discussed in, two alternative schemes for solving the radiative transfer equations, the Carter-Forest (C-F) method and the Ahrens-Larsen (A-L) method, do not exhibit the errors found in IMC; for 0-D, both of these methods are exact for all time, while for 3-D, A-L is exact for all time and C-F is exact within a timestep. These methods can yield substantially superior results to IMC.
Monte Carlo simulation of chromatin stretching.
Aumann, Frank; Lankas, Filip; Caudron, Maïwen; Langowski, Jörg
2006-04-01
We present Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of the stretching of a single chromatin fiber. The model approximates the DNA by a flexible polymer chain with Debye-Hückel electrostatics and uses a two-angle zigzag model for the geometry of the linker DNA connecting the nucleosomes. The latter are represented by flat disks interacting via an attractive Gay-Berne potential. Our results show that the stiffness of the chromatin fiber strongly depends on the linker DNA length. Furthermore, changing the twisting angle between nucleosomes from 90 degrees to 130 degrees increases the stiffness significantly. An increase in the opening angle from 22 degrees to 34 degrees leads to softer fibers for small linker lengths. We observe that fibers containing a linker histone at each nucleosome are stiffer compared to those without the linker histone. The simulated persistence lengths and elastic moduli agree with experimental data. Finally, we show that the chromatin fiber does not behave as an isotropic elastic rod, but its rigidity depends on the direction of deformation: Chromatin is much more resistant to stretching than to bending. PMID:16711856
Monte Carlo simulation of chromatin stretching
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aumann, Frank; Lankas, Filip; Caudron, Maïwen; Langowski, Jörg
2006-04-01
We present Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of the stretching of a single 30nm chromatin fiber. The model approximates the DNA by a flexible polymer chain with Debye-Hückel electrostatics and uses a two-angle zigzag model for the geometry of the linker DNA connecting the nucleosomes. The latter are represented by flat disks interacting via an attractive Gay-Berne potential. Our results show that the stiffness of the chromatin fiber strongly depends on the linker DNA length. Furthermore, changing the twisting angle between nucleosomes from 90° to 130° increases the stiffness significantly. An increase in the opening angle from 22° to 34° leads to softer fibers for small linker lengths. We observe that fibers containing a linker histone at each nucleosome are stiffer compared to those without the linker histone. The simulated persistence lengths and elastic moduli agree with experimental data. Finally, we show that the chromatin fiber does not behave as an isotropic elastic rod, but its rigidity depends on the direction of deformation: Chromatin is much more resistant to stretching than to bending.
Novel Quantum Monte Carlo Approaches for Quantum Liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rubenstein, Brenda M.
the eventual hope is to apply this algorithm to the exploration of yet unidentified high-pressure, low-temperature phases of hydrogen, I employ this algorithm to determine whether or not quantum hard spheres can form a low-temperature bcc solid if exchange is not taken into account. In the final chapter of this thesis, I use Path Integral Monte Carlo once again to explore whether glassy para-hydrogen exhibits superfluidity. Physicists have long searched for ways to coax hydrogen into becoming a superfluid. I present evidence that, while glassy hydrogen does not crystallize at the temperatures at which hydrogen might become a superfluid, it nevertheless does not exhibit superfluidity. This is because the average binding energy per p-H2 molecule poses a severe barrier to exchange regardless of whether the system is crystalline. All in all, this work extends the reach of Quantum Monte Carlo methods to new systems and brings the power of existing methods to bear on new problems. Portions of this work have been published in Rubenstein, PRE (2010) and Rubenstein, PRA (2012) [167;169]. Other papers not discussed here published during my Ph.D. include Rubenstein, BPJ (2008) and Rubenstein, PRL (2012) [166;168]. The work in Chapters 6 and 7 is currently unpublished. [166] Brenda M. Rubenstein, Ivan Coluzza, and Mark A. Miller. Controlling the folding and substrate-binding of proteins using polymer brushes. Physical Review Letters, 108(20):208104, May 2012. [167] Brenda M. Rubenstein, J.E. Gubernatis, and J.D. Doll. Comparative monte carlo efficiency by monte carlo analysis. Physical Review E, 82(3):036701, September 2010. [168] Brenda M. Rubenstein and Laura J. Kaufman. The role of extracellular matrix in glioma invasion: A cellular potts model approach. Biophysical Journal, 95(12):5661-- 5680, December 2008. [169] Brenda M. Rubenstein, Shiwei Zhang, and David R. Reichman. Finite-temperature auxiliary-field quantum monte carlo for bose-fermi mixtures. Physical Review A, 86
Multiple-time-stepping generalized hybrid Monte Carlo methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Escribano, Bruno; Akhmatskaya, Elena; Reich, Sebastian; Azpiroz, Jon M.
2015-01-01
Performance of the generalized shadow hybrid Monte Carlo (GSHMC) method [1], which proved to be superior in sampling efficiency over its predecessors [2-4], molecular dynamics and hybrid Monte Carlo, can be further improved by combining it with multi-time-stepping (MTS) and mollification of slow forces. We demonstrate that the comparatively simple modifications of the method not only lead to better performance of GSHMC itself but also allow for beating the best performed methods, which use the similar force splitting schemes. In addition we show that the same ideas can be successfully applied to the conventional generalized hybrid Monte Carlo method (GHMC). The resulting methods, MTS-GHMC and MTS-GSHMC, provide accurate reproduction of thermodynamic and dynamical properties, exact temperature control during simulation and computational robustness and efficiency. MTS-GHMC uses a generalized momentum update to achieve weak stochastic stabilization to the molecular dynamics (MD) integrator. MTS-GSHMC adds the use of a shadow (modified) Hamiltonian to filter the MD trajectories in the HMC scheme. We introduce a new shadow Hamiltonian formulation adapted to force-splitting methods. The use of such Hamiltonians improves the acceptance rate of trajectories and has a strong impact on the sampling efficiency of the method. Both methods were implemented in the open-source MD package ProtoMol and were tested on a water and a protein systems. Results were compared to those obtained using a Langevin Molly (LM) method [5] on the same systems. The test results demonstrate the superiority of the new methods over LM in terms of stability, accuracy and sampling efficiency. This suggests that putting the MTS approach in the framework of hybrid Monte Carlo and using the natural stochasticity offered by the generalized hybrid Monte Carlo lead to improving stability of MTS and allow for achieving larger step sizes in the simulation of complex systems.
Multiple-time-stepping generalized hybrid Monte Carlo methods
Escribano, Bruno; Akhmatskaya, Elena; Reich, Sebastian; Azpiroz, Jon M.
2015-01-01
Performance of the generalized shadow hybrid Monte Carlo (GSHMC) method [1], which proved to be superior in sampling efficiency over its predecessors [2–4], molecular dynamics and hybrid Monte Carlo, can be further improved by combining it with multi-time-stepping (MTS) and mollification of slow forces. We demonstrate that the comparatively simple modifications of the method not only lead to better performance of GSHMC itself but also allow for beating the best performed methods, which use the similar force splitting schemes. In addition we show that the same ideas can be successfully applied to the conventional generalized hybrid Monte Carlo method (GHMC). The resulting methods, MTS-GHMC and MTS-GSHMC, provide accurate reproduction of thermodynamic and dynamical properties, exact temperature control during simulation and computational robustness and efficiency. MTS-GHMC uses a generalized momentum update to achieve weak stochastic stabilization to the molecular dynamics (MD) integrator. MTS-GSHMC adds the use of a shadow (modified) Hamiltonian to filter the MD trajectories in the HMC scheme. We introduce a new shadow Hamiltonian formulation adapted to force-splitting methods. The use of such Hamiltonians improves the acceptance rate of trajectories and has a strong impact on the sampling efficiency of the method. Both methods were implemented in the open-source MD package ProtoMol and were tested on a water and a protein systems. Results were compared to those obtained using a Langevin Molly (LM) method [5] on the same systems. The test results demonstrate the superiority of the new methods over LM in terms of stability, accuracy and sampling efficiency. This suggests that putting the MTS approach in the framework of hybrid Monte Carlo and using the natural stochasticity offered by the generalized hybrid Monte Carlo lead to improving stability of MTS and allow for achieving larger step sizes in the simulation of complex systems.
Four decades of implicit Monte Carlo
Wollaber, Allan B.
2016-04-25
In 1971, Fleck and Cummings derived a system of equations to enable robust Monte Carlo simulations of time-dependent, thermal radiative transfer problems. Denoted the “Implicit Monte Carlo” (IMC) equations, their solution remains the de facto standard of high-fidelity radiative transfer simulations. Over the course of 44 years, their numerical properties have become better understood, and accuracy enhancements, novel acceleration methods, and variance reduction techniques have been suggested. In this review, we rederive the IMC equations—explicitly highlighting assumptions as they are made—and outfit the equations with a Monte Carlo interpretation. We put the IMC equations in context with other approximate formsmore » of the radiative transfer equations and present a new demonstration of their equivalence to another well-used linearization solved with deterministic transport methods for frequency-independent problems. We discuss physical and numerical limitations of the IMC equations for asymptotically small time steps, stability characteristics and the potential of maximum principle violations for large time steps, and solution behaviors in an asymptotically thick diffusive limit. We provide a new stability analysis for opacities with general monomial dependence on temperature. Here, we consider spatial accuracy limitations of the IMC equations and discussion acceleration and variance reduction techniques.« less
Direct aperture optimization for IMRT using Monte Carlo generated beamlets.
Bergman, Alanah M; Bush, Karl; Milette, Marie-Pierre; Popescu, I Antoniu; Otto, Karl; Duzenli, Cheryl
2006-10-01
This work introduces an EGSnrc-based Monte Carlo (MC) beamlet does distribution matrix into a direct aperture optimization (DAO) algorithm for IMRT inverse planning. The technique is referred to as Monte Carlo-direct aperture optimization (MC-DAO). The goal is to assess if the combination of accurate Monte Carlo tissue inhomogeneity modeling and DAO inverse planning will improve the dose accuracy and treatment efficiency for treatment planning. Several authors have shown that the presence of small fields and/or inhomogeneous materials in IMRT treatment fields can cause dose calculation errors for algorithms that are unable to accurately model electronic disequilibrium. This issue may also affect the IMRT optimization process because the dose calculation algorithm may not properly model difficult geometries such as targets close to low-density regions (lung, air etc.). A clinical linear accelerator head is simulated using BEAMnrc (NRC, Canada). A novel in-house algorithm subdivides the resulting phase space into 2.5 X 5.0 mm2 beamlets. Each beamlet is projected onto a patient-specific phantom. The beamlet dose contribution to each voxel in a structure-of-interest is calculated using DOSXYZnrc. The multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf positions are linked to the location of the beamlet does distributions. The MLC shapes are optimized using direct aperture optimization (DAO). A final Monte Carlo calculation with MLC modeling is used to compute the final dose distribution. Monte Carlo simulation can generate accurate beamlet dose distributions for traditionally difficult-to-calculate geometries, particularly for small fields crossing regions of tissue inhomogeneity. The introduction of DAO results in an additional improvement by increasing the treatment delivery efficiency. For the examples presented in this paper the reduction in the total number of monitor units to deliver is approximately 33% compared to fluence-based optimization methods. PMID:17089832
A Monte Carlo approach to water management
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koutsoyiannis, D.
2012-04-01
Common methods for making optimal decisions in water management problems are insufficient. Linear programming methods are inappropriate because hydrosystems are nonlinear with respect to their dynamics, operation constraints and objectives. Dynamic programming methods are inappropriate because water management problems cannot be divided into sequential stages. Also, these deterministic methods cannot properly deal with the uncertainty of future conditions (inflows, demands, etc.). Even stochastic extensions of these methods (e.g. linear-quadratic-Gaussian control) necessitate such drastic oversimplifications of hydrosystems that may make the obtained results irrelevant to the real world problems. However, a Monte Carlo approach is feasible and can form a general methodology applicable to any type of hydrosystem. This methodology uses stochastic simulation to generate system inputs, either unconditional or conditioned on a prediction, if available, and represents the operation of the entire system through a simulation model as faithful as possible, without demanding a specific mathematical form that would imply oversimplifications. Such representation fully respects the physical constraints, while at the same time it evaluates the system operation constraints and objectives in probabilistic terms, and derives their distribution functions and statistics through Monte Carlo simulation. As the performance criteria of a hydrosystem operation will generally be highly nonlinear and highly nonconvex functions of the control variables, a second Monte Carlo procedure, implementing stochastic optimization, is necessary to optimize system performance and evaluate the control variables of the system. The latter is facilitated if the entire representation is parsimonious, i.e. if the number of control variables is kept at a minimum by involving a suitable system parameterization. The approach is illustrated through three examples for (a) a hypothetical system of two reservoirs
Quantum Monte Carlo for vibrating molecules
Brown, W.R. |
1996-08-01
Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) has successfully computed the total electronic energies of atoms and molecules. The main goal of this work is to use correlation function quantum Monte Carlo (CFQMC) to compute the vibrational state energies of molecules given a potential energy surface (PES). In CFQMC, an ensemble of random walkers simulate the diffusion and branching processes of the imaginary-time time dependent Schroedinger equation in order to evaluate the matrix elements. The program QMCVIB was written to perform multi-state VMC and CFQMC calculations and employed for several calculations of the H{sub 2}O and C{sub 3} vibrational states, using 7 PES`s, 3 trial wavefunction forms, two methods of non-linear basis function parameter optimization, and on both serial and parallel computers. In order to construct accurate trial wavefunctions different wavefunctions forms were required for H{sub 2}O and C{sub 3}. In order to construct accurate trial wavefunctions for C{sub 3}, the non-linear parameters were optimized with respect to the sum of the energies of several low-lying vibrational states. In order to stabilize the statistical error estimates for C{sub 3} the Monte Carlo data was collected into blocks. Accurate vibrational state energies were computed using both serial and parallel QMCVIB programs. Comparison of vibrational state energies computed from the three C{sub 3} PES`s suggested that a non-linear equilibrium geometry PES is the most accurate and that discrete potential representations may be used to conveniently determine vibrational state energies.
Monte Carlo simulation of intercalated carbon nanotubes.
Mykhailenko, Oleksiy; Matsui, Denis; Prylutskyy, Yuriy; Le Normand, Francois; Eklund, Peter; Scharff, Peter
2007-01-01
Monte Carlo simulations of the single- and double-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) intercalated with different metals have been carried out. The interrelation between the length of a CNT, the number and type of metal atoms has also been established. This research is aimed at studying intercalated systems based on CNTs and d-metals such as Fe and Co. Factors influencing the stability of these composites have been determined theoretically by the Monte Carlo method with the Tersoff potential. The modeling of CNTs intercalated with metals by the Monte Carlo method has proved that there is a correlation between the length of a CNT and the number of endo-atoms of specific type. Thus, in the case of a metallic CNT (9,0) with length 17 bands (3.60 nm), in contrast to Co atoms, Fe atoms are extruded out of the CNT if the number of atoms in the CNT is not less than eight. Thus, this paper shows that a CNT of a certain size can be intercalated with no more than eight Fe atoms. The systems investigated are stabilized by coordination of 3d-atoms close to the CNT wall with a radius-vector of (0.18-0.20) nm. Another characteristic feature is that, within the temperature range of (400-700) K, small systems exhibit ground-state stabilization which is not characteristic of the higher ones. The behavior of Fe and Co endo-atoms between the walls of a double-walled carbon nanotube (DW CNT) is explained by a dominating van der Waals interaction between the Co atoms themselves, which is not true for the Fe atoms. PMID:17033783
Status of Monte-Carlo Event Generators
Hoeche, Stefan; /SLAC
2011-08-11
Recent progress on general-purpose Monte-Carlo event generators is reviewed with emphasis on the simulation of hard QCD processes and subsequent parton cascades. Describing full final states of high-energy particle collisions in contemporary experiments is an intricate task. Hundreds of particles are typically produced, and the reactions involve both large and small momentum transfer. The high-dimensional phase space makes an exact solution of the problem impossible. Instead, one typically resorts to regarding events as factorized into different steps, ordered descending in the mass scales or invariant momentum transfers which are involved. In this picture, a hard interaction, described through fixed-order perturbation theory, is followed by multiple Bremsstrahlung emissions off initial- and final-state and, finally, by the hadronization process, which binds QCD partons into color-neutral hadrons. Each of these steps can be treated independently, which is the basic concept inherent to general-purpose event generators. Their development is nowadays often focused on an improved description of radiative corrections to hard processes through perturbative QCD. In this context, the concept of jets is introduced, which allows to relate sprays of hadronic particles in detectors to the partons in perturbation theory. In this talk, we briefly review recent progress on perturbative QCD in event generation. The main focus lies on the general-purpose Monte-Carlo programs HERWIG, PYTHIA and SHERPA, which will be the workhorses for LHC phenomenology. A detailed description of the physics models included in these generators can be found in [8]. We also discuss matrix-element generators, which provide the parton-level input for general-purpose Monte Carlo.
Monte Carlo procedure for protein design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Irbäck, Anders; Peterson, Carsten; Potthast, Frank; Sandelin, Erik
1998-11-01
A method for sequence optimization in protein models is presented. The approach, which has inherited its basic philosophy from recent work by Deutsch and Kurosky [Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 323 (1996)] by maximizing conditional probabilities rather than minimizing energy functions, is based upon a different and very efficient multisequence Monte Carlo scheme. By construction, the method ensures that the designed sequences represent good folders thermodynamically. A bootstrap procedure for the sequence space search is devised making very large chains feasible. The algorithm is successfully explored on the two-dimensional HP model [K. F. Lau and K. A. Dill, Macromolecules 32, 3986 (1989)] with chain lengths N=16, 18, and 32.
Discovering correlated fermions using quantum Monte Carlo.
Wagner, Lucas K; Ceperley, David M
2016-09-01
It has become increasingly feasible to use quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods to study correlated fermion systems for realistic Hamiltonians. We give a summary of these techniques targeted at researchers in the field of correlated electrons, focusing on the fundamentals, capabilities, and current status of this technique. The QMC methods often offer the highest accuracy solutions available for systems in the continuum, and, since they address the many-body problem directly, the simulations can be analyzed to obtain insight into the nature of correlated quantum behavior. PMID:27518859
Monte Carlo methods to calculate impact probabilities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rickman, H.; Wiśniowski, T.; Wajer, P.; Gabryszewski, R.; Valsecchi, G. B.
2014-09-01
Context. Unraveling the events that took place in the solar system during the period known as the late heavy bombardment requires the interpretation of the cratered surfaces of the Moon and terrestrial planets. This, in turn, requires good estimates of the statistical impact probabilities for different source populations of projectiles, a subject that has received relatively little attention, since the works of Öpik (1951, Proc. R. Irish Acad. Sect. A, 54, 165) and Wetherill (1967, J. Geophys. Res., 72, 2429). Aims: We aim to work around the limitations of the Öpik and Wetherill formulae, which are caused by singularities due to zero denominators under special circumstances. Using modern computers, it is possible to make good estimates of impact probabilities by means of Monte Carlo simulations, and in this work, we explore the available options. Methods: We describe three basic methods to derive the average impact probability for a projectile with a given semi-major axis, eccentricity, and inclination with respect to a target planet on an elliptic orbit. One is a numerical averaging of the Wetherill formula; the next is a Monte Carlo super-sizing method using the target's Hill sphere. The third uses extensive minimum orbit intersection distance (MOID) calculations for a Monte Carlo sampling of potentially impacting orbits, along with calculations of the relevant interval for the timing of the encounter allowing collision. Numerical experiments are carried out for an intercomparison of the methods and to scrutinize their behavior near the singularities (zero relative inclination and equal perihelion distances). Results: We find an excellent agreement between all methods in the general case, while there appear large differences in the immediate vicinity of the singularities. With respect to the MOID method, which is the only one that does not involve simplifying assumptions and approximations, the Wetherill averaging impact probability departs by diverging toward
Monte Carlo radiation transport¶llelism
Cox, L. J.; Post, S. E.
2002-01-01
This talk summarizes the main aspects of the LANL ASCI Eolus project and its major unclassified code project, MCNP. The MCNP code provide a state-of-the-art Monte Carlo radiation transport to approximately 3000 users world-wide. Almost all hardware platforms are supported because we strictly adhere to the FORTRAN-90/95 standard. For parallel processing, MCNP uses a mixture of OpenMp combined with either MPI or PVM (shared and distributed memory). This talk summarizes our experiences on various platforms using MPI with and without OpenMP. These platforms include PC-Windows, Intel-LINUX, BlueMountain, Frost, ASCI-Q and others.
Monte Carlo simulation for the transport beamline
Romano, F.; Cuttone, G.; Jia, S. B.; Varisano, A.; Attili, A.; Marchetto, F.; Russo, G.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Carpinelli, M.
2013-07-26
In the framework of the ELIMED project, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are widely used to study the physical transport of charged particles generated by laser-target interactions and to preliminarily evaluate fluence and dose distributions. An energy selection system and the experimental setup for the TARANIS laser facility in Belfast (UK) have been already simulated with the GEANT4 (GEometry ANd Tracking) MC toolkit. Preliminary results are reported here. Future developments are planned to implement a MC based 3D treatment planning in order to optimize shots number and dose delivery.
Quantum Monte Carlo calculations for light nuclei.
Wiringa, R. B.
1998-10-23
Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of ground and low-lying excited states for nuclei with A {le} 8 are made using a realistic Hamiltonian that fits NN scattering data. Results for more than 40 different (J{pi}, T) states, plus isobaric analogs, are obtained and the known excitation spectra are reproduced reasonably well. Various density and momentum distributions and electromagnetic form factors and moments have also been computed. These are the first microscopic calculations that directly produce nuclear shell structure from realistic NN interactions.
Marcus, Ryan C.
2012-07-24
Overview of this presentation is (1) Exascale computing - different technologies, getting there; (2) high-performance proof-of-concept MCMini - features and results; and (3) OpenCL toolkit - Oatmeal (OpenCL Automatic Memory Allocation Library) - purpose and features. Despite driver issues, OpenCL seems like a good, hardware agnostic tool. MCMini demonstrates the possibility for GPGPU-based Monte Carlo methods - it shows great scaling for HPC application and algorithmic equivalence. Oatmeal provides a flexible framework to aid in the development of scientific OpenCL codes.
Modulated pulse bathymetric lidar Monte Carlo simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Tao; Wang, Yabo; Wang, Rong; Du, Peng; Min, Xia
2015-10-01
A typical modulated pulse bathymetric lidar system is investigated by simulation using a modulated pulse lidar simulation system. In the simulation, the return signal is generated by Monte Carlo method with modulated pulse propagation model and processed by mathematical tools like cross-correlation and digital filter. Computer simulation results incorporating the modulation detection scheme reveal a significant suppression of the water backscattering signal and corresponding target contrast enhancement. More simulation experiments are performed with various modulation and reception variables to investigate the effect of them on the bathymetric system performance.
A Monte Carlo algorithm for degenerate plasmas
Turrell, A.E. Sherlock, M.; Rose, S.J.
2013-09-15
A procedure for performing Monte Carlo calculations of plasmas with an arbitrary level of degeneracy is outlined. It has possible applications in inertial confinement fusion and astrophysics. Degenerate particles are initialised according to the Fermi–Dirac distribution function, and scattering is via a Pauli blocked binary collision approximation. The algorithm is tested against degenerate electron–ion equilibration, and the degenerate resistivity transport coefficient from unmagnetised first order transport theory. The code is applied to the cold fuel shell and alpha particle equilibration problem of inertial confinement fusion.
Monte Carlo simulation of the enantioseparation process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bustos, V. A.; Acosta, G.; Gomez, M. R.; Pereyra, V. D.
2012-09-01
By means of Monte Carlo simulation, a study of enantioseparation by capillary electrophoresis has been carried out. A simplified system consisting of two enantiomers S (R) and a selector chiral C, which reacts with the enantiomers to form complexes RC (SC), has been considered. The dependence of Δμ (enantioseparation) with the concentration of chiral selector and with temperature have been analyzed by simulation. The effect of the binding constant and the charge of the complexes are also analyzed. The results are qualitatively satisfactory, despite the simplicity of the model.
Discovering correlated fermions using quantum Monte Carlo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wagner, Lucas K.; Ceperley, David M.
2016-09-01
It has become increasingly feasible to use quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods to study correlated fermion systems for realistic Hamiltonians. We give a summary of these techniques targeted at researchers in the field of correlated electrons, focusing on the fundamentals, capabilities, and current status of this technique. The QMC methods often offer the highest accuracy solutions available for systems in the continuum, and, since they address the many-body problem directly, the simulations can be analyzed to obtain insight into the nature of correlated quantum behavior.
Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of proton conductivity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masłowski, T.; Drzewiński, A.; Ulner, J.; Wojtkiewicz, J.; Zdanowska-Frączek, M.; Nordlund, K.; Kuronen, A.
2014-07-01
The kinetic Monte Carlo method is used to model the dynamic properties of proton diffusion in anhydrous proton conductors. The results have been discussed with reference to a two-step process called the Grotthuss mechanism. There is a widespread belief that this mechanism is responsible for fast proton mobility. We showed in detail that the relative frequency of reorientation and diffusion processes is crucial for the conductivity. Moreover, the current dependence on proton concentration has been analyzed. In order to test our microscopic model the proton transport in polymer electrolyte membranes based on benzimidazole C7H6N2 molecules is studied.
Monte Carlo analysis of magnetic aftereffect phenomena
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andrei, Petru; Stancu, Alexandru
2006-04-01
Magnetic aftereffect phenomena are analyzed by using the Monte Carlo technique. This technique has the advantage that it can be applied to any model of hysteresis. It is shown that a log t-type dependence of the magnetization can be qualitatively predicted even in the framework of hysteresis models with local history, such as the Jiles-Atherton model. These models are computationally much more efficient than the models with global history such as the Preisach model. Numerical results related to the decay of the magnetization as of function of time, as well as to the viscosity coefficient, are presented.
Monte Carlo Simulations for Spinodal Decomposition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sander, Evelyn; Wanner, Thomas
1999-06-01
This paper addresses the phenomenon of spinodal decomposition for the Cahn-Hilliard equation. Namely, we are interested in why most solutions to the Cahn-Hilliard equation which start near a homogeneous equilibrium u 0≡ μ in the spinodal interval exhibit phase separation with a characteristic wavelength when exiting a ball of radius R in a Hilbert space centered at u 0. There are two mathematical explanations for spinodal decomposition, due to Grant and to Maier-Paape and Wanner. In this paper, we numerically compare these two mathematical approaches. In fact, we are able to synthesize the understanding we gain from our numerics with the approach of Maier-Paape and Wanner, leading to a better understanding of the underlying mechanism for this behavior. With this new approach, we can explain spinodal decomposition for a longer time and larger radius than either of the previous two approaches. A rigorous mathematical explanation is contained in a separate paper. Our approach is to use Monte Carlo simulations to examine the dependence of R, the radius to which spinodal decomposition occurs, as a function of the parameter ɛ of the governing equation. We give a description of the dominating regions on the surface of the ball by estimating certain densities of the distributions of the exit points. We observe, and can show rigorously, that the behavior of most solutions originating near the equilibrium is determined completely by the linearization for an unexpectedly long time. We explain the mechanism for this unexpectedly linear behavior, and show that for some exceptional solutions this cannot be observed. We also describe the dynamics of these exceptional solutions.
Monte Carlo simulations for spinodal decomposition
Sander, E.; Wanner, T.
1999-06-01
This paper addresses the phenomenon of spinodal decomposition for the Cahn-Hilliard equation. Namely, the authors are interested in why most solutions to the Cahn-Hilliard equation which start near a homogeneous equilibrium u{sub 0} {equivalent_to} {mu} in the spinodal interval exhibit phase separation with a characteristic wavelength when exiting a ball of radius R in a Hilbert space centered at u{sub 0}. There are two mathematical explanations for spinodal decomposition, due to Grant and to Maier-Paape and Wanner. In this paper, the authors numerically compare these two mathematical approaches. In fact, they are able to synthesize the understanding they gain from the numerics with the approach of Maier-Paape and Wanner, leading to a better understanding of the underlying mechanism for this behavior. With this new approach, they can explain spinodal decomposition for a longer time and larger radius than either of the previous two approaches. A rigorous mathematical explanation is contained in a separate paper. The approach is to use Monte Carlo simulations to examine the dependence of R, the radius to which spinodal decomposition occurs, as a function of the parameter {var_epsilon} of the governing equation. The authors give a description of the dominating regions on the surface of the ball by estimating certain densities of the distributions of the exit points. They observe, and can show rigorously, that the behavior of most solutions originating near the equilibrium is determined completely by the linearization for an unexpectedly long time. They explain the mechanism for this unexpectedly linear behavior, and show that for some exceptional solutions this cannot be observed. They also describe the dynamics of these exceptional solutions.
Quantum Monte Carlo : not just for energy levels.
Nollett, K. M.; Physics
2007-01-01
Quantum Monte Carlo and realistic interactions can provide well-motivated vertices and overlaps for DWBA analyses of reactions. Given an interaction in vaccum, there are several computational approaches to nuclear systems, as you have been hearing: No-core shell model with Lee-Suzuki or Bloch-Horowitz for Hamiltonian Coupled clusters with G-matrix interaction Density functional theory, granted an energy functional derived from the interaction Quantum Monte Carlo - Variational Monte Carlo Green's function Monte Carlo. The last two work directly with a bare interaction and bare operators and describe the wave function without expanding in basis functions, so they have rather different sets of advantages and disadvantages from the others. Variational Monte Carlo (VMC) is built on a sophisticated Ansatz for the wave function, built on shell model like structure modified by operator correlations. Green's function Monte Carlo (GFMC) uses an operator method to project the true ground state out of a reasonable guess wave function.
Discrete diffusion Monte Carlo for frequency-dependent radiative transfer
Densmore, Jeffrey D; Kelly, Thompson G; Urbatish, Todd J
2010-11-17
Discrete Diffusion Monte Carlo (DDMC) is a technique for increasing the efficiency of Implicit Monte Carlo radiative-transfer simulations. In this paper, we develop an extension of DDMC for frequency-dependent radiative transfer. We base our new DDMC method on a frequency-integrated diffusion equation for frequencies below a specified threshold. Above this threshold we employ standard Monte Carlo. With a frequency-dependent test problem, we confirm the increased efficiency of our new DDMC technique.
Quantum Monte Carlo Endstation for Petascale Computing
David Ceperley
2011-03-02
CUDA GPU platform. We restructured the CPU algorithms to express additional parallelism, minimize GPU-CPU communication, and efficiently utilize the GPU memory hierarchy. Using mixed precision on GT200 GPUs and MPI for intercommunication and load balancing, we observe typical full-application speedups of approximately 10x to 15x relative to quad-core Xeon CPUs alone, while reproducing the double-precision CPU results within statistical error. We developed an all-electron quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) method for solids that does not rely on pseudopotentials, and used it to construct a primary ultra-high-pressure calibration based on the equation of state of cubic boron nitride. We computed the static contribution to the free energy with the QMC method and obtained the phonon contribution from density functional theory, yielding a high-accuracy calibration up to 900 GPa usable directly in experiment. We computed the anharmonic Raman frequency shift with QMC simulations as a function of pressure and temperature, allowing optical pressure calibration. In contrast to present experimental approaches, small systematic errors in the theoretical EOS do not increase with pressure, and no extrapolation is needed. This all-electron method is applicable to first-row solids, providing a new reference for ab initio calculations of solids and benchmarks for pseudopotential accuracy. We compared experimental and theoretical results on the momentum distribution and the quasiparticle renormalization factor in sodium. From an x-ray Compton-profile measurement of the valence-electron momentum density, we derived its discontinuity at the Fermi wavevector finding an accurate measure of the renormalization factor that we compared with quantum-Monte-Carlo and G0W0 calculations performed both on crystalline sodium and on the homogeneous electron gas. Our calculated results are in good agreement with the experiment. We have been studying the heat of formation for various Kubas complexes of molecular
Monte Carlo simulations within avalanche rescue
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reiweger, Ingrid; Genswein, Manuel; Schweizer, Jürg
2016-04-01
Refining concepts for avalanche rescue involves calculating suitable settings for rescue strategies such as an adequate probing depth for probe line searches or an optimal time for performing resuscitation for a recovered avalanche victim in case of additional burials. In the latter case, treatment decisions have to be made in the context of triage. However, given the low number of incidents it is rarely possible to derive quantitative criteria based on historical statistics in the context of evidence-based medicine. For these rare, but complex rescue scenarios, most of the associated concepts, theories, and processes involve a number of unknown "random" parameters which have to be estimated in order to calculate anything quantitatively. An obvious approach for incorporating a number of random variables and their distributions into a calculation is to perform a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. We here present Monte Carlo simulations for calculating the most suitable probing depth for probe line searches depending on search area and an optimal resuscitation time in case of multiple avalanche burials. The MC approach reveals, e.g., new optimized values for the duration of resuscitation that differ from previous, mainly case-based assumptions.
Multilevel Monte Carlo simulation of Coulomb collisions
Rosin, M. S.; Ricketson, L. F.; Dimits, A. M.; Caflisch, R. E.; Cohen, B. I.
2014-05-29
We present a new, for plasma physics, highly efficient multilevel Monte Carlo numerical method for simulating Coulomb collisions. The method separates and optimally minimizes the finite-timestep and finite-sampling errors inherent in the Langevin representation of the Landau–Fokker–Planck equation. It does so by combining multiple solutions to the underlying equations with varying numbers of timesteps. For a desired level of accuracy ε , the computational cost of the method is O(ε–2) or (ε–2(lnε)2), depending on the underlying discretization, Milstein or Euler–Maruyama respectively. This is to be contrasted with a cost of O(ε–3) for direct simulation Monte Carlo or binary collision methods.more » We successfully demonstrate the method with a classic beam diffusion test case in 2D, making use of the Lévy area approximation for the correlated Milstein cross terms, and generating a computational saving of a factor of 100 for ε=10–5. Lastly, we discuss the importance of the method for problems in which collisions constitute the computational rate limiting step, and its limitations.« less
Multilevel Monte Carlo simulation of Coulomb collisions
Rosin, M. S.; Ricketson, L. F.; Dimits, A. M.; Caflisch, R. E.; Cohen, B. I.
2014-05-29
We present a new, for plasma physics, highly efficient multilevel Monte Carlo numerical method for simulating Coulomb collisions. The method separates and optimally minimizes the finite-timestep and finite-sampling errors inherent in the Langevin representation of the Landau–Fokker–Planck equation. It does so by combining multiple solutions to the underlying equations with varying numbers of timesteps. For a desired level of accuracy ε , the computational cost of the method is O(ε^{–2}) or (ε^{–2}(lnε)^{2}), depending on the underlying discretization, Milstein or Euler–Maruyama respectively. This is to be contrasted with a cost of O(ε^{–3}) for direct simulation Monte Carlo or binary collision methods. We successfully demonstrate the method with a classic beam diffusion test case in 2D, making use of the Lévy area approximation for the correlated Milstein cross terms, and generating a computational saving of a factor of 100 for ε=10^{–5}. Lastly, we discuss the importance of the method for problems in which collisions constitute the computational rate limiting step, and its limitations.
Composite biasing in Monte Carlo radiative transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baes, Maarten; Gordon, Karl D.; Lunttila, Tuomas; Bianchi, Simone; Camps, Peter; Juvela, Mika; Kuiper, Rolf
2016-05-01
Biasing or importance sampling is a powerful technique in Monte Carlo radiative transfer, and can be applied in different forms to increase the accuracy and efficiency of simulations. One of the drawbacks of the use of biasing is the potential introduction of large weight factors. We discuss a general strategy, composite biasing, to suppress the appearance of large weight factors. We use this composite biasing approach for two different problems faced by current state-of-the-art Monte Carlo radiative transfer codes: the generation of photon packages from multiple components, and the penetration of radiation through high optical depth barriers. In both cases, the implementation of the relevant algorithms is trivial and does not interfere with any other optimisation techniques. Through simple test models, we demonstrate the general applicability, accuracy and efficiency of the composite biasing approach. In particular, for the penetration of high optical depths, the gain in efficiency is spectacular for the specific problems that we consider: in simulations with composite path length stretching, high accuracy results are obtained even for simulations with modest numbers of photon packages, while simulations without biasing cannot reach convergence, even with a huge number of photon packages.
Calculating Pi Using the Monte Carlo Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williamson, Timothy
2013-11-01
During the summer of 2012, I had the opportunity to participate in a research experience for teachers at the center for sustainable energy at Notre Dame University (RET @ cSEND) working with Professor John LoSecco on the problem of using antineutrino detection to accurately determine the fuel makeup and operating power of nuclear reactors. During full power operation, a reactor may produce 1021 antineutrinos per second with approximately 100 per day being detected. While becoming familiar with the design and operation of the detectors, and how total antineutrino flux could be obtained from such a small sample, I read about a simulation program called Monte Carlo. Further investigation led me to the Monte Carlo method page of Wikipedia2 where I saw an example of approximating pi using this simulation. Other examples where this method was applied were typically done with computer simulations2 or purely mathematical.3 It is my belief that this method may be easily related to the students by performing the simple activity of sprinkling rice on an arc drawn in a square. The activity that follows was inspired by those simulations and was used by my AP Physics class last year with very good results.
THE MCNPX MONTE CARLO RADIATION TRANSPORT CODE
WATERS, LAURIE S.; MCKINNEY, GREGG W.; DURKEE, JOE W.; FENSIN, MICHAEL L.; JAMES, MICHAEL R.; JOHNS, RUSSELL C.; PELOWITZ, DENISE B.
2007-01-10
MCNPX (Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended) is a general-purpose Monte Carlo radiation transport code with three-dimensional geometry and continuous-energy transport of 34 particles and light ions. It contains flexible source and tally options, interactive graphics, and support for both sequential and multi-processing computer platforms. MCNPX is based on MCNP4B, and has been upgraded to most MCNP5 capabilities. MCNP is a highly stable code tracking neutrons, photons and electrons, and using evaluated nuclear data libraries for low-energy interaction probabilities. MCNPX has extended this base to a comprehensive set of particles and light ions, with heavy ion transport in development. Models have been included to calculate interaction probabilities when libraries are not available. Recent additions focus on the time evolution of residual nuclei decay, allowing calculation of transmutation and delayed particle emission. MCNPX is now a code of great dynamic range, and the excellent neutronics capabilities allow new opportunities to simulate devices of interest to experimental particle physics; particularly calorimetry. This paper describes the capabilities of the current MCNPX version 2.6.C, and also discusses ongoing code development.
Quantum Monte Carlo methods for nuclear physics
Carlson, J.; Gandolfi, S.; Pederiva, F.; Pieper, Steven C.; Schiavilla, R.; Schmidt, K. E.; Wiringa, R. B.
2015-09-01
Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proved valuable to study the structure and reactions of light nuclei and nucleonic matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions and currents. These ab-initio calculations reproduce many low-lying states, moments, and transitions in light nuclei, and simultaneously predict many properties of light nuclei and neutron matter over a rather wide range of energy and momenta. The nuclear interactions and currents are reviewed along with a description of the continuum quantum Monte Carlo methods used in nuclear physics. These methods are similar to those used in condensed matter and electronic structure but naturally include spin-isospin, tensor, spin-orbit, and three-body interactions. A variety of results are presented, including the low-lying spectra of light nuclei, nuclear form factors, and transition matrix elements. Low-energy scattering techniques, studies of the electroweak response of nuclei relevant in electron and neutrino scattering, and the properties of dense nucleonic matter as found in neutron stars are also described. Furthermore, a coherent picture of nuclear structure and dynamics emerges based upon rather simple but realistic interactions and currents.
Quantum Monte Carlo methods for nuclear physics
Carlson, J.; Gandolfi, S.; Pederiva, F.; Pieper, Steven C.; Schiavilla, R.; Schmidt, K. E.; Wiringa, R. B.
2015-09-01
Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proved valuable to study the structure and reactions of light nuclei and nucleonic matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions and currents. These ab-initio calculations reproduce many low-lying states, moments, and transitions in light nuclei, and simultaneously predict many properties of light nuclei and neutron matter over a rather wide range of energy and momenta. The nuclear interactions and currents are reviewed along with a description of the continuum quantum Monte Carlo methods used in nuclear physics. These methods are similar to those used in condensed matter and electronic structure but naturally include spin-isospin, tensor, spin-orbit,more » and three-body interactions. A variety of results are presented, including the low-lying spectra of light nuclei, nuclear form factors, and transition matrix elements. Low-energy scattering techniques, studies of the electroweak response of nuclei relevant in electron and neutrino scattering, and the properties of dense nucleonic matter as found in neutron stars are also described. Furthermore, a coherent picture of nuclear structure and dynamics emerges based upon rather simple but realistic interactions and currents.« less
Quantum Monte Carlo methods for nuclear physics
Carlson, Joseph A.; Gandolfi, Stefano; Pederiva, Francesco; Pieper, Steven C.; Schiavilla, Rocco; Schmidt, K. E,; Wiringa, Robert B.
2014-10-19
Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proved very valuable to study the structure and reactions of light nuclei and nucleonic matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions and currents. These ab-initio calculations reproduce many low-lying states, moments and transitions in light nuclei, and simultaneously predict many properties of light nuclei and neutron matter over a rather wide range of energy and momenta. We review the nuclear interactions and currents, and describe the continuum Quantum Monte Carlo methods used in nuclear physics. These methods are similar to those used in condensed matter and electronic structure but naturally include spin-isospin, tensor, spin-orbit, and three-bodymore » interactions. We present a variety of results including the low-lying spectra of light nuclei, nuclear form factors, and transition matrix elements. We also describe low-energy scattering techniques, studies of the electroweak response of nuclei relevant in electron and neutrino scattering, and the properties of dense nucleonic matter as found in neutron stars. A coherent picture of nuclear structure and dynamics emerges based upon rather simple but realistic interactions and currents.« less
Quantum Monte Carlo for atoms and molecules
Barnett, R.N.
1989-11-01
The diffusion quantum Monte Carlo with fixed nodes (QMC) approach has been employed in studying energy-eigenstates for 1--4 electron systems. Previous work employing the diffusion QMC technique yielded energies of high quality for H{sub 2}, LiH, Li{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O. Here, the range of calculations with this new approach has been extended to include additional first-row atoms and molecules. In addition, improvements in the previously computed fixed-node energies of LiH, Li{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O have been obtained using more accurate trial functions. All computations were performed within, but are not limited to, the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. In our computations, the effects of variation of Monte Carlo parameters on the QMC solution of the Schroedinger equation were studied extensively. These parameters include the time step, renormalization time and nodal structure. These studies have been very useful in determining which choices of such parameters will yield accurate QMC energies most efficiently. Generally, very accurate energies (90--100% of the correlation energy is obtained) have been computed with single-determinant trail functions multiplied by simple correlation functions. Improvements in accuracy should be readily obtained using more complex trial functions.
Metallic lithium by quantum Monte Carlo
Sugiyama, G.; Zerah, G.; Alder, B.J.
1986-12-01
Lithium was chosen as the simplest known metal for the first application of quantum Monte Carlo methods in order to evaluate the accuracy of conventional one-electron band theories. Lithium has been extensively studied using such techniques. Band theory calculations have certain limitations in general and specifically in their application to lithium. Results depend on such factors as charge shape approximations (muffin tins), pseudopotentials (a special problem for lithium where the lack of rho core states requires a strong pseudopotential), and the form and parameters chosen for the exchange potential. The calculations are all one-electron methods in which the correlation effects are included in an ad hoc manner. This approximation may be particularly poor in the high compression regime, where the core states become delocalized. Furthermore, band theory provides only self-consistent results rather than strict limits on the energies. The quantum Monte Carlo method is a totally different technique using a many-body rather than a mean field approach which yields an upper bound on the energies. 18 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.
Scalable Domain Decomposed Monte Carlo Particle Transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Brien, Matthew Joseph
In this dissertation, we present the parallel algorithms necessary to run domain decomposed Monte Carlo particle transport on large numbers of processors (millions of processors). Previous algorithms were not scalable, and the parallel overhead became more computationally costly than the numerical simulation. The main algorithms we consider are: • Domain decomposition of constructive solid geometry: enables extremely large calculations in which the background geometry is too large to fit in the memory of a single computational node. • Load Balancing: keeps the workload per processor as even as possible so the calculation runs efficiently. • Global Particle Find: if particles are on the wrong processor, globally resolve their locations to the correct processor based on particle coordinate and background domain. • Visualizing constructive solid geometry, sourcing particles, deciding that particle streaming communication is completed and spatial redecomposition. These algorithms are some of the most important parallel algorithms required for domain decomposed Monte Carlo particle transport. We demonstrate that our previous algorithms were not scalable, prove that our new algorithms are scalable, and run some of the algorithms up to 2 million MPI processes on the Sequoia supercomputer.
Quantum Monte Carlo methods for nuclear physics
Carlson, J.; Gandolfi, S.; Pederiva, F.; Pieper, Steven C.; Schiavilla, R.; Schmidt, K. E.; Wiringa, R. B.
2015-09-09
Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proved valuable to study the structure and reactions of light nuclei and nucleonic matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions and currents. These ab-initio calculations reproduce many low-lying states, moments, and transitions in light nuclei, and simultaneously predict many properties of light nuclei and neutron matter over a rather wide range of energy and momenta. The nuclear interactions and currents are reviewed along with a description of the continuum quantum Monte Carlo methods used in nuclear physics. These methods are similar to those used in condensed matter and electronic structure but naturally include spin-isospin, tensor, spin-orbit, and three-body interactions. A variety of results are presented, including the low-lying spectra of light nuclei, nuclear form factors, and transition matrix elements. Low-energy scattering techniques, studies of the electroweak response of nuclei relevant in electron and neutrino scattering, and the properties of dense nucleonic matter as found in neutron stars are also described. Furthermore, a coherent picture of nuclear structure and dynamics emerges based upon rather simple but realistic interactions and currents.
Quantum Monte Carlo methods for nuclear physics
Carlson, Joseph A.; Gandolfi, Stefano; Pederiva, Francesco; Pieper, Steven C.; Schiavilla, Rocco; Schmidt, K. E,; Wiringa, Robert B.
2014-10-19
Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proved very valuable to study the structure and reactions of light nuclei and nucleonic matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions and currents. These ab-initio calculations reproduce many low-lying states, moments and transitions in light nuclei, and simultaneously predict many properties of light nuclei and neutron matter over a rather wide range of energy and momenta. We review the nuclear interactions and currents, and describe the continuum Quantum Monte Carlo methods used in nuclear physics. These methods are similar to those used in condensed matter and electronic structure but naturally include spin-isospin, tensor, spin-orbit, and three-body interactions. We present a variety of results including the low-lying spectra of light nuclei, nuclear form factors, and transition matrix elements. We also describe low-energy scattering techniques, studies of the electroweak response of nuclei relevant in electron and neutrino scattering, and the properties of dense nucleonic matter as found in neutron stars. A coherent picture of nuclear structure and dynamics emerges based upon rather simple but realistic interactions and currents.
Monte Carlo techniques for analyzing deep-penetration problems
Cramer, S.N.; Gonnord, J.; Hendricks, J.S.
1986-02-01
Current methods and difficulties in Monte Carlo deep-penetration calculations are reviewed, including statistical uncertainty and recent adjoint optimization of splitting, Russian roulette, and exponential transformation biasing. Other aspects of the random walk and estimation processes are covered, including the relatively new DXANG angular biasing technique. Specific items summarized are albedo scattering, Monte Carlo coupling techniques with discrete ordinates and other methods, adjoint solutions, and multigroup Monte Carlo. The topic of code-generated biasing parameters is presented, including the creation of adjoint importance functions from forward calculations. Finally, current and future work in the area of computer learning and artificial intelligence is discussed in connection with Monte Carlo applications.
Monte Carlo modeling of spatial coherence: free-space diffraction.
Fischer, David G; Prahl, Scott A; Duncan, Donald D
2008-10-01
We present a Monte Carlo method for propagating partially coherent fields through complex deterministic optical systems. A Gaussian copula is used to synthesize a random source with an arbitrary spatial coherence function. Physical optics and Monte Carlo predictions of the first- and second-order statistics of the field are shown for coherent and partially coherent sources for free-space propagation, imaging using a binary Fresnel zone plate, and propagation through a limiting aperture. Excellent agreement between the physical optics and Monte Carlo predictions is demonstrated in all cases. Convergence criteria are presented for judging the quality of the Monte Carlo predictions. PMID:18830335
Estimation of beryllium ground state energy by Monte Carlo simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kabir, K. M. Ariful; Halder, Amal
2015-05-01
Quantum Monte Carlo method represent a powerful and broadly applicable computational tool for finding very accurate solution of the stationary Schrödinger equation for atoms, molecules, solids and a variety of model systems. Using variational Monte Carlo method we have calculated the ground state energy of the Beryllium atom. Our calculation are based on using a modified four parameters trial wave function which leads to good result comparing with the few parameters trial wave functions presented before. Based on random Numbers we can generate a large sample of electron locations to estimate the ground state energy of Beryllium. Our calculation gives good estimation for the ground state energy of the Beryllium atom comparing with the corresponding exact data.
Estimation of beryllium ground state energy by Monte Carlo simulation
Kabir, K. M. Ariful; Halder, Amal
2015-05-15
Quantum Monte Carlo method represent a powerful and broadly applicable computational tool for finding very accurate solution of the stationary Schrödinger equation for atoms, molecules, solids and a variety of model systems. Using variational Monte Carlo method we have calculated the ground state energy of the Beryllium atom. Our calculation are based on using a modified four parameters trial wave function which leads to good result comparing with the few parameters trial wave functions presented before. Based on random Numbers we can generate a large sample of electron locations to estimate the ground state energy of Beryllium. Our calculation gives good estimation for the ground state energy of the Beryllium atom comparing with the corresponding exact data.
Eells, Samantha J.; Bharadwa, Kiran; McKinnell, James A.; Miller, Loren G.
2014-01-01
Background. Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common problem among women. However, comparative effectiveness strategies for managing recurrent UTIs are lacking. Methods. We performed a systematic literature review of management of women experiencing ≥3 UTIs per year. We then developed a Markov chain Monte Carlo model of recurrent UTI for each management strategy with ≥2 adequate trials published. We simulated a cohort that experienced 3 UTIs/year and a secondary cohort that experienced 8 UTIs/year. Model outcomes were treatment efficacy, patient and payer cost, and health-related quality of life. Results. Five strategies had ≥2 clinical trials published: (1) daily antibiotic (nitrofurantoin) prophylaxis; (2) daily estrogen prophylaxis; (3) daily cranberry prophylaxis; (4) acupuncture prophylaxis; and (5) symptomatic self-treatment. In the 3 UTIs/year model, nitrofurantoin prophylaxis was most effective, reducing the UTI rate to 0.4 UTIs/year, and the most expensive to the payer ($821/year). All other strategies resulted in payer cost savings but were less efficacious. Symptomatic self-treatment was the only strategy that resulted in patient cost savings, and was the most favorable strategy in term of cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. Conclusions. Daily antibiotic use is the most effective strategy for recurrent UTI prevention compared to daily cranberry pills, daily estrogen therapy, and acupuncture. Cost savings to payers and patients were seen for most regimens, and improvement in QALYs were seen with all. Our findings provide clinically meaningful data to guide the physician–patient partnership in determining a preferred method of prevention for this common clinical problem. PMID:24065333
Quantum Monte Carlo Endstation for Petascale Computing
Lubos Mitas
2011-01-26
NCSU research group has been focused on accomplising the key goals of this initiative: establishing new generation of quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) computational tools as a part of Endstation petaflop initiative for use at the DOE ORNL computational facilities and for use by computational electronic structure community at large; carrying out high accuracy quantum Monte Carlo demonstration projects in application of these tools to the forefront electronic structure problems in molecular and solid systems; expanding the impact of QMC methods and approaches; explaining and enhancing the impact of these advanced computational approaches. In particular, we have developed quantum Monte Carlo code (QWalk, www.qwalk.org) which was significantly expanded and optimized using funds from this support and at present became an actively used tool in the petascale regime by ORNL researchers and beyond. These developments have been built upon efforts undertaken by the PI's group and collaborators over the period of the last decade. The code was optimized and tested extensively on a number of parallel architectures including petaflop ORNL Jaguar machine. We have developed and redesigned a number of code modules such as evaluation of wave functions and orbitals, calculations of pfaffians and introduction of backflow coordinates together with overall organization of the code and random walker distribution over multicore architectures. We have addressed several bottlenecks such as load balancing and verified efficiency and accuracy of the calculations with the other groups of the Endstation team. The QWalk package contains about 50,000 lines of high quality object-oriented C++ and includes also interfaces to data files from other conventional electronic structure codes such as Gamess, Gaussian, Crystal and others. This grant supported PI for one month during summers, a full-time postdoc and partially three graduate students over the period of the grant duration, it has resulted in 13
Monte Carlo simulation of electron swarm parameters in O2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Settaouti, A.; Settaouti, L.
2007-03-01
Oxygen plasmas have found numerous applications in plasma processing, such as reactive sputtering, dry etching of polymers, oxidation, and resist removal of semiconductors. Swarm and transport coefficients are essential for better understanding and modelling of these gas discharge processes. The electron swarms in a gas under the influence of an electric field can be simulated with the help of a Monte Carlo method. The swarm parameters evaluated are compared with experimental results.
Adaptive mesh and algorithm refinement using direct simulation Monte Carlo
Garcia, A.L.; Bell, J.B.; Crutchfield, W.Y.; Alder, B.J.
1999-09-01
Adaptive mesh and algorithm refinement (AMAR) embeds a particle method within a continuum method at the finest level of an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) hierarchy. The coupling between the particle region and the overlaying continuum grid is algorithmically equivalent to that between the fine and coarse levels of AMR. Direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) is used as the particle algorithm embedded within a Godunov-type compressible Navier-Stokes solver. Several examples are presented and compared with purely continuum calculations.
Monte Carlo Shell Model for ab initio nuclear structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abe, T.; Maris, P.; Otsuka, T.; Shimizu, N.; Utsuno, Y.; Vary, J. P.
2014-03-01
We report on our recent application of the Monte Carlo Shell Model to no-core calculations. At the initial stage of the application, we have performed benchmark calculations in the p-shell region. Results are compared with those in the Full Configuration Interaction and No-Core Full Configuration methods. These are found to be consistent with each other within quoted uncertainties when they could be quantified. The preliminary results in Nshell = 5 reveal the onset of systematic convergence pattern.
SU-E-T-188: Film Dosimetry Verification of Monte Carlo Generated Electron Treatment Plans
Enright, S; Asprinio, A; Lu, L
2014-06-01
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare dose distributions from film measurements to Monte Carlo generated electron treatment plans. Irradiation with electrons offers the advantages of dose uniformity in the target volume and of minimizing the dose to deeper healthy tissue. Using the Monte Carlo algorithm will improve dose accuracy in regions with heterogeneities and irregular surfaces. Methods: Dose distributions from GafChromic{sup ™} EBT3 films were compared to dose distributions from the Electron Monte Carlo algorithm in the Eclipse{sup ™} radiotherapy treatment planning system. These measurements were obtained for 6MeV, 9MeV and 12MeV electrons at two depths. All phantoms studied were imported into Eclipse by CT scan. A 1 cm thick solid water template with holes for bonelike and lung-like plugs was used. Different configurations were used with the different plugs inserted into the holes. Configurations with solid-water plugs stacked on top of one another were also used to create an irregular surface. Results: The dose distributions measured from the film agreed with those from the Electron Monte Carlo treatment plan. Accuracy of Electron Monte Carlo algorithm was also compared to that of Pencil Beam. Dose distributions from Monte Carlo had much higher pass rates than distributions from Pencil Beam when compared to the film. The pass rate for Monte Carlo was in the 80%–99% range, where the pass rate for Pencil Beam was as low as 10.76%. Conclusion: The dose distribution from Monte Carlo agreed with the measured dose from the film. When compared to the Pencil Beam algorithm, pass rates for Monte Carlo were much higher. Monte Carlo should be used over Pencil Beam for regions with heterogeneities and irregular surfaces.
Monte Carlo Strategies for Selecting Parameter Values in Simulation Experiments.
Leigh, Jessica W; Bryant, David
2015-09-01
Simulation experiments are used widely throughout evolutionary biology and bioinformatics to compare models, promote methods, and test hypotheses. The biggest practical constraint on simulation experiments is the computational demand, particularly as the number of parameters increases. Given the extraordinary success of Monte Carlo methods for conducting inference in phylogenetics, and indeed throughout the sciences, we investigate ways in which Monte Carlo framework can be used to carry out simulation experiments more efficiently. The key idea is to sample parameter values for the experiments, rather than iterate through them exhaustively. Exhaustive analyses become completely infeasible when the number of parameters gets too large, whereas sampled approaches can fare better in higher dimensions. We illustrate the framework with applications to phylogenetics and genetic archaeology. PMID:26012871
Research on GPU Acceleration for Monte Carlo Criticality Calculation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Qi; Yu, Ganglin; Wang, Kan
2014-06-01
The Monte Carlo neutron transport method can be naturally parallelized by multi-core architectures due to the dependency between particles during the simulation. The GPU+CPU heterogeneous parallel mode has become an increasingly popular way of parallelism in the field of scientific supercomputing. Thus, this work focuses on the GPU acceleration method for the Monte Carlo criticality simulation, as well as the computational efficiency that GPUs can bring. The "neutron transport step" is introduced to increase the GPU thread occupancy. In order to test the sensitivity of the MC code's complexity, a 1D one-group code and a 3D multi-group general purpose code are respectively transplanted to GPUs, and the acceleration effects are compared. The result of numerical experiments shows considerable acceleration effect of the "neutron transport step" strategy. However, the performance comparison between the 1D code and the 3D code indicates the poor scalability of MC codes on GPUs.
Rejection-free Monte Carlo scheme for anisotropic particles.
Sinkovits, Daniel W; Barr, Stephen A; Luijten, Erik
2012-04-14
We extend the geometric cluster algorithm [J. Liu and E. Luijten, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 035504 (2004)], a highly efficient, rejection-free Monte Carlo scheme for fluids and colloidal suspensions, to the case of anisotropic particles. This is made possible by adopting hyperspherical boundary conditions. A detailed derivation of the algorithm is presented, along with extensive implementation details as well as benchmark results. We describe how the quaternion notation is particularly suitable for the four-dimensional geometric operations employed in the algorithm. We present results for asymmetric Lennard-Jones dimers and for the Yukawa one-component plasma in hyperspherical geometry. The efficiency gain that can be achieved compared to conventional, Metropolis-type Monte Carlo simulations is investigated for rod-sphere mixtures as a function of rod aspect ratio, rod-sphere diameter ratio, and rod concentration. The effect of curved geometry on physical properties is addressed. PMID:22502505
Monte Carlo approach to tissue-cell populations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drasdo, D.; Kree, R.; McCaskill, J. S.
1995-12-01
We describe a stochastic dynamics of tissue cells with special emphasis on epithelial cells and fibro- blasts and fibrocytes of the connective tissue. Pattern formation and growth characteristics of such cell populations in culture are investigated numerically by Monte Carlo simulations for quasi-two-dimensional systems of cells. A number of quantitative predictions are obtained which may be confronted with experimental results. Furthermore we introduce several biologically motivated variants of our basic model and briefly discuss the simulation of two dimensional analogs of two complex processes in tissues: the growth of a sarcoma across an epithelial boundary and the wound healing of a skin cut. As compared to other approaches, we find the Monte Carlo approach to tissue growth and structure to be particularly simple and flexible. It allows for a hierarchy of models reaching from global description of birth-death processes to very specific features of intracellular dynamics. (c) 1995 The American Physical Society
Chemical accuracy from quantum Monte Carlo for the benzene dimer
Azadi, Sam; Cohen, R. E.
2015-09-14
We report an accurate study of interactions between benzene molecules using variational quantum Monte Carlo (VMC) and diffusion quantum Monte Carlo (DMC) methods. We compare these results with density functional theory using different van der Waals functionals. In our quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) calculations, we use accurate correlated trial wave functions including three-body Jastrow factors and backflow transformations. We consider two benzene molecules in the parallel displaced geometry, and find that by highly optimizing the wave function and introducing more dynamical correlation into the wave function, we compute the weak chemical binding energy between aromatic rings accurately. We find optimal VMC and DMC binding energies of −2.3(4) and −2.7(3) kcal/mol, respectively. The best estimate of the coupled-cluster theory through perturbative triplets/complete basis set limit is −2.65(2) kcal/mol [Miliordos et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 118, 7568 (2014)]. Our results indicate that QMC methods give chemical accuracy for weakly bound van der Waals molecular interactions, comparable to results from the best quantum chemistry methods.
Chemical accuracy from quantum Monte Carlo for the benzene dimer.
Azadi, Sam; Cohen, R E
2015-09-14
We report an accurate study of interactions between benzene molecules using variational quantum Monte Carlo (VMC) and diffusion quantum Monte Carlo (DMC) methods. We compare these results with density functional theory using different van der Waals functionals. In our quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) calculations, we use accurate correlated trial wave functions including three-body Jastrow factors and backflow transformations. We consider two benzene molecules in the parallel displaced geometry, and find that by highly optimizing the wave function and introducing more dynamical correlation into the wave function, we compute the weak chemical binding energy between aromatic rings accurately. We find optimal VMC and DMC binding energies of -2.3(4) and -2.7(3) kcal/mol, respectively. The best estimate of the coupled-cluster theory through perturbative triplets/complete basis set limit is -2.65(2) kcal/mol [Miliordos et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 118, 7568 (2014)]. Our results indicate that QMC methods give chemical accuracy for weakly bound van der Waals molecular interactions, comparable to results from the best quantum chemistry methods. PMID:26374029
The X-43A Six Degree of Freedom Monte Carlo Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baumann, Ethan; Bahm, Catherine; Strovers, Brian; Beck, Roger
2008-01-01
This report provides an overview of the Hyper-X research vehicle Monte Carlo analysis conducted with the six-degree-of-freedom simulation. The methodology and model uncertainties used for the Monte Carlo analysis are presented as permitted. In addition, the process used to select hardware validation test cases from the Monte Carlo data is described. The preflight Monte Carlo analysis indicated that the X-43A control system was robust to the preflight uncertainties and provided the Hyper-X project an important indication that the vehicle would likely be successful in accomplishing the mission objectives. The X-43A inflight performance is compared to the preflight Monte Carlo predictions and shown to exceed the Monte Carlo bounds in several instances. Possible modeling shortfalls are presented that may account for these discrepancies. The flight control laws and guidance algorithms were robust enough as a result of the preflight Monte Carlo analysis that the unexpected in-flight performance did not have undue consequences. Modeling and Monte Carlo analysis lessons learned are presented.
The X-43A Six Degree of Freedom Monte Carlo Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baumann, Ethan; Bahm, Catherine; Strovers, Brian; Beck, Roger; Richard, Michael
2007-01-01
This report provides an overview of the Hyper-X research vehicle Monte Carlo analysis conducted with the six-degree-of-freedom simulation. The methodology and model uncertainties used for the Monte Carlo analysis are presented as permitted. In addition, the process used to select hardware validation test cases from the Monte Carlo data is described. The preflight Monte Carlo analysis indicated that the X-43A control system was robust to the preflight uncertainties and provided the Hyper-X project an important indication that the vehicle would likely be successful in accomplishing the mission objectives. The X-43A in-flight performance is compared to the preflight Monte Carlo predictions and shown to exceed the Monte Carlo bounds in several instances. Possible modeling shortfalls are presented that may account for these discrepancies. The flight control laws and guidance algorithms were robust enough as a result of the preflight Monte Carlo analysis that the unexpected in-flight performance did not have undue consequences. Modeling and Monte Carlo analysis lessons learned are presented.
Resist develop prediction by Monte Carlo simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sohn, Dong-Soo; Jeon, Kyoung-Ah; Sohn, Young-Soo; Oh, Hye-Keun
2002-07-01
Various resist develop models have been suggested to express the phenomena from the pioneering work of Dill's model in 1975 to the recent Shipley's enhanced notch model. The statistical Monte Carlo method can be applied to the process such as development and post exposure bake. The motions of developer during development process were traced by using this method. We have considered that the surface edge roughness of the resist depends on the weight percentage of protected and de-protected polymer in the resist. The results are well agreed with other papers. This study can be helpful for the developing of new photoresist and developer that can be used to pattern the device features smaller than 100 nm.
Exploring theory space with Monte Carlo reweighting
Gainer, James S.; Lykken, Joseph; Matchev, Konstantin T.; Mrenna, Stephen; Park, Myeonghun
2014-10-13
Theories of new physics often involve a large number of unknown parameters which need to be scanned. Additionally, a putative signal in a particular channel may be due to a variety of distinct models of new physics. This makes experimental attempts to constrain the parameter space of motivated new physics models with a high degree of generality quite challenging. We describe how the reweighting of events may allow this challenge to be met, as fully simulated Monte Carlo samples generated for arbitrary benchmark models can be effectively re-used. Specifically, we suggest procedures that allow more efficient collaboration between theorists and experimentalists in exploring large theory parameter spaces in a rigorous way at the LHC.
Monte Carlo modeling and meteor showers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kulikova, N. V.
1987-01-01
Prediction of short lived increases in the cosmic dust influx, the concentration in lower thermosphere of atoms and ions of meteor origin and the determination of the frequency of micrometeor impacts on spacecraft are all of scientific and practical interest and all require adequate models of meteor showers at an early stage of their existence. A Monte Carlo model of meteor matter ejection from a parent body at any point of space was worked out by other researchers. This scheme is described. According to the scheme, the formation of ten well known meteor streams was simulated and the possibility of genetic affinity of each of them with the most probable parent comet was analyzed. Some of the results are presented.
Noncovalent Interactions by Quantum Monte Carlo.
Dubecký, Matúš; Mitas, Lubos; Jurečka, Petr
2016-05-11
Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) is a family of stochastic methods for solving quantum many-body problems such as the stationary Schrödinger equation. The review introduces basic notions of electronic structure QMC based on random walks in real space as well as its advances and adaptations to systems with noncovalent interactions. Specific issues such as fixed-node error cancellation, construction of trial wave functions, and efficiency considerations that allow for benchmark quality QMC energy differences are described in detail. Comprehensive overview of articles covers QMC applications to systems with noncovalent interactions over the last three decades. The current status of QMC with regard to efficiency, applicability, and usability by nonexperts together with further considerations about QMC developments, limitations, and unsolved challenges are discussed as well. PMID:27081724
Coherent scatter imaging Monte Carlo simulation.
Hassan, Laila; MacDonald, Carolyn A
2016-07-01
Conventional mammography can suffer from poor contrast between healthy and cancerous tissues due to the small difference in attenuation properties. Coherent scatter slot scan imaging is an imaging technique which provides additional information and is compatible with conventional mammography. A Monte Carlo simulation of coherent scatter slot scan imaging was performed to assess its performance and provide system optimization. Coherent scatter could be exploited using a system similar to conventional slot scan mammography system with antiscatter grids tilted at the characteristic angle of cancerous tissues. System optimization was performed across several parameters, including source voltage, tilt angle, grid distances, grid ratio, and shielding geometry. The simulated carcinomas were detectable for tumors as small as 5 mm in diameter, so coherent scatter analysis using a wide-slot setup could be promising as an enhancement for screening mammography. Employing coherent scatter information simultaneously with conventional mammography could yield a conventional high spatial resolution image with additional coherent scatter information. PMID:27610397
Green's function Monte Carlo in nuclear physics
Carlson, J.
1990-01-01
We review the status of Green's Function Monte Carlo (GFMC) methods as applied to problems in nuclear physics. New methods have been developed to handle the spin and isospin degrees of freedom that are a vital part of any realistic nuclear physics problem, whether at the level of quarks or nucleons. We discuss these methods and then summarize results obtained recently for light nuclei, including ground state energies, three-body forces, charge form factors and the coulomb sum. As an illustration of the applicability of GFMC to quark models, we also consider the possible existence of bound exotic multi-quark states within the framework of flux-tube quark models. 44 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.
Accuracy control in Monte Carlo radiative calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Almazan, P. Planas
1993-01-01
The general accuracy law that rules the Monte Carlo, ray-tracing algorithms used commonly for the calculation of the radiative entities in the thermal analysis of spacecraft are presented. These entities involve transfer of radiative energy either from a single source to a target (e.g., the configuration factors). or from several sources to a target (e.g., the absorbed heat fluxes). In fact, the former is just a particular case of the latter. The accuracy model is later applied to the calculation of some specific radiative entities. Furthermore, some issues related to the implementation of such a model in a software tool are discussed. Although only the relative error is considered through the discussion, similar results can be derived for the absolute error.
MORSE Monte Carlo radiation transport code system
Emmett, M.B.
1983-02-01
This report is an addendum to the MORSE report, ORNL-4972, originally published in 1975. This addendum contains descriptions of several modifications to the MORSE Monte Carlo Code, replacement pages containing corrections, Part II of the report which was previously unpublished, and a new Table of Contents. The modifications include a Klein Nishina estimator for gamma rays. Use of such an estimator required changing the cross section routines to process pair production and Compton scattering cross sections directly from ENDF tapes and writing a new version of subroutine RELCOL. Another modification is the use of free form input for the SAMBO analysis data. This required changing subroutines SCORIN and adding new subroutine RFRE. References are updated, and errors in the original report have been corrected. (WHK)
Exploring theory space with Monte Carlo reweighting
Gainer, James S.; Lykken, Joseph; Matchev, Konstantin T.; Mrenna, Stephen; Park, Myeonghun
2014-10-13
Theories of new physics often involve a large number of unknown parameters which need to be scanned. Additionally, a putative signal in a particular channel may be due to a variety of distinct models of new physics. This makes experimental attempts to constrain the parameter space of motivated new physics models with a high degree of generality quite challenging. We describe how the reweighting of events may allow this challenge to be met, as fully simulated Monte Carlo samples generated for arbitrary benchmark models can be effectively re-used. Specifically, we suggest procedures that allow more efficient collaboration between theorists andmore » experimentalists in exploring large theory parameter spaces in a rigorous way at the LHC.« less
Monte Carlo modeling and meteor showers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kulikova, N. V.
1987-08-01
Prediction of short lived increases in the cosmic dust influx, the concentration in lower thermosphere of atoms and ions of meteor origin and the determination of the frequency of micrometeor impacts on spacecraft are all of scientific and practical interest and all require adequate models of meteor showers at an early stage of their existence. A Monte Carlo model of meteor matter ejection from a parent body at any point of space was worked out by other researchers. This scheme is described. According to the scheme, the formation of ten well known meteor streams was simulated and the possibility of genetic affinity of each of them with the most probable parent comet was analyzed. Some of the results are presented.
Quantum Monte Carlo simulations in novel geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iglovikov, Vladimir
Quantum Monte Carlo simulations are giving increasing insight into the physics of strongly interacting bosons, spins, and fermions. Initial work focused on the simplest geometries, like a 2D square lattice. Increasingly, modern research is turning to more rich structures such as honeycomb lattice of graphene, the Lieb lattice of the CuO2 planes of cuprate superconductors, the triangular lattice, and coupled layers. These new geometries possess unique features which affect the physics in profound ways, eg a vanishing density of states and relativistic dispersion ("Dirac point'') of a honeycomb lattice, frustration on a triangular lattice, and a flat bands on a Lieb lattice. This thesis concerns both exploring the performance of QMC algorithms on different geometries(primarily via the "sign problem'') and also applying those algorithms to several interesting open problems.
Optimized trial functions for quantum Monte Carlo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Sheng-Yu; Sun, Zhiwei; Lester, William A., Jr.
1990-01-01
An algorithm to optimize trial functions for fixed-node quantum Monte Carlo calculations has been developed based on variational random walks. The approach is applied to wave functions that are products of a simple Slater determinant and correlation factor explicitly dependent on interelectronic distance, and is found to provide improved ground-state total energies. A modification of the method for ground-states that makes use of a projection operator technique is shown to make possible the calculation of more accurate excited-state energies. In this optimization method the Young tableaux of the permutation group is used to facilitate the treatment of fermion properties and multiplets. Application to ground states of H2, Li2, H3, H+3, and to the first-excited singlets of H2, H3, and H4 are presented and discussed.
Optimized trial functions for quantum Monte Carlo
Huang, S.; Sun, Z.; Lester, W.A. Jr. )
1990-01-01
An algorithm to optimize trial functions for fixed-node quantum Monte Carlo calculations has been developed based on variational random walks. The approach is applied to wave functions that are products of a simple Slater determinant and correlation factor explicitly dependent on interelectronic distance, and is found to provide improved ground-state total energies. A modification of the method for ground-states that makes use of a projection operator technique is shown to make possible the calculation of more accurate excited-state energies. In this optimization method the Young tableaux of the permutation group is used to facilitate the treatment of fermion properties and multiplets. Application to ground states of H{sub 2}, Li{sub 2}, H{sub 3}, H{sup +}{sub 3}, and to the first-excited singlets of H{sub 2}, H{sub 3}, and H{sub 4} are presented and discussed.
Angular biasing in implicit Monte-Carlo
Zimmerman, G.B.
1994-10-20
Calculations of indirect drive Inertial Confinement Fusion target experiments require an integrated approach in which laser irradiation and radiation transport in the hohlraum are solved simultaneously with the symmetry, implosion and burn of the fuel capsule. The Implicit Monte Carlo method has proved to be a valuable tool for the two dimensional radiation transport within the hohlraum, but the impact of statistical noise on the symmetric implosion of the small fuel capsule is difficult to overcome. We present an angular biasing technique in which an increased number of low weight photons are directed at the imploding capsule. For typical parameters this reduces the required computer time for an integrated calculation by a factor of 10. An additional factor of 5 can also be achieved by directing even smaller weight photons at the polar regions of the capsule where small mass zones are most sensitive to statistical noise.
Monte Carlo simulations of medical imaging modalities
Estes, G.P.
1998-09-01
Because continuous-energy Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations can be nearly exact simulations of physical reality (within data limitations, geometric approximations, transport algorithms, etc.), it follows that one should be able to closely approximate the results of many experiments from first-principles computations. This line of reasoning has led to various MCNP studies that involve simulations of medical imaging modalities and other visualization methods such as radiography, Anger camera, computerized tomography (CT) scans, and SABRINA particle track visualization. It is the intent of this paper to summarize some of these imaging simulations in the hope of stimulating further work, especially as computer power increases. Improved interpretation and prediction of medical images should ultimately lead to enhanced medical treatments. It is also reasonable to assume that such computations could be used to design new or more effective imaging instruments.
Monte-Carlo Simulation Balancing in Practice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Shih-Chieh; Coulom, Rémi; Lin, Shun-Shii
Simulation balancing is a new technique to tune parameters of a playout policy for a Monte-Carlo game-playing program. So far, this algorithm had only been tested in a very artificial setting: it was limited to 5×5 and 6×6 Go, and required a stronger external program that served as a supervisor. In this paper, the effectiveness of simulation balancing is demonstrated in a more realistic setting. A state-of-the-art program, Erica, learned an improved playout policy on the 9×9 board, without requiring any external expert to provide position evaluations. The evaluations were collected by letting the program analyze positions by itself. The previous version of Erica learned pattern weights with the minorization-maximization algorithm. Thanks to simulation balancing, its playing strength was improved from a winning rate of 69% to 78% against Fuego 0.4.
Monte Carlo simulations in Nuclear Medicine
Loudos, George K.
2007-11-26
Molecular imaging technologies provide unique abilities to localise signs of disease before symptoms appear, assist in drug testing, optimize and personalize therapy, and assess the efficacy of treatment regimes for different types of cancer. Monte Carlo simulation packages are used as an important tool for the optimal design of detector systems. In addition they have demonstrated potential to improve image quality and acquisition protocols. Many general purpose (MCNP, Geant4, etc) or dedicated codes (SimSET etc) have been developed aiming to provide accurate and fast results. Special emphasis will be given to GATE toolkit. The GATE code currently under development by the OpenGATE collaboration is the most accurate and promising code for performing realistic simulations. The purpose of this article is to introduce the non expert reader to the current status of MC simulations in nuclear medicine and briefly provide examples of current simulated systems, and present future challenges that include simulation of clinical studies and dosimetry applications.
Monte Carlo simulations in Nuclear Medicine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loudos, George K.
2007-11-01
Molecular imaging technologies provide unique abilities to localise signs of disease before symptoms appear, assist in drug testing, optimize and personalize therapy, and assess the efficacy of treatment regimes for different types of cancer. Monte Carlo simulation packages are used as an important tool for the optimal design of detector systems. In addition they have demonstrated potential to improve image quality and acquisition protocols. Many general purpose (MCNP, Geant4, etc) or dedicated codes (SimSET etc) have been developed aiming to provide accurate and fast results. Special emphasis will be given to GATE toolkit. The GATE code currently under development by the OpenGATE collaboration is the most accurate and promising code for performing realistic simulations. The purpose of this article is to introduce the non expert reader to the current status of MC simulations in nuclear medicine and briefly provide examples of current simulated systems, and present future challenges that include simulation of clinical studies and dosimetry applications.
Monte Carlo Test Assembly for Item Pool Analysis and Extension
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Belov, Dmitry I.; Armstrong, Ronald D.
2005-01-01
A new test assembly algorithm based on a Monte Carlo random search is presented in this article. A major advantage of the Monte Carlo test assembly over other approaches (integer programming or enumerative heuristics) is that it performs a uniform sampling from the item pool, which provides every feasible item combination (test) with an equal…
Economic Risk Analysis: Using Analytical and Monte Carlo Techniques.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
O'Donnell, Brendan R.; Hickner, Michael A.; Barna, Bruce A.
2002-01-01
Describes the development and instructional use of a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet template that facilitates analytical and Monte Carlo risk analysis of investment decisions. Discusses a variety of risk assessment methods followed by applications of the analytical and Monte Carlo methods. Uses a case study to illustrate use of the spreadsheet tool…
abcpmc: Approximate Bayesian Computation for Population Monte-Carlo code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akeret, Joel
2015-04-01
abcpmc is a Python Approximate Bayesian Computing (ABC) Population Monte Carlo (PMC) implementation based on Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) with Particle Filtering techniques. It is extendable with k-nearest neighbour (KNN) or optimal local covariance matrix (OLCM) pertubation kernels and has built-in support for massively parallelized sampling on a cluster using MPI.
A Primer in Monte Carlo Integration Using Mathcad
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hoyer, Chad E.; Kegerreis, Jeb S.
2013-01-01
The essentials of Monte Carlo integration are presented for use in an upper-level physical chemistry setting. A Mathcad document that aids in the dissemination and utilization of this information is described and is available in the Supporting Information. A brief outline of Monte Carlo integration is given, along with ideas and pedagogy for…
The Monte Carlo Method. Popular Lectures in Mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sobol', I. M.
The Monte Carlo Method is a method of approximately solving mathematical and physical problems by the simulation of random quantities. The principal goal of this booklet is to suggest to specialists in all areas that they will encounter problems which can be solved by the Monte Carlo Method. Part I of the booklet discusses the simulation of random…
Monte Carlo modelling of TRIGA research reactor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El Bakkari, B.; Nacir, B.; El Bardouni, T.; El Younoussi, C.; Merroun, O.; Htet, A.; Boulaich, Y.; Zoubair, M.; Boukhal, H.; Chakir, M.
2010-10-01
The Moroccan 2 MW TRIGA MARK II research reactor at Centre des Etudes Nucléaires de la Maâmora (CENM) achieved initial criticality on May 2, 2007. The reactor is designed to effectively implement the various fields of basic nuclear research, manpower training, and production of radioisotopes for their use in agriculture, industry, and medicine. This study deals with the neutronic analysis of the 2-MW TRIGA MARK II research reactor at CENM and validation of the results by comparisons with the experimental, operational, and available final safety analysis report (FSAR) values. The study was prepared in collaboration between the Laboratory of Radiation and Nuclear Systems (ERSN-LMR) from Faculty of Sciences of Tetuan (Morocco) and CENM. The 3-D continuous energy Monte Carlo code MCNP (version 5) was used to develop a versatile and accurate full model of the TRIGA core. The model represents in detailed all components of the core with literally no physical approximation. Continuous energy cross-section data from the more recent nuclear data evaluations (ENDF/B-VI.8, ENDF/B-VII.0, JEFF-3.1, and JENDL-3.3) as well as S( α, β) thermal neutron scattering functions distributed with the MCNP code were used. The cross-section libraries were generated by using the NJOY99 system updated to its more recent patch file "up259". The consistency and accuracy of both the Monte Carlo simulation and neutron transport physics were established by benchmarking the TRIGA experiments. Core excess reactivity, total and integral control rods worth as well as power peaking factors were used in the validation process. Results of calculations are analysed and discussed.
Accelerated GPU based SPECT Monte Carlo simulations.
Garcia, Marie-Paule; Bert, Julien; Benoit, Didier; Bardiès, Manuel; Visvikis, Dimitris
2016-06-01
Monte Carlo (MC) modelling is widely used in the field of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) as it is a reliable technique to simulate very high quality scans. This technique provides very accurate modelling of the radiation transport and particle interactions in a heterogeneous medium. Various MC codes exist for nuclear medicine imaging simulations. Recently, new strategies exploiting the computing capabilities of graphical processing units (GPU) have been proposed. This work aims at evaluating the accuracy of such GPU implementation strategies in comparison to standard MC codes in the context of SPECT imaging. GATE was considered the reference MC toolkit and used to evaluate the performance of newly developed GPU Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulation (GGEMS) modules for SPECT imaging. Radioisotopes with different photon energies were used with these various CPU and GPU Geant4-based MC codes in order to assess the best strategy for each configuration. Three different isotopes were considered: (99m) Tc, (111)In and (131)I, using a low energy high resolution (LEHR) collimator, a medium energy general purpose (MEGP) collimator and a high energy general purpose (HEGP) collimator respectively. Point source, uniform source, cylindrical phantom and anthropomorphic phantom acquisitions were simulated using a model of the GE infinia II 3/8" gamma camera. Both simulation platforms yielded a similar system sensitivity and image statistical quality for the various combinations. The overall acceleration factor between GATE and GGEMS platform derived from the same cylindrical phantom acquisition was between 18 and 27 for the different radioisotopes. Besides, a full MC simulation using an anthropomorphic phantom showed the full potential of the GGEMS platform, with a resulting acceleration factor up to 71. The good agreement with reference codes and the acceleration factors obtained support the use of GPU implementation strategies for improving computational
Accelerated GPU based SPECT Monte Carlo simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garcia, Marie-Paule; Bert, Julien; Benoit, Didier; Bardiès, Manuel; Visvikis, Dimitris
2016-06-01
Monte Carlo (MC) modelling is widely used in the field of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) as it is a reliable technique to simulate very high quality scans. This technique provides very accurate modelling of the radiation transport and particle interactions in a heterogeneous medium. Various MC codes exist for nuclear medicine imaging simulations. Recently, new strategies exploiting the computing capabilities of graphical processing units (GPU) have been proposed. This work aims at evaluating the accuracy of such GPU implementation strategies in comparison to standard MC codes in the context of SPECT imaging. GATE was considered the reference MC toolkit and used to evaluate the performance of newly developed GPU Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulation (GGEMS) modules for SPECT imaging. Radioisotopes with different photon energies were used with these various CPU and GPU Geant4-based MC codes in order to assess the best strategy for each configuration. Three different isotopes were considered: 99m Tc, 111In and 131I, using a low energy high resolution (LEHR) collimator, a medium energy general purpose (MEGP) collimator and a high energy general purpose (HEGP) collimator respectively. Point source, uniform source, cylindrical phantom and anthropomorphic phantom acquisitions were simulated using a model of the GE infinia II 3/8" gamma camera. Both simulation platforms yielded a similar system sensitivity and image statistical quality for the various combinations. The overall acceleration factor between GATE and GGEMS platform derived from the same cylindrical phantom acquisition was between 18 and 27 for the different radioisotopes. Besides, a full MC simulation using an anthropomorphic phantom showed the full potential of the GGEMS platform, with a resulting acceleration factor up to 71. The good agreement with reference codes and the acceleration factors obtained support the use of GPU implementation strategies for improving computational efficiency
Quantum Monte Carlo studies on small molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galek, Peter T. A.; Handy, Nicholas C.; Lester, William A., Jr.
The Variational Monte Carlo (VMC) and Fixed-Node Diffusion Monte Carlo (FNDMC) methods have been examined, through studies on small molecules. New programs have been written which implement the (by now) standard algorithms for VMC and FNDMC. We have employed and investigated throughout our studies the accuracy of the common Slater-Jastrow trial wave function. Firstly, we have studied a range of sizes of the Jastrow correlation function of the Boys-Handy form, obtained using our optimization program with analytical derivatives of the central moments in the local energy. Secondly, we have studied the effects of Slater-type orbitals (STOs) that display the exact cusp behaviour at nuclei. The orbitals make up the all important trial determinant, which determines the fixed nodal surface. We report all-electron calculations for the ground state energies of Li2, Be2, H2O, NH3, CH4 and H2CO, in all cases but one with accuracy in excess of 95%. Finally, we report an investigation of the ground state energies, dissociation energies and ionization potentials of NH and NH+. Recent focus paid in the literature to these species allow for an extensive comparison with other ab initio methods. We obtain accurate properties for the species and reveal a favourable tendency for fixed-node and other systematic errors to cancel. As a result of our accurate predictions, we are able to obtain a value for the heat of formation of NH, which agrees to within less than 1 kcal mol-1 to other ab initio techniques and 0.2 kcal mol-1 of the experimental value.
Monte Carlo scatter correction for SPECT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zemei
The goal of this dissertation is to present a quantitatively accurate and computationally fast scatter correction method that is robust and easily accessible for routine applications in SPECT imaging. A Monte Carlo based scatter estimation method is investigated and developed further. The Monte Carlo simulation program SIMIND (Simulating Medical Imaging Nuclear Detectors), was specifically developed to simulate clinical SPECT systems. The SIMIND scatter estimation (SSE) method was developed further using a multithreading technique to distribute the scatter estimation task across multiple threads running concurrently on multi-core CPU's to accelerate the scatter estimation process. An analytical collimator that ensures less noise was used during SSE. The research includes the addition to SIMIND of charge transport modeling in cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors. Phenomena associated with radiation-induced charge transport including charge trapping, charge diffusion, charge sharing between neighboring detector pixels, as well as uncertainties in the detection process are addressed. Experimental measurements and simulation studies were designed for scintillation crystal based SPECT and CZT based SPECT systems to verify and evaluate the expanded SSE method. Jaszczak Deluxe and Anthropomorphic Torso Phantoms (Data Spectrum Corporation, Hillsborough, NC, USA) were used for experimental measurements and digital versions of the same phantoms employed during simulations to mimic experimental acquisitions. This study design enabled easy comparison of experimental and simulated data. The results have consistently shown that the SSE method performed similarly or better than the triple energy window (TEW) and effective scatter source estimation (ESSE) methods for experiments on all the clinical SPECT systems. The SSE method is proven to be a viable method for scatter estimation for routine clinical use.
Vectorized Monte Carlo methods for reactor lattice analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brown, F. B.
1984-01-01
Some of the new computational methods and equivalent mathematical representations of physics models used in the MCV code, a vectorized continuous-enery Monte Carlo code for use on the CYBER-205 computer are discussed. While the principal application of MCV is the neutronics analysis of repeating reactor lattices, the new methods used in MCV should be generally useful for vectorizing Monte Carlo for other applications. For background, a brief overview of the vector processing features of the CYBER-205 is included, followed by a discussion of the fundamentals of Monte Carlo vectorization. The physics models used in the MCV vectorized Monte Carlo code are then summarized. The new methods used in scattering analysis are presented along with details of several key, highly specialized computational routines. Finally, speedups relative to CDC-7600 scalar Monte Carlo are discussed.
A new method for commissioning Monte Carlo treatment planning systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aljarrah, Khaled Mohammed
2005-11-01
The Monte Carlo method is an accurate method for solving numerical problems in different fields. It has been used for accurate radiation dose calculation for radiation treatment of cancer. However, the modeling of an individual radiation beam produced by a medical linear accelerator for Monte Carlo dose calculation, i.e., the commissioning of a Monte Carlo treatment planning system, has been the bottleneck for the clinical implementation of Monte Carlo treatment planning. In this study a new method has been developed to determine the parameters of the initial electron beam incident on the target for a clinical linear accelerator. The interaction of the initial electron beam with the accelerator target produces x-ray and secondary charge particles. After successive interactions in the linac head components, the x-ray photons and the secondary charge particles interact with the patient's anatomy and deliver dose to the region of interest. The determination of the initial electron beam parameters is important for estimating the delivered dose to the patients. These parameters, such as beam energy and radial intensity distribution, are usually estimated through a trial and error process. In this work an easy and efficient method was developed to determine these parameters. This was accomplished by comparing calculated 3D dose distributions for a grid of assumed beam energies and radii in a water phantom with measurements data. Different cost functions were studied to choose the appropriate function for the data comparison. The beam parameters were determined on the light of this method. Due to the assumption that same type of linacs are exactly the same in their geometries and only differ by the initial phase space parameters, the results of this method were considered as a source data to commission other machines of the same type.
Performance of quantum Monte Carlo for calculating molecular bond lengths
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cleland, Deidre M.; Per, Manolo C.
2016-03-01
This work investigates the accuracy of real-space quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods for calculating molecular geometries. We present the equilibrium bond lengths of a test set of 30 diatomic molecules calculated using variational Monte Carlo (VMC) and diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) methods. The effect of different trial wavefunctions is investigated using single determinants constructed from Hartree-Fock (HF) and Density Functional Theory (DFT) orbitals with LDA, PBE, and B3LYP functionals, as well as small multi-configurational self-consistent field (MCSCF) multi-determinant expansions. When compared to experimental geometries, all DMC methods exhibit smaller mean-absolute deviations (MADs) than those given by HF, DFT, and MCSCF. The most accurate MAD of 3 ± 2 × 10-3 Å is achieved using DMC with a small multi-determinant expansion. However, the more computationally efficient multi-determinant VMC method has a similar MAD of only 4.0 ± 0.9 × 10-3 Å, suggesting that QMC forces calculated from the relatively simple VMC algorithm may often be sufficient for accurate molecular geometries.
Path integral Monte Carlo on a lattice: extended states.
O'Callaghan, Mark; Miller, Bruce N
2014-04-01
The equilibrium properties of a single quantum particle (qp) interacting with a classical gas for a wide range of temperatures that explore the system's behavior in the classical as well as in the quantum regime is investigated. Both the qp and atoms are restricted to the sites of a one-dimensional lattice. A path integral formalism is developed within the context of the canonical ensemble in which the qp is represented by a closed, variable-step random walk on the lattice. Monte Carlo methods are employed to determine the system's properties. For the case of a free particle, analytical expressions for the energy, its fluctuations, and the qp-qp correlation function are derived and compared with the Monte Carlo simulations. To test the usefulness of the path integral formalism, the Metropolis algorithm is employed to determine the equilibrium properties of the qp for a periodic interaction potential, forcing the qp to occupy extended states. We consider a striped potential in one dimension, where every other lattice site is occupied by an atom with potential ε, and every other lattice site is empty. This potential serves as a stress test for the path integral formalism because of its rapid site-to-site variation. An analytical solution was determined in this case by utilizing Bloch's theorem due to the periodicity of the potential. Comparisons of the potential energy, the total energy, the energy fluctuations, and the correlation function are made between the results of the Monte Carlo simulations and the analytical calculations. PMID:24827210
Quantum Monte Carlo theory and applications for molecular systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kollias, Alexander C.
New directions for the quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) electronic structure method are discussed. Diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) results for the atomization energy and heats for formation of CO+2 are presented, while the bonding character is examined using the electron localization function. DMC all-electron and effective-core potential trial functions are used to obtain the atomization energies, heats of formation, and energy differences of the C2H4 singlet and triplet states. In addition, DMC is applied to obtain the heat of reaction and barrier height of the proton extraction reaction, CH3OH + Cl → CH 2OH + HCl. The results of the barrier height and heat of reaction are verified by examining the atomization energies and heats for formation of the reactants and products. DMC calculations were carried out on 22 small hydrocarbons. In this benchmark study the DMC atomization and bond dissociation energies, and heats of formation of these hydrocarbons are presented and compared to other ab initio methods. Methods for geometry optimization and calculating forces for QMC are discussed. The response surface methodology is applied to variational Monte Carlo (VMC) and DMC methods to obtain an optimized geometry, force constants and vibrational frequencies of CH2O. Finally, the zero-variance principle is applied to obtain VMC and DMC effective-core potential force estimators. These estimators are used to obtain a force curve for LiH.
On Monte Carlo Methods and Applications in Geoscience
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Z.; Blais, J.
2009-05-01
Monte Carlo methods are designed to study various deterministic problems using probabilistic approaches, and with computer simulations to explore much wider possibilities for the different algorithms. Pseudo- Random Number Generators (PRNGs) are based on linear congruences of some large prime numbers, while Quasi-Random Number Generators (QRNGs) provide low discrepancy sequences, both of which giving uniformly distributed numbers in (0,1). Chaotic Random Number Generators (CRNGs) give sequences of 'random numbers' satisfying some prescribed probabilistic density, often denser around the two corners of interval (0,1), but transforming this type of density to a uniform one is usually possible. Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), as indicated by its name, is associated with Markov Chain simulations. Basic descriptions of these random number generators will be given, and a comparative analysis of these four methods will be included based on their efficiencies and other characteristics. Some applications in geoscience using Monte Carlo simulations will be described, and a comparison of these algorithms will also be included with some concluding remarks.
Bretscher, M.M.
1993-12-31
The WIMS-D4 code has been modified (WIMS-D4M) to produce microscopic isotopic cross sections in ISOTXS format for use in diffusion and transport calculations. Beginning with 69-group libraries based on ENDF/B-V data, numerous cell calculations have been made to prepare a set of broad group cross sections for use in diffusion calculations. Global calculations have been made for two control rod states of the Romanian steady state TRIGA reactor with 29 fresh HEU fuel clusters. Detailed Monte Carlo calculations also have been performed for the same reactor configurations using data based on ENDF/B-V. Results from these global calculations are compared with each other and with the measured excess reactivities. Although region-averaged macroscopic principal cross sections obtained from WIMS-D4M are in good agreement with the corresponding Monte Carlo values, problems exist with the high energy (E > 10 keV) microscopic hydrogen transport cross sections.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Shaughnessy, Richard; Farr, Ben; Ochsner, Evan; Cho, Hee-Suk; Kim, Chunglee; Lee, Chang-Hwan
2014-03-01
Most calculations of the gravitational wave signal from merging compact binaries limit attention to the leading-order quadrupole when constructing models for detection or parameter estimation. Some studies have claimed that if additional "higher harmonics" are included consistently in the gravitational wave signal and search model, binary parameters can be measured much more precisely. Using the lalinference Markov-chain Monte Carlo parameter estimation code, we construct posterior parameter constraints associated with two distinct nonprecessing black hole-neutron star (BH-NS) binaries, each with and without higher-order harmonics. All simulations place a plausible signal into a three-detector network with Gaussian noise. Our simulations suggest that higher harmonics provide little information, principally allowing us to measure a previously unconstrained angle associated with the source geometry well but otherwise improving knowledge of all other parameters by a few percent for our loud fiducial signal (ρ =20). Even at this optimistic signal amplitude, different noise realizations have a more significant impact on parameter accuracy than higher harmonics. We compare our results with the "effective Fisher matrix" introduced previously as a method to obtain robust analytic predictions for complicated signals with multiple significant harmonics. We find generally good agreement with these predictions, confirm that intrinsic parameter measurement accuracy is nearly independent of detector network geometry, and show that uncertainties in extrinsic and intrinsic parameters can, to a good approximation, be separated. For our fiducial example, the individual masses can be determined to lie between 7.11-11.48M⊙ and 1.77-1.276M⊙ at greater than 99% confidence level, accounting for unknown BH spin. Assuming comparable control over waveform systematics, measurements of BH-NS binaries can constrain the BH and perhaps NS mass distributions. Using analytic arguments to
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mumford, K. G.; Mustafa, N. A.; Gerhard, J.
2012-12-01
probability of exceedance at community risk receptors was explored. This was accomplished by conducting Monte Carlo suites of simulations of a three-dimensional 1000 m × 500 m × 14 m domain to calculate the probability of exceeding regulatory criteria at different locations. The results allowed comparison of the potential importance of heterogeneity in permeability, sorption, and degradation parameters in risk-based decision making. More than 650 simulations were conducted to investigate different values of mean and variance of permeability, sorption coefficients, degradation rate constants, and correlations between heterogeneous fields. This work showed that greater reductions in source concentration were required to meet regulations for inhalation of indoor air compared to ingestion of groundwater, and that mean concentrations and probabilities of exceedance were more sensitive when evaluated at receptors that were laterally offset from the plume center line.
Independent pixel and Monte Carlo estimates of stratocumulus albedo
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cahalan, Robert F.; Ridgway, William; Wiscombe, Warren J.; Gollmer, Steven; HARSHVARDHAN
1994-01-01
Monte Carlo radiative transfer methods are employed here to estimate the plane-parallel albedo bias for marine stratocumulus clouds. This is the bias in estimates of the mesoscale-average albedo, which arises from the assumption that cloud liquid water is uniformly distributed. The authors compare such estimates with those based on a more realistic distribution generated from a fractal model of marine stratocumulus clouds belonging to the class of 'bounded cascade' models. In this model the cloud top and base are fixed, so that all variations in cloud shape are ignored. The model generates random variations in liquid water along a single horizontal direction, forming fractal cloud streets while conserving the total liquid water in the cloud field. The model reproduces the mean, variance, and skewness of the vertically integrated cloud liquid water, as well as its observed wavenumber spectrum, which is approximately a power law. The Monte Carlo method keeps track of the three-dimensional paths solar photons take through the cloud field, using a vectorized implementation of a direct technique. The simplifications in the cloud field studied here allow the computations to be accelerated. The Monte Carlo results are compared to those of the independent pixel approximation, which neglects net horizontal photon transport. Differences between the Monte Carlo and independent pixel estimates of the mesoscale-average albedo are on the order of 1% for conservative scattering, while the plane-parallel bias itself is an order of magnitude larger. As cloud absorption increases, the independent pixel approximation agrees even more closely with the Monte Carlo estimates. This result holds for a wide range of sun angles and aspect ratios. Thus, horizontal photon transport can be safely neglected in estimates of the area-average flux for such cloud models. This result relies on the rapid falloff of the wavenumber spectrum of stratocumulus, which ensures that the smaller
Improving light propagation Monte Carlo simulations with accurate 3D modeling of skin tissue
Paquit, Vincent C; Price, Jeffery R; Meriaudeau, Fabrice; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William
2008-01-01
In this paper, we present a 3D light propagation model to simulate multispectral reflectance images of large skin surface areas. In particular, we aim to simulate more accurately the effects of various physiological properties of the skin in the case of subcutaneous vein imaging compared to existing models. Our method combines a Monte Carlo light propagation model, a realistic three-dimensional model of the skin using parametric surfaces and a vision system for data acquisition. We describe our model in detail, present results from the Monte Carlo modeling and compare our results with those obtained with a well established Monte Carlo model and with real skin reflectance images.
On-the-fly nuclear data processing methods for Monte Carlo simulations of fast spectrum systems
Walsh, Jon
2015-08-31
The presentation summarizes work performed over summer 2015 related to Monte Carlo simulations. A flexible probability table interpolation scheme has been implemented and tested with results comparing favorably to the continuous phase-space on-the-fly approach.
Recent advances and future prospects for Monte Carlo
Brown, Forrest B
2010-01-01
The history of Monte Carlo methods is closely linked to that of computers: The first known Monte Carlo program was written in 1947 for the ENIAC; a pre-release of the first Fortran compiler was used for Monte Carlo In 1957; Monte Carlo codes were adapted to vector computers in the 1980s, clusters and parallel computers in the 1990s, and teraflop systems in the 2000s. Recent advances include hierarchical parallelism, combining threaded calculations on multicore processors with message-passing among different nodes. With the advances In computmg, Monte Carlo codes have evolved with new capabilities and new ways of use. Production codes such as MCNP, MVP, MONK, TRIPOLI and SCALE are now 20-30 years old (or more) and are very rich in advanced featUres. The former 'method of last resort' has now become the first choice for many applications. Calculations are now routinely performed on office computers, not just on supercomputers. Current research and development efforts are investigating the use of Monte Carlo methods on FPGAs. GPUs, and many-core processors. Other far-reaching research is exploring ways to adapt Monte Carlo methods to future exaflop systems that may have 1M or more concurrent computational processes.
Iterative acceleration methods for Monte Carlo and deterministic criticality calculations
Urbatsch, T.J.
1995-11-01
If you have ever given up on a nuclear criticality calculation and terminated it because it took so long to converge, you might find this thesis of interest. The author develops three methods for improving the fission source convergence in nuclear criticality calculations for physical systems with high dominance ratios for which convergence is slow. The Fission Matrix Acceleration Method and the Fission Diffusion Synthetic Acceleration (FDSA) Method are acceleration methods that speed fission source convergence for both Monte Carlo and deterministic methods. The third method is a hybrid Monte Carlo method that also converges for difficult problems where the unaccelerated Monte Carlo method fails. The author tested the feasibility of all three methods in a test bed consisting of idealized problems. He has successfully accelerated fission source convergence in both deterministic and Monte Carlo criticality calculations. By filtering statistical noise, he has incorporated deterministic attributes into the Monte Carlo calculations in order to speed their source convergence. He has used both the fission matrix and a diffusion approximation to perform unbiased accelerations. The Fission Matrix Acceleration method has been implemented in the production code MCNP and successfully applied to a real problem. When the unaccelerated calculations are unable to converge to the correct solution, they cannot be accelerated in an unbiased fashion. A Hybrid Monte Carlo method weds Monte Carlo and a modified diffusion calculation to overcome these deficiencies. The Hybrid method additionally possesses reduced statistical errors.
Clinical implementation of full Monte Carlo dose calculation in proton beam therapy.
Paganetti, Harald; Jiang, Hongyu; Parodi, Katia; Slopsema, Roelf; Engelsman, Martijn
2008-09-01
The goal of this work was to facilitate the clinical use of Monte Carlo proton dose calculation to support routine treatment planning and delivery. The Monte Carlo code Geant4 was used to simulate the treatment head setup, including a time-dependent simulation of modulator wheels (for broad beam modulation) and magnetic field settings (for beam scanning). Any patient-field-specific setup can be modeled according to the treatment control system of the facility. The code was benchmarked against phantom measurements. Using a simulation of the ionization chamber reading in the treatment head allows the Monte Carlo dose to be specified in absolute units (Gy per ionization chamber reading). Next, the capability of reading CT data information was implemented into the Monte Carlo code to model patient anatomy. To allow time-efficient dose calculation, the standard Geant4 tracking algorithm was modified. Finally, a software link of the Monte Carlo dose engine to the patient database and the commercial planning system was established to allow data exchange, thus completing the implementation of the proton Monte Carlo dose calculation engine ('DoC++'). Monte Carlo re-calculated plans are a valuable tool to revisit decisions in the planning process. Identification of clinically significant differences between Monte Carlo and pencil-beam-based dose calculations may also drive improvements of current pencil-beam methods. As an example, four patients (29 fields in total) with tumors in the head and neck regions were analyzed. Differences between the pencil-beam algorithm and Monte Carlo were identified in particular near the end of range, both due to dose degradation and overall differences in range prediction due to bony anatomy in the beam path. Further, the Monte Carlo reports dose-to-tissue as compared to dose-to-water by the planning system. Our implementation is tailored to a specific Monte Carlo code and the treatment planning system XiO (Computerized Medical Systems Inc
Instantons in Quantum Annealing: Thermally Assisted Tunneling Vs Quantum Monte Carlo Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jiang, Zhang; Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.; Boixo, Sergio; Isakov, Sergei V.; Neven, Hartmut; Mazzola, Guglielmo; Troyer, Matthias
2015-01-01
Recent numerical result (arXiv:1512.02206) from Google suggested that the D-Wave quantum annealer may have an asymptotic speed-up than simulated annealing, however, the asymptotic advantage disappears when it is compared to quantum Monte Carlo (a classical algorithm despite its name). We show analytically that the asymptotic scaling of quantum tunneling is exactly the same as the escape rate in quantum Monte Carlo for a class of problems. Thus, the Google result might be explained in our framework. We also found that the transition state in quantum Monte Carlo corresponds to the instanton solution in quantum tunneling problems, which is observed in numerical simulations.
Franke, B. C.; Prinja, A. K.
2013-07-01
The stochastic Galerkin method (SGM) is an intrusive technique for propagating data uncertainty in physical models. The method reduces the random model to a system of coupled deterministic equations for the moments of stochastic spectral expansions of result quantities. We investigate solving these equations using the Monte Carlo technique. We compare the efficiency with brute-force Monte Carlo evaluation of uncertainty, the non-intrusive stochastic collocation method (SCM), and an intrusive Monte Carlo implementation of the stochastic collocation method. We also describe the stability limitations of our SGM implementation. (authors)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ping; Yuan, Hongwu; Mei, Haiping; Zhang, Qianghua
2013-08-01
Study the laser pulses transmission time characteristics in discrete random medium using the Monte Carlo method. Firstly, the medium optical parameters have been given by OPAC software. Then, create a Monte Carlo model and Monte Carlo simulation of photon transport behavior of a large number of tracking, statistics obtain the photon average arrival time and average pulse broadening case, the calculation result with calculation results of two-frequency mutual coherence function are compared, the results are very consistent. Finally, medium impulse response function given by polynomial fitting method can be used to correct discrete random medium inter-symbol interference in optical communications and reduce the rate of system error.
Mowlavi, Ali Asghar; de Denaro, Mario; Fornasier, Maria Rosa; Binesh, Alireza
2006-03-01
This paper describes Monte Carlo simulation of intrinsic count rate performance of a scintillation gamma camera. MCNP Monte Carlo code was employed to calculate pulse height spectrum and detector efficiency. A custom code written in Fortran language was then developed to simulate, by Monte Carlo method, the distortion in pulse height spectrum due to the pile-up effect for paralyzable and nonparalyzable systems. The results of the simulations, compared with the experimental measurement of count rate performance, showed a good agreement between the two different approaches. PMID:16343910
A radiating shock evaluated using Implicit Monte Carlo Diffusion
Cleveland, M.; Gentile, N.
2013-07-01
Implicit Monte Carlo [1] (IMC) has been shown to be very expensive when used to evaluate a radiation field in opaque media. Implicit Monte Carlo Diffusion (IMD) [2], which evaluates a spatial discretized diffusion equation using a Monte Carlo algorithm, can be used to reduce the cost of evaluating the radiation field in opaque media [2]. This work couples IMD to the hydrodynamics equations to evaluate opaque diffusive radiating shocks. The Lowrie semi-analytic diffusive radiating shock benchmark[a] is used to verify our implementation of the coupled system of equations. (authors)
Variance reduction in Monte Carlo analysis of rarefied gas diffusion.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Perlmutter, M.
1972-01-01
The problem of rarefied diffusion between parallel walls is solved using the Monte Carlo method. The diffusing molecules are evaporated or emitted from one of the two parallel walls and diffuse through another molecular species. The Monte Carlo analysis treats the diffusing molecule as undergoing a Markov random walk, and the local macroscopic properties are found as the expected value of the random variable, the random walk payoff. By biasing the transition probabilities and changing the collision payoffs, the expected Markov walk payoff is retained but its variance is reduced so that the Monte Carlo result has a much smaller error.
Finding Planet Nine: a Monte Carlo approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de la Fuente Marcos, C.; de la Fuente Marcos, R.
2016-06-01
Planet Nine is a hypothetical planet located well beyond Pluto that has been proposed in an attempt to explain the observed clustering in physical space of the perihelia of six extreme trans-Neptunian objects or ETNOs. The predicted approximate values of its orbital elements include a semimajor axis of 700 au, an eccentricity of 0.6, an inclination of 30°, and an argument of perihelion of 150°. Searching for this putative planet is already under way. Here, we use a Monte Carlo approach to create a synthetic population of Planet Nine orbits and study its visibility statistically in terms of various parameters and focusing on the aphelion configuration. Our analysis shows that, if Planet Nine exists and is at aphelion, it might be found projected against one out of the four specific areas in the sky. Each area is linked to a particular value of the longitude of the ascending node and two of them are compatible with an apsidal anti-alignment scenario. In addition and after studying the current statistics of ETNOs, a cautionary note on the robustness of the perihelia clustering is presented.
Accelerated Monte Carlo Methods for Coulomb Collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosin, Mark; Ricketson, Lee; Dimits, Andris; Caflisch, Russel; Cohen, Bruce
2014-03-01
We present a new highly efficient multi-level Monte Carlo (MLMC) simulation algorithm for Coulomb collisions in a plasma. The scheme, initially developed and used successfully for applications in financial mathematics, is applied here to kinetic plasmas for the first time. The method is based on a Langevin treatment of the Landau-Fokker-Planck equation and has a rich history derived from the works of Einstein and Chandrasekhar. The MLMC scheme successfully reduces the computational cost of achieving an RMS error ɛ in the numerical solution to collisional plasma problems from (ɛ-3) - for the standard state-of-the-art Langevin and binary collision algorithms - to a theoretically optimal (ɛ-2) scaling, when used in conjunction with an underlying Milstein discretization to the Langevin equation. In the test case presented here, the method accelerates simulations by factors of up to 100. We summarize the scheme, present some tricks for improving its efficiency yet further, and discuss the method's range of applicability. Work performed for US DOE by LLNL under contract DE-AC52- 07NA27344 and by UCLA under grant DE-FG02-05ER25710.
Monte Carlo Simulation of Critical Casimir Forces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vasilyev, Oleg A.
2015-03-01
In the vicinity of the second order phase transition point long-range critical fluctuations of the order parameter appear. The second order phase transition in a critical binary mixture in the vicinity of the demixing point belongs to the universality class of the Ising model. The superfluid transition in liquid He belongs to the universality class of the XY model. The confinement of long-range fluctuations causes critical Casimir forces acting on confining surfaces or particles immersed in the critical substance. Last decade critical Casimir forces in binary mixtures and liquid helium were studied experimentally. The critical Casimir force in a film of a given thickness scales as a universal scaling function of the ratio of the film thickness to the bulk correlation length divided over the cube of the film thickness. Using Monte Carlo simulations we can compute critical Casimir forces and their scaling functions for lattice Ising and XY models which correspond to experimental results for the binary mixture and liquid helium, respectively. This chapter provides the description of numerical methods for computation of critical Casimir interactions for lattice models for plane-plane, plane-particle, and particle-particle geometries.
Commensurabilities between ETNOs: a Monte Carlo survey
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de la Fuente Marcos, C.; de la Fuente Marcos, R.
2016-04-01
Many asteroids in the main and trans-Neptunian belts are trapped in mean motion resonances with Jupiter and Neptune, respectively. As a side effect, they experience accidental commensurabilities among themselves. These commensurabilities define characteristic patterns that can be used to trace the source of the observed resonant behaviour. Here, we explore systematically the existence of commensurabilities between the known ETNOs using their heliocentric and barycentric semimajor axes, their uncertainties, and Monte Carlo techniques. We find that the commensurability patterns present in the known ETNO population resemble those found in the main and trans-Neptunian belts. Although based on small number statistics, such patterns can only be properly explained if most, if not all, of the known ETNOs are subjected to the resonant gravitational perturbations of yet undetected trans-Plutonian planets. We show explicitly that some of the statistically significant commensurabilities are compatible with the Planet Nine hypothesis; in particular, a number of objects may be trapped in the 5:3 and 3:1 mean motion resonances with a putative Planet Nine with semimajor axis ˜700 au.
Markov Chain Monte Carlo and Irreversibility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ottobre, Michela
2016-06-01
Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods are statistical methods designed to sample from a given measure π by constructing a Markov chain that has π as invariant measure and that converges to π. Most MCMC algorithms make use of chains that satisfy the detailed balance condition with respect to π; such chains are therefore reversible. On the other hand, recent work [18, 21, 28, 29] has stressed several advantages of using irreversible processes for sampling. Roughly speaking, irreversible diffusions converge to equilibrium faster (and lead to smaller asymptotic variance as well). In this paper we discuss some of the recent progress in the study of nonreversible MCMC methods. In particular: i) we explain some of the difficulties that arise in the analysis of nonreversible processes and we discuss some analytical methods to approach the study of continuous-time irreversible diffusions; ii) most of the rigorous results on irreversible diffusions are available for continuous-time processes; however, for computational purposes one needs to discretize such dynamics. It is well known that the resulting discretized chain will not, in general, retain all the good properties of the process that it is obtained from. In particular, if we want to preserve the invariance of the target measure, the chain might no longer be reversible. Therefore iii) we conclude by presenting an MCMC algorithm, the SOL-HMC algorithm [23], which results from a nonreversible discretization of a nonreversible dynamics.
Error modes in implicit Monte Carlo
Martin, William Russell,; Brown, F. B.
2001-01-01
The Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) method of Fleck and Cummings [1] has been used for years to analyze radiative transfer problems, such as those encountered in stellar atmospheres or inertial confinement fusion. Larsen and Mercier [2] have shown that the IMC method violates a maximum principle that is satisfied by the exact solution to the radiative transfer equation. Except for [2] and related papers regarding the maximum principle, there have been no other published results regarding the analysis of errors or convergence properties for the IMC method. This work presents an exact error analysis for the IMC method by using the analytical solutions for infinite medium geometry (0-D) to determine closed form expressions for the errors. The goal is to gain insight regarding the errors inherent in the IMC method by relating the exact 0-D errors to multi-dimensional geometry. Additional work (not described herein) has shown that adding a leakage term (i.e., a 'buckling' term) to the 0-D equations has relatively little effect on the IMC errors analyzed in this paper, so that the 0-D errors should provide useful guidance for the errors observed in multi-dimensional simulations.
Monte Carlo Production Management at CMS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boudoul, G.; Franzoni, G.; Norkus, A.; Pol, A.; Srimanobhas, P.; Vlimant, J.-R.
2015-12-01
The analysis of the LHC data at the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment requires the production of a large number of simulated events. During the RunI of LHC (20102012), CMS has produced over 12 Billion simulated events, organized in approximately sixty different campaigns each emulating specific detector conditions and LHC running conditions (pile up). In order to aggregate the information needed for the configuration and prioritization of the events production, assure the book-keeping of all the processing requests placed by the physics analysis groups, and to interface with the CMS production infrastructure, the web- based service Monte Carlo Management (McM) has been developed and put in production in 2013. McM is based on recent server infrastructure technology (CherryPy + AngularJS) and relies on a CouchDB database back-end. This contribution covers the one and half year of operational experience managing samples of simulated events for CMS, the evolution of its functionalities and the extension of its capability to monitor the status and advancement of the events production.
Atomistic Monte Carlo Simulation of Lipid Membranes
Wüstner, Daniel; Sklenar, Heinz
2014-01-01
Biological membranes are complex assemblies of many different molecules of which analysis demands a variety of experimental and computational approaches. In this article, we explain challenges and advantages of atomistic Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of lipid membranes. We provide an introduction into the various move sets that are implemented in current MC methods for efficient conformational sampling of lipids and other molecules. In the second part, we demonstrate for a concrete example, how an atomistic local-move set can be implemented for MC simulations of phospholipid monomers and bilayer patches. We use our recently devised chain breakage/closure (CBC) local move set in the bond-/torsion angle space with the constant-bond-length approximation (CBLA) for the phospholipid dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). We demonstrate rapid conformational equilibration for a single DPPC molecule, as assessed by calculation of molecular energies and entropies. We also show transition from a crystalline-like to a fluid DPPC bilayer by the CBC local-move MC method, as indicated by the electron density profile, head group orientation, area per lipid, and whole-lipid displacements. We discuss the potential of local-move MC methods in combination with molecular dynamics simulations, for example, for studying multi-component lipid membranes containing cholesterol. PMID:24469314
Extending canonical Monte Carlo methods: II
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Velazquez, L.; Curilef, S.
2010-04-01
We have previously presented a methodology for extending canonical Monte Carlo methods inspired by a suitable extension of the canonical fluctuation relation C = β2langδE2rang compatible with negative heat capacities, C < 0. Now, we improve this methodology by including the finite size effects that reduce the precision of a direct determination of the microcanonical caloric curve β(E) = ∂S(E)/∂E, as well as by carrying out a better implementation of the MC schemes. We show that, despite the modifications considered, the extended canonical MC methods lead to an impressive overcoming of the so-called supercritical slowing down observed close to the region of the temperature driven first-order phase transition. In this case, the size dependence of the decorrelation time τ is reduced from an exponential growth to a weak power-law behavior, \\tau (N)\\propto N^{\\alpha } , as is shown in the particular case of the 2D seven-state Potts model where the exponent α = 0.14-0.18.
Computing Entanglement Entropy in Quantum Monte Carlo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Melko, Roger
2012-02-01
The scaling of entanglement entropy in quantum many-body wavefunctions is expected to be a fruitful resource for studying quantum phases and phase transitions in condensed matter. However, until the recent development of estimators for Renyi entropy in quantum Monte Carlo (QMC), we have been in the dark about the behaviour of entanglement in all but the simplest two-dimensional models. In this talk, I will outline the measurement techniques that allow access to the Renyi entropies in several different QMC methodologies. I will then discuss recent simulation results demonstrating the richness of entanglement scaling in 2D, including: the prevalence of the ``area law''; topological entanglement entropy in a gapped spin liquid; anomalous subleading logarithmic terms due to Goldstone modes; universal scaling at critical points; and examples of emergent conformal-like scaling in several gapless wavefunctions. Finally, I will explore the idea that ``long range entanglement'' may complement the notion of ``long range order'' for quantum phases and phase transitions which lack a conventional order parameter description.
Linear Scaling Quantum Monte Carlo Calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williamson, Andrew
2002-03-01
New developments to the quantum Monte Carlo approach are presented that improve the scaling of the time required to calculate the total energy of a configuration of electronic coordinates from N^3 to nearly linear[1]. The first factor of N is achieved by applying a unitary transform to the set of single particle orbitals used to construct the Slater determinant, creating a set of maximally localized Wannier orbitals. These localized functions are then truncated beyond a given cutoff radius to introduce sparsity into the Slater determinant. The second factor of N is achieved by evaluating the maximally localized Wannier orbitals on a cubic spline grid, which removes the size dependence of the basis set (e.g. plane waves, Gaussians) typically used to expand the orbitals. Application of this method to the calculation of the binding energy of carbon fullerenes and silicon nanostructures will be presented. An extension of the approach to deal with excited states of systems will also be presented in the context of the calculation of the excitonic gap of a variety of systems. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Dept. of Energy at the University of California/LLNL under contract no. W-7405-Eng-48. [1] A.J. Williamson, R.Q. Hood and J.C. Grossman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87 246406 (2001)
Monte Carlo simulation framework for TMT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vogiatzis, Konstantinos; Angeli, George Z.
2008-07-01
This presentation describes a strategy for assessing the performance of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). A Monte Carlo Simulation Framework has been developed to combine optical modeling with Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations (CFD), Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and controls to model the overall performance of TMT. The framework consists of a two year record of observed environmental parameters such as atmospheric seeing, site wind speed and direction, ambient temperature and local sunset and sunrise times, along with telescope azimuth and elevation with a given sampling rate. The modeled optical, dynamic and thermal seeing aberrations are available in a matrix form for distinct values within the range of influencing parameters. These parameters are either part of the framework parameter set or can be derived from them at each time-step. As time advances, the aberrations are interpolated and combined based on the current value of their parameters. Different scenarios can be generated based on operating parameters such as venting strategy, optical calibration frequency and heat source control. Performance probability distributions are obtained and provide design guidance. The sensitivity of the system to design, operating and environmental parameters can be assessed in order to maximize the % of time the system meets the performance specifications.
Commensurabilities between ETNOs: a Monte Carlo survey
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de la Fuente Marcos, C.; de la Fuente Marcos, R.
2016-07-01
Many asteroids in the main and trans-Neptunian belts are trapped in mean motion resonances with Jupiter and Neptune, respectively. As a side effect, they experience accidental commensurabilities among themselves. These commensurabilities define characteristic patterns that can be used to trace the source of the observed resonant behaviour. Here, we explore systematically the existence of commensurabilities between the known ETNOs using their heliocentric and barycentric semimajor axes, their uncertainties, and Monte Carlo techniques. We find that the commensurability patterns present in the known ETNO population resemble those found in the main and trans-Neptunian belts. Although based on small number statistics, such patterns can only be properly explained if most, if not all, of the known ETNOs are subjected to the resonant gravitational perturbations of yet undetected trans-Plutonian planets. We show explicitly that some of the statistically significant commensurabilities are compatible with the Planet Nine hypothesis; in particular, a number of objects may be trapped in the 5:3 and 3:1 mean motion resonances with a putative Planet Nine with semimajor axis ˜700 au.
Metrics for Diagnosing Undersampling in Monte Carlo Tally Estimates
Perfetti, Christopher M.; Rearden, Bradley T.
2015-01-01
This study explored the potential of using Markov chain convergence diagnostics to predict the prevalence and magnitude of biases due to undersampling in Monte Carlo eigenvalue and flux tally estimates. Five metrics were applied to two models of pressurized water reactor fuel assemblies and their potential for identifying undersampling biases was evaluated by comparing the calculated test metrics with known biases in the tallies. Three of the five undersampling metrics showed the potential to accurately predict the behavior of undersampling biases in the responses examined in this study.
Monte Carlo simulation studies of backscatter factors in mammography
Chan, H.P.; Doi, K.
1981-04-01
Experimentally determined backscatter factors in mammography can contain significant systematic errors due to the energy response, dimensions, and location of the dosimeter used. In this study, the Monte Carlo method was applied to simulate photon scattering in tissue-equivalent media and to determine backscatter factors without the interference of a detector. The physical processes of measuring backscatter factors with a lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) and an ideal tissue-equivalent detector were also simulated. Computed results were compared with the true backscatter factors and with measured values reported by other investigators. It was found that the TLD method underestimated backscatter factors in mammography by as much as 10% at high energies.
Active neutron multiplicity analysis and Monte Carlo calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krick, M. S.; Ensslin, N.; Langner, D. G.; Miller, M. C.; Siebelist, R.; Stewart, J. E.; Ceo, R. N.; May, P. K.; Collins, L. L., Jr.
Active neutron multiplicity measurements of high-enrichment uranium metal and oxide samples have been made at Los Alamos and Y-12. The data from the measurements of standards at Los Alamos were analyzed to obtain values for neutron multiplication and source-sample coupling. These results are compared to equivalent results obtained from Monte Carlo calculations. An approximate relationship between coupling and multiplication is derived and used to correct doubles rates for multiplication and coupling. The utility of singles counting for uranium samples is also examined.
Positronic molecule calculations using Monte Carlo configuration interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coe, Jeremy P.; Paterson, Martin J.
2016-02-01
We modify the Monte Carlo configuration interaction procedure to model atoms and molecules combined with a positron. We test this method with standard quantum chemistry basis sets on a number of positronic systems and compare results with the literature and full configuration interaction when appropriate. We consider positronium hydride, positronium hydroxide, lithium positride and a positron interacting with lithium, magnesium or lithium hydride. We demonstrate that we can capture much of the full configuration interaction results, but often require less than 10% of the configurations of these multireference wavefunctions. The effect of the number of frozen orbitals is also discussed.
3D Monte Carlo radiation transfer modelling of photodynamic therapy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campbell, C. Louise; Christison, Craig; Brown, C. Tom A.; Wood, Kenneth; Valentine, Ronan M.; Moseley, Harry
2015-06-01
The effects of ageing and skin type on Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) for different treatment methods have been theoretically investigated. A multilayered Monte Carlo Radiation Transfer model is presented where both daylight activated PDT and conventional PDT are compared. It was found that light penetrates deeper through older skin with a lighter complexion, which translates into a deeper effective treatment depth. The effect of ageing was found to be larger for darker skin types. The investigation further strengthens the usage of daylight as a potential light source for PDT where effective treatment depths of about 2 mm can be achieved.
Monte Carlo studies of interpenetrating polymer network formation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schulz, Michael; Frisch, Harry L.
1994-12-01
We present a lattice Monte-Carlo simulation of polymer network formation using the bond fluctuation method. We apply this procedure to simulate the formation of a class of simultaneous interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) which has been experimentally studied consisting of one network crosslinked with a trifunctional monomer (PCU) and another crosslinked with a tetrafunctional monomer (the free radical vinyl polymer network). The numerical simulation reveals essentially all features found experimentally for this class of IPNs. The system composition and initial morphology, at least for reactions which are relatively fast compared to the uphill diffusion process causing phase separation, is in good agreement with a mean field [random-phase approximations (RPA)] theory.
Svatos, M.; Zankowski, C.; Bednarz, B.
2016-01-01
Purpose: The future of radiation therapy will require advanced inverse planning solutions to support single-arc, multiple-arc, and “4π” delivery modes, which present unique challenges in finding an optimal treatment plan over a vast search space, while still preserving dosimetric accuracy. The successful clinical implementation of such methods would benefit from Monte Carlo (MC) based dose calculation methods, which can offer improvements in dosimetric accuracy when compared to deterministic methods. The standard method for MC based treatment planning optimization leverages the accuracy of the MC dose calculation and efficiency of well-developed optimization methods, by precalculating the fluence to dose relationship within a patient with MC methods and subsequently optimizing the fluence weights. However, the sequential nature of this implementation is computationally time consuming and memory intensive. Methods to reduce the overhead of the MC precalculation have been explored in the past, demonstrating promising reductions of computational time overhead, but with limited impact on the memory overhead due to the sequential nature of the dose calculation and fluence optimization. The authors propose an entirely new form of “concurrent” Monte Carlo treat plan optimization: a platform which optimizes the fluence during the dose calculation, reduces wasted computation time being spent on beamlets that weakly contribute to the final dose distribution, and requires only a low memory footprint to function. In this initial investigation, the authors explore the key theoretical and practical considerations of optimizing fluence in such a manner. Methods: The authors present a novel derivation and implementation of a gradient descent algorithm that allows for optimization during MC particle transport, based on highly stochastic information generated through particle transport of very few histories. A gradient rescaling and renormalization algorithm, and the
Mukumoto, Nobutaka; Tsujii, Katsutomo; Saito, Susumu; Yasunaga, Masayoshi; Takegawa, Hidek; Yamamoto, Tokihiro; Numasaki, Hodaka; Teshima, Teruki
2009-10-01
Purpose: To develop an infrastructure for the integrated Monte Carlo verification system (MCVS) to verify the accuracy of conventional dose calculations, which often fail to accurately predict dose distributions, mainly due to inhomogeneities in the patient's anatomy, for example, in lung and bone. Methods and Materials: The MCVS consists of the graphical user interface (GUI) based on a computational environment for radiotherapy research (CERR) with MATLAB language. The MCVS GUI acts as an interface between the MCVS and a commercial treatment planning system to import the treatment plan, create MC input files, and analyze MC output dose files. The MCVS consists of the EGSnrc MC codes, which include EGSnrc/BEAMnrc to simulate the treatment head and EGSnrc/DOSXYZnrc to calculate the dose distributions in the patient/phantom. In order to improve computation time without approximations, an in-house cluster system was constructed. Results: The phase-space data of a 6-MV photon beam from a Varian Clinac unit was developed and used to establish several benchmarks under homogeneous conditions. The MC results agreed with the ionization chamber measurements to within 1%. The MCVS GUI could import and display the radiotherapy treatment plan created by the MC method and various treatment planning systems, such as RTOG and DICOM-RT formats. Dose distributions could be analyzed by using dose profiles and dose volume histograms and compared on the same platform. With the cluster system, calculation time was improved in line with the increase in the number of central processing units (CPUs) at a computation efficiency of more than 98%. Conclusions: Development of the MCVS was successful for performing MC simulations and analyzing dose distributions.
DETERMINING UNCERTAINTY IN PHYSICAL PARAMETER MEASUREMENTS BY MONTE CARLO SIMULATION
A statistical approach, often called Monte Carlo Simulation, has been used to examine propagation of error with measurement of several parameters important in predicting environmental transport of chemicals. These parameters are vapor pressure, water solubility, octanol-water par...
Monte Carlo variance reduction approaches for non-Boltzmann tallies
Booth, T.E.
1992-12-01
Quantities that depend on the collective effects of groups of particles cannot be obtained from the standard Boltzmann transport equation. Monte Carlo estimates of these quantities are called non-Boltzmann tallies and have become increasingly important recently. Standard Monte Carlo variance reduction techniques were designed for tallies based on individual particles rather than groups of particles. Experience with non-Boltzmann tallies and analog Monte Carlo has demonstrated the severe limitations of analog Monte Carlo for many non-Boltzmann tallies. In fact, many calculations absolutely require variance reduction methods to achieve practical computation times. Three different approaches to variance reduction for non-Boltzmann tallies are described and shown to be unbiased. The advantages and disadvantages of each of the approaches are discussed.
OBJECT KINETIC MONTE CARLO SIMULATIONS OF CASCADE ANNEALING IN TUNGSTEN
Nandipati, Giridhar; Setyawan, Wahyu; Heinisch, Howard L.; Roche, Kenneth J.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Wirth, Brian D.
2014-03-31
The objective of this work is to study the annealing of primary cascade damage created by primary knock-on atoms (PKAs) of various energies, at various temperatures in bulk tungsten using the object kinetic Monte Carlo (OKMC) method.
Monte Carlo techniques for analyzing deep penetration problems
Cramer, S.N.; Gonnord, J.; Hendricks, J.S.
1985-01-01
A review of current methods and difficulties in Monte Carlo deep-penetration calculations is presented. Statistical uncertainty is discussed, and recent adjoint optimization of splitting, Russian roulette, and exponential transformation biasing is reviewed. Other aspects of the random walk and estimation processes are covered, including the relatively new DXANG angular biasing technique. Specific items summarized are albedo scattering, Monte Carlo coupling techniques with discrete ordinates and other methods, adjoint solutions, and multi-group Monte Carlo. The topic of code-generated biasing parameters is presented, including the creation of adjoint importance functions from forward calculations. Finally, current and future work in the area of computer learning and artificial intelligence is discussed in connection with Monte Carlo applications. 29 refs.
Enhancements in Continuous-Energy Monte Carlo Capabilities in SCALE
Bekar, Kursat B; Celik, Cihangir; Wiarda, Dorothea; Peplow, Douglas E.; Rearden, Bradley T; Dunn, Michael E
2013-01-01
Monte Carlo tools in SCALE are commonly used in criticality safety calculations as well as sensitivity and uncertainty analysis, depletion, and criticality alarm system analyses. Recent improvements in the continuous-energy data generated by the AMPX code system and significant advancements in the continuous-energy treatment in the KENO Monte Carlo eigenvalue codes facilitate the use of SCALE Monte Carlo codes to model geometrically complex systems with enhanced solution fidelity. The addition of continuous-energy treatment to the SCALE Monaco code, which can be used with automatic variance reduction in the hybrid MAVRIC sequence, provides significant enhancements, especially for criticality alarm system modeling. This paper describes some of the advancements in continuous-energy Monte Carlo codes within the SCALE code system.
Study of the Transition Flow Regime using Monte Carlo Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hassan, H. A.
1999-01-01
This NASA Cooperative Agreement presents a study of the Transition Flow Regime Using Monte Carlo Methods. The topics included in this final report are: 1) New Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) procedures; 2) The DS3W and DS2A Programs; 3) Papers presented; 4) Miscellaneous Applications and Program Modifications; 5) Solution of Transitional Wake Flows at Mach 10; and 6) Turbulence Modeling of Shock-Dominated Fows with a k-Enstrophy Formulation.
Development of Monte Carlo Capability for Orion Parachute Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moore, James W.
2011-01-01
Parachute test programs employ Monte Carlo simulation techniques to plan testing and make critical decisions related to parachute loads, rate-of-descent, or other parameters. This paper describes the development and use of a MATLAB-based Monte Carlo tool for three parachute drop test simulations currently used by NASA. The Decelerator System Simulation (DSS) is a legacy 6 Degree-of-Freedom (DOF) simulation used to predict parachute loads and descent trajectories. The Decelerator System Simulation Application (DSSA) is a 6-DOF simulation that is well suited for modeling aircraft extraction and descent of pallet-like test vehicles. The Drop Test Vehicle Simulation (DTVSim) is a 2-DOF trajectory simulation that is convenient for quick turn-around analysis tasks. These three tools have significantly different software architectures and do not share common input files or output data structures. Separate Monte Carlo tools were initially developed for each simulation. A recently-developed simulation output structure enables the use of the more sophisticated DSSA Monte Carlo tool with any of the core-simulations. The task of configuring the inputs for the nominal simulation is left to the existing tools. Once the nominal simulation is configured, the Monte Carlo tool perturbs the input set according to dispersion rules created by the analyst. These rules define the statistical distribution and parameters to be applied to each simulation input. Individual dispersed parameters are combined to create a dispersed set of simulation inputs. The Monte Carlo tool repeatedly executes the core-simulation with the dispersed inputs and stores the results for analysis. The analyst may define conditions on one or more output parameters at which to collect data slices. The tool provides a versatile interface for reviewing output of large Monte Carlo data sets while preserving the capability for detailed examination of individual dispersed trajectories. The Monte Carlo tool described in
SCALE Monte Carlo Eigenvalue Methods and New Advancements
Goluoglu, Sedat; Leppanen, Jaakko; Petrie Jr, Lester M; Dunn, Michael E
2010-01-01
SCALE code system is developed and maintained by Oak Ridge National Laboratory to perform criticality safety, reactor analysis, radiation shielding, and spent fuel characterization for nuclear facilities and transportation/storage package designs. SCALE is a modular code system that includes several codes which use either Monte Carlo or discrete ordinates solution methodologies for solving relevant neutral particle transport equations. This paper describes some of the key capabilities of the Monte Carlo criticality safety codes within the SCALE code system.
A Particle Population Control Method for Dynamic Monte Carlo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sweezy, Jeremy; Nolen, Steve; Adams, Terry; Zukaitis, Anthony
2014-06-01
A general particle population control method has been derived from splitting and Russian Roulette for dynamic Monte Carlo particle transport. A well-known particle population control method, known as the particle population comb, has been shown to be a special case of this general method. This general method has been incorporated in Los Alamos National Laboratory's Monte Carlo Application Toolkit (MCATK) and examples of it's use are shown for both super-critical and sub-critical systems.
Monte Carlo methods and applications in nuclear physics
Carlson, J.
1990-01-01
Monte Carlo methods for studying few- and many-body quantum systems are introduced, with special emphasis given to their applications in nuclear physics. Variational and Green's function Monte Carlo methods are presented in some detail. The status of calculations of light nuclei is reviewed, including discussions of the three-nucleon-interaction, charge and magnetic form factors, the coulomb sum rule, and studies of low-energy radiative transitions. 58 refs., 12 figs.
Monte Carlo Hybrid Applied to Binary Stochastic Mixtures
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2008-08-11
The purpose of this set of codes isto use an inexpensive, approximate deterministic flux distribution to generate weight windows, wihich will then be used to bound particle weights for the Monte Carlo code run. The process is not automated; the user must run the deterministic code and use the output file as a command-line argument for the Monte Carlo code. Two sets of text input files are included as test problems/templates.
DPEMC: A Monte Carlo for double diffraction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boonekamp, M.; Kúcs, T.
2005-05-01
We extend the POMWIG Monte Carlo generator developed by B. Cox and J. Forshaw, to include new models of central production through inclusive and exclusive double Pomeron exchange in proton-proton collisions. Double photon exchange processes are described as well, both in proton-proton and heavy-ion collisions. In all contexts, various models have been implemented, allowing for comparisons and uncertainty evaluation and enabling detailed experimental simulations. Program summaryTitle of the program:DPEMC, version 2.4 Catalogue identifier: ADVF Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADVF Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer: any computer with the FORTRAN 77 compiler under the UNIX or Linux operating systems Operating system: UNIX; Linux Programming language used: FORTRAN 77 High speed storage required:<25 MB No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 71 399 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 639 950 Distribution format: tar.gz Nature of the physical problem: Proton diffraction at hadron colliders can manifest itself in many forms, and a variety of models exist that attempt to describe it [A. Bialas, P.V. Landshoff, Phys. Lett. B 256 (1991) 540; A. Bialas, W. Szeremeta, Phys. Lett. B 296 (1992) 191; A. Bialas, R.A. Janik, Z. Phys. C 62 (1994) 487; M. Boonekamp, R. Peschanski, C. Royon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87 (2001) 251806; Nucl. Phys. B 669 (2003) 277; R. Enberg, G. Ingelman, A. Kissavos, N. Timneanu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 (2002) 081801; R. Enberg, G. Ingelman, L. Motyka, Phys. Lett. B 524 (2002) 273; R. Enberg, G. Ingelman, N. Timneanu, Phys. Rev. D 67 (2003) 011301; B. Cox, J. Forshaw, Comput. Phys. Comm. 144 (2002) 104; B. Cox, J. Forshaw, B. Heinemann, Phys. Lett. B 540 (2002) 26; V. Khoze, A. Martin, M. Ryskin, Phys. Lett. B 401 (1997) 330; Eur. Phys. J. C 14 (2000) 525; Eur. Phys. J. C 19 (2001) 477; Erratum, Eur. Phys. J. C 20 (2001) 599; Eur
A Monte Carlo reflectance model for soil surfaces with three-dimensional structure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cooper, K. D.; Smith, J. A.
1985-01-01
A Monte Carlo soil reflectance model has been developed to study the effect of macroscopic surface irregularities larger than the wavelength of incident flux. The model treats incoherent multiple scattering from Lambertian facets distributed on a periodic surface. Resulting bidirectional reflectance distribution functions are non-Lambertian and compare well with experimental trends reported in the literature. Examples showing the coupling of the Monte Carlo soil model to an adding bidirectional canopy of reflectance model are also given.
Monte-Carlo simulation of Callisto's exosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vorburger, A.; Wurz, P.; Lammer, H.; Barabash, S.; Mousis, O.
2015-12-01
We model Callisto's exosphere based on its ice as well as non-ice surface via the use of a Monte-Carlo exosphere model. For the ice component we implement two putative compositions that have been computed from two possible extreme formation scenarios of the satellite. One composition represents the oxidizing state and is based on the assumption that the building blocks of Callisto were formed in the protosolar nebula and the other represents the reducing state of the gas, based on the assumption that the satellite accreted from solids condensed in the jovian sub-nebula. For the non-ice component we implemented the compositions of typical CI as well as L type chondrites. Both chondrite types have been suggested to represent Callisto's non-ice composition best. As release processes we consider surface sublimation, ion sputtering and photon-stimulated desorption. Particles are followed on their individual trajectories until they either escape Callisto's gravitational attraction, return to the surface, are ionized, or are fragmented. Our density profiles show that whereas the sublimated species dominate close to the surface on the sun-lit side, their density profiles (with the exception of H and H2) decrease much more rapidly than the sputtered particles. The Neutral gas and Ion Mass (NIM) spectrometer, which is part of the Particle Environment Package (PEP), will investigate Callisto's exosphere during the JUICE mission. Our simulations show that NIM will be able to detect sublimated and sputtered particles from both the ice and non-ice surface. NIM's measured chemical composition will allow us to distinguish between different formation scenarios.
Quantum Monte Carlo calculations on positronium compounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Nan
The stability of compounds containing one or more positrons in addition to electrons and nuclei has been the focus of extensive scientific investigations. Interest in these compounds stems from the important role they play in the process of positron annihilation, which has become a useful technique in material science studies. Knowledge of these compounds comes mostly from calculations which are presently less difficult than laboratory experiments. Owing to the small binding energies of these compounds, quantum chemistry methods beyond the molecular orbital approximation must be used. Among them, the quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) method is most appealing because it is easy to implement, gives exact results within the fixed nodes approximation, and makes good use of existing approximate wavefunctions. Applying QMC to small systems like PsH for binding energy calculation is straightforward. To apply it to systems with heavier atoms, to systems for which the center-of-mass motion needs to be separated, and to calculate annihilation rates, special techniques must be developed. In this project a detailed study and several advancements to the QMC method are carried out. Positronium compounds PsH, Ps2, PsO, and Ps2O are studied with algorithms we developed. Results for PsH and Ps2 agree with the best accepted to date. Results for PsO confirm the stability of this compound, and are in fair agreement with an earlier calculation. Results for Ps2O establish the stability of this compound and give an approximate annihilation rate for the first time. Discussions will include an introduction to QMC methods, an in-depth discussion on the QMC formalism, presentation of new algorithms developed in this study, and procedures and results of QMC calculations on the above mentioned positronium compounds.
Extending Diffusion Monte Carlo to Internal Coordinates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petit, Andrew S.; McCoy, Anne B.
2013-06-01
Diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) is a powerful technique for studying the properties of molecules and clusters that undergo large-amplitude, zero-point vibrational motions. However, the overall applicability of the method is limited by the need to work in Cartesian coordinates and therefore have available a full-dimensional potential energy surface (PES). As a result, the development of a reduced-dimensional DMC methodology has the potential to significantly extend the range of problems that DMC can address by allowing the calculations to be performed in the subset of coordinates that is physically relevant to the questions being asked, thereby eliminating the need for a full-dimensional PES. As a first step towards this goal, we describe here an internal coordinate extension of DMC that places no constraints on the choice of internal coordinates other than requiring them all to be independent. Using H_3^+ and its isotopologues as model systems, we demonstrate that the methodology is capable of successfully describing the ground state properties of highly fluxional molecules as well as, in conjunction with the fixed-node approximation, the ν=1 vibrationally excited states. The calculations of the fundamentals of H_3^+ and its isotopologues provided general insights into the properties of the nodal surfaces of vibrationally excited states. Specifically, we will demonstrate that analysis of ground state probability distributions can point to the set of coordinates that are less strongly coupled and therefore more suitable for use as nodal coordinates in the fixed-node approximation. In particular, we show that nodal surfaces defined in terms of the curvilinear normal mode coordinates are reasonable for the fundamentals of H_2D^+ and D_2H^+ despite both molecules being highly fluxional.
Monte Carlo simulation of scenario probability distributions
Glaser, R.
1996-10-23
Suppose a scenario of interest can be represented as a series of events. A final result R may be viewed then as the intersection of three events, A, B, and C. The probability of the result P(R) in this case is the product P(R) = P(A) P(B {vert_bar} A) P(C {vert_bar} A {intersection} B). An expert may be reluctant to estimate P(R) as a whole yet agree to supply his notions of the component probabilities in the form of prior distributions. Each component prior distribution may be viewed as the stochastic characterization of the expert`s uncertainty regarding the true value of the component probability. Mathematically, the component probabilities are treated as independent random variables and P(R) as their product; the induced prior distribution for P(R) is determined which characterizes the expert`s uncertainty regarding P(R). It may be both convenient and adequate to approximate the desired distribution by Monte Carlo simulation. Software has been written for this task that allows a variety of component priors that experts with good engineering judgment might feel comfortable with. The priors are mostly based on so-called likelihood classes. The software permits an expert to choose for a given component event probability one of six types of prior distributions, and the expert specifies the parameter value(s) for that prior. Each prior is unimodal. The expert essentially decides where the mode is, how the probability is distributed in the vicinity of the mode, and how rapidly it attenuates away. Limiting and degenerate applications allow the expert to be vague or precise.
Lattice Monte Carlo simulations of polymer melts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsu, Hsiao-Ping
2014-12-01
We use Monte Carlo simulations to study polymer melts consisting of fully flexible and moderately stiff chains in the bond fluctuation model at a volume fraction 0.5. In order to reduce the local density fluctuations, we test a pre-packing process for the preparation of the initial configurations of the polymer melts, before the excluded volume interaction is switched on completely. This process leads to a significantly faster decrease of the number of overlapping monomers on the lattice. This is useful for simulating very large systems, where the statistical properties of the model with a marginally incomplete elimination of excluded volume violations are the same as those of the model with strictly excluded volume. We find that the internal mean square end-to-end distance for moderately stiff chains in a melt can be very well described by a freely rotating chain model with a precise estimate of the bond-bond orientational correlation between two successive bond vectors in equilibrium. The plot of the probability distributions of the reduced end-to-end distance of chains of different stiffness also shows that the data collapse is excellent and described very well by the Gaussian distribution for ideal chains. However, while our results confirm the systematic deviations between Gaussian statistics for the chain structure factor Sc(q) [minimum in the Kratky-plot] found by Wittmer et al. [EPL 77, 56003 (2007)] for fully flexible chains in a melt, we show that for the available chain length these deviations are no longer visible, when the chain stiffness is included. The mean square bond length and the compressibility estimated from collective structure factors depend slightly on the stiffness of the chains.
Monte Carlo study of microdosimetric diamond detectors.
Solevi, Paola; Magrin, Giulio; Moro, Davide; Mayer, Ramona
2015-09-21
Ion-beam therapy provides a high dose conformity and increased radiobiological effectiveness with respect to conventional radiation-therapy. Strict constraints on the maximum uncertainty on the biological weighted dose and consequently on the biological weighting factor require the determination of the radiation quality, defined as the types and energy spectra of the radiation at a specific point. However the experimental determination of radiation quality, in particular for an internal target, is not simple and the features of ion interactions and treatment delivery require dedicated and optimized detectors. Recently chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond detectors have been suggested as ion-beam therapy microdosimeters. Diamond detectors can be manufactured with small cross sections and thin shapes, ideal to cope with the high fluence rate. However the sensitive volume of solid state detectors significantly deviates from conventional microdosimeters, with a diameter that can be up to 1000 times the height. This difference requires a redefinition of the concept of sensitive thickness and a deep study of the secondary to primary radiation, of the wall effects and of the impact of the orientation of the detector with respect to the radiation field. The present work intends to study through Monte Carlo simulations the impact of the detector geometry on the determination of radiation quality quantities, in particular on the relative contribution of primary and secondary radiation. The dependence of microdosimetric quantities such as the unrestricted linear energy L and the lineal energy y are investigated for different detector cross sections, by varying the particle type (carbon ions and protons) and its energy. PMID:26309235
Monte Carlo study of microdosimetric diamond detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Solevi, Paola; Magrin, Giulio; Moro, Davide; Mayer, Ramona
2015-09-01
Ion-beam therapy provides a high dose conformity and increased radiobiological effectiveness with respect to conventional radiation-therapy. Strict constraints on the maximum uncertainty on the biological weighted dose and consequently on the biological weighting factor require the determination of the radiation quality, defined as the types and energy spectra of the radiation at a specific point. However the experimental determination of radiation quality, in particular for an internal target, is not simple and the features of ion interactions and treatment delivery require dedicated and optimized detectors. Recently chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond detectors have been suggested as ion-beam therapy microdosimeters. Diamond detectors can be manufactured with small cross sections and thin shapes, ideal to cope with the high fluence rate. However the sensitive volume of solid state detectors significantly deviates from conventional microdosimeters, with a diameter that can be up to 1000 times the height. This difference requires a redefinition of the concept of sensitive thickness and a deep study of the secondary to primary radiation, of the wall effects and of the impact of the orientation of the detector with respect to the radiation field. The present work intends to study through Monte Carlo simulations the impact of the detector geometry on the determination of radiation quality quantities, in particular on the relative contribution of primary and secondary radiation. The dependence of microdosimetric quantities such as the unrestricted linear energy L and the lineal energy y are investigated for different detector cross sections, by varying the particle type (carbon ions and protons) and its energy.
Monte Carlo Volcano Seismic Moment Tensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Waite, G. P.; Brill, K. A.; Lanza, F.
2015-12-01
Inverse modeling of volcano seismic sources can provide insight into the geometry and dynamics of volcanic conduits. But given the logistical challenges of working on an active volcano, seismic networks are typically deficient in spatial and temporal coverage; this potentially leads to large errors in source models. In addition, uncertainties in the centroid location and moment-tensor components, including volumetric components, are difficult to constrain from the linear inversion results, which leads to a poor understanding of the model space. In this study, we employ a nonlinear inversion using a Monte Carlo scheme with the objective of defining robustly resolved elements of model space. The model space is randomized by centroid location and moment tensor eigenvectors. Point sources densely sample the summit area and moment tensors are constrained to a randomly chosen geometry within the inversion; Green's functions for the random moment tensors are all calculated from modeled single forces, making the nonlinear inversion computationally reasonable. We apply this method to very-long-period (VLP) seismic events that accompany minor eruptions at Fuego volcano, Guatemala. The library of single force Green's functions is computed with a 3D finite-difference modeling algorithm through a homogeneous velocity-density model that includes topography, for a 3D grid of nodes, spaced 40 m apart, within the summit region. The homogenous velocity and density model is justified by long wavelength of VLP data. The nonlinear inversion reveals well resolved model features and informs the interpretation through a better understanding of the possible models. This approach can also be used to evaluate possible station geometries in order to optimize networks prior to deployment.
Monte carlo sampling of fission multiplicity.
Hendricks, J. S.
2004-01-01
Two new methods have been developed for fission multiplicity modeling in Monte Carlo calculations. The traditional method of sampling neutron multiplicity from fission is to sample the number of neutrons above or below the average. For example, if there are 2.7 neutrons per fission, three would be chosen 70% of the time and two would be chosen 30% of the time. For many applications, particularly {sup 3}He coincidence counting, a better estimate of the true number of neutrons per fission is required. Generally, this number is estimated by sampling a Gaussian distribution about the average. However, because the tail of the Gaussian distribution is negative and negative neutrons cannot be produced, a slight positive bias can be found in the average value. For criticality calculations, the result of rejecting the negative neutrons is an increase in k{sub eff} of 0.1% in some cases. For spontaneous fission, where the average number of neutrons emitted from fission is low, the error also can be unacceptably large. If the Gaussian width approaches the average number of fissions, 10% too many fission neutrons are produced by not treating the negative Gaussian tail adequately. The first method to treat the Gaussian tail is to determine a correction offset, which then is subtracted from all sampled values of the number of neutrons produced. This offset depends on the average value for any given fission at any energy and must be computed efficiently at each fission from the non-integrable error function. The second method is to determine a corrected zero point so that all neutrons sampled between zero and the corrected zero point are killed to compensate for the negative Gaussian tail bias. Again, the zero point must be computed efficiently at each fission. Both methods give excellent results with a negligible computing time penalty. It is now possible to include the full effects of fission multiplicity without the negative Gaussian tail bias.
Energy Modulated Photon Radiotherapy: A Monte Carlo Feasibility Study
Zhang, Ying; Feng, Yuanming; Ming, Xin
2016-01-01
A novel treatment modality termed energy modulated photon radiotherapy (EMXRT) was investigated. The first step of EMXRT was to determine beam energy for each gantry angle/anatomy configuration from a pool of photon energy beams (2 to 10 MV) with a newly developed energy selector. An inverse planning system using gradient search algorithm was then employed to optimize photon beam intensity of various beam energies based on presimulated Monte Carlo pencil beam dose distributions in patient anatomy. Finally, 3D dose distributions in six patients of different tumor sites were simulated with Monte Carlo method and compared between EMXRT plans and clinical IMRT plans. Compared to current IMRT technique, the proposed EMXRT method could offer a better paradigm for the radiotherapy of lung cancers and pediatric brain tumors in terms of normal tissue sparing and integral dose. For prostate, head and neck, spine, and thyroid lesions, the EMXRT plans were generally comparable to the IMRT plans. Our feasibility study indicated that lower energy (<6 MV) photon beams could be considered in modern radiotherapy treatment planning to achieve a more personalized care for individual patient with dosimetric gains. PMID:26977413
Energy Modulated Photon Radiotherapy: A Monte Carlo Feasibility Study.
Zhang, Ying; Feng, Yuanming; Ming, Xin; Deng, Jun
2016-01-01
A novel treatment modality termed energy modulated photon radiotherapy (EMXRT) was investigated. The first step of EMXRT was to determine beam energy for each gantry angle/anatomy configuration from a pool of photon energy beams (2 to 10 MV) with a newly developed energy selector. An inverse planning system using gradient search algorithm was then employed to optimize photon beam intensity of various beam energies based on presimulated Monte Carlo pencil beam dose distributions in patient anatomy. Finally, 3D dose distributions in six patients of different tumor sites were simulated with Monte Carlo method and compared between EMXRT plans and clinical IMRT plans. Compared to current IMRT technique, the proposed EMXRT method could offer a better paradigm for the radiotherapy of lung cancers and pediatric brain tumors in terms of normal tissue sparing and integral dose. For prostate, head and neck, spine, and thyroid lesions, the EMXRT plans were generally comparable to the IMRT plans. Our feasibility study indicated that lower energy (<6 MV) photon beams could be considered in modern radiotherapy treatment planning to achieve a more personalized care for individual patient with dosimetric gains. PMID:26977413
Implications of Monte Carlo Statistical Errors in Criticality Safety Assessments
Pevey, Ronald E.
2005-09-15
Most criticality safety calculations are performed using Monte Carlo techniques because of Monte Carlo's ability to handle complex three-dimensional geometries. For Monte Carlo calculations, the more histories sampled, the lower the standard deviation of the resulting estimates. The common intuition is, therefore, that the more histories, the better; as a result, analysts tend to run Monte Carlo analyses as long as possible (or at least to a minimum acceptable uncertainty). For Monte Carlo criticality safety analyses, however, the optimization situation is complicated by the fact that procedures usually require that an extra margin of safety be added because of the statistical uncertainty of the Monte Carlo calculations. This additional safety margin affects the impact of the choice of the calculational standard deviation, both on production and on safety. This paper shows that, under the assumptions of normally distributed benchmarking calculational errors and exact compliance with the upper subcritical limit (USL), the standard deviation that optimizes production is zero, but there is a non-zero value of the calculational standard deviation that minimizes the risk of inadvertently labeling a supercritical configuration as subcritical. Furthermore, this value is shown to be a simple function of the typical benchmarking step outcomes--the bias, the standard deviation of the bias, the upper subcritical limit, and the number of standard deviations added to calculated k-effectives before comparison to the USL.
Parallel Monte Carlo Synthetic Acceleration methods for discrete transport problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slattery, Stuart R.
This work researches and develops Monte Carlo Synthetic Acceleration (MCSA) methods as a new class of solution techniques for discrete neutron transport and fluid flow problems. Monte Carlo Synthetic Acceleration methods use a traditional Monte Carlo process to approximate the solution to the discrete problem as a means of accelerating traditional fixed-point methods. To apply these methods to neutronics and fluid flow and determine the feasibility of these methods on modern hardware, three complementary research and development exercises are performed. First, solutions to the SPN discretization of the linear Boltzmann neutron transport equation are obtained using MCSA with a difficult criticality calculation for a light water reactor fuel assembly used as the driving problem. To enable MCSA as a solution technique a group of modern preconditioning strategies are researched. MCSA when compared to conventional Krylov methods demonstrated improved iterative performance over GMRES by converging in fewer iterations when using the same preconditioning. Second, solutions to the compressible Navier-Stokes equations were obtained by developing the Forward-Automated Newton-MCSA (FANM) method for nonlinear systems based on Newton's method. Three difficult fluid benchmark problems in both convective and driven flow regimes were used to drive the research and development of the method. For 8 out of 12 benchmark cases, it was found that FANM had better iterative performance than the Newton-Krylov method by converging the nonlinear residual in fewer linear solver iterations with the same preconditioning. Third, a new domain decomposed algorithm to parallelize MCSA aimed at leveraging leadership-class computing facilities was developed by utilizing parallel strategies from the radiation transport community. The new algorithm utilizes the Multiple-Set Overlapping-Domain strategy in an attempt to reduce parallel overhead and add a natural element of replication to the algorithm. It
CSnrc: Correlated sampling Monte Carlo calculations using EGSnrc
Buckley, Lesley A.; Kawrakow, I.; Rogers, D.W.O.
2004-12-01
CSnrc, a new user-code for the EGSnrc Monte Carlo system is described. This user-code improves the efficiency when calculating ratios of doses from similar geometries. It uses a correlated sampling variance reduction technique. CSnrc is developed from an existing EGSnrc user-code CAVRZnrc and improves upon the correlated sampling algorithm used in an earlier version of the code written for the EGS4 Monte Carlo system. Improvements over the EGS4 version of the algorithm avoid repetition of sections of particle tracks. The new code includes a rectangular phantom geometry not available in other EGSnrc cylindrical codes. Comparison to CAVRZnrc shows gains in efficiency of up to a factor of 64 for a variety of test geometries when computing the ratio of doses to the cavity for two geometries. CSnrc is well suited to in-phantom calculations and is used to calculate the central electrode correction factor P{sub cel} in high-energy photon and electron beams. Current dosimetry protocols base the value of P{sub cel} on earlier Monte Carlo calculations. The current CSnrc calculations achieve 0.02% statistical uncertainties on P{sub cel}, much lower than those previously published. The current values of P{sub cel} compare well with the values used in dosimetry protocols for photon beams. For electrons beams, CSnrc calculations are reported at the reference depth used in recent protocols and show up to a 0.2% correction for a graphite electrode, a correction currently ignored by dosimetry protocols. The calculations show that for a 1 mm diameter aluminum central electrode, the correction factor differs somewhat from the values used in both the IAEA TRS-398 code of practice and the AAPM's TG-51 protocol.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Tianyu; Du, Xining; Ji, Wei; Xu, X. George; Brown, Forrest B.
2014-06-01
For nuclear reactor analysis such as the neutron eigenvalue calculations, the time consuming Monte Carlo (MC) simulations can be accelerated by using graphics processing units (GPUs). However, traditional MC methods are often history-based, and their performance on GPUs is affected significantly by the thread divergence problem. In this paper we describe the development of a newly designed event-based vectorized MC algorithm for solving the neutron eigenvalue problem. The code was implemented using NVIDIA's Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA), and tested on a NVIDIA Tesla M2090 GPU card. We found that although the vectorized MC algorithm greatly reduces the occurrence of thread divergence thus enhancing the warp execution efficiency, the overall simulation speed is roughly ten times slower than the history-based MC code on GPUs. Profiling results suggest that the slow speed is probably due to the memory access latency caused by the large amount of global memory transactions. Possible solutions to improve the code efficiency are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vilches, M.; García-Pareja, S.; Guerrero, R.; Anguiano, M.; Lallena, A. M.
2007-09-01
When a therapeutic electron linear accelerator is simulated using a Monte Carlo (MC) code, the tuning of the initial spectra and the renormalization of dose (e.g., to maximum axial dose) constitute a common practice. As a result, very similar depth dose curves are obtained for different MC codes. However, if renormalization is turned off, the results obtained with the various codes disagree noticeably. The aim of this work is to investigate in detail the reasons of this disagreement. We have found that the observed differences are due to non-negligible differences in the angular scattering of the electron beam in very thin slabs of dense material (primary foil) and thick slabs of very low density material (air). To gain insight, the effects of the angular scattering models considered in various MC codes on the dose distribution in a water phantom are discussed using very simple geometrical configurations for the LINAC. The MC codes PENELOPE 2003, PENELOPE 2005, GEANT4, GEANT3, EGSnrc and MCNPX have been used.
APR1400 LBLOCA uncertainty quantification by Monte Carlo method and comparison with Wilks' formula
Hwang, M.; Bae, S.; Chung, B. D.
2012-07-01
An analysis of the uncertainty quantification for the PWR LBLOCA by the Monte Carlo calculation has been performed and compared with the tolerance level determined by Wilks' formula. The uncertainty range and distribution of each input parameter associated with the LBLOCA accident were determined by the PIRT results from the BEMUSE project. The Monte-Carlo method shows that the 95. percentile PCT value can be obtained reliably with a 95% confidence level using the Wilks' formula. The extra margin by the Wilks' formula over the true 95. percentile PCT by the Monte-Carlo method was rather large. Even using the 3 rd order formula, the calculated value using the Wilks' formula is nearly 100 K over the true value. It is shown that, with the ever increasing computational capability, the Monte-Carlo method is accessible for the nuclear power plant safety analysis within a realistic time frame. (authors)
Jiang, Xu; Deng, Yong; Luo, Zhaoyang; Wang, Kan; Lian, Lichao; Yang, Xiaoquan; Meglinski, Igor; Luo, Qingming
2014-12-29
The path-history-based fluorescence Monte Carlo method used for fluorescence tomography imaging reconstruction has attracted increasing attention. In this paper, we first validate the standard fluorescence Monte Carlo (sfMC) method by experimenting with a cylindrical phantom. Then, we describe a path-history-based decoupled fluorescence Monte Carlo (dfMC) method, analyze different perturbation fluorescence Monte Carlo (pfMC) methods, and compare the calculation accuracy and computational efficiency of the dfMC and pfMC methods using the sfMC method as a reference. The results show that the dfMC method is more accurate and efficient than the pfMC method in heterogeneous medium. PMID:25607163
Trahan, Travis J.; Gentile, Nicholas A.
2012-09-10
Statistical uncertainty is inherent to any Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport problems. In space-angle-frequency independent radiative transfer calculations, the uncertainty in the solution is entirely due to random sampling of source photon emission times. We have developed a modification to the Implicit Monte Carlo algorithm that eliminates noise due to sampling of the emission time of source photons. In problems that are independent of space, angle, and energy, the new algorithm generates a smooth solution, while a standard implicit Monte Carlo solution is noisy. For space- and angle-dependent problems, the new algorithm exhibits reduced noise relative to standard implicit Monte Carlo in some cases, and comparable noise in all other cases. In conclusion, the improvements are limited to short time scales; over long time scales, noise due to random sampling of spatial and angular variables tends to dominate the noise reduction from the new algorithm.
Radiation source modeling for Monte Carlo based treatment planning systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garnica Garza, Hector Mauricio
In this study, we introduce a method to determine the energy spectrum delivered by a medical accelerator. The method relies on both Monte Carlo generated data and experimental measurements, but requires far fewer measurements than current attenuation-based methods, and much less information about the construction of the linear accelerator than full Monte Carlo based estimations, making it easy to perform in a clinical environment. The basic model used in this work makes use of the quantum absorption efficiency concept, which gives the probability that a photon of energy hn will deposit energy in a detector (film-screen detector in our case). Mathematically, our model is given by: M=Y0T dYhn dhn Eavghne hndhn where M is the absorbed energy in the film-screen detector, dYhn dhn is the photon spectrum, Eavghn is the average energy deposited per interacting photon, and ehn is the quantum absorption efficiency, and Y is the total photon fluence striking the detector. ehn and Eavghn were calculated by means of Monte Carlo simulation using the code MCNPX. The method works as follows: first, the primary photon fluence exiting the target is calculated from first principles by dividing the target into thin slabs (50--100mum) and adding the bremsstrahlung contribution from each slab. The electron fluence is calculated using the Phase Space Time Evolution Model, first proposed by Cordaro et al. and further refined by Huizenga et al. Ray tracing is used to attenuate the primary photon fluence as it passes through the flattening filter on its way to the detectors. Based on a detailed study of linear accelerator head scatter and of the known weaknesses of the Schiff cross-section we propose a multiplicative, energy-dependent empirical correction factor fa,hn=exp ahn to take into account the head scatter energy fluence, where a is a free parameter that is fixed by comparing the energy deposited in a screen-film detector irradiated by the spectrum in question to the theoretical
Monte Carlo Simulation of Sudden Death Bearing Testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vlcek, Brian L.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.
2003-01-01
Monte Carlo simulations combined with sudden death testing were used to compare resultant bearing lives to the calculated hearing life and the cumulative test time and calendar time relative to sequential and censored sequential testing. A total of 30 960 virtual 50-mm bore deep-groove ball bearings were evaluated in 33 different sudden death test configurations comprising 36, 72, and 144 bearings each. Variations in both life and Weibull slope were a function of the number of bearings failed independent of the test method used and not the total number of bearings tested. Variation in L10 life as a function of number of bearings failed were similar to variations in lift obtained from sequentially failed real bearings and from Monte Carlo (virtual) testing of entire populations. Reductions up to 40 percent in bearing test time and calendar time can be achieved by testing to failure or the L(sub 50) life and terminating all testing when the last of the predetermined bearing failures has occurred. Sudden death testing is not a more efficient method to reduce bearing test time or calendar time when compared to censored sequential testing.
Monte Carlo field-theoretic simulations of a homopolymer blend
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spencer, Russell; Matsen, Mark
Fluctuation corrections to the macrophase segregation transition (MST) in a symmetric homopolymer blend are examined using Monte Carlo field-theoretic simulations (MC-FTS). This technique involves treating interactions between unlike monomers using standard Monte-Carlo techniques, while enforcing incompressibility as is done in mean-field theory. When using MC-FTS, we need to account for a UV divergence. This is done by renormalizing the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter to incorporate the divergent part of the Hamiltonian. We compare different ways of calculating this effective interaction parameter. Near the MST, the length scale of compositional fluctuations becomes large, however, the high computational requirements of MC-FTS restrict us to small system sizes. We account for these finite size effects using the method of Binder cumulants, allowing us to locate the MST with high precision. We examine fluctuation corrections to the mean field MST, χN = 2 , as they vary with the invariant degree of polymerization, N =ρ2a6 N . These results are compared with particle-based simulations as well as analytical calculations using the renormalized one loop theory. This research was funded by the Center for Sustainable Polymers.
Implementation of Monte Carlo Dose calculation for CyberKnife treatment planning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, C.-M.; Li, J. S.; Deng, J.; Fan, J.
2008-02-01
Accurate dose calculation is essential to advanced stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) especially for treatment planning involving heterogeneous patient anatomy. This paper describes the implementation of a fast Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm in SRS/SRT treatment planning for the CyberKnife® SRS/SRT system. A superposition Monte Carlo algorithm is developed for this application. Photon mean free paths and interaction types for different materials and energies as well as the tracks of secondary electrons are pre-simulated using the MCSIM system. Photon interaction forcing and splitting are applied to the source photons in the patient calculation and the pre-simulated electron tracks are repeated with proper corrections based on the tissue density and electron stopping powers. Electron energy is deposited along the tracks and accumulated in the simulation geometry. Scattered and bremsstrahlung photons are transported, after applying the Russian roulette technique, in the same way as the primary photons. Dose calculations are compared with full Monte Carlo simulations performed using EGS4/MCSIM and the CyberKnife treatment planning system (TPS) for lung, head & neck and liver treatments. Comparisons with full Monte Carlo simulations show excellent agreement (within 0.5%). More than 10% differences in the target dose are found between Monte Carlo simulations and the CyberKnife TPS for SRS/SRT lung treatment while negligible differences are shown in head and neck and liver for the cases investigated. The calculation time using our superposition Monte Carlo algorithm is reduced up to 62 times (46 times on average for 10 typical clinical cases) compared to full Monte Carlo simulations. SRS/SRT dose distributions calculated by simple dose algorithms may be significantly overestimated for small lung target volumes, which can be improved by accurate Monte Carlo dose calculations.
Coherent Scattering Imaging Monte Carlo Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hassan, Laila Abdulgalil Rafik
Conventional mammography has poor contrast between healthy and cancerous tissues due to the small difference in attenuation properties. Coherent scatter potentially provides more information because interference of coherently scattered radiation depends on the average intermolecular spacing, and can be used to characterize tissue types. However, typical coherent scatter analysis techniques are not compatible with rapid low dose screening techniques. Coherent scatter slot scan imaging is a novel imaging technique which provides new information with higher contrast. In this work a simulation of coherent scatter was performed for slot scan imaging to assess its performance and provide system optimization. In coherent scatter imaging, the coherent scatter is exploited using a conventional slot scan mammography system with anti-scatter grids tilted at the characteristic angle of cancerous tissues. A Monte Carlo simulation was used to simulate the coherent scatter imaging. System optimization was performed across several parameters, including source voltage, tilt angle, grid distances, grid ratio, and shielding geometry. The contrast increased as the grid tilt angle increased beyond the characteristic angle for the modeled carcinoma. A grid tilt angle of 16 degrees yielded the highest contrast and signal to noise ratio (SNR). Also, contrast increased as the source voltage increased. Increasing grid ratio improved contrast at the expense of decreasing SNR. A grid ratio of 10:1 was sufficient to give a good contrast without reducing the intensity to a noise level. The optimal source to sample distance was determined to be such that the source should be located at the focal distance of the grid. A carcinoma lump of 0.5x0.5x0.5 cm3 in size was detectable which is reasonable considering the high noise due to the usage of relatively small number of incident photons for computational reasons. A further study is needed to study the effect of breast density and breast thickness
Finding organic vapors - a Monte Carlo approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vuollekoski, Henri; Boy, Michael; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Kulmala, Markku
2010-05-01
drawbacks in accuracy, the inability to find diurnal variation and the lack of size resolution. Here, we aim to shed some light onto the problem by applying an ad hoc Monte Carlo algorithm to a well established aerosol dynamical model, the University of Helsinki Multicomponent Aerosol model (UHMA). By performing a side-by-side comparison with measurement data within the algorithm, this approach has the significant advantage of decreasing the amount of manual labor. But more importantly, by basing the comparison on particle number size distribution data - a quantity that can be quite reliably measured - the accuracy of the results is good.
TH-E-18A-01: Developments in Monte Carlo Methods for Medical Imaging
Badal, A; Zbijewski, W; Bolch, W; Sechopoulos, I
2014-06-15
all necessary data on material composition, source, geometry, scoring and other parameters provided. The results of these simulations when performed with the four most common publicly available Monte Carlo packages are also provided in tabular form. The Task Group 195 Report will be useful for researchers needing to validate their Monte Carlo work, and for trainees needing to learn Monte Carlo simulation methods. In this symposium we will review the recent advancements in highperformance computing hardware enabling the reduction in computational resources needed for Monte Carlo simulations in medical imaging. We will review variance reduction techniques commonly applied in Monte Carlo simulations of medical imaging systems and present implementation strategies for efficient combination of these techniques with GPU acceleration. Trade-offs involved in Monte Carlo acceleration by means of denoising and “sparse sampling” will be discussed. A method for rapid scatter correction in cone-beam CT (<5 min/scan) will be presented as an illustration of the simulation speeds achievable with optimized Monte Carlo simulations. We will also discuss the development, availability, and capability of the various combinations of computational phantoms for Monte Carlo simulation of medical imaging systems. Finally, we will review some examples of experimental validation of Monte Carlo simulations and will present the AAPM Task Group 195 Report. Learning Objectives: Describe the advances in hardware available for performing Monte Carlo simulations in high performance computing environments. Explain variance reduction, denoising and sparse sampling techniques available for reduction of computational time needed for Monte Carlo simulations of medical imaging. List and compare the computational anthropomorphic phantoms currently available for more accurate assessment of medical imaging parameters in Monte Carlo simulations. Describe experimental methods used for validation of Monte Carlo
Russian roulette efficiency in Monte Carlo resonant absorption calculations
Ghassoun; Jehouani
2000-10-01
The resonant absorption calculation in media containing heavy resonant nuclei is one of the most difficult problems treated in reactor physics. Deterministic techniques need many approximations to solve this kind of problem. On the other hand, the Monte Carlo method is a reliable mathematical tool for evaluating the neutron resonance escape probability. But it suffers from large statistical deviations of results and long computation times. In order to overcome this problem, we have used the Splitting and Russian Roulette technique coupled separately to the survival biasing and to the importance sampling for the energy parameter. These techniques have been used to calculate the neutron resonance absorption in infinite homogenous media containing hydrogen and uranium characterized by the dilution (ratio of the concentrations of hydrogen to uranium). The punctual neutron source energy is taken at Es = 2 MeV and Es = 676.45 eV, whereas the energy cut-off is fixed at Ec = 2.768 eV. The results show a large reduction of computation time and statistical deviation, without altering the mean resonance escape probability compared to the usual analog simulation. The Splitting and Russian Roulette coupled to the survival biasing method is found to be the best methods for studying the neutron resonant absorption, particularly for high energies. A comparison is done between the Monte Carlo and deterministic methods based on the numerical solution of the neutron slowing down equations by the iterative method results for several dilutions. PMID:11003535
Monte Carlo track structure for radiation biology and space applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nikjoo, H.; Uehara, S.; Khvostunov, I. G.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, W. E.; Goodhead, D. T.
2001-01-01
Over the past two decades event by event Monte Carlo track structure codes have increasingly been used for biophysical modelling and radiotherapy. Advent of these codes has helped to shed light on many aspects of microdosimetry and mechanism of damage by ionising radiation in the cell. These codes have continuously been modified to include new improved cross sections and computational techniques. This paper provides a summary of input data for ionizations, excitations and elastic scattering cross sections for event by event Monte Carlo track structure simulations for electrons and ions in the form of parametric equations, which makes it easy to reproduce the data. Stopping power and radial distribution of dose are presented for ions and compared with experimental data. A model is described for simulation of full slowing down of proton tracks in water in the range 1 keV to 1 MeV. Modelling and calculations are presented for the response of a TEPC proportional counter irradiated with 5 MeV alpha-particles. Distributions are presented for the wall and wall-less counters. Data shows contribution of indirect effects to the lineal energy distribution for the wall counters responses even at such a low ion energy.
Condensed history Monte Carlo methods for photon transport problems
Bhan, Katherine; Spanier, Jerome
2007-01-01
We study methods for accelerating Monte Carlo simulations that retain most of the accuracy of conventional Monte Carlo algorithms. These methods – called Condensed History (CH) methods – have been very successfully used to model the transport of ionizing radiation in turbid systems. Our primary objective is to determine whether or not such methods might apply equally well to the transport of photons in biological tissue. In an attempt to unify the derivations, we invoke results obtained first by Lewis, Goudsmit and Saunderson and later improved by Larsen and Tolar. We outline how two of the most promising of the CH models – one based on satisfying certain similarity relations and the second making use of a scattering phase function that permits only discrete directional changes – can be developed using these approaches. The main idea is to exploit the connection between the space-angle moments of the radiance and the angular moments of the scattering phase function. We compare the results obtained when the two CH models studied are used to simulate an idealized tissue transport problem. The numerical results support our findings based on the theoretical derivations and suggest that CH models should play a useful role in modeling light-tissue interactions. PMID:18548128
A multi-scale Monte Carlo method for electrolytes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Yihao; Xu, Zhenli; Xing, Xiangjun
2015-08-01
Artifacts arise in the simulations of electrolytes using periodic boundary conditions (PBCs). We show the origin of these artifacts are the periodic image charges and the constraint of charge neutrality inside the simulation box, both of which are unphysical from the view point of real systems. To cure these problems, we introduce a multi-scale Monte Carlo (MC) method, where ions inside a spherical cavity are simulated explicitly, while ions outside are treated implicitly using a continuum theory. Using the method of Debye charging, we explicitly derive the effective interactions between ions inside the cavity, arising due to the fluctuations of ions outside. We find that these effective interactions consist of two types: (1) a constant cavity potential due to the asymmetry of the electrolyte, and (2) a reaction potential that depends on the positions of all ions inside. Combining the grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) with a recently developed fast algorithm based on image charge method, we perform a multi-scale MC simulation of symmetric electrolytes, and compare it with other simulation methods, including PBC + GCMC method, as well as large scale MC simulation. We demonstrate that our multi-scale MC method is capable of capturing the correct physics of a large system using a small scale simulation.
The ATLAS Fast Monte Carlo Production Chain Project
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jansky, Roland
2015-12-01
During the last years ATLAS has successfully deployed a new integrated simulation framework (ISF) which allows a flexible mixture of full and fast detector simulation techniques within the processing of one event. The thereby achieved possible speed-up in detector simulation of up to a factor 100 makes subsequent digitization and reconstruction the dominant contributions to the Monte Carlo (MC) production CPU cost. The slowest components of both digitization and reconstruction are inside the Inner Detector due to the complex signal modeling needed in the emulation of the detector readout and in reconstruction due to the combinatorial nature of the problem to solve, respectively. Alternative fast approaches have been developed for these components: for the silicon based detectors a simpler geometrical clustering approach has been deployed replacing the charge drift emulation in the standard digitization modules, which achieves a very high accuracy in describing the standard output. For the Inner Detector track reconstruction, a Monte Carlo generator information based trajectory building has been deployed with the aim of bypassing the CPU intensive pattern recognition. Together with the ISF all components have been integrated into a new fast MC production chain, aiming to produce fast MC simulated data with sufficient agreement with fully simulated and reconstructed data at a processing time of seconds per event, compared to several minutes for full simulation.
Monte Carlo algorithm for simulating fermions on Lefschetz thimbles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alexandru, Andrei; Başar, Gökçe; Bedaque, Paulo
2016-01-01
A possible solution of the notorious sign problem preventing direct Monte Carlo calculations for systems with nonzero chemical potential is to deform the integration region in the complex plane to a Lefschetz thimble. We investigate this approach for a simple fermionic model. We introduce an easy to implement Monte Carlo algorithm to sample the dominant thimble. Our algorithm relies only on the integration of the gradient flow in the numerically stable direction, which gives it a distinct advantage over the other proposed algorithms. We demonstrate the stability and efficiency of the algorithm by applying it to an exactly solvable fermionic model and compare our results with the analytical ones. We report a very good agreement for a certain region in the parameter space where the dominant contribution comes from a single thimble, including a region where standard methods suffer from a severe sign problem. However, we find that there are also regions in the parameter space where the contribution from multiple thimbles is important, even in the continuum limit.
Dynamical Monte Carlo methods for plasma-surface reactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guerra, Vasco; Marinov, Daniil
2016-08-01
Different dynamical Monte Carlo algorithms to investigate molecule formation on surfaces are developed, evaluated and compared with the deterministic approach based on reaction-rate equations. These include a null event algorithm, the n-fold way/BKL algorithm and an ‘hybrid’ variant of the latter. NO2 formation by NO oxidation on Pyrex and O recombination on silica with the formation of O2 are taken as case studies. The influence of the grid size on the CPU calculation time and the accuracy of the results is analysed. The role of Langmuir–Hinsehlwood recombination involving two physisorbed atoms and the effect of back diffusion and its inclusion in a deterministic formulation are investigated and discussed. It is shown that dynamical Monte Carlo schemes are flexible, simple to implement, describe easily elementary processes that are not straightforward to include in deterministic simulations, can run very efficiently if appropriately chosen and give highly reliable results. Moreover, the present approach provides a relatively simple procedure to describe fully coupled surface and gas phase chemistries.
A Monte Carlo dose calculation tool for radiotherapy treatment planning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, C.-M.; Li, J. S.; Pawlicki, T.; Jiang, S. B.; Deng, J.; Lee, M. C.; Koumrian, T.; Luxton, M.; Brain, S.
2002-05-01
A Monte Carlo user code, MCDOSE, has been developed for radiotherapy treatment planning (RTP) dose calculations. MCDOSE is designed as a dose calculation module suitable for adaptation to host RTP systems. MCDOSE can be used for both conventional photon/electron beam calculation and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment planning. MCDOSE uses a multiple-source model to reconstruct the treatment beam phase space. Based on Monte Carlo simulated or measured beam data acquired during commissioning, source-model parameters are adjusted through an automated procedure. Beam modifiers such as jaws, physical and dynamic wedges, compensators, blocks, electron cut-outs and bolus are simulated by MCDOSE together with a 3D rectilinear patient geometry model built from CT data. Dose distributions calculated using MCDOSE agreed well with those calculated by the EGS4/DOSXYZ code using different beam set-ups and beam modifiers. Heterogeneity correction factors for layered-lung or layered-bone phantoms as calculated by both codes were consistent with measured data to within 1%. The effect of energy cut-offs for particle transport was investigated. Variance reduction techniques were implemented in MCDOSE to achieve a speedup factor of 10-30 compared to DOSXYZ.
Treatment planning for a small animal using Monte Carlo simulation
Chow, James C. L.; Leung, Michael K. K.
2007-12-15
The development of a small animal model for radiotherapy research requires a complete setup of customized imaging equipment, irradiators, and planning software that matches the sizes of the subjects. The purpose of this study is to develop and demonstrate the use of a flexible in-house research environment for treatment planning on small animals. The software package, called DOSCTP, provides a user-friendly platform for DICOM computed tomography-based Monte Carlo dose calculation using the EGSnrcMP-based DOSXYZnrc code. Validation of the treatment planning was performed by comparing the dose distributions for simple photon beam geometries calculated through the Pinnacle3 treatment planning system and measurements. A treatment plan for a mouse based on a CT image set by a 360-deg photon arc is demonstrated. It is shown that it is possible to create 3D conformal treatment plans for small animals with consideration of inhomogeneities using small photon beam field sizes in the diameter range of 0.5-5 cm, with conformal dose covering the target volume while sparing the surrounding critical tissue. It is also found that Monte Carlo simulation is suitable to carry out treatment planning dose calculation for small animal anatomy with voxel size about one order of magnitude smaller than that of the human.
pyNSMC: A Python Module for Null-Space Monte Carlo Uncertainty Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
White, J.; Brakefield, L. K.
2015-12-01
The null-space monte carlo technique is a non-linear uncertainty analyses technique that is well-suited to high-dimensional inverse problems. While the technique is powerful, the existing workflow for completing null-space monte carlo is cumbersome, requiring the use of multiple commandline utilities, several sets of intermediate files and even a text editor. pyNSMC is an open-source python module that automates the workflow of null-space monte carlo uncertainty analyses. The module is fully compatible with the PEST and PEST++ software suites and leverages existing functionality of pyEMU, a python framework for linear-based uncertainty analyses. pyNSMC greatly simplifies the existing workflow for null-space monte carlo by taking advantage of object oriented design facilities in python. The core of pyNSMC is the ensemble class, which draws and stores realized random vectors and also provides functionality for exporting and visualizing results. By relieving users of the tedium associated with file handling and command line utility execution, pyNSMC instead focuses the user on the important steps and assumptions of null-space monte carlo analysis. Furthermore, pyNSMC facilitates learning through flow charts and results visualization, which are available at many points in the algorithm. The ease-of-use of the pyNSMC workflow is compared to the existing workflow for null-space monte carlo for a synthetic groundwater model with hundreds of estimable parameters.
A NEW MONTE CARLO METHOD FOR TIME-DEPENDENT NEUTRINO RADIATION TRANSPORT
Abdikamalov, Ernazar; Ott, Christian D.; O'Connor, Evan; Burrows, Adam; Dolence, Joshua C.; Loeffler, Frank; Schnetter, Erik
2012-08-20
Monte Carlo approaches to radiation transport have several attractive properties such as simplicity of implementation, high accuracy, and good parallel scaling. Moreover, Monte Carlo methods can handle complicated geometries and are relatively easy to extend to multiple spatial dimensions, which makes them potentially interesting in modeling complex multi-dimensional astrophysical phenomena such as core-collapse supernovae. The aim of this paper is to explore Monte Carlo methods for modeling neutrino transport in core-collapse supernovae. We generalize the Implicit Monte Carlo photon transport scheme of Fleck and Cummings and gray discrete-diffusion scheme of Densmore et al. to energy-, time-, and velocity-dependent neutrino transport. Using our 1D spherically-symmetric implementation, we show that, similar to the photon transport case, the implicit scheme enables significantly larger timesteps compared with explicit time discretization, without sacrificing accuracy, while the discrete-diffusion method leads to significant speed-ups at high optical depth. Our results suggest that a combination of spectral, velocity-dependent, Implicit Monte Carlo and discrete-diffusion Monte Carlo methods represents a robust approach for use in neutrino transport calculations in core-collapse supernovae. Our velocity-dependent scheme can easily be adapted to photon transport.
Ibrahim, Ahmad M; Peplow, Douglas E.; Peterson, Joshua L; Grove, Robert E
2013-01-01
The rigorous 2-step (R2S) method uses three-dimensional Monte Carlo transport simulations to calculate the shutdown dose rate (SDDR) in fusion reactors. Accurate full-scale R2S calculations are impractical in fusion reactors because they require calculating space- and energy-dependent neutron fluxes everywhere inside the reactor. The use of global Monte Carlo variance reduction techniques was suggested for accelerating the neutron transport calculation of the R2S method. The prohibitive computational costs of these approaches, which increase with the problem size and amount of shielding materials, inhibit their use in the accurate full-scale neutronics analyses of fusion reactors. This paper describes a novel hybrid Monte Carlo/deterministic technique that uses the Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling (CADIS) methodology but focuses on multi-step shielding calculations. The Multi-Step CADIS (MS-CADIS) method speeds up the Monte Carlo neutron calculation of the R2S method using an importance function that represents the importance of the neutrons to the final SDDR. Using a simplified example, preliminarily results showed that the use of MS-CADIS enhanced the efficiency of the neutron Monte Carlo simulation of an SDDR calculation by a factor of 550 compared to standard global variance reduction techniques, and that the increase over analog Monte Carlo is higher than 10,000.
Monte Carlo evaluation of kerma in an HDR brachytherapy bunker.
Pérez-Calatayud, J; Granero, D; Ballester, F; Casal, E; Crispin, V; Puchades, V; León, A; Verdú, G
2004-12-21
In recent years, the use of high dose rate (HDR) after-loader machines has greatly increased due to the shift from traditional Cs-137/Ir-192 low dose rate (LDR) to HDR brachytherapy. The method used to calculate the required concrete and, where appropriate, lead shielding in the door is based on analytical methods provided by documents published by the ICRP, the IAEA and the NCRP. The purpose of this study is to perform a more realistic kerma evaluation at the entrance maze door of an HDR bunker using the Monte Carlo code GEANT4. The Monte Carlo results were validated experimentally. The spectrum at the maze entrance door, obtained with Monte Carlo, has an average energy of about 110 keV, maintaining a similar value along the length of the maze. The comparison of results from the aforementioned values with the Monte Carlo ones shows that results obtained using the albedo coefficient from the ICRP document more closely match those given by the Monte Carlo method, although the maximum value given by MC calculations is 30% greater. PMID:15724543
TOPICAL REVIEW: Monte Carlo modelling of external radiotherapy photon beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verhaegen, Frank; Seuntjens, Jan
2003-11-01
An essential requirement for successful radiation therapy is that the discrepancies between dose distributions calculated at the treatment planning stage and those delivered to the patient are minimized. An important component in the treatment planning process is the accurate calculation of dose distributions. The most accurate way to do this is by Monte Carlo calculation of particle transport, first in the geometry of the external or internal source followed by tracking the transport and energy deposition in the tissues of interest. Additionally, Monte Carlo simulations allow one to investigate the influence of source components on beams of a particular type and their contaminant particles. Since the mid 1990s, there has been an enormous increase in Monte Carlo studies dealing specifically with the subject of the present review, i.e., external photon beam Monte Carlo calculations, aided by the advent of new codes and fast computers. The foundations for this work were laid from the late 1970s until the early 1990s. In this paper we will review the progress made in this field over the last 25 years. The review will be focused mainly on Monte Carlo modelling of linear accelerator treatment heads but sections will also be devoted to kilovoltage x-ray units and 60Co teletherapy sources.
Monte Carlo modelling of external radiotherapy photon beams.
Verhaegen, Frank; Seuntjens, Jan
2003-11-01
An essential requirement for successful radiation therapy is that the discrepancies between dose distributions calculated at the treatment planning stage and those delivered to the patient are minimized. An important component in the treatment planning process is the accurate calculation of dose distributions. The most accurate way to do this is by Monte Carlo calculation of particle transport, first in the geometry of the external or internal source followed by tracking the transport and energy deposition in the tissues of interest. Additionally, Monte Carlo simulations allow one to investigate the influence of source components on beams of a particular type and their contaminant particles. Since the mid 1990s, there has been an enormous increase in Monte Carlo studies dealing specifically with the subject of the present review, i.e., external photon beam Monte Carlo calculations, aided by the advent of new codes and fast computers. The foundations for this work were laid from the late 1970s until the early 1990s. In this paper we will review the progress made in this field over the last 25 years. The review will be focused mainly on Monte Carlo modelling of linear accelerator treatment heads but sections will also be devoted to kilovoltage x-ray units and 60Co teletherapy sources. PMID:14653555
Monte Carlo treatment planning for photon and electron beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reynaert, N.; van der Marck, S. C.; Schaart, D. R.; Van der Zee, W.; Van Vliet-Vroegindeweij, C.; Tomsej, M.; Jansen, J.; Heijmen, B.; Coghe, M.; De Wagter, C.
2007-04-01
During the last few decades, accuracy in photon and electron radiotherapy has increased substantially. This is partly due to enhanced linear accelerator technology, providing more flexibility in field definition (e.g. the usage of computer-controlled dynamic multileaf collimators), which led to intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Important improvements have also been made in the treatment planning process, more specifically in the dose calculations. Originally, dose calculations relied heavily on analytic, semi-analytic and empirical algorithms. The more accurate convolution/superposition codes use pre-calculated Monte Carlo dose "kernels" partly accounting for tissue density heterogeneities. It is generally recognized that the Monte Carlo method is able to increase accuracy even further. Since the second half of the 1990s, several Monte Carlo dose engines for radiotherapy treatment planning have been introduced. To enable the use of a Monte Carlo treatment planning (MCTP) dose engine in clinical circumstances, approximations have been introduced to limit the calculation time. In this paper, the literature on MCTP is reviewed, focussing on patient modeling, approximations in linear accelerator modeling and variance reduction techniques. An overview of published comparisons between MC dose engines and conventional dose calculations is provided for phantom studies and clinical examples, evaluating the added value of MCTP in the clinic. An overview of existing Monte Carlo dose engines and commercial MCTP systems is presented and some specific issues concerning the commissioning of a MCTP system are discussed.
Direct simulation Monte Carlo method with a focal mechanism algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rachman, Asep Nur; Chung, Tae Woong; Yoshimoto, Kazuo; Yun, Sukyoung
2015-01-01
To simulate the observation of the radiation pattern of an earthquake, the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is modified by implanting a focal mechanism algorithm. We compare the results of the modified DSMC method (DSMC-2) with those of the original DSMC method (DSMC-1). DSMC-2 shows more or similarly reliable results compared to those of DSMC-1, for events with 12 or more recorded stations, by weighting twice for hypocentral distance of less than 80 km. Not only the number of stations, but also other factors such as rough topography, magnitude of event, and the analysis method influence the reliability of DSMC-2. The most reliable result by DSMC-2 is obtained by the best azimuthal coverage by the largest number of stations. The DSMC-2 method requires shorter time steps and a larger number of particles than those of DSMC-1 to capture a sufficient number of arrived particles in the small-sized receiver.
Two-Dimensional Ferromagnet: Quantum Monte Carlo results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henelius, Patrik; Timm, Carsten; Girvin, Steven M.; Sandvik, Anders
1997-03-01
In the quantum Hall system the Zeeman interaction between electronic spins and the external magnetic field is typically weak compared to both the Landau-level splitting and the exchange interaction. Therefore, quantum Hall systems at integer filling factors can be ferromagnets. The magnetization and, recently, the nuclear magnetic relaxation rate 1/T1 have been measured for these magnets.(S.E. Barrett et al.), Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1368 (1994); 74, 5112 (1995) These quantities have been calculated in a Schwinger-boson mean-field approach.(N. Read and S. Sachdev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75), 3509 (1995) We have calculated these same quantities using a Stochastic Series Expansion Monte Carlo Method. The results are compared with the experimental data, the mean-field results and with 1/N corrections for the mean-field results, calculated by our group.
SIMIND Monte Carlo simulation of a single photon emission CT
Bahreyni Toossi, M. T.; Islamian, J. Pirayesh; Momennezhad, M.; Ljungberg, M.; Naseri, S. H.
2010-01-01
In this study, we simulated a Siemens E.CAM SPECT system using SIMIND Monte Carlo program to acquire its experimental characterization in terms of energy resolution, sensitivity, spatial resolution and imaging of phantoms using 99mTc. The experimental and simulation data for SPECT imaging was acquired from a point source and Jaszczak phantom. Verification of the simulation was done by comparing two sets of images and related data obtained from the actual and simulated systems. Image quality was assessed by comparing image contrast and resolution. Simulated and measured energy spectra (with or without a collimator) and spatial resolution from point sources in air were compared. The resulted energy spectra present similar peaks for the gamma energy of 99mTc at 140 KeV. FWHM for the simulation calculated to 14.01 KeV and 13.80 KeV for experimental data, corresponding to energy resolution of 10.01 and 9.86% compared to defined 9.9% for both systems, respectively. Sensitivities of the real and virtual gamma cameras were calculated to 85.11 and 85.39 cps/MBq, respectively. The energy spectra of both simulated and real gamma cameras were matched. Images obtained from Jaszczak phantom, experimentally and by simulation, showed similarity in contrast and resolution. SIMIND Monte Carlo could successfully simulate the Siemens E.CAM gamma camera. The results validate the use of the simulated system for further investigation, including modification, planning, and developing a SPECT system to improve the quality of images. PMID:20177569
A practical Monte Carlo MU verification tool for IMRT quality assurance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, J.; Li, J.; Chen, L.; Stathakis, S.; Luo, W.; Du Plessis, F.; Xiong, W.; Yang, J.; Ma, C.-M.
2006-05-01
Quality assurance (QA) for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning and beam delivery, using ionization chamber measurements and film dosimetry in a phantom, is time consuming. The Monte Carlo method is the most accurate method for radiotherapy dose calculation. However, a major drawback of Monte Carlo dose calculation as currently implemented is its slow speed. The goal of this work is to bring the efficiency of Monte Carlo into a practical range by developing a fast Monte Carlo monitor unit (MU) verification tool for IMRT. A special estimator for dose at a point called the point detector has been used in this research. The point detector uses the next event estimation (NEE) method to calculate the photon energy fluence at a point of interest and then converts it to collision kerma by the mass energy absorption coefficient assuming the presence of transient charged particle equilibrium. The MU verification tool has been validated by comparing the calculation results with measurements. It can be used for both patient dose verification and phantom QA calculation. The dynamic leaf-sequence log file is used to rebuild the actual MLC leaf sequence in order to predict the dose actually received by the patient. Dose calculations for 20 patient plans have been performed using the point detector method. Results were compared with direct Monte Carlo simulations using EGS4/MCSIM, which is a well-benchmarked Monte Carlo code. The results between the point detector and MCSIM agreed to within 2%. A factor of 20 speedup can be achieved with the point detector method compared with direct Monte Carlo simulations.
Backward and Forward Monte Carlo Method in Polarized Radiative Transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yong, Huang; Guo-Dong, Shi; Ke-Yong, Zhu
2016-03-01
In general, the Stocks vector cannot be calculated in reverse in the vector radiative transfer. This paper presents a novel backward and forward Monte Carlo simulation strategy to study the vector radiative transfer in the participated medium. A backward Monte Carlo process is used to calculate the ray trajectory and the endpoint of the ray. The Stocks vector is carried out by a forward Monte Carlo process. A one-dimensional graded index semi-transparent medium was presented as the physical model and the thermal emission consideration of polarization was studied in the medium. The solution process to non-scattering, isotropic scattering, and the anisotropic scattering medium, respectively, is discussed. The influence of the optical thickness and albedo on the Stocks vector are studied. The results show that the U, V-components of the apparent Stocks vector are very small, but the Q-component of the apparent Stocks vector is relatively larger, which cannot be ignored.
Monte Carlo techniques for real-time quantum dynamics
Dowling, Mark R. . E-mail: dowling@physics.uq.edu.au; Davis, Matthew J.; Drummond, Peter D.; Corney, Joel F.
2007-01-10
The stochastic-gauge representation is a method of mapping the equation of motion for the quantum mechanical density operator onto a set of equivalent stochastic differential equations. One of the stochastic variables is termed the 'weight', and its magnitude is related to the importance of the stochastic trajectory. We investigate the use of Monte Carlo algorithms to improve the sampling of the weighted trajectories and thus reduce sampling error in a simulation of quantum dynamics. The method can be applied to calculations in real time, as well as imaginary time for which Monte Carlo algorithms are more-commonly used. The Monte-Carlo algorithms are applicable when the weight is guaranteed to be real, and we demonstrate how to ensure this is the case. Examples are given for the anharmonic oscillator, where large improvements over stochastic sampling are observed.
Skin image reconstruction using Monte Carlo based color generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aizu, Yoshihisa; Maeda, Takaaki; Kuwahara, Tomohiro; Hirao, Tetsuji
2010-11-01
We propose a novel method of skin image reconstruction based on color generation using Monte Carlo simulation of spectral reflectance in the nine-layered skin tissue model. The RGB image and spectral reflectance of human skin are obtained by RGB camera and spectrophotometer, respectively. The skin image is separated into the color component and texture component. The measured spectral reflectance is used to evaluate scattering and absorption coefficients in each of the nine layers which are necessary for Monte Carlo simulation. Various skin colors are generated by Monte Carlo simulation of spectral reflectance in given conditions for the nine-layered skin tissue model. The new color component is synthesized to the original texture component to reconstruct the skin image. The method is promising for applications in the fields of dermatology and cosmetics.
Tool for Rapid Analysis of Monte Carlo Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Restrepo, Carolina; McCall, Kurt E.; Hurtado, John E.
2011-01-01
Designing a spacecraft, or any other complex engineering system, requires extensive simulation and analysis work. Oftentimes, the large amounts of simulation data generated are very di cult and time consuming to analyze, with the added risk of overlooking potentially critical problems in the design. The authors have developed a generic data analysis tool that can quickly sort through large data sets and point an analyst to the areas in the data set that cause specific types of failures. The Tool for Rapid Analysis of Monte Carlo simulations (TRAM) has been used in recent design and analysis work for the Orion vehicle, greatly decreasing the time it takes to evaluate performance requirements. A previous version of this tool was developed to automatically identify driving design variables in Monte Carlo data sets. This paper describes a new, parallel version, of TRAM implemented on a graphical processing unit, and presents analysis results for NASA's Orion Monte Carlo data to demonstrate its capabilities.
Monte Carlo tests of the ELIPGRID-PC algorithm
Davidson, J.R.
1995-04-01
The standard tool for calculating the probability of detecting pockets of contamination called hot spots has been the ELIPGRID computer code of Singer and Wickman. The ELIPGRID-PC program has recently made this algorithm available for an IBM{reg_sign} PC. However, no known independent validation of the ELIPGRID algorithm exists. This document describes a Monte Carlo simulation-based validation of a modified version of the ELIPGRID-PC code. The modified ELIPGRID-PC code is shown to match Monte Carlo-calculated hot-spot detection probabilities to within {plus_minus}0.5% for 319 out of 320 test cases. The one exception, a very thin elliptical hot spot located within a rectangular sampling grid, differed from the Monte Carlo-calculated probability by about 1%. These results provide confidence in the ability of the modified ELIPGRID-PC code to accurately predict hot-spot detection probabilities within an acceptable range of error.
Application of biasing techniques to the contributon Monte Carlo method
Dubi, A.; Gerstl, S.A.W.
1980-01-01
Recently, a new Monte Carlo Method called the Contribution Monte Carlo Method was developed. The method is based on the theory of contributions, and uses a new receipe for estimating target responses by a volume integral over the contribution current. The analog features of the new method were discussed in previous publications. The application of some biasing methods to the new contribution scheme is examined here. A theoretical model is developed that enables an analytic prediction of the benefit to be expected when these biasing schemes are applied to both the contribution method and regular Monte Carlo. This model is verified by a variety of numerical experiments and is shown to yield satisfying results, especially for deep-penetration problems. Other considerations regarding the efficient use of the new method are also discussed, and remarks are made as to the application of other biasing methods. 14 figures, 1 tables.
Monte Carlo simulation in statistical physics: an introduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Binder, K., Heermann, D. W.
Monte Carlo Simulation in Statistical Physics deals with the computer simulation of many-body systems in condensed-matter physics and related fields of physics, chemistry and beyond, to traffic flows, stock market fluctuations, etc.). Using random numbers generated by a computer, probability distributions are calculated, allowing the estimation of the thermodynamic properties of various systems. This book describes the theoretical background to several variants of these Monte Carlo methods and gives a systematic presentation from which newcomers can learn to perform such simulations and to analyze their results. This fourth edition has been updated and a new chapter on Monte Carlo simulation of quantum-mechanical problems has been added. To help students in their work a special web server has been installed to host programs and discussion groups (http://wwwcp.tphys.uni-heidelberg.de). Prof. Binder was the winner of the Berni J. Alder CECAM Award for Computational Physics 2001.
SPQR: a Monte Carlo reactor kinetics code. [LMFBR
Cramer, S.N.; Dodds, H.L.
1980-02-01
The SPQR Monte Carlo code has been developed to analyze fast reactor core accident problems where conventional methods are considered inadequate. The code is based on the adiabatic approximation of the quasi-static method. This initial version contains no automatic material motion or feedback. An existing Monte Carlo code is used to calculate the shape functions and the integral quantities needed in the kinetics module. Several sample problems have been devised and analyzed. Due to the large statistical uncertainty associated with the calculation of reactivity in accident simulations, the results, especially at later times, differ greatly from deterministic methods. It was also found that in large uncoupled systems, the Monte Carlo method has difficulty in handling asymmetric perturbations.
Underwater Optical Wireless Channel Modeling Using Monte-Carlo Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saini, P. Sri; Prince, Shanthi
2011-10-01
At present, there is a lot of interest in the functioning of the marine environment. Unmanned or Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (UUVs or AUVs) are used in the exploration of the underwater resources, pollution monitoring, disaster prevention etc. Underwater, where radio waves do not propagate, acoustic communication is being used. But, underwater communication is moving towards Optical Communication which has higher bandwidth when compared to Acoustic Communication but has shorter range comparatively. Underwater Optical Wireless Communication (OWC) is mainly affected by the absorption and scattering of the optical signal. In coastal waters, both inherent and apparent optical properties (IOPs and AOPs) are influenced by a wide array of physical, biological and chemical processes leading to optical variability. The scattering effect has two effects: the attenuation of the signal and the Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI) of the signal. However, the Inter-Symbol Interference is ignored in the present paper. Therefore, in order to have an efficient underwater OWC link it is necessary to model the channel efficiently. In this paper, the underwater optical channel is modeled using Monte-Carlo method. The Monte Carlo approach provides the most general and most flexible technique for numerically solving the equations of Radiative transfer. The attenuation co-efficient of the light signal is studied as a function of the absorption (a) and scattering (b) coefficients. It has been observed that for pure sea water and for less chlorophyll conditions blue wavelength is less absorbed whereas for chlorophyll rich environment red wavelength signal is absorbed less comparative to blue and green wavelength.
Monte Carlo Form-Finding Method for Tensegrity Structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yue; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Cao, Yan-Ping
2010-05-01
In this paper, we propose a Monte Carlo-based approach to solve tensegrity form-finding problems. It uses a stochastic procedure to find the deterministic equilibrium configuration of a tensegrity structure. The suggested Monte Carlo form-finding (MCFF) method is highly efficient because it does not involve complicated matrix operations and symmetry analysis and it works for arbitrary initial configurations. Both regular and non-regular tensegrity problems of large scale can be solved. Some representative examples are presented to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of this versatile method.
Bold Diagrammatic Monte Carlo for Fermionic and Fermionized Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Svistunov, Boris
2013-03-01
In three different fermionic cases--repulsive Hubbard model, resonant fermions, and fermionized spins-1/2 (on triangular lattice)--we observe the phenomenon of sign blessing: Feynman diagrammatic series features finite convergence radius despite factorial growth of the number of diagrams with diagram order. Bold diagrammatic Monte Carlo technique allows us to sample millions of skeleton Feynman diagrams. With the universal fermionization trick we can fermionize essentially any (bosonic, spin, mixed, etc.) lattice system. The combination of fermionization and Bold diagrammatic Monte Carlo yields a universal first-principle approach to strongly correlated lattice systems, provided the sign blessing is a generic fermionic phenomenon. Supported by NSF and DARPA
A review of best practices for Monte Carlo criticality calculations
Brown, Forrest B
2009-01-01
Monte Carlo methods have been used to compute k{sub eff} and the fundamental mode eigenfunction of critical systems since the 1950s. While such calculations have become routine using standard codes such as MCNP and SCALE/KENO, there still remain 3 concerns that must be addressed to perform calculations correctly: convergence of k{sub eff} and the fission distribution, bias in k{sub eff} and tally results, and bias in statistics on tally results. This paper provides a review of the fundamental problems inherent in Monte Carlo criticality calculations. To provide guidance to practitioners, suggested best practices for avoiding these problems are discussed and illustrated by examples.
Mesh Optimization for Monte Carlo-Based Optical Tomography
Edmans, Andrew; Intes, Xavier
2015-01-01
Mesh-based Monte Carlo techniques for optical imaging allow for accurate modeling of light propagation in complex biological tissues. Recently, they have been developed within an efficient computational framework to be used as a forward model in optical tomography. However, commonly employed adaptive mesh discretization techniques have not yet been implemented for Monte Carlo based tomography. Herein, we propose a methodology to optimize the mesh discretization and analytically rescale the associated Jacobian based on the characteristics of the forward model. We demonstrate that this method maintains the accuracy of the forward model even in the case of temporal data sets while allowing for significant coarsening or refinement of the mesh. PMID:26566523
A Monte Carlo method for combined segregation and linkage analysis.
Guo, S W; Thompson, E A
1992-01-01
We introduce a Monte Carlo approach to combined segregation and linkage analysis of a quantitative trait observed in an extended pedigree. In conjunction with the Monte Carlo method of likelihood-ratio evaluation proposed by Thompson and Guo, the method provides for estimation and hypothesis testing. The greatest attraction of this approach is its ability to handle complex genetic models and large pedigrees. Two examples illustrate the practicality of the method. One is of simulated data on a large pedigree; the other is a reanalysis of published data previously analyzed by other methods. PMID:1415253
Enhancements for Multi-Player Monte-Carlo Tree Search
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nijssen, J. (Pim) A. M.; Winands, Mark H. M.
Monte-Carlo Tree Search (MCTS) is becoming increasingly popular for playing multi-player games. In this paper we propose two enhancements for MCTS in multi-player games: (1) Progressive History and (2) Multi-Player Monte-Carlo Tree Search Solver (MP-MCTS-Solver). We analyze the performance of these enhancements in two different multi-player games: Focus and Chinese Checkers. Based on the experimental results we conclude that Progressive History is a considerable improvement in both games and MP-MCTS-Solver, using the standard update rule, is a genuine improvement in Focus.
Modelling cerebral blood oxygenation using Monte Carlo XYZ-PA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zam, Azhar; Jacques, Steven L.; Alexandrov, Sergey; Li, Youzhi; Leahy, Martin J.
2013-02-01
Continuous monitoring of cerebral blood oxygenation is critically important for the management of many lifethreatening conditions. Non-invasive monitoring of cerebral blood oxygenation with a photoacoustic technique offers advantages over current invasive and non-invasive methods. We introduce a Monte Carlo XYZ-PA to model the energy deposition in 3D and the time-resolved pressures and velocity potential based on the energy absorbed by the biological tissue. This paper outlines the benefits of using Monte Carlo XYZ-PA for optimization of photoacoustic measurement and imaging. To the best of our knowledge this is the first fully integrated tool for photoacoustic modelling.
Overview of the MCU Monte Carlo Software Package
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalugin, M. A.; Oleynik, D. S.; Shkarovsky, D. A.
2014-06-01
MCU (Monte Carlo Universal) is a project on development and practical use of a universal computer code for simulation of particle transport (neutrons, photons, electrons, positrons) in three-dimensional systems by means of the Monte Carlo method. This paper provides the information on the current state of the project. The developed libraries of constants are briefly described, and the potentialities of the MCU-5 package modules and the executable codes compiled from them are characterized. Examples of important problems of reactor physics solved with the code are presented.
2014-01-01
Background In biomedical research, response variables are often encountered which have bounded support on the open unit interval - (0,1). Traditionally, researchers have attempted to estimate covariate effects on these types of response data using linear regression. Alternative modelling strategies may include: beta regression, variable-dispersion beta regression, and fractional logit regression models. This study employs a Monte Carlo simulation design to compare the statistical properties of the linear regression model to that of the more novel beta regression, variable-dispersion beta regression, and fractional logit regression models. Methods In the Monte Carlo experiment we assume a simple two sample design. We assume observations are realizations of independent draws from their respective probability models. The randomly simulated draws from the various probability models are chosen to emulate average proportion/percentage/rate differences of pre-specified magnitudes. Following simulation of the experimental data we estimate average proportion/percentage/rate differences. We compare the estimators in terms of bias, variance, type-1 error and power. Estimates of Monte Carlo error associated with these quantities are provided. Results If response data are beta distributed with constant dispersion parameters across the two samples, then all models are unbiased and have reasonable type-1 error rates and power profiles. If the response data in the two samples have different dispersion parameters, then the simple beta regression model is biased. When the sample size is small (N0 = N1 = 25) linear regression has superior type-1 error rates compared to the other models. Small sample type-1 error rates can be improved in beta regression models using bias correction/reduction methods. In the power experiments, variable-dispersion beta regression and fractional logit regression models have slightly elevated power compared to linear regression models. Similar
Quantum Monte Carlo Calculations of Nucleon-Nucleus Scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wiringa, R. B.; Nollett, Kenneth M.; Pieper, Steven C.; Brida, I.
2009-10-01
We report recent quantum Monte Carlo (variational and Green's function) calculations of elastic nucleon-nucleus scattering. We are adding the cases of proton-^4He, neutron-^3H and proton-^3He scattering to a previous GFMC study of neutron-^4He scattering [1]. To do this requires generalizing our methods to include long-range Coulomb forces and to treat coupled channels. The two four-body cases can be compared to other accurate four-body calculational methods such as the AGS equations and hyperspherical harmonic expansions. We will present results for the Argonne v18 interaction alone and with Urbana and Illinois three-nucleon potentials. [4pt] [1] K.M. Nollett, S. C. Pieper, R.B. Wiringa, J. Carlson, and G.M. Hale, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 022502 (2007)
Radiographic Capabilities of the MERCURY Monte Carlo Code
McKinley, M S; von Wittenau, A
2008-04-07
MERCURY is a modern, parallel, general-purpose Monte Carlo code being developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Recently, a radiographic capability has been added. MERCURY can create a source of diagnostic, virtual particles that are aimed at pixels in an image tally. This new feature is compared to the radiography code, HADES, for verification and timing. Comparisons for accuracy were made using the French Test Object and for timing were made by tracking through an unstructured mesh. In addition, self consistency tests were run in MERCURY for the British Test Object and scattering test problem. MERCURY and HADES were found to agree to the precision of the input data. HADES appears to run around eight times faster than the MERCURY in the timing study. Profiling the MERCURY code has turned up several differences in the algorithms which account for this. These differences will be addressed in a future release of MERCURY.
Reactive Monte Carlo sampling with an ab initio potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leiding, Jeff; Coe, Joshua D.
2016-05-01
We present the first application of reactive Monte Carlo in a first-principles context. The algorithm samples in a modified NVT ensemble in which the volume, temperature, and total number of atoms of a given type are held fixed, but molecular composition is allowed to evolve through stochastic variation of chemical connectivity. We discuss general features of the method, as well as techniques needed to enhance the efficiency of Boltzmann sampling. Finally, we compare the results of simulation of NH3 to those of ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD). We find that there are regions of state space for which RxMC sampling is much more efficient than AIMD due to the "rare-event" character of chemical reactions.
Investigating QGP through Monte Carlo Jet Event Topology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coulter, Jennifer
2015-10-01
Thrust, an infrared safe, perturbatively calculable event shape variable, has been used to explore the geometry of energy momentum flow in e+e- annihilation. The calculation of thrust, thrust major, and thrust minor is dictated by equations arising from QCD. Current QCD theory in e+e- predicts that thrust could have implications for determinations of the strong coupling constant and branching structure of collisions. In order to extend the work done in e+e- to apply to pp and PbPb collisions, analysis of Monte Carlo simulations was developed to create plots of thrust, thrust major, and thrust minor. Going forward, pp and PbPb thrust values from these simulations will be compared in order to study the effects of quenching and hopefully imply new information about quark-gluon plasma.
HepMCAnalyser: A tool for Monte Carlo generator validation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ay, C.; Johnert, S.; Katzy, J.; Qin, Zhonghua
2010-04-01
HepMCAnalyser is a tool for Monte Carlo (MC) generator validation and comparisons. It is a stable, easy-to-use and extendable framework allowing for easy access/integration to generator level analysis. It comprises a class library with benchmark physics processes to analyse MC generator HepMC output and to fill root histograms. A web-interface is provided to display all or selected histogramms, compare to references and validate the results based on Kolmogorov Tests. Steerable example programs can be used for event generation. The default steering is tuned to optimally align the distributions of the different MC generators. The tool will be used for MC generator validation by the Generator Services (GENSER) LCG project, e.g. for version upgrades. It is supported on the same platforms as the GENSER libraries and is already in use at ATLAS.
Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) on the Connection Machine
Wong, B.C.; Long, L.N. )
1992-01-01
The massively parallel computer Connection Machine is utilized to map an improved version of the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method for solving flows with the Boltzmann equation. The kinetic theory is required for analyzing hypersonic aerospace applications, and the features and capabilities of the DSMC particle-simulation technique are discussed. The DSMC is shown to be inherently massively parallel and data parallel, and the algorithm is based on molecule movements, cross-referencing their locations, locating collisions within cells, and sampling macroscopic quantities in each cell. The serial DSMC code is compared to the present parallel DSMC code, and timing results show that the speedup of the parallel version is approximately linear. The correct physics can be resolved from the results of the complete DSMC method implemented on the connection machine using the data-parallel approach. 41 refs.
Monte Carlo simulation of a cobalt-60 beam
Han, K.; Ballon, D.; Chui, C.; Mohan, R.
1987-05-01
We have used the Stanford Electron Gamma Shower (EGS) Monte Carlo code to compute photon spectra from an AECL Theratron 780 cobalt-60 unit. Particular attention has been paid to the careful modeling of the geometry and material construction of the cobalt-60 source capsule, source housing, and collimator assembly. From our simulation, we conclude that the observed increase in output of the machine with increasing field size is caused by scattered photons from the primary definer and the adjustable collimator. We have also used the generated photon spectra as input to a pencil beam model to calculate the tissue--air ratios in water and compared it to a model which uses a monochromatic photon energy of 1.25 MeV.
A Monte Carlo investigation of lung brachytherapy treatment planning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sutherland, J. G. H.; Furutani, K. M.; Thomson, R. M.
2013-07-01
Iodine-125 (125I) and Caesium-131 (131Cs) brachytherapy have been used in conjunction with sublobar resection to reduce the local recurrence of stage I non-small cell lung cancer compared with resection alone. Treatment planning for this procedure is typically performed using only a seed activity nomogram or look-up table to determine seed strand spacing for the implanted mesh. Since the post-implant seed geometry is difficult to predict, the nomogram is calculated using the TG-43 formalism for seeds in a planar geometry. In this work, the EGSnrc user-code BrachyDose is used to recalculate nomograms using a variety of tissue models for 125I and 131Cs seeds. Calculated prescription doses are compared to those calculated using TG-43. Additionally, patient CT and contour data are used to generate virtual implants to study the effects that post-implant deformation and patient-specific tissue heterogeneity have on perturbing nomogram-derived dose distributions. Differences of up to 25% in calculated prescription dose are found between TG-43 and Monte Carlo calculations with the TG-43 formalism underestimating prescription doses in general. Differences between the TG-43 formalism and Monte Carlo calculated prescription doses are greater for 125I than for 131Cs seeds. Dose distributions are found to change significantly based on implant deformation and tissues surrounding implants for patient-specific virtual implants. Results suggest that accounting for seed grid deformation and the effects of non-water media, at least approximately, are likely required to reliably predict dose distributions in lung brachytherapy patients.
Brachytherapy structural shielding calculations using Monte Carlo generated, monoenergetic data
Zourari, K.; Peppa, V.; Papagiannis, P.; Ballester, Facundo; Siebert, Frank-André
2014-04-15
Purpose: To provide a method for calculating the transmission of any broad photon beam with a known energy spectrum in the range of 20–1090 keV, through concrete and lead, based on the superposition of corresponding monoenergetic data obtained from Monte Carlo simulation. Methods: MCNP5 was used to calculate broad photon beam transmission data through varying thickness of lead and concrete, for monoenergetic point sources of energy in the range pertinent to brachytherapy (20–1090 keV, in 10 keV intervals). The three parameter empirical model introduced byArcher et al. [“Diagnostic x-ray shielding design based on an empirical model of photon attenuation,” Health Phys. 44, 507–517 (1983)] was used to describe the transmission curve for each of the 216 energy-material combinations. These three parameters, and hence the transmission curve, for any polyenergetic spectrum can then be obtained by superposition along the lines of Kharrati et al. [“Monte Carlo simulation of x-ray buildup factors of lead and its applications in shielding of diagnostic x-ray facilities,” Med. Phys. 34, 1398–1404 (2007)]. A simple program, incorporating a graphical user interface, was developed to facilitate the superposition of monoenergetic data, the graphical and tabular display of broad photon beam transmission curves, and the calculation of material thickness required for a given transmission from these curves. Results: Polyenergetic broad photon beam transmission curves of this work, calculated from the superposition of monoenergetic data, are compared to corresponding results in the literature. A good agreement is observed with results in the literature obtained from Monte Carlo simulations for the photon spectra emitted from bare point sources of various radionuclides. Differences are observed with corresponding results in the literature for x-ray spectra at various tube potentials, mainly due to the different broad beam conditions or x-ray spectra assumed. Conclusions
The macro response Monte Carlo method for electron transport
Svatos, M M
1998-09-01
The main goal of this thesis was to prove the feasibility of basing electron depth dose calculations in a phantom on first-principles single scatter physics, in an amount of time that is equal to or better than current electron Monte Carlo methods. The Macro Response Monte Carlo (MRMC) method achieves run times that are on the order of conventional electron transport methods such as condensed history, with the potential to be much faster. This is possible because MRMC is a Local-to-Global method, meaning the problem is broken down into two separate transport calculations. The first stage is a local, in this case, single scatter calculation, which generates probability distribution functions (PDFs) to describe the electron's energy, position and trajectory after leaving the local geometry, a small sphere or "kugel" A number of local kugel calculations were run for calcium and carbon, creating a library of kugel data sets over a range of incident energies (0.25 MeV - 8 MeV) and sizes (0.025 cm to 0.1 cm in radius). The second transport stage is a global calculation, where steps that conform to the size of the kugels in the library are taken through the global geometry. For each step, the appropriate PDFs from the MRMC library are sampled to determine the electron's new energy, position and trajectory. The electron is immediately advanced to the end of the step and then chooses another kugel to sample, which continues until transport is completed. The MRMC global stepping code was benchmarked as a series of subroutines inside of the Peregrine Monte Carlo code. It was compared to Peregrine's class II condensed history electron transport package, EGS4, and MCNP for depth dose in simple phantoms having density inhomogeneities. Since the kugels completed in the library were of relatively small size, the zoning of the phantoms was scaled down from a clinical size, so that the energy deposition algorithms for spreading dose across 5-10 zones per kugel could be tested. Most
The macro response Monte Carlo method for electron transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Svatos, Michelle Marie
1998-10-01
This thesis proves the feasibility of basing depth dose calculations for electron radiotherapy on first- principles single scatter physics, in an amount of time that is comparable to or better than current electron Monte Carlo methods. The Macro Response Monte Carlo (MRMC) method achieves run times that have potential to be much faster than conventional electron transport methods such as condensed history. This is possible because MRMC is a Local-to- Global method, meaning the problem is broken down into two separate transport calculations. The first stage is a local, single scatter calculation, which generates probability distribution functions (PDFs) to describe the electron's energy, position and trajectory after leaving the local geometry, a small sphere or 'kugel'. A number of local kugel calculations were run for calcium and carbon, creating a library of kugel data sets over a range of incident energies (0.25 MeV-8 MeV) and sizes (0.025 cm to 0.1 cm in radius). The second transport stage is a global calculation, where steps that conform to the size of the kugels in the library are taken through the global geometry, which in this case is a CT (computed tomography) scan of a patient or phantom. For each step, the appropriate PDFs from the MRMC library are sampled to determine the electron's new energy, position and trajectory. The electron is immediately advanced to the end of the step and then chooses another kugel to sample, which continues until transport is completed. The MRMC global stepping code was benchmarked as a series of subroutines inside of the Peregrine Monte Carlo code against EGS4 and MCNP for depth dose in simple phantoms having density inhomogeneities. The energy deposition algorithms for spreading dose across 5-10 zones per kugel were tested. Most resulting depth dose calculations were within 2-3% of well-benchmarked codes, with one excursion to 4%. This thesis shows that the concept of using single scatter-based physics in clinical radiation
Range uncertainties in proton therapy and the role of Monte Carlo simulations
Paganetti, Harald
2012-01-01
The main advantages of proton therapy are the reduced total energy deposited in the patient as compared to photon techniques and the finite range of the proton beam. The latter adds an additional degree of freedom to treatment planning. The range in tissue is associated with considerable uncertainties caused by imaging, patient setup, beam delivery and dose calculation. Reducing the uncertainties would allow a reduction of the treatment volume and thus allow a better utilization of the advantages of protons. This article summarizes the role of Monte Carlo simulations when aiming at a reduction of range uncertainties in proton therapy. Differences in dose calculation when comparing Monte Carlo with analytical algorithms are analyzed as well as range uncertainties due to material constants and CT conversion. Range uncertainties due to biological effects and the role of Monte Carlo for in vivo range verification are discussed. Furthermore, the current range uncertainty recipes used at several proton therapy facilities are revisited. We conclude that a significant impact of Monte Carlo dose calculation can be expected in complex geometries where local range uncertainties due to multiple Coulomb scattering will reduce the accuracy of analytical algorithms. In these cases Monte Carlo techniques might reduce the range uncertainty by several mm. PMID:22571913
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moiseenko, V.; Liu, M.; Loewen, S.; Kosztyla, R.; Vollans, E.; Lucido, J.; Fong, M.; Vellani, R.; Popescu, I. A.
2013-10-01
Dosimetric consequences of plans optimized using the analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA) implemented in the Varian Eclipse treatment planning system for spine stereotactic body radiotherapy were evaluated by re-calculating with BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc Monte Carlo. Six patients with spinal vertebral metastases were planned using volumetric modulated arc therapy. The planning goal was to cover at least 80% of the planning target volume with a prescribed dose of 35 Gy in five fractions. Tissue heterogeneity-corrected AAA dose distributions for the planning target volume and spinal canal planning organ-at-risk volume were compared against those obtained from Monte Carlo. The results showed that the AAA overestimated planning target volume coverage with the prescribed dose by up to 13.5% (mean 8.3% +/- 3.2%) when compared to Monte Carlo simulations. Maximum dose to spinal canal planning organ-at-risk volume calculated with Monte Carlo was consistently smaller than calculated with the treatment planning system and remained under spinal cord dose tolerance. Differences in dose distribution appear to be related to the dosimetric effects of accounting for body composition in Monte Carlo simulations. In contrast, the treatment planning system assumes that all tissues are water-equivalent in their composition and only differ in their electron density.
Modeling granular phosphor screens by Monte Carlo methods
Liaparinos, Panagiotis F.; Kandarakis, Ioannis S.; Cavouras, Dionisis A.; Delis, Harry B.; Panayiotakis, George S.
2006-12-15
The intrinsic phosphor properties are of significant importance for the performance of phosphor screens used in medical imaging systems. In previous analytical-theoretical and Monte Carlo studies on granular phosphor materials, values of optical properties, and light interaction cross sections were found by fitting to experimental data. These values were then employed for the assessment of phosphor screen imaging performance. However, it was found that, depending on the experimental technique and fitting methodology, the optical parameters of a specific phosphor material varied within a wide range of values, i.e., variations of light scattering with respect to light absorption coefficients were often observed for the same phosphor material. In this study, x-ray and light transport within granular phosphor materials was studied by developing a computational model using Monte Carlo methods. The model was based on the intrinsic physical characteristics of the phosphor. Input values required to feed the model can be easily obtained from tabulated data. The complex refractive index was introduced and microscopic probabilities for light interactions were produced, using Mie scattering theory. Model validation was carried out by comparing model results on x-ray and light parameters (x-ray absorption, statistical fluctuations in the x-ray to light conversion process, number of emitted light photons, output light spatial distribution) with previous published experimental data on Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Tb phosphor material (Kodak Min-R screen). Results showed the dependence of the modulation transfer function (MTF) on phosphor grain size and material packing density. It was predicted that granular Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Tb screens of high packing density and small grain size may exhibit considerably better resolution and light emission properties than the conventional Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Tb screens, under similar conditions (x-ray incident energy, screen thickness)
Quantum Monte Carlo with very large multideterminant wavefunctions.
Scemama, Anthony; Applencourt, Thomas; Giner, Emmanuel; Caffarel, Michel
2016-07-01
An algorithm to compute efficiently the first two derivatives of (very) large multideterminant wavefunctions for quantum Monte Carlo calculations is presented. The calculation of determinants and their derivatives is performed using the Sherman-Morrison formula for updating the inverse Slater matrix. An improved implementation based on the reduction of the number of column substitutions and on a very efficient implementation of the calculation of the scalar products involved is presented. It is emphasized that multideterminant expansions contain in general a large number of identical spin-specific determinants: for typical configuration interaction-type wavefunctions the number of unique spin-specific determinants Ndetσ ( σ=↑,↓) with a non-negligible weight in the expansion is of order O(Ndet). We show that a careful implementation of the calculation of the Ndet -dependent contributions can make this step negligible enough so that in practice the algorithm scales as the total number of unique spin-specific determinants, Ndet↑+Ndet↓, over a wide range of total number of determinants (here, Ndet up to about one million), thus greatly reducing the total computational cost. Finally, a new truncation scheme for the multideterminant expansion is proposed so that larger expansions can be considered without increasing the computational time. The algorithm is illustrated with all-electron fixed-node diffusion Monte Carlo calculations of the total energy of the chlorine atom. Calculations using a trial wavefunction including about 750,000 determinants with a computational increase of ∼400 compared to a single-determinant calculation are shown to be feasible. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27302337
GATE Monte Carlo simulation in a cloud computing environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rowedder, Blake Austin
The GEANT4-based GATE is a unique and powerful Monte Carlo (MC) platform, which provides a single code library allowing the simulation of specific medical physics applications, e.g. PET, SPECT, CT, radiotherapy, and hadron therapy. However, this rigorous yet flexible platform is used only sparingly in the clinic due to its lengthy calculation time. By accessing the powerful computational resources of a cloud computing environment, GATE's runtime can be significantly reduced to clinically feasible levels without the sizable investment of a local high performance cluster. This study investigated a reliable and efficient execution of GATE MC simulations using a commercial cloud computing services. Amazon's Elastic Compute Cloud was used to launch several nodes equipped with GATE. Job data was initially broken up on the local computer, then uploaded to the worker nodes on the cloud. The results were automatically downloaded and aggregated on the local computer for display and analysis. Five simulations were repeated for every cluster size between 1 and 20 nodes. Ultimately, increasing cluster size resulted in a decrease in calculation time that could be expressed with an inverse power model. Comparing the benchmark results to the published values and error margins indicated that the simulation results were not affected by the cluster size and thus that integrity of a calculation is preserved in a cloud computing environment. The runtime of a 53 minute long simulation was decreased to 3.11 minutes when run on a 20-node cluster. The ability to improve the speed of simulation suggests that fast MC simulations are viable for imaging and radiotherapy applications. With high power computing continuing to lower in price and accessibility, implementing Monte Carlo techniques with cloud computing for clinical applications will continue to become more attractive.
Applications guide to the MORSE Monte Carlo code
Cramer, S.N.
1985-08-01
A practical guide for the implementation of the MORESE-CG Monte Carlo radiation transport computer code system is presented. The various versions of the MORSE code are compared and contrasted, and the many references dealing explicitly with the MORSE-CG code are reviewed. The treatment of angular scattering is discussed, and procedures for obtaining increased differentiality of results in terms of reaction types and nuclides from a multigroup Monte Carlo code are explained in terms of cross-section and geometry data manipulation. Examples of standard cross-section data input and output are shown. Many other features of the code system are also reviewed, including (1) the concept of primary and secondary particles, (2) fission neutron generation, (3) albedo data capability, (4) DOMINO coupling, (5) history file use for post-processing of results, (6) adjoint mode operation, (7) variance reduction, and (8) input/output. In addition, examples of the combinatorial geometry are given, and the new array of arrays geometry feature (MARS) and its three-dimensional plotting code (JUNEBUG) are presented. Realistic examples of user routines for source, estimation, path-length stretching, and cross-section data manipulation are given. A deatiled explanation of the coupling between the random walk and estimation procedure is given in terms of both code parameters and physical analogies. The operation of the code in the adjoint mode is covered extensively. The basic concepts of adjoint theory and dimensionality are discussed and examples of adjoint source and estimator user routines are given for all common situations. Adjoint source normalization is explained, a few sample problems are given, and the concept of obtaining forward differential results from adjoint calculations is covered. Finally, the documentation of the standard MORSE-CG sample problem package is reviewed and on-going and future work is discussed.
Monte Carlo simulation with fixed steplength for diffusion processes in nonhomogeneous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruiz Barlett, V.; Hoyuelos, M.; Mártin, H. O.
2013-04-01
Monte Carlo simulation is one of the most important tools in the study of diffusion processes. For constant diffusion coefficients, an appropriate Gaussian distribution of particle's steplengths can generate exact results, when compared with integration of the diffusion equation. It is important to notice that the same method is completely erroneous when applied to non-homogeneous diffusion coefficients. A simple alternative, jumping at fixed steplengths with appropriate transition probabilities, produces correct results. Here, a model for diffusion of calcium ions in the neuromuscular junction of the crayfish is used as a test to compare Monte Carlo simulation with fixed and Gaussian steplength.
Analysis of Monte Carlo methods applied to blackbody and lower emissivity cavities.
Pahl, Robert J; Shannon, Mark A
2002-02-01
Monte Carlo methods are often applied to the calculation of the apparent emissivities of blackbody cavities. However, for cavities with complex as well as some commonly encountered geometries, the emission Monte Carlo method experiences problems of convergence. The emission and absorption Monte Carlo methods are compared on the basis of ease of implementation and convergence speed when applied to blackbody sources. A new method to determine solution convergence compatible with both methods is developed, and the convergence speeds of the two methods are compared through the application of both methods to a right-circular cylinder cavity. It is shown that the absorption method converges faster and is easier to implement than the emission method when applied to most blackbody and lower emissivity cavities. PMID:11993915
Monte Carlo studies of nuclei and quantum liquid drops
Pandharipande, V.R.; Pieper, S.C.
1989-01-01
The progress in application of variational and Green's function Monte Carlo methods to nuclei is reviewed. The nature of single-particle orbitals in correlated quantum liquid drops is discussed, and it is suggested that the difference between quasi-particle and mean-field orbitals may be of importance in nuclear structure physics. 27 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.
A Monte Carlo Study of Six Models of Change.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Corder-Bolz, Charles R.
A Monte Carlo Study was conducted to evaluate six models commonly used to evaluate change. The results revealed specific problems with each. Analysis of covariance and analysis of variance of residualized gain scores appeared to substantially and consistently overestimate the change effects. Multiple factor analysis of variance models utilizing…
A Variational Monte Carlo Approach to Atomic Structure
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davis, Stephen L.
2007-01-01
The practicality and usefulness of variational Monte Carlo calculations to atomic structure are demonstrated. It is found to succeed in quantitatively illustrating electron shielding, effective nuclear charge, l-dependence of the orbital energies, and singlet-tripetenergy splitting and ionization energy trends in atomic structure theory.
Present Status and Extensions of the Monte Carlo Performance Benchmark
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoogenboom, J. Eduard; Petrovic, Bojan; Martin, William R.
2014-06-01
The NEA Monte Carlo Performance benchmark started in 2011 aiming to monitor over the years the abilities to perform a full-size Monte Carlo reactor core calculation with a detailed power production for each fuel pin with axial distribution. This paper gives an overview of the contributed results thus far. It shows that reaching a statistical accuracy of 1 % for most of the small fuel zones requires about 100 billion neutron histories. The efficiency of parallel execution of Monte Carlo codes on a large number of processor cores shows clear limitations for computer clusters with common type computer nodes. However, using true supercomputers the speedup of parallel calculations is increasing up to large numbers of processor cores. More experience is needed from calculations on true supercomputers using large numbers of processors in order to predict if the requested calculations can be done in a short time. As the specifications of the reactor geometry for this benchmark test are well suited for further investigations of full-core Monte Carlo calculations and a need is felt for testing other issues than its computational performance, proposals are presented for extending the benchmark to a suite of benchmark problems for evaluating fission source convergence for a system with a high dominance ratio, for coupling with thermal-hydraulics calculations to evaluate the use of different temperatures and coolant densities and to study the correctness and effectiveness of burnup calculations. Moreover, other contemporary proposals for a full-core calculation with realistic geometry and material composition will be discussed.
Monte Carlo Capabilities of the SCALE Code System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rearden, B. T.; Petrie, L. M.; Peplow, D. E.; Bekar, K. B.; Wiarda, D.; Celik, C.; Perfetti, C. M.; Ibrahim, A. M.; Hart, S. W. D.; Dunn, M. E.
2014-06-01
SCALE is a widely used suite of tools for nuclear systems modeling and simulation that provides comprehensive, verified and validated, user-friendly capabilities for criticality safety, reactor physics, radiation shielding, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. For more than 30 years, regulators, licensees, and research institutions around the world have used SCALE for nuclear safety analysis and design. SCALE provides a "plug-and-play" framework that includes three deterministic and three Monte Carlo radiation transport solvers that can be selected based on the desired solution, including hybrid deterministic/Monte Carlo simulations. SCALE includes the latest nuclear data libraries for continuous-energy and multigroup radiation transport as well as activation, depletion, and decay calculations. SCALE's graphical user interfaces assist with accurate system modeling, visualization, and convenient access to desired results. SCALE 6.2, to be released in 2014, will provide several new capabilities and significant improvements in many existing features, especially with expanded continuous-energy Monte Carlo capabilities for criticality safety, shielding, depletion, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. An overview of the Monte Carlo capabilities of SCALE is provided here, with emphasis on new features for SCALE 6.2.
A Monte Carlo photocurrent/photoemission computer program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chadsey, W. L.; Ragona, C.
1972-01-01
A Monte Carlo computer program was developed for the computation of photocurrents and photoemission in gamma (X-ray)-irradiated materials. The program was used for computation of radiation-induced surface currents on space vehicles and the computation of radiation-induced space charge environments within space vehicles.
Applications of the Monte Carlo radiation transport toolkit at LLNL
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sale, Kenneth E.; Bergstrom, Paul M., Jr.; Buck, Richard M.; Cullen, Dermot; Fujino, D.; Hartmann-Siantar, Christine
1999-09-01
Modern Monte Carlo radiation transport codes can be applied to model most applications of radiation, from optical to TeV photons, from thermal neutrons to heavy ions. Simulations can include any desired level of detail in three-dimensional geometries using the right level of detail in the reaction physics. The technology areas to which we have applied these codes include medical applications, defense, safety and security programs, nuclear safeguards and industrial and research system design and control. The main reason such applications are interesting is that by using these tools substantial savings of time and effort (i.e. money) can be realized. In addition it is possible to separate out and investigate computationally effects which can not be isolated and studied in experiments. In model calculations, just as in real life, one must take care in order to get the correct answer to the right question. Advancing computing technology allows extensions of Monte Carlo applications in two directions. First, as computers become more powerful more problems can be accurately modeled. Second, as computing power becomes cheaper Monte Carlo methods become accessible more widely. An overview of the set of Monte Carlo radiation transport tools in use a LLNL will be presented along with a few examples of applications and future directions.
Monte Carlo capabilities of the SCALE code system
Rearden, Bradley T.; Petrie, Jr., Lester M.; Peplow, Douglas E.; Bekar, Kursat B.; Wiarda, Dorothea; Celik, Cihangir; Perfetti, Christopher M.; Ibrahim, Ahmad M.; Hart, S. W. D.; Dunn, Michael E.; et al
2014-09-12
SCALE is a broadly used suite of tools for nuclear systems modeling and simulation that provides comprehensive, verified and validated, user-friendly capabilities for criticality safety, reactor physics, radiation shielding, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. For more than 30 years, regulators, licensees, and research institutions around the world have used SCALE for nuclear safety analysis and design. SCALE provides a “plug-and-play” framework that includes three deterministic and three Monte Carlo radiation transport solvers that can be selected based on the desired solution, including hybrid deterministic/Monte Carlo simulations. SCALE includes the latest nuclear data libraries for continuous-energy and multigroup radiation transport asmore » well as activation, depletion, and decay calculations. SCALE’s graphical user interfaces assist with accurate system modeling, visualization, and convenient access to desired results. SCALE 6.2 will provide several new capabilities and significant improvements in many existing features, especially with expanded continuous-energy Monte Carlo capabilities for criticality safety, shielding, depletion, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. Finally, an overview of the Monte Carlo capabilities of SCALE is provided here, with emphasis on new features for SCALE 6.2.« less
Monte Carlo capabilities of the SCALE code system
Rearden, Bradley T.; Petrie, Jr., Lester M.; Peplow, Douglas E.; Bekar, Kursat B.; Wiarda, Dorothea; Celik, Cihangir; Perfetti, Christopher M.; Ibrahim, Ahmad M.; Hart, S. W. D.; Dunn, Michael E.; Marshall, William J.
2014-09-12
SCALE is a broadly used suite of tools for nuclear systems modeling and simulation that provides comprehensive, verified and validated, user-friendly capabilities for criticality safety, reactor physics, radiation shielding, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. For more than 30 years, regulators, licensees, and research institutions around the world have used SCALE for nuclear safety analysis and design. SCALE provides a “plug-and-play” framework that includes three deterministic and three Monte Carlo radiation transport solvers that can be selected based on the desired solution, including hybrid deterministic/Monte Carlo simulations. SCALE includes the latest nuclear data libraries for continuous-energy and multigroup radiation transport as well as activation, depletion, and decay calculations. SCALE’s graphical user interfaces assist with accurate system modeling, visualization, and convenient access to desired results. SCALE 6.2 will provide several new capabilities and significant improvements in many existing features, especially with expanded continuous-energy Monte Carlo capabilities for criticality safety, shielding, depletion, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. Finally, an overview of the Monte Carlo capabilities of SCALE is provided here, with emphasis on new features for SCALE 6.2.
Automated variance reduction for Monte Carlo shielding analyses with MCNP
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radulescu, Georgeta
Variance reduction techniques are employed in Monte Carlo analyses to increase the number of particles in the space phase of interest and thereby lower the variance of statistical estimation. Variance reduction parameters are required to perform Monte Carlo calculations. It is well known that adjoint solutions, even approximate ones, are excellent biasing functions that can significantly increase the efficiency of a Monte Carlo calculation. In this study, an automated method of generating Monte Carlo variance reduction parameters, and of implementing the source energy biasing and the weight window technique in MCNP shielding calculations has been developed. The method is based on the approach used in the SAS4 module of the SCALE code system, which derives the biasing parameters from an adjoint one-dimensional Discrete Ordinates calculation. Unlike SAS4 that determines the radial and axial dose rates of a spent fuel cask in separate calculations, the present method provides energy and spatial biasing parameters for the entire system that optimize the simulation of particle transport towards all external surfaces of a spent fuel cask. The energy and spatial biasing parameters are synthesized from the adjoint fluxes of three one-dimensional Discrete Ordinates adjoint calculations. Additionally, the present method accommodates multiple source regions, such as the photon sources in light-water reactor spent nuclear fuel assemblies, in one calculation. With this automated method, detailed and accurate dose rate maps for photons, neutrons, and secondary photons outside spent fuel casks or other containers can be efficiently determined with minimal efforts.
Reagents for Electrophilic Amination: A Quantum Monte CarloStudy
Amador-Bedolla, Carlos; Salomon-Ferrer, Romelia; Lester Jr.,William A.; Vazquez-Martinez, Jose A.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan
2006-11-01
Electroamination is an appealing synthetic strategy toconstruct carbon-nitrogen bonds. We explore the use of the quantum MonteCarlo method and a proposed variant of the electron-pair localizationfunction--the electron-pair localization function density--as a measureof the nucleophilicity of nitrogen lone-pairs as a possible screeningprocedure for electrophilic reagents.
MODELING LEACHING OF VIRUSES BY THE MONTE CARLO METHOD
A predictive screening model was developed for fate and transport
of viruses in the unsaturated zone. A database of input parameters
allowed Monte Carlo analysis with the model. The resulting kernel
densities of predicted attenuation during percolation indicated very ...
Error estimations and their biases in Monte Carlo eigenvalue calculations
Ueki, Taro; Mori, Takamasa; Nakagawa, Masayuki
1997-01-01
In the Monte Carlo eigenvalue calculation of neutron transport, the eigenvalue is calculated as the average of multiplication factors from cycles, which are called the cycle k{sub eff}`s. Biases in the estimators of the variance and intercycle covariances in Monte Carlo eigenvalue calculations are analyzed. The relations among the real and apparent values of variances and intercycle covariances are derived, where real refers to a true value that is calculated from independently repeated Monte Carlo runs and apparent refers to the expected value of estimates from a single Monte Carlo run. Next, iterative methods based on the foregoing relations are proposed to estimate the standard deviation of the eigenvalue. The methods work well for the cases in which the ratios of the real to apparent values of variances are between 1.4 and 3.1. Even in the case where the foregoing ratio is >5, >70% of the standard deviation estimates fall within 40% from the true value.
Rocket plume radiation base heating by reverse Monte Carlo simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Everson, John; Nelson, H. F.
1993-10-01
A reverse Monte Carlo radiative transfer code is developed to predict rocket plume base heating. It is more computationally efficient than the forward Monte Carlo method, because only the radiation that strikes the receiving point is considered. The method easily handles both gas and particle emission and particle scattering. Band models are used for the molecular emission spectra, and the Henyey-Greenstein phase function is used for the scattering. Reverse Monte Carlo predictions are presented for (1) a gas-only model of the Space Shuttle main engine plume; (2) a purescattering plume with the radiation emitted by a hot disk at the nozzle exit; (3) a nonuniform temperature, scattering, emitting and absorbing plume; and (4) a typical solid rocket motor plume. The reverse Monte Carlo method is shown to give good agreement with previous predictions. Typical solid rocket plume results show that (1) CO2 radiation is emitted from near the edge of the plume; (2) H2O gas and Al2O3 particles emit radiation mainly from the center of the plume; and (3) Al2O3 particles emit considerably more radiation than the gases over the 400-17,000 cm(exp -1) spectral interval.
Monte Carlo study of the atmospheric spread function
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pearce, W. A.
1986-01-01
Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulations are used to study the atmospheric spread function appropriate to satellite-based sensing of the earth's surface. The parameters which are explored include the nadir angle of view, the size distribution of the atmospheric aerosol, and the aerosol vertical profile.
SABRINA: an interactive solid geometry modeling program for Monte Carlo
West, J.T.
1985-01-01
SABRINA is a fully interactive three-dimensional geometry modeling program for MCNP. In SABRINA, a user interactively constructs either body geometry, or surface geometry models, and interactively debugs spatial descriptions for the resulting objects. This enhanced capability significantly reduces the effort in constructing and debugging complicated three-dimensional geometry models for Monte Carlo Analysis.
A Monte Carlo Approach for Adaptive Testing with Content Constraints
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Belov, Dmitry I.; Armstrong, Ronald D.; Weissman, Alexander
2008-01-01
This article presents a new algorithm for computerized adaptive testing (CAT) when content constraints are present. The algorithm is based on shadow CAT methodology to meet content constraints but applies Monte Carlo methods and provides the following advantages over shadow CAT: (a) lower maximum item exposure rates, (b) higher utilization of the…
Monte Carlo: in the beginning and some great expectations
Metropolis, N.
1985-01-01
The central theme will be on the historical setting and origins of the Monte Carlo Method. The scene was post-war Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. There was an inevitability about the Monte Carlo Event: the ENIAC had recently enjoyed its meteoric rise (on a classified Los Alamos problem); Stan Ulam had returned to Los Alamos; John von Neumann was a frequent visitor. Techniques, algorithms, and applications developed rapidly at Los Alamos. Soon, the fascination of the Method reached wider horizons. The first paper was submitted for publication in the spring of 1949. In the summer of 1949, the first open conference was held at the University of California at Los Angeles. Of some interst perhaps is an account of Fermi's earlier, independent application in neutron moderation studies while at the University of Rome. The quantum leap expected with the advent of massively parallel processors will provide stimuli for very ambitious applications of the Monte Carlo Method in disciplines ranging from field theories to cosmology, including more realistic models in the neurosciences. A structure of multi-instruction sets for parallel processing is ideally suited for the Monte Carlo approach. One may even hope for a modest hardening of the soft sciences.
Monte Carlo Approach for Reliability Estimations in Generalizability Studies.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dimitrov, Dimiter M.
A Monte Carlo approach is proposed, using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) programming language, for estimating reliability coefficients in generalizability theory studies. Test scores are generated by a probabilistic model that considers the probability for a person with a given ability score to answer an item with a given difficulty…
Bayesian Monte Carlo Method for Nuclear Data Evaluation
Koning, A.J.
2015-01-15
A Bayesian Monte Carlo method is outlined which allows a systematic evaluation of nuclear reactions using TALYS. The result will be either an EXFOR-weighted covariance matrix or a collection of random files, each accompanied by an experiment based weight.
Exploring Mass Perception with Markov Chain Monte Carlo
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cohen, Andrew L.; Ross, Michael G.
2009-01-01
Several previous studies have examined the ability to judge the relative mass of objects in idealized collisions. With a newly developed technique of psychological Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling (A. N. Sanborn & T. L. Griffiths, 2008), this work explores participants; perceptions of different collision mass ratios. The results reveal…
Monte Carlo radiation transport: A revolution in science
Hendricks, J.
1993-04-01
When Enrico Fermi, Stan Ulam, Nicholas Metropolis, John von Neuman, and Robert Richtmyer invented the Monte Carlo method fifty years ago, little could they imagine the far-flung consequences, the international applications, and the revolution in science epitomized by their abstract mathematical method. The Monte Carlo method is used in a wide variety of fields to solve exact computational models approximately by statistical sampling. It is an alternative to traditional physics modeling methods which solve approximate computational models exactly by deterministic methods. Modern computers and improved methods, such as variance reduction, have enhanced the method to the point of enabling a true predictive capability in areas such as radiation or particle transport. This predictive capability has contributed to a radical change in the way science is done: design and understanding come from computations built upon experiments rather than being limited to experiments, and the computer codes doing the computations have become the repository for physics knowledge. The MCNP Monte Carlo computer code effort at Los Alamos is an example of this revolution. Physicians unfamiliar with physics details can design cancer treatments using physics buried in the MCNP computer code. Hazardous environments and hypothetical accidents can be explored. Many other fields, from underground oil well exploration to aerospace, from physics research to energy production, from safety to bulk materials processing, benefit from MCNP, the Monte Carlo method, and the revolution in science.
APS undulator and wiggler sources: Monte-Carlo simulation
Xu, S.L.; Lai, B.; Viccaro, P.J.
1992-02-01
Standard insertion devices will be provided to each sector by the Advanced Photon Source. It is important to define the radiation characteristics of these general purpose devices. In this document,results of Monte-Carlo simulation are presented. These results, based on the SHADOW program, include the APS Undulator A (UA), Wiggler A (WA), and Wiggler B (WB).
Recent developments in Monte-Carlo Event Generators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schönherr, Marek
2016-07-01
With Run II of the LHC having started, the need for high precision theory predictions whose uncertainty matches that of the data to be taken necessitated a range of new developments in Monte-Carlo Event Generators. This talk will give an overview of the progress in recent years in the field and what can and cannot be expected from these newly written tools.
Does standard Monte Carlo give justice to instantons?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fucito, F.; Solomon, S.
1984-01-01
The results of the standard local Monte Carlo are changed by offering instantons as candidates in the Metropolis procedure. We also define an O(3) topological charge with no contribution from planar dislocations. The RG behavior is still not recovered. Bantrell Fellow in Theoretical Physics.
Monte Carlo event generators for hadron-hadron collisions
Knowles, I.G.; Protopopescu, S.D.
1993-06-01
A brief review of Monte Carlo event generators for simulating hadron-hadron collisions is presented. Particular emphasis is placed on comparisons of the approaches used to describe physics elements and identifying their relative merits and weaknesses. This review summarizes a more detailed report.
Observations on variational and projector Monte Carlo methods
Umrigar, C. J.
2015-10-28
Variational Monte Carlo and various projector Monte Carlo (PMC) methods are presented in a unified manner. Similarities and differences between the methods and choices made in designing the methods are discussed. Both methods where the Monte Carlo walk is performed in a discrete space and methods where it is performed in a continuous space are considered. It is pointed out that the usual prescription for importance sampling may not be advantageous depending on the particular quantum Monte Carlo method used and the observables of interest, so alternate prescriptions are presented. The nature of the sign problem is discussed for various versions of PMC methods. A prescription for an exact PMC method in real space, i.e., a method that does not make a fixed-node or similar approximation and does not have a finite basis error, is presented. This method is likely to be practical for systems with a small number of electrons. Approximate PMC methods that are applicable to larger systems and go beyond the fixed-node approximation are also discussed.
Quantum Monte Carlo simulation with a black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benić, Sanjin; Yamamoto, Arata
2016-05-01
We perform quantum Monte Carlo simulations in the background of a classical black hole. The lattice discretized path integral is numerically calculated in the Schwarzschild metric and in its approximated metric. We study spontaneous symmetry breaking of a real scalar field theory. We observe inhomogeneous symmetry breaking induced by an inhomogeneous gravitational field.
Ordinal Hypothesis in ANOVA Designs: A Monte Carlo Study.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Braver, Sanford L.; Sheets, Virgil L.
Numerous designs using analysis of variance (ANOVA) to test ordinal hypotheses were assessed using a Monte Carlo simulation. Each statistic was computed on each of over 10,000 random samples drawn from a variety of population conditions. The number of groups, population variance, and patterns of population means were varied. In the non-null…
A separable shadow Hamiltonian hybrid Monte Carlo method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sweet, Christopher R.; Hampton, Scott S.; Skeel, Robert D.; Izaguirre, Jesús A.
2009-11-01
Hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC) is a rigorous sampling method that uses molecular dynamics (MD) as a global Monte Carlo move. The acceptance rate of HMC decays exponentially with system size. The shadow hybrid Monte Carlo (SHMC) was previously introduced to reduce this performance degradation by sampling instead from the shadow Hamiltonian defined for MD when using a symplectic integrator. SHMC's performance is limited by the need to generate momenta for the MD step from a nonseparable shadow Hamiltonian. We introduce the separable shadow Hamiltonian hybrid Monte Carlo (S2HMC) method based on a formulation of the leapfrog/Verlet integrator that corresponds to a separable shadow Hamiltonian, which allows efficient generation of momenta. S2HMC gives the acceptance rate of a fourth order integrator at the cost of a second-order integrator. Through numerical experiments we show that S2HMC consistently gives a speedup greater than two over HMC for systems with more than 4000 atoms for the same variance. By comparison, SHMC gave a maximum speedup of only 1.6 over HMC. S2HMC has the additional advantage of not requiring any user parameters beyond those of HMC. S2HMC is available in the program PROTOMOL 2.1. A Python version, adequate for didactic purposes, is also in MDL (http://mdlab.sourceforge.net/s2hmc).
Improved geometry representations for Monte Carlo radiation transport.
Martin, Matthew Ryan
2004-08-01
ITS (Integrated Tiger Series) permits a state-of-the-art Monte Carlo solution of linear time-integrated coupled electron/photon radiation transport problems with or without the presence of macroscopic electric and magnetic fields of arbitrary spatial dependence. ITS allows designers to predict product performance in radiation environments.
Monte Carlo Simulations of Light Propagation in Apples
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
This paper reports on the investigation of light propagation in fresh apples in the visible and short-wave near-infrared region using Monte Carlo simulations. Optical properties of ‘Golden Delicious’ apples were determined over the spectral range of 500-1100 nm using a hyperspectral imaging method, ...
The Use of Monte Carlo Techniques to Teach Probability.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Newell, G. J.; MacFarlane, J. D.
1985-01-01
Presents sports-oriented examples (cricket and football) in which Monte Carlo methods are used on microcomputers to teach probability concepts. Both examples include computer programs (with listings) which utilize the microcomputer's random number generator. Instructional strategies, with further challenges to help students understand the role of…
Monte Carlo methods: Application to hydrogen gas and hard spheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dewing, Mark Douglas
2001-08-01
Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods are among the most accurate for computing ground state properties of quantum systems. The two major types of QMC we use are Variational Monte Carlo (VMC), which evaluates integrals arising from the variational principle, and Diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC), which stochastically projects to the ground state from a trial wave function. These methods are applied to a system of boson hard spheres to get exact, infinite system size results for the ground state at several densities. The kinds of problems that can be simulated with Monte Carlo methods are expanded through the development of new algorithms for combining a QMC simulation with a classical Monte Carlo simulation, which we call Coupled Electronic-Ionic Monte Carlo (CEIMC). The new CEIMC method is applied to a system of molecular hydrogen at temperatures ranging from 2800K to 4500K and densities from 0.25 to 0.46 g/cm3. VMC requires optimizing a parameterized wave function to find the minimum energy. We examine several techniques for optimizing VMC wave functions, focusing on the ability to optimize parameters appearing in the Slater determinant. Classical Monte Carlo simulations use an empirical interatomic potential to compute equilibrium properties of various states of matter. The CEIMC method replaces the empirical potential with a QMC calculation of the electronic energy. This is similar in spirit to the Car-Parrinello technique, which uses Density Functional Theory for the electrons and molecular dynamics for the nuclei. The challenges in constructing an efficient CEIMC simulation center mostly around the noisy results generated from the QMC computations of the electronic energy. We introduce two complementary techniques, one for tolerating the noise and the other for reducing it. The penalty method modifies the Metropolis acceptance ratio to tolerate noise without introducing a bias in the simulation of the nuclei. For reducing the noise, we introduce the two-sided energy
Modelling of electron contamination in clinical photon beams for Monte Carlo dose calculation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, J.; Li, J. S.; Qin, L.; Xiong, W.; Ma, C.-M.
2004-06-01
The purpose of this work is to model electron contamination in clinical photon beams and to commission the source model using measured data for Monte Carlo treatment planning. In this work, a planar source is used to represent the contaminant electrons at a plane above the upper jaws. The source size depends on the dimensions of the field size at the isocentre. The energy spectra of the contaminant electrons are predetermined using Monte Carlo simulations for photon beams from different clinical accelerators. A 'random creep' method is employed to derive the weight of the electron contamination source by matching Monte Carlo calculated monoenergetic photon and electron percent depth-dose (PDD) curves with measured PDD curves. We have integrated this electron contamination source into a previously developed multiple source model and validated the model for photon beams from Siemens PRIMUS accelerators. The EGS4 based Monte Carlo user code BEAM and MCSIM were used for linac head simulation and dose calculation. The Monte Carlo calculated dose distributions were compared with measured data. Our results showed good agreement (less than 2% or 2 mm) for 6, 10 and 18 MV photon beams.
Monte Carlo Method with Heuristic Adjustment for Irregularly Shaped Food Product Volume Measurement
Siswantoro, Joko; Idrus, Bahari
2014-01-01
Volume measurement plays an important role in the production and processing of food products. Various methods have been proposed to measure the volume of food products with irregular shapes based on 3D reconstruction. However, 3D reconstruction comes with a high-priced computational cost. Furthermore, some of the volume measurement methods based on 3D reconstruction have a low accuracy. Another method for measuring volume of objects uses Monte Carlo method. Monte Carlo method performs volume measurements using random points. Monte Carlo method only requires information regarding whether random points fall inside or outside an object and does not require a 3D reconstruction. This paper proposes volume measurement using a computer vision system for irregularly shaped food products without 3D reconstruction based on Monte Carlo method with heuristic adjustment. Five images of food product were captured using five cameras and processed to produce binary images. Monte Carlo integration with heuristic adjustment was performed to measure the volume based on the information extracted from binary images. The experimental results show that the proposed method provided high accuracy and precision compared to the water displacement method. In addition, the proposed method is more accurate and faster than the space carving method. PMID:24892069
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Choi, Jaehwa; Kim, Sunhee; Chen, Jinsong; Dannels, Sharon
2011-01-01
The purpose of this study is to compare the maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian estimation methods for polychoric correlation (PCC) under diverse conditions using a Monte Carlo simulation. Two new Bayesian estimates, maximum a posteriori (MAP) and expected a posteriori (EAP), are compared to ML, the classic solution, to estimate PCC. Different…
Reconstruction of Human Monte Carlo Geometry from Segmented Images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Kai; Cheng, Mengyun; Fan, Yanchang; Wang, Wen; Long, Pengcheng; Wu, Yican
2014-06-01
Human computational phantoms have been used extensively for scientific experimental analysis and experimental simulation. This article presented a method for human geometry reconstruction from a series of segmented images of a Chinese visible human dataset. The phantom geometry could actually describe detailed structure of an organ and could be converted into the input file of the Monte Carlo codes for dose calculation. A whole-body computational phantom of Chinese adult female has been established by FDS Team which is named Rad-HUMAN with about 28.8 billion voxel number. For being processed conveniently, different organs on images were segmented with different RGB colors and the voxels were assigned with positions of the dataset. For refinement, the positions were first sampled. Secondly, the large sums of voxels inside the organ were three-dimensional adjacent, however, there were not thoroughly mergence methods to reduce the cell amounts for the description of the organ. In this study, the voxels on the organ surface were taken into consideration of the mergence which could produce fewer cells for the organs. At the same time, an indexed based sorting algorithm was put forward for enhancing the mergence speed. Finally, the Rad-HUMAN which included a total of 46 organs and tissues was described by the cuboids into the Monte Carlo Monte Carlo Geometry for the simulation. The Monte Carlo geometry was constructed directly from the segmented images and the voxels was merged exhaustively. Each organ geometry model was constructed without ambiguity and self-crossing, its geometry information could represent the accuracy appearance and precise interior structure of the organs. The constructed geometry largely retaining the original shape of organs could easily be described into different Monte Carlo codes input file such as MCNP. Its universal property was testified and high-performance was experimentally verified
Global Monte Carlo Simulation with High Order Polynomial Expansions
William R. Martin; James Paul Holloway; Kaushik Banerjee; Jesse Cheatham; Jeremy Conlin
2007-12-13
The functional expansion technique (FET) was recently developed for Monte Carlo simulation. The basic idea of the FET is to expand a Monte Carlo tally in terms of a high order expansion, the coefficients of which can be estimated via the usual random walk process in a conventional Monte Carlo code. If the expansion basis is chosen carefully, the lowest order coefficient is simply the conventional histogram tally, corresponding to a flat mode. This research project studied the applicability of using the FET to estimate the fission source, from which fission sites can be sampled for the next generation. The idea is that individual fission sites contribute to expansion modes that may span the geometry being considered, possibly increasing the communication across a loosely coupled system and thereby improving convergence over the conventional fission bank approach used in most production Monte Carlo codes. The project examined a number of basis functions, including global Legendre polynomials as well as “local” piecewise polynomials such as finite element hat functions and higher order versions. The global FET showed an improvement in convergence over the conventional fission bank approach. The local FET methods showed some advantages versus global polynomials in handling geometries with discontinuous material properties. The conventional finite element hat functions had the disadvantage that the expansion coefficients could not be estimated directly but had to be obtained by solving a linear system whose matrix elements were estimated. An alternative fission matrix-based response matrix algorithm was formulated. Studies were made of two alternative applications of the FET, one based on the kernel density estimator and one based on Arnoldi’s method of minimized iterations. Preliminary results for both methods indicate improvements in fission source convergence. These developments indicate that the FET has promise for speeding up Monte Carlo fission source
Adaptive sample map for Monte Carlo ray tracing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teng, Jun; Luo, Lixin; Chen, Zhibo
2010-07-01
Monte Carlo ray tracing algorithm is widely used by production quality renderers to generate synthesized images in films and TV programs. Noise artifact exists in synthetic images generated by Monte Carlo ray tracing methods. In this paper, a novel noise artifact detection and noise level representation method is proposed. We first apply discrete wavelet transform (DWT) on a synthetic image; the high frequency sub-bands of the DWT result encode the noise information. The sub-bands coefficients are then combined to generate a noise level description of the synthetic image, which is called noise map in the paper. This noise map is then subdivided into blocks for robust noise level metric calculation. Increasing the samples per pixel in Monte Carlo ray tracer can reduce the noise of a synthetic image to visually unnoticeable level. A noise-to-sample number mapping algorithm is thus performed on each block of the noise map, higher noise value is mapped to larger sample number, and lower noise value is mapped to smaller sample number, the result of mapping is called sample map. Each pixel in a sample map can be used by Monte Carlo ray tracer to reduce the noise level in the corresponding block of pixels in a synthetic image. However, this block based scheme produces blocky artifact as appeared in video and image compression algorithms. We use Gaussian filter to smooth the sample map, the result is adaptive sample map (ASP). ASP serves two purposes in rendering process; its statistics information can be used as noise level metric in synthetic image, and it can also be used by a Monte Carlo ray tracer to refine the synthetic image adaptively in order to reduce the noise to unnoticeable level but with less rendering time than the brute force method.
Fast Monte Carlo for radiation therapy: the PEREGRINE Project
Hartmann Siantar, C.L.; Bergstrom, P.M.; Chandler, W.P.; Cox, L.J.; Daly, T.P.; Garrett, D.; House, R.K.; Moses, E.I.; Powell, C.L.; Patterson, R.W.; Schach von Wittenau, A.E.
1997-11-11
The purpose of the PEREGRINE program is to bring high-speed, high- accuracy, high-resolution Monte Carlo dose calculations to the desktop in the radiation therapy clinic. PEREGRINE is a three- dimensional Monte Carlo dose calculation system designed specifically for radiation therapy planning. It provides dose distributions from external beams of photons, electrons, neutrons, and protons as well as from brachytherapy sources. Each external radiation source particle passes through collimator jaws and beam modifiers such as blocks, compensators, and wedges that are used to customize the treatment to maximize the dose to the tumor. Absorbed dose is tallied in the patient or phantom as Monte Carlo simulation particles are followed through a Cartesian transport mesh that has been manually specified or determined from a CT scan of the patient. This paper describes PEREGRINE capabilities, results of benchmark comparisons, calculation times and performance, and the significance of Monte Carlo calculations for photon teletherapy. PEREGRINE results show excellent agreement with a comprehensive set of measurements for a wide variety of clinical photon beam geometries, on both homogeneous and heterogeneous test samples or phantoms. PEREGRINE is capable of calculating >350 million histories per hour for a standard clinical treatment plan. This results in a dose distribution with voxel standard deviations of <2% of the maximum dose on 4 million voxels with 1 mm resolution in the CT-slice plane in under 20 minutes. Calculation times include tracking particles through all patient specific beam delivery components as well as the patient. Most importantly, comparison of Monte Carlo dose calculations with currently-used algorithms reveal significantly different dose distributions for a wide variety of treatment sites, due to the complex 3-D effects of missing tissue, tissue heterogeneities, and accurate modeling of the radiation source.
Uncertainties in ozone concentrations predicted with a Lagrangian photochemical air quality model have been estimated using Bayesian Monte Carlo (BMC) analysis. Bayesian Monte Carlo analysis provides a means of combining subjective "prior" uncertainty estimates developed ...
Monte Carlo simulation of electron swarms in nitrogen in uniform E times B fields
Raju, G.R.G.; Dincer, M.S. )
1990-10-01
The motion of electrons in nitrogen in uniform {ital E} {times} {ital B} fields is simulated using the Monte Carlo technique for 240 {le}= {ital E/N} {le} 600 Td (1 Td = 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}17} V cm{sup 2}) and 0 {le} {ital B/N} {le} 0.45 {times} 10{sup {minus}17} T cm{sup 3}. The electron-molecule collision cross sections adopted are the same cross sections as those used previously for the numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation. The swarm parameters obtained from the Monte Carlo simulation are compared with the Boltzmann solution and with the experimental data available in the literature. In relation to {ital E} {times} {ital B} fields, it is concluded that the Monte Carlo approach provides an independent method of substantiating the validity of the equivalent electric field approach.
Revised methods for few-group cross sections generation in the Serpent Monte Carlo code
Fridman, E.; Leppaenen, J.
2012-07-01
This paper presents new calculation methods, recently implemented in the Serpent Monte Carlo code, and related to the production of homogenized few-group constants for deterministic 3D core analysis. The new methods fall under three topics: 1) Improved treatment of neutron-multiplying scattering reactions, 2) Group constant generation in reflectors and other non-fissile regions and 3) Homogenization in leakage-corrected criticality spectrum. The methodology is demonstrated by a numerical example, comparing a deterministic nodal diffusion calculation using Serpent-generated cross sections to a reference full-core Monte Carlo simulation. It is concluded that the new methodology improves the results of the deterministic calculation, and paves the way for Monte Carlo based group constant generation. (authors)
HTGR Reactor Physics and Burnup Calculations Using the Serpent Monte Carlo Code
Leppanen, Jaakko; DeHart, Mark D
2009-01-01
One of the main advantages of the continuous-energy Monte Carlo method is its versatility and the capability to model any fuel or reactor configuration without major approximations. This capability becomes particularly valuable in studies involving innovative reactor designs and next-generation systems, which often lie beyond the capabilities of deterministic LWR transport codes. In this study, a conceptual prismatic HTGR fuel assembly was modeled using the Serpent Monte Carlo reactor physics burnup calculation code, under development at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland since 2004. A new explicit particle fuel model was developed to account for the heterogeneity effects. The results are compared to other Monte Carlo and deterministic transport codes and the study also serves as a test case for the modules and methods in SCALE 6.
Neutron streaming through shield ducts using a discrete ordinates/Monte Carlo method
Urban, W.T.; Baker, R.S.
1993-08-18
A common problem in shield design is determining the neutron flux that streams through ducts in shields and also that penetrates the shield after having traveled partway down the duct. Obviously the determination of the neutrons that stream down the duct can be computed in a straightforward manner using Monte Carlo techniques. On the other hand those neutrons that must penetrate a significant portion of the shield are more easily handled using discrete ordinates methods. A hybrid discrete ordinates/Monte Carlo cods, TWODANT/MC, which is an extension of the existing discrete ordinates code TWODANT, has been developed at Los Alamos to allow the efficient, accurate treatment of both streaming and deep penetration problems in a single calculation. In this paper we provide examples of the application of TWODANT/MC to typical geometries that are encountered in shield design and compare the results with those obtained using the Los Alamos Monte Carlo code MCNP{sup 3}.
Reliability Assessment of Ultrasonic Nondestructive Inspection Data Using Monte Carlo Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Ik-Keun; Kim, Hyun-Mook
2003-03-01
Ultrasonic NDE is one of important technologies in the life-time maintenance of nuclear power plant. Ultrasonic inspection system is consisted of the operator, equipment and procedure. The reliability of ultrasonic inspection system is affected by its ability. The performance demonstration round robin was conducted to quantify the capability of ultrasonic inspection for in-service. The small number of teams who employed procedures that met or exceeded ASME Sec. XI Code requirements detected the piping of nuclear power plant with various cracks to evaluate the capability of detection and sizing. In this paper, the statistical reliability assessment of ultrasonic nondestructive inspection data using Monte Carlo simulation is presented. The results of the probability of detection (POD) analysis using Monte Carlo simulation are compared to these of logistic probability model. In these results, Monte Carlo simulation was found to be very useful to the reliability assessment for the small NDE hit/miss data sets.
Multiple ``time step'' Monte Carlo simulations: Application to charged systems with Ewald summation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernacki, Katarzyna; Hetényi, Balázs; Berne, B. J.
2004-07-01
Recently, we have proposed an efficient scheme for Monte Carlo simulations, the multiple "time step" Monte Carlo (MTS-MC) [J. Chem. Phys. 117, 8203 (2002)] based on the separation of the potential interactions into two additive parts. In this paper, the structural and thermodynamic properties of the simple point charge water model combined with the Ewald sum are compared for the MTS-MC real-/reciprocal-space split of the Ewald summation and the common Metropolis Monte Carlo method. We report a number of observables as a function of CPU time calculated using MC and MTS-MC. The correlation functions indicate that speedups on the order of 4.5-7.5 can be obtained for systems of 108-500 waters for n=10 splitting parameter.
A Monte Carlo method for 3D thermal infrared radiative transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Y.; Liou, K. N.
2006-09-01
A 3D Monte Carlo model for specific application to the broadband thermal radiative transfer has been developed in which the emissivities for gases and cloud particles are parameterized by using a single cubic element as the building block in 3D space. For spectral integration in the thermal infrared, the correlated k-distribution method has been used for the sorting of gaseous absorption lines in multiple-scattering atmospheres involving 3D clouds. To check the Monte-Carlo simulation, we compare a variety of 1D broadband atmospheric fluxes and heating rates to those computed from the conventional plane-parallel (PP) model and demonstrate excellent agreement between the two. Comparisons of the Monte Carlo results for broadband thermal cooling rates in 3D clouds to those computed from the delta-diffusion approximation for 3D radiative transfer and the independent pixel-by-pixel approximation are subsequently carried out to understand the relative merits of these approaches.
Molecular hydrogen adsorbed on benzene: Insights from a quantum Monte Carlo study.
Beaudet, Todd D; Casula, Michele; Kim, Jeongnim; Sorella, Sandro; Martin, Richard M
2008-10-28
We present a quantum Monte Carlo study of the hydrogen-benzene system where binding is very weak. We demonstrate that the binding is well described at both variational Monte Carlo (VMC) and diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) levels by a Jastrow correlated single determinant geminal wave function with an optimized compact basis set that includes diffuse orbitals. Agreement between VMC and fixed-node DMC binding energies is found to be within 0.18 mhartree, suggesting that the calculations are well converged with respect to the basis. Essentially the same binding is also found in independent DMC calculations using a different trial wave function of a more conventional Slater-Jastrow form, supporting our conclusion that the binding energy is accurate and includes all effects of correlation. We compare with previous calculations, and we discuss the physical mechanisms of the interaction, the role of diffuse basis functions, and the charge redistribution in the bond. PMID:19045302
Calculating kinetics parameters and reactivity changes with continuous-energy Monte Carlo
Kiedrowski, Brian C; Brown, Forrest B; Wilson, Paul
2009-01-01
The iterated fission probability interpretation of the adjoint flux forms the basis for a method to perform adjoint weighting of tally scores in continuous-energy Monte Carlo k-eigenvalue calculations. Applying this approach, adjoint-weighted tallies are developed for two applications: calculating point reactor kinetics parameters and estimating changes in reactivity from perturbations. Calculations are performed in the widely-used production code, MCNP, and the results of both applications are compared with discrete ordinates calculations, experimental measurements, and other Monte Carlo calculations.
Improved convergence of Monte Carlo generated multi-group scattering moments
Nelson, A. G.; Martin, W. R.
2013-07-01
This paper introduces an improved method of obtaining multi-group scattering moments from a Monte Carlo neutron transport code for use in deterministic transport solvers. The new method increases the information obtained from scattering events and therefore has more useful convergence characteristics than the currently used analog techniques. A prototype of the improved method was implemented in the OpenMC Monte Carlo transport code to compare the accuracy and convergence characteristics of the new method. The prototype showed that accuracy was retained (or improved) while increasing the figure-of-merit for the generation of multi-group scattering moments. (authors)
Comparison of uncertainty in fatigue tests obtained by the Monte Carlo method in two softwares
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trevisan, Lisiane; Kapper Fabricio, Daniel Antonio; Reguly, Afonso
2016-07-01
The Supplement 1 to the “Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement” indicates the Monte Carlo method for calculating the expanded measurement uncertainty. The objective of this work is to compare the measurement uncertainty values obtained via Monte Carlo method through two commercial softwares (Matlab® and Crystal Ball®) for the parameter ‘adjusted strain’, obtained from fatigue tests. Simulations were carried out using different number of iterations and different levels of confidence. The results showed that there are short differences between the measurement uncertainty values generated by different software.
A Monte Carlo Synthetic-Acceleration Method for Solving the Thermal Radiation Diffusion Equation
Evans, Thomas M; Mosher, Scott W; Slattery, Stuart
2014-01-01
We present a novel synthetic-acceleration based Monte Carlo method for solving the equilibrium thermal radiation diusion equation in three dimensions. The algorithm performance is compared against traditional solution techniques using a Marshak benchmark problem and a more complex multiple material problem. Our results show that not only can our Monte Carlo method be an eective solver for sparse matrix systems, but also that it performs competitively with deterministic methods including preconditioned Conjugate Gradient while producing numerically identical results. We also discuss various aspects of preconditioning the method and its general applicability to broader classes of problems.
Discrete ordinates-Monte Carlo coupling: A comparison of techniques in NERVA radiation analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lindstrom, D. G.; Normand, E.; Wilcox, A. D.
1972-01-01
In the radiation analysis of the NERVA nuclear rocket system, two-dimensional discrete ordinates calculations are sufficient to provide detail in the pressure vessel and reactor assembly. Other parts of the system, however, require three-dimensional Monte Carlo analyses. To use these two methods in a single analysis, a means of coupling was developed whereby the results of a discrete ordinates calculation can be used to produce source data for a Monte Carlo calculation. Several techniques for producing source detail were investigated. Results of calculations on the NERVA system are compared and limitations and advantages of the coupling techniques discussed.
Komorowska, K.; Pawlik, G.; Mitus, A. C.; Miniewicz, A.
2001-08-15
In this article we compare results of experiments on light self-diffraction in nematic liquid crystal panels with corresponding results of the Monte-Carlo simulations of a two-dimensional nematic liquid crystal model in the presence of a spatially modulated electric field. In the simulations molecular interactions were described by the Lebwohl--Lasher Hamiltonian. The results obtained on the diffraction efficiency and spatial and temporal behavior of refractive index changes in nematic liquid crystal are satisfactorily reproduced by Monte-Carlo simulations. We discuss the complementarity of both methods in studying and designing systems for optical information processing using liquid crystals. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.
Systematic study of finite-size effects in quantum Monte Carlo calculations of real metallic systems
Azadi, Sam Foulkes, W. M. C.
2015-09-14
We present a systematic and comprehensive study of finite-size effects in diffusion quantum Monte Carlo calculations of metals. Several previously introduced schemes for correcting finite-size errors are compared for accuracy and efficiency, and practical improvements are introduced. In particular, we test a simple but efficient method of finite-size correction based on an accurate combination of twist averaging and density functional theory. Our diffusion quantum Monte Carlo results for lithium and aluminum, as examples of metallic systems, demonstrate excellent agreement between all of the approaches considered.
A Monte Carlo synthetic-acceleration method for solving the thermal radiation diffusion equation
Evans, Thomas M.; Mosher, Scott W.; Slattery, Stuart R.; Hamilton, Steven P.
2014-02-01
We present a novel synthetic-acceleration-based Monte Carlo method for solving the equilibrium thermal radiation diffusion equation in three spatial dimensions. The algorithm performance is compared against traditional solution techniques using a Marshak benchmark problem and a more complex multiple material problem. Our results show that our Monte Carlo method is an effective solver for sparse matrix systems. For solutions converged to the same tolerance, it performs competitively with deterministic methods including preconditioned conjugate gradient and GMRES. We also discuss various aspects of preconditioning the method and its general applicability to broader classes of problems.
Path integral Monte Carlo and the electron gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, Ethan W.
Path integral Monte Carlo is a proven method for accurately simulating quantum mechanical systems at finite-temperature. By stochastically sampling Feynman's path integral representation of the quantum many-body density matrix, path integral Monte Carlo includes non-perturbative effects like thermal fluctuations and particle correlations in a natural way. Over the past 30 years, path integral Monte Carlo has been successfully employed to study the low density electron gas, high-pressure hydrogen, and superfluid helium. For systems where the role of Fermi statistics is important, however, traditional path integral Monte Carlo simulations have an exponentially decreasing efficiency with decreased temperature and increased system size. In this thesis, we work towards improving this efficiency, both through approximate and exact methods, as specifically applied to the homogeneous electron gas. We begin with a brief overview of the current state of atomic simulations at finite-temperature before we delve into a pedagogical review of the path integral Monte Carlo method. We then spend some time discussing the one major issue preventing exact simulation of Fermi systems, the sign problem. Afterwards, we introduce a way to circumvent the sign problem in PIMC simulations through a fixed-node constraint. We then apply this method to the homogeneous electron gas at a large swatch of densities and temperatures in order to map out the warm-dense matter regime. The electron gas can be a representative model for a host of real systems, from simple medals to stellar interiors. However, its most common use is as input into density functional theory. To this end, we aim to build an accurate representation of the electron gas from the ground state to the classical limit and examine its use in finite-temperature density functional formulations. The latter half of this thesis focuses on possible routes beyond the fixed-node approximation. As a first step, we utilize the variational
Monte Carlo simulation of particle acceleration at astrophysical shocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Campbell, Roy K.
1989-01-01
A Monte Carlo code was developed for the simulation of particle acceleration at astrophysical shocks. The code is implemented in Turbo Pascal on a PC. It is modularized and structured in such a way that modification and maintenance are relatively painless. Monte Carlo simulations of particle acceleration at shocks follow the trajectories of individual particles as they scatter repeatedly across the shock front, gaining energy with each crossing. The particles are assumed to scatter from magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence on both sides of the shock. A scattering law is used which is related to the assumed form of the turbulence, and the particle and shock parameters. High energy cosmic ray spectra derived from Monte Carlo simulations have observed power law behavior just as the spectra derived from analytic calculations based on a diffusion equation. This high energy behavior is not sensitive to the scattering law used. In contrast with Monte Carlo calculations diffusive calculations rely on the initial injection of supra-thermal particles into the shock environment. Monte Carlo simulations are the only known way to describe the extraction of particles directly from the thermal pool. This was the triumph of the Monte Carlo approach. The question of acceleration efficiency is an important one in the shock acceleration game. The efficiency of shock waves efficient to account for the observed flux of high energy galactic cosmic rays was examined. The efficiency of the acceleration process depends on the thermal particle pick-up and hence the low energy scattering in detail. One of the goals is the self-consistent derivation of the accelerated particle spectra and the MHD turbulence spectra. Presumably the upstream turbulence, which scatters the particles so they can be accelerated, is excited by the streaming accelerated particles and the needed downstream turbulence is convected from the upstream region. The present code is to be modified to include a better
Monte Carlo simulation of particle acceleration at astrophysical shocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campbell, Roy K.
1989-09-01
A Monte Carlo code was developed for the simulation of particle acceleration at astrophysical shocks. The code is implemented in Turbo Pascal on a PC. It is modularized and structured in such a way that modification and maintenance are relatively painless. Monte Carlo simulations of particle acceleration at shocks follow the trajectories of individual particles as they scatter repeatedly across the shock front, gaining energy with each crossing. The particles are assumed to scatter from magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence on both sides of the shock. A scattering law is used which is related to the assumed form of the turbulence, and the particle and shock parameters. High energy cosmic ray spectra derived from Monte Carlo simulations have observed power law behavior just as the spectra derived from analytic calculations based on a diffusion equation. This high energy behavior is not sensitive to the scattering law used. In contrast with Monte Carlo calculations diffusive calculations rely on the initial injection of supra-thermal particles into the shock environment. Monte Carlo simulations are the only known way to describe the extraction of particles directly from the thermal pool. This was the triumph of the Monte Carlo approach. The question of acceleration efficiency is an important one in the shock acceleration game. The efficiency of shock waves efficient to account for the observed flux of high energy galactic cosmic rays was examined. The efficiency of the acceleration process depends on the thermal particle pick-up and hence the low energy scattering in detail. One of the goals is the self-consistent derivation of the accelerated particle spectra and the MHD turbulence spectra. Presumably the upstream turbulence, which scatters the particles so they can be accelerated, is excited by the streaming accelerated particles and the needed downstream turbulence is convected from the upstream region. The present code is to be modified to include a better
Never trust straightforward intuition when choosing the number of Monte Carlo simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leube, Philipp; Nowak, Wolfgang; de Barros, Felipe; Rajagopal, Ram
2013-04-01
Uncertainty quantification for predicting flow- and transport in heterogeneous aquifers often entails Monte Carlo simulations executed on top of random field generation. Typically, the number of Monte Carlo simulations ranges between 500-1000, sometimes even higher. In many cases, this choice is based on restricted available computational time, or on convergence analysis of the Monte Carlo simulations. The spatial resolution is most frequently fixed to experience values from the literature, independent of the number of Monte Carlo realizations. Sometimes, a compromise is found between spatial resolution, Monte Carlo resolution and available computational time. We question this practice, because it does not look at the trade-off between the individual resolution, individual errors, total errors and computational time. Our goal is to show that what models really want is neither poor statistics of good physics, nor good statistics of pour physics. Instead, one should look for an overall optimum choice in both decisions. To this end, we assess an optimum for the number of Monte Carlo simulations together with the spatial resolution of computational models. Our analysis is based on the idea to jointly consider the discretization errors and computational costs of all individual model dimensions (physical space, time, parameter space). This yields a cost-to-error surface which serves to aid modelers in finding an optimal allocation of the computational resources. The optimal allocation yields highest accuracy associated with a given prediction goal for a given computational budget. We illustrate our approach with two examples from subsurface hydrogeology. The examples are taken from wetland management and from a remediation design problem. When comparing the two different optimum allocation patterns among each other and to typical values found in the literature, we make counterintuitive observations. For example, a realistic number of Monte Carlo realizations should be
A Monte Carlo Comparison of Measures of Relative and Absolute Monitoring Accuracy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nietfeld, John L.; Enders, Craig K; Schraw, Gregory
2006-01-01
Researchers studying monitoring accuracy currently use two different indexes to estimate accuracy: relative accuracy and absolute accuracy. The authors compared the distributional properties of two measures of monitoring accuracy using Monte Carlo procedures that fit within these categories. They manipulated the accuracy of judgments (i.e., chance…
Monte Carlo estimates of edge particle sources in TJ-II plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
López-Bruna, D.; Popov, Tsv; de la Cal, E.
2016-03-01
Three-dimensional calculations of the electron source in plasmas of the TJ-II stellarator (Madrid, Spain) are performed using the Monte Carlo code EIRENE. When possible, the results are compared with diagnostic measurements in equivalent coordinates. Examples are shown for the Hα light evolution during a plasma collapse, CX fluxes, neutrals distributions along diagnostic chords and line radiation emissivities.
Markov Chain Monte Carlo Estimation of Item Parameters for the Generalized Graded Unfolding Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
de la Torre, Jimmy; Stark, Stephen; Chernyshenko, Oleksandr S.
2006-01-01
The authors present a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) parameter estimation procedure for the generalized graded unfolding model (GGUM) and compare it to the marginal maximum likelihood (MML) approach implemented in the GGUM2000 computer program, using simulated and real personality data. In the simulation study, test length, number of response…
Pseudopotentials for quantum Monte Carlo studies of transition metal oxides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krogel, Jaron T.; Santana, Juan A.; Reboredo, Fernando A.
2016-02-01
Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) calculations of transition metal oxides are partially limited by the availability of high-quality pseudopotentials that are both accurate in QMC and compatible with major plane-wave electronic structure codes. We have generated a set of neon-core pseudopotentials with small cutoff radii for the early transition metal elements Sc to Zn within the local density approximation of density functional theory. The pseudopotentials have been directly tested for accuracy within QMC by calculating the first through fourth ionization potentials of the isolated transition metal (M) atoms and the binding curve of each M-O dimer. We find the ionization potentials to be accurate to 0.16(1) eV, on average, relative to experiment. The equilibrium bond lengths of the dimers are within 0.5(1)% of experimental values, on average, and the binding energies are also typically accurate to 0.18(3) eV. The level of accuracy we find for atoms and dimers is comparable to what has recently been observed for bulk metals and oxides using the same pseudopotentials. Our QMC pseudopotential results also compare well with the findings of previous QMC studies and benchmark quantum chemical calculations.
Self-evolving atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo: fundamentals and applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Haixuan; Osetsky, Yuri N.; Stoller, Roger E.
2012-09-01
The fundamentals of the framework and the details of each component of the self-evolving atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo (SEAKMC) are presented. The strength of this new technique is the ability to simulate dynamic processes with atomistic fidelity that is comparable to molecular dynamics (MD) but on a much longer time scale. The observation that the dimer method preferentially finds the saddle point (SP) with the lowest energy is investigated and found to be true only for defects with high symmetry. In order to estimate the fidelity of dynamics and accuracy of the simulation time, a general criterion is proposed and applied to two representative problems. Applications of SEAKMC for investigating the diffusion of interstitials and vacancies in bcc iron are presented and compared directly with MD simulations, demonstrating that SEAKMC provides results that formerly could be obtained only through MD. The correlation factor for interstitial diffusion in the dumbbell configuration, which is extremely difficult to obtain using MD, is predicted using SEAKMC. The limitations of SEAKMC are also discussed. The paper presents a comprehensive picture of the SEAKMC method in both its unique predictive capabilities and technically important details.
Pseudopotentials for quantum Monte Carlo studies of transition metal oxides
Krogel, Jaron T.; Santana Palacio, Juan A.; Reboredo, Fernando A.
2016-02-22
Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) calculations of transition metal oxides are partially limited by the availability of high-quality pseudopotentials that are both accurate in QMC and compatible with major plane-wave electronic structure codes. We have generated a set of neon-core pseudopotentials with small cutoff radii for the early transition metal elements Sc to Zn within the local density approximation of density functional theory. The pseudopotentials have been directly tested for accuracy within QMC by calculating the first through fourth ionization potentials of the isolated transition metal (M) atoms and the binding curve of each M-O dimer. We find the ionization potentialsmore » to be accurate to 0.16(1) eV, on average, relative to experiment. The equilibrium bond lengths of the dimers are within 0.5(1)% of experimental values, on average, and the binding energies are also typically accurate to 0.18(3) eV. The level of accuracy we find for atoms and dimers is comparable to what has recently been observed for bulk metals and oxides using the same pseudopotentials. Our QMC pseudopotential results compare well with the findings of previous QMC studies and benchmark quantum chemical calculations.« less
Monte Carlo Model Insights into the Lunar Sodium Exosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hurley, Dana M.; Killen, R. M.; Sarantos, M.
2012-01-01
Sodium in the lunar exosphere is released from the lunar regolith by several mechanisms. These mechanisms include photon stimulated desorption (PSD), impact vaporization, electron stimulated desorption, and ion sputtering. Usually, PSD dominates; however, transient events can temporarily enhance other release mechanisms so that they are dominant. Examples of transient events include meteor showers and coronal mass ejections. The interaction between sodium and the regolith is important in determining the density and spatial distribution of sodium in the lunar exosphere. The temperature at which sodium sticks to the surface is one factor. In addition, the amount of thermal accommodation during the encounter between the sodium atom and the surface affects the exospheric distribution. Finally, the fraction of particles that are stuck when the surface is cold that are rereleased when the surface warms up also affects the exospheric density. In [1], we showed the "ambient" sodium exosphere from Monte Carlo modeling with a fixed source rate and fixed surface interaction parameters. We compared the enhancement when a CME passes the Moon to the ambient conditions. Here, we compare model results to data in order to determine the source rates and surface interaction parameters that provide the best fit of the model to the data.
Monte Carlo simulation of the spear reflectometer at LANSCE
Smith, G.S.
1995-12-31
The Monte Carlo instrument simulation code, MCLIB, contains elements to represent several components found in neutron spectrometers including slits, choppers, detectors, sources and various samples. Using these elements to represent the components of a neutron scattering instrument, one can simulate, for example, an inelastic spectrometer, a small angle scattering machine, or a reflectometer. In order to benchmark the code, we chose to compare simulated data from the MCLIB code with an actual experiment performed on the SPEAR reflectometer at LANSCE. This was done by first fitting an actual SPEAR data set to obtain the model scattering-length-density profile, {Beta}(z), for the sample and the substrate. Then these parameters were used as input values for the sample scattering function. A simplified model of SPEAR was chosen which contained all of the essential components of the instrument. A code containing the MCLIB subroutines was then written to simulate this simplified instrument. The resulting data was then fit and compared to the actual data set in terms of the statistics, resolution and accuracy.
A standard timing benchmark for EGS4 Monte Carlo calculations.
Bielajew, A F; Rogers, D W
1992-01-01
A Fortran 77 Monte Carlo source code built from the EGS4 Monte Carlo code system has been used for timing benchmark purposes on 29 different computers. This code simulates the deposition of energy from an incident electron beam in a 3-D rectilinear geometry such as one would employ to model electron and photon transport through a series of CT slices. The benchmark forms a standalone system and does not require that the EGS4 system be installed. The Fortran source code may be ported to different architectures by modifying a few lines and only a moderate amount of CPU time is required ranging from about 5 h on PC/386/387 to a few seconds on a massively parallel supercomputer (a BBN TC2000 with 512 processors). PMID:1584121
Large-cell Monte Carlo renormalization of irreversible growth processes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nakanishi, H.; Family, F.
1985-01-01
Monte Carlo sampling is applied to a recently formulated direct-cell renormalization method for irreversible, disorderly growth processes. Large-cell Monte Carlo renormalization is carried out for various nonequilibrium problems based on the formulation dealing with relative probabilities. Specifically, the method is demonstrated by application to the 'true' self-avoiding walk and the Eden model of growing animals for d = 2, 3, and 4 and to the invasion percolation problem for d = 2 and 3. The results are asymptotically in agreement with expectations; however, unexpected complications arise, suggesting the possibility of crossovers, and in any case, demonstrating the danger of using small cells alone, because of the very slow convergence as the cell size b is extrapolated to infinity. The difficulty of applying the present method to the diffusion-limited-aggregation model, is commented on.
The MCLIB library: Monte Carlo simulation of neutron scattering instruments
Seeger, P.A.
1995-09-01
Monte Carlo is a method to integrate over a large number of variables. Random numbers are used to select a value for each variable, and the integrand is evaluated. The process is repeated a large number of times and the resulting values are averaged. For a neutron transport problem, first select a neutron from the source distribution, and project it through the instrument using either deterministic or probabilistic algorithms to describe its interaction whenever it hits something, and then (if it hits the detector) tally it in a histogram representing where and when it was detected. This is intended to simulate the process of running an actual experiment (but it is much slower). This report describes the philosophy and structure of MCLIB, a Fortran library of Monte Carlo subroutines which has been developed for design of neutron scattering instruments. A pair of programs (LQDGEOM and MC{_}RUN) which use the library are shown as an example.
A surrogate accelerated multicanonical Monte Carlo method for uncertainty quantification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Keyi; Li, Jinglai
2016-09-01
In this work we consider a class of uncertainty quantification problems where the system performance or reliability is characterized by a scalar parameter y. The performance parameter y is random due to the presence of various sources of uncertainty in the system, and our goal is to estimate the probability density function (PDF) of y. We propose to use the multicanonical Monte Carlo (MMC) method, a special type of adaptive importance sampling algorithms, to compute the PDF of interest. Moreover, we develop an adaptive algorithm to construct local Gaussian process surrogates to further accelerate the MMC iterations. With numerical examples we demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve several orders of magnitudes of speedup over the standard Monte Carlo methods.
Advanced interacting sequential Monte Carlo sampling for inverse scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giraud, F.; Minvielle, P.; Del Moral, P.
2013-09-01
The following electromagnetism (EM) inverse problem is addressed. It consists in estimating the local radioelectric properties of materials recovering an object from global EM scattering measurements, at various incidences and wave frequencies. This large scale ill-posed inverse problem is explored by an intensive exploitation of an efficient 2D Maxwell solver, distributed on high performance computing machines. Applied to a large training data set, a statistical analysis reduces the problem to a simpler probabilistic metamodel, from which Bayesian inference can be performed. Considering the radioelectric properties as a hidden dynamic stochastic process that evolves according to the frequency, it is shown how advanced Markov chain Monte Carlo methods—called sequential Monte Carlo or interacting particles—can take benefit of the structure and provide local EM property estimates.
Efficient, Automated Monte Carlo Methods for Radiation Transport
Kong, Rong; Ambrose, Martin; Spanier, Jerome
2012-01-01
Monte Carlo simulations provide an indispensible model for solving radiative transport problems, but their slow convergence inhibits their use as an everyday computational tool. In this paper, we present two new ideas for accelerating the convergence of Monte Carlo algorithms based upon an efficient algorithm that couples simulations of forward and adjoint transport equations. Forward random walks are first processed in stages, each using a fixed sample size, and information from stage k is used to alter the sampling and weighting procedure in stage k + 1. This produces rapid geometric convergence and accounts for dramatic gains in the efficiency of the forward computation. In case still greater accuracy is required in the forward solution, information from an adjoint simulation can be added to extend the geometric learning of the forward solution. The resulting new approach should find widespread use when fast, accurate simulations of the transport equation are needed. PMID:23226872
Visibility assessment : Monte Carlo characterization of temporal variability.
Laulainen, N.; Shannon, J.; Trexler, E. C., Jr.
1997-12-12
Current techniques for assessing the benefits of certain anthropogenic emission reductions are largely influenced by limitations in emissions data and atmospheric modeling capability and by the highly variant nature of meteorology. These data and modeling limitations are likely to continue for the foreseeable future, during which time important strategic decisions need to be made. Statistical atmospheric quality data and apportionment techniques are used in Monte-Carlo models to offset serious shortfalls in emissions, entrainment, topography, statistical meteorology data and atmospheric modeling. This paper describes the evolution of Department of Energy (DOE) Monte-Carlo based assessment models and the development of statistical inputs. A companion paper describes techniques which are used to develop the apportionment factors used in the assessment models.
Minimising biases in full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo.
Vigor, W A; Spencer, J S; Bearpark, M J; Thom, A J W
2015-03-14
We show that Full Configuration Interaction Quantum Monte Carlo (FCIQMC) is a Markov chain in its present form. We construct the Markov matrix of FCIQMC for a two determinant system and hence compute the stationary distribution. These solutions are used to quantify the dependence of the population dynamics on the parameters defining the Markov chain. Despite the simplicity of a system with only two determinants, it still reveals a population control bias inherent to the FCIQMC algorithm. We investigate the effect of simulation parameters on the population control bias for the neon atom and suggest simulation setups to, in general, minimise the bias. We show a reweight ing scheme to remove the bias caused by population control commonly used in diffusion Monte Carlo [Umrigar et al., J. Chem. Phys. 99, 2865 (1993)] is effective and recommend its use as a post processing step. PMID:25770522
Nuclear pairing within a configuration-space Monte Carlo approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lingle, Mark; Volya, Alexander
2015-06-01
Pairing correlations in nuclei play a decisive role in determining nuclear drip lines, binding energies, and many collective properties. In this work a new configuration-space Monte Carlo (CSMC) method for treating nuclear pairing correlations is developed, implemented, and demonstrated. In CSMC the Hamiltonian matrix is stochastically generated in Krylov subspace, resulting in the Monte Carlo version of Lanczos-like diagonalization. The advantages of this approach over other techniques are discussed; the absence of the fermionic sign problem, probabilistic interpretation of quantum-mechanical amplitudes, and ability to handle truly large-scale problems with defined precision and error control are noteworthy merits of CSMC. The features of our CSMC approach are shown using models and realistic examples. Special attention is given to difficult limits: situations with nonconstant pairing strengths, cases with nearly degenerate excited states, limits when pairing correlations in finite systems are weak, and problems when the relevant configuration space is large.
Mammography X-Ray Spectra Simulated with Monte Carlo
Vega-Carrillo, H. R.; Gonzalez, J. Ramirez; Manzanares-Acuna, E.; Hernandez-Davila, V. M.; Villasana, R. Hernandez; Mercado, G. A.
2008-08-11
Monte Carlo calculations have been carried out to obtain the x-ray spectra of various target-filter combinations for a mammography unit. Mammography is widely used to diagnose breast cancer. Further to Mo target with Mo filter combination, Rh/Rh, Mo/Rh, Mo/Al, Rh/Al, and W/Rh are also utilized. In this work Monte Carlo calculations, using MCNP 4C code, were carried out to estimate the x-ray spectra produced when a beam of 28 keV electrons did collide with Mo, Rh and W targets. Resulting x-ray spectra show characteristic x-rays and continuous bremsstrahlung. Spectra were also calculated including filters.
Monte Carlo Simulation Of H{sup -} Ion Transport
Diomede, P.; Longo, S.; Capitelli, M.
2009-03-12
In this work we study in detail the kinetics of H{sup -} ion swarms in velocity space: this provides a useful contrast to the usual literature in the field, where device features in configuration space are often included in detail but kinetic distributions are only marginally considered. To this aim a Monte Carlo model is applied, which includes several collision processes of H{sup -} ions with neutral particles as well as Coulomb collisions with positive ions. We characterize the full velocity distribution i.e. including its anisotropy, for different values of E/N, the atomic fraction and the H{sup +} mole fraction, which makes our results of interest for both source modeling and beam formation. A simple analytical theory, for highly dissociated hydrogen is formulated and checked by Monte Carlo calculations.
The alias method: A fast, efficient Monte Carlo sampling technique
Rathkopf, J.A.; Edwards, A.L. ); Smidt, R.K. )
1990-11-16
The alias method is a Monte Carlo sampling technique that offers significant advantages over more traditional methods. It equals the accuracy of table lookup and the speed of equal probable bins. The original formulation of this method sampled from discrete distributions and was easily extended to histogram distributions. We have extended the method further to applications more germane to Monte Carlo particle transport codes: continuous distributions. This paper presents the alias method as originally derived and our extensions to simple continuous distributions represented by piecewise linear functions. We also present a method to interpolate accurately between distributions tabulated at points other than the point of interest. We present timing studies that demonstrate the method's increased efficiency over table lookup and show further speedup achieved through vectorization. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.
Extending the alias Monte Carlo sampling method to general distributions
Edwards, A.L.; Rathkopf, J.A. ); Smidt, R.K. )
1991-01-07
The alias method is a Monte Carlo sampling technique that offers significant advantages over more traditional methods. It equals the accuracy of table lookup and the speed of equal probable bins. The original formulation of this method sampled from discrete distributions and was easily extended to histogram distributions. We have extended the method further to applications more germane to Monte Carlo particle transport codes: continuous distributions. This paper presents the alias method as originally derived and our extensions to simple continuous distributions represented by piecewise linear functions. We also present a method to interpolate accurately between distributions tabulated at points other than the point of interest. We present timing studies that demonstrate the method's increased efficiency over table lookup and show further speedup achieved through vectorization. 6 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.
Cluster Monte Carlo methods for the FePt Hamiltonian
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyberatos, A.; Parker, G. J.
2016-02-01
Cluster Monte Carlo methods for the classical spin Hamiltonian of FePt with long range exchange interactions are presented. We use a combination of the Swendsen-Wang (or Wolff) and Metropolis algorithms that satisfies the detailed balance condition and ergodicity. The algorithms are tested by calculating the temperature dependence of the magnetization, susceptibility and heat capacity of L10-FePt nanoparticles in a range including the critical region. The cluster models yield numerical results in good agreement within statistical error with the standard single-spin flipping Monte Carlo method. The variation of the spin autocorrelation time with grain size is used to deduce the dynamic exponent of the algorithms. Our cluster models do not provide a more accurate estimate of the magnetic properties at equilibrium.
Bayesian Monte Carlo method for nuclear data evaluation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koning, A. J.
2015-12-01
A Bayesian Monte Carlo method is outlined which allows a systematic evaluation of nuclear reactions using the nuclear model code TALYS and the experimental nuclear reaction database EXFOR. The method is applied to all nuclides at the same time. First, the global predictive power of TALYS is numerically assessed, which enables to set the prior space of nuclear model solutions. Next, the method gradually zooms in on particular experimental data per nuclide, until for each specific target nuclide its existing experimental data can be used for weighted Monte Carlo sampling. To connect to the various different schools of uncertainty propagation in applied nuclear science, the result will be either an EXFOR-weighted covariance matrix or a collection of random files, each accompanied by the EXFOR-based weight.
Computer Monte Carlo simulation in quantitative resource estimation
Root, D.H.; Menzie, W.D.; Scott, W.A.
1992-01-01
The method of making quantitative assessments of mineral resources sufficiently detailed for economic analysis is outlined in three steps. The steps are (1) determination of types of deposits that may be present in an area, (2) estimation of the numbers of deposits of the permissible deposit types, and (3) combination by Monte Carlo simulation of the estimated numbers of deposits with the historical grades and tonnages of these deposits to produce a probability distribution of the quantities of contained metal. Two examples of the estimation of the number of deposits (step 2) are given. The first example is for mercury deposits in southwestern Alaska and the second is for lode tin deposits in the Seward Peninsula. The flow of the Monte Carlo simulation program is presented with particular attention to the dependencies between grades and tonnages of deposits and between grades of different metals in the same deposit. ?? 1992 Oxford University Press.
A tetrahedron-based inhomogeneous Monte Carlo optical simulator
Shen, H; Wang, G
2010-01-01
Optical imaging has been widely applied in preclinical and clinical applications. Fifteen years ago, an efficient Monte Carlo program ‘MCML’ was developed for use with multi-layered turbid media and has gained popularity in the field of biophotonics. Currently, there is an increasingly pressing need for simulating tools more powerful than MCML in order to study light propagation phenomena in complex inhomogeneous objects, such as the mouse. Here we report a tetrahedron-based inhomogeneous Monte Carlo optical simulator (TIM-OS) to address this issue. By modeling an object as a tetrahedron-based inhomogeneous finite-element mesh, TIM-OS can determine the photon– triangle interaction recursively and rapidly. In numerical simulation, we have demonstrated the correctness and efficiency of TIM-OS. PMID:20090182
Ab initio Monte Carlo investigation of small lithium clusters.
Srinivas, S.
1999-06-16
Structural and thermal properties of small lithium clusters are studied using ab initio-based Monte Carlo simulations. The ab initio scheme uses a Hartree-Fock/density functional treatment of the electronic structure combined with a jump-walking Monte Carlo sampling of nuclear configurations. Structural forms of Li{sub 8} and Li{sub 9}{sup +} clusters are obtained and their thermal properties analyzed in terms of probability distributions of the cluster potential energy, average potential energy and configurational heat capacity all considered as a function of the cluster temperature. Details of the gradual evolution with temperature of the structural forms sampled are examined. Temperatures characterizing the onset of structural changes and isomer coexistence are identified for both clusters.
Monte Carlo Integration Using Spatial Structure of Markov Random Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yasuda, Muneki
2015-03-01
Monte Carlo integration (MCI) techniques are important in various fields. In this study, a new MCI technique for Markov random fields (MRFs) is proposed. MCI consists of two successive parts: the first involves sampling using a technique such as the Markov chain Monte Carlo method, and the second involves an averaging operation using the obtained sample points. In the averaging operation, a simple sample averaging technique is often employed. The method proposed in this paper improves the averaging operation by addressing the spatial structure of the MRF and is mathematically guaranteed to statistically outperform standard MCI using the simple sample averaging operation. Moreover, the proposed method can be improved in a systematic manner and is numerically verified by numerical simulations using planar Ising models. In the latter part of this paper, the proposed method is applied to the inverse Ising problem and we observe that it outperforms the maximum pseudo-likelihood estimation.
Analytical band Monte Carlo analysis of electron transport in silicene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yeoh, K. H.; Ong, D. S.; Ooi, C. H. Raymond; Yong, T. K.; Lim, S. K.
2016-06-01
An analytical band Monte Carlo (AMC) with linear energy band dispersion has been developed to study the electron transport in suspended silicene and silicene on aluminium oxide (Al2O3) substrate. We have calibrated our model against the full band Monte Carlo (FMC) results by matching the velocity-field curve. Using this model, we discover that the collective effects of charge impurity scattering and surface optical phonon scattering can degrade the electron mobility down to about 400 cm2 V‑1 s‑1 and thereafter it is less sensitive to the changes of charge impurity in the substrate and surface optical phonon. We also found that further reduction of mobility to ∼100 cm2 V‑1 s‑1 as experimentally demonstrated by Tao et al (2015 Nat. Nanotechnol. 10 227) can only be explained by the renormalization of Fermi velocity due to interaction with Al2O3 substrate.
Application of Monte Carlo to Proton Beam Radiation Therapy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siebers, J. V.
As with photon and electron radiotherapy, the future of dose calculation for hadron beams will be based upon Monte Carlo algorithms. Benchmark calculations of the LAHET Monte Carlo code with respect to measured in-phantom dose distributions show that the proton physics modules in LAHET accurately reproduce measured results. Since MCNP-X incorporates the proton and high energy neutron physics modules from LAHET, similar agreement with MCNP-X is expected. In addition to beam-line simulations, MCNP-X has the ability to input the lattice geometry required for simulating patient treatments based on CT data sets. The ability of MCNP-X to perform patient dose calculation simulations for proton radiotherapy was demonstrated by simulating a two-beam prostate treatment plan. While MCNP-X is fully capable to perform patient-planning calculations, currently, it is too time consuming to be used for routine patient planning.
Fast Monte Carlo-assisted simulation of cloudy Earth backgrounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adler-Golden, Steven; Richtsmeier, Steven C.; Berk, Alexander; Duff, James W.
2012-11-01
A calculation method has been developed for rapidly synthesizing radiometrically accurate ultraviolet through longwavelengthinfrared spectral imagery of the Earth for arbitrary locations and cloud fields. The method combines cloudfree surface reflectance imagery with cloud radiance images calculated from a first-principles 3-D radiation transport model. The MCScene Monte Carlo code [1-4] is used to build a cloud image library; a data fusion method is incorporated to speed convergence. The surface and cloud images are combined with an upper atmospheric description with the aid of solar and thermal radiation transport equations that account for atmospheric inhomogeneity. The method enables a wide variety of sensor and sun locations, cloud fields, and surfaces to be combined on-the-fly, and provides hyperspectral wavelength resolution with minimal computational effort. The simulations agree very well with much more time-consuming direct Monte Carlo calculations of the same scene.
Excited states of methylene from quantum Monte Carlo.
Zimmerman, Paul M; Toulouse, Julien; Zhang, Zhiyong; Musgrave, Charles B; Umrigar, C J
2009-09-28
The ground and lowest three adiabatic excited states of methylene are computed using the variational Monte Carlo and diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) methods using progressively larger Jastrow-Slater multideterminant complete active space (CAS) wave functions. The highest of these states has the same symmetry, (1)A(1), as the first excited state. The DMC excitation energies obtained using any of the CAS wave functions are in excellent agreement with experiment, but single-determinant wave functions do not yield accurate DMC energies of the states of (1)A(1) symmetry, indicating that it is important to include in the wave function Slater determinants that describe static (strong) correlation. Excitation energies obtained using recently proposed pseudopotentials [Burkatzki et al., J. Chem. Phys. 126, 234105 (2007)] differ from the all-electron excitation energies by at most 0.04 eV. PMID:19791848
Energies of the first row atoms from quantum Monte Carlo.
Brown, M D; Trail, J R; Ríos, P López; Needs, R J
2007-06-14
All-electron variational and diffusion quantum Monte Carlo calculations of the ground state energies of the first row atoms (from Li to Ne) are reported. The authors use trial wave functions of four types: single-determinant Slater-Jastrow wave functions, multideterminant Slater-Jastrow wave functions, single-determinant Slater-Jastrow wave functions with backflow transformations, and multideterminant Slater-Jastrow wave functions with backflow transformations. At the diffusion quantum Monte Carlo level and using their multideterminant Slater-Jastrow wave functions with backflow transformations, they recover 99% or more of the correlation energies for Li, Be, B, C, N, and Ne, 97% for O, and 98% for F. PMID:17581047
Recent advances in the Mercury Monte Carlo particle transport code
Brantley, P. S.; Dawson, S. A.; McKinley, M. S.; O'Brien, M. J.; Stevens, D. E.; Beck, B. R.; Jurgenson, E. D.; Ebbers, C. A.; Hall, J. M.
2013-07-01
We review recent physics and computational science advances in the Mercury Monte Carlo particle transport code under development at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. We describe recent efforts to enable a nuclear resonance fluorescence capability in the Mercury photon transport. We also describe recent work to implement a probability of extinction capability into Mercury. We review the results of current parallel scaling and threading efforts that enable the code to run on millions of MPI processes. (authors)
Representation and simulation for pyrochlore lattice via Monte Carlo technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Passos, André Luis; de Albuquerque, Douglas F.; Filho, João Batista Santos
2016-05-01
This work presents a representation of the Kagome and pyrochlore lattices using Monte Carlo simulation as well as some results of the critical properties. These lattices are composed corner sharing triangles and tetrahedrons respectively. The simulation was performed employing the Cluster Wolf Algorithm for the spin updates through the standard ferromagnetic Ising Model. The determination of the critical temperature and exponents was based on the Histogram Technique and the Finite-Size Scaling Theory.
Calculations of pair production by Monte Carlo methods
Bottcher, C.; Strayer, M.R.
1991-01-01
We describe some of the technical design issues associated with the production of particle-antiparticle pairs in very large accelerators. To answer these questions requires extensive calculation of Feynman diagrams, in effect multi-dimensional integrals, which we evaluate by Monte Carlo methods on a variety of supercomputers. We present some portable algorithms for generating random numbers on vector and parallel architecture machines. 12 refs., 14 figs.
Monte Carlo approach to nuclei and nuclear matter
Fantoni, Stefano; Gandolfi, Stefano; Illarionov, Alexey Yu.; Schmidt, Kevin E.; Pederiva, Francesco
2008-10-13
We report on the most recent applications of the Auxiliary Field Diffusion Monte Carlo (AFDMC) method. The equation of state (EOS) for pure neutron matter in both normal and BCS phase and the superfluid gap in the low-density regime are computed, using a realistic Hamiltonian containing the Argonne AV8' plus Urbana IX three-nucleon interaction. Preliminary results for the EOS of isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter are also presented.
Regenerative Markov Chain Monte Carlo for any distribution.
Minh, D.
2012-01-01
While Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods are frequently used for difficult calculations in a wide range of scientific disciplines, they suffer from a serious limitation: their samples are not independent and identically distributed. Consequently, estimates of expectations are biased if the initial value of the chain is not drawn from the target distribution. Regenerative simulation provides an elegant solution to this problem. In this article, we propose a simple regenerative MCMC algorithm to generate variates for any distribution
A multicomb variance reduction scheme for Monte Carlo semiconductor simulators
Gray, M.G.; Booth, T.E.; Kwan, T.J.T.; Snell, C.M.
1998-04-01
The authors adapt a multicomb variance reduction technique used in neutral particle transport to Monte Carlo microelectronic device modeling. They implement the method in a two-dimensional (2-D) MOSFET device simulator and demonstrate its effectiveness in the study of hot electron effects. The simulations show that the statistical variance of hot electrons is significantly reduced with minimal computational cost. The method is efficient, versatile, and easy to implement in existing device simulators.
Towards a Revised Monte Carlo Neutral Particle Surface Interaction Model
D.P. Stotler
2005-06-09
The components of the neutral- and plasma-surface interaction model used in the Monte Carlo neutral transport code DEGAS 2 are reviewed. The idealized surfaces and processes handled by that model are inadequate for accurately simulating neutral transport behavior in present day and future fusion devices. We identify some of the physical processes missing from the model, such as mixed materials and implanted hydrogen, and make some suggestions for improving the model.
Monte Carlo calculations for r-process nucleosynthesis
Mumpower, Matthew Ryan
2015-11-12
A Monte Carlo framework is developed for exploring the impact of nuclear model uncertainties on the formation of the heavy elements. Mass measurements tightly constrain the macroscopic sector of FRDM2012. For r-process nucleosynthesis, it is necessary to understand the microscopic physics of the nuclear model employed. A combined approach of measurements and a deeper understanding of the microphysics is thus warranted to elucidate the site of the r-process.
Monte Carlo simulation of photon-induced air showers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; di Sciascio, G.
1994-05-01
The EPAS code (Electron Photon-induced Air Showers) is a three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation developed to study the properties of extensive air showers (EAS) generated by the interaction of high energy photons (or electrons) in the atmosphere. Results of the present simulation concern the longitudinal, lateral, temporal and angular distributions of electrons in atmospheric cascades initiated by photons of energies up to 10^3 TeV.
Monte Carlo Simulation of Heavy Nuclei Photofission at Intermediate Energies
Andrade-II, E.; Freitas, E.; Garcia, F.; Tavares, O. A. P.; Duarte, S. B.
2009-06-03
A detailed description of photofission process at intermediate energies (200 to 1000 MeV) is presented. The study of the reaction is performed by a Monte Carlo method which allows the investigation of properties of residual nuclei and fissioning nuclei. The information obtained indicate that multifragmentation is negligible at the photon energies studied here, and that the symmetrical fission is dominant. Energy and mass distributions of residual and fissioning nuclei were calculated.
Application of MINERVA Monte Carlo simulations to targeted radionuclide therapy.
Descalle, Marie-Anne; Hartmann Siantar, Christine L; Dauffy, Lucile; Nigg, David W; Wemple, Charles A; Yuan, Aina; DeNardo, Gerald L
2003-02-01
Recent clinical results have demonstrated the promise of targeted radionuclide therapy for advanced cancer. As the success of this emerging form of radiation therapy grows, accurate treatment planning and radiation dose simulations are likely to become increasingly important. To address this need, we have initiated the development of a new, Monte Carlo transport-based treatment planning system for molecular targeted radiation therapy as part of the MINERVA system. The goal of the MINERVA dose calculation system is to provide 3-D Monte Carlo simulation-based dosimetry for radiation therapy, focusing on experimental and emerging applications. For molecular targeted radionuclide therapy applications, MINERVA calculates patient-specific radiation dose estimates using computed tomography to describe the patient anatomy, combined with a user-defined 3-D radiation source. This paper describes the validation of the 3-D Monte Carlo transport methods to be used in MINERVA for molecular targeted radionuclide dosimetry. It reports comparisons of MINERVA dose simulations with published absorbed fraction data for distributed, monoenergetic photon and electron sources, and for radioisotope photon emission. MINERVA simulations are generally within 2% of EGS4 results and 10% of MCNP results, but differ by up to 40% from the recommendations given in MIRD Pamphlets 3 and 8 for identical medium composition and density. For several representative source and target organs in the abdomen and thorax, specific absorbed fractions calculated with the MINERVA system are generally within 5% of those published in the revised MIRD Pamphlet 5 for 100 keV photons. However, results differ by up to 23% for the adrenal glands, the smallest of our target organs. Finally, we show examples of Monte Carlo simulations in a patient-like geometry for a source of uniform activity located in the kidney. PMID:12667310
Quantum Monte Carlo for electronic structure: Recent developments and applications
Rodriquez, M. M.S.
1995-04-01
Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods have been found to give excellent results when applied to chemical systems. The main goal of the present work is to use QMC to perform electronic structure calculations. In QMC, a Monte Carlo simulation is used to solve the Schroedinger equation, taking advantage of its analogy to a classical diffusion process with branching. In the present work the author focuses on how to extend the usefulness of QMC to more meaningful molecular systems. This study is aimed at questions concerning polyatomic and large atomic number systems. The accuracy of the solution obtained is determined by the accuracy of the trial wave function`s nodal structure. Efforts in the group have given great emphasis to finding optimized wave functions for the QMC calculations. Little work had been done by systematically looking at a family of systems to see how the best wave functions evolve with system size. In this work the author presents a study of trial wave functions for C, CH, C{sub 2}H and C{sub 2}H{sub 2}. The goal is to study how to build wave functions for larger systems by accumulating knowledge from the wave functions of its fragments as well as gaining some knowledge on the usefulness of multi-reference wave functions. In a MC calculation of a heavy atom, for reasonable time steps most moves for core electrons are rejected. For this reason true equilibration is rarely achieved. A method proposed by Batrouni and Reynolds modifies the way the simulation is performed without altering the final steady-state solution. It introduces an acceleration matrix chosen so that all coordinates (i.e., of core and valence electrons) propagate at comparable speeds. A study of the results obtained using their proposed matrix suggests that it may not be the optimum choice. In this work the author has found that the desired mixing of coordinates between core and valence electrons is not achieved when using this matrix. A bibliography of 175 references is included.
Quantum Monte Carlo Calculations Applied to Magnetic Molecules
Larry Engelhardt
2006-08-09
We have calculated the equilibrium thermodynamic properties of Heisenberg spin systems using a quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) method. We have used some of these systems as models to describe recently synthesized magnetic molecules, and-upon comparing the results of these calculations with experimental data-have obtained accurate estimates for the basic parameters of these models. We have also performed calculations for other systems that are of more general interest, being relevant both for existing experimental data and for future experiments. Utilizing the concept of importance sampling, these calculations can be carried out in an arbitrarily large quantum Hilbert space, while still avoiding any approximations that would introduce systematic errors. The only errors are statistical in nature, and as such, their magnitudes are accurately estimated during the course of a simulation. Frustrated spin systems present a major challenge to the QMC method, nevertheless, in many instances progress can be made. In this chapter, the field of magnetic molecules is introduced, paying particular attention to the characteristics that distinguish magnetic molecules from other systems that are studied in condensed matter physics. We briefly outline the typical path by which we learn about magnetic molecules, which requires a close relationship between experiments and theoretical calculations. The typical experiments are introduced here, while the theoretical methods are discussed in the next chapter. Each of these theoretical methods has a considerable limitation, also described in Chapter 2, which together serve to motivate the present work. As is shown throughout the later chapters, the present QMC method is often able to provide useful information where other methods fail. In Chapter 3, the use of Monte Carlo methods in statistical physics is reviewed, building up the fundamental ideas that are necessary in order to understand the method that has been used in this work. With these
Monte Carlo studies for medical imaging detector optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fois, G. R.; Cisbani, E.; Garibaldi, F.
2016-02-01
This work reports on the Monte Carlo optimization studies of detection systems for Molecular Breast Imaging with radionuclides and Bremsstrahlung Imaging in nuclear medicine. Molecular Breast Imaging requires competing performances of the detectors: high efficiency and high spatial resolutions; in this direction, it has been proposed an innovative device which combines images from two different, and somehow complementary, detectors at the opposite sides of the breast. The dual detector design allows for spot compression and improves significantly the performance of the overall system if all components are well tuned, layout and processing carefully optimized; in this direction the Monte Carlo simulation represents a valuable tools. In recent years, Bremsstrahlung Imaging potentiality in internal radiotherapy (with beta-radiopharmaceuticals) has been clearly emerged; Bremsstrahlung Imaging is currently performed with existing detector generally used for single photon radioisotopes. We are evaluating the possibility to adapt an existing compact gamma camera and optimize by Monte Carlo its performance for Bremsstrahlung imaging with photons emitted by the beta- from 90 Y.
MONTE CARLO ERROR ESTIMATION APPLIED TO NONDESTRUCTIVE ASSAY METHODS
R. ESTEP; ET AL
2000-06-01
Monte Carlo randomization of nuclear counting data into N replicate sets is the basis of a simple and effective method for estimating error propagation through complex analysis algorithms such as those using neural networks or tomographic image reconstructions. The error distributions of properly simulated replicate data sets mimic those of actual replicate measurements and can be used to estimate the std. dev. for an assay along with other statistical quantities. We have used this technique to estimate the standard deviation in radionuclide masses determined using the tomographic gamma scanner (TGS) and combined thermal/epithermal neutron (CTEN) methods. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated by a comparison of our Monte Carlo error estimates with the error distributions in actual replicate measurements and simulations of measurements. We found that the std. dev. estimated this way quickly converges to an accurate value on average and has a predictable error distribution similar to N actual repeat measurements. The main drawback of the Monte Carlo method is that N additional analyses of the data are required, which may be prohibitively time consuming with slow analysis algorithms.
Valence-bond quantum Monte Carlo algorithms defined on trees.
Deschner, Andreas; Sørensen, Erik S
2014-09-01
We present a class of algorithms for performing valence-bond quantum Monte Carlo of quantum spin models. Valence-bond quantum Monte Carlo is a projective T=0 Monte Carlo method based on sampling of a set of operator strings that can be viewed as forming a treelike structure. The algorithms presented here utilize the notion of a worm that moves up and down this tree and changes the associated operator string. In quite general terms, we derive a set of equations whose solutions correspond to a whole class of algorithms. As specific examples of this class of algorithms, we focus on two cases. The bouncing worm algorithm, for which updates are always accepted by allowing the worm to bounce up and down the tree, and the driven worm algorithm, where a single parameter controls how far up the tree the worm reaches before turning around. The latter algorithm involves only a single bounce where the worm turns from going up the tree to going down. The presence of the control parameter necessitates the introduction of an acceptance probability for the update. PMID:25314561
Monte Carlo Methodology Serves Up a Software Success
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2003-01-01
Widely used for the modeling of gas flows through the computation of the motion and collisions of representative molecules, the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method has become the gold standard for producing research and engineering predictions in the field of rarefied gas dynamics. Direct Simulation Monte Carlo was first introduced in the early 1960s by Dr. Graeme Bird, a professor at the University of Sydney, Australia. It has since proved to be a valuable tool to the aerospace and defense industries in providing design and operational support data, as well as flight data analysis. In 2002, NASA brought to the forefront a software product that maintains the same basic physics formulation of Dr. Bird's method, but provides effective modeling of complex, three-dimensional, real vehicle simulations and parallel processing capabilities to handle additional computational requirements, especially in areas where computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is not applicable. NASA's Direct Simulation Monte Carlo Analysis Code (DAC) software package is now considered the Agency s premier high-fidelity simulation tool for predicting vehicle aerodynamics and aerothermodynamic environments in rarified, or low-density, gas flows.
A Wigner Monte Carlo approach to density functional theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sellier, J. M.; Dimov, I.
2014-08-01
In order to simulate quantum N-body systems, stationary and time-dependent density functional theories rely on the capacity of calculating the single-electron wave-functions of a system from which one obtains the total electron density (Kohn-Sham systems). In this paper, we introduce the use of the Wigner Monte Carlo method in ab-initio calculations. This approach allows time-dependent simulations of chemical systems in the presence of reflective and absorbing boundary conditions. It also enables an intuitive comprehension of chemical systems in terms of the Wigner formalism based on the concept of phase-space. Finally, being based on a Monte Carlo method, it scales very well on parallel machines paving the way towards the time-dependent simulation of very complex molecules. A validation is performed by studying the electron distribution of three different systems, a Lithium atom, a Boron atom and a hydrogenic molecule. For the sake of simplicity, we start from initial conditions not too far from equilibrium and show that the systems reach a stationary regime, as expected (despite no restriction is imposed in the choice of the initial conditions). We also show a good agreement with the standard density functional theory for the hydrogenic molecule. These results demonstrate that the combination of the Wigner Monte Carlo method and Kohn-Sham systems provides a reliable computational tool which could, eventually, be applied to more sophisticated problems.
Autocorrelation and Dominance Ratio in Monte Carlo Criticality Calculations
Ueki, Taro; Brown, Forrest B.; Parsons, D. Kent; Kornreich, Drew E.
2003-11-15
The cycle-to-cycle correlation (autocorrelation) in Monte Carlo criticality calculations is analyzed concerning the dominance ratio of fission kernels. The mathematical analysis focuses on how the eigenfunctions of a fission kernel decay if operated on by the cycle-to-cycle error propagation operator of the Monte Carlo stationary source distribution. The analytical results obtained can be summarized as follows: When the dominance ratio of a fission kernel is close to unity, autocorrelation of the k-effective tallies is weak and may be negligible, while the autocorrelation of the source distribution is strong and decays slowly. The practical implication is that when one analyzes a critical reactor with a large dominance ratio by Monte Carlo methods, the confidence interval estimation of the fission rate and other quantities at individual locations must account for the strong autocorrelation. Numerical results are presented for sample problems with a dominance ratio of 0.85-0.99, where Shannon and relative entropies are utilized to exclude the influence of initial nonstationarity.
Use of GEANE for tracking in virtual Monte Carlo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fontana, A.; Genova, P.; Lavezzi, L.; Panzarasa, A.; Rotondi, A.; A-Turany, M.; Bertini, D.
2008-07-01
The concept of Virtual Monte Carlo (VMC) allows to use different Monte Carlo programs to simulate particle physics detectors without changing the geometry definition and the detector response simulation. In this context, to study the reconstruction capabilities of a detector, the availability of a tool to extrapolate the track parameters and their associated errors due to magnetic field, straggling in energy loss and Coulomb multiple scattering plays a central role: GEANE is an old program written in Fortran 15 years ago that performs this task through dense materials and that is still succesfully used by many modern experiments in its native form. Among its features there is the capability to read directly the geometry and the magnetic field map from the simulation and to use different track representations. In this work we have 'rediscovered' GEANE in the context of the Virtual Monte Carlo: we will show how GEANE has been integrated in the FairROOT framework, firmly based on the VMC, by keeping the old features in the new ROOT geometry modeler. Moreover new features have been added to GEANE that allow one to use it also for low density materials, i.e. for gaseous detectors, and preliminary results will be shown and discussed. The tool is now used by the PANDA and CBM collaborations at GSI as the first step for the global reconstruction algorithms, based on a Kalman filter which is currently under development.
A semianalytic Monte Carlo code for modelling LIDAR measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palazzi, Elisa; Kostadinov, Ivan; Petritoli, Andrea; Ravegnani, Fabrizio; Bortoli, Daniele; Masieri, Samuele; Premuda, Margherita; Giovanelli, Giorgio
2007-10-01
LIDAR (LIght Detection and Ranging) is an optical active remote sensing technology with many applications in atmospheric physics. Modelling of LIDAR measurements appears useful approach for evaluating the effects of various environmental variables and scenarios as well as of different measurement geometries and instrumental characteristics. In this regard a Monte Carlo simulation model can provide a reliable answer to these important requirements. A semianalytic Monte Carlo code for modelling LIDAR measurements has been developed at ISAC-CNR. The backscattered laser signal detected by the LIDAR system is calculated in the code taking into account the contributions due to the main atmospheric molecular constituents and aerosol particles through processes of single and multiple scattering. The contributions by molecular absorption, ground and clouds reflection are evaluated too. The code can perform simulations of both monostatic and bistatic LIDAR systems. To enhance the efficiency of the Monte Carlo simulation, analytical estimates and expected value calculations are performed. Artificial devices (such as forced collision, local forced collision, splitting and russian roulette) are moreover foreseen by the code, which can enable the user to drastically reduce the variance of the calculation.
Pattern Recognition for a Flight Dynamics Monte Carlo Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Restrepo, Carolina; Hurtado, John E.
2011-01-01
The design, analysis, and verification and validation of a spacecraft relies heavily on Monte Carlo simulations. Modern computational techniques are able to generate large amounts of Monte Carlo data but flight dynamics engineers lack the time and resources to analyze it all. The growing amounts of data combined with the diminished available time of engineers motivates the need to automate the analysis process. Pattern recognition algorithms are an innovative way of analyzing flight dynamics data efficiently. They can search large data sets for specific patterns and highlight critical variables so analysts can focus their analysis efforts. This work combines a few tractable pattern recognition algorithms with basic flight dynamics concepts to build a practical analysis tool for Monte Carlo simulations. Current results show that this tool can quickly and automatically identify individual design parameters, and most importantly, specific combinations of parameters that should be avoided in order to prevent specific system failures. The current version uses a kernel density estimation algorithm and a sequential feature selection algorithm combined with a k-nearest neighbor classifier to find and rank important design parameters. This provides an increased level of confidence in the analysis and saves a significant amount of time.
A Monte Carlo multimodal inversion of surface waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maraschini, Margherita; Foti, Sebastiano
2010-09-01
The analysis of surface wave propagation is often used to estimate the S-wave velocity profile at a site. In this paper, we propose a stochastic approach for the inversion of surface waves, which allows apparent dispersion curves to be inverted. The inversion method is based on the integrated use of two-misfit functions. A misfit function based on the determinant of the Haskell-Thomson matrix and a classical Euclidean distance between the dispersion curves. The former allows all the modes of the dispersion curve to be taken into account with a very limited computational cost because it avoids the explicit calculation of the dispersion curve for each tentative model. It is used in a Monte Carlo inversion with a large population of profiles. In a subsequent step, the selection of representative models is obtained by applying a Fisher test based on the Euclidean distance between the experimental and the synthetic dispersion curves to the best models of the Monte Carlo inversion. This procedure allows the set of the selected models to be identified on the basis of the data quality. It also mitigates the influence of local minima that can affect the Monte Carlo results. The effectiveness of the procedure is shown for synthetic and real experimental data sets, where the advantages of the two-stage procedure are highlighted. In particular, the determinant misfit allows the computation of large populations in stochastic algorithms with a limited computational cost.
A new lattice Monte Carlo method for simulating dielectric inhomogeneity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duan, Xiaozheng; Wang, Zhen-Gang; Nakamura, Issei
We present a new lattice Monte Carlo method for simulating systems involving dielectric contrast between different species by modifying an algorithm originally proposed by Maggs et al. The original algorithm is known to generate attractive interactions between particles that have different dielectric constant than the solvent. Here we show that such attractive force is spurious, arising from incorrectly biased statistical weight caused by the particle motion during the Monte Carlo moves. We propose a new, simple algorithm to resolve this erroneous sampling. We demonstrate the application of our algorithm by simulating an uncharged polymer in a solvent with different dielectric constant. Further, we show that the electrostatic fields in ionic crystals obtained from our simulations with a relatively small simulation box correspond well with results from the analytical solution. Thus, our Monte Carlo method avoids the need for the Ewald summation in conventional simulation methods for charged systems. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21474112 and 21404103). We are grateful to Computing Center of Jilin Province for essential support.
Quantitative PET Imaging Using A Comprehensive Monte Carlo System Model
Southekal, S.; Vaska, P.; Southekal, s.; Purschke, M.L.; Schlyer, d.J.; Vaska, P.
2011-10-01
We present the complete image generation methodology developed for the RatCAP PET scanner, which can be extended to other PET systems for which a Monte Carlo-based system model is feasible. The miniature RatCAP presents a unique set of advantages as well as challenges for image processing, and a combination of conventional methods and novel ideas developed specifically for this tomograph have been implemented. The crux of our approach is a low-noise Monte Carlo-generated probability matrix with integrated corrections for all physical effects that impact PET image quality. The generation and optimization of this matrix are discussed in detail, along with the estimation of correction factors and their incorporation into the reconstruction framework. Phantom studies and Monte Carlo simulations are used to evaluate the reconstruction as well as individual corrections for random coincidences, photon scatter, attenuation, and detector efficiency variations in terms of bias and noise. Finally, a realistic rat brain phantom study reconstructed using this methodology is shown to recover >; 90% of the contrast for hot as well as cold regions. The goal has been to realize the potential of quantitative neuroreceptor imaging with the RatCAP.
VARIANCE ESTIMATION IN DOMAIN DECOMPOSED MONTE CARLO EIGENVALUE CALCULATIONS
Mervin, Brenden T; Maldonado, G. Ivan; Mosher, Scott W; Evans, Thomas M; Wagner, John C
2012-01-01
The number of tallies performed in a given Monte Carlo calculation is limited in most modern Monte Carlo codes by the amount of memory that can be allocated on a single processor. By using domain decomposition, the calculation is now limited by the total amount of memory available on all processors, allowing for significantly more tallies to be performed. However, decomposing the problem geometry introduces significant issues with the way tally statistics are conventionally calculated. In order to deal with the issue of calculating tally variances in domain decomposed environments for the Shift hybrid Monte Carlo code, this paper presents an alternative approach for reactor scenarios in which an assumption is made that once a particle leaves a domain, it does not reenter the domain. Particles that reenter the domain are instead treated as separate independent histories. This assumption introduces a bias that inevitably leads to under-prediction of the calculated variances for tallies within a few mean free paths of the domain boundaries. However, through the use of different decomposition strategies, primarily overlapping domains, the negative effects of such an assumption can be significantly reduced to within reasonable levels.
Semi-stochastic full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holmes, Adam; Petruzielo, Frank; Khadilkar, Mihir; Changlani, Hitesh; Nightingale, M. P.; Umrigar, C. J.
2012-02-01
In the recently proposed full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo (FCIQMC) [1,2], the ground state is projected out stochastically, using a population of walkers each of which represents a basis state in the Hilbert space spanned by Slater determinants. The infamous fermion sign problem manifests itself in the fact that walkers of either sign can be spawned on a given determinant. We propose an improvement on this method in the form of a hybrid stochastic/deterministic technique, which we expect will improve the efficiency of the algorithm by ameliorating the sign problem. We test the method on atoms and molecules, e.g., carbon, carbon dimer, N2 molecule, and stretched N2. [4pt] [1] Fermion Monte Carlo without fixed nodes: a Game of Life, death and annihilation in Slater Determinant space. George Booth, Alex Thom, Ali Alavi. J Chem Phys 131, 050106, (2009).[0pt] [2] Survival of the fittest: Accelerating convergence in full configuration-interaction quantum Monte Carlo. Deidre Cleland, George Booth, and Ali Alavi. J Chem Phys 132, 041103 (2010).
ALEPH2 - A general purpose Monte Carlo depletion code
Stankovskiy, A.; Van Den Eynde, G.; Baeten, P.; Trakas, C.; Demy, P. M.; Villatte, L.
2012-07-01
The Monte-Carlo burn-up code ALEPH is being developed at SCK-CEN since 2004. A previous version of the code implemented the coupling between the Monte Carlo transport (any version of MCNP or MCNPX) and the ' deterministic' depletion code ORIGEN-2.2 but had important deficiencies in nuclear data treatment and limitations inherent to ORIGEN-2.2. A new version of the code, ALEPH2, has several unique features making it outstanding among other depletion codes. The most important feature is full data consistency between steady-state Monte Carlo and time-dependent depletion calculations. The last generation general-purpose nuclear data libraries (JEFF-3.1.1, ENDF/B-VII and JENDL-4) are fully implemented, including special purpose activation, spontaneous fission, fission product yield and radioactive decay data. The built-in depletion algorithm allows to eliminate the uncertainties associated with obtaining the time-dependent nuclide concentrations. A predictor-corrector mechanism, calculation of nuclear heating, calculation of decay heat, decay neutron sources are available as well. The validation of the code on the results of REBUS experimental program has been performed. The ALEPH2 has shown better agreement with measured data than other depletion codes. (authors)
Improved diffusion coefficients generated from Monte Carlo codes
Herman, B. R.; Forget, B.; Smith, K.; Aviles, B. N.
2013-07-01
Monte Carlo codes are becoming more widely used for reactor analysis. Some of these applications involve the generation of diffusion theory parameters including macroscopic cross sections and diffusion coefficients. Two approximations used to generate diffusion coefficients are assessed using the Monte Carlo code MC21. The first is the method of homogenization; whether to weight either fine-group transport cross sections or fine-group diffusion coefficients when collapsing to few-group diffusion coefficients. The second is a fundamental approximation made to the energy-dependent P1 equations to derive the energy-dependent diffusion equations. Standard Monte Carlo codes usually generate a flux-weighted transport cross section with no correction to the diffusion approximation. Results indicate that this causes noticeable tilting in reconstructed pin powers in simple test lattices with L2 norm error of 3.6%. This error is reduced significantly to 0.27% when weighting fine-group diffusion coefficients by the flux and applying a correction to the diffusion approximation. Noticeable tilting in reconstructed fluxes and pin powers was reduced when applying these corrections. (authors)
Monte Carlo simulations of sexual reproduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stauffer, D.; de Oliveira, P. M. C.; de Oliveira, S. Moss; dos Santos, R. M. Zorzenon
1996-02-01
Modifying the Redfield model of sexual reproduction and the Penna model of biological aging, we compare reproduction with and without recombination in age-structured populations. In constrast to Redfield and in agreement with Bernardes we find sexual reproduction to be preferred to asexual one. In particular, the presence of old but still reproducing males helps the survival of younger females beyond their reproductive age.
Bias in Dynamic Monte Carlo Alpha Calculations
Sweezy, Jeremy Ed; Nolen, Steven Douglas; Adams, Terry R.; Trahan, Travis John
2015-02-06
A 1/N bias in the estimate of the neutron time-constant (commonly denoted as α) has been seen in dynamic neutronic calculations performed with MCATK. In this paper we show that the bias is most likely caused by taking the logarithm of a stochastic quantity. We also investigate the known bias due to the particle population control method used in MCATK. We conclude that this bias due to the particle population control method is negligible compared to other sources of bias.
Monte Carlo estimation of stage structured development from cohort data.
Knape, Jonas; De Valpine, Perry
2016-04-01
Cohort data are frequently collected to study stage-structured development and mortalities of many organisms, particularly arthropods. Such data can provide information on mean stage durations, among-individual variation in stage durations, and on mortality rates. Current statistical methods for cohort data lack flexibility in the specification of stage duration distributions and mortality rates. In this paper, we present a new method for fitting models of stage-duration distributions and mortality to cohort data. The method is based on a Monte Carlo within MCMC algorithm and provides Bayesian estimates of parameters of stage-structured cohort models. The algorithm is computationally demanding but allows for flexible specifications of stage-duration distributions and mortality rates. We illustrate the algorithm with an application to data from a previously published experiment on the development of brine shrimp from Mono Lake, California, through nine successive stages. In the experiment, three different food supply and temperature combination treatments were studied. We compare the mean duration of the stages among the treatments while simultaneously estimating mortality rates and among-individual variance of stage durations. The method promises to enable more detailed studies of development of both natural and experimental cohorts. An R package implementing the method and which allows flexible specification of stage duration distributions is provided. PMID:27220215
A Sequential Monte Carlo Approach for Streamflow Forecasting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsu, K.; Sorooshian, S.
2008-12-01
As alternatives to traditional physically-based models, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models offer some advantages with respect to the flexibility of not requiring the precise quantitative mechanism of the process and the ability to train themselves from the data directly. In this study, an ANN model was used to generate one-day-ahead streamflow forecasts from the precipitation input over a catchment. Meanwhile, the ANN model parameters were trained using a Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) approach, namely Regularized Particle Filter (RPF). The SMC approaches are known for their capabilities in tracking the states and parameters of a nonlinear dynamic process based on the Baye's rule and the proposed effective sampling and resampling strategies. In this study, five years of daily rainfall and streamflow measurement were used for model training. Variable sample sizes of RPF, from 200 to 2000, were tested. The results show that, after 1000 RPF samples, the simulation statistics, in terms of correlation coefficient, root mean square error, and bias, were stabilized. It is also shown that the forecasted daily flows fit the observations very well, with the correlation coefficient of higher than 0.95. The results of RPF simulations were also compared with those from the popular back-propagation ANN training approach. The pros and cons of using SMC approach and the traditional back-propagation approach will be discussed.
A modified Monte Carlo 'local importance function transform' method
Keady, K. P.; Larsen, E. W.
2013-07-01
The Local Importance Function Transform (LIFT) method uses an approximation of the contribution transport problem to bias a forward Monte-Carlo (MC) source-detector simulation [1-3]. Local (cell-based) biasing parameters are calculated from an inexpensive deterministic adjoint solution and used to modify the physics of the forward transport simulation. In this research, we have developed a new expression for the LIFT biasing parameter, which depends on a cell-average adjoint current to scalar flux (J{sup *}/{phi}{sup *}) ratio. This biasing parameter differs significantly from the original expression, which uses adjoint cell-edge scalar fluxes to construct a finite difference estimate of the flux derivative; the resulting biasing parameters exhibit spikes in magnitude at material discontinuities, causing the original LIFT method to lose efficiency in problems with high spatial heterogeneity. The new J{sup *}/{phi}{sup *} expression, while more expensive to obtain, generates biasing parameters that vary smoothly across the spatial domain. The result is an improvement in simulation efficiency. A representative test problem has been developed and analyzed to demonstrate the advantage of the updated biasing parameter expression with regards to solution figure of merit (FOM). For reference, the two variants of the LIFT method are compared to a similar variance reduction method developed by Depinay [4, 5], as well as MC with deterministic adjoint weight windows (WW). (authors)
Quantum Monte Carlo investigations of adsorption energetics on graphene.
Hsing, C R; Wei, C M; Chou, M Y
2012-10-01
We have performed calculations of adsorption energetics on the graphene surface using the state-of-the-art diffusion quantum Monte Carlo method. Two types of configurations are considered in this work: the adsorption of a single O, F, or H atom on the graphene surface and the H-saturated graphene system (graphane). The adsorption energies are compared with those obtained from density functional theory with various exchange-correlation functionals. The results indicate that the approximate exchange-correlation functionals significantly overestimate the binding of O and F atoms on graphene, although the preferred adsorption sites are consistent. The energy errors are much less for atomic hydrogen adsorbed on the surface. We also find that a single O or H atom on graphene has a higher energy than in the molecular state, while the adsorption of a single F atom is preferred over the gas phase. In addition, the energetics of graphane is reported. The calculated equilibrium lattice constant turns out to be larger than that of graphene, at variance with a recent experimental suggestion. PMID:22909778
Parallel Performance Optimization of the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Da; Zhang, Chonglin; Schwartzentruber, Thomas
2009-11-01
Although the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) particle method is more computationally intensive compared to continuum methods, it is accurate for conditions ranging from continuum to free-molecular, accurate in highly non-equilibrium flow regions, and holds potential for incorporating advanced molecular-based models for gas-phase and gas-surface interactions. As available computer resources continue their rapid growth, the DSMC method is continually being applied to increasingly complex flow problems. Although processor clock speed continues to increase, a trend of increasing multi-core-per-node parallel architectures is emerging. To effectively utilize such current and future parallel computing systems, a combined shared/distributed memory parallel implementation (using both Open Multi-Processing (OpenMP) and Message Passing Interface (MPI)) of the DSMC method is under development. The parallel implementation of a new state-of-the-art 3D DSMC code employing an embedded 3-level Cartesian mesh will be outlined. The presentation will focus on performance optimization strategies for DSMC, which includes, but is not limited to, modified algorithm designs, practical code-tuning techniques, and parallel performance optimization. Specifically, key issues important to the DSMC shared memory (OpenMP) parallel performance are identified as (1) granularity (2) load balancing (3) locality and (4) synchronization. Challenges and solutions associated with these issues as they pertain to the DSMC method will be discussed.
Non-analog Monte Carlo estimators for radiation momentum deposition
Densmore, Jeffery D; Hykes, Joshua M
2008-01-01
The standard method for calculating radiation momentum deposition in Monte Carlo simulations is the analog estimator, which tallies the change in a particle's momentum at each interaction with the matter. Unfortunately, the analog estimator can suffer from large amounts of statistical error. In this paper, we present three new non-analog techniques for estimating momentum deposition. Specifically, we use absorption, collision, and track-length estimators to evaluate a simple integral expression for momentum deposition that does not contain terms that can cause large amounts of statistical error in the analog scheme. We compare our new non-analog estimators to the analog estimator with a set of test problems that encompass a wide range of material properties and both isotropic and anisotropic scattering. In nearly all cases, the new non-analog estimators outperform the analog estimator. The track-length estimator consistently yields the highest performance gains, improving upon the analog-estimator figure of merit by factors of up to two orders of magnitude.
Fast Monte Carlo for ion beam analysis simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schiettekatte, François
2008-04-01
A Monte Carlo program for the simulation of ion beam analysis data is presented. It combines mainly four features: (i) ion slowdown is computed separately from the main scattering/recoil event, which is directed towards the detector. (ii) A virtual detector, that is, a detector larger than the actual one can be used, followed by trajectory correction. (iii) For each collision during ion slowdown, scattering angle components are extracted form tables. (iv) Tables of scattering angle components, stopping power and energy straggling are indexed using the binary representation of floating point numbers, which allows logarithmic distribution of these tables without the computation of logarithms to access them. Tables are sufficiently fine-grained that interpolation is not necessary. Ion slowdown computation thus avoids trigonometric, inverse and transcendental function calls and, as much as possible, divisions. All these improvements make possible the computation of 107 collisions/s on current PCs. Results for transmitted ions of several masses in various substrates are well comparable to those obtained using SRIM-2006 in terms of both angular and energy distributions, as long as a sufficiently large number of collisions is considered for each ion. Examples of simulated spectrum show good agreement with experimental data, although a large detector rather than the virtual detector has to be used to properly simulate background signals that are due to plural collisions. The program, written in standard C, is open-source and distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License.
Monte Carlo Simulations of Cosmic Rays Hadronic Interactions
Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Orrell, John L.; Kouzes, Richard T.
2011-04-01
This document describes the construction and results of the MaCoR software tool, developed to model the hadronic interactions of cosmic rays with different geometries of materials. The ubiquity of cosmic radiation in the environment results in the activation of stable isotopes, referred to as cosmogenic activities. The objective is to use this application in conjunction with a model of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR components, from extraction to deployment, to evaluate cosmogenic activation of such components before and after deployment. The cosmic ray showers include several types of particles with a wide range of energy (MeV to GeV). It is infeasible to compute an exact result with a deterministic algorithm for this problem; Monte Carlo simulations are a more suitable approach to model cosmic ray hadronic interactions. In order to validate the results generated by the application, a test comparing experimental muon flux measurements and those predicted by the application is presented. The experimental and simulated results have a deviation of 3%.
Ensemble bayesian model averaging using markov chain Monte Carlo sampling
Vrugt, Jasper A; Diks, Cees G H; Clark, Martyn P
2008-01-01
Bayesian model averaging (BMA) has recently been proposed as a statistical method to calibrate forecast ensembles from numerical weather models. Successful implementation of BMA however, requires accurate estimates of the weights and variances of the individual competing models in the ensemble. In their seminal paper (Raftery etal. Mon Weather Rev 133: 1155-1174, 2(05)) has recommended the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm for BMA model training, even though global convergence of this algorithm cannot be guaranteed. In this paper, we compare the performance of the EM algorithm and the recently developed Differential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm for estimating the BMA weights and variances. Simulation experiments using 48-hour ensemble data of surface temperature and multi-model stream-flow forecasts show that both methods produce similar results, and that their performance is unaffected by the length of the training data set. However, MCMC simulation with DREAM is capable of efficiently handling a wide variety of BMA predictive distributions, and provides useful information about the uncertainty associated with the estimated BMA weights and variances.
Treatment planning aspects and Monte Carlo methods in proton therapy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fix, Michael K.; Manser, Peter
2015-05-01
Over the last years, the interest in proton radiotherapy is rapidly increasing. Protons provide superior physical properties compared with conventional radiotherapy using photons. These properties result in depth dose curves with a large dose peak at the end of the proton track and the finite proton range allows sparing the distally located healthy tissue. These properties offer an increased flexibility in proton radiotherapy, but also increase the demand in accurate dose estimations. To carry out accurate dose calculations, first an accurate and detailed characterization of the physical proton beam exiting the treatment head is necessary for both currently available delivery techniques: scattered and scanned proton beams. Since Monte Carlo (MC) methods follow the particle track simulating the interactions from first principles, this technique is perfectly suited to accurately model the treatment head. Nevertheless, careful validation of these MC models is necessary. While for the dose estimation pencil beam algorithms provide the advantage of fast computations, they are limited in accuracy. In contrast, MC dose calculation algorithms overcome these limitations and due to recent improvements in efficiency, these algorithms are expected to improve the accuracy of the calculated dose distributions and to be introduced in clinical routine in the near future.
Evaluation of Hamaker coefficients using Diffusion Monte Carlo method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maezono, Ryo; Hongo, Kenta
We evaluated the Hamaker's constant for Cyclohexasilane to investigate its wettability, which is used as an ink of 'liquid silicon' in 'printed electronics'. Taking three representative geometries of the dimer coalescence (parallel, lined, and T-shaped), we evaluated these binding curves using diffusion Monte Carlo method. The parallel geometry gave the most long-ranged exponent, ~ 1 /r6 , in its asymptotic behavior. Evaluated binding lengths are fairly consistent with the experimental density of the molecule. The fitting of the asymptotic curve gave an estimation of Hamaker's constant being around 100 [zJ]. We also performed a CCSD(T) evaluation and got almost similar result. To check its justification, we applied the same scheme to Benzene and compared the estimation with those by other established methods, Lifshitz theory and SAPT (Symmetry-adopted perturbation theory). The result by the fitting scheme turned to be twice larger than those by Lifshitz and SAPT, both of which coincide with each other. It is hence implied that the present evaluation for Cyclohexasilane would be overestimated.
Monte Carlo simulation of photon way in clinical laser therapy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ionita, Iulian; Voitcu, Gabriel
2011-07-01
The multiple scattering of light can increase efficiency of laser therapy of inflammatory diseases enlarging the treated area. The light absorption is essential for treatment while scattering dominates. Multiple scattering effects must be introduced using the Monte Carlo method for modeling light transport in tissue and finally to calculate the optical parameters. Diffuse reflectance measurements were made on high concentrated live leukocyte suspensions in similar conditions as in-vivo measurements. The results were compared with the values determined by MC calculations, and the latter have been adjusted to match the specified values of diffuse reflectance. The principal idea of MC simulations applied to absorption and scattering phenomena is to follow the optical path of a photon through the turbid medium. The concentrated live cell solution is a compromise between homogeneous layer as in MC model and light-live cell interaction as in-vivo experiments. In this way MC simulation allow us to compute the absorption coefficient. The values of optical parameters, derived from simulation by best fitting of measured reflectance, were used to determine the effective cross section. Thus we can compute the absorbed radiation dose at cellular level.
Generalized directed loop method for quantum Monte Carlo simulations.
Alet, Fabien; Wessel, Stefan; Troyer, Matthias
2005-03-01
Efficient quantum Monte Carlo update schemes called directed loops have recently been proposed, which improve the efficiency of simulations of quantum lattice models. We propose to generalize the detailed balance equations at the local level during the loop construction by accounting for the matrix elements of the operators associated with open world-line segments. Using linear programming techniques to solve the generalized equations, we look for optimal construction schemes for directed loops. This also allows for an extension of the directed loop scheme to general lattice models, such as high-spin or bosonic models. The resulting algorithms are bounce free in larger regions of parameter space than the original directed loop algorithm. The generalized directed loop method is applied to the magnetization process of spin chains in order to compare its efficiency to that of previous directed loop schemes. In contrast to general expectations, we find that minimizing bounces alone does not always lead to more efficient algorithms in terms of autocorrelations of physical observables, because of the nonuniqueness of the bounce-free solutions. We therefore propose different general strategies to further minimize autocorrelations, which can be used as supplementary requirements in any directed loop scheme. We show by calculating autocorrelation times for different observables that such strategies indeed lead to improved efficiency; however, we find that the optimal strategy depends not only on the model parameters but also on the observable of interest. PMID:15903632
Monte Carlo modelling of daylight activated photodynamic therapy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campbell, C. L.; Wood, K.; Valentine, R. M.; Brown, C. T. A.; Moseley, H.
2015-05-01
The treatment of superficial skin lesions via daylight activated photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been explored theoretically with three dimensional (3D) Monte Carlo radiation transfer simulations. For similar parameters and conditions, daylight activated PDT was compared to conventional PDT using a commercially available light source. Under reasonable assumptions for the optical properties of the tissue, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) concentration and a treatment dose of 75 J cm-2, it was found that during a clear summer day an effective treatment depth of over 2 mm can be achieved after 30 min of daylight illumination at a latitude of 56 degrees North. The same light dose would require 2.5 h of daylight illumination during an overcast summer day where a treatment depth of about 2 mm can be achieved. For conventional PDT the developed model suggests that 15 min of illumination is required to deliver a light dose of 75 J cm-2, which would result in an effective treatment depth of about 3 mm. The model developed here allows for the determination of photo-toxicity in skin tissue as a function of depth for different weather conditions as well as for conventional light sources. Our theoretical investigation supports clinical studies and shows that daylight activated PDT has the potential for treating superficial skin lesions during different weather conditions.
Hydrodynamic shock wave studies within a kinetic Monte Carlo approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sagert, Irina; Bauer, Wolfgang; Colbry, Dirk; Howell, Jim; Pickett, Rodney; Staber, Alec; Strother, Terrance
2014-06-01
We introduce a massively parallelized test-particle based kinetic Monte Carlo code that is capable of modeling the phase space evolution of an arbitrarily sized system that is free to move in and out of the continuum limit. Our code combines advantages of the DSMC and the Point of Closest Approach techniques for solving the collision integral. With that, it achieves high spatial accuracy in simulations of large particle systems while maintaining computational feasibility. Using particle mean free paths which are small with respect to the characteristic length scale of the simulated system, we reproduce hydrodynamic behavior. To demonstrate that our code can retrieve continuum solutions, we perform a test-suite of classic hydrodynamic shock problems consisting of the Sod, the Noh, and the Sedov tests. We find that the results of our simulations which apply millions of test-particles match the analytic solutions well. In addition, we take advantage of the ability of kinetic codes to describe matter out of the continuum regime when applying large particle mean free paths. With that, we study and compare the evolution of shock waves in the hydrodynamic limit and in a regime which is not reachable by hydrodynamic codes.
A very high speed Monte Carlo simulation on DAP
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reddaway, S. F.; Scott, D. M.; Smith, K. A.
1985-07-01
The Ising ferromagnet is a well-known model of a system of interacting spins which is amenable to Monte Carlo calculation involving: (a) Boolean work and low precision counting; (b) conditional choice of transition probabilities; (c) high quality 24-bit random number generation (RNG); (d) comparison of transition probabilities with random numbers. An assembler implementation on the 64 × 64 DAP has achieved 42 × 10 6 spin updates per second on a 64 × 64 × 64 problem using a standard DAP random number generator (RNG) that has recently been speeded up by a factor of eight. A later implementation involves: (a) a new RNG that is an order of magnitude faster still, mainly achieved by producing data in greater bulk; (b) a rewrite of the code including a form of parallel table look up for the transition probabilities; (c) an increase in the problem size to 128 × 128 × 144. The performance is 218 × 10 6 spin updates per second. This compares with 22 × 10 6 on a CYBER 205 and 24 × 10 6 on special purpose hardware built by a group in Santa Barbara, both on 64 × 64 × 64 problems. Our results can be extrapolated to about 40 × 10 6 spin updates per second for a possible 32 × 32 DAP which would be about two times faster than a CYBER 205 and two orders of magnitude cheaper.
Variational Monte Carlo simulations using tensor-product projected states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sikora, Olga; Chang, Hsueh-Wen; Chou, Chung-Pin; Pollmann, Frank; Kao, Ying-Jer
2015-04-01
We propose an efficient numerical method, which combines the advantages of recently developed tensor-network based methods and standard trial wave functions, to study the ground-state properties of quantum many-body systems. In this approach, we apply a projector in the form of a tensor-product operator to an input wave function, such as a Jastrow-type or Hartree-Fock wave function, and optimize the tensor elements via variational Monte Carlo. The entanglement already contained in the input wave function can considerably reduce the bond dimensions compared to the regular tensor-product state representation. In particular, this allows us to also represent states that do not obey the area law of entanglement entropy. In addition, for fermionic systems, the fermion sign structure can be encoded in the input wave function. We show that the optimized states provide good approximations of the ground-state energy and correlation functions in the cases of two-dimensional bosonic and fermonic systems.
Quantum Monte Carlo Simulation of condensed van der Waals Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benali, Anouar; Shulenburger, Luke; Romero, Nichols A.; Kim, Jeongnim; Anatole von Lilienfeld, O.
2012-02-01
Van der Waals forces are as ubiquitous as infamous. While post-Hartree-Fock methods enable accurate estimates of these forces in molecules and clusters, they remain elusive for dealing with many-electron condensed phase systems. We present Quantum Monte Carlo [1,2] results for condensed van der Waals systems. Interatomic many-body contributions to cohesive energies and bulk modulus will be discussed. Numerical evidence is presented for crystals of rare gas atoms, and compared to experiments and methods [3]. Sandia National Laboratories is a multiprogram laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. DoE's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.[4pt] [1] J. Kim, K. Esler, J. McMinis and D. Ceperley, SciDAC 2010, J. of Physics: Conference series, Chattanooga, Tennessee, July 11 2011 [0pt] [2] QMCPACK simulation suite, http://qmcpack.cmscc.org (unpublished)[0pt] [3] O. A. von Lillienfeld and A. Tkatchenko, J. Chem. Phys. 132 234109 (2010)
Monte-Carlo Tree Search in Settlers of Catan
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szita, István; Chaslot, Guillaume; Spronck, Pieter
Games are considered important benchmark opportunities for artificial intelligence research. Modern strategic board games can typically be played by three or more people, which makes them suitable test beds for investigating multi-player strategic decision making. Monte-Carlo Tree Search (MCTS) is a recently published family of algorithms that achieved successful results with classical, two-player, perfect-information games such as Go. In this paper we apply MCTS to the multi-player, non-deterministic board game Settlers of Catan. We implemented an agent that is able to play against computer-controlled and human players. We show that MCTS can be adapted successfully to multi-agent environments, and present two approaches of providing the agent with a limited amount of domain knowledge. Our results show that the agent has a considerable playing strength when compared to game implementation with existing heuristics. So, we may conclude that MCTS is a suitable tool for achieving a strong Settlers of Catan player.
Monte Carlo simulations on marker grouping and ordering.
Wu, J; Jenkins, J; Zhu, J; McCarty, J; Watson, C
2003-08-01
Four global algorithms, maximum likelihood (ML), sum of adjacent LOD score (SALOD), sum of adjacent recombinant fractions (SARF) and product of adjacent recombinant fraction (PARF), and one approximation algorithm, seriation (SER), were used to compare the marker ordering efficiencies for correctly given linkage groups based on doubled haploid (DH) populations. The Monte Carlo simulation results indicated the marker ordering powers for the five methods were almost identical. High correlation coefficients were greater than 0.99 between grouping power and ordering power, indicating that all these methods for marker ordering were reliable. Therefore, the main problem for linkage analysis was how to improve the grouping power. Since the SER approach provided the advantage of speed without losing ordering power, this approach was used for detailed simulations. For more generality, multiple linkage groups were employed, and population size, linkage cutoff criterion, marker spacing pattern (even or uneven), and marker spacing distance (close or loose) were considered for obtaining acceptable grouping powers. Simulation results indicated that the grouping power was related to population size, marker spacing distance, and cutoff criterion. Generally, a large population size provided higher grouping power than small population size, and closely linked markers provided higher grouping power than loosely linked markers. The cutoff criterion range for achieving acceptable grouping power and ordering power differed for varying cases; however, combining all situations in this study, a cutoff criterion ranging from 50 cM to 60 cM was recommended for achieving acceptable grouping power and ordering power for different cases. PMID:12761620
Optimizing Muscle Parameters in Musculoskeletal Modeling Using Monte Carlo Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hanson, Andrea; Reed, Erik; Cavanagh, Peter
2011-01-01
Astronauts assigned to long-duration missions experience bone and muscle atrophy in the lower limbs. The use of musculoskeletal simulation software has become a useful tool for modeling joint and muscle forces during human activity in reduced gravity as access to direct experimentation is limited. Knowledge of muscle and joint loads can better inform the design of exercise protocols and exercise countermeasure equipment. In this study, the LifeModeler(TM) (San Clemente, CA) biomechanics simulation software was used to model a squat exercise. The initial model using default parameters yielded physiologically reasonable hip-joint forces. However, no activation was predicted in some large muscles such as rectus femoris, which have been shown to be active in 1-g performance of the activity. Parametric testing was conducted using Monte Carlo methods and combinatorial reduction to find a muscle parameter set that more closely matched physiologically observed activation patterns during the squat exercise. Peak hip joint force using the default parameters was 2.96 times body weight (BW) and increased to 3.21 BW in an optimized, feature-selected test case. The rectus femoris was predicted to peak at 60.1% activation following muscle recruitment optimization, compared to 19.2% activation with default parameters. These results indicate the critical role that muscle parameters play in joint force estimation and the need for exploration of the solution space to achieve physiologically realistic muscle activation.
Monte Carlo validation in the diagnostic radiology range
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nikolopoulos, Dimitrios; Linardatos, Dionysios; Valais, Ioannis; Michail, Christos; David, Stratos; Gonias, Panagiotis; Bertsekas, Nikolaos; Cavouras, Dionysios; Louizi, Anna; Kandarakis, Ioannis
2007-02-01
The present paper aimed to the validation of Monte Carlo simulation codes already developed by the reporting team, for the study of photon transport and absorption in scintillator materials. Comparisons are reported between the developed codes, MCNP developed codes and other published data. First, the mean number of interactions for each incident photon was determined and compared to the published data. Agreement to within ±1.5% was achieved. Second, the depth of energy deposition in water was assessed for three monoenergetic X-ray beams (15, 20, 30 keV). The energy deposited in slabs of water phantoms of varying depths was tallied. Excellent agreement within ±2% was achieved, except that for 15 keV were a more rapid drop with increasing depth was found. Second, spatial distribution of the energy absorption due to scatter radiation was assessed. Good agreement (below ±5%) with published data was achieved. Third, a water slab with thickness 5, 10, 15, 20 cm was modeled, irradiated by a monoenergetic narrow beam of photons of various energies. Last, the lateral spread of energy deposition was assessed in a 1 cm thick slab in the center of an 8 cm thick water phantom, irradiated by a 50 keV narrow beam. Again, good agreement (below ±2%) was achieved.
Diffusion Monte Carlo calculations of Xenon melting under pressure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shulenburger, L.; Mattsson, T. R.
2011-03-01
The slope of the melting temperature as a function of pressure yields, via the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, important information regarding the changes in density, energy, and entropy. It is therefore crucial to resolve the long-standing differences in melt lines under pressure between Diamond Anvil Cell data (low/flat melt line) and other methods, including density functional theory (DFT) simulations 1 (high/steep melt line). The disagreement for Ta was recently resolved 2 and although a similar situation exists in the literature on Xe,3 the resolution may be quite different. For example, DFT with its lack of van der Waals forces is a prima facie less credible simulation method for Xe, although excellent agreement has been obtained between calculations of the Hugoniot of Xe and experiments.4 We investigate whether this theoretical shortcoming is significant for the melting transition by applying diffusion Monte Carlo. The energy differences obtained in this way are compared to the DFT results in order to address any systematic errors that may be present near the melting transition. 1 Taioli et al. PRB 75, 214103 (2007); 2 Dewaele et al. PRL 104, 255701 (2010); 3 Belonoshko el al. PRB 74, 054114 (2006); 4 Root et al. PRL 105, 085501 (2010) Sandia National Laboratories is a multiprogram laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corp. for the US Dep. of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Minho; Lee, Hyounggun; Kim, Hyosim; Park, Hongmin; Lee, Wonho; Park, Sungho
2014-03-01
This study evaluated the Monte Carlo method for determining the dose calculation in fluoroscopy by using a realistic human phantom. The dose was calculated by using Monte Carlo N-particle extended (MCNPX) in simulations and was measured by using Korean Typical Man-2 (KTMAN-2) phantom in the experiments. MCNPX is a widely-used simulation tool based on the Monte-Carlo method and uses random sampling. KTMAN-2 is a virtual phantom written in MCNPX language and is based on the typical Korean man. This study was divided into two parts: simulations and experiments. In the former, the spectrum generation program (SRS-78) was used to obtain the output energy spectrum for fluoroscopy; then, each dose to the target organ was calculated using KTMAN-2 with MCNPX. In the latter part, the output of the fluoroscope was calibrated first and TLDs (Thermoluminescent dosimeter) were inserted in the ART (Alderson Radiation Therapy) phantom at the same places as in the simulation. Thus, the phantom was exposed to radiation, and the simulated and the experimental doses were compared. In order to change the simulation unit to the dose unit, we set the normalization factor (NF) for unit conversion. Comparing the simulated with the experimental results, we found most of the values to be similar, which proved the effectiveness of the Monte Carlo method in fluoroscopic dose evaluation. The equipment used in this study included a TLD, a TLD reader, an ART phantom, an ionization chamber and a fluoroscope.
A Monte Carlo calibration of a whole body counter using the ICRP computational phantoms.
Nilsson, Jenny; Isaksson, Mats
2015-03-01
A fast and versatile calibration of a whole body counter (WBC) is presented. The WBC, consisting of four large plastic scintillators, is to be used for measurements after accident or other incident involving ionising radiation. The WBC was calibrated using Monte Carlo modelling and the ICRP computational phantoms. The Monte Carlo model of the WBC was made in GATE, v6.2 (Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission) and MATLAB. The Monte Carlo model was verified by comparing simulated energy spectrum and simulated counting efficiency with experimental energy spectrum and experimental counting efficiency for high-energy monoenergetic gamma-emitting point sources. The simulated results were in good agreement with experimental results except when compared with experimental results from high dead-time (DT) measurements. The Monte Carlo calibration was made for a heterogeneous source distribution of (137)Cs and (40)K, respectively, inside the ICRP computational phantoms. The source distribution was based on the biokinetic model for (137)Cs. PMID:25147249
Monte Carlo verification of polymer gel dosimetry applied to radionuclide therapy: a phantom study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gear, J. I.; Charles-Edwards, E.; Partridge, M.; Flux, G. D.
2011-11-01
This study evaluates the dosimetric performance of the polymer gel dosimeter 'Methacrylic and Ascorbic acid in Gelatin, initiated by Copper' and its suitability for quality assurance and analysis of I-131-targeted radionuclide therapy dosimetry. Four batches of gel were manufactured in-house and sets of calibration vials and phantoms were created containing different concentrations of I-131-doped gel. Multiple dose measurements were made up to 700 h post preparation and compared to equivalent Monte Carlo simulations. In addition to uniformly filled phantoms the cross-dose distribution from a hot insert to a surrounding phantom was measured. In this example comparisons were made with both Monte Carlo and a clinical scintigraphic dosimetry method. Dose-response curves generated from the calibration data followed a sigmoid function. The gels appeared to be stable over many weeks of internal irradiation with a delay in gel response observed at 29 h post preparation. This was attributed to chemical inhibitors and slow reaction rates of long-chain radical species. For this reason, phantom measurements were only made after 190 h of irradiation. For uniformly filled phantoms of I-131 the accuracy of dose measurements agreed to within 10% when compared to Monte Carlo simulations. A radial cross-dose distribution measured using the gel dosimeter compared well to that calculated with Monte Carlo. Small inhomogeneities were observed in the dosimeter attributed to non-uniform mixing of monomer during preparation. However, they were not detrimental to this study where the quantitative accuracy and spatial resolution of polymer gel dosimetry were far superior to that calculated using scintigraphy. The difference between Monte Carlo and gel measurements was of the order of a few cGy, whilst with the scintigraphic method differences of up to 8 Gy were observed. A manipulation technique is also presented which allows 3D scintigraphic dosimetry measurements to be compared to polymer
Arterberry, Martha E.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Haynes, O. Maurice
2012-01-01
Two analytical procedures for identifying young children as categorizers, the Monte Carlo Simulation and the Probability Estimate Model, were compared. Using a sequential touching method, children age 12, 18, 24, and 30 months were given seven object sets representing different levels of categorical classification. From their touching performance, the probability that children were categorizing was then determined independently using Monte Carlo Simulation and the Probability Estimate Model. The two analytical procedures resulted in different percentages of children being classified as categorizers. Results using the Monte Carlo Simulation were more consistent with group-level analyses than results using the Probability Estimate Model. These findings recommend using the Monte Carlo Simulation for determining individual categorizer classification. PMID:21402410
Monte Carlo simulation of photon migration in a cloud computing environment with MapReduce
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pratx, Guillem; Xing, Lei
2011-12-01
Monte Carlo simulation is considered the most reliable method for modeling photon migration in heterogeneous media. However, its widespread use is hindered by the high computational cost. The purpose of this work is to report on our implementation of a simple MapReduce method for performing fault-tolerant Monte Carlo computations in a massively-parallel cloud computing environment. We ported the MC321 Monte Carlo package to Hadoop, an open-source MapReduce framework. In this implementation, Map tasks compute photon histories in parallel while a Reduce task scores photon absorption. The distributed implementation was evaluated on a commercial compute cloud. The simulation time was found to be linearly dependent on the number of photons and inversely proportional to the number of nodes. For a cluster size of 240 nodes, the simulation of 100 billion photon histories took 22 min, a 1258 × speed-up compared to the single-threaded Monte Carlo program. The overall computational throughput was 85,178 photon histories per node per second, with a latency of 100 s. The distributed simulation produced the same output as the original implementation and was resilient to hardware failure: the correctness of the simulation was unaffected by the shutdown of 50% of the nodes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Juste, Belén; Miró, R.; Abella, V.; Santos, A.; Verdú, Gumersindo
2015-11-01
Radiation therapy treatment planning based on Monte Carlo simulation provide a very accurate dose calculation compared to deterministic systems. Nowadays, Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) dosimeters are increasingly utilized in radiation therapy to verify the received dose by patients. In the present work, we have used the MCNP6 (Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code) to simulate the irradiation of an anthropomorphic phantom (RANDO) with a medical linear accelerator. The detailed model of the Elekta Precise multileaf collimator using a 6 MeV photon beam was designed and validated by means of different beam sizes and shapes in previous works. To include in the simulation the RANDO phantom geometry a set of Computer Tomography images of the phantom was obtained and formatted. The slices are input in PLUNC software, which performs the segmentation by defining anatomical structures and a Matlab algorithm writes the phantom information in MCNP6 input deck format. The simulation was verified and therefore the phantom model and irradiation was validated throughout the comparison of High-Sensitivity MOSFET dosimeter (Best medical Canada) measurements in different points inside the phantom with simulation results. On-line Wireless MOSFET provide dose estimation in the extremely thin sensitive volume, so a meticulous and accurate validation has been performed. The comparison show good agreement between the MOSFET measurements and the Monte Carlo calculations, confirming the validity of the developed procedure to include patients CT in simulations and approving the use of Monte Carlo simulations as an accurate therapy treatment plan.
Monte Carlo simulation of photon migration in a cloud computing environment with MapReduce.
Pratx, Guillem; Xing, Lei
2011-12-01
Monte Carlo simulation is considered the most reliable method for modeling photon migration in heterogeneous media. However, its widespread use is hindered by the high computational cost. The purpose of this work is to report on our implementation of a simple MapReduce method for performing fault-tolerant Monte Carlo computations in a massively-parallel cloud computing environment. We ported the MC321 Monte Carlo package to Hadoop, an open-source MapReduce framework. In this implementation, Map tasks compute photon histories in parallel while a Reduce task scores photon absorption. The distributed implementation was evaluated on a commercial compute cloud. The simulation time was found to be linearly dependent on the number of photons and inversely proportional to the number of nodes. For a cluster size of 240 nodes, the simulation of 100 billion photon histories took 22 min, a 1258 × speed-up compared to the single-threaded Monte Carlo program. The overall computational throughput was 85,178 photon histories per node per second, with a latency of 100 s. The distributed simulation produced the same output as the original implementation and was resilient to hardware failure: the correctness of the simulation was unaffected by the shutdown of 50% of the nodes. PMID:22191916
Comparison of neutron diffusion and Monte Carlo models for a fission wave
Osborne, A. G.; Deinert, M. R.
2013-07-01
Many groups have used neutron diffusion simulations to study fission wave phenomena in natural or depleted uranium. However, few studies of fission wave phenomena have been published that use Monte Carlo simulations to confirm the results of diffusion models for this type of system. In the present work we show the results of a criticality and burnup simulation of a traveling wave reactor using MCNPX 2.7.0. The characteristics of the fission wave in this simulation are compared with those from a simple one-dimensional, one-group neutron diffusion model. The diffusion simulations produce a wave speed of 5.9 cm/yr versus 5.3 cm/yr for the Monte Carlo simulations. The axial flux profile in the Monte Carlo simulation is similar in shape to the diffusion results, but with different peak values, and the two profiles have an R2 value of 0.93. The {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Np and {sup 239}Pu burnup profiles from the diffusion simulation show good agreement with the Monte Carlo simulations, R values of 0.98, 0.93 and 0.97 respectively are observed. (authors)
A configuration space Monte Carlo algorithm for solving the nuclear pairing problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lingle, Mark
Nuclear pairing correlations using Quantum Monte Carlo are studied in this dissertation. We start by defining the nuclear pairing problem and discussing several historical methods developed to solve this problem, paying special attention to the applicability of such methods. A numerical example discussing pairing correlations in several calcium isotopes using the BCS and Exact Pairing solutions are presented. The ground state energies, correlation energies, and occupation numbers are compared to determine the applicability of each approach to realistic cases. Next we discuss some generalities related to the theory of Markov Chains and Quantum Monte Carlo in regards to nuclear structure. Finally we present our configuration space Monte Carlo algorithm starting from a discussion of a path integral approach by the authors. Some general features of the Pairing Hamiltonian that boost the effectiveness of a configuration space Monte Carlo approach are mentioned. The full details of our method are presented and special attention is paid to convergence and error control. We present a series of examples illustrating the effectiveness of our approach. These include situations with non-constant pairing strengths, limits when pairing correlations are weak, the computation of excited states, and problems when the relevant configuration space is large. We conclude with a chapter examining some of the effects of continuum states in 24O.
Smith, Leon E.; Gesh, Christopher J.; Pagh, Richard T.; Miller, Erin A.; Shaver, Mark W.; Ashbaker, Eric D.; Batdorf, Michael T.; Ellis, J. E.; Kaye, William R.; McConn, Ronald J.; Meriwether, George H.; Ressler, Jennifer J.; Valsan, Andrei B.; Wareing, Todd A.
2008-10-31
Radiation transport modeling methods used in the radiation detection community fall into one of two broad categories: stochastic (Monte Carlo) and deterministic. Monte Carlo methods are typically the tool of choice for simulating gamma-ray spectrometers operating in homeland and national security settings (e.g. portal monitoring of vehicles or isotope identification using handheld devices), but deterministic codes that discretize the linear Boltzmann transport equation in space, angle, and energy offer potential advantages in computational efficiency for many complex radiation detection problems. This paper describes the development of a scenario simulation framework based on deterministic algorithms. Key challenges include: formulating methods to automatically define an energy group structure that can support modeling of gamma-ray spectrometers ranging from low to high resolution; combining deterministic transport algorithms (e.g. ray-tracing and discrete ordinates) to mitigate ray effects for a wide range of problem types; and developing efficient and accurate methods to calculate gamma-ray spectrometer response functions from the deterministic angular flux solutions. The software framework aimed at addressing these challenges is described and results from test problems that compare coupled deterministic-Monte Carlo methods and purely Monte Carlo approaches are provided.
Monte Carlo simulation of photon migration in a cloud computing environment with MapReduce
Pratx, Guillem; Xing, Lei
2011-01-01
Monte Carlo simulation is considered the most reliable method for modeling photon migration in heterogeneous media. However, its widespread use is hindered by the high computational cost. The purpose of this work is to report on our implementation of a simple MapReduce method for performing fault-tolerant Monte Carlo computations in a massively-parallel cloud computing environment. We ported the MC321 Monte Carlo package to Hadoop, an open-source MapReduce framework. In this implementation, Map tasks compute photon histories in parallel while a Reduce task scores photon absorption. The distributed implementation was evaluated on a commercial compute cloud. The simulation time was found to be linearly dependent on the number of photons and inversely proportional to the number of nodes. For a cluster size of 240 nodes, the simulation of 100 billion photon histories took 22 min, a 1258 × speed-up compared to the single-threaded Monte Carlo program. The overall computational throughput was 85,178 photon histories per node per second, with a latency of 100 s. The distributed simulation produced the same output as the original implementation and was resilient to hardware failure: the correctness of the simulation was unaffected by the shutdown of 50% of the nodes. PMID:22191916
Validation of the Monte Carlo simulator GATE for indium-111 imaging.
Assié, K; Gardin, I; Véra, P; Buvat, I
2005-07-01
Monte Carlo simulations are useful for optimizing and assessing single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) protocols, especially when aiming at measuring quantitative parameters from SPECT images. Before Monte Carlo simulated data can be trusted, the simulation model must be validated. The purpose of this work was to validate the use of GATE, a new Monte Carlo simulation platform based on GEANT4, for modelling indium-111 SPECT data, the quantification of which is of foremost importance for dosimetric studies. To that end, acquisitions of (111)In line sources in air and in water and of a cylindrical phantom were performed, together with the corresponding simulations. The simulation model included Monte Carlo modelling of the camera collimator and of a back-compartment accounting for photomultiplier tubes and associated electronics. Energy spectra, spatial resolution, sensitivity values, images and count profiles obtained for experimental and simulated data were compared. An excellent agreement was found between experimental and simulated energy spectra. For source-to-collimator distances varying from 0 to 20 cm, simulated and experimental spatial resolution differed by less than 2% in air, while the simulated sensitivity values were within 4% of the experimental values. The simulation of the cylindrical phantom closely reproduced the experimental data. These results suggest that GATE enables accurate simulation of (111)In SPECT acquisitions. PMID:15972984